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Sample records for revealed dramatic increases

  1. 30 years of data reveal dramatic increase in abundance of brown trout following the removal of a small hydrodam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage; Nielsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    and spawning of fish. In the present study, we present thirty years of data from electrofishing surveys obtained at two sites, both prior to and following the removal of a small-scale hydropower dam in Central Jutland, Denmark. We demonstrate that the dam removal has led to a dramatic increase in trout density...

  2. 30 years of data reveal dramatic increase in abundance of brown trout following the removal of a small hydrodam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage; Nielsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    and spawning of fish. In the present study, we present thirty years of data from electrofishing surveys obtained at two sites, both prior to and following the removal of a small-scale hydropower dam in Central Jutland, Denmark. We demonstrate that the dam removal has led to a dramatic increase in trout density......Humans and freshwater ecosystems have a long history of cohabitation. Today, nearly all major rivers of the world have an in-stream structure which changes water flow, substrate composition, vegetation, and fish assemblage composition. The realization of these effects and their subsequent impacts...... on population sustainability and conservation has led to a collective effort aimed to find ways to mitigate these impacts. Barrier removal has recently received greater interest as a potential solution to restore river connectivity, and reestablish high quality habitats, suitable for feeding, refuge...

  3. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Interferometer in West Virginia; the Australia Telescope Compact Array; the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope, also in Australia; the MERLIN array in Britain; the Ratan 600-meter radio telescope in Russia; and radio telescopes at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California. The radio observations also provided the distance measurement for the binary system. The dramatic X-ray flare on Sept. 15 was not the only time V4641 Sgr exploded into activity. Further examination of ASM data revealed a bright flare (about one-third as intense as the brightest flare) on Sept. 14th that lasted between three minutes and three hours. In response to the ASM team's alert, Michael McCollough and Peter Woods, members of the BATSE team at Marshall Space Flight Center, scoured their data for evidence of V4641 Sgr. In addition to the flares seen by the ASM, they found a third rapid flare that peaked two hours after the brightest flare, reaching a peak intensity about half that of the brightest flare. The RXTE Proportional Counter Array (PCA), a very large X-ray telescope, was rapidly reoriented to observe V4641 Sgr about 4.5 hours after the brightest flare. A fourth event, lasting 20 minutes, was recorded by the PCA to reach an intensity of one-sixth that of the brightest flare. The PCA data reveal complex substructure, with luminosity changes by a factor of four within one second, and by a factor of 500 within minutes. No further high-energy emission from V4641 Sgr has been observed with any satellite since the end of the flare seen by the PCA. "Combining the data from all three instruments, we saw four of the most dramatic rapid X-ray intensity changes ever seen from one star," Smith said. "This behavior is new. We've never see anything like it." The proximity of the object "gives us an unusual close-up look at this phenomenon," Hjellming said. If future searches for brief X-ray flares reveal that there are more objects like V4641 Sgr, "we will have a whole new source of information that

  4. The dramatic increase in social media in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Rano; Doiron, Chris; Leveridge, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Social media are established tools for rapid information dissemination to a broad audience. A major use has been the compilation of conference specific messaging known as tweets via preselected hashtags on Twitter. We analyzed Twitter use between consecutive years at the AUA (American Urological Association) and CUA (Canadian Urological Association) annual meetings. Publicly available tweets containing the established meeting hashtags were abstracted from an online archive. Tweets were categorized by author type and by content as informative (based on research presented at the conference) or uninformative (unrelated to presented data) according to an established classification scheme. We analyzed 5,402 tweets during the combined 18 meeting days, of which 4,098 were original and 1,304 were rebroadcast prior tweets. There was a large increase in Twitter use at the 2013 annual meetings compared to the 2012 meetings (4,591 tweets from a total of 540 accounts vs 811 from 134). Biotechnology analysts represented the highest volume of tweets (226 or 28%) in 2012 but in 2013 this majority shifted to urologists (2,765 or 60%). Of the tweets 29% were categorized as informative in 2012, which increased to 41% at the 2013 meetings. Twitter has emerged as a significant communication platform at urological meetings. Use increased dramatically between 2012 and 2013. Urologists have increasingly led this discussion with an increased focus on data arising from meeting proceedings. This adjunct to traditional meeting activity merits the attention of urologists and the professional associations that host such meetings. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dramatic Increases of Soil Microbial Functional Gene Diversity at the Treeline Ecotone of Changbai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Congcong; Shi, Yu; Ni, Yingying; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The elevational and latitudinal diversity patterns of microbial taxa have attracted great attention in the past decade. Recently, the distribution of functional attributes has been in the spotlight. Here, we report a study profiling soil microbial communities along an elevation gradient (500-2200 m) on Changbai Mountain. Using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 5.0), we found that microbial functional gene richness exhibited a dramatic increase at the treeline ecotone, but the bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not exhibit such a similar trend. However, the β-diversity (compositional dissimilarity among sites) pattern for both bacterial taxa and functional genes was similar, showing significant elevational distance-decay patterns which presented increased dissimilarity with elevation. The bacterial taxonomic diversity/structure was strongly influenced by soil pH, while the functional gene diversity/structure was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This finding highlights that soil DOC may be a good predictor in determining the elevational distribution of microbial functional genes. The finding of significant shifts in functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone could also provide valuable information for predicting the responses of microbial functions to climate change.

  6. Dramatic increases of soil microbial functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone of Changbai Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Shen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The elevational and latitudinal diversity patterns of microbial taxa have attracted great attention in the past decade. Recently, the distribution of functional attributes has been in the spotlight. Here, we report a study profiling soil microbial communities along an elevation gradient (500 to 2200 m on Changbai Mountain. Using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 5.0, we found that microbial functional gene richness exhibited a dramatic increase at the treeline ecotone, but the bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not exhibit such a similar trend. However, the β-diversity (compositional dissimilarity among sites for both bacterial taxa and functional genes was similar, showing significant elevational distance-decay patterns which presented increased dissimilarity with elevation. The bacterial taxonomic diversity/structure was strongly influenced by soil pH, while the functional gene diversity/structure was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC. This finding highlights that soil DOC may be a good predictor in determining the elevational distribution of microbial functional genes. The finding of significant shifts in functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone could also provide valuable information for predicting the responses of microbial functions to climate change.

  7. Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Holmes

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max of 5 min and a C(max of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results

  8. Adaptation of Lactococcus lactis to high growth temperature leads to a dramatic increase in acidification rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Hellgren, Lars

    2015-01-01

    temperature. At the maximal permissive temperature for the wild-type, 38 °C, TM29 grows 33% faster and has a 12% higher specific lactate production rate than its parent MG1363, which results in fast lactate accumulation. Genome sequencing was used to reveal the mutations accumulated, most of which were shown...

  9. The Mixmasters: A Smart Marketing Mix Helps a Small College Dramatically Increase Student Enrollments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R. Dana; Stark, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Adrian College's steady increase and confidence in enrollment projections stem from a research-based, thoughtfully planned, carefully implemented, highly controlled marketing programs. Four major elements of a successful marketing mix are identified: product, price, place, promotion. (MLW)

  10. Dramatic increase in sea otter mortality from white sharks in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Although southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) are not considered prey for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias), sharks do nonetheless bite sea otters. We analyzed spatial and temporal trends in shark bites on sea otters in California, assessing the frequency of shark bite wounds in 1,870 carcasses collected since 1985. The proportion of stranded sea otters having shark bites has increased sharply since 2003, and white shark bites now account for >50% of recovered carcasses. The trend was most pronounced in the southern part of the range, from Estero Bay to Point Conception, where shark bite frequency has increased eightfold. Seasonal trends were also evident: most shark-bitten carcasses are recovered in late summer and fall; however, the period of elevated shark bite frequency has lengthened. The causes of these trends are unclear, but possible contributing factors include increased white shark abundance and/or changes in white shark behavior and distribution. In particular, the spatiotemporal patterns of shark-bitten sea otters match increases in pinniped populations, and the increased availability of marine mammal prey for white sharks may have led to more sharks spending more time in nearshore waters utilized by both sea otters and pinnipeds.

  11. Induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in Actinidia chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Hu; Ferguson, A. Ross; Murray, Brian G.; Jia, Yilin; Datson, Paul M.; Zhang, Jingli

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Some otherwise promising selections of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. We have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of young leaves and chromosome analysis of flower buds and root tips was used to confirm the stability of induced autotetraploids. Fruit weight, size and crop load were measured in the third year after planting in the field and for three consecutive years. DNA fingerprinting was used to confirm the origin of the material. Key Results There was a very significant increase in fruit size in induced autotetraploids of different genotypes of A. chinensis. With the commercially important diploid cultivar ‘Hort16A’, most regenerants, Type A plants, had fruit which were much the same shape as fruit of the diploid but, at the same fruit load, were much larger and heavier. Some regenerants, Type B plants, produced fruit similar to ‘fasciated’ fruit. Fruit of the autotetraploids induced from three female red-fleshed A. chinensis selections were also 50–60 % larger than fruit of their diploid progenitors. The main increase in fruit dimensions was in their diameters. These improved fruit characteristics were stable over several seasons. Conclusions Chromosome doubling has been shown to increase significantly fruit size in autotetraploid A. chinensis, highlighting the considerable potential of this technique to produce new cultivars with fruit of adequate size. Other variants with differently shaped fruit were also produced but the genetic basis of this variation remains to be elucidated. Autoploids of other Actinidia species with commercial potential may also show improved fruit characteristics, opening up many new possibilities for commercial development. PMID:21980192

  12. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Michael K; Cohen, Joel E

    2016-02-29

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from 'outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related.

  13. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohen, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from ‘outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954–2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related. PMID:26923210

  14. Boronophenylalanine uptake in C6 glioma model is dramatically increased by L-DOPA preloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuani, S. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: silvia.capuani@roma1.infn.it; Gili, T. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Bozzali, M. [Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Russo, S. [Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London (United Kingdom); Porcari, P. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Cametti, C. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Muolo, M. [Department of Biological Science, University ' Rome III' , Viale G. Marconi 446, Rome (Italy); D' Amore, E. [Serv. Qual./Sicurezza Sperim. Anim., Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Maraviglia, B. [Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Lazzarino, G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, Catania (Italy); Pastore, F.S. [Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Neurosurgery, University ' Tor Vergata' , Via Montpellier 1, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    One of the main limitations for BNCT effectiveness is the insufficient intake of {sup 10}B nuclei within tumour cells. This work was aimed at investigating the use of L-DOPA as enhancer for boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in the C6 glioma model. The investigation was first performed in vitro, and then extended in vivo to the animal model. BPA accumulation in C6 glioma cells was assessed, using radiowave dielectric spectroscopy (RDS), with and without L-DOPA preloading. C6 glioma cells were also implanted in the brain of 25 rats, randomly assigned to two experimental branches: (1) intra-carotid BPA infusion; (2) intra-carotid BPA infusion after pre-treatment with L-DOPA, administrated 24 h before BPA infusion. All animals were sacrificed, and assessment of BPA concentrations in tumour tissue, normal brain, and blood samples was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). L-DOPA preloading induced a massive increase of BPA concentration either in vitro on C6 glioma cells or in vivo in the animal model tumour. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the normal brain and blood samples between the two animal groups. This study suggests the potential use of L-DOPA as enhancer for BPA accumulation in malignant gliomas eligible for BNCT.

  15. Boronophenylalanine uptake in C6 glioma model is dramatically increased by L-DOPA preloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuani, S.; Gili, T.; Bozzali, M.; Russo, S.; Porcari, P.; Cametti, C.; Muolo, M.; D'Amore, E.; Maraviglia, B.; Lazzarino, G.; Pastore, F.S.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main limitations for BNCT effectiveness is the insufficient intake of 10 B nuclei within tumour cells. This work was aimed at investigating the use of L-DOPA as enhancer for boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in the C6 glioma model. The investigation was first performed in vitro, and then extended in vivo to the animal model. BPA accumulation in C6 glioma cells was assessed, using radiowave dielectric spectroscopy (RDS), with and without L-DOPA preloading. C6 glioma cells were also implanted in the brain of 25 rats, randomly assigned to two experimental branches: (1) intra-carotid BPA infusion; (2) intra-carotid BPA infusion after pre-treatment with L-DOPA, administrated 24 h before BPA infusion. All animals were sacrificed, and assessment of BPA concentrations in tumour tissue, normal brain, and blood samples was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). L-DOPA preloading induced a massive increase of BPA concentration either in vitro on C6 glioma cells or in vivo in the animal model tumour. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the normal brain and blood samples between the two animal groups. This study suggests the potential use of L-DOPA as enhancer for BPA accumulation in malignant gliomas eligible for BNCT.

  16. Positive family history of aortic dissection dramatically increases dissection risk in family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Chou, Alan S; Mok, Salvior C M; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Charilaou, Paris; Zafar, Mohammad A; Sieller, Richard S; Tranquilli, Maryann; Rizzo, John A; Elefteriades, John A

    2017-08-01

    Although family members of patients with aortic dissection (AoD) are believed to be at higher risk of AoD, the prognostic value of family history (FH) of aortic dissection (FHAD) in family members of patients with AoD has not been studied rigorously. We seek examine how much a positive FHAD increases the risk of developing new aortic dissection (AoD) among first-degree relatives. Patients with AoD at our institution were analyzed for information of FHAD. Positive FHAD referred to that AoD occurred in index patient and one or more first-degree relatives. Negative FHAD was defined as the condition in which only one case of AoD (the index patient) occurred in the family. The age at AoD, exposure years in adulthood before AoD, and annual probability of AoD among first-degree relatives were compared between patients with negative and positive FHADs. FHAD was positive in 32 and negative in 68 among the 100 AoD patients with detailed family history information. Mean age at dissection was 59.9±14.7years. Compared to negative FHAD, patients with positive FHAD dissected at significantly younger age (54.7±16.8 vs 62.4±13.0years, p=0.013), had more AoD events in first-degree relatives (2.3±0.6 vs 1.0±0.0, pfamily members, with a higher annual probability of aortic dissection, a shorter duration of "exposure time" before dissection occurs and a lower mean age at time of dissection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Arthroscopy and the Dramatic Increase in Frequency of Anterior Acromioplasty from 1980 to 2005: An Epidemiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elizabeth; Cil, Akin; Harmsen, William Scott; Schleck, Cathy; Sperling, John W.; Cofield, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to better understand the utilization of anterior acromioplasty over time – in the absence of rotator cuff repair, to examine the relationship to patient characteristics (age, sex) and types of rotator cuff pathology (inflammation or fibrosis, partial thickness tearing, full thickness tearing undergoing debridement), and to assess the utilization of arthroscopy in this procedure. Methods Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, cataloging medical records of residents in Olmsted County, Minnesota, we identified 246 patients who underwent anterior acromioplasty between 1980 and 2005. It has previously been shown that rarely does a resident of Olmsted County undergo an orthopedic procedure at a facility outside the county. Results The incidence of anterior acromioplasty increased over time (p<0.001) with the crude rate of 3.3 per 100,000 in 1980 to 1985 to 19.0 per 100,000 in 2000 to 2005. Sex, age, and types of rotator cuff pathology did not significantly change over the twenty-six year period. There was a dramatic shift from use of the open to the arthroscopic approach over this time period (p<0.001) and a decrease in the concomitant performance of distal clavicle resection (p<0.001). Conclusions The frequency of anterior acromioplasty has dramatically increased over time. Increasing knowledge about this syndrome, including better imaging, has facilitated patient treatment for a stable spectrum of rotator cuff pathology (inflammation or fibrosis, partial thickness tearing, full thickness tearing undergoing debridement), as has the application of endoscopic surgery. PMID:20691562

  18. Intramolecular telomeric G-quadruplexes dramatically inhibit DNA synthesis by replicative and translesion polymerases, revealing their potential to lead to genetic change.

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    Deanna N Edwards

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that hundreds of thousands of G-rich sequences within the human genome have the potential to form secondary structures known as G-quadruplexes. Telomeric regions, consisting of long arrays of TTAGGG/AATCCC repeats, are among the most likely areas in which these structures might form. Since G-quadruplexes assemble from certain G-rich single-stranded sequences, they might arise when duplex DNA is unwound such as during replication. Coincidentally, these bulky structures when present in the DNA template might also hinder the action of DNA polymerases. In this study, single-stranded telomeric templates with the potential to form G-quadruplexes were examined for their effects on a variety of replicative and translesion DNA polymerases from humans and lower organisms. Our results demonstrate that single-stranded templates containing four telomeric GGG runs fold into intramolecular G-quadruplex structures. These intramolecular G quadruplexes are somewhat dynamic in nature and stabilized by increasing KCl concentrations and decreasing temperatures. Furthermore, the presence of these intramolecular G-quadruplexes in the template dramatically inhibits DNA synthesis by various DNA polymerases, including the human polymerase δ employed during lagging strand replication of G-rich telomeric strands and several human translesion DNA polymerases potentially recruited to sites of replication blockage. Notably, misincorporation of nucleotides is observed when certain translesion polymerases are employed on substrates containing intramolecular G-quadruplexes, as is extension of the resulting mismatched base pairs upon dynamic unfolding of this secondary structure. These findings reveal the potential for blockage of DNA replication and genetic changes related to sequences capable of forming intramolecular G-quadruplexes.

  19. Dramatic increase of nitrite levels in hearts of anoxia-exposed crucian carp supporting a role in cardioprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2012-01-01

    the generation of reactive oxygen species upon reoxygenation. The crucian carp naturally survives extended periods without oxygen in an active state, which has made it a model for studying how evolution has solved the problems of anoxic survival. We investigated the role of nitrite and NO in the anoxia...... increases in nitrite, S-nitrosothiols (SNO) and iron-nitrosyl (FeNO) compounds in anoxic heart tissue. Nitrite levels were maintained in anoxic brain, liver and gill tissues, whereas SNO and FeNO increased in a tissue-specific manner. Reoxygenation reestablished normoxic values. We conclude that nitrite...

  20. Dramatic Enhancement of Graphene Oxide/Silk Nanocomposite Membranes: Increasing Toughness, Strength, and Young's modulus via Annealing of Interfacial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxian; Ma, Ruilong; Hu, Kesong; Kim, Sunghan; Fang, Guangqiang; Shao, Zhengzhong; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2016-09-21

    We demonstrate that stronger and more robust nacre-like laminated GO (graphene oxide)/SF (silk fibroin) nanocomposite membranes can be obtained by selectively tailoring the interfacial interactions between "bricks"-GO sheets and "mortar"-silk interlayers via controlled water vapor annealing. This facial annealing process relaxes the secondary structure of silk backbones confined between flexible GO sheets. The increased mobility leads to a significant increase in ultimate strength (by up to 41%), Young's modulus (up to 75%) and toughness (up to 45%). We suggest that local silk recrystallization is initiated in the proximity to GO surface by the hydrophobic surface regions serving as nucleation sites for β-sheet domains formation and followed by SF assembly into nanofibrils. Strong hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions between GO layers with SF nanofibrils result in enhanced shear strength of layered packing. This work presented here not only gives a better understanding of SF and GO interfacial interactions, but also provides insight on how to enhance the mechanical properties for the nacre-mimic nanocomposites by focusing on adjusting the delicate interactions between heterogeneous "brick" and adaptive "mortar" components with water/temperature annealing routines.

  1. The number of articles submitted to the Journal of the Faculty of Medicine experienced a dramatic increase

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    Franklin Escobar-Córdoba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of the Faculty of Medicine of Universidad Nacional de Colombia has undergone important changes in the past years; the amount of articles submitted for initiating the editorial process has increased, in the same manner as the amount of articles received in English language, and the rejection rate, which is now around 40%. The number of international authors has also grown, thus demonstrating that the publication has achieved greater visibility and recognition. In this context, the following articles have been selected for the first issue of Volume 69 of the Journal of the Faculty of Medicine: “Is parricide a stable phenomenon? An analysis of parricide offenders in a forensic hospital” (1 is a study written by an important group of Brazilian authors, who demonstrate their expertise in one of the crimes that causes most social upheaval due to its broad implications. Parricide immediately attracts attention as it is easily linked to the presence of a mental disorder, which is actually corroborated by this study, since it shows that most parricides are young adult males, who have a low level of education, are single, with no criminal history and schizophrenic; in addition, few cases show antisocial personality disorders.

  2. An Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Mutation (Y465D) Causes a Dramatic Increase in Blood ACE via Accelerated ACE Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kerry; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Chen, Zhenlong; Castellon, Maricela; Popova, Isolda A.; Kalinin, Sergey; Mendonca, Emma; Petukhov, Pavel A.; Schwartz, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) metabolizes a range of peptidic substrates and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Thus, elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Previously, a striking familial elevation in blood ACE was explained by mutations in the ACE juxtamembrane region that enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Recently, we found a family whose affected members had a 6-fold increase in blood ACE and a Tyr465Asp (Y465D) substitution, distal to the stalk region, in the N domain of ACE. Methodology/Principal Findings HEK and CHO cells expressing mutant (Tyr465Asp) ACE demonstrate a 3- and 8-fold increase, respectively, in the rate of ACE shedding compared to wild-type ACE. Conformational fingerprinting of mutant ACE demonstrated dramatic changes in ACE conformation in several different epitopes of ACE. Cell ELISA carried out on CHO-ACE cells also demonstrated significant changes in local ACE conformation, particularly proximal to the stalk region. However, the cleavage site of the mutant ACE - between Arg1203 and Ser1204 - was the same as that of WT ACE. The Y465D substitution is localized in the interface of the N-domain dimer (from the crystal structure) and abolishes a hydrogen bond between Tyr465 in one monomer and Asp462 in another. Conclusions/Significance The Y465D substitution results in dramatic increase in the rate of ACE shedding and is associated with significant local conformational changes in ACE. These changes could result in increased ACE dimerization and accessibility of the stalk region or the entire sACE, thus increasing the rate of cleavage by the putative ACE secretase (sheddase). PMID:21998728

  3. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Y465D causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE via accelerated ACE shedding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei M Danilov

    Full Text Available Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes a range of peptidic substrates and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Thus, elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Previously, a striking familial elevation in blood ACE was explained by mutations in the ACE juxtamembrane region that enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Recently, we found a family whose affected members had a 6-fold increase in blood ACE and a Tyr465Asp (Y465D substitution, distal to the stalk region, in the N domain of ACE.HEK and CHO cells expressing mutant (Tyr465Asp ACE demonstrate a 3- and 8-fold increase, respectively, in the rate of ACE shedding compared to wild-type ACE. Conformational fingerprinting of mutant ACE demonstrated dramatic changes in ACE conformation in several different epitopes of ACE. Cell ELISA carried out on CHO-ACE cells also demonstrated significant changes in local ACE conformation, particularly proximal to the stalk region. However, the cleavage site of the mutant ACE--between Arg1203 and Ser1204--was the same as that of WT ACE. The Y465D substitution is localized in the interface of the N-domain dimer (from the crystal structure and abolishes a hydrogen bond between Tyr465 in one monomer and Asp462 in another.The Y465D substitution results in dramatic increase in the rate of ACE shedding and is associated with significant local conformational changes in ACE. These changes could result in increased ACE dimerization and accessibility of the stalk region or the entire sACE, thus increasing the rate of cleavage by the putative ACE secretase (sheddase.

  4. Third-generation Ah receptor-responsive luciferase reporter plasmids: amplification of dioxin-responsive elements dramatically increases CALUX bioassay sensitivity and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guochun; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Zhao, Bin; Baston, David S; Zhao, Jing; Heath-Pagliuso, Sharon; Denison, Michael S

    2011-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) and related dioxin-like chemicals are widespread and persistent environmental contaminants that produce diverse toxic and biological effects through their ability to bind to and activate the Ah receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. The chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) system is an AhR-responsive recombinant luciferase reporter gene-based cell bioassay that has been used in combination with chemical extraction and cleanup methods for the relatively rapid and inexpensive detection and relative quantitation of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals in a wide variety of sample matrices. Although the CALUX bioassay has been validated and used extensively for screening purposes, it has some limitations when screening samples with very low levels of dioxin-like chemicals or when there is only a small amount of sample matrix for analysis. Here, we describe the development of third-generation (G3) CALUX plasmids with increased numbers of dioxin-responsive elements, and stable transfection of these new plasmids into mouse hepatoma (Hepa1c1c7) cells has produced novel amplified G3 CALUX cell bioassays that respond to TCDD with a dramatically increased magnitude of luciferase induction and significantly lower minimal detection limit than existing CALUX-type cell lines. The new G3 CALUX cell lines provide a highly responsive and sensitive bioassay system for the detection and relative quantitation of very low levels of dioxin-like chemicals in sample extracts.

  5. Creative Dramatics. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Julia; Sidlovskaya, Olga; Stotter, Ruth; Haugen, Kirsten; Leithold, Naomi

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on using creative dramatics in early childhood education: (1) "Drama: A Rehearsal for Life" (Julia Gabriel); (2) "Fairy Tales Enhance Imagination and Creative Thinking" (Olga Sidlovskaya); (3) "Starting with a Story" (Ruth Stotter); (4) "Using Creative Dramatics to Include All…

  6. Third-Generation Ah Receptor–Responsive Luciferase Reporter Plasmids: Amplification of Dioxin-Responsive Elements Dramatically Increases CALUX Bioassay Sensitivity and Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guochun; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Zhao, Bin; Baston, David S.; Zhao, Jing; Heath-Pagliuso, Sharon; Denison, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) and related dioxin-like chemicals are widespread and persistent environmental contaminants that produce diverse toxic and biological effects through their ability to bind to and activate the Ah receptor (AhR) and AhR-dependent gene expression. The chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) system is an AhR-responsive recombinant luciferase reporter gene–based cell bioassay that has been used in combination with chemical extraction and cleanup methods for the relatively rapid and inexpensive detection and relative quantitation of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals in a wide variety of sample matrices. Although the CALUX bioassay has been validated and used extensively for screening purposes, it has some limitations when screening samples with very low levels of dioxin-like chemicals or when there is only a small amount of sample matrix for analysis. Here, we describe the development of third-generation (G3) CALUX plasmids with increased numbers of dioxin-responsive elements, and stable transfection of these new plasmids into mouse hepatoma (Hepa1c1c7) cells has produced novel amplified G3 CALUX cell bioassays that respond to TCDD with a dramatically increased magnitude of luciferase induction and significantly lower minimal detection limit than existing CALUX-type cell lines. The new G3 CALUX cell lines provide a highly responsive and sensitive bioassay system for the detection and relative quantitation of very low levels of dioxin-like chemicals in sample extracts. PMID:21775728

  7. Unexpected dramatic increase in CD4+ cell count in a patient with AIDS after enfuvirtide treatment despite persistent viremia and resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Alessandro; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Sala, Stefania; Alessandrini, Anna Ida; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella

    2008-06-01

    An unexpected dramatic immune recovery was observed in a patient with full-blown AIDS receiving enfuvirtide-based antiretroviral therapy after multiple treatment failures. A complex interplay of viral and host factors, including the control of X4 viruses and proviral burden, may favor immune restoration with HIV neutralizing activity, despite persistent viremia.

  8. Lord Byron's dramatic work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All of Byron's six finished dramas aspire to display conflict between the individual will and the strength of the universal and omnipresent inevitability. Although he accentuated classical dramatic rules or three dramatic unities as the way to construct a good drama, he couldn't escape from the deep rooted romantic feeling of his genius. His plays are thus pictures of existing existential revolt with the protagonists true to their feelings, always consistent, active and devoted to one general idea. They are estranged from the meaningless world that leads them to rebellion and death, but prometheously constructed are the most successful and memorable element of his plays. Byron as a dramatist always tries to find an everlasting dimension and virtue in the meaningless world through the construction of personal myth and thus the main subject of all his dramas is freedom in all its aspects.

  9. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  10. Directed evolution of human T cell receptor CDR2 residues by phage display dramatically enhances affinity for cognate peptide-MHC without increasing apparent cross-reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven M.; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Baston, Emma; Mahon, Tara; Cameron, Brian; Moysey, Ruth; Gao, Feng; Sami, Malkit; Boulter, Jonathan; Li, Yi; Jakobsen, Bent K.

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian α/β T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire plays a pivotal role in adaptive immunity by recognizing short, processed, peptide antigens bound in the context of a highly diverse family of cell-surface major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). Despite the extensive TCR–MHC interaction surface, peptide-independent cross-reactivity of native TCRs is generally avoided through cell-mediated selection of molecules with low inherent affinity for MHC. Here we show that, contrary to expectations, the germ line-encoded complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of human TCRs, namely the CDR2s, which appear to contact only the MHC surface and not the bound peptide, can be engineered to yield soluble low nanomolar affinity ligands that retain a surprisingly high degree of specificity for the cognate pMHC target. Structural investigation of one such CDR2 mutant implicates shape complementarity of the mutant CDR2 contact interfaces as being a key determinant of the increased affinity. Our results suggest that manipulation of germ line CDR2 loops may provide a useful route to the production of high-affinity TCRs with therapeutic and diagnostic potential. PMID:16600963

  11. Monitoring health spending increases: incremental budget analyses reveal challenging tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Micah; Smith, Cynthia; Heffler, Stephen; Freeland, Mark

    2006-01-01

    With each passing decade, health care has consumed a larger share of gross domestic product (GDP) and Federal budgets. By the 2000-2004 period, society was willing to devote over 20 percent of the cumulative increase in GDP and the cumulative increase in Federal outlays towards health care. The financing challenges are expected to become more acute for private payers as well as Federal, State, and local budgets. With the implementation of Part D in 2006, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget projects that Federal budget pressures will heighten, bringing increased attention to Medicare's long-term fiscal outlook.

  12. Increased taxon sampling reveals thousands of hidden orthologs in flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Gains and losses shape the gene complement of animal lineages and are a fundamental aspect of genomic evolution. Acquiring a comprehensive view of the evolution of gene repertoires is limited by the intrinsic limitations of common sequence similarity searches and available databases. Thus, a subset of the gene complement of an organism consists of hidden orthologs, i.e., those with no apparent homology to sequenced animal lineages—mistakenly considered new genes—but actually representing rapidly evolving orthologs or undetected paralogs. Here, we describe Leapfrog, a simple automated BLAST pipeline that leverages increased taxon sampling to overcome long evolutionary distances and identify putative hidden orthologs in large transcriptomic databases by transitive homology. As a case study, we used 35 transcriptomes of 29 flatworm lineages to recover 3427 putative hidden orthologs, some unidentified by OrthoFinder and HaMStR, two common orthogroup inference algorithms. Unexpectedly, we do not observe a correlation between the number of putative hidden orthologs in a lineage and its “average” evolutionary rate. Hidden orthologs do not show unusual sequence composition biases that might account for systematic errors in sequence similarity searches. Instead, gene duplication with divergence of one paralog and weak positive selection appear to underlie hidden orthology in Platyhelminthes. By using Leapfrog, we identify key centrosome-related genes and homeodomain classes previously reported as absent in free-living flatworms, e.g., planarians. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that hidden orthologs comprise a significant proportion of the gene repertoire in flatworms, qualifying the impact of gene losses and gains in gene complement evolution. PMID:28400424

  13. La dramatúrgia docent

    OpenAIRE

    Comelles, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    La vida és un teatre. Una dita que lluny de semblar despectiva, resumeix la realitat humana diària. Perquè la vida és dramatúrgia. Un concepte menys agressiu que evoca les diferents situacions comunicatives que les persones enfronten al llarg de la seva vida per tal de complir els seus objectius. I ho fan assumint rols i actituds que una situació concreta requereix, com ara, la vida del docent i l’àmbit professional i social on es desenvolupa. Identificar l’ombra dramatúrgica que és desprèn d...

  14. Learning through Dramatic Story Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Evie

    2012-01-01

    The use of story with dramatic presentation approaches produces an engaging and powerful instructional choice for today's adult ESL educators. Two engaging and timed-tested approaches are Reader's Theater and Tableau Vivant. Both provide English language learners with content tailored to their abilities in addition to numerable opportunities to…

  15. Little Eyolf and dramatic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lysell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article criticises an Ibsen tradition who has seen the last scene of Little Eyolf as a reconciliation. Instead, the article discusses the improbability of a happy marriage characterised by social engagement. The play is open but it is hardly probable that Rita, with her erotic desire, and Allmers, whose desire has turned into metaphysics, can be happy together. The arguments refer to inner criteria and the constantly present dramatic tradition.

  16. A Novel Splice-Site Mutation in Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene, c.3691+1G>A (IVS25+1G>A), Causes a Dramatic Increase in Circulating ACE through Deletion of the Transmembrane Anchor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persu, Alexandre; Lambert, Michel; Deinum, Jaap; Cossu, Marta; de Visscher, Nathalie; Irenge, Leonid; Ambroise, Jerôme; Minon, Jean-Marc; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Churbanov, Alexander; Popova, Isolda A.; Danilov, Sergei M.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC 4.15.1) metabolizes many biologically active peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels are associated with different cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Methods and Results Two Belgian families with a 8-16-fold increase in blood ACE level were incidentally identified. A novel heterozygous splice site mutation of intron 25 - IVS25+1G>A (c.3691+1G>A) - cosegregating with elevated plasma ACE was identified in both pedigrees. Messenger RNA analysis revealed that the mutation led to the retention of intron 25 and Premature Termination Codon generation. Subjects harboring the mutation were mostly normotensive, had no left ventricular hypertrophy or cardiovascular disease. The levels of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components in the mutated cases and wild-type controls were similar, both at baseline and after 50 mg captopril. Compared with non-affected members, quantification of ACE surface expression and shedding using flow cytometry assay of dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood monocytes of affected members, demonstrated a 50% decrease and 3-fold increase, respectively. Together with a dramatic increase in circulating ACE levels, these findings argue in favor of deletion of transmembrane anchor, leading to direct secretion of ACE out of cells. Conclusions We describe a novel mutation of the ACE gene associated with a major familial elevation of circulating ACE, without evidence of activation of the renin-angiotensin system, target organ damage or cardiovascular complications. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that membrane-bound ACE, rather than circulating ACE, is responsible for Angiotensin II generation and its cardiovascular consequences. PMID:23560051

  17. Growth and carbon isotopes of Mediterranean trees reveal contrasting responses to increased carbon dioxide and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Elena; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Camarero, J Julio; Voltas, Jordi; Valladares, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics will depend upon the physiological performance of individual tree species under more stressful conditions caused by climate change. In order to compare the idiosyncratic responses of Mediterranean tree species (Quercus faginea, Pinus nigra, Juniperus thurifera) coexisting in forests of central Spain, we evaluated the temporal changes in secondary growth (basal area increment; BAI) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) during the last four decades, determined how coexisting species are responding to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations (C(a)) and drought stress, and assessed the relationship among iWUE and growth during climatically contrasting years. All species increased their iWUE (ca. +15 to +21%) between the 1970s and the 2000s. This increase was positively related to C(a) for J. thurifera and to higher C(a) and drought for Q. faginea and P. nigra. During climatically favourable years the study species either increased or maintained their growth at rising iWUE, suggesting a higher CO2 uptake. However, during unfavourable climatic years Q. faginea and especially P. nigra showed sharp declines in growth at enhanced iWUE, likely caused by a reduced stomatal conductance to save water under stressful dry conditions. In contrast, J. thurifera showed enhanced growth also during unfavourable years at increased iWUE, denoting a beneficial effect of C(a) even under climatically harsh conditions. Our results reveal significant inter-specific differences in growth driven by alternative physiological responses to increasing drought stress. Thus, forest composition in the Mediterranean region might be altered due to contrasting capacities of coexisting tree species to withstand increasingly stressful conditions.

  18. PROMOTING INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH VERBAL DRAMATIZATION OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looi-Chin Ch’ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that explicit teaching of vocabulary is often practised in English as a Second Language (ESL classrooms, it has been proven to be rather ineffective, largely because words are not taught in context. This has prompted the increasing use of incidental vocabulary learning approach, which emphasises on repeated readings as a source for vocabulary learning. By adopting this approach, this study aims to investigate students’ ability in learning vocabulary incidentally via verbal dramatization of written texts. In this case, readers’ theatre (RT is used as a way to allow learners to engage in active reading so as to promote vocabulary learning. A total of 160 diploma students participated in this case study and they were divided equally into two groups, namely classroom reading (CR and RT groups. A proficiency test was first conducted to determine their vocabulary levels. Based on the test results, a story was selected as the reading material in the two groups. The CR group read the story through a normal reading lesson in class while the RT group was required to verbally dramatize the text through readers’ theatre activity. Then, a post-test based on vocabulary levels was carried out and the results were compared. The findings revealed that incidental learning was more apparent in the RT group and their ability to learn words from the higher levels was noticeable through higher accuracy scores. Although not conclusive, this study has demonstrated the potential of using readers’ theatre as a form of incidental vocabulary learning activity in ESL settings.

  19. An investigation into the dramatic increase in deaths from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-13

    Nov 13, 2008 ... to determine whether doctors adhered to prescribed GE treatment protocols; ... Methodology: A cross-sectional study design was used. ... contributed to GE deaths: Medical and nursing care were of a high ... In more than nine out of ten cases the doctors and nurses in the hospital rendered medical care in ...

  20. Dramatic Increases in Maternal Opioid Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  1. An investigation into the dramatic increase in deaths from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first author collected the information on a cause of death form, a data form and an audit tool. As part of the quality-improvement project, 10 items were assessed to determine whether doctors adhered to treatment protocols, and 10 items were assessed to determine whether nurses adhered to nursing orders and basic ...

  2. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, E M; Milman, N

    2008-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs in pregnant...

  3. Sex differences in functional activation patterns revealed by increased emotion processing demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey B C; Witelson, Sandra F; Szechtman, Henry; Nahmias, Claude

    2004-02-09

    Two [O(15)] PET studies assessed sex differences regional brain activation in the recognition of emotional stimuli. Study I revealed that the recognition of emotion in visual faces resulted in bilateral frontal activation in women, and unilateral right-sided activation in men. In study II, the complexity of the emotional face task was increased through tje addition of associated auditory emotional stimuli. Men again showed unilateral frontal activation, in this case to the left; whereas women did not show bilateral frontal activation, but showed greater limbic activity. These results suggest that when processing broader cross-modal emotional stimuli, men engage more in associative cognitive strategies while women draw more on primary emotional references.

  4. The Psychodrama-Social Dramatics Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Richard L.

    Social dramatics is a therapeutic and educational program that can act as a mirror to reflect images of the self in action with others. It is the modality for experiential learning to correct social dysfunction by providing models for imitation, opportunities to practice and develop individual forms from that model, and risk free environments for…

  5. Puppetry and Creative Dramatics in Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Connie

    The 14 units in this book are designed to help teachers and librarians motivate children to express emotions, pantomime characters, and create a full story environment through puppetry and creative dramatics. Each unit is built around a specific piece of literature, and each provides instructions for the educator concerning the necessary…

  6. Care initiation area yields dramatic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The ED at Gaston Memorial Hospital in Gastonia, NC, has achieved dramatic results in key department metrics with a Care Initiation Area (CIA) and a physician in triage. Here's how the ED arrived at this winning solution: Leadership was trained in and implemented the Kaizen method, which eliminates redundant or inefficient process steps. Simulation software helped determine additional space needed by analyzing arrival patterns and other key data. After only two days of meetings, new ideas were implemented and tested.

  7. Dramatic weight loss associated with commencing clozapine

    OpenAIRE

    Lally, John; McDonald, Colm

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man with a long history of chronic enduring schizophrenia who experienced dramatic weight loss after commencing treatment with clozapine, an antipsychotic medication characteristically associated with the greatest degree of weight gain among medical treatments for schizophrenia. He was obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 41.5 kg/m2, but after commencing clozapine therapy he experienced an improvement in psychotic symptoms and 40% loss of his body...

  8. Dramatization and attraction: new identification tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Panteleeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of identification mechanisms and its presentation patterns in the contemporary megapolis, the reasons for identification challenges emerging in the contemporary multicultural world where the contemporary urban community offers the opportunity for identity transformation, so that the citizens of metropolis are faced with the challenge of finding new identification tools. The notions of «dramatization» and «social attraction» offered in the article for the identity problem analysis in the context of diverse style and taste options of the contemporary urban community serve to form an estimate of the behaviour of an individual who keeps deciding on his own behavioral pattern.

  9. Dramatic weight loss associated with commencing clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, John; McDonald, Colm

    2011-11-08

    The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man with a long history of chronic enduring schizophrenia who experienced dramatic weight loss after commencing treatment with clozapine, an antipsychotic medication characteristically associated with the greatest degree of weight gain among medical treatments for schizophrenia. He was obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 41.5 kg/m(2), but after commencing clozapine therapy he experienced an improvement in psychotic symptoms and 40% loss of his body weight attained through an altered diet and exercise regime, which resulted in him attaining a normal BMI of 24.8 kg/m(2).

  10. High-Elevation Sierra Nevada Conifers Reveal Increasing Reliance on Snow Water with Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, K. S.; Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Shamir, E.; Graham, R.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada Mountains accounts for around one third of California's water supply. Melting snow can provide water into dry summer months characteristic of the region's Mediterranean climate. As climate changes, understanding patterns of snowpack, snowmelt, and biological response are critical in this region of agricultural, recreational, and ecological value. Tree rings can act as proxy records to inform scientists and resource managers of past climate variability where instrumental data is unavailable. Here we investigate relationships between tree rings of high-elevation, snow-adapted conifer trees (Tsuga mertensiana, Abies magnifica) and April 1st snow-water equivalent (SWE) in the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The 1st principal component of 29 highly correlated regional SWE time series was modeled using multiple linear regression of four tree-ring chronologies including two lagged chronologies. Split-period verification analysis of this model revealed poor predictive skill in the early half (1929 - 1966) of the calibration period (1929 - 2003). Further analysis revealed a significant (p time. Snow water is becoming a more limiting resource to tree growth as average temperatures rise and the hydrologic regime shifts. These results highlight the need for resource managers and policy makers to consider that biological response to climate is not static.

  11. The dramatic extraction construction in French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Abeillé

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relying on spoken corpora (Corpaix, CRFP and on previous studies (Sabio 1995, 1996, we identify a construction common in spoken French, which we analyze as a particular case of extraction:a. dix sept ans il a. (Seventeen years he has [Corpaix]b. deux cigarettes j'ai fumé. (Two cigarettes I smoked [on the fly]The construction can only be a root clause and a declarative clause. Its interpretation is that of a thetic proposition. On the other hand, it is not associated with a unique information structure, since it is compatible with a focus-ground partition, with the extracted constotunet as a narrow focus, or with an all focus interpretation. We call this construction ‘dramatic extraction’, and the extracted element a ‘center’ (i.e. a focus or a figure. We formalize our analysis in the HPSG grammar.

  12. Transcriptome analysis in whole blood reveals increased microbial diversity in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Mangul, Serghei; Ori, Anil P.S.; Jospin, Guillaume; Koslicki, David; Yang, Harry Taegyun; Wu, Timothy; Boks, Marco P.; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Wiedau-Pazos, Martina; Cantor, Rita M.; Vos, De Willem M.; Kahn, René S.; Eskin, Eleazar; Ophoff, Roel A.

    2018-01-01

    The role of the human microbiome in health and disease is increasingly appreciated. We studied the composition of microbial communities present in blood across 192 individuals, including healthy controls and patients with three disorders affecting the brain: schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral

  13. Sweet Potato Value Chain Analysis Reveals Opportunities for Increased Income and Food Security in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issah Sugri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato has gained prominence due to its ability to adapt to wide production ecologies and yield response to minimal external inputs. Orange-fleshed cultivars in particular have immense potential to improve household income and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the sweet potato value chain (SPVC is not well-developed in many producing countries. The study was conducted in two regions to characterize the production operations as well as identify opportunities to propel the SPVC in Northern Ghana. Data were collected using mixed methods including structured questionnaires via face-to-face interviews. Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT was conducted at multistakeholder platforms with different actors. Gross margin profit and benefit-cost ratios were determined by using six cost variables. Overall, the industry was largely a fresh produce market, targeting food vendors, processors, and direct selling to wholesalers, retailers, and household consumers. The SWOT analysis revealed wide-ranging opportunities including favourable production ecologies, processing options, and insatiable local and international markets. The institutional actors need to network the primary actors to synergistically operate with a collective profit motive. The most prioritized production constraints such as access to seed, cost of chemical fertilizer, short shelf-life, field pests and diseases, and declining soil fertility should be addressed.

  14. Magnetoencephalography Reveals a Widespread Increase in Network Connectivity in Idiopathic/Genetic Generalized Epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham Elshahabi

    Full Text Available Idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy (IGE/GGE is characterized by seizures, which start and rapidly engage widely distributed networks, and result in symptoms such as absences, generalized myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although routine magnetic resonance imaging is apparently normal, many studies have reported structural alterations in IGE/GGE patients using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. Changes have also been reported in functional networks during generalized spike wave discharges. However, network function in the resting-state without epileptiforme discharges has been less well studied. We hypothesize that resting-state networks are more representative of the underlying pathophysiology and abnormal network synchrony. We studied functional network connectivity derived from whole-brain magnetoencephalography recordings in thirteen IGE/GGE and nineteen healthy controls. Using graph theoretical network analysis, we found a widespread increase in connectivity in patients compared to controls. These changes were most pronounced in the motor network, the mesio-frontal and temporal cortex. We did not, however, find any significant difference between the normalized clustering coefficients, indicating preserved gross network architecture. Our findings suggest that increased resting state connectivity could be an important factor for seizure spread and/or generation in IGE/GGE, and could serve as a biomarker for the disease.

  15. Single-molecule photobleaching reveals increased MET receptor dimerization upon ligand binding in intact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, Marina S; Haße, Daniel; Ferraris, Davide M; Göhler, Antonia; Niemann, Hartmut H; Heilemann, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The human receptor tyrosine kinase MET and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are essential during embryonic development and play an important role during cancer metastasis and tissue regeneration. In addition, it was found that MET is also relevant for infectious diseases and is the target of different bacteria, amongst them Listeria monocytogenes that induces bacterial uptake through the surface protein internalin B. Binding of ligand to the MET receptor is proposed to lead to receptor dimerization. However, it is also discussed whether preformed MET dimers exist on the cell membrane. To address these issues we used single-molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques. Our photobleaching experiments show that MET exists in dimers on the membrane of cells in the absence of ligand and that the proportion of MET dimers increases significantly upon ligand binding. Our results indicate that partially preformed MET dimers may play a role in ligand binding or MET signaling. The addition of the bacterial ligand internalin B leads to an increase of MET dimers which is in agreement with the model of ligand-induced dimerization of receptor tyrosine kinases.

  16. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy can reveal increases in brain activity related to animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuka; Ebara, Fumio; Morita, Yoshimitsu; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19-21 years) of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University. Participants were shown a picture of a Tokara goat or shack (control) while prefrontal cortical oxygenated haemoglobin levels (representing neural activity) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] The prefrontal cortical near-infrared spectroscopy signal was significantly higher during viewing of the animal picture than during a rest condition or during viewing of the control picture. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy can be used to objectively identify brain activity changes during human mentation regarding animals; furthermore, these preliminary results suggest the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy could be related to increased activation of the prefrontal cortex.

  18. Anthropogenic Increase Of Soil Erosion In The Gangetic Plain Revealed By Geochemical Budget Of Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Galy, A.; Gaillardet, J.

    2007-12-01

    Himalaya. Based on the average composition of the suspended load and of floodplain soils, we estimate that 250x106 t/yr i.e. 5 t/ha/yr is eroded from soil surfaces of the Ganga floodplain. This enhanced soil erosion is likely triggered by intense deforestation and change in land use due to increasing human activity in the basin.

  19. Teens and tobacco: a dramatization: final report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This project was developed as an educational tool to increase awareness of tobacco related issues such as lifestyle choices, health risks, advertising, saying no, cessation, second hand smoke and smokeless tobacco...

  20. The Challenges and Prospects of Teaching and Learning Dramatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dramatic education is an all-inclusive academic discipline which uses as tools branches of learning that bear upon the dramatic impulse. It utilizes eclectically each and every single discipline into one unified body of knowledge, so that it can help man to comprehend the nature of experience. Educational drama or Dramatic ...

  1. Attributing Increased River Flooding in the Future: Hydrodynamic Downscaling Reveals Role of Plant Physiological Responses to Increased CO2 is First Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, M. D.; Kooperman, G. J.; Pritchard, M. S.; Randerson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    River flooding events, which are the most frequently occurring natural disaster today, are expected to become more frequent and intense in response to climate change. However, the magnitude of these changes remains debated, in part due to uncertainty in our understanding of the physical processes that contribute to these events and their representation in global climate models. While the intensification of precipitation has been shown to be a primary driver of increased flooding, plant physiological responses to increasing CO2 may also play an important role. As the atmospheric concentration of CO2 increases, plants may respond by reducing the width of their stomata (i.e. stomatal conductance), which can decrease water lost through transpiration and in turn maintain higher soil moisture levels. On long timescales, reduced transpiration has been shown to increase average runoff, but on short timescales elevated soil moisture can also increase instantaneous runoff by limiting the rate at which water is able to infiltrate the soil surface. Here, through hydrodynamic downscaling, we isolate the portion of flooding amplification that can be attributed to the physiological response to increasing CO2. This builds on a new analysis that has revealed such physiological effects can rival changes caused by the atmospheric response alone in the tails of the runoff distribution. We use a set of four simulations run with the Community Earth System Model: one pre-industrial control simulation and three others that are forced with four times CO2. In the three climate change simulations, the increased CO2 is applied only to the land-surface, only to the atmosphere, and to both, respectively. Thirty years of daily runoff from these experiments are used as input for the hydrodynamic CaMa-Flood model. Our results reveal that both the radiative and physiological responses to climate change contribute significantly to future changes in flood return period and inundated area. This

  2. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-03-05

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ(13)C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2. Together with a decrease in the difference between δ(13)C values of both fractions at the higher pCO2 sites, these results indicate there is a greater net autotrophic input to the A. viridis carbon budget under high pCO2 conditions. δ(15)N values and C/N ratios did not change in Symbiodinium and host tissue along the pCO2 gradient. Additional physiological parameters revealed anemone protein and Symbiodinium chlorophyll a remained unaltered among sites. Symbiodinium density was similar among sites yet their mitotic index increased in anemones under elevated pCO2. Overall, our findings show that A. viridis is characterized by a higher autotrophic/heterotrophic ratio as pCO2 increases. The unique trophic flexibility of this species may give it a competitive advantage and enable its potential acclimation and ecological success in the future under increased ocean acidification.

  3. Monitoring bacterial community of human gut microbiota reveals an increase in Lactobacillus in obese patients and Methanogens in anorexic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Armougom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of the bacterial communities of the gut microbiota have revealed a shift in the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in obese patients. Determining the variations of microbial communities in feces may be beneficial for the identification of specific profiles in patients with abnormal weights. The roles of the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii and Lactobacillus species have not been described in these studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed an efficient and robust real-time PCR tool that includes a plasmid-based internal control and allows for quantification of the bacterial divisions Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Lactobacillus as well as the methanogen M. smithii. We applied this technique to the feces of 20 obese subjects, 9 patients with anorexia nervosa, and 20 normal-weight healthy controls. Our results confirmed a reduction in the Bacteroidetes community in obese patients (p<0.01. We found a significantly higher Lactobacillus species concentration in obese patients than in lean controls (p=0.0197 or anorexic patients (p=0.0332. The M. smithii concentration was much higher in anorexic patients than in the lean population (p=0.0171. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus species are widely used as growth promoters in the farm industry and are now linked to obesity in humans. The study of the bacterial flora in anorexic patients revealed an increase in M. smithii. This increase might represent an adaptive use of nutrients in this population.

  4. Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Emma; Schaefer, Rebecca S; Bastin, Mark E; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2017-08-01

    Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues. Participants completed 20minutes of training three times per week over four weeks. Diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic neighbourhood tractography identified FA, axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity before and after training. Results revealed that FA increased significantly in the right arcuate fasciculus of the Music group only, as hypothesised, with trends for AD to increase and RD to decrease, a pattern of results consistent with activity-dependent increases in myelination. No significant changes were found in the left ipsilateral arcuate fasciculus of either group. This is the first evidence that adding musical cues to movement learning can induce rapid microstructural change in white matter pathways in adults, with potential implications for therapeutic clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dramatics in the Classroom: Making Lessons Come Alive. Fastback 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elizabeth Flory

    The contents of this booklet focus on effective techniques for using dramatics in the classroom and are based on the premise that drama can integrate all skills and help to avoid fragmentation in learning. Chapters discuss motivating the dreamers in the classroom, curriculum dramatics--eclectic teaching, training the teacher, transforming the…

  6. Language in african dramatic literature: The example of Ola Rotimi's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the use of language in African dramatic literature and identifies the controversy over the choice of a most appropriate language to be used by African playwrights and also X-rays the solution to language problem as proffered by prominent dramatic scholars. These solutions are then narrowed to Ola ...

  7. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalková, Katarina; García-Estrada, Carlos; Barreiro, Carlos; Flórez, Martha G; Jami, Mohammad S; Paniagua, Miguel A; Martín, Juan F

    2012-01-10

    The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold) in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs). CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs), whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.

  8. A Preclinical Model of Chronic Alcohol Consumption Reveals Increased Metastatic Seeding of Colon Cancer Cells in the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Jo, Il-Joo; Park, Sung-Joo; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-04-01

    Liver metastasis is the main cause of death from colorectal cancer. Alcohol consumption impacts liver function and is suggested to be an independent risk factor for liver metastasis of colorectal cancer, but no experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis has been demonstrated to date. In this study, we investigated the effect of alcohol intake on liver metastasis. We examined colon cancer cell spread from the spleen in mice provided with water (control group), alcohol for 4 weeks before tumor injection (prealcohol), alcohol for 3 weeks after tumor injection (postalcohol), or alcohol throughout the 7-week study (alcohol). Alcohol intake significantly increased hepatic metastatic burden in the prealcohol (2.4-fold, P < 0.001), postalcohol (2.0-fold, P < 0.01), and alcohol groups (2.2-fold, P < 0.001). A fluorescence-based metastasis tracking assay also confirmed an alcohol-induced increase in the abundance of tumor cells in the liver (2.5-fold, P < 0.001). Investigation of the host microenvironment revealed an alcohol-induced inflammatory response marked by elevated TNFα, IL1β, IL6, and IFNγ protein levels, as well as increased expression of intercellular molecule-1 (ICAM1) in hepatic tissues after 4 weeks of alcohol consumption. Moreover, the peripheral blood of mice provided with alcohol for 4 weeks exhibited reduced natural killer and CD8(+) T-cell counts. Collectively, our findings suggest that chronic alcohol consumption accelerates liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through alterations to the liver microenvironment and inactivation of immune surveillance. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1698-704. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. A dramatic, objective antiandrogen withdrawal response: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litwin Alan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antiandrogen withdrawal response is an increasingly recognized entity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing a durable radiologic improvement along with prostate-specific antigen (PSA with discontinuation of the antiandrogen agent bicalutamide. We report a case in which a dramatic decline of serum PSA levels associated with a dramatic improvement in radiologic disease was achieved with bicalutamide discontinuation.

  10. Quantitative PCR Profiling of Escherichia coli in Livestock Feces Reveals Increased Population Resilience Relative to Culturable Counts under Temperature Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Bird, Clare; Burd, Emmy; Wyman, Michael

    2016-09-06

    The relationship between culturable counts (CFU) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) cell equivalent counts of Escherichia coli in dairy feces exposed to different environmental conditions and temperature extremes was investigated. Fecal samples were collected in summer and winter from dairy cowpats held under two treatments: field-exposed versus polytunnel-protected. A significant correlation in quantified E. coli was recorded between the qPCR and culture-based methods (r = 0.82). Evaluation of the persistence profiles of E. coli over time revealed no significant difference in the E. coli numbers determined as either CFU or gene copies during the summer for the field-exposed cowpats, whereas significantly higher counts were observed by qPCR for the polytunnel-protected cowpats, which were exposed to higher ambient temperatures. In winter, the qPCR returned significantly higher counts of E. coli for the field-exposed cowpats, thus representing a reversal of the findings from the summer sampling campaign. Results from this study suggest that with increasing time post-defecation and with the onset of challenging environmental conditions, such as extremes in temperature, culture-based counts begin to underestimate the true resilience of viable E. coli populations in livestock feces. This is important not only in the long term as the Earth changes in response to climate-change drivers but also in the short term during spells of extremely cold or hot weather.

  11. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosalková Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Results Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs. CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs, whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Conclusions In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.

  12. Theodramatic Rehearsal: Fighting Self-Deception through the Dramatic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Vaden

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to appropriate the insights of dramatic theology for Christian psychology and soul care. According to Kevin Vanhoozer, Scripture is the ‘script’ for human beings’ fitting participation in the acts and deeds of God in the world (i.e., ‘theodrama’. Keeping with this dramatic paradigm, the author will explore what ‘rehearsal’ might entail by drawing from a branch of psychotherapy called ‘psychodrama.’ The main question to be addressed in this appropriation of dramatic theology is, “How might dramatic rehearsal combat self-deception?” The author will only begin to answer this question, but in the attempt it is hoped that further reflection and clarity will be induced.

  13. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  14. Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. / Alan Blyth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blyth, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Songs and dramatic works with orchestra. Barbara Bonney, Randi Stene, Hakan Hagegard, Ruth Tellefsen, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi." CD 437 519 - 2GH

  15. SSU rRNA reveals a sequential increase in shell complexity among the euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lara, Enrique; Heger, Thierry J; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2007-01-01

    The existing data on the molecular phylogeny of filose testate amoebae from order Euglyphida has revealed contradictions between traditional morphological classification and SSU rRNA phylogeny and, moreover, the position of several important genera remained unknown. We therefore carried out a stu...

  16. Authoring for Engagement in Interactive Dramatic Experiences for Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad

    2013-01-01

    ’s control over communicating a theme. To address this problem, this paper contributes a method for organizing narrative events in a free-roaming virtual environment. The Interactive Dramatic Experience Model (IDEM) retains the freedom of navigation while maintaining the possibility to construct various...

  17. On Dramatic Instruction: Towards a Taxonomy of Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Examines the many possible methods used by instructors who work with dramatic action: in educational drama, drama therapy, social drama, and theater. Discusses an emergent taxonomy whereby instructors choose either spontaneous/formal, overt/covert/, or intrinsic/extrinsic methods. (JC)

  18. Whole-brain analytic measures of network communication reveal increased structure-function correlation in right temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wirsich

    2016-01-01

    In rTLE patients, we found a widespread hypercorrelated functional network. Network communication analysis revealed greater unspecific branching of the shortest path (search information in the structural connectome and a higher global correlation between the structural and functional connectivity for the patient group. We also found evidence for a preserved structural rich-club in the patient group. In sum, global augmentation of structure-function correlation might be linked to a smaller functional repertoire in rTLE patients, while sparing the central core of the brain which may represent a pathway that facilitates the spread of seizures.

  19. Integrated analysis of genetic variation and gene expression reveals novel variant for increased warfarin dose requirement in African Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, W.; Gamazon, E. R.; Aquino-Michaels, K.; Smithberger, E.; O'Brien, T. J.; Harralson, A. F.; Tuck, M.; Barbour, A.; Cavallari, L. H.; Perera, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Genetic variants controlling gene regulation have not been explored in pharmacogenomics. We tested liver expression quantitative trait loci for association with warfarin dose response. A novel predictor for increased warfarin dose response in African Americans was identified. Precision

  20. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  1. Collaborative College Playwriting and Performance: A Core Course "Trespassing" onto the Dramatic Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedetti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Arts integration is relevant in the context of the increased demand for creative thinkers in a global economy. However, reaching across disciplinary boundaries is less common in higher education. Arts integration is one way that a literature class can "trespass" onto the dramatic arts. This paper reports on a study of integrating the…

  2. Depression-related increases and decreases in appetite reveal dissociable patterns of aberrant activity in reward and interoceptive neurocircuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, W. Kyle; Burrows, Kaiping; Avery, Jason A.; Kerr, Kara L.; Bodurka, Jerzy; Savage, Cary R.; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Appetite and weight changes are common but variable diagnostic markers in major depressive disorder: some depressed individuals manifest increased appetite, while others lose their appetite. Many of the brain regions implicated in appetitive responses to food have also been implicated in depression. It is thus remarkable that there exists no published research comparing the neural responses to food stimuli of depressed patients with increased versus decreased appetites. Method Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we compared brain activity in unmedicated depressed patients with increased or decreased appetite, and healthy control subjects, while viewing photographs of food and non-food objects. We also measured how resting-state functional connectivity related to subjects’ food pleasantness ratings. Results Within putative reward regions, depressed participants with increased appetites exhibited greater hemodynamic activity to food stimuli than both those reporting appetite decreases and healthy control subjects. In contrast, depressed subjects experiencing appetite loss exhibited hypoactivation within a region of the mid-insula implicated in interoception, with no difference observed in this region between healthy subjects and those with depression-related appetite increases. Mid-insula activity was negatively correlated with food pleasantness ratings of depressed participants with increased appetites, and its functional connectivity to reward circuitry was positively correlated with food pleasantness ratings. Conclusions Depression-related increases in appetite are associated with hyperactivation of putative mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry, while depression-related appetite loss is associated with hypoactivation of insular regions that support monitoring the body’s physiological state. Importantly, the interactions among these regions also contribute to individual differences in the depression-related appetite changes. PMID:26806872

  3. Museum specimen data reveal emergence of a plant disease may be linked to increases in the insect vector population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Rapacciuolo, Giovanni; Turek, Daniel; Oboyski, Peter T; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Roderick, George K

    2017-09-01

    The emergence rate of new plant diseases is increasing due to novel introductions, climate change, and changes in vector populations, posing risks to agricultural sustainability. Assessing and managing future disease risks depends on understanding the causes of contemporary and historical emergence events. Since the mid-1990s, potato growers in the western United States, Mexico, and Central America have experienced severe yield loss from Zebra Chip disease and have responded by increasing insecticide use to suppress populations of the insect vector, the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Despite the severe nature of Zebra Chip outbreaks, the causes of emergence remain unknown. We tested the hypotheses that (1) B. cockerelli occupancy has increased over the last century in California and (2) such increases are related to climate change, specifically warmer winters. We compiled a data set of 87,000 museum specimen occurrence records across the order Hemiptera collected between 1900 and 2014. We then analyzed changes in B. cockerelli distribution using a hierarchical occupancy model using changes in background species lists to correct for collecting effort. We found evidence that B. cockerelli occupancy has increased over the last century. However, these changes appear to be unrelated to climate changes, at least at the scale of our analysis. To the extent that species occupancy is related to abundance, our analysis provides the first quantitative support for the hypothesis that B. cockerelli population abundance has increased, but further work is needed to link B. cockerelli population dynamics to Zebra Chip epidemics. Finally, we demonstrate how this historical macro-ecological approach provides a general framework for comparative risk assessment of future pest and insect vector outbreaks. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Meta-analysis of Gene Expression in the Mouse Liver Reveals Biomarkers Associated with Inflammation Increased Early During Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with a predictable loss of cellular homeostasis, a decline in physiological function and an increase in various diseases. We hypothesized that similar age-related gene expression profiles would be observed in mice across independent studies. Employing a metaan...

  5. Dobutamine cardiac "stress" test reveals increased arrhythmia risk in conscious rats after a single exposure to acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild-to-moderate exercise is often used to stress the cardiovascular (CV) system of patients while monitoring them for electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities that may indicate underlying CV disease. We previously demonstrated that dobutamine, which increases heart rate (HR) and co...

  6. Kazakhstan's Pension System: Pressures for Change and Dramatic Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Seitenova, Ai-Gul S.; Becker, Charles M.

    2003-01-01

    Five years ago, Kazakhstan embarked on a dramatic reform of its pension and social security system in order to move from an unsustainable public defined benefit ("solidarity") system to one of defined mandatory contributions (accumulative system). While assessment of long-run success is premature, early results have exceeded expectations. This paper considers the reform's rationale and initial impact: Why did the Government of Kazakhstan decide to introduce a new pension system? What advantag...

  7. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M.; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. ?13C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significa...

  8. Whole-brain analytic measures of network communication reveal increased structure-function correlation in right temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsich, Jonathan; Perry, Alistair; Ridley, Ben; Proix, Timothée; Golos, Mathieu; Bénar, Christian; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Breakspear, Michael; Jirsa, Viktor; Guye, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo structure-function relationship is key to understanding brain network reorganization due to pathologies. This relationship is likely to be particularly complex in brain network diseases such as temporal lobe epilepsy, in which disturbed large-scale systems are involved in both transient electrical events and long-lasting functional and structural impairments. Herein, we estimated this relationship by analyzing the correlation between structural connectivity and functional connectivity in terms of analytical network communication parameters. As such, we targeted the gradual topological structure-function reorganization caused by the pathology not only at the whole brain scale but also both in core and peripheral regions of the brain. We acquired diffusion (dMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data in seven right-lateralized TLE (rTLE) patients and fourteen healthy controls and analyzed the structure-function relationship by using analytical network communication metrics derived from the structural connectome. In rTLE patients, we found a widespread hypercorrelated functional network. Network communication analysis revealed greater unspecific branching of the shortest path (search information) in the structural connectome and a higher global correlation between the structural and functional connectivity for the patient group. We also found evidence for a preserved structural rich-club in the patient group. In sum, global augmentation of structure-function correlation might be linked to a smaller functional repertoire in rTLE patients, while sparing the central core of the brain which may represent a pathway that facilitates the spread of seizures.

  9. Dramatic Influence of an Anionic Donor on the Oxygen-Atom Transfer Reactivity of a MnV–Oxo Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Heather M; Quesne, Matthew G; Yang, Tzuhsiung; Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Lancaster, Kyle M; Donohoe, James; DeBeer, Serena; de Visser, Sam P; Goldberg, David P

    2014-01-01

    Addition of an anionic donor to an MnV(O) porphyrinoid complex causes a dramatic increase in 2-electron oxygen-atom-transfer (OAT) chemistry. The 6-coordinate [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(CN)]− was generated from addition of Bu4N+CN− to the 5-coordinate MnV(O) precursor. The cyanide-ligated complex was characterized for the first time by Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and gives Mn–O=1.53 Å, Mn–CN=2.21 Å. In combination with computational studies these distances were shown to correlate with a singlet ground state. Reaction of the CN− complex with thioethers results in OAT to give the corresponding sulfoxide and a 2e−-reduced MnIII(CN)− complex. Kinetic measurements reveal a dramatic rate enhancement for OAT of approximately 24 000-fold versus the same reaction for the parent 5-coordinate complex. An Eyring analysis gives ΔH≠=14 kcal mol−1, ΔS≠=−10 cal mol−1 K−1. Computational studies fully support the structures, spin states, and relative reactivity of the 5- and 6-coordinate MnV(O) complexes. PMID:25256417

  10. Increase in platinum group elements in Mexico City as revealed from growth rings of Taxodium mucronatum ten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; Martínez-Reyes, Ángeles; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; González-Hernández, Galia

    2016-02-01

    Tree rings may be used as indicators of contamination events providing information on the chronology and the elemental composition of the contamination. In this framework, we report PGEs enrichment in growth rings of Taxodium mucronatum ten for trees growing in the central area of Mexico City as compared to trees growing in a non-urban environment. Concentrations of PGE were determined by ICP-MS analysis on microwave-digested tree rings. The element found in higher concentrations was Pd (1.13-87.98 μg kg(-1)), followed by Rh (0.28-36.81 μg kg(-1)) and Pt (0.106-7.21 μg kg(-1)). The concentration trends of PGEs in the tree-ring sequences from the urban area presented significant correlation values when comparing between trees (r between 0.618 and 0.98, P < 0.025) and between elements within individual trees (r between 0.76 and 0.994, P < 0.01). Furthermore, a clear increase was observed for rings after 1997, with enrichment of up to 60 times the mean concentration found for the sequence from the non-urban area and up to 40 times the mean concentration for the pre-1991 period in the urban trees. These results also demonstrate the feasibility of applying T. mucronatum ten to be used as a bioindicator of the increase in PGE in urban environments.

  11. Increased fusiform area activation in schizophrenia during processing of spatial frequency-degraded faces, as revealed by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S M; All, S D; Kasi, R; Berten, S; Essex, B; Lathrop, K L; Little, D M

    2010-07-01

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate perceptual organization impairments, and these are thought to contribute to their face processing difficulties. We examined the neural substrates of emotionally neutral face processing in schizophrenia by investigating neural activity under three stimulus conditions: faces characterized by the full spectrum of spatial frequencies, faces with low spatial frequency information removed [high spatial frequency (HSF) condition], and faces with high spatial frequency information removed [low spatial frequency (LSF) condition]. Face perception in the HSF condition is more reliant on local feature processing whereas perception in the LSF condition requires greater reliance on global form processing. Past studies of perceptual organization in schizophrenia indicate that patients perform relatively more poorly with degraded stimuli but also that, when global information is absent, patients may perform better than controls because of their relatively increased ability to initially process individual features. Therefore, we hypothesized that people with schizophrenia (n=14) would demonstrate greater face processing difficulties than controls (n=13) in the LSF condition, whereas they would demonstrate a smaller difference or superior performance in the HSF condition. In a gender-discrimination task, behavioral data indicated high levels of accuracy for both groups, with a trend toward an interaction involving higher patient performance in the HSF condition and poorer patient performance in the LSF condition. Patients demonstrated greater activity in the fusiform gyrus compared to controls in both degraded conditions. These data suggest that impairments in basic integration abilities may be compensated for by relatively increased activity in this region.

  12. Cell-like pressure sensors reveal increase of mechanical stress towards the core of multicellular spheroids under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolega, M E; Delarue, M; Ingremeau, F; Prost, J; Delon, A; Cappello, G

    2017-01-27

    The surrounding microenvironment limits tumour expansion, imposing a compressive stress on the tumour, but little is known how pressure propagates inside the tumour. Here we present non-destructive cell-like microsensors to locally quantify mechanical stress distribution in three-dimensional tissue. Our sensors are polyacrylamide microbeads of well-defined elasticity, size and surface coating to enable internalization within the cellular environment. By isotropically compressing multicellular spheroids (MCS), which are spherical aggregates of cells mimicking a tumour, we show that the pressure is transmitted in a non-trivial manner inside the MCS, with a pressure rise towards the core. This observed pressure profile is explained by the anisotropic arrangement of cells and our results suggest that such anisotropy alone is sufficient to explain the pressure rise inside MCS composed of a single cell type. Furthermore, such pressure distribution suggests a direct link between increased mechanical stress and previously observed lack of proliferation within the spheroids core.

  13. Meta-analysis reveals evolution in invasive plant species but little support for Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2013-03-01

    Ecological explanations for the success and persistence of invasive species vastly outnumber evolutionary hypotheses, yet evolution is a fundamental process in the success of any species. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis (Blossey and Nötzold 1995) proposes that evolutionary change in response to release from coevolved herbivores is responsible for the success of many invasive plant species. Studies that evaluate this hypothesis have used different approaches to test whether invasive populations allocate fewer resources to defense and more to growth and competitive ability than do source populations, with mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of experimental tests of evolutionary change in the context of EICA. In contrast to previous reviews, there was no support across invasive species for EICA's predictions regarding defense or competitive ability, although invasive populations were more productive than conspecific native populations under noncompetitive conditions. We found broad support for genetically based changes in defense and competitive plant traits after introduction into new ranges, but not in the manner suggested by EICA. This review suggests that evolution occurs as a result of plant introduction and population expansion in invasive plant species, and may contribute to the invasiveness and persistence of some introduced species.

  14. Spatially Extensive Standardized Surveys Reveal Widespread, Multi-Decadal Increase in East Antarctic Adélie Penguin Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; McKinlay, John; Newbery, Kym; Takahashi, Akinori; Kato, Akiko; Barbraud, Christophe; DeLord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Seabirds are considered to be useful and practical indicators of the state of marine ecosystems because they integrate across changes in the lower trophic levels and the physical environment. Signals from this key group of species can indicate broad scale impacts or response to environmental change. Recent studies of penguin populations, the most commonly abundant Antarctic seabirds in the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea, have demonstrated that physical changes in Antarctic marine environments have profound effects on biota at high trophic levels. Large populations of the circumpolar-breeding Adélie penguin occur in East Antarctica, but direct, standardized population data across much of this vast coastline have been more limited than in other Antarctic regions. We combine extensive new population survey data, new population estimation methods, and re-interpreted historical survey data to assess decadal-scale change in East Antarctic Adélie penguin breeding populations. We show that, in contrast to the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea where breeding populations have decreased or shown variable trends over the last 30 years, East Antarctic regional populations have almost doubled in abundance since the 1980's and have been increasing since the earliest counts in the 1960's. The population changes are associated with five-year lagged changes in the physical environment, suggesting that the changing environment impacts primarily on the pre-breeding age classes. East Antarctic marine ecosystems have been subject to a number of changes over the last 50 years which may have influenced Adélie penguin population growth, including decadal-scale climate variation, an inferred mid-20th century sea-ice contraction, and early-to-mid 20th century exploitation of fish and whale populations.

  15. Spatially Extensive Standardized Surveys Reveal Widespread, Multi-Decadal Increase in East Antarctic Adélie Penguin Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Southwell

    Full Text Available Seabirds are considered to be useful and practical indicators of the state of marine ecosystems because they integrate across changes in the lower trophic levels and the physical environment. Signals from this key group of species can indicate broad scale impacts or response to environmental change. Recent studies of penguin populations, the most commonly abundant Antarctic seabirds in the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea, have demonstrated that physical changes in Antarctic marine environments have profound effects on biota at high trophic levels. Large populations of the circumpolar-breeding Adélie penguin occur in East Antarctica, but direct, standardized population data across much of this vast coastline have been more limited than in other Antarctic regions. We combine extensive new population survey data, new population estimation methods, and re-interpreted historical survey data to assess decadal-scale change in East Antarctic Adélie penguin breeding populations. We show that, in contrast to the west Antarctic Peninsula and western Ross Sea where breeding populations have decreased or shown variable trends over the last 30 years, East Antarctic regional populations have almost doubled in abundance since the 1980's and have been increasing since the earliest counts in the 1960's. The population changes are associated with five-year lagged changes in the physical environment, suggesting that the changing environment impacts primarily on the pre-breeding age classes. East Antarctic marine ecosystems have been subject to a number of changes over the last 50 years which may have influenced Adélie penguin population growth, including decadal-scale climate variation, an inferred mid-20th century sea-ice contraction, and early-to-mid 20th century exploitation of fish and whale populations.

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones.

  17. Cellulolytic Protist Numbers Rise and Fall Dramatically in Termite Queens and Kings during Colony Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Keisuke; Lo, Nathan; Kitade, Osamu; Wakui, Akane

    2013-01-01

    Among the best-known examples of mutualistic symbioses is that between lower termites and the cellulolytic flagellate protists in their hindguts. Although the symbiosis in worker termites has attracted much attention, there have been only a few studies of protists in other castes. We have performed the first examination of protist population dynamics in queens and kings during termite colony foundation. Protist numbers, as well as measurements of hindgut and reproductive tissue sizes, were undertaken at five time points over 400 days in incipient colonies of Reticulitermes speratus, as well as in other castes of mature colonies of this species. We found that protist numbers increased dramatically in both queens and kings during the first 50 days of colony foundation but began to decrease by day 100, eventually disappearing by day 400. Hindgut width followed a pattern similar to that of protist numbers, while ovary and testis widths increased significantly only at day 400. Kings were found to contain higher numbers of protists than queens in incipient colonies, which may be linked to higher levels of nutrient transfer from kings to queens than vice versa, as is known in some other termite species. Protists were found to be abundant in soldiers from mature colonies but absent in neotenics. This probably reflects feeding of soldiers by workers via proctodeal trophallaxis and of reproductives via stomodeal trophallaxis. The results reveal the dynamic nature of protist numbers during colony foundation and highlight the trade-offs that exist between reproduction and parental care during this critical phase of the termite life cycle. PMID:23376945

  18. Dramatic response to levetiracetam in post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striano, P; Elefante, Andrea; Coppola, Antonietta; Tortora, Fabio; Zara, Federico; Minetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Holmes’ tremor refers to an unusual combination of rest, postural and kinetic tremor of extremities. Common causes of Holmes’ tremor include stroke, trauma, vascular malformations and multiple sclerosis, with lesions involving the thalamus, brain stem or cerebellum. Although some drugs (eg, levodopa and dopaminergic drugs, clonazepam and propranolol) have been occasionally reported to give some benefit, medical treatment of Holmes’ tremor is unsatisfactory, and many patients require thalamic surgery to achieve satisfactory control. We report a patient in whom post-ischaemic Holmes’ tremor dramatically responded to levetiracetam treatment. PMID:21686707

  19. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Drew T.; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A.; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M.; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O’Connor, Michael P.; Hearn, Gail W.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990’s. From October 1997 – September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea’s GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko’s wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife. PMID:26230504

  20. Using dramatic role-play to develop emotional aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinapoli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As university educators, we need to prepare students for the transition from the information age to what Daniel H. Pink (2005 calls the conceptual age, which is governed by artistry, empathy and emotion, by including in the curricula activities that stimulate both hemispheres of the brain. This can be done by promoting activities that energize what Daniel Goleman (1995 refers to as emotional intelligence, and it further maintains that, as Paul Ekman (2003 suggests, the ability to detect feelings improves communication. Recognizing the need to include in the curricula procedures that help develop students’ right brain aptitudes and enhance their communication skills, I have endeavoured to introduce dramatic scene study as a sustained activity in my English for Specific Purposes courses at the Universidad de Valencia. My aim was to energize the students’ creative and emotional aptitudes, as well as to dynamize effective teamwork. This article sustains that dramatic role-play, based on scripted scene study and related improvisational activities, is one way of achieving this.

  1. The promiscuity of heterospecific lox sites increases dramatically in the presence of palindromic DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlynárová, L.; Libantová, J.; Vrba, Lukáš; Nap, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 296, - (2002), s. 129-137 ISSN 0378-1119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : DNA * Escherichia coli Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2002

  2. What We Know about the Dramatic Increase in PhD Degrees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reforms in doctoral education are being shaped by the changing needs of society, of research modes, and of a changed labor markets for PhD holders. ... systems, such as the introduction of postgraduate schools that help implement and initiate innovations in doctoral education on a campus with an eye to high quality.

  3. Increasing magnetite contents of polymeric magnetic particles dramatically improves labeling of neural stem cell transplant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher F; Rai, Ahmad; Sneddon, Gregor; Yiu, Humphrey H P; Polyak, Boris; Chari, Divya M

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic cells to sites of injury/disease in the central nervous system is a key goal for the translation of clinical cell transplantation therapies. Recently, 'magnetic cell localization strategies' have emerged as a promising and safe approach for targeted delivery of magnetic particle (MP) labeled stem cells to pathology sites. For neuroregenerative applications, this approach is limited by the lack of available neurocompatible MPs, and low cell labeling achieved in neural stem/precursor populations. We demonstrate that high magnetite content, self-sedimenting polymeric MPs [unfunctionalized poly(lactic acid) coated, without a transfecting component] achieve efficient labeling (≥90%) of primary neural stem cells (NSCs)-a 'hard-to-label' transplant population of major clinical relevance. Our protocols showed high safety with respect to key stem cell regenerative parameters. Critically, labeled cells were effectively localized in an in vitro flow system by magnetic force highlighting the translational potential of the methods used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Media and identification processes: a ritual and dramatic construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Sola-Morales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present theoretical paper analyzes the way mediatic communication construct identifications. The thesis proposed is that the media configure ritually and dramatically identifications made by individuals and groups. First of all, we show the limitations of the concept of “identity” and we propose to use “identification” instead. Second, we explore the extent of social drama theory and role theory and we open it to new theoretical challenges and perspectives. Thirdly, it is shown that the concept of "ritual" is very useful to understand and interpret the identity construction through the media. All this leads us to conclude that both the theatricality and rituality are key to understanding the processes of identification that individuals and groups make in relation to the media.

  5. Dramatic response to nivolumab in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Fanny; Osdoit, Sophie; Bagny, Kelly; Moro, Anne; Nguyen, Jacqueline; Réguerre, Yves

    2018-02-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old female with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) who developed a nonoperable scalp tumor, treated with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) therapy (nivolumab). She presented with a sarcomatoid carcinoma of the scalp with bone lysis as well as vascular and meningeal contact. Nivolumab was initiated because it has emerged as a promising immunotherapy. We observed a dramatic tumor response with excellent tolerance. However, while on nivolumab therapy she developed two large skin melanomas and several squamous cell carcinomas, which have been resected. These results demonstrate that cancer immunotherapy in patients with XP can be impressive but complex and warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  7. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μm, while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  8. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Binnebose

    Full Text Available Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment.

  9. Molecular pathways undergoing dramatic transcriptomic changes during tumor development in the human colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maglietta Rosalia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The malignant transformation of precancerous colorectal lesions involves progressive alterations at both the molecular and morphologic levels, the latter consisting of increases in size and in the degree of cellular atypia. Analyzing preinvasive tumors of different sizes can therefore shed light on the sequence of these alterations. Methods We used a molecular pathway-based approach to analyze transcriptomic profiles of 59 colorectal tumors representing early and late preinvasive stages and the invasive stage of tumorigenesis. Random set analysis was used to identify biological pathways enriched for genes differentially regulated in tumors (compared with 59 samples of normal mucosa. Results Of the 880 canonical pathways we investigated, 112 displayed significant tumor-related upregulation or downregulation at one or more stages of tumorigenesis. This allowed us to distinguish between pathways whose dysregulation is probably necessary throughout tumorigenesis and those whose involvement specifically drives progression from one stage to the next. We were also able to pinpoint specific changes within each gene set that seem to play key roles at each transition. The early preinvasive stage was characterized by cell-cycle checkpoint activation triggered by DNA replication stress and dramatic downregulation of basic transmembrane signaling processes that maintain epithelial/stromal homeostasis in the normal mucosa. In late preinvasive lesions, there was also downregulation of signal transduction pathways (e.g., those mediated by G proteins and nuclear hormone receptors involved in cell differentiation and upregulation of pathways governing nuclear envelope dynamics and the G2>M transition in the cell cycle. The main features of the invasive stage were activation of the G1>S transition in the cell cycle, upregulated expression of tumor-promoting microenvironmental factors, and profound dysregulation of metabolic pathways (e

  10. Impacts on coralligenous outcrop biodiversity of a dramatic coastal storm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Teixidó

    Full Text Available Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006-2008 and after the impact (2009-2010 at four different sites. Storms of comparable severity have been documented to occur occasionally within periods of 50 years in the Mediterranean Sea. We assessed the effects derived from the storm comparing changes in benthic community composition at sites exposed to and sheltered from this extreme event. The sites analyzed showed different damage from severe to negligible. The most exposed and impacted site experienced a major shift immediately after the storm, represented by changes in the species richness and beta diversity of benthic species. This site also showed higher compositional variability immediately after the storm and over the following year. The loss of cover of benthic species resulted between 22% and 58%. The damage across these species (e.g. calcareous algae, sponges, anthozoans, bryozoans, tunicates was uneven, and those with fragile forms were the most impacted, showing cover losses up to 50 to 100%. Interestingly, small patches survived after the storm and began to grow slightly during the following year. In contrast, sheltered sites showed no significant changes in all the studied parameters, indicating no variations due to the storm. This study provides new insights into the responses to large and rare extreme events of Mediterranean communities with low dynamics and long-lived species, which are among the most threatened by the effects of global change.

  11. Dancing Crystals: A Dramatic Illustration of Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    Crystals of naphthalene form on the surface of an acetone solution and dance about in an animated fashion illustrating surface tension, crystallization, and intermolecular forces. Additional experiments reveal the properties of the solution. Flows within the solutions can be visualized by various means. Previous demonstrations of surface motion…

  12. Unbiased cell quantification reveals a continued increase in the number of neocortical neurones during early post-natal development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Krøigård, Thomas; Finsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    The post-natal growth spurt of the mammalian neocortex has been attributed to maturation of dendritic arborizations, growth and myelination of axons, and addition of glia. It is unclear whether this growth may also involve recruitment of additional neurones. Using stereological methods, we analysed...... the number of neurones and glia in the neocortex during post-natal development in two separate strains of mice. Cell counting by the optical fractionator revealed that the number of neurones increased 80-100% from the time of birth to post-natal day (P)16, followed by a reduction by approximately 25...... was delayed until P16. The number of glia reached its maximum at P16, whereas the number of oligodendroglia, identified using a transgenic marker, increased until P55, the latest time of observation. Neurones continued to accumulate in the developing neocortex during the first 2 weeks of post...

  13. The expressive potential in a dramatic text: Brecht's A Respectable Wedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Podbevšek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the linguistic shaping of a dramatic text and its influence on the text’s stage speech realisation, using the Slovenian translation of Brecht’s one-act play Malomeščanska svatba as an example. A dramatic text typically has a specific – and also graphically visible – textual and linguistic structure that indicates its speech intention. A linguistic analysis of Brecht’s text reveals a great speech potential, both in the stage directions (especially the stage directions for pauses, silence, spoken execution and in the dialogue (characteristic linguistic elements for spontaneous speech. A short comparison of the text with the stage speech performance shows that the actor used not only prosody (especially pauses to semantically enrich and rhythmically organise the written language, but also linguistic interventions into the lexical and syntactic structure (repetition, addition, omission, etc.. The great speech potential of the text thus stimulated the actor’s speech and interpretive creativity.

  14. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Segarra

    Full Text Available Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  15. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquin, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations

  16. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot from Spacecraft Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; de Pater, Imke; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Carlson, Robert W.; Marcus, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nanometers, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nanometers. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  17. Increased sensitivity of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 null cells to alkylating agents reveals a novel link between TGFbeta signaling and O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase promoter hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Vijayachandra, K; Penner, C; Glick, A

    2001-06-01

    Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-signaling pathway and gene silencing through hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands are two frequent alterations in human and experimental cancers. Here we report that nonneoplastic TGFbeta1-/- keratinocyte cell lines exhibit increased sensitivity to cell killing by alkylating agents, and this is due to lack of expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). In TGFbeta1-/- but not TGFbeta1+/- cell lines, the CpG dinucleotides in the MGMT promoter are hypermethylated, as measured by restriction enzyme analysis and methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. In one unstable TGFbeta1+/- cell line, loss of the wild type TGFbeta1 allele correlates with the appearance of methylation in the MGMT promoter. Bisulfite sequencing shows that in the KO3 TGFbeta1-/- cell line nearly all of the 28 CpG sites in the MGMT promoter 475 base pairs upstream of the start site of transcription are methylated, whereas most are unmethylated in the H1 TGFbeta1+/- line. Treatment of the TGFbeta1-/- cell lines with 5-azacytidine causes reexpression of MGMT mRNA and demethylation of CpG islands in the promoter. Analysis of the time course of methylation using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction shows a lack of methylation in primary TGFbeta1-/- keratinocytes and increasing methylation with passage number of immortalized clones. Subcloning of early passage clones reveals a remarkable heterogeneity and instability of the methylation state in the TGFbeta1-/- keratinocytes. Thus, the TGFbeta1-/- genotype does not directly regulate MGMT methylation but predisposes cells to immortalization-associated MGMT hypermethylation.

  18. Consequences of dramatic reductions in state tobacco control funds: Florida, 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, J; Farrelly, M C; Hersey, J C; Davis, K C

    2008-06-01

    This study assessed whether dramatic funding reductions to the Florida Tobacco Control Program (FTCP) influenced trends in recall of the Florida "truth" anti-smoking media campaign, anti-industry attitudes and non-smoking intentions among Florida teens. We used an interrupted time series technique to test for differences in the rates of change in Florida "truth" recall, anti-industry beliefs and non-smoking intentions before and after the FTCP budget cuts using the Florida Anti-tobacco Media Evaluation (FAME) survey, a repeated cross-sectional telephone survey of Florida teens. Recall of the Florida "truth" anti-smoking campaign, anti-industry attitudes, and non-smoking intentions increased dramatically between April 1998 and May 1999. Florida "truth" recall declined after FTCP budget cuts in June 1999. Anti-industry beliefs and non-smoking intentions plateaued or began to decline after the budget cuts. The launch of the national "truth" campaign in February 2000 may have offset otherwise deleterious effects of the budget cuts on anti-industry beliefs, but not smoking intentions. Reductions in tobacco control funding have immediate effects on programme exposure and cognitive precursors to smoking initiation. There is a critical need to maintain and enhance funding for state tobacco control programmes to continue nationwide progress in preventing youth from initiating cigarette smoking.

  19. Pharmacogenetics of OATP Transporters Reveals That SLCO1B1 c.388A>G Variant Is Determinant of Increased Atorvastatin Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario D. C. Hirata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The relationship between variants in SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 genes and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin was investigated. Material and Methods: One-hundred-thirty-six unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected and treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks. They were genotyped with a panel of ancestry informative markers for individual African component of ancestry (ACA estimation by SNaPshot® and SLCO1B1 (c.388A>G, c.463C>A and c.521T>C and SLCO2B1 (−71T>C gene polymorphisms were identified by TaqMan® Real-time PCR. Results: Subjects carrying SLCO1B1 c.388GG genotype exhibited significantly high low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction relative to c.388AA+c.388AG carriers (41 vs. 37%, p = 0.034. Haplotype analysis revealed that homozygous of SLCO1B1*15 (c.521C and c.388G variant had similar response to statin relative to heterozygous and non-carriers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that c.388GG genotype was associated with higher LDL cholesterol reduction in the study population (OR: 3.2, CI95%:1.3–8.0, p < 0.05. Conclusion: SLCO1B1 c.388A>G polymorphism causes significant increase in atorvastatin response and may be an important marker for predicting efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy.

  20. Observational analyses of dramatic developments of a severe air pollution event in the Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ju; Sun, Jielun; Zhou, Mingyu; Cheng, Zhigang; Li, Qingchun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jingjiang

    2018-03-01

    A rapid development of a severe air pollution event in Beijing, China, at the end of November 2015 was investigated with unprecedented observations collected during the field campaign of the Study of Urban Rainfall and Fog/Haze (SURF-15). Different from previous statistical analyses of air pollution events and their correlations with meteorological environmental conditions in the area, the role of turbulent mixing in the pollutant transfer was investigated in detail. The analyses indicate that the major pollution source associated with high particulate matter of diameter 2.5 µm (PM2.5) was from south of Beijing. Before the day of the dramatic PM2.5 increase, the nighttime downslope flow from the mountains to the west and north of Beijing reduced the surface PM2.5 concentration northwest of Beijing. The nighttime surface stable boundary layer (SBL) not only kept the relatively less-polluted air near the surface, it also shielded the rough surface from the pollutant transfer by southwesterly winds above the SBL, leading to the fast transport of pollutants over the Beijing area at night. As the daytime convective turbulent mixing developed in the morning, turbulent mixing transported the elevated polluted air downward even though the weak surface wind was from northeast, leading to the dramatic increase of the surface PM2.5 concentration in the urban area. As a result of both turbulent mixing and advection processes with possible aerosol growth from secondary aerosol formation under the low-wind and high-humidity conditions, the PM2.5 concentration reached over 700 µg m-3 in the Beijing area by the end of the day. Contributions of the two transporting processes to the PM2.5 oscillations prior to this dramatic event were also analyzed. The study demonstrates the important role of large-eddy convective turbulent mixing in vertical transfer of pollutants and the role of the SBL in not only decoupling vertical transport of trace gases and aerosols but also in

  1. Dramatization at Extracurricular Activities as a Means to Enhance Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Valeryevna Kuimova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of foreign language teaching is to learn to communicate and overcome the language barrier. The article studies dramatization and its appropriateness in foreign language teaching, provides criteria for choosing a literary work for dramatization. The use of dramatization at extracurricular activities develops communication abilities, creativity; enhances motivation to learn a foreign language and strengthens students’ confidence in a foreign language.

  2. Time from HIV infection to virological suppression: dramatic fall from 2007 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, Nicholas A; Nicholson, Suellen; Chow, Eric P F; Read, Timothy R H; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Denham, Ian; Fairley, Christopher K

    2017-11-13

    Time from HIV infection to virological suppression: dramatic fall from 2007 to 2016. We examined the time from HIV infection to virological suppression in MSM who were first diagnosed at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2007 and 2016. Retrospective cohort. Date of infection was imputed from the testing history or serological evidence of recent infection (negative or indeterminate western blot) or baseline CD4 cell count. Date of virological suppression was determined using clinical viral load data. We analysed predictors of diagnosis with serological evidence of recent infection (logistic regression) and time from diagnosis to suppression and from infection to suppression (Cox regression) using demographic, clinical, and behavioral covariates. Between 2007 and 2016, the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis fell from 6.8 to 4.3 months (P = 0.001), from diagnosis to suppression fell from 22.7 to 3.2 months (P < 0.0001), and from infection to suppression fell from 49.0 to 9.6 months (P < 0.0001). Serological evidence of recent infection increased from 15.6 to 34.3% (P < 0.0001) of diagnoses. In the multivariate analyses, age, being recently arrived from a non-English speaking country, history of IDU, other sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk were not associated with any of these measures. The duration of infectiousness in MSM diagnosed with HIV infection at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Victoria has fallen dramatically between 2007 and 2016 and the proportion diagnosed with serological evidence of recent infection has increased. This effect is observed across all population subgroups and marks a positive milestone for the treatment as prevention paradigm.

  3. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples...... is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C....

  4. On the Major Dramatic Conftict of Shakespeare's the Merchant of Venice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文

    2000-01-01

    "The Merchant of Venice", a master piece with humanist idea by William Shakespeare, presents readers a dramatic conflict between friendship and greediness, love and cruelty.This essay illustrates briefly how this conflict is created, developed and dramatized. At the same time, the root causes for this conflict is analysed.

  5. Guiding the Noticing: Using a Dramatic Performance Experience to Promote Tellability in Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shanetia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her use of dramatic performance to promote tellability in narrative writing within a seventh and eighth grade English and language arts classroom. By experiencing dramatic performance, the students were able to actively and physically perform the writing process: brainstorming, drafting, revising, and editing.…

  6. Modeling attitude towards drug treament: the role of internal motivation, external pressure, and dramatic relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Bradley T; Longshore, Douglas; Anglin, M Douglas

    2009-04-01

    Motivation for change has historically been viewed as the crucial element affecting responsiveness to drug treatment. Various external pressures, such as legal coercion, may engender motivation in an individual previously resistant to change. Dramatic relief may be the change process that is most salient as individuals internalize such external pressures. Results of structural equation modeling on data from 465 drug users (58.9% male; 21.3% Black, 34.2% Hispanic/Latino, and 35.1% White) entering drug treatment indicated that internal motivation and external pressure significantly and positively predicted dramatic relief and that dramatic relief significantly predicted attitudes towards drug treatment: chi (2) = 142.20, df = 100, p relief is also likely to be high. When dramatic relief is high, attitudes towards drug treatment are likely to be positive. The findings indicate that interventions to get individuals into drug treatment should include processes that promote Dramatic Relief. Implications for addictions health services are discussed.

  7. Who gets custody now? Dramatic changes in children's living arrangements after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R; Brown, Patricia R; Cook, Steven T

    2014-08-01

    This article reexamines the living arrangements of children following their parents' divorce, using Wisconsin Court Records, updating an analysis that showed relatively small but significant increases in shared custody in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These changes have accelerated markedly in the intervening years: between 1988 and 2008, the proportion of mothers granted sole physical custody fell substantially, the proportion of parents sharing custody increased dramatically, and father-sole custody remained relatively stable. We explore changes in the correlates of alternative custody outcomes, showing that some results from the earlier analysis still hold (for example, cases with higher total family income are more likely to have shared custody), but other differences have lessened (shared-custody cases have become less distinctive as they have become more common). Despite the considerable changes in marriage and divorce patterns over this period, we do not find strong evidence that the changes in custody are related to changes in the characteristics of families experiencing a divorce; rather, changes in custody may be the result of changes in social norms and the process by which custody is determined.

  8. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kosalková Katarina; García-Estrada Carlos; Barreiro Carlos; Flórez Martha G; Jami Mohammad S; Paniagua Miguel A; Martín Juan F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Results Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold) in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs). CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% u...

  9. Exploring Lyric, Epic, and Dramatic Voices: Stages of Incandescence in the Poetry of the Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. Ann

    1992-01-01

    Identifies true relationships between the psyche and the lyric, epic, and dramatic voices of poetry. Shows how the acts of identifying, responding to, and composing in these three voices engage healing, inspiration, and active imagination among the aging. (SR)

  10. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bron James E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO, driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO, soybean (SO or linseed (LO oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain

  11. Comment on mRNA-Sequencing Analysis Reveals Transcriptional Changes in Root of Maize Seedlings Treated with Two Increasing Concentrations of a New Biostimulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues

    2018-02-28

    Overpopulation is already a reality, and the need for alternative technologies to meet a continuously increasing food demand has been much discussed around the world. In addition, soil decreasing fertility and desertification are obstacles that we will need to be overcome to increase crop productivity with a much-reduced dependence upon inorganic fertilizers. In this context, protein hydrolysates has emerged as an important strategy to reduce the use of inorganic fertilizers, whose applications as biostimulants for plant growth have shown very promising results.

  12. One versus five-days of exposure to varying concentrations of B100 soya biodiesel exhaust reveals a threshold concentration for increased sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biodiesel (BD) is rapidly being considered as an alternative to diesel fuel, its health effects have not been thoroughly characterized. We previously used the aconitine challenge test to demonstrate that a single exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) increases the ri...

  13. Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV. While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector.

  14. STABILIZING CLOUD FEEDBACK DRAMATICALLY EXPANDS THE HABITABLE ZONE OF TIDALLY LOCKED PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2013-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) is the circumstellar region where a planet can sustain surface liquid water. Searching for terrestrial planets in the HZ of nearby stars is the stated goal of ongoing and planned extrasolar planet surveys. Previous estimates of the inner edge of the HZ were based on one-dimensional radiative-convective models. The most serious limitation of these models is the inability to predict cloud behavior. Here we use global climate models with sophisticated cloud schemes to show that due to a stabilizing cloud feedback, tidally locked planets can be habitable at twice the stellar flux found by previous studies. This dramatically expands the HZ and roughly doubles the frequency of habitable planets orbiting red dwarf stars. At high stellar flux, strong convection produces thick water clouds near the substellar location that greatly increase the planetary albedo and reduce surface temperatures. Higher insolation produces stronger substellar convection and therefore higher albedo, making this phenomenon a stabilizing climate feedback. Substellar clouds also effectively block outgoing radiation from the surface, reducing or even completely reversing the thermal emission contrast between dayside and nightside. The presence of substellar water clouds and the resulting clement surface conditions will therefore be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  15. mTOR inhibition elicits a dramatic response in PI3K-dependent colon cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin A Deming

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is critical for multiple cellular functions including metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis, and is the most commonly altered pathway in human cancers. Recently, we developed a novel mouse model of colon cancer in which tumors are initiated by a dominant active PI3K (FC PIK3ca. The cancers in these mice are moderately differentiated invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas of the proximal colon that develop by 50 days of age. Interestingly, these cancers form without a benign intermediary or aberrant WNT signaling, indicating a non-canonical mechanism of tumorigenesis. Since these tumors are dependent upon the PI3K pathway, we investigated the potential for tumor response by the targeting of this pathway with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor. A cohort of FC PIK3ca mice were treated with rapamycin at a dose of 6 mg/kg/day or placebo for 14 days. FDG dual hybrid PET/CT imaging demonstrated a dramatic tumor response in the rapamycin arm and this was confirmed on necropsy. The tumor tissue remaining after treatment with rapamycin demonstrated increased pERK1/2 or persistent phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pS6, indicating potential resistance mechanisms. This unique model will further our understanding of human disease and facilitate the development of therapeutics through pharmacologic screening and biomarker identification.

  16. Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Increased Content of Basement Membrane Proteins in Arteries from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Levels among Metformin Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone; Kristensen, Lars P; Beck, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    hypothesized that metformin intake influences the protein composition. METHODS AND RESULTS: -We analyzed non-atherosclerotic repair arteries gathered at coronary by-pass operations from 30 patients with type 2 diabetes, as well as from 30 age- and gender-matched non-diabetic individuals. Quantitative proteome......BACKGROUND: -The increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in type 2 diabetes has been extensively documented, but the origins of the association remain largely unknown. We sought to determine changes in protein expressions in arterial tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes and moreover...... analysis was done by iTRAQ-labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis on individual arterial samples. The amounts of the basement membrane (BM) components, alpha-1- and alpha-2- type IV collagen, gamma-1- and beta-2-laminin were significantly increased in patients with diabetes. Moreover, the expressions of basement...

  17. Comparative Genomics of Mycoplasma bovis Strains Reveals That Decreased Virulence with Increasing Passages Might Correlate with Potential Virulence-Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Rasheed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is an important cause of bovine respiratory disease worldwide. To understand its virulence mechanisms, we sequenced three attenuated M. bovis strains, P115, P150, and P180, which were passaged in vitro 115, 150, and 180 times, respectively, and exhibited progressively decreasing virulence. Comparative genomics was performed among the wild-type M. bovis HB0801 (P1 strain and the P115, P150, and P180 strains, and one 14.2-kb deleted region covering 14 genes was detected in the passaged strains. Additionally, 46 non-sense single-nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were detected, which confirmed that more passages result in more mutations. A subsequent collective bioinformatics analysis of paralogs, metabolic pathways, protein-protein interactions, secretory proteins, functionally conserved domains, and virulence-related factors identified 11 genes that likely contributed to the increased attenuation in the passaged strains. These genes encode ascorbate-specific phosphotransferase system enzyme IIB and IIA components, enolase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, glycerol, and multiple sugar ATP-binding cassette transporters, ATP binding proteins, NADH dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, transketolase, and a variable surface protein. Fifteen genes were shown to be enriched in 15 metabolic pathways, and they included the aforementioned genes encoding pyruvate kinase, transketolase, enolase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production in M. bovis strains representing seven passages from P1 to P180 decreased progressively with increasing numbers of passages and increased attenuation. However, eight mutants specific to eight individual genes within the 14.2-kb deleted region did not exhibit altered H2O2 production. These results enrich the M. bovis genomics database, and they increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying M. bovis virulence.

  18. Melanogenesis stimulation in B16-F10 melanoma cells induces cell cycle alterations, increased ROS levels and a differential expression of proteins as revealed by proteomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Elizabeth S.; Kawahara, Rebeca [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Kadowaki, Marina K. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Amstalden, Hudson G.; Noleto, Guilhermina R.; Cadena, Silvia Maria S.C.; Winnischofer, Sheila M.B. [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Martinez, Glaucia R., E-mail: grmartinez@ufpr.br [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    Considering that stimulation of melanogenesis may lead to alterations of cellular responses, besides melanin production, our main goal was to study the cellular effects of melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Our results show increased levels of the reactive oxygen species after 15 h of melanogenesis stimulation. Following 48 h of melanogenesis stimulation, proliferation was inhibited (by induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase) and the expression levels of p21 mRNA were increased. In addition, melanogenesis stimulation did not induce cellular senescence. Proteomic analysis demonstrated the involvement of proteins from other pathways besides those related to the cell cycle, including protein disulfide isomerase A3, heat-shock protein 70, and fructose biphosphate aldolase A (all up-regulated), and lactate dehydrogenase (down-regulated). In RT-qPCR experiments, the levels of pyruvate kinase M2 mRNA dropped, whereas the levels of ATP synthase (beta-F1) mRNA increased. These data indicate that melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 cells leads to alterations in metabolism and cell cycle progression that may contribute to an induction of cell quiescence, which may provide a mechanism of resistance against cellular injury promoted by melanin synthesis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis stimulation by L-tyrosine+NH{sub 4}Cl in B16-F10 melanoma cells increases ROS levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis inhibits cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteomic analysis showed alterations in proteins of the cell cycle and glucose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RT-qPCR analysis confirmed alterations of metabolic targets after melanogenesis stimulation.

  19. Social interaction and cocaine conditioning in mice increase spontaneous spike frequency in the nucleus accumbens or septal nuclei as revealed by multielectrode array recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Kai K; El Rawas, Rana; Kress, Michaela; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Both cocaine and social interaction place preference conditioning lead to increased neuronal expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 in the nucleus accumbens, a central region of the reward pathway, suggesting that both drug and natural rewards may be processed in similar brain regions. In order to gain novel insights into the intrinsic in vitro electrical activity of the nucleus accumbens and adjacent brain regions and to explore the effects of reward conditioning on network activity, we performed multielectrode array recordings of spontaneous firing in acute brain slices of mice conditioned to either cocaine or social interaction place preference. Cocaine conditioning increased the spike frequency of neurons in the septal nuclei, whereas social interaction conditioning increased the spike frequency in the nucleus accumbens compared to saline control animals. In addition, social interaction conditioning decreased the amount of active neuron clusters in the nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that place preference conditioning for both drug and natural rewards may induce persistent changes in neuronal network activity in the nucleus accumbens and the septum that are still preserved in acute slice preparations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A molecular phylogeny of Afromontane dwarf geckos (Lygodactylus) reveals a single radiation and increased species diversity in a South African montane center of endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Scott L; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2014-11-01

    Afromontane habitats throughout eastern sub-Saharan Africa support remarkable levels of microendemism. However, despite being the subject of decades of research interest, biogeographical patterns of diversification throughout this disjunct montane system still remain largely unknown. We examined the evolutionary relationships of diurnal dwarf geckos (Lygodactylus) from several Afromontane regions throughout southeastern Africa, focusing primarily on two species groups (rex and bonsi groups). Using both mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we generate a molecular phylogeny containing all members of the rex and bonsi groups, to evaluate the monophyly of these groups along with previous biogeographic hypotheses suggesting independent southward invasions into the greater Drakensberg Afromontane center of endemism in northeastern South Africa by each group. Our results provide no support for these taxonomic and biogeographic hypotheses, and instead reveal geographically circumscribed patterns of diversification. One clade is restricted to the highlands of southern Malawi and northern Mozambique and the other to the greater Drakensberg region of northeastern South Africa and Swaziland. Interestingly, L. bernardi from the Nyanga Highlands of eastern Zimbabwe is nested within the primarily savanna-dwelling capensis group. We use Bayesian species delimitation methods to evaluate species limits within the greater Drakensberg clade, which support the elevation of the subspecies of L. ocellatus and L. nigropunctatus, thus bringing the total to eight species within a relatively confined geographic area. These results further highlight the greater Drakensberg Afromontane region as both an important center of endemism, as well as a center of diversification contributing to the accumulation of southern Africa's rich species diversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detoxification of ammonia in mouse cortical GABAergic cell cultures increases neuronal oxidative metabolism and reveals an emerging role for release of glucose-derived alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse K; Anker, Malene; Melø, Torun M; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Ott, Peter; Portela, Luis V; Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral hyperammonemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a debilitating condition arising due to acute or chronic liver disease. In the brain, ammonia is thought to be detoxified via the activity of glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme. Moreover, it has been suggested that cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism is inhibited and glycolysis enhanced during hyperammonemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the ammonia-detoxifying mechanisms as well as the effects of ammonia on energy-generating metabolic pathways in a mouse neuronal-astrocytic co-culture model of the GABAergic system. We found that 5 mM ammonium chloride affected energy metabolism by increasing the neuronal TCA cycle activity and switching the astrocytic TCA cycle toward synthesis of substrate for glutamine synthesis. Furthermore, ammonia exposure enhanced the synthesis and release of alanine. Collectively, our results demonstrate that (1) formation of glutamine is seminal for detoxification of ammonia; (2) neuronal oxidative metabolism is increased in the presence of ammonia; and (3) synthesis and release of alanine is likely to be important for ammonia detoxification as a supplement to formation of glutamine.

  2. Establishment of thermophilic anaerobic terephthalic acid degradation system through one-step temperature increase startup strategy - Revealed by Illumina Miseq Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai-Li; Li, Xiang-Kun; Wang, Ke; Meng, Ling-Wei; Liu, Gai-Ge; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Over recent years, thermophilic digestion was constantly focused owing to its various advantage over mesophilic digestion. Notably, the startup approach of thermophilic digester needs to be seriously considered as unsuitable startup ways may result in system inefficiency. In this study, one-step temperature increase startup strategy from 37 °C to 55 °C was applied to establish a thermophilic anaerobic system treating terephthalic acid (TA) contained wastewater, meanwhile, the archaeal and bacterial community compositions at steady periods of 37 °C and 55 °C during the experimental process was also compared using Illumina Miseq Sequencing. The process operation demonstrated that the thermophilic TA degradation system was successfully established at 55 °C with over 95% COD reduction. For archaea community, the elevation of operational temperature from 37 °C to 55 °C accordingly increase the enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens but decrease the abundance of the acetotrophic ones. While for bacterial community, the taxonomic analysis suggested that Syntrophorhabdus (27.40%) was the dominant genus promoting the efficient TA degradation under mesophilic condition, whereas OPB95 (24.99%) and TA06 (14.01%) related populations were largely observed and probably take some crucial role in TA degradation under thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Bone Structural Parameters Reveals Subchondral Cortical Plate Resorption and Increased Trabecular Bone Remodeling in Human Facet Joint Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Netzer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Facet joint osteoarthritis is a prominent feature of degenerative spine disorders, highly prevalent in ageing populations, and considered a major cause for chronic lower back pain. Since there is no targeted pharmacological therapy, clinical management of disease includes analgesic or surgical treatment. The specific cellular, molecular, and structural changes underpinning facet joint osteoarthritis remain largely elusive. The aim of this study was to determine osteoarthritis-related structural alterations in cortical and trabecular subchondral bone compartments. To this end, we conducted comparative micro computed tomography analysis in healthy (n = 15 and osteoarthritic (n = 22 lumbar facet joints. In osteoarthritic joints, subchondral cortical plate thickness and porosity were significantly reduced. The trabecular compartment displayed a 42 percent increase in bone volume fraction due to an increase in trabecular number, but not trabecular thickness. Bone structural alterations were associated with radiological osteoarthritis severity, mildly age-dependent but not gender-dependent. There was a lack of association between structural parameters of cortical and trabecular compartments in healthy and osteoarthritic specimens. The specific structural alterations suggest elevated subchondral bone resorption and turnover as a potential treatment target in facet joint osteoarthritis.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Muscle Hypertrophy Models Reveals Divergent Gene Transcription Profiles and Points to Translational Regulation of Muscle Growth through Increased mTOR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass is a result of the balance between protein breakdown and protein synthesis. It has been shown that multiple conditions of muscle atrophy are characterized by the common regulation of a specific set of genes, termed atrogenes. It is not known whether various models of muscle hypertrophy are similarly regulated by a common transcriptional program. Here, we characterized gene expression changes in three different conditions of muscle growth, examining each condition during acute and chronic phases. Specifically, we compared the transcriptome of Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscles collected (1 during the rapid phase of postnatal growth at 2 and 4 weeks of age, (2 24 h or 3 weeks after constitutive activation of AKT, and (3 24 h or 3 weeks after overload hypertrophy caused by tenotomy of the Tibialis Anterior muscle. We observed an important overlap between significantly regulated genes when comparing each single condition at the two different timepoints. Furthermore, examining the transcriptional changes occurring 24 h after a hypertrophic stimulus, we identify an important role for genes linked to a stress response, despite the absence of muscle damage in the AKT model. However, when we compared all different growth conditions, we did not find a common transcriptional fingerprint. On the other hand, all conditions showed a marked increase in mTORC1 signaling and increased ribosome biogenesis, suggesting that muscle growth is characterized more by translational, than transcriptional regulation.

  5. Detoxification of ammonia in mouse cortical GABAergic cell cultures increases neuronal oxidative metabolism and reveals an emerging role for release of glucose-derived alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Anker, Malene

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral hyperammonemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a debilitating condition arising due to acute or chronic liver disease. In the brain, ammonia is thought to be detoxified via the activity of glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme....... Moreover, it has been suggested that cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism is inhibited and glycolysis enhanced during hyperammonemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the ammonia-detoxifying mechanisms as well as the effects of ammonia on energy-generating metabolic pathways...... in a mouse neuronal-astrocytic co-culture model of the GABAergic system. We found that 5 mM ammonium chloride affected energy metabolism by increasing the neuronal TCA cycle activity and switching the astrocytic TCA cycle toward synthesis of substrate for glutamine synthesis. Furthermore, ammonia exposure...

  6. Neurons derived from sporadic Alzheimer's disease iPSCs reveal elevated TAU hyperphosphorylation, increased amyloid levels, and GSK3B activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ochalek, Anna; Mihalik, Balázs; Avci, Hasan X.

    2017-01-01

    , our aim was to establish an in vitro cell model based on patient-specific human neurons to study the pathomechanism of sporadic AD. Methods: We compared neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines of patients with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (fAD), all caused...... blotting methods. Results: Neurons from patients with fAD and patients with sAD showed increased phosphorylation of TAU protein at all investigated phosphorylation sites. Relative to the control neurons, neurons derived from patients with fAD and patients with sAD exhibited higher levels of extracellular......, a physiological kinase of TAU, in neurons derived from AD iPSCs, as well as significant upregulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) synthesis and APP carboxy-terminal fragment cleavage. Moreover, elevated sensitivity to oxidative stress, as induced by amyloid oligomers or peroxide, was detected in both f...

  7. Citizen Science in Grand Teton National Park Reveals Phenological Response of Wildlife to Climate Change and Increases Public Involvement in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, T. D. S.; Riginos, C.

    2017-12-01

    Around the world, phenology —or the timing of ecological events — is shifting as the climate warms. This can lead to a variety of consequences for individual species and for ecological communities as a whole, most notably through asynchronies that can develop between plants and animals that depend upon each other (e.g. nectar-consuming pollinators). Within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and Grand Teton National Park (GTNP), there is little understanding of how climate change is affecting plant and animal phenology, yet through detailed scientific and citizen science observation there is tremendous potential to further our knowledge of this topic and increase public awareness. Detailed historic data are rare, but in GTNP we have the opportunity to capitalize on phenology data gathered by Dr. Frank Craighead, Jr. in the 1970s, before significant warming had occurred. We have already gathered, digitized, and quality-controlled Craighead's observations of plant first flowering dates. First flowering date for 87% of a 72-species data set correlate significantly with spring temperatures in the 1970s, suggesting that these plants are now flowering earlier and will continue to flower earlier in the future. Our multi-year project has project has 3 primary goals: (1) initiate a citizen science project, Wildflower Watch GTNP, to train volunteer scientists to collect contemporary phenology data on these species (2) gather further historical records of plant phenology in the region, and (3) model continued phenological changes under future climate change scenarios using satellite derived climate data and on the ground observations. This project simultaneously increases public involvement in climate research, collaborates with the National Park Service to inform management strategies for at-risk species, and furthers scientific understanding of phenological response to climate change in the Rocky Mountains.

  8. Dramatic pretend play games uniquely improve emotional control in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Thalia R; Lerner, Matthew D

    2017-09-15

    Pretense is a naturally occurring, apparently universal activity for typically developing children. Yet its function and effects remain unclear. One theorized possibility is that pretense activities, such as dramatic pretend play games, are a possible causal path to improve children's emotional development. Social and emotional skills, particularly emotional control, are critically important for social development, as well as academic performance and later life success. However, the study of such approaches has been criticized for potential bias and lack of rigor, precluding the ability to make strong causal claims. We conducted a randomized, component control (dismantling) trial of dramatic pretend play games with a low-SES group of 4-year-old children (N = 97) to test whether such practice yields generalized improvements in multiple social and emotional outcomes. We found specific effects of dramatic play games only on emotional self-control. Results suggest that dramatic pretend play games involving physicalizing emotional states and traits, pretending to be animals and human characters, and engaging in pretend scenarios in a small group may improve children's emotional control. These findings have implications for the function of pretense and design of interventions to improve emotional control in typical and atypical populations. Further, they provide support for the unique role of dramatic pretend play games for young children, particularly those from low-income backgrounds. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/2GVNcWKRHPk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Metabolic analysis of the increased adventitious rooting mutant of Artemisia annua reveals a role for the plant monoterpene borneol in adventitious root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Liu, Shuoqian; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenwen; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical process for plant clonal propagation. The role of plant secondary metabolites in AR formation is still poorly understood. Chemical and physical mutagenesis in combination with somatic variation were performed on Artemisia annua in order to obtain a mutant with changes in adventitious rooting and composition of plant secondary metabolites. Metabolic and morphological analyses of the iar (increased adventitious rooting) mutant coupled with in vitro assays were used to elucidate the relationship between plant secondary metabolites and AR formation. The only detected differences between the iar mutant and wild-type were rooting capacity and borneol/camphor content. Consistent with this, treatment with borneol in vitro promoted adventitious rooting in wild-type. The enhanced rooting did not continue upon removal of borneol. The iar mutant displayed no significant differences in AR formation upon treatment with camphor. Together, our results suggest that borneol promotes adventitious rooting whereas camphor has no effect on AR formation. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Standardized deceased donor kidney donation rates in the UK reveal marked regional variation and highlight the potential for increasing kidney donation: a prospective cohort study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D. M.; Johnson, R. J.; Hudson, A. J.; Collett, D.; Murphy, P.; Watson, C. J. E.; Neuberger, J. M.; Bradley, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK has implemented a national strategy for organ donation that includes a centrally coordinated network of specialist nurses in organ donation embedded in all intensive care units and a national organ retrieval service for deceased organ donors. We aimed to determine whether despite the national approach to donation there is significant regional variation in deceased donor kidney donation rates. Methods The UK prospective audit of deaths in critical care was analysed for a cohort of patients who died in critical care between April 2010 and December 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with kidney donation. The logistic regression model was then used to produce risk-adjusted funnel plots describing the regional variation in donation rates. Results Of the 27 482 patients who died in a critical care setting, 1528 (5.5%) became kidney donors. Factors found to influence donation rates significantly were: type of critical care [e.g. neurointensive vs general intensive care: OR 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.75, P69 vs age 18–39 yr: OR 0.2, 0.15–0.25, Pdonation rates for the 20 UK kidney donor regions showed marked variation. The overall standardized donation rate ranged from 3.2 to 7.5%. Four regions had donation rates of >2 standard deviations (sd) from the mean (two below and two above). Regional variation was most marked for donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney donors with 9 of the 20 regions demonstrating donation rates of >2 sd from the mean (5 below and 4 above). Conclusions The marked regional variation in kidney donation rates observed in this cohort after adjustment for factors strongly associated with donation rates suggests that there is considerable scope for further increasing kidney donation rates in the UK, particularly DCD. PMID:24335581

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of Precision Medicine Outcomes in Patients With Advanced Cancer Reveals Improved Progression-Free Survival Without Increased Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslem, Derrick S; Van Norman, S Burke; Fulde, Gail; Knighton, Andrew J; Belnap, Tom; Butler, Allison M; Rhagunath, Sharanya; Newman, David; Gilbert, Heather; Tudor, Brian P; Lin, Karen; Stone, Gary R; Loughmiller, David L; Mishra, Pravin J; Srivastava, Rajendu; Ford, James M; Nadauld, Lincoln D

    2017-02-01

    The advent of genomic diagnostic technologies such as next-generation sequencing has recently enabled the use of genomic information to guide targeted treatment in patients with cancer, an approach known as precision medicine. However, clinical outcomes, including survival and the cost of health care associated with precision cancer medicine, have been challenging to measure and remain largely unreported. We conducted a matched cohort study of 72 patients with metastatic cancer of diverse subtypes in the setting of a large, integrated health care delivery system. We analyzed the outcomes of 36 patients who received genomic testing and targeted therapy (precision cancer medicine) between July 1, 2013, and January 31, 2015, compared with 36 historical control patients who received standard chemotherapy (n = 29) or best supportive care (n = 7). The average progression-free survival was 22.9 weeks for the precision medicine group and 12.0 weeks for the control group ( P = .002) with a hazard ratio of 0.47 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.75) when matching on age, sex, histologic diagnosis, and previous lines of treatment. In a subset analysis of patients who received all care within the Intermountain Healthcare system (n = 44), per patient charges per week were $4,665 in the precision treatment group and $5,000 in the control group ( P = .126). These findings suggest that precision cancer medicine may improve survival for patients with refractory cancer without increasing health care costs. Although the results of this study warrant further validation, this precision medicine approach may be a viable option for patients with advanced cancer.

  12. Concurrent Increases and Decreases in Local Stability and Conformational Heterogeneity in Cu, Zn Superoxide Dismutase Variants Revealed by Temperature-Dependence of Amide Chemical Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colleen M; Rumfeldt, Jessica A; Broom, Helen R; Sekhar, Ashok; Kay, Lewis E; Meiering, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-08

    The chemical shifts of backbone amide protons in proteins are sensitive reporters of local structural stability and conformational heterogeneity, which can be determined from their readily measured linear and nonlinear temperature-dependences, respectively. Here we report analyses of amide proton temperature-dependences for native dimeric Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (holo pWT SOD1) and structurally diverse mutant SOD1s associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Holo pWT SOD1 loses structure with temperature first at its periphery and, while having extremely high global stability, nevertheless exhibits extensive conformational heterogeneity, with ∼1 in 5 residues showing evidence for population of low energy alternative states. The holo G93A and E100G ALS mutants have moderately decreased global stability, whereas V148I is slightly stabilized. Comparison of the holo mutants as well as the marginally stable immature monomeric unmetalated and disulfide-reduced (apo(2SH)) pWT with holo pWT shows that changes in the local structural stability of individual amides vary greatly, with average changes corresponding to differences in global protein stability measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Mutants also exhibit altered conformational heterogeneity compared to pWT. Strikingly, substantial increases as well as decreases in local stability and conformational heterogeneity occur, in particular upon maturation and for G93A. Thus, the temperature-dependence of amide shifts for SOD1 variants is a rich source of information on the location and extent of perturbation of structure upon covalent changes and ligand binding. The implications for potential mechanisms of toxic misfolding of SOD1 in disease and for general aspects of protein energetics, including entropy-enthalpy compensation, are discussed.

  13. Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortiz eArmbruster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytic uptake of glutamate shapes extracellular neurotransmitter dynamics, receptor activation, and synaptogenesis. During development, glutamate transport becomes more robust. How neonatal brain insult affects the functional maturation of glutamate transport remains unanswered. Neonatal brain insult can lead to developmental delays, cognitive losses, and epilepsy; the disruption of glutamate transport is known to cause changes in synaptogenesis, receptor activation, and seizure. Using the neonatal freeze-lesion (FL model, we have investigated how insult affects the maturation of astrocytic glutamate transport. As lesioning occurs on the day of birth, a time when astrocytes are still functionally immature, this model is ideal for identifying changes in astrocyte maturation following insult. Reactive astrocytosis, astrocyte proliferation, and in vitro hyperexcitability are known to occur in this model. To probe astrocyte glutamate transport with better spatial precision we have developed a novel technique, Laser Scanning Astrocyte Mapping (LSAM, which combines glutamate transport current (TC recording from astrocytes with laser scanning glutamate photolysis. LSAM allows us to identify the area from which a single astrocyte can transport glutamate and to quantify spatial heterogeneity in the rate of glutamate clearance kinetics within that domain. Using LSAM, we report that cortical astrocytes have an increased glutamate-responsive area following FL and that TCs have faster decay times in distal, as compared to proximal processes. Furthermore, the developmental shift from GLAST- to GLT-1-dominated clearance is disrupted following FL. These findings introduce a novel method to probe astrocyte glutamate uptake and show that neonatal cortical FL disrupts the functional maturation of cortical astrocytes.

  14. Athenian and Shakespearean Tragedies in Oceania: Teaching Dramatic Literatures in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anae, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theorised classroom-based narrative discussing the author's interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of English dramatic literatures--in particular, Sophocles' "Oedipus the King" and Shakespeare's "Macbeth"--to i-Taukei, Indo-Fijian and Pacific Islander tertiary students at a South Pacific university.…

  15. The Effect of Dramatized Instruction on Speaking Ability of Imam Ali University EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khosronejad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Teaching language as a second or foreign language, undoubtedly, is so demanding and seeking to find methods for facilitating this prominent practice whets the appetite of any practitioner who works in this field. Research shows that using drama in the classroom as a means of teaching helps students learn socially, academically, and developmentally. This study was an attempt to determine the effect of dramatized instruction on the speaking ability of EFL learners of Imam Ali University. Sixty EFL male students at the intermediate level participated in the study. Their age range was 19-22. Two instruments were utilized in this study; pretest, and posttest.  The data were analyzed through t-test. The data analysis indicated that the mean scores of the experimental group students (M = 72.80 were significantly different (3.29>2; df = 58 from the control group students (M = 65.39. In other words, the experimental group outperformed the control group in the posttest significantly. Moreover, the findings indicated that dramatized instruction does have a great effect on the speaking skills. This study supported the idea of effectiveness of dramatized instruction on developing speaking skill and the teachers can help the learners at lower levels promote their speaking skill through dramatized instruction in EFL classes.

  16. Erotic Language as Dramatic Action in Plays by Lyly and Shakespeare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This study closely examines the language of desire in the dramatic works of John Lyly and William Shakespeare, and argues that contemplative and analytical speeches about desire function as modes of action in their plays. Erotic speeches do more than express desire in a purely descriptive or perlocutionary capacity distinct from the action of the…

  17. The Devil and his Dramatic Function in Calderon’s Autos Sacramentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Iglesias Feijoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In some Calderón’s autos sacramentales the character of the Devil draws the plot and establishes the dramatic action as a demiurge. He elaborates plans and strategies to confuse the Man, but he always fails. This function approaches the autos to the metatheater. Finally certain parallels with Shakespeare are suggested.

  18. Art-House Cinema, Avant-Garde Film, and Dramatic Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardullo, Bert

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about art-house cinema, avant-garde film, and dramatic modernism. He believes that the most important modes of film practice are art-house cinema and the avant-garde, both of which contrast with the classical Hollywood mode of film practice. While the latter is characterized by its commercial imperative, corporate…

  19. How to Know when Dramatic Change Is on Track: Leading Indicators of School Turnarounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Julie; Ableidinger, Joe

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, national policymakers have placed new emphasis on "school turnarounds" as a strategy for rapid, dramatic improvement in chronically failing schools, calling on education leaders to turn around performance in the 5,000 lowest-achieving schools nationwide. This goal may seem daunting, given the dismal success rates of…

  20. Henoch–Schönlein purpura: a clinical case with dramatic presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, João; Magalhães, Adriana; Moura, Conceição Souto; Hespanhol, Venceslau

    2010-01-01

    A case study involving a 55-year-old Caucasian male with end-stage glomerulosclerosis is presented here. Kidney biopsies showed no deposits on imunofluorescent microscopy. Relapsing massive haemoptysis and suspected bronchovascular malformation required lung lobectomy which revealed malformative and tortuous small blood vessels, with no vasculitis. Blood antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were undetectable. Seric immunoglobulins and complement levels were normal. Three months later, arthralgia and joint oedema first appeared. Skin biopsy revealed vasculitis immune-reactive to immunoglobulin A. Systemic corticotherapy was then started. Two weeks later, the patient presented with abdominal pain melena and rectal bleeding (haematoquesia). Endoscopic study showed diffuse gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Angiographic study revealed diffuse lesions compatible with vasculitis and haemorrhage from multiple spots. Cyclophosphamide and then intravenous immunoglobulin were associated to treatment without response. Increasing blood loss occurred, with massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage and haemorrhagic ascitis. Death occurred due to uncontrolled diffuse bleeding. Necropsy findings showed generalised small vessels vasculitis compatible with Henoch–Schönlein purpura. PMID:22778211

  1. Paradise, pleasure and desire: Edenic delight in some late-medieval dramatic fragments

    OpenAIRE

    James, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the biblical Paradise and its relationship with the concept of delight or pleasure. In the first section it discusses the changing descriptions and interpretations of Paradise, from the biblical text to later medieval works; it goes on to explore the Augustinian and Thomist philosophies of pleasure and delight. Finally it brings together three late-medieval dramatic texts, all of which share an interest in Paradise, and explores the ways in which these texts utilise the co...

  2. Modeling Attitude towards Drug Treament: The Role of Internal Motivation, External Pressure, and Dramatic Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Bradley T.; Longshore, Douglas; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Motivation for change has historically been viewed as the crucial element affecting responsiveness to drug treatment. Various external pressures, such as legal coercion, may engender motivation in an individual previously resistant to change. Dramatic relief may be the change process that is most salient as individuals internalize such external pressures. Results of structural equation modeling on data from 465 drug users (58.9% male; 21.3% Black, 34.2% Hispanic/Latino, and 35.1% White) enter...

  3. Discrimination, developmental science, and the law: addressing dramatic shifts in civil rights jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Roger J R

    2014-01-01

    The civil rights movement fostered dramatic shifts in legal responses to discrimination based on race, gender, and a host of other group characteristics. The legal system now evinces yet another dramatic shift, as it moves from considering difference to focusing on neutrality, from efforts that seek to counter subjugation to those that adopt a "color-blind" approach. The shifting approach already has reached laws regulating responses to the group that spurred massive civil rights reform: minority youth. The shift requires a different body of empirical evidence to address it and a new look at equality jurisprudence. This article notes the need to turn to the current understanding of prejudice and discrimination for guidance, and uses, as illustration, developmental science to shed light on the development, manifestation, and alleviation of invidious discrimination. Using that understanding, the analysis details how the legal system can benefit from that research and better address discrimination in light of dramatic changes in law. The article articulates the need to address discrimination by recognizing and enlisting the law's inculcative powers through multiple sites of inculcation, ranging from families, schools, health and justice systems to religious and community groups. The discussion concludes with brief suggestions for reform benefiting from understandings of prejudice and its expression. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Observational analyses of dramatic developments of a severe air pollution event in the Beijing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A rapid development of a severe air pollution event in Beijing, China, at the end of November 2015 was investigated with unprecedented observations collected during the field campaign of the Study of Urban Rainfall and Fog/Haze (SURF-15. Different from previous statistical analyses of air pollution events and their correlations with meteorological environmental conditions in the area, the role of turbulent mixing in the pollutant transfer was investigated in detail. The analyses indicate that the major pollution source associated with high particulate matter of diameter 2.5 µm (PM2.5 was from south of Beijing. Before the day of the dramatic PM2.5 increase, the nighttime downslope flow from the mountains to the west and north of Beijing reduced the surface PM2.5 concentration northwest of Beijing. The nighttime surface stable boundary layer (SBL not only kept the relatively less-polluted air near the surface, it also shielded the rough surface from the pollutant transfer by southwesterly winds above the SBL, leading to the fast transport of pollutants over the Beijing area at night. As the daytime convective turbulent mixing developed in the morning, turbulent mixing transported the elevated polluted air downward even though the weak surface wind was from northeast, leading to the dramatic increase of the surface PM2.5 concentration in the urban area. As a result of both turbulent mixing and advection processes with possible aerosol growth from secondary aerosol formation under the low-wind and high-humidity conditions, the PM2.5 concentration reached over 700 µg m−3 in the Beijing area by the end of the day. Contributions of the two transporting processes to the PM2.5 oscillations prior to this dramatic event were also analyzed. The study demonstrates the important role of large-eddy convective turbulent mixing in vertical transfer of pollutants and the role of the SBL in not only decoupling vertical transport of trace gases and

  5. Critical success factors simplified implementing the powerful drivers of dramatic business improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Marvin T

    2010-01-01

    Critical-to-success factors (CSFs) have become essential elements to strategic planning and no business can achieve consistent success without effectively adopting them. To take full advantage of CSFs, however, an organization must first understand what they are and how they can be used to drive organizational initiatives and processes. Critical Success Factors Simplified: Implementing the Powerful Drivers of Dramatic Business Improvement provides a concise manual on CSFs that will teach you how to identify and select the right CSFs, measure their impact, and adjust them as needed to reach your goals.

  6. Dramatic Response of a Case ofRecurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma toSystemic Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadianpanah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cancer among humans, and the standard treatment is surgery. Other modalities are reserved as a second line of treatment. Topical chemotherapy may be used in primary BCC. Systemic chemotherapy has no role in the primary treatment of BCC, although it may be efficacious in metastatic cases. We report the case of a patient with persistent recurrent BCC following multiple surgeries and radiotherapy, who achieved a dramatic response with a cisplatinand 5-flourouracil chemotherapy regimen.

  7. Dramatic Tumor Shrinkage of Locally Advanced and Inoperable Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma after Intra-arterial Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jen Hsueh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma is rare and usually arises in the salivary glands. It grows slowly, but is characterized by easy perineural invasion with local infiltration and distant metastasis. In metastatic setting, the efficacy of intravenous chemotherapy is limited. Herein, we report one male patient who had a advanced, inoperable adenoid cystic carcinoma with lung metastasis, presenting with right buccal unhealed ulcer, pain and poor intake, whose loco-regional tumors responded dramatically after intra-arterial chemotherapy and his symptoms were almost completely relieved. We also make a literature review for treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  8. A proposal for the reorganization of citizenship education via the implementation of the dramatic metod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen Özbek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the relationship between citizenship education and drama method. In this study, I propose a reorganization of the citizenship and/or democracy education by building in a component of drama method. To this end, citizenship education, as well as its applications in Europe and in Turkey, will be explained in order to provide a framework for the concept. Following this, the dramatic method and the connections between drama and citizenship education will be presented for the purpose of demonstrating the possible impact of drama on civic education.

  9. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  10. Dramatic effect of levetiracetam in early-onset epileptic encephalopathy due to STXBP1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilena, Robertino; Striano, Pasquale; Traverso, Monica; Viri, Maurizio; Cristofori, Gloria; Tadini, Laura; Barbieri, Sergio; Romeo, Antonino; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Syntaxin Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) mutations determine a central neurotransmission dysfunction through impairment of the synaptic vesicle release, thus causing a spectrum of phenotypes varying from syndromic and non-syndromic epilepsy to intellectual disability of variable degree. Among the antiepileptic drugs, levetiracetam has a unique mechanism of action binding SV2A, a glycoprotein of the synaptic vesicle release machinery. We report a 1-month-old boy manifesting an epileptic encephalopathy with clonic seizures refractory to phenobarbital, pyridoxine and phenytoin that presented a dramatic response to levetiracetam with full epilepsy control and EEG normalization. Genetic analysis identified a novel de novo heterozygous mutation (c.[922A>T]p.[Lys308(∗)]) in the STXBP1 gene that severely affects the protein. The observation of a dramatic efficacy of levetiracetam in a case of STXBP1 epileptic encephalopathy refractory to other antiepileptic drugs and considerations regarding the specific mechanism of action of levetiracetam modulating the same system affected by STXBP1 mutations support the hypothesis that this drug may be able to reverse specifically the disease epileptogenic abnormalities. Further clinical observations and laboratory studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and eventually lead to consider levetiracetam as the first choice treatment of patients with suspected or confirmed STXBP1-related epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dramatics and education: Different directions and approaches to the application of drama/theatre techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes, from the perspective of drama pedagogy, two basic directions in the application of drama and/or theatre techniques in the educational context which mainly differ primarily according to who applies them in practice with children and the young - teachers or professional actors.. Then the most prominent approaches of individual authors are singled out from each agent. Although there are certain similarities among them, we wanted also to show their differences, evident in theoretical, pedagogical and practical orientations. In this context the opinions about the importance of dramatics for education, and about the effects of the use of different approaches, levels and the ways of the application of drama/theatre techniques are singled out, showing at the same time different roles, levels and ways of participating students. This theme is important for promoting dramatics pedagogy, which is not at a high level of development in our country, in spite of the fact that many authors are engaged in theoretical and/or practical work in this area.

  12. Socio-Dramatic Affective-Relational Intervention for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome & High Functioning Autism: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called "socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention" (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill…

  13. Dramatic response to high-dose icotinib in a lung adenocarcinoma patient after erlotinib failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yin; Zhao, Hong; Meng, Jing; Yan, Xiang; Jiao, ShunChang

    2014-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) retreatment is rarely administered for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who did not respond to previous TKI treatment. A high dose of TKI may overcome resistance to the standard dose of TKI and have different effectiveness toward cancer compared with the standard dose of TKI. This manuscript describes a dramatic and durable response to high-dose icotinib in a NSCLC patient who did not respond to a previous standard dose of erlotinib. The treatment extended the life of the patient for one additional year. A higher dose of icotinib deserves further study not only for patients whose therapy failed with the standard dose of TKI but also for newly diagnosed NSCLC patients with a sensitive mutation. Serial mutation testing during disease development is necessary for analysis and evaluation of EGFR TKI treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dramatic reduction of sulfur dioxide emission in Northeastern China in the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of spatial and temporal variations of sulfur dioxide concentration in planetary boundary layer were conducted. The data were generated by NASA satellite daily from October of 2004 and were obtained through NASA Giovanni. The global monthly mean spatial distribution of sulfur dioxide showed several hot spots including: several spots on some islands in the Pacific Ocean, several spots in central America, and central Africa. Most of these hot spots of sulfur dioxide are related to known active volcanos. The biggest hot spot of sulfur dioxide were observed in Northeastern China. While high concentration sulfur dioxide was still observed in Northeastern China in 2017. The area averaged concentration of sulfur dioxide declined dramatically since its peak in 2008. This temporal trend indicates that sulfur reduction effort has been effective in the last decade or post 2008 financial crisis recovery lead an industry less sulfur dioxide emission.

  15. Emulating a crowded intracellular environment in vitro dramatically improves RT-PCR performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareu, Ricky R.; Harve, Karthik S.; Raghunath, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction's (PCR) phenomenal success in advancing fields as diverse as Medicine, Agriculture, Conservation, or Paleontology is based on the ability of using isolated prokaryotic thermostable DNA polymerases in vitro to copy DNA irrespective of origin. This process occurs intracellularly and has evolved to function efficiently under crowded conditions, namely in an environment packed with macromolecules. However, current in vitro practice ignores this important biophysical parameter of life. In order to more closely emulate conditions of intracellular biochemistry in vitro we added inert macromolecules into reverse transcription (RT) and PCR. We show dramatic improvements in all parameters of RT-PCR including 8- to 10-fold greater sensitivity, enhanced polymerase processivity, higher specific amplicon yield, greater primer annealing and specificity, and enhanced DNA polymerase thermal stability. The faster and more efficient reaction kinetics was a consequence of the cumulative molecular and thermodynamic effects of the excluded volume effect created by macromolecular crowding

  16. DNA fingerprinting on trial: the dramatic early history of a new forensic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jay D

    2005-09-01

    The early history of "DNA fingerprinting" in the UK might have been different were it not for the accounts of two dramatic courtroom trials, made by the participants and the media, in the mid-1980s. But these reports, which misrepresented the importance DNA evidence had in the trials, left a strong impression on the British public and on judges on both sides of the Atlantic. These trials, widely considered to be the first "victories" for DNA fingerprinting, have been frequently cited as proof of the utility and reliability of the technique, in both the UK and beyond. But in reality, it was the threat of DNA evidence being used rather than the integrity or validity of it that resolved these cases. At that time, DNA fingerprinting was still in its infancy, an untried and untested technology.

  17. Dramatic Clinical Response of Relapsed Metastatic Extramammary Paget’s Disease to Trastuzumab Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wakabayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of 68-year-old Japanese woman with metastatic HER2-positive extramammary Paget’s disease that showed the validity of trastuzumab monotherapy. We administered trastuzumab at a loading dose of 8 mg/kg i.v., followed by a 6 mg/kg maintenance dose every three weeks according to a protocol for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancers and a near-complete response was achieved after the tenth infusion. The patient experienced a moderate headache and flushing during the first infusion, but had no advanced effects during subsequent infusions with ibuprofen and d-chlorpheniramine maleate. Given the dramatic response, the patient has had 17 infusions of trastuzumab with no disease progression. Thus, trastuzumab has few side effects and is well tolerated for elderly patients. It may become a new choice of the adjubant therapy of this disease.

  18. Jamie Beck’s “Cinemagraphs” in the context of dramatic theory of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Woźniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present works of a New York photographer Jamie Beck, who developed a new type of moving photography – cinemagraphs, and look at her work from the perspective of the dramatic theory of literature. Jamie Beck in her works redefines many notions related to the visual realm. Movement and time relationship, the model identity and the impact of material on the image perception are the most interesting problems, that are connected with cinemagraphs. All these issues are analyzed in relation to fields dealing with image: André Rouille’s and Roland Barthes’ photographic theories, art history represented by Georges Didi- Huberman and Rudolf Arnheim’s “the psychology of creative eye”.

  19. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Blackburn, David C.; Doherty-Bone, Thomas M.; Gonwouo, LeGrand Nono; Ghose, Sonia; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004–2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon’s frog diversity. PMID:27149624

  20. Dramatic Declines of Montane Frogs in a Central African Biodiversity Hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Hirschfeld

    Full Text Available Amphibian populations are vanishing worldwide. Declines and extinctions of many populations have been attributed to chytridiomycosis, a disease induced by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. In Africa, however, changes in amphibian assemblages were typically attributed to habitat change. We conducted a retrospective study utilizing field surveys from 2004-2012 of the anuran faunas on two mountains in western Cameroon, a hotspot of African amphibian diversity. The number of species detected was negatively influenced by year, habitat degradation, and elevation, and we detected a decline of certain species. Because another study in this region revealed an emergence of Bd in 2008, we screened additional recent field-collected samples and also pre-decline preserved museum specimens for the presence of Bd supporting emergence before 2008. When comparing the years before and after Bd detection, we found significantly diminished frog species richness and abundance on both mountains after Bd emergence. Our analyses suggest that this may be the first disease-driven community-level decline in anuran biodiversity in Central Africa. The disappearance of several species known to tolerate habitat degradation, and a trend of stronger declines at higher elevations, are consistent with Bd-induced declines in other regions. Not all species decreased; populations of some species remained constant, and others increased after the emergence of Bd. This variation might be explained by species-specific differences in infection probability. Increased habitat protection and Bd-mitigation strategies are needed for sustaining diverse amphibian communities such as those on Mt. Manengouba, which contains nearly half of Cameroon's frog diversity.

  1. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  2. SAFETY IMPROVES DRAMATICALLY IN FLUOR HANFORD SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER MS

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walkdowns, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site

  3. Patterns and potential drivers of dramatic changes in Tibetan lakes, 1972-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingkui; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Zewen; Shen, Guozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000) with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost) are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost) are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia.

  4. DRAMAtic transforms in magic angle spinning recoupling NMR: The Bessel function pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Russell; Hancock, Jason; Siemens, Mark; Jarrell, Harold; Siminovitch, David

    2005-07-01

    In magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR recoupling experiments, the extraction of multiple couplings or a coupling distribution from the observed dephasing signals remains a challenging problem. At least for REDOR experiments, the REDOR transform solves this problem, enabling the simultaneous measurement of multiple dipolar couplings. Focusing on the quadrupolar dephasing observed in QUADRAMA experiments as a representative example, we demonstrate that the same analytical form used for the mathematical description of REDOR dephasing also describes the dephasing observed in a wide variety of MAS NMR recoupling experiments. This fact immediately extends REDOR transform techniques to a much broader suite of recoupling experiments than had previously been realized, including those of DRAMA, MELODRAMA and QUADRAMA. As an illustration, we use the DRAMAtic transform to provide the first inversion of a QUADRAMA dephasing signal to extract the quadrupole coupling distribution. Using a complete elliptic integral of the first kind, we further develop a novel expression for the Pake-spun powder patterns of the corresponding recoupled lineshapes. Our methods and results reinforce the central role that Bessel functions can play in simplifying the integrals that define both the dephasing signals in the time domain, and their Fourier transforms in the frequency domain.

  5. SAFETY IMPROVES DRAMATICALLY IN FLUOR HANFORD SOIL AND GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2007-12-05

    This paper describes dramatic improvements in the safety record of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (SGRP) at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington state over the past four years. During a period of enormous growth in project work and scope, contractor Fluor Hanford reduced injuries, accidents, and other safety-related incidents and enhanced a safety culture that earned the SGRP Star Status in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) in 2007. This paper outlines the complex and multi-faceted work of Fluor Hanford's SGRP and details the steps taken by the project's Field Operations and Safety organizations to improve safety. Holding field safety meetings and walkdowns, broadening safety inspections, organizing employee safety councils, intensively flowing down safety requirements to subcontractors, and adopting other methods to achieve remarkable improvement in safety are discussed. The roles of management, labor and subcontractors are detailed. Finally, SGRP's safety improvements are discussed within the context of overall safety enhancements made by Fluor Hanford in the company's 11 years of managing nuclear waste cleanup at the Hanford Site.

  6. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Regulatory Bodies: Dramatic Creativity, Control and the Commodity of Lady Audley's Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Mattacks

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available 'Lady Audley's Secret' resonates with a sense of theatricality grounded in the eponymous heroine's propensity for visual tactics to attract an audience. Repositioning the dramatic exchange between actress and audience within the domestic sphere sensitised the reader to the question of diagnosing morally degenerative artificiality whilst involving the reader in the complicit act of encouraging Lady Audley's performance through consumer demand. This complex relationship between consumerism, theatre and society saw Lady Audley's figure assume an iconic status, but little has been written on the creative interplay between the novel and the theatre itself. Beginning with the way in which aspiring actresses used Lady Audley as a model to display their histrionic variety, I argue that the theatre used her character to engage with the complex connections between drama and commodity culture. Her autophagy in favour of a false identity provided a model for actresses to visualise self-commodification whilst highlighting the tension between the material practices of the theatre and the materiality of commodity culture. The drive for regulation of the theatrical medium finds its locus in the licensing text/published acting edition of William E. Suter's 'Lady Audley's Secret' (1863. Here I move to show how Suter's adaptation functioned as a site where the state regulation of the theatre was explored and contested. These unauthorised images of Lady Audley's containment came to symbolise not only the regulatory processes of licensing and copyright, but also the creative exploitation of a commodity culture critiqued through the dehumanised form of Braddon's original heroine.

  8. Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Zucchini, F.; Chittenden, J. P.; Hamann, F.; Maury, P.; Georges, A.; Bedoch, J. P.; Morell, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Sphinx machine [F. Lassalle et al., 'Status on the SPHINX machine based on the 1microsecond LTD technology'] based on microsecond linear transformer driver (LTD) technology is used to implode an aluminium wire array with an outer diameter up to 140 mm and maximum current from 3.5 to 5 MA. 700 to 800 ns implosion Z-pinch experiments are performed on this driver essentially with aluminium. Best results obtained before the improvement described in this paper were 1-3 TW radial total power, 100-300 kJ total yield, and 20-30 kJ energy above 1 keV. An auxiliary generator was added to the Sphinx machine in order to allow a multi microsecond current to be injected through the wire array load before the start of the main current. Amplitude and duration of this current prepulse are adjustable, with maxima ∼10 kA and 50 μs. This prepulse dramatically changes the ablation phase leading to an improvement of the axial homogeneity of both the implosion and the final radiating column. Total power was multiplied by a factor of 6, total yield by a factor of 2.5 with a reproducible behavior. This paper presents experimental results, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and analysis of the effect of such a long current prepulse

  9. Analysing the development of TV news programmes: from information to dramatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Rodríguez Fidalgo, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The TV news programme is the backbone of all television networks, be they national, regional or local. These types of programmes have been changing over the time. The essence of the information is being modified and has adopted a new format. Based on these principles, this research analyses the evolution of the language used on the Spanish TV news programmes, from their origins until today. This research has been carried out in three different phases: late 1980s, the 1990s and recent years. These stages were thoroughly examined through surveys applied to representative samples of the population. The results showed that TV news programmes have been acquiring a changing narrative style throughout time: they began using an “objective” narrative, followed by a mediated type, and finally dramatized narrative which uses shocking visual content and aims to achieve audience’s sensibilization and identification with news’ protagonists. The spectacularization of information has become the identitary feature of the current TV news programmes as a response to the need of reaching higher audience ratings.

  10. Lipidomics and H218O labeling techniques reveal increased remodeling of DHA-containing membrane phospholipids associated with abnormal locomotor responses in α-tocopherol deficient zebrafish (danio rerio embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Q. McDougall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that vitamin E (α-tocopherol is required by the developing embryonic brain to prevent depletion of highly polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, the loss of which we predicted would underlie abnormal morphological and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we fed adult 5D zebrafish (Danio rerio defined diets without (E− or with added α-tocopherol (E+, 500 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet for a minimum of 80 days, and then spawned them to obtain E− and E+ embryos. The E− compared with E+ embryos were 82% less responsive (p<0.01 to a light/dark stimulus at 96 h post-fertilization (hpf, demonstrating impaired locomotor behavior, even in the absence of gross morphological defects. Evaluation of phospholipid (PL and lysophospholipid (lyso-PL composition using untargeted lipidomics in E− compared with E+ embryos at 24, 48, 72, and 120 hpf showed that four PLs and three lyso-PLs containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC 22:6, required for transport of DHA into the brain, p<0.001, were at lower concentrations in E− at all time-points. Additionally, H218O labeling experiments revealed enhanced turnover of LPC 22:6 (p<0.001 and three other DHA-containing PLs in the E− compared with the E+ embryos, suggesting that increased membrane remodeling is a result of PL depletion. Together, these data indicate that α-tocopherol deficiency in the zebrafish embryo causes the specific depletion and increased turnover of DHA-containing PL and lyso-PLs, which may compromise DHA delivery to the brain and thereby contribute to the functional impairments observed in E− embryos.

  11. Nicotinamide mononucleotide inhibits post-ischemic NAD(+) degradation and dramatically ameliorates brain damage following global cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Long, Aaron; Owens, Katrina; Kristian, Tibor

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential cofactor for multiple cellular metabolic reactions and has a central role in energy production. Brain ischemia depletes NAD(+) pools leading to bioenergetics failure and cell death. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is utilized by the NAD(+) salvage pathway enzyme, nicotinamide adenylyltransferase (Nmnat) to generate NAD(+). Therefore, we examined whether NMN could protect against ischemic brain damage. Mice were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia and treated with NMN or vehicle at the start of reperfusion or 30min after the ischemic insult. At 2, 4, and 24h of recovery, the proteins poly-ADP-ribosylation (PAR), hippocampal NAD(+) levels, and expression levels of NAD(+) salvage pathway enzymes were determined. Furthermore, animal's neurologic outcome and hippocampal CA1 neuronal death was assessed after six days of reperfusion. NMN (62.5mg/kg) dramatically ameliorated the hippocampal CA1 injury and significantly improved the neurological outcome. Additionally, the post-ischemic NMN treatment prevented the increase in PAR formation and NAD(+) catabolism. Since the NMN administration did not affect animal's temperature, blood gases or regional cerebral blood flow during recovery, the protective effect was not a result of altered reperfusion conditions. These data suggest that administration of NMN at a proper dosage has a strong protective effect against ischemic brain injury. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Integration Strategy Is a Key Step in Network-Based Analysis and Dramatically Affects Network Topological Properties and Inferring Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Nana; Wu, Deng; Gong, Yonghui; Bi, Xiaoman; Jiang, Hong; Li, Kongning; Wang, Qianghu

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of experiments have been designed to detect intracellular and intercellular molecular interactions. Based on these molecular interactions (especially protein interactions), molecular networks have been built for using in several typical applications, such as the discovery of new disease genes and the identification of drug targets and molecular complexes. Because the data are incomplete and a considerable number of false-positive interactions exist, protein interactions from different sources are commonly integrated in network analyses to build a stable molecular network. Although various types of integration strategies are being applied in current studies, the topological properties of the networks from these different integration strategies, especially typical applications based on these network integration strategies, have not been rigorously evaluated. In this paper, systematic analyses were performed to evaluate 11 frequently used methods using two types of integration strategies: empirical and machine learning methods. The topological properties of the networks of these different integration strategies were found to significantly differ. Moreover, these networks were found to dramatically affect the outcomes of typical applications, such as disease gene predictions, drug target detections, and molecular complex identifications. The analysis presented in this paper could provide an important basis for future network-based biological researches. PMID:25243127

  13. Clinical simulation with dramatization: gains perceived by students and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Elaine Cristina; Mazzo, Alessandra; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Pereira, Gerson Alves; Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães Dos Santos; Pedersoli, César Eduardo

    2017-08-03

    to identify in the literature the gains health students and professionals perceive when using clinical simulation with dramatization resources. integrative literature review, using the method proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). A search was undertaken in the following databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Web of Science, National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online. 53 studies were analyzed, which complied with the established inclusion criteria. Among the different gains obtained, satisfaction, self-confidence, knowledge, empathy, realism, reduced level of anxiety, comfort, communication, motivation, capacity for reflection and critical thinking and teamwork stand out. the evidence demonstrates the great possibilities to use dramatization in the context of clinical simulation, with gains in the different health areas, as well as interprofessional gains. identificar na literatura quais os ganhos percebidos pelos estudantes e profissionais da área de saúde, utilizando-se da simulação clínica realizada com recursos da dramatização. revisão integrativa da literatura, com a metodologia proposta pelo Instituto Joanna Briggs (JBI), com busca nas bases de dados: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Web of Science, National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online. foram analisados 53 estudos, que atenderam os critérios de inclusão estabelecidos. Entre os diversos ganhos obtidos, destaca-se a satisfação, autoconfiança, conhecimento, empatia, realismo, diminuição do nível de ansiedade, conforto, comunicação, motivação, capacidade de reflexão e de pensamento crítico e trabalho em equipe. as evidências demonstram a ampla possibilidade de uso da dramatização no contexto de

  14. Dramatic loss of Ube3A expression during aging of the mammalian cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Williams

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies of aging are beginning to link functional changes with a loss of experience-dependent plasticity. In the visual system, age-related functional changes include decreases in visual acuity, orientation selectivity, motion perception, and ocular dominance plasticity. A recent paper has shown that Ube3A, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is absent in Angelman's Syndrome, is required for experience-dependent plasticity during development of the visual cortex. Knocking out Ube3A during development leads to rigidity of ocular dominance plasticity that is strikingly similar to the reduced plasticity seen in older animals. Furthermore, ubiquitin ligases have been linked with age-related neurodegenerative disorders and longevity. Ubiquitin ligases selectively mark proteins for degradation, and a balance between synaptic proteins and their degradation is important for neural transmission and plasticity. This led us to ask whether normal aging is characterized by a loss of Ube3A in the cortex. We used Western blot analysis in order to quantify Ube3A expression across the life span of humans, macaque monkeys, and cats. We found that Ube3A expression declines across the lifespan in human, monkey, and cat cortex. The losses were substantial (50-80% in all areas studied which includes V1, V3, V4, frontal, and auditory cortex. In addition, when compared with other synaptic proteins there was a selective loss of Ube3A in human cortex. The progressive loss of Ube3A expression during cortical aging is an important new finding. Furthermore, the selective loss of Ube3A in human cortex highlights a specific vulnerability in human brain aging that may signify a dramatic shift in cortical function and plasticity.

  15. Chemical modification of lysine residues in lysozyme may dramatically influence its amyloid fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedi, Dina; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Nemat-Gorgani, Mohsen

    2010-04-01

    Studies on the aggregation of mutant proteins have provided new insights into the genetics of amyloid diseases and the role of the net charge of the protein on the rate, extent, and type of aggregate formation. In the present work, hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was employed as the model protein. Acetylation and (separately) citraconylation were employed to neutralize the charge on lysine residues. Acetylation of the lysine residues promoted amyloid formation, resulting in more pronounced fibrils and a dramatic decline in the nucleation time. In contrast, citraconylation produced the opposite effect. In both cases, native secondary and tertiary structures appeared to be retained. Studies on the effect of pH on aggregation suggested greater possibilities for amorphous aggregate formation rather than fibrillation at pH values closer to neutrality, in which the protein is known to take up a conformation more similar to its native form. This is in accord with reports in the literature suggesting that formation of amorphous aggregates is more favored under relatively more native conditions. pH 5 provided a critical environment in which a mixture of amorphous and fibrillar structures were observed. Use of Tango and Aggrescan software which describe aggregation tendencies of different parts of a protein structure suggested critical importance of some of the lysine residues in the aggregation process. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of the net charge in control of protein-protein interactions leading to aggregate formation and possible specific roles of lysine residues 96 and 97. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. BRAF-V600E mutant papillary craniopharyngioma dramatically responds to combination BRAF and MEK inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ashley; Odia, Yazmin

    2017-04-01

    We present a patient with BRAF-V600E mutant papillary craniopharyngioma successfully treated with combination BRAF (dabrafenib 150 mg twice daily) and MEK (trametinib 2 mg daily) inhibitors after her unresectable tumor proved refractory to radiation. Serial brain MRIs and PET revealed marked tumor reduction with gradual neurological improvement and permanent panhypopituitarism.

  17. Learning to Lead against the Grain: Dramatizing the Emotional Toll of Teacher Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Jerome; Kusanovich, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous research on teacher leadership over the last decade has revealed both the prevalence of and the imperatives for a model teaching force that can actively participate in school improvement (Harrison & Killion, 2007; Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2001; Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). The highly participative teacher leader paradigm is so…

  18. EPR characterization of the mononuclear Cu-containing Aspergillus japonicus quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase reveals dramatic changes upon anaerobic binding of substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Steiner, Roberto A.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Noort, Paula I. van; Egmond, Maarten R.; Huber, Martina

    Quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3QD) is a copper-containing dioxygenase that catalyses the oxidation of the flavonol quercetin to 2-protocatechuoylphloroglucinol carboxylic acid with concomitant production of carbon monoxide. In contrast to iron dioxygenases, very little is known about copper

  19. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Azusa [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wouters, Bradly G. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); DaCosta, Ralph S., E-mail: rdacosta@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. Results: In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Conclusions: Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  20. The Dramatic Size and Kinematic Evolution of Massive Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Pantoni, L.; Zanisi, L.; Shi, J.; Mancuso, C.; Massardi, M.; Shankar, F.; Bressan, A.; Danese, L.

    2018-04-01

    We aim to provide a holistic view on the typical size and kinematic evolution of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) that encompasses their high-z star-forming progenitors, their high-z quiescent counterparts, and their configurations in the local Universe. Our investigation covers the main processes playing a relevant role in the cosmic evolution of ETGs. Specifically, their early fast evolution comprises biased collapse of the low angular momentum gaseous baryons located in the inner regions of the host dark matter halo; cooling, fragmentation, and infall of the gas down to the radius set by the centrifugal barrier; further rapid compaction via clump/gas migration toward the galaxy center, where strong heavily dust-enshrouded star formation takes place and most of the stellar mass is accumulated; and ejection of substantial gas amount from the inner regions by feedback processes, which causes a dramatic puffing-up of the stellar component. In the late slow evolution, passive aging of stellar populations and mass additions by dry merger events occur. We describe these processes relying on prescriptions inspired by basic physical arguments and by numerical simulations to derive new analytical estimates of the relevant sizes, timescales, and kinematic properties for individual galaxies along their evolution. Then we obtain quantitative results as a function of galaxy mass and redshift, and compare them to recent observational constraints on half-light size R e , on the ratio v/σ between rotation velocity and velocity dispersion (for gas and stars) and on the specific angular momentum j ⋆ of the stellar component; we find good consistency with the available multiband data in average values and dispersion, both for local ETGs and for their z ∼ 1–2 star-forming and quiescent progenitors. The outcomes of our analysis can provide hints to gauge sub-grid recipes implemented in simulations, to tune numerical experiments focused on specific processes, and to plan

  1. The homozygous VHL(D126N) missense mutation is associated with dramatically elevated erythropoietin levels, consequent polycythemia, and early onset severe pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Susmita; Lanikova, Lucie; Kapralova, Katarina; Acharya, Suchitra; Swierczek, Sabina; Lipton, Jeffrey M; Wolfe, Lawrence; Prchal, Josef T

    2014-11-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein is the principal negative regulator of hypoxia sensing mediated by transcription factors. Mutations in exon 3 of the VHL gene lead to Chuvash (VHL(R200W)) and Croatian (VHL(H191D)) polycythemias. Here, we describe an infant of Bangladesh ethnicity with a novel homozygous VHL(D126N) mutation with congenital polycythemia and dramatically elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, who developed severe fatal pulmonary hypertension. In contrast to Chuvash polycythemia, erythroid progenitors (BFU-Es) did not reveal a marked EPO hypersensitivity. Further, NF-E2 and RUNX1 transcripts that correlate with BFU-Es EPO hypersensitivity in polycythemic mutations were not elevated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dramatic loss of comammox Nitrospira associated with long-term nitrite feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Palomo, Alejandro; Dechesne, Arnaud

    Until recently, nitrification was thought to be a strict two-step process where ammonia was first oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and/or archaea, and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Recent studies in NOB metabolism, however, have revealed that certain......, with nitrite as the main energy source. Community assembly was monitored on well-established biofilms formed on the grains of rapid sand filter (RSF) for drinking water production. RSF sand was placed in laboratory scale column bioreactors and subjected to continuous feeding of tap water spiked with NO2- (1 mg...... sequences (100% similarity to uncultured Nitrospira sp. clone KC836101 (Pester et al., 2014)). These observations indicate different behavior of Nitrospira in the absence of ammonia and point to a possible competitive advantage of canonical Nitrospira in environments where nitrite is the sole nitrogen...

  3. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa Braham; Tricia Miller; Adam E. Duerr; Michael Lanzone; Amy Fesnock; Larry LaPre; Daniel Driscoll; Todd. Katzner

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system-global system for mobile...

  4. The Development of Evaluation Model for Internal Quality Assurance System of Dramatic Arts College of Bunditpattanasilpa Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthukhot, Kittisak; Srihamongkol, Yannapat; Luanganggoon, Nuchwana; Suwannoi, Paisan

    2013-01-01

    The research purpose was to develop an evaluation model for the internal quality assurance system of the dramatic arts College of Bunditpattanasilpa Institute. The Research and Development method was used as research methodology which was divided into three phases; "developing the model and its guideline", "trying out the actual…

  5. Learning Form and Function by Dance-Dramatizing Cultural Legends to Drum Rhythms Wearing Student-Made Animal Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Phyllis; Rule, Audrey C.; Kirkland Holmes, Gloria; Logan, Stephanie R.; Alert, Andrea L.; Mason, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the self-efficacy in science, art, dance, and music; attitudes concerning contributions of people of various ethnic/cultural groups; and science learning of students involved in an after-school arts-integrated science enrichment project. Students dramatized three traditional animal legends from African, Native American, and…

  6. TAR (Theatre as Representation) as a Provocative Teaching Tool in School Administration: A Dramatized Inclusive Classroom Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthew J.; Young, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The following dramatized classroom scenario depicts a teacher struggling with the nature of an inclusive learning environment, with instructional leadership and supervision of instruction as the theoretical and practical backdrop. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the use of a TAR (theatre as representation) case study can be used…

  7. Emergence of dramatic literary form in the classical period and its effect on the English Renaissance drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literary-historical and theoretical sense, the ancient drama established the initial genre of drama as the basis for its future evolution. Despite the poetic differences in understanding the certain elements of drama, ancient authors established a basis for continuity of development of European drama in future centuries, literary periods and stylistic formations. Diachronic perspective of the drama development in English literature will also play a certain role in the centuries that follow. However, the existence of a rich national dramatic tradition in England had, after all, greater impact on dramatic literature, which will allow classical models only to steer the development of drama in the right direction, not allowing the authors to be captured in rules and uniformity. University wits, with their adaptation of ancient drama conventions and their combination with traditional medieval elements, created the model for a comedy and a tragedy which needed only a natural skill of a genius to use them in proportion and to raise them to a higher level of dramatic art. Then, fortunately, William Shakespeare, who will achieve that aesthetic-axiological dramatic scale, appears. Like many great writers, Shakespeare was not a founder of a new tradition, but the culmination of an existing one, like Veselin Kostić put it. The appearance of the classical interpretation of drama and great interest in Seneca, Terence and Plautus quickly found its way from the academic circles to the national theaters and Shakespeare did not remain immune to these influences.

  8. Social insect genomes exhibit dramatic evolution in gene composition and regulation while preserving regulatory features linked to sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simola, Daniel F.; Wissler, Lothar; Donahue, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Genomes of eusocial insects code for dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity and social organization. We compared the genomes of seven ants, the honeybee, and various solitary insects to examine whether eusocial lineages share distinct features of genomic organization. Each ant lineage contain...

  9. Debranching of soluble wheat arabinoxylan dramatically enhances recalcitrant binding to cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selig, Michael J.; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.; Felby, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The presence of xylan is a detriment to the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in lignocelluloses. The inhibition of the processive cellobiohydrolase Cel7A by soluble wheat arabinoxylan is shown here to increase by 50 % following enzymatic treatment with a commercially-purified α-l-arabinofu......The presence of xylan is a detriment to the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in lignocelluloses. The inhibition of the processive cellobiohydrolase Cel7A by soluble wheat arabinoxylan is shown here to increase by 50 % following enzymatic treatment with a commercially-purified α......-l-arabinofuranosidase. The enhanced inhibitory effect was shown by T2 relaxation time measurements via low field NMR to coincide with an increasing degree of constraint put on the water in xylan solutions. Furthermore, quartz crystal micro-balance with dissipation experiments showed that α-l-arabinofuranosidase treatment...

  10. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquin, G. [Con-Sul Inc., Bigfork, MT (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations.

  11. A Dramatic Classroom Demonstration of Limiting Reagent Using the Vinegar and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artdej, Romklao; Thongpanchang, Tienthong

    2008-01-01

    This demonstration is designed to illustrate the concept of limiting reagent in a spectacular way. Via a series of experiments where the amount of vinegar is fixed and the amount of NaHCO[subscript 3] is gradually increased, the volume of CO[subscript 2] generated from the reaction varies corresponding to the amount of NaHCO[subscript 3] until it…

  12. Dramatic improvement of membrane performance for microalgae harvesting with a simple bubble-generator plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taewoon; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Bohwa; Han, Jong-In

    2015-06-01

    To overcome fouling issue in membrane-based algae harvesting and thus make an otherwise promising harvesting option more competitive, a bubble-generator plate was developed. According to computational fluid dynamics analysis, the plate generated substantial hydrodynamic power in terms of high pressure, velocity, and shear stress. When installed in a membrane filtration system with membranes of different surface and structural characteristics (one prepared by the phase inversion method, and a commercial one) the bubble-generator was indeed effective in reducing fouling. Without the plate, the much cheaper homemade membrane had the similar performance as the commercial one. Use of the bubble-generator considerably improved the performance of both membranes, and revealed a valuable synergy with the asymmetrical structure of the homemade membrane. This result clearly showed that the ever-problematic fouling could be mitigated in a rather easy manner, and in so doing, that membrane technology could indeed become a practical option for algae harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biosphere has undergone dramatic changes and will continue to do so. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C.A.

    1976-03-01

    The ways in which global industrialization can change global rates of primary productivity include the positive effects of carbon dioxide enhancement and local fertilization from smokestack nutrients and the negative effects of acid rain, potential climate changes, changes in sunlight intensity by increased aerial particulates and aerosols, destruction of oceanic fisheries by highly industrialized overfishing and coastal development, and destruction of the public service function of natural ecosystems either by urbanization or by replacement of natural biotic systems with intensively managed ones.

  14. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT FROM SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; De Pater, Imke; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Marcus, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nm, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nm. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres

  15. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT FROM SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Amy A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Code 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wong, Michael H.; De Pater, Imke [Astronomy Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rogers, John H. [British Astronomical Association, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1J 0DU (United Kingdom); Orton, Glenn S.; Carlson, Robert W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Asay-Davis, Xylar [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Marcus, Philip S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 6121 Etcheverry Hall, Mailstop 1740, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nm, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nm. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  16. Dramatic improvement of crystal quality for low-­temperature-grown rabbit muscle aldolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, HaJeung; Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Sygusch, Jurgen; Izard, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Rabbit muscle aldolase (RMA) was crystallized in complex with the low-complexity domain (LC4) of sorting nexin 9. Monoclinic crystals were obtained at room temperature that displayed large mosaicity and poor X-ray diffraction. However, orthorhombic RMA–LC4 crystals grown at 277 K under similar conditions exhibited low mosaicity, allowing data collection to 2.2 Å Bragg spacing and structure determination. It was concluded that the improvement of crystal quality as indicated by the higher resolution of the new RMA–LC4 complex crystals was a consequence of the introduction of new lattice contacts at lower temperature. The lattice contacts corresponded to an increased number of interactions between high-entropy side chains that mitigate the lattice strain incurred upon cryocooling and accompanying mosaic spread increases. The thermodynamically unfavorable immobilization of high-entropy side chains used in lattice formation was compensated by an entropic increase in the bulk-solvent content owing to the greater solvent content of the crystal lattice. PMID:20445268

  17. Dramatic improvement of crystal quality for low-temperature-grown rabbit muscle aldolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, HaJeung; Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Sygusch, Jurgen; Izard, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Rabbit muscle aldolase (RMA) was crystallized in complex with the low-complexity domain (LC4) of sorting nexin 9. Monoclinic crystals were obtained at room temperature that displayed large mosaicity and poor X-ray diffraction. However, orthorhombic RMA–LC4 crystals grown at 277 K under similar conditions exhibited low mosaicity, allowing data collection to 2.2 Å Bragg spacing and structure determination. Rabbit muscle aldolase (RMA) was crystallized in complex with the low-complexity domain (LC4) of sorting nexin 9. Monoclinic crystals were obtained at room temperature that displayed large mosaicity and poor X-ray diffraction. However, orthorhombic RMA–LC4 crystals grown at 277 K under similar conditions exhibited low mosaicity, allowing data collection to 2.2 Å Bragg spacing and structure determination. It was concluded that the improvement of crystal quality as indicated by the higher resolution of the new RMA–LC4 complex crystals was a consequence of the introduction of new lattice contacts at lower temperature. The lattice contacts corresponded to an increased number of interactions between high-entropy side chains that mitigate the lattice strain incurred upon cryocooling and accompanying mosaic spread increases. The thermodynamically unfavorable immobilization of high-entropy side chains used in lattice formation was compensated by an entropic increase in the bulk-solvent content owing to the greater solvent content of the crystal lattice

  18. Dramatic Improvement of Crystal Quality for Low-temperature-grown Rabbit Muscle Aldolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.; Rangarajan, E; Sygusch, J; Izard, T

    2010-01-01

    Rabbit muscle aldolase (RMA) was crystallized in complex with the low-complexity domain (LC4) of sorting nexin 9. Monoclinic crystals were obtained at room temperature that displayed large mosaicity and poor X-ray diffraction. However, orthorhombic RMA-LC4 crystals grown at 277 K under similar conditions exhibited low mosaicity, allowing data collection to 2.2 {angstrom} Bragg spacing and structure determination. It was concluded that the improvement of crystal quality as indicated by the higher resolution of the new RMA-LC4 complex crystals was a consequence of the introduction of new lattice contacts at lower temperature. The lattice contacts corresponded to an increased number of interactions between high-entropy side chains that mitigate the lattice strain incurred upon cryocooling and accompanying mosaic spread increases. The thermodynamically unfavorable immobilization of high-entropy side chains used in lattice formation was compensated by an entropic increase in the bulk-solvent content owing to the greater solvent content of the crystal lattice.

  19. Dramatic improvement of crystal quality for low-temperature-grown rabbit muscle aldolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hajeung; Rangarajan, Erumbi S; Sygusch, Jurgen; Izard, Tina

    2010-05-01

    Rabbit muscle aldolase (RMA) was crystallized in complex with the low-complexity domain (LC4) of sorting nexin 9. Monoclinic crystals were obtained at room temperature that displayed large mosaicity and poor X-ray diffraction. However, orthorhombic RMA-LC4 crystals grown at 277 K under similar conditions exhibited low mosaicity, allowing data collection to 2.2 A Bragg spacing and structure determination. It was concluded that the improvement of crystal quality as indicated by the higher resolution of the new RMA-LC4 complex crystals was a consequence of the introduction of new lattice contacts at lower temperature. The lattice contacts corresponded to an increased number of interactions between high-entropy side chains that mitigate the lattice strain incurred upon cryocooling and accompanying mosaic spread increases. The thermodynamically unfavorable immobilization of high-entropy side chains used in lattice formation was compensated by an entropic increase in the bulk-solvent content owing to the greater solvent content of the crystal lattice.

  20. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 μg/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 μg/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 μg/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ► We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ► We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ► We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin

  1. Dramatic effect on Selenium concentration in blood serum due to the difference between the Hungarian and Indian dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuecs, Z.; Lahiri, S.; Andrasi, D.; Kovacs, B.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The importance of Selenium as trace element in animals, as well as in humans is well known. The deficiency of Selenium was observed in case of several heavy or fatal clinical events such as high infant mortality, premature, malformations and even prostate cancer. Hungary is in the top of their worldwide statistic with parallel of the low concentration of Selenium in soil as well as in food. The direct correlation can explain in Venezuela, where the prostate cancer is 'unknown disease'. The concentration of Selenium in India is higher than the worldwide level. Under the scientific bilateral cooperation 'Speciation dependent studies on physicochemical behavior of some elements in trace scale in natural and synthetic system' the Selenium was determined in human blood serum from the group of Hungarian and group of Indian patients. The samples were given in same time from each group. The main goal of the study was explain the effect of the traditional dietary habit for the level of Selenium. Therefore the samples were taken from the visiting scientist just arrived to the host institute as well as from the host scientists too. After 2 weeks stay the sampling was repeated, when the guest scientists eat the same food as the host scientists. The measurements were done in Thermo-2 ICP-MS from blood-serum separated by centrifuge. The results are summarized in Table 1. Dramatic effect was found for the level of Selenium in blood serum. As it was expected the Hungarian samples showed low concentration of Selenium in starting of the visit, as well as the high concentration was found in Indian sample, comparing to the Hungarian sample. After two weeks the Hungarian sample showed much higher concentration, however it was still less, than in Indian sample. Similar effect was found during the visit the Indian scientists in Hungary, however their Selenium concentration decreased not so spectacular due to the Selenium 'store' in body. The general

  2. Genome sequence analysis of five Canadian isolates of strawberry mottle virus reveals extensive intra-species diversity and a longer RNA2 with increased coding capacity compared to a previously characterized European isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas.

  3. Dramatically improved RNA in situ hybridization signals using LNA-modified probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune; Nielsen, Peter Stein; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2005-01-01

    . This increases the thermal stability of hybrids formed with RNA. The LNA-based probes detect specific RNAs in fixed yeast cells with an efficiency far better than conventional DNA oligonucleotide probes of the same sequence. Using this probe design, we were also able to detect poly(A)+ RNA accumulation within......In situ detection of RNA by hybridization with complementary probes is a powerful technique. Probe design is a critical parameter in successful target detection. We have evaluated the efficiency of fluorescent DNA oligonucleotides modified to contain locked nucleic acid (LNA) residues...

  4. Seyle’s biological stressors influence dramatically skin physiology: our experiences with electrical admittance magnitude measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2014-04-01

    we have disclosed the eventuality that these phenomena may reveal devastative effects onto skin to drive even to a praecox skin senescence and degradation.

  5. Dramatic course of osteomyelitis in a patient treated with immediately placed dental implants suffering from uncontrolled diabetes: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Christian; Hartwig, Stefan; Nack, Claudia; Nahles, Susanne; Nelson, Katja; Raguse, Jan-Dirk

    2015-01-01

    To report a rare and dramatic complication following immediate dental implant placement in a heavy smoker, who had a delayed diagnosis of uncontrolled diabetes. In this case report we present the dramatic course of a 64-year old female patient treated with five immediate post-extractive dental implants in the mandible, who developed osteomyelitis, which manifested initially as local peri-implant inflammation and progressed into a spontaneous jaw fracture, despite repeated surgical interventions and antibiotic courses over a 3-year period, until diabetes was diagnosed. A symptom-free status could be achieved only after partial mandibulectomy, treatment of diabetes and reconstruction with a microvascular fibula free flap. In the presence of mandibular osteomyelitis refractory to therapy, yet undiagnosed underlying pathologies, such as diabetes, should be investigated and treated urgently.

  6. Socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention for adolescents with asperger syndrome & high functioning autism: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called 'socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention' (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill deficit among this population. SDARI was administered as a six-week summer program in a community human service agency. Nine SDARI participants and eight age- and diagnosis-group matched adolescents not receiving SDARI were compared on child- and parent-report of social functioning at three week intervals beginning six weeks prior to intervention and ending six weeks post-intervention. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to estimate growth trends between groups to assess treatment outcomes and post-treatment maintenance. Results indicated significant improvement and post-treatment maintenance among SDARI participants on several measures of child social functioning. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  7. Oil and gas: year full of major events and dramatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European gas industry encountered a historical precedent this February. Russian gas concern Gazprom has for the first time in its over thirty-year history of gas delivery from Siberia to Europe deliberately stopped the export. Even though this did not last for more then one day, customers in Latvia immediately noticed problems and also Polish customers mentioned some losses. Slovakia, still fully dependent on Russian gas supplies and at the same time major transported of Russian gas to European, was not touched by this situation as the deliveries were stopped on gas pipeline Jamal-Europe delivering gas to Germany through Belarus and Poland. But this affair can become a major issue in gas and political relations between Russia, Belarus and Ukraine and can also have a long-term impact on a dialog between Europe and Russia and consequently on building of new gas pipelines. And that could have a major impact on Slovakia's position as a transit country. Important for Slovakia is also the ongoing discussion about Ukrainian pipeline Odessa-Brody. A political decision made by Ukrainian cabinet that this pipeline should only be used to transport oil from Caspian Sea can give Slovakia the opportunity to diversify its oil import and at the same time increase the transit volumes should German refineries show interest in this transit route. On the other hand ratification of an intergovernmental agreement on integration of pipelines Druzba and Adria by Ukrainian Parliaments is also good news for Bratislava. This step politically opened the possibility to deliver Russian oil through Slovakia to Croatian Omisajl and from there with tankers to Europe and Northern America. The capacity of pipeline Druzba in Ukraine and Slovakia is not sufficient to take both the increased volumes of Russian and Caspian oil these two projects are competing for the free capacity. And the process and outcome of this competition may be of direct influence on Slovak interests. At the moment there are

  8. Dramatic inversion of charge polarity in diketopyrrolopyrrole-based organic field-effect transistors via a simple nitrile group substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hui-Jun; Kang, Seok-Ju; Xu, Yong; Kim, Seul Ong; Kim, Yun-Hi; Noh, Yong-Young; Kwon, Soon-Ki

    2014-11-19

    A record-breaking high electron mobility of 7.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for n-channel polymer OFETs is reported. By the incorporation of only one nitrile group as an electron-withdrawing function in the vinyl linkage of the DPP-based copolymer, a dramatic inversion of majority charge-carriers from holes to electrons is achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Dramatic Rewritings of the Spanish Golden Age Theater of Cervantes´s La fuerza de la sangre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Escudero Baztán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Golden age spanish theater recreations of Cervantes’s exemplary novel La fuerza de la sangre. Specifically, the paper reviews three important stages in these recreations: La fuerza de la sangre of Guillen de Castro, El agravio satisfecho de Castillo Solórzano, and No hay cosa como callar de Calderon de la Barca. Different rewrites indicate a close relationship between the three dramatic texts through intertextuality and other influences.

  10. Aging, subjective experience, and cognitive control: dramatic false remembering by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L; Bishara, Anthony J; Hessels, Sandra; Toth, Jeffrey P

    2005-05-01

    Recent research suggests that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects than are young adults; however, that research has failed to equate differences in original learning. In 4 experiments, the authors show that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects produced by a misleading prime. Even when original learning was equated, older adults were 10 times as likely to falsely remember misleading information and were much less likely to increase their accuracy by opting not to answer under conditions of free responding. The results are well described by a multinomial model that postulates multiple modes of cognitive control. According to that model, older adults are likely to be captured by misleading information, a form of goal neglect or deficit in inhibitory functions. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. beta 1 integrin inhibition dramatically enhances radiotherapy efficacy in human breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Catherine C.; Park, Catherine C.; Zhang, Hui J.; Yao, Evelyn S.; Park, Chong J.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-06-02

    {beta}1 integrin signaling has been shown to mediate cellular resistance to apoptosis after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). Other signaling molecules that increase resistance include Akt, which promotes cell survival downstream of {beta}1 integrin signaling. We showed previously that {beta}1 integrin inhibitory antibodies, AIIB2, enhance apoptosis and decrease growth in human breast cancer cells in 3 dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (3D lrECM) cultures and in vivo. Here we asked whether AIIB2 could synergize with IR to modify Akt-mediated IR resistance. We used 3D lrECM cultures to test the optimal combination of AIIB2 with IR treatment of two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HMT3522-T4-2, as well as T4-2 myr-Akt breast cancer colonies or HMT3522-S-1, which form normal organotypic structures in 3D lrECM. Colonies were assayed for apoptosis and {beta}1 integrin/Akt signaling pathways were evaluated using western blot. In addition, mice bearing MCF-7 xenografts were used to validate the findings in 3D lrECM. We report that AIIB2 increased apoptosis optimally post-IR by down regulating Akt in breast cancer colonies in 3D lrECM. In vivo, addition of AIIB2 after IR significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to either treatment alone. Remarkably, the degree of tumor growth inhibition using AIIB2 plus 2 Gy radiation was similar to that of 8 Gy alone. We showed previously that AIIB2 had no discernible toxicity in mice; here, its addition allowed for a significant reduction in the IR dose that was necessary to achieve comparable growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer xenografts in vivo.

  12. beta 1 integrin inhibition dramatically enhances radiotherapy efficacy in human breast cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Park, Catherine C.; Zhang, Hui J.; Yao, Evelyn S.; Park, Chong J.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-01-01

    β1 integrin signaling has been shown to mediate cellular resistance to apoptosis after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). Other signaling molecules that increase resistance include Akt, which promotes cell survival downstream of β1 integrin signaling. We showed previously that β1 integrin inhibitory antibodies, AIIB2, enhance apoptosis and decrease growth in human breast cancer cells in 3 dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (3D lrECM) cultures and in vivo. Here we asked whether AIIB2 could synergize with IR to modify Akt-mediated IR resistance. We used 3D lrECM cultures to test the optimal combination of AIIB2 with IR treatment of two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HMT3522-T4-2, as well as T4-2 myr-Akt breast cancer colonies or HMT3522-S-1, which form normal organotypic structures in 3D lrECM. Colonies were assayed for apoptosis and β1 integrin/Akt signaling pathways were evaluated using western blot. In addition, mice bearing MCF-7 xenografts were used to validate the findings in 3D lrECM. We report that AIIB2 increased apoptosis optimally post-IR by down regulating Akt in breast cancer colonies in 3D lrECM. In vivo, addition of AIIB2 after IR significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis compared to either treatment alone. Remarkably, the degree of tumor growth inhibition using AIIB2 plus 2 Gy radiation was similar to that of 8 Gy alone. We showed previously that AIIB2 had no discernible toxicity in mice; here, its addition allowed for a significant reduction in the IR dose that was necessary to achieve comparable growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer xenografts in vivo

  13. The meteoric rise and dramatic fall of Theranos: lessons learned for the diagnostic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Clare; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2018-05-11

    In this piece we discuss and reflect on the conclusion of the Theranos saga in the light of its fraud conviction. Theranos (founded in 2003 by Elizabeth Holmes) was supposed to disrupt the diagnostic testing industry by developing technology which could perform dozens of tests using a tiny amount of blood from a finger-prick. As a result, Ms. Holmes rose to fame, becoming the world's youngest female self-made billionaire and was plastered across magazine covers. However, in 2014, Theranos began to fall apart following increasingly damaging revelations regarding its lack of expertise, technology, framework, extreme secrecy and inaccurate test results. This led to the closure of two of its laboratories, investor and patient lawsuits and the devaluation of Ms. Holmes's wealth to nothing. In March 2018, the United States Security Exchange Commission ordered Ms. Holmes to pay $500,000 to settle the charge of massive fraud and barred her from being a director of a publicly owned company for 10 years, likely concluding Theranos's endeavors. We conclude our series of articles on this topic by reflecting on the lessons the laboratory medicine community can learn from Theranos.

  14. Dramatic change of the recurrence time and outburst parameters of the intermediate polar GK Persei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2002-02-01

    This analysis has shown that the intermediate polar GK Per experienced a very striking evolution. Its outbursts became wider and brighter in the last five decades. These changes were accompanied by striking variations of the recurrence time T_C, from 385 days within the years 1948-1967 to 890 days in 1970. Nowadays, T_C displays a strong trend of linear increase. Decrease of irradiation of the disk by the WD, combined with the decrease of viscosity, offers a plausible explanation. It is argued that variations of the mass transfer rate are unlikely to play a major role. The morphology of the outburst light curves in the optical and the X-ray region is also studied. The decay branch in the optical remains remarkably similar for all the events while the largest changes of the light curve occur in the rising branch. This can be explained if the thermal instability may start at different distances from the disk center. The quiescent level of brightness does not display any secular trend in recent decades but a wave on the time scale of about 30 years with the full amplitude of 0.3 m_v, probably due to activity of the cool star, is detected. This research has made use of the AFOEV database, operated at CDS, France, and the observations provided by the ASM/RXTE team.

  15. Global Increases in Individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Henri C; Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Individualism appears to have increased over the past several decades, yet most research documenting this shift has been limited to the study of a handful of highly developed countries. Is the world becoming more individualist as a whole? If so, why? To answer these questions, we examined 51 years of data on individualist practices and values across 78 countries. Our findings suggest that individualism is indeed rising in most of the societies we tested. Despite dramatic shifts toward greater individualism around the world, however, cultural differences remain sizable. Moreover, cultural differences are primarily linked to changes in socioeconomic development, and to a lesser extent to shifts in pathogen prevalence and disaster frequency.

  16. A hetero retro Diels-Alder reaction in aqueous solution : A dramatic water-induced increase of the equilibrium constant and inhibition of cycloreversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, J.W; Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    The adduct of the Diels-Alder reaction of nitrosobenzene with cyclopentadiene is not stable in solution. The equilibrium constant for the reaction depends strongly on the medium and water induces a spectacular shift to the adduct. Comparison with the bimolecular addition of nitrosobenzene to

  17. Mutation of yeast Eug1p CXXS active sites to CXXC results in a dramatic increase in protein disulphide isomerase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Winther, Jakob R.

    2001-01-01

    to thioredoxin and with CXXC catalytic motifs. EUG1 encodes a yeast protein, Eug1p, that is highly homologous to PDI. However, Eug1p contains CXXS motifs instead of CXXC. In the current model for PDI function both cysteines in this motif are required for PDI-catalysed oxidase activity. To gain more insight...... into the biochemical properties of this unusual variant of PDI we have purified and characterized the protein. We have furthermore generated a number of mutant forms of Eug1p in which either or both of the active sites have been mutated to a CXXC sequence. To determine the catalytic capacity of the wild...

  18. Surveillance, Auditing, and Feedback Can Reduce Surgical Site Infection Dramatically: Toward Zero Surgical Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Bhavani; Gowda, Deepak; Bulagonda, Pradeep; Rao, Abhishek; Raman, Sai Suguna; Natarajan, Shanmuga Vadivoo

    2018-04-01

    We evaluated the Surveillance of Surgical Site Infection (SSI), Auditing, and Feedback (SAF) effect on the rate of compliance with an SSI care bundle and measured its effectiveness in reducing the SSI rate. A prospective cohort study from January 2014 to December 2016 was classified into three phases: pre-SAF, early-SAF, and late-SAF. Pre-operative baseline characteristics of 24,677 patients who underwent orthopedic, cardiovascular thoracic surgery (CTVS) or urologic operations were recorded. Univariable analyses of the SSI rates in the pre-SAF and post-SAF phases were performed. Percentage compliance and non-compliance with each care component were calculated. Correlation between reduction in the SSI rate and increase in compliance with the pre-operative, peri-operative, and post-operative care-bundle components was performed using the Spearman test. There was a significant decrease in the SSI rate in orthopedic procedures that involved surgical implantation and in mitral valve/aortic valve (MVR/AVR) cardiac operations, with a relative risk (RR) ratio of 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.31) and 0.08 (95% CI 0.03-0.22), respectively. The SSI rate was inversely correlated with the rate of compliance with pre-operative (r = -0.738; p = 0.037), peri-operative (r = - 0.802; p = 0.017), and post-operative (r = -0.762; p = 0.028) care bundles. Implementation of the Surveillance of SSI, Auditing, and Feedback bundle had a profound beneficial effect on the SSI rate, thereby reducing healthcare costs and improving patient quality of life.

  19. Dynamic Evolution of Pathogenicity Revealed by Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of 19 Pseudomonas syringae Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Artur; Chang, Jeff H.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Cherkis, Karen; Roach, Jeff; Grant, Sarah R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2011-01-01

    Closely related pathogens may differ dramatically in host range, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary basis for these differences remains unclear. In many Gram- negative bacteria, including the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, type III effectors (TTEs) are essential for pathogenicity, instrumental in structuring host range, and exhibit wide diversity between strains. To capture the dynamic nature of virulence gene repertoires across P. syringae, we screened 11 diverse strains for novel TTE families and coupled this nearly saturating screen with the sequencing and assembly of 14 phylogenetically diverse isolates from a broad collection of diseased host plants. TTE repertoires vary dramatically in size and content across all P. syringae clades; surprisingly few TTEs are conserved and present in all strains. Those that are likely provide basal requirements for pathogenicity. We demonstrate that functional divergence within one conserved locus, hopM1, leads to dramatic differences in pathogenicity, and we demonstrate that phylogenetics-informed mutagenesis can be used to identify functionally critical residues of TTEs. The dynamism of the TTE repertoire is mirrored by diversity in pathways affecting the synthesis of secreted phytotoxins, highlighting the likely role of both types of virulence factors in determination of host range. We used these 14 draft genome sequences, plus five additional genome sequences previously reported, to identify the core genome for P. syringae and we compared this core to that of two closely related non-pathogenic pseudomonad species. These data revealed the recent acquisition of a 1 Mb megaplasmid by a sub-clade of cucumber pathogens. This megaplasmid encodes a type IV secretion system and a diverse set of unknown proteins, which dramatically increases both the genomic content of these strains and the pan-genome of the species. PMID:21799664

  20. Dramatic Response with Single-Agent Ibrutinib in Multiply Relapsed Marginal Zone Lymphoma with MYD88L265P Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Lynch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The B-cell receptor signaling pathway is important in the lymphomagenesis of many lymphomas, including marginal zone lymphoma (MZL. Herein we describe a case of extranodal MZL refractory to multiple lines of therapy. The presence of an IgM paraprotein prompted further evaluation, and the patient was found to have an MYD88L265P mutation. Treatment with ibrutinib led to a dramatic response with prompt resolution of symptoms and significant improvement in measurable sites of disease. The excellent response to ibrutinib in our patient with MYD88L265P-mutated refractory MZL supports a biological rationale for its use.

  1. Chekhov’s dramatic art and cinematograph: implementation of author’s assumption in active shot mode

    OpenAIRE

    Bezrukov Andrei Nikolayevich

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the art specificity of Chekhov’s legacy in dramatic art based on implementing in national film industry. Chekhov’s drama is divertive in its interpretation by the reader, the researcher, and in the director’s cut. Eccentricity frequently occurs in his dramaturgy. In literary text this device is not only a part of aesthetic picturing but also the form of overthinking, transformation of reality and changing the attitude to reality. The main division of the text form alters ...

  2. On the optimum processing conditions of Pb(Zr x Ti1-x )O3: revealing the mechanisms to increase the piezoelectric coefficients up to 1100 pm V-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeibekis, M.; Vertsioti, G.; Stamopoulos, D.

    2016-03-01

    The ferroelectric compound family Pb(Zr x Ti1-x )O3 (PZT) is one of the most investigated and widely used piezoelectric materials. Optimization of the piezoelectric coefficients is observed for x ~ 0.52 (Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3) and is further promoted by the increase of grain size (GS). However, in some cases the piezoelectric properties of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 deteriorate upon processing due to the decrease of density, ρ, that is mostly ascribed to the appearance of byproduct phases. In the present study we discuss the influence of the processing conditions on the piezoelectric properties for polycrystalline Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3, specifically focusing on the sintering temperature, 1100 °C  ⩽  T sin  ⩽  1250 °C. To this end, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM), Archimedes’ method, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and a newly introduced local technique, based on a conventional optical microscope, which is further developed here to accommodate non-clamped specimens. The data obtained via this technique in the regime of relatively high electric fields evidence that the absolute piezoelectric coefficients, |d zi | (i  =  x, y) show a non-monotonic behavior with an unexpectedly high maximum value |d zi | ~ 1100 pm V-1 at T sin  =  1180 °C. These features are accompanied by a progressive increase of coercivity, reaching maximum value E C,i ~ 4.5-5.0 kV cm-1 (i  =  x, y) at T sin  =  1250 °C. To explain these findings, the |d zi | coefficients are compared with the microstructure and compositional information, coming from AFM, Archimedes’ method and XRD data. We conclude that the significantly high |d zi | values observed for samples prepared at T sin  =  1180 °C are motivated by the increase of mean GS, , while for T sin  >  1180 °C the decrease of density, ρ, ascribed to the appearance of byproduct phases, dominates and deteriorates |d zi |. These experimental results on |d zi |(T sin) are reliably

  3. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja E. Menger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT, to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster.

  4. Tensile Mechanical Properties and Dynamic Collagen Fiber Re-Alignment of the Murine Cervix are Dramatically Altered Throughout Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Carrie E; Fey, Jennifer L; Weiss, Stephanie N; Barila, Guillermo; Brown, Amy G; Connizzo, Brianne K; Shetye, Snehal S; Elovitz, Michal A; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2017-06-01

    The cervix is a unique organ able to dramatically change its shape and function by serving as a physical barrier for the growing fetus and then undergoing dramatic dilation allowing for delivery of a term infant. As a result, the cervix endures changing mechanical forces from the growing fetus. There is an emerging concept that the cervix may change or remodel "early" in many cases of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). However, the mechanical role of the cervix in both normal and preterm birth remains unclear. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to determine the mechanical and structural responses of murine cervical tissue throughout a normal gestational time course. In this study, both tissue structural and material properties were determined via a quasi-static tensile load-to-failure test, while simultaneously obtaining dynamic collagen fiber re-alignment via cross-polarization imaging. This study demonstrated that the majority of the mechanical properties evaluated decreased at midgestation and not just at term, while collagen fiber re-alignment occurred earlier in the loading curve for cervices at term. This suggests that although structural changes in the cervix occur throughout gestation, the differences in material properties function in combination with collagen fiber re-alignment as mechanical precursors to regulate term gestation. This work lays a foundation for investigating cervical biomechanics and the role of the cervix in preterm birth.

  5. Hydroxycholesterol Levels in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica Revealed by LC-Ag+CIS/MS/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS with Picolinic Derivatization: Increased Levels and Association with Disability during Acute Attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Cha

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Hydroxycholesterols (OHCs, metabolites of CNS cholesterol, are involved in diverse cellular responses to inflammation and demyelination, and may also be involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. We aimed to develop a sensitive and reliable method for the quantitative analysis of three major OHCs (24S-, 25-, and 27-OHCs, and to evaluate their concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum of patients with NMO. The levels of the three OHCs in the serum and CSF were measured using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with picolinyl ester derivatization, respectively. The linear range was 5-250 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.5-25 ng/mL for 25-OHC in serum, and was 0.1-5 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.03-1 ng/mL for 25-OHC in CSF. Precision and accuracy were 0.5%-14.7% and 92.5%-109.7%, respectively, in serum, and were 0.8%-7.7% and 94.5%-119.2%, respectively, in CSF. Extraction recovery was 82.7%-90.7% in serum and 68.4%-105.0% in CSF. When analyzed in 26 NMO patients and 23 control patients, the 25-OHC (0.54 ± 0.96 ng/mL vs. 0.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL, p = 0.032 and 27-OHC (2.68 ± 3.18 ng/mL vs. 0.68 ± 0.25 ng/mL, p = 0.005 were increased in the CSF from NMO patients. When we measured the OHCCSF index that controls the effects of blood-brain barrier disruption on the level of OHC in the CSF, the 27-OHCCSF index was associated with disability (0.723; 95% confidence interval (CI- 0.181, 0.620; p = 0.002, while the 24-OHCCSF index (0.518; 95% CI- 1.070, 38.121; p = 0.040 and 25-OHCCSF index (0.677; 95% CI- 4.313, 18.532; p = 0.004 were associated with the number of white blood cells in the CSF of NMO patients. Our results imply that OHCs in the CNS could play a role in the pathogenesis of NMO.

  6. Hydroxycholesterol Levels in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica Revealed by LC-Ag+CIS/MS/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS with Picolinic Derivatization: Increased Levels and Association with Disability during Acute Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Duk; Park, Kyung Seok; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Hydroxycholesterols (OHCs), metabolites of CNS cholesterol, are involved in diverse cellular responses to inflammation and demyelination, and may also be involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. We aimed to develop a sensitive and reliable method for the quantitative analysis of three major OHCs (24S-, 25-, and 27-OHCs), and to evaluate their concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with NMO. The levels of the three OHCs in the serum and CSF were measured using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with picolinyl ester derivatization, respectively. The linear range was 5–250 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.5–25 ng/mL for 25-OHC in serum, and was 0.1–5 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.03–1 ng/mL for 25-OHC in CSF. Precision and accuracy were 0.5%–14.7% and 92.5%–109.7%, respectively, in serum, and were 0.8%–7.7% and 94.5%–119.2%, respectively, in CSF. Extraction recovery was 82.7%–90.7% in serum and 68.4%–105.0% in CSF. When analyzed in 26 NMO patients and 23 control patients, the 25-OHC (0.54 ± 0.96 ng/mL vs. 0.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL, p = 0.032) and 27-OHC (2.68 ± 3.18 ng/mL vs. 0.68 ± 0.25 ng/mL, p = 0.005) were increased in the CSF from NMO patients. When we measured the OHCCSF index that controls the effects of blood–brain barrier disruption on the level of OHC in the CSF, the 27-OHCCSF index was associated with disability (0.723; 95% confidence interval (CI)– 0.181, 0.620; p = 0.002), while the 24-OHCCSF index (0.518; 95% CI– 1.070, 38.121; p = 0.040) and 25-OHCCSF index (0.677; 95% CI– 4.313, 18.532; p = 0.004) were associated with the number of white blood cells in the CSF of NMO patients. Our results imply that OHCs in the CNS could play a role in the pathogenesis of NMO. PMID:27942009

  7. Combined Increases in Muscle-Strengthening Activity Frequency and Protein Intake Reveal Graded Relationship with Fat-Free Mass Percentage in U.S. Adults, NHANES (1999-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, J M; Vezina, J; Brown, D D; Schumacher, J; Cullen, R W; Laurson, K R

    2015-01-01

    Age-related loss of muscle mass and related ailments are of concern due to associations with disabilities and morbidity as well as constituting a substantial healthcare burden. Muscle-strengthening activities and adequate protein ingestion are recommended for all-age adults in an effort to stave off age-related muscle atrophy. Muscle building abilities decline with age but most research focuses on muscle wasting in the elderly. To examine the independent and combined associations of protein intake (g∙kg-1∙day-1) and muscle-strengthening frequency (times∙week-1, MSF) on fat-free mass percentage (FFM%). This cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample with data from the non-institutionalized persons in the United States participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cycles 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004) consisted of male (n=2,499) and female (n=2,373) participants 20-49 years of age for analyses. MSF was determined by self-report and protein intake was calculated from a 24-hour recall. Differences in FFM% from bioelectrical impedance analysis was estimated using multiple linear regression models controlling for education, race-ethnicity, standing height, and total Caloric intake. One unit increase in MSF or protein intake (β-coefficient, ±E) was associated with significantly more FFM% in males (0.6±0.1%; 3.5±0.4%) and females (0.4±0.1%; 5.9±0.4%). Independent of protein intake, males and females with MSF=0 had mean ±SE FFM% of 74.4±0.4 and 60.7±0.3, respectively, while mean ±SE FFM% of males and females who met the recommendation of ≥2 times per week were 77.9±0.5 and 63.0±0.4. Independent of MSF, males and females with protein intakes below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g∙kg-1∙day-1 had mean ±SE FFM% of 74.0±0.6 and 58.2±0.6, respectively, while mean ±SE FFM% of those whose intakes exceeded the recommendation were 75.6±0.4 and 62.0±0.4. The subgroup with the highest mean ±SE FFM% (80

  8. Live cell imaging reveals marked variability in myoblast proliferation and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During the process of muscle regeneration, activated stem cells termed satellite cells proliferate, and then differentiate to form new myofibers that restore the injured area. Yet not all satellite cells contribute to muscle repair. Some continue to proliferate, others die, and others become quiescent and are available for regeneration following subsequent injury. The mechanisms that regulate the adoption of different cell fates in a muscle cell precursor population remain unclear. Methods We have used live cell imaging and lineage tracing to study cell fate in the C2 myoblast line. Results Analyzing the behavior of individual myoblasts revealed marked variability in both cell cycle duration and viability, but similarities between cells derived from the same parental lineage. As a consequence, lineage sizes and outcomes differed dramatically, and individual lineages made uneven contributions toward the terminally differentiated population. Thus, the cohort of myoblasts undergoing differentiation at the end of an experiment differed dramatically from the lineages present at the beginning. Treatment with IGF-I increased myoblast number by maintaining viability and by stimulating a fraction of cells to complete one additional cell cycle in differentiation medium, and as a consequence reduced the variability of the terminal population compared with controls. Conclusion Our results reveal that heterogeneity of responses to external cues is an intrinsic property of cultured myoblasts that may be explained in part by parental lineage, and demonstrate the power of live cell imaging for understanding how muscle differentiation is regulated. PMID:23638706

  9. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  10. Changing things around: Dramatic aspect in the Pericope Adulterae (Jn 7:53–8:11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet van Staden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the transactional model of narrative as expounded by Louise Rosenblatt, supported by an analysis in terms of dramatic aspect, is employed to show how the interpolated scene in John 7:53–8:11 (known as the Pericope Adulterae and hereafter referred to as PA functions as a pivot of power in the gospel. The content of the scene, as well as its placement within the gospel, serves to promote an aesthetic reading that focusses attention on the experience during the reading event. Awareness of sensations, images, feelings and ideas from past experiences, as well as the sounds and rhythms of the words become important. The reader responds to the aesthetic transaction, the various elements of total experience, rather than simply to the text, during and after the reading event.

  11. Chekhov’s dramatic art and cinematograph: implementation of author’s assumption in active shot mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezrukov Andrei Nikolayevich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the art specificity of Chekhov’s legacy in dramatic art based on implementing in national film industry. Chekhov’s drama is divertive in its interpretation by the reader, the researcher, and in the director’s cut. Eccentricity frequently occurs in his dramaturgy. In literary text this device is not only a part of aesthetic picturing but also the form of overthinking, transformation of reality and changing the attitude to reality. The main division of the text form alters the character’s reality and his life into the moving picture frame, and changes the set visual representation into the symbol. Cinematic art allows to connect Chekhov’s text to the ornamentality of the image.

  12. Price Increases from Online Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael R.; Chen, Yu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this information enables them to better market their products. Policy makers are currently drafting rules to regulate the way in which these marketers can collect, store, and share this information. However, there is little evidence yet either of con...

  13. Dramatis persona in poetical and practical approach of dramatic text in 17th century French theory of theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bajer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the dramatis persona posited by the first French theatre theorists of the Richelieu circle, Jean Chapelain and Jules de la Mesnardiere, emerges as a quite literał implementation of the Aristotelian concepts unfolded in the sixth and fifteenth chapter of his Poetics. In a later period, the third of the aforementioned group of authors, François Hédelin d’Aubignac, dismisses the Aristotelian categories, erecting his theory upon the elements adopted from the Roman theory of rhetoric. The analysis of the Persona in classical drama theory allows to reconstruct the relation between these two 17th century dramatic approaches. The former is the traditional perspective relying on the postulations of the Aristotelian theory. The latter, which is a practical grasp, is new to the 17th century’s dramatic mindset, and was formulated by abbé d’Aubignac. Whereas the axis of poetics is the structural analysis of a work of art, it is the functioning of that work of art in the theatrical process of communication between the stage and the audience that remains the core interest of the practical approach. In this process, the rhetorical effect of presence of the dramatis persona should by created in the imagination of the spectator-auditor. The subject of analysis is common to both perspectives and the discrepancies concem merely aspects of its description. Therefore poetics and practice are neither competitive nor mutually exclusive, but can both legitimately coexist in the description of the very same work of art.

  14. Dramatic effect of pore size reduction on the dynamics of hydrogen adsorbed in metal–organic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Patrick

    2014-07-21

    The effects of pore size reduction on the dynamics of hydrogen sorption in metal-organic materials (MOMs) were elucidated by studying SIFSIX-2-Cu and its doubly interpenetrated polymorph SIFSIX-2-Cu-i by means of sorption, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and computational modeling. SIFSIX-2-Cu-i exhibits much smaller pore sizes, which possess high H2 sorption affinity at low loadings. Experimental H2 sorption measurements revealed that the isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) for H2 in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i is nearly two times higher than that for SIFSIX-2-Cu (8.6 vs. 4.6 kJ mol-1). The INS spectrum for H2 in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i is rather unique for a porous material, as only one broad peak appears at low energies near 6 meV, which simply increases in intensity with loading until the pores are filled. The value for this rotational transition is lower than that in most neutral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including those with open Cu sites (8-9 meV), which is indicative of a higher barrier to rotation and stronger interaction in the channels of SIFSIX-2-Cu-i than the open Cu sites in MOFs. Simulations of H2 sorption in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i revealed two hydrogen sorption sites in the MOM: direct interaction with the equatorial fluorine atom (site 1) and between two equatorial fluorine atoms on opposite walls (site 2). The calculated rotational energy levels and rotational barriers for the two sites in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i are in good agreement with INS data. Furthermore, the rotational barriers and binding energies for site 2 are slightly higher than that for site 1, which is consistent with INS results. The lowest calculated transition for the primary site in SIFSIX-2-Cu is also in good agreement with INS data. In addition, this transition in the non-interpenetrating material is higher than any of the sites in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i, which indicates a significantly weaker interaction with the host as a result of the larger pore size. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  15. Combined administration of oseltamivir and hochu-ekki-to (TJ-41) dramatically decreases the viral load in lungs of senescence-accelerated mice during influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgitani, Eriko; Kita, Masakazu; Mazda, Osam; Imanishi, Jiro

    2014-02-01

    To enhance the effect of anti-influenza-virus agent treatment, the effect of combined administration of oseltamivir phosphate and hochu-ekki-to (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, HET) on early viral clearance was examined. Senescence-accelerated mice were given HET in drinking water for 2 weeks, followed by intranasal infection with influenza A virus strain PR8. After 4 hours of infection, oseltamivir was administered orally for 5 days. The viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving combined treatment were dramatically lower when compared with the viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving oseltamivir alone. HET significantly increased the induction of IL-1β and TNF-α in the lungs of PR8-infected mice and stimulated alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. From these results, we conclude that these functions may be responsible the increased effect on viral load reduction. Here, we show that the combined administration of oseltamivir and HET is very useful for influenza treatment in senescence-accelerated mice.

  16. Opioid prescriptions for pain and epidemic of overdose death: can the dramatic reduction in anesthesia mortality serve as an example?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissin I

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Igor Kissin Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The annual number of US deaths from prescription-opioid overdose quadrupled between 1999 and 2010 and in 2010 alone reached 16,651. Deaths from opioid overdose have now surpassed the historic death toll from another drug-related epidemic – anesthesia mortality. In 1954, Beecher and Todd published reliable data on anesthesia-related mortality in the US, estimating the annual number of deaths to be nearly 5,000. Presently anesthesia/anesthetics are reported as the underlying cause in approximately 34 deaths in the US annually. This spectacular decline in anesthesia-related mortality could serve as an example for attempts to curb the epidemic of opioid overdose death. The main reason that led to the dramatic decline in anesthesia-related mortality is the context in which anesthetics are used. It includes training of the anesthesia providers, the introduction of specific standards of patient safety, and anesthesia monitoring. I suggest that the introduction of a similar multifactorial proper context for the use of opioids in the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain might be the same “game changer” it was for safety in anesthesia. Keywords: chronic pain, addiction, opioid-use disorder, treatment compliance, apprenticeship, metrics of opioid effectiveness, aberrant opioid-related behavior

  17. Bariatric Surgery Prior to Total Joint Arthroplasty May Not Provide Dramatic Improvements In Post Arthroplasty Surgical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Elizabeth W.; Fisher, David; Li, Robert A.; Barber, Thomas C.; Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surgical outcomes of patients who had bariatric surgery prior to TJA to TJA patients who were candidates but did not have bariatric surgery. Patients were retrospectively grouped into: Group 1 (n=69), those with bariatric surgery >2 years prior to TJA, Group 2 (n=102), those with surgery within 2 years of TJA, and Group 3 (n=11,032), those without bariatric surgery. In Group 1, 2.9% (95%CI 0.0–6.9%) had complications within 1 year compared to 5.9% (95%CI 1.3–10.4%) in Group 2, and 4.1% (95%CI 3.8–4.5%) in Group 3. 90-day readmission (7.2%, 95%CI 1.1–13.4%) and revision density (3.4/100 years of observation) was highest in Group 1. Bariatric surgery prior to TJA may not provide dramatic improvements in post-operative TJA surgical outcomes. PMID:24674730

  18. Therapeutic doll play in the treatment of a severely impaired psychiatric inpatient: dramatic clinical improvements with a nontraditional nursing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Shira; Hanchuk, Hilary; Nelson, Marjorie

    2015-05-01

    Interest has grown in the use of doll therapy, particularly in geropsychiatric and dementia care settings. In a long-term state psychiatric hospital, a dollhouse-play activity was implemented in an effort to engage an acutely disturbed, middle-aged woman undergoing medication trials and whose symptoms had been refractory to conventional treatments. A schedule of nondirective dollhouse-play activities was implemented over an 8-week period. Measures of behavioral change were tracked. Dramatic clinical improvements were seen, including significant reductions in verbal and physical aggression, use of as-needed medications, and need for close one-to-one monitoring. Improvements were seen prior to achievement of therapeutic drug levels. The patient was successfully discharged from the hospital. Doll play has recently been associated with clinical benefits in the care of patients with dementia and has long been deployed in childhood mental health treatment. The current findings suggest doll play may have applications as a time-limited intervention in the treatment of major psychiatric disorders in adults and warrants consideration when achieving therapeutic alliance has proven particularly challenging. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Intravenous erythromycin dramatically accelerates gastric emptying in gastroparesis diabeticorum and normals and abolishes the emptying discrimination between solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Vantrappen, G.; Janssens, J.; Van Cutsem, E.; Peeters, T.; De Roo, M.

    1990-01-01

    Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has recently been shown to have a motilin like effect on gastrointestinal muscle strips. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of erythromycin on patients with delayed gastric emptying and healthy subjects using the dual radionuclide technique. Twelve patients with gastroparesis diabeticorum and ten healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined using 99mTc-SC scrambled egg and 111In-DTPA in water. Following a baseline study and on a separate day, each patient and control received a 15-min i.v. perfusion of erythromycin starting at meal ingestion. Eleven out of the 12 patients were restudied after a 3-wk oral administration. In patients and controls, i.v. erythromycin dramatically accelerated gastric emptying of both solids and liquids which were emptied at the same rate. After chronic oral administration, solid and liquid emptying remained significantly accelerated. Erythromycin appears to be a very powerful gastrokinetic drug. Derived compounds with the gastrokinetic effect and without the antibiotic activity could be useful in dyspeptic patients with delayed gastric emptying

  20. Intravenous erythromycin dramatically accelerates gastric emptying in gastroparesis diabeticorum and normals and abolishes the emptying discrimination between solids and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, J.L.; Vantrappen, G.; Janssens, J.; Van Cutsem, E.; Peeters, T.; De Roo, M. (Univ. of Leuven (Belgium))

    1990-09-01

    Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has recently been shown to have a motilin like effect on gastrointestinal muscle strips. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of erythromycin on patients with delayed gastric emptying and healthy subjects using the dual radionuclide technique. Twelve patients with gastroparesis diabeticorum and ten healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined using 99mTc-SC scrambled egg and 111In-DTPA in water. Following a baseline study and on a separate day, each patient and control received a 15-min i.v. perfusion of erythromycin starting at meal ingestion. Eleven out of the 12 patients were restudied after a 3-wk oral administration. In patients and controls, i.v. erythromycin dramatically accelerated gastric emptying of both solids and liquids which were emptied at the same rate. After chronic oral administration, solid and liquid emptying remained significantly accelerated. Erythromycin appears to be a very powerful gastrokinetic drug. Derived compounds with the gastrokinetic effect and without the antibiotic activity could be useful in dyspeptic patients with delayed gastric emptying.

  1. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Melissa A.; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  2. Dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and new insights into intestinal protozoa in children living in the Chaco region, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2-12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Dramatic Decrease in Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and New Insights Into Intestinal Protozoa in Children Living in the Chaco Region, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2–12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. PMID:25711609

  4. OGLE-2017-BLG-0329L: A Microlensing Binary Characterized with Dramatically Enhanced Precision Using Data from Space-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C.; Calchi Novati, S.; Udalski, A.; Lee, C.-U.; Gould, A.; Bozza, V.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; Poleski, R.; Soszyński, I.; Kozłowski, S.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K.; Iwanek, P.; The OGLE Collaboration; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jung, Y. K.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Yee, J. C.; Zang, W.; Zhu, W.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; Kim, W.-T.; The KMTNet Collaboration; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; The Spitzer Team; Dominik, M.; Helling, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Longa-Peña, P.; Lowry, S.; Sajadian, S.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Campbell-White, J.; Ciceri, S.; Evans, D. F.; Haikala, L. K.; Hinse, T. C.; Rahvar, S.; Rabus, M.; Snodgrass, C.; The MiNDSTEp Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    Mass measurements of gravitational microlenses require one to determine the microlens parallax π E, but precise π E measurement, in many cases, is hampered due to the subtlety of the microlens-parallax signal combined with the difficulty of distinguishing the signal from those induced by other higher-order effects. In this work, we present the analysis of the binary-lens event OGLE-2017-BLG-0329, for which π E is measured with a dramatically improved precision using additional data from space-based Spitzer observations. We find that while the parallax model based on the ground-based data cannot be distinguished from a zero-π E model at the 2σ level, the addition of the Spitzer data enables us to identify two classes of solutions, each composed of a pair of solutions according to the well-known ecliptic degeneracy. It is found that the space-based data reduce the measurement uncertainties of the north and east components of the microlens-parallax vector {{\\boldsymbol{π }}}{{E}} by factors ∼18 and ∼4, respectively. With the measured microlens parallax combined with the angular Einstein radius measured from the resolved caustic crossings, we find that the lens is composed of a binary with component masses of either (M 1, M 2) ∼ (1.1, 0.8) M ⊙ or ∼(0.4, 0.3) M ⊙ according to the two solution classes. The first solution is significantly favored but the second cannot be securely ruled out based on the microlensing data alone. However, the degeneracy can be resolved from adaptive optics observations taken ∼10 years after the event.

  5. Age and Chronicity of Administration Dramatically Influenced the Impact of Low Dose Paraquat Exposure on Behavior and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Rudyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known of the age-dependent and long-term consequences of low exposure levels of the herbicide and dopaminergic toxicant, paraquat. Thus, we assessed the dose-dependent effects of paraquat using a typical short-term (3 week exposure procedure, followed by an assessment of the effects of chronic (16 weeks exposure to a very low dose (1/10th of what previously induced dopaminergic neuronal damage. Short term paraquat treatment dose-dependently induced deficits in locomotion, sucrose preference and Y-maze performance. Chronic low dose paraquat treatment had a very different pattern of effects that were also dependent upon the age of the animal: in direct contrast to the short-term effects, chronic low dose paraquat increased sucrose consumption and reduced forced swim test (FST immobility. Yet these effects were age-dependent, only emerging in mice older than 13 months. Likewise, Y-maze spontaneous alternations and home cage activity were dramatically altered as a function of age and paraquat chronicity. In both the short and long-term exposure studies, increased corticosterone and altered hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR levels were induced by paraquat, but surprisingly these effects were blunted in the older mice. Thus, paraquat clearly acts as a systemic stressor in terms of corticoid signaling and behavioral outcomes, but that paradoxical effects may occur with: (a repeated exposure at; (b very low doses; and (c older age. Collectively, these data raise the possibility that repeated “hits” with low doses of paraquat in combination with aging processes might have promoted compensatory outcomes.

  6. Dramatically Polarized Opinion on the Role of Brachytherapy Boost in Management of High-risk Prostate Cancer: A Survey of North American Genitourinary Expert Radiation Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Sandler, Kiri A; Degnin, Catherine; Chen, Yiyi; Mitin, Timur

    2018-06-01

    Three randomized clinical trials have established brachytherapy (BT) boost in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as superior to definitive EBRT and ADT alone in terms of biochemical control (but not overall survival) at the expense of increased toxicity in men with high-risk (HR) prostate cancer (PCa). The current view regarding these 2 treatment algorithms among North American genitourinary (GU) experts is not known. A survey was distributed to 88 practicing North American GU physicians serving on decision-making committees of cooperative group research organizations. Questions pertained to opinions regarding BT as monotherapy for low-risk PCa and BT boost for HR PCa. Responders were asked to self-identify as BT experts versus non-experts. Treatment recommendations were correlated with practice patterns using the Fisher exact test. Forty-two radiation oncologists completed the survey, of whom 23 (55%) recommend EBRT and ADT alone and 19 (45%) recommend addition of BT boost. Twenty-five participants (60%) identified themselves as BT experts. Nearly 90% of those recommending BT boost were BT experts versus approximately 10% of non-BT experts (P < .001). Responders who recommended BT monotherapy as first-choice treatment for low-risk PCa were more likely to recommend BT boost for HR PCa (P < .0001). There is a dramatic polarization in opinions regarding incorporation of BT boost into EBRT + ADT therapy for patients with HR PCa among North American GU radiation oncology experts, who serve on decision-making committees and influence the national treatment guidelines and future clinical trials. Those who identify themselves as BT experts are significantly more likely to recommend BT boost. These findings are likely to influence the national guidelines and implementation of BT boost in current and future North American PCa clinical studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load in the Huangfuchuan Basin of the Middle Yellow River, China: historical records and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, E.; Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellow River is well known for its high sediment load and serious water shortage. The long-term averaged sediment load is about 1.6´103 million tons per year, resulting in aggrading and perched lower reaches. In recent years, however, dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load have been observed. The annual sediment load has been less than 150 million tons in the last ten years. Extrapolation of this trend into the future would motivate substantial change in the management strategies of the Lower Yellow River. To understand the possible trend and its coevolving drivers, we performed a case study of the Huangfuchuang River, which is a tributary to the Middle Yellow River, with a drainage area of 3246 km2 and an annual precipitation of 365 mm. Statistical analysis of historical data from 1960s to 2015 showed a significantly decreasing trend in runoff and sediment load since 1984. As potential drivers, the precipitation does not show an obvious change in annual amount, while the vegetation cover and the number of check dams have been increased gradually as a result of the national Grain for Green project. A simulation with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) reproduced the historical evolution processes, and showed that human activities dominated the reduction in runoff and sediment load, with a contribution of around 80%. We then projected the runoff and sediment load for the next 50 years (2016-2066), considering typical scenarios of climate change and accounting for vegetation cover development subject to climate conditions and storage capacity loss of check dams due to sediment deposition. The differences between the projected trend and the historical record were analyzed, so as to highlight the coevolving processes of climate, vegetation, and check dam retention on a time scale of decades. Keywords: Huangfuchuan River Basin, sediment load, vegetation cover, check dams, annual precipitation, SWAT.

  8. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  9. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  10. Dramatic elevation in urinary amino terminal titin fragment excretion quantified by immunoassay in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and in dystrophin deficient rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alan S; Majchrzak, Mark J; Smith, Courtney M; Gagnon, Robert C; Devidze, Nino; Banks, Glen B; Little, Sean C; Nabbie, Fizal; Bounous, Denise I; DiPiero, Janet; Jacobsen, Leslie K; Bristow, Linda J; Ahlijanian, Michael K; Stimpson, Stephen A

    2017-07-01

    Enzyme-linked and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays were developed for quantification of amino (N-) terminal fragments of the skeletal muscle protein titin (N-ter titin) and qualified for use in detection of urinary N-ter titin excretion. Urine from normal subjects contained a small but measurable level of N-ter titin (1.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml). A 365-fold increase (365.4 ± 65.0, P = 0.0001) in urinary N-ter titin excretion was seen in Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. Urinary N-ter titin was also evaluated in dystrophin deficient rodent models. Mdx mice exhibited low urinary N-ter titin levels at 2 weeks of age followed by a robust and sustained elevation starting at 3 weeks of age, coincident with the development of systemic skeletal muscle damage in this model; fold elevation could not be determined because urinary N-ter titin was not detected in age-matched wild type mice. Levels of serum creatine kinase and serum skeletal muscle troponin I (TnI) were also low at 2 weeks, elevated at later time points and were significantly correlated with urinary N-ter titin excretion in mdx mice. Corticosteroid treatment of mdx mice resulted in improved exercise performance and lowering of both urinary N-ter titin and serum skeletal muscle TnI concentrations. Low urinary N-ter titin levels were detected in wild type rats (3.0 ± 0.6 ng/ml), while Dmd mdx rats exhibited a 556-fold increase (1652.5 ± 405.7 ng/ml, P = 0.002) (both at 5 months of age). These results suggest that urinary N-ter titin is present at low basal concentrations in normal urine and increases dramatically coincident with muscle damage produced by dystrophin deficiency. Urinary N-ter titin has potential as a facile, non-invasive and translational biomarker for DMD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dramatic variability of the carbonate system at a temperate coastal ocean site (Beaufort, North Carolina, USA is regulated by physical and biogeochemical processes on multiple timescales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackary I Johnson

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 from anthropogenic sources is acidifying marine environments resulting in potentially dramatic consequences for the physical, chemical and biological functioning of these ecosystems. If current trends continue, mean ocean pH is expected to decrease by ~0.2 units over the next ~50 years. Yet, there is also substantial temporal variability in pH and other carbon system parameters in the ocean resulting in regions that already experience change that exceeds long-term projected trends in pH. This points to short-term dynamics as an important layer of complexity on top of long-term trends. Thus, in order to predict future climate change impacts, there is a critical need to characterize the natural range and dynamics of the marine carbonate system and the mechanisms responsible for observed variability. Here, we present pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC at time intervals spanning 1 hour to >1 year from a dynamic, coastal, temperate marine system (Beaufort Inlet, Beaufort NC USA to characterize the carbonate system at multiple time scales. Daily and seasonal variation of the carbonate system is largely driven by temperature, alkalinity and the balance between primary production and respiration, but high frequency change (hours to days is further influenced by water mass movement (e.g. tides and stochastic events (e.g. storms. Both annual (~0.3 units and diurnal (~0.1 units variability in coastal ocean acidity are similar in magnitude to 50 year projections of ocean acidity associated with increasing atmospheric CO2. The environmental variables driving these changes highlight the importance of characterizing the complete carbonate system rather than just pH. Short-term dynamics of ocean carbon parameters may already exert significant pressure on some coastal marine ecosystems with implications for ecology, biogeochemistry and evolution and this shorter term variability layers additive effects and

  12. Dramatic effect of pore size reduction on the dynamics of hydrogen adsorbed in metal–organic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Patrick; Pham, Tony; McLaughlin, Keith; Georgiev, Peter A.; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Embs, Jan Peter; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian; Eckert, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    -2-Cu-i is nearly two times higher than that for SIFSIX-2-Cu (8.6 vs. 4.6 kJ mol-1). The INS spectrum for H2 in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i is rather unique for a porous material, as only one broad peak appears at low energies near 6 meV, which simply increases

  13. An Efficient Algorithm for Modelling Duration in Hidden Markov Models, with a Dramatic Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Sloth, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    For many years, the hidden Markov model (HMM) has been one of the most popular tools for analysing sequential data. One frequently used special case is the left-right model, in which the order of the hidden states is known. If knowledge of the duration of a state is available it is not possible...... to represent it explicitly with an HMM. Methods for modelling duration with HMM's do exist (Rabiner in Proc. IEEE 77(2):257---286, [1989]), but they come at the price of increased computational complexity. Here we present an efficient and robust algorithm for modelling duration in HMM's, and this algorithm...

  14. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  15. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  16. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  17. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  18. Dramatic changes in ectomycorrhizal community composition, root tip abundance and mycelial production along a stand-scale nitrogen deposition gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Nilsson, Lars Ola; Hansen, Karin

    2012-01-01

    • Nitrogen (N) availability is known to influence ectomycorrhizal fungal components, such as fungal community composition, biomass of root tips and production of mycelia, but effects have never been demonstrated within the same forest. • We measured concurrently the abundance of ectomycorrhizal...... root tips and the production of external mycelia, and explored the changes in the ectomycorrhizal community composition, across a stand-scale N deposition gradient (from 27 to 43 kg N ha¿¹ yr¿¹) at the edge of a spruce forest. The N status was affected along the gradient as shown by a range of N...... availability indices. • Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and mycelial production decreased five and 10-fold, respectively, with increasing N deposition. In addition, the ectomycorrhizal fungal community changed and the species richness decreased. The changes were correlated with the measured indices of N...

  19. GABA dramatically improves glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Nepton

    2018-05-05

    Skeletal muscle, hepatic insulin resistance, and beta cell dysfunction are the characteristic pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GABA has an important role in pancreatic islet cells. The present study attempted to clarify the possible mechanism of GABA to improve glucose tolerance in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five groups: NDC that was fed the normal diet, CD which received a high-fat diet with streptozotocin, CD-GABA animals that received GABA via intraperitoneal injection, plus CD-Ins1 and CD-Ins2 groups which were treated with low and high doses of insulin, respectively. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), urine volume, amount of water drinking, and food intake assessments were performed monthly. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was done for assessing insulin resistance. Plasma insulin and glucagon were measured. Abdominal fat was measured. Glucagon receptor, Glucose 6 phosphatase, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes expression were evaluated in liver and Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes expression and protein translocation were evaluated in the muscle. GABA or insulin therapy improved blood glucose, insulin level, IPGTT, ITT, gluconeogenesis pathway, Glucagon receptor, body weight and body fat in diabetic rats. GLUT4 gene and protein expression increased. GABA whose beneficial effect was comparable to that of insulin, also increased glucose infusion rate during an euglycemic clamp. GABA could improve insulin resistance via rising GLUT4 and also decreasing the gluconeogenesis pathway and Glucagon receptor gene expression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Dramatic declines of DDE and other organochlorines in spring migrant Peregrine Falcons from Padre Island, Texas, 1978-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Yates, M.A.; Seegar, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) captured in the spring at Padre Island, Texas, nest across the arctic and subarctic from Alaska to Greenland and winter throughout Latin America. Padre Island, located immediately north of the Mexican border, is the peregrines' first landfall in the U.S.A. after spending about 6 mo in Latin America. Blood plasma was collected from spring migrants at Padre Island between 1978 and 2004 to monitor trends in organochlorine (OC) pesticides and their metabolites. Geometric mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE (??g/g, ww) decreased throughout the study: 1978-1979 (0.879), 1980 (0.617), 1984 (0.551), 1994 (0.406) and 2004 (0.013). Most other OC pesticides, with detection limits used during the earlier portion of this study, were no longer detected during the last two sampling periods. The reduced concentrations of OC pesticides suggest that other pesticides (including carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) are likely being used as replacements. These replacement compounds are not as persistent and cannot be readily evaluated at migration sites like Padre Island. However, concentrations of flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers; PBDEs) have recently increased in bird eggs in many regions and have been reported in blood plasma. Concentrations of PBDEs in peregrine plasma could be evaluated at Padre Island for assessment of trends in the Americas. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  1. A novel photoactive and three-dimensional stainless steel anode dramatically enhances the current density of bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huajun; Tang, Chenyi; Wang, Qing; Liang, Yuxiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Guo, Kun; He, Qiaoqiao; Jayaprada, Thilini; Zhou, Yuyang; Chen, Ting; Ying, Xianbin; Wang, Meizhen

    2018-04-01

    This study reports a high-performance 3D stainless-steel photoanode (3D SS photoanode) for bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). The 3D SS photoanode consists of 3D carbon-coated SS felt bioactive side and a flat α-Fe 2 O 3 -coated SS plate photoactive side. Without light illumination, the electrode reached a current density of 26.2 ± 1.9 A m -2 , which was already one of the highest current densities reported thus far. Under illumination, the current density of the electrode was further increased to 46.5 ± 2.9 A m -2 . The mechanism of the photo-enhanced current production can be attributed to the reduced charge-transfer resistance between electrode surface and the biofilm with illumination. It was also found that long-term light illumination can enhance the biofilm formation on the 3D SS photoanode. These findings demonstrate that using the synergistic effect of photocatalysis and microbial electrocatalysis is an efficient way to boost the current production of the existing high-performance 3D anodes for BESs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dramatic expansion of the black widow toxin arsenal uncovered by multi-tissue transcriptomics and venom proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Robert A; Ayoub, Nadia A; Clarke, Thomas H; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Garb, Jessica E

    2014-06-11

    Animal venoms attract enormous interest given their potential for pharmacological discovery and understanding the evolution of natural chemistries. Next-generation transcriptomics and proteomics provide unparalleled, but underexploited, capabilities for venom characterization. We combined multi-tissue RNA-Seq with mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses to determine venom gland specific transcripts and venom proteins from the Western black widow spider (Latrodectus hesperus) and investigated their evolution. We estimated expression of 97,217 L. hesperus transcripts in venom glands relative to silk and cephalothorax tissues. We identified 695 venom gland specific transcripts (VSTs), many of which BLAST and GO term analyses indicate may function as toxins or their delivery agents. ~38% of VSTs had BLAST hits, including latrotoxins, inhibitor cystine knot toxins, CRISPs, hyaluronidases, chitinase, and proteases, and 59% of VSTs had predicted protein domains. Latrotoxins are venom toxins that cause massive neurotransmitter release from vertebrate or invertebrate neurons. We discovered ≥ 20 divergent latrotoxin paralogs expressed in L. hesperus venom glands, significantly increasing this biomedically important family. Mass spectrometry of L. hesperus venom identified 49 proteins from VSTs, 24 of which BLAST to toxins. Phylogenetic analyses showed venom gland specific gene family expansions and shifts in tissue expression. Quantitative expression analyses comparing multiple tissues are necessary to identify venom gland specific transcripts. We present a black widow venom specific exome that uncovers a trove of diverse toxins and associated proteins, suggesting a dynamic evolutionary history. This justifies a reevaluation of the functional activities of black widow venom in light of its emerging complexity.

  3. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  4. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  5. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

  6. Tree-rings mirror management legacy: dramatic response of standard oaks to past coppicing in Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Altman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coppicing was one of the most important forest management systems in Europe documented in prehistory as well as in the Middle Ages. However, coppicing was gradually abandoned by the mid-20(th century, which has altered the ecosystem structure, diversity and function of coppice woods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our aim was to disentangle factors shaping the historical growth dynamics of oak standards (i.e. mature trees growing through several coppice cycles in a former coppice-with-standards in Central Europe. Specifically, we tried to detect historical coppicing events from tree-rings of oak standards, to link coppicing events with the recruitment of mature oaks, and to determine the effects of neighbouring trees on the stem increment of oak standards. Large peaks in radial growth found for the periods 1895-1899 and 1935-1939 matched with historical records of coppice harvests. After coppicing, the number of newly recruited oak standards markedly grew in comparison with the preceding or following periods. The last significant recruitment of oak standards was after the 1930s following the last regular coppicing event. The diameter increment of oak standards from 1953 to 2003 was negatively correlated with competition indices, suggesting that neighbouring trees (mainly resprouting coppiced Tilia platyphyllos partly suppressed the growth of oak standards. Our results showed that improved light conditions following historical coppicing events caused significant increase in pulses of radial growth and most probably maintained oak recruitment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our historical perspective carries important implications for oak management in Central Europe and elsewhere. Relatively intense cutting creating open canopy woodlands, either as in the coppicing system or in the form of selective cutting, is needed to achieve significant radial growth in mature oaks. It is also critical for the successful regeneration and long

  7. Structural Defects of Silver Hollandite, Ag(x)Mn8O(y), Nanorods: Dramatic Impact on Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Brady, Alexander B; Huang, Jianping; Durham, Jessica L; Dooryhee, Eric; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S; Takeuchi, Kenneth J

    2015-08-25

    Hollandites (OMS-2) are an intriguing class of sorbents, catalysts, and energy storage materials with a tunnel structure permitting one-dimensional insertion and deinsertion of ions and small molecules along the c direction. A 7-fold increase in delivered capacity for Li/AgxMn8O16 electrochemical cells (160 versus 23 mAh/g) observed upon a seemingly small change in silver content (x ∼1.1 (L-Ag-OMS-2) and 1.6 (H-Ag-OMS-2)) led us to characterize the structure and defects of the silver hollandite material. Herein, Ag hollandite nanorods are studied through the combined use of local (atomic imaging, electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy) and bulk (synchrotron based X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis) techniques. Selected area diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy show a structure consistent with that refined by XRD; however, the Ag occupancy varies significantly even within neighboring channels. Both local and bulk measurements indicate a greater quantity of oxygen vacancies in L-Ag-OMS-2, resulting in lower average Mn valence relative to H-Ag-OMS-2. Electron energy loss spectroscopy shows a lower Mn oxidation state on the surface relative to the interior of the nanorods, where the average Mn valence is approximately Mn(3.7+) for H-Ag-OMS-2 and Mn(3.5+) for L-Ag-OMS-2 nanorods, respectively. The higher delivered capacity of L-Ag-OMS-2 may be related to more oxygen vacancies compared to H-Ag-OMS-2. Thus, the oxygen vacancies and MnO6 octahedra distortion are assumed to open the MnO6 octahedra walls, facilitating Li diffusion in the ab plane. These results indicate crystallite size and surface defects are significant factors affecting battery performance.

  8. Lymphedema of the arm and breast in irradiated breast cancer patients: risks in an era of dramatically changing axillary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E; Laronga, Christine; Wilson, Lori; Elkins, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess risk for lymphedema of the breast and arm in radiotherapy patients in an era of less extensive axillary surgery. Breast cancer patients treated for cure were reviewed, with a minimum follow-up of 1.5 years from the end of treatment. Clinical, surgical, and radiation-related variables were tested for statistical association with arm and breast lymphedema using regression analyses, t-tests, and chi-squared analyses. Between January 1998 and June 2001, 240 women received radiation for localized breast cancer in our center. The incidence of lymphedema of the ipsilateral breast, arm, and combined (breast and arm) was 9.6%, 7.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 27 months. For breast edema, t-test and multivariate analysis showed body mass index (BMI) to be significant (p = 0.043, p = 0.0038), as was chi-squared and multivariate testing for site of tumor in the breast (p = 0.0043, p = 0.0035). For arm edema, t-test and multivariate analyses showed the number of nodes removed to be significant (p = 0.0040, p = 0.0458); the size of the tumor was also significant by multivariate analyses (p = 0.0027). Tumor size appeared significant because a number of very large cancers failed locally and caused cancer-related obstructive lymphedema. In our center, even modern, limited level 1-2 axillary dissection and tangential irradiation carries the risk of arm lymphedema that would argue in favor of sentinel node biopsy. For breast edema, disruption of draining lymphatics by surgery and radiation with boost to the upper outer quadrant increased risk, especially for the obese. Fortunately both breast and arm edema benefited from manual lymphatic drainage.

  9. Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma in a 13-Year-Old Boy Dramatically Improved with Oral Doxycycline and Topical Metronidazole: Evidence for a Link with Childhood Rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Orion

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG is a rare, benign pediatric dermatological lesion that occurs in children between 8 months and 13 years of age. The pathogenesis of IFAG is still unclear but it is likely to be associated with granulomatous rosacea in childhood. Here we describe a case of IFAG in a 13-year-old boy who showed a dramatic response to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole, which supports the hypothesis that IFAG may belong to the spectrum of rosacea.

  10. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy leading to dramatic improvement in a patient with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and severe pericarditis resistant to steroid pulse therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa-Yashiro, Tomomi; Oki, Eishin; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Nakahata, Tohru; Ito, Etsuro; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    A 7-year-old Japanese boy with a 4-month history of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA) experienced disease flare with spiking fever, exanthema and arthralgia. He then developed progressive dyspnea due to severe pericarditis, and proinflammatory hypercytokinemia was suspected. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was ineffective and echocardiography showed massive pericardial effusion had persisted. Alternatively, subsequent intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy resulted in dramatic resolution of the pericardial effusion, and his general condition significantly improved within a few days. This case report may lend further support the use of IVIG for selected patients with s-JIA and severe pericarditis.

  11. DRAMATIC LITERATURE, DIGITISATION AND CULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    boredom because the media make us to see the world as the camera sees it and not the way ... characterized by countless cars, decaying buildings, and crowds bustling ... Chief Chamberlain: About four weeks ago, I came back from work to ...

  12. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  13. Dramatic parasomnias: recognition and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stores, Gregory

    2010-09-01

    As each of the many parasomnias requires its own specific treatment, confusion between them can have serious consequences. By recognizing their distinctive features, misdiagnosis can be avoided and the appropriate management decided.

  14. Dramatic change at T Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-04-01

    T Plant (221-T) was the first and largest of the early chemical separations plants at the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW), the name for the Hanford Site during World War II. Officially designated as a Cell Building by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) of the Army Corps of Engineers (agency responsible for HEW), T Plant served as the headquarters of chemical processing operations at Hanford from its construction until the opening of the Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) Plant in January 1952. T Plant performed the third step in plutonium production operations, following the steps of uranium fuel manufacture and then irradiation in defense production reactors. The fissionable core (plutonium) used in the world's first atomic explosion, the Trinity bomb test held at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, was processed in T Plant. Likewise, the fissionable core of the weapon dropped over Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945, was processed in T Plant. Because it formed a crucial link in the first full-scale plutonium production operations in world history, T Plant meets criteria established in the National Historic Preservation Act of 19661 as a Historic Place

  15. Dramatic property enhancement in polyetherimide using low-cost commercially functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes via a facile solution processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Li Bin; Caceres, Santiago; Zhong Weihong; Maguire, Russ G

    2009-01-01

    Polyetherimide (PEI) has excellent mechanical and thermal properties, and exceptional fire resistance. Developing even broader multi-functionality in PEI/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites for industrial applications is an alluring but challenging goal, due to processing difficulties related to the high pressure and temperature needed to achieve effective flow for this polymer, and costly and complex treatments of the CNTs. Here we report the fabrication of PEI nanocomposite films using low-cost commercially functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), and a simple and innovative process, achieving exceptional properties with only 0.5 wt% of MWNTs, including an increase in electrical conductivity of 12 orders of magnitude, accompanied by an unprecedented increase of 86 0 C in thermal decomposition temperature (higher service temperature). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a high degree of uniform dispersion among the MWNTs, superb polymer-MWNT interaction and formation of a spatially homogeneous nanotube network within the matrix. The enhancement in these properties suggests great potential use for this developed processing approach and the resulting nanocomposites for multi-functional coating or interfacing materials in aerospace and electronic industries.

  16. Experimentación dramatúrgica en Rojas Zorrilla: alternancia y simultaneidad espacial en Los trabajos de Tobías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiera Fernández, Javier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the technique used by Rojas Zorilla in a religious comedy of biblical derivation to represent, in a parallel way, dramatic actions that are simultaneously developed in very separate dramatic spaces. Although basing his approach on ancient stage procedures, by combining these with modern techniques the result is of such originality that we consider it to be «experimentation». In order to properly value his creative method, a close comparison is made between the biblical narrative, a sixteenth century auto, and a comedy by Lope de Vega that address the same subject.El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la técnica empleada por Rojas Zorrilla, en una comedia religiosa de fuente bíblica, para representar de modo paralelo acciones dramáticas que se desarrollan simultáneamente en espacios dramáticos muy alejados. A pesar de basarse en procedimientos escénicos antiguos, al combinarlo con técnicas modernas el resultado es de tal originalidad que lo calificamos de «experimentación». Para valorar debidamente su modo de componer, se hace una estrecha comparación con el relato bíblico, con un auto del siglo XVI y con una comedia de Lope de Vega que tratan el mismo tema.

  17. Fat and fibre interfere with the dramatic effect that nanoemulsified d-limonene has on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté, Javier; Periago, Paula M; Ros-Chumillas, María; Grullón, Coralin; Huertas, Juan Pablo; Palop, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    The application of d-limonene in form of nanoemulsion has been proved to reduce dramatically the thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in culture media. The present research shows very promising results on the application in food products. The thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes was reduced 90 times when 0.5 mM nanoemulsified d-limonene was added to apple juice. This is the biggest reduction in the heat resistance of a microorganism caused by an antimicrobial described ever. However, no effect was found in carrot juice. A carrot juice system was prepared in an attempt to unravel which juice constituents were responsible for the lack of effect. When fat and fibre were not included in the carrot juice system formulation, the thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes was, again, dramatically reduced in presence of nanoemulsified d-limonene, so these components were shown to interfere with the effect. Once this interaction with food constituents becomes solved, the addition of nanoemulsified antimicrobials would allow to reduce greatly the intensity of the thermal treatments currently applied in the food processing industry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Dramatically enhanced ultraviolet photosensing mechanism in a n-ZnO nanowires/i-MgO/n-Si structure with highly dense nanowires and ultrathin MgO layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Chan; Jung, Byung Oh; Cho, Hyung Koun; Lee, Ju Ho; Lee, Jeong Yong; Lee, Jun Hee

    2011-01-01

    This study reports that the visible-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetecting properties of ZnO nanowire based photodetectors were remarkably improved by introducing ultrathin insulating MgO layers between the ZnO nanowires and Si substrates. All layers were grown without pause by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and the density and vertical arrangement of the ZnO nanowires were strongly dependent on the thickness of the MgO layers. The sample in which an MgO layer with a thickness of 8 nm was inserted had high density nanowires with a vertical alignment and showed dramatically improved UV photosensing performance (photo-to-dark current ratio = 1344.5 and recovery time = 350 ms). The photoresponse spectrum revealed good visible-blind UV detectivity with a sharp cut off at 378 nm and a high UV/visible rejection ratio. A detailed discussion regarding the developed UV photosensing mechanism from the introduction of the i-MgO layers and highly dense nanowires in the n-ZnO nanowires/i-MgO/n-Si substrates structure is presented in this work.

  19. Interacting with wildlife tourism increases activity of white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huveneers, Charlie; Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Payne, Nicholas L; Semmens, Jayson M

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities are dramatically changing marine ecosystems. Wildlife tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and has the potential to modify the natural environment and behaviour of the species it targets. Here, we used a novel method to assess the effects of wildlife tourism on the activity of white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ). High frequency three-axis acceleration loggers were deployed on ten white sharks for a total of ~9 days. A combination of multivariate and univariate analysis revealed that the increased number of strong accelerations and vertical movements when sharks are interacting with cage-diving operators result in an overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) ~61% higher compared with other times when sharks are present in the area where cage-diving occurs. Since ODBA is considered a proxy of metabolic rate, interacting with cage-divers is probably more costly than are normal behaviours of white sharks at the Neptune Islands. However, the overall impact of cage-diving might be small if interactions with individual sharks are infrequent. This study suggests wildlife tourism changes the instantaneous activity levels of white sharks, and calls for an understanding of the frequency of shark-tourism interactions to appreciate the net impact of ecotourism on this species' fitness.

  20. «Que también sé yo hacer bailes»: Lope de Vega and the dramatic dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sáez Raposo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the significance and consequences of Lope de Vega’s status as a legend when it comes to accepting his authorship of a few short plays, given that critics tend to demand extra proof in this matter, sometimes going beyond reasonable philological demands. I will also defend the idea that Lope was an author of dramatic dances, one of the subgenres which critics have always been reluctant to link with his name. To this end, I will cite evidence to prove that ‘el Fénix’ not only felt an interest in these sort of plays but also composed some which were staged in courtly performances in the early 1630s.

  1. The Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 Gene, SOX10, Is a Novel Tumor-associated Antigen Identified in a Patient with a Dramatic Response to Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Hung T.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have identified, for the first time, the presence of de novo cellular immune reactivity against the transcription factor SOX10, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from a patient who experienced a dramatic clinical response to immunotherapy. SOX10 acts as a critical transactivator of tyrosinase-related protein-2 during melanoblast development and a potent transactivator of micropthalmia-associated transcription factor, which is considered to be a master gene that controls the development and postnatal survival of melanocytes. Mutations in SOX10 result in Waardenburg syndrome type 4. The overlapping epitopes AWISKPPGV and SAWISKPPGV, designated SOX10: 332–340 and SOX10: 331–340, respectively, were recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte clone M37 in an HLA-A2-restricted fashion. PMID:12036907

  2. [Increase in number of operations for stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the minimally invasive tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) the number of operations performed for treatment of stress urinary incontinence has increased dramatically from over 1600 in 1999 to more than 4200 in 2003. Both gynaecologists and urologists now perform more TVTs and

  3. Increasing Spin Coherence in Nanodiamond via Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Torsten; Rej, Ewa; Boele, Thomas; Waddington, David; Reilly, David

    Nanodiamonds are of interest for quantum information technology, as metrological sensors, and more recently as a probe of biological environments. Here we present results examining how intrinsic defects can be used for dynamic nuclear polarization that leads to a dramatic increase in both T1 and T2 for 13C spins in nanodiamond. Mechanisms to explain this enhancement are discussed.

  4. Multiple distinct stimuli increase measured nucleosome occupancy around human promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuong D Pham

    Full Text Available Nucleosomes can block access to transcription factors. Thus the precise localization of nucleosomes relative to transcription start sites and other factor binding sites is expected to be a critical component of transcriptional regulation. Recently developed microarray approaches have allowed the rapid mapping of nucleosome positions over hundreds of kilobases (kb of human genomic DNA, although these approaches have not yet been widely used to measure chromatin changes associated with changes in transcription. Here, we use custom tiling microarrays to reveal changes in nucleosome positions and abundance that occur when hormone-bound glucocorticoid receptor (GR binds to sites near target gene promoters in human osteosarcoma cells. The most striking change is an increase in measured nucleosome occupancy at sites spanning ∼1 kb upstream and downstream of transcription start sites, which occurs one hour after addition of hormone, but is lost at 4 hours. Unexpectedly, this increase was seen both on GR-regulated and GR-non-regulated genes. In addition, the human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor (a GR co-activator was found to be important for increased occupancy upon hormone treatment and also for low nucleosome occupancy without hormone. Most surprisingly, similar increases in nucleosome occupancy were also seen on both regulated and non-regulated promoters during differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells and upon activation of human CD4+ T-cells. These results indicate that dramatic changes in chromatin structure over ∼2 kb of human promoters may occur genomewide and in response to a variety of stimuli, and suggest novel models for transcriptional regulation.

  5. Mercury Sources and Cycling in the Great Lakes: Dramatic Changes Resulting from Altered Atmospheric Loads and the Near-Shore Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; DeWild, J. F.; Maglio, M. M.; Tate, M. T.; Ogorek, J. M.; Hurley, J. P.; Lepak, R.

    2013-12-01

    there have been large declines in surface water total Hg concentrations (50-75%) across the Great Lakes since about 2000, an observation in agreement with concurrent declines in atmospheric deposition. In addition to a decline in inputs, we hypothesize that appreciable increases in volatilization of gaseous Hg have occurred. Mercury volatilization is directly related to water clarity (via the photo-reduction process), which has increased substantially in the Great Lakes since the invasion of zebra mussels and quagga mussels. Finally, although substantial declines in total aqueous Hg levels are apparent, fish mercury levels over the same time period appear to be relatively steady, and in some locations increasing. We submit this apparent discordance is also the outcome of the invasive mussels, which have caused near-shore eutrophication and off-shore oligotrophication commonly referred to as the near-shore shunt. Initial sampling by this project has revealed that these eutrophied zones are markedly enriched in MeHg. Therefore, it appears that while the open water regions of the Great Lakes appear to have experienced significant aqueous Hg declines, fish Hg levels may be responding to a new site of methylation in the near-shore zone.

  6. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  7. Poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) as a Cathode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries with Dramatically Improved Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Jie

    2012-05-29

    Organosulfur compounds with multiple thiol groups are promising for high gravimetric energy density electrochemical energy storage. We have synthesized a poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite cathode for lithium-ion batteries with a new method and investigated its electrochemical behavior by charge/discharge cycles and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an ether-based electrolyte. Based on a comparison of the electrochemical performance with a carbonate-based electrolyte, we found a much higher discharge capacity, but also a very attractive cycling performance of PDMcT by using a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte. The first discharge capacity of the as-synthesized PDMcT/PEDOT composite approached 210 mAh g -1 in the TEGDME-based electrolyte. CV results clearly show that the redox reactions of PDMcT are highly reversible in this TEGDME-based electrolyte. The reversible capacity remained around 120 mAh g -1 after 20 charge/discharge cycles. With improved cycling performance and very low cost, PDMcT could become a very promising cathode material when combined with a TEGDME-based electrolyte. The poor capacity in the carbonate-based electrolyte is a consequence of the irreversible reaction of the DMcT monomer and dimer with the solvent, emphasizing the importance of electrolyte chemistry when studying molecular-based battery materials. The nature of the electrolyte has a dramatic effect on the performance of poly(2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) (PDMcT) as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. Whereas the use of an ethylene/diethyl carbonate (EC/DEC)-based electrolyte resulted in very poor performance, the use of a tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (TEGDME)-based electrolyte dramatically improved the performance in terms of both the discharge capacity and capacity retention (see scheme). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Emotional effects of sertraline: novel findings revealed by meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Roger; Victor, Bruce; Bitner, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors continues to increase, as does concern about previously unrecognized, subtle side effects and questions about whether these drugs produce effects on healthy subjects. The authors report novel emotional effects identified by an experienced, psychologically healthy meditator who is a psychiatrist and researcher. On a meditation retreat, the subject identified a specific profile of emotional changes related to sertraline use. In particular, cognitive abilities and the emotions of fear and anger seemed unaffected. However, the emotions of sadness, happiness, rapture, and love were dramatically reduced in intensity and duration. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are often injured and heal poorly. Whether this is caused by a slow tissue turnover is unknown, since existing data provide diverging estimates of tendon protein half-life that range from 2 mo to 200 yr. With the purpose of determining life-long turnover of human tendon tissue, we used the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955–1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples (donor birth years 1945–1983) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and compared to known atmospheric levels to estimate tissue turnover. We found that Achilles tendon tissue retained levels of 14C corresponding to atmospheric levels several decades before tissue sampling, demonstrating a very limited tissue turnover. The tendon concentrations of 14C approximately reflected the atmospheric levels present during the first 17 yr of life, indicating that the tendon core is formed during height growth and is essentially not renewed thereafter. In contrast, 14C levels in muscle indicated continuous turnover. Our observation provides a fundamental premise for understanding tendon function and pathology, and likely explains the poor regenerative capacity of tendon tissue.—Heinemeier, K. M., Schjerling, P., Heinemeier, J., Magnusson, S. P., Kjaer, M. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C. PMID:23401563

  10. DISCOVERY OF DRAMATIC OPTICAL VARIABILITY IN SDSS J1100+4421: A PECULIAR RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki; Doi, Mamoru; Kikuchi, Yuki [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Itoh, Ryosuke [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Akitaya, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tominaga, Nozomu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiko; Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Stawarz, Łukasz [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gandhi, Poshak [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1-3LE (United Kingdom); Ali, Gamal; Essam, Ahmad; Hamed, Gamal [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Aoki, Tsutomu [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Kiso, Nagano 397-0101 (Japan); Contreras, Carlos; Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Iwata, Ikuru, E-mail: masaomi.tanaka@nao.ac.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    We present our discovery of dramatic variability in SDSS J1100+4421 by the high-cadence transient survey Kiso Supernova Survey. The source brightened in the optical by at least a factor of three within about half a day. Spectroscopic observations suggest that this object is likely a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) at z = 0.840, however, with unusually strong narrow emission lines. The estimated black hole mass of ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} implies bolometric nuclear luminosity close to the Eddington limit. SDSS J1100+4421 is also extremely radio-loud, with a radio loudness parameter of R ≅ 4 × 10{sup 2}-3 × 10{sup 3}, which implies the presence of relativistic jets. Rapid and large-amplitude optical variability of the target, reminiscent of that found in a few radio- and γ-ray-loud NLS1s, is therefore produced most likely in a blazar-like core. The 1.4 GHz radio image of the source shows an extended structure with a linear size of about 100 kpc. If SDSS J1100+4421 is a genuine NLS1, as suggested here, this radio structure would then be the largest ever discovered in this type of active galaxies.

  11. Gestão do trabalho docente: o "dramático" uso de si Managing the work of teaching: the "dramatic" use of self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Perez Gonçalves de Moura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda os processos coletivos, por meio dos quais os professores produzem-se sujeitos do trabalho, engendrados numa dimensão da experiência laboral que escapa à lógica da organização do trabalho e às práticas de gerenciamento nas escolas. Problematiza os modelos de formação em serviço, concebidos como estratégias de controle e padronização da prática docente. Propõe a gestão do trabalho docente como uma ação inerente à experiência, que supõe escolhas entre uma hierarquização de atos, de objetivos e de valores, assim como, uma tensão "dramática" do uso de si "por si" e "pelos outros".This study discusses the collective processes adopted by teachers to produce themselves as subjects of work and engendered at a dimension of work experience that escapes the logic of work organization and school management practices. In-service training models are discussed in that they are conceived as strategies of control and standardization of teaching practices. Teaching should be managed as an action inherent to experience, which depends on choices made from a series of hierarchically ranked acts, objective and values, as well as on the dramatic tension between the use of self "for oneself" and "for others".

  12. Female listeners’ autonomic responses to dramatic shifts between loud and soft music/sound passages: a study of heavy metal songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Han eCheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although music and the emotion it conveys unfold over time, little is known about how listeners respond to shifts in musical emotions. A special technique in heavy metal music utilizes dramatic shifts between loud and soft passages. Loud passages are penetrated by distorted sounds conveying aggression, whereas soft passages are often characterized by a clean, calm singing voice and light accompaniment. The present study used heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds to examine how female listeners’ respiration rates and heart rates responded to the arousal changes associated with auditory stimuli. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability (HF-HRV was used to assess cardiac parasympathetic activity. The results showed that the soft passages of heavy metal songs and soft sea sounds expressed lower arousal and induced significantly higher HF-HRVs than the loud passages of heavy metal songs. Listeners’ respiration rate was determined by the arousal level of the present music passage, whereas the heart rate was dependent on both the present and preceding passages. Compared with soft sea sounds, the loud music passage led to greater deceleration of the heart rate at the beginning of the following soft music passage. The sea sounds delayed the heart rate acceleration evoked by the following loud music passage. The data provide evidence that sound-induced parasympathetic activity affects listener’s heart rate in response to the following music passage. These findings have potential implications for future research of the temporal dynamics of musical emotions.

  13. Thermal Gradient During Vacuum-Deposition Dramatically Enhances Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors: Toward High-Performance N-Type Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hyun; Han, Singu; Jeong, Heejeong; Jang, Hayeong; Baek, Seolhee; Hu, Junbeom; Lee, Myungkyun; Choi, Byungwoo; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2017-03-22

    A thermal gradient distribution was applied to a substrate during the growth of a vacuum-deposited n-type organic semiconductor (OSC) film prepared from N,N'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-1,7-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboxyimide) (PDI-CN2), and the electrical performances of the films deployed in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were characterized. The temperature gradient at the surface was controlled by tilting the substrate, which varied the temperature one-dimensionally between the heated bottom substrate and the cooled upper substrate. The vacuum-deposited OSC molecules diffused and rearranged on the surface according to the substrate temperature gradient, producing directional crystalline and grain structures in the PDI-CN2 film. The morphological and crystalline structures of the PDI-CN2 thin films grown under a vertical temperature gradient were dramatically enhanced, comparing with the structures obtained from either uniformly heated films or films prepared under a horizontally applied temperature gradient. The field effect mobilities of the PDI-CN2-FETs prepared using the vertically applied temperature gradient were as high as 0.59 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , more than a factor of 2 higher than the mobility of 0.25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 submitted to conventional thermal annealing and the mobility of 0.29 cm 2 V -1 s -1 from the horizontally applied temperature gradient.

  14. INCREASED RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L

    2017-01-01

    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  15. Increased Materialistic Trends Among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Shama Mazahir, Afsheen Masood, Rubab Musarrat

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...

  16. Increased Materialistic Trends among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Afsheen Masood; Rubab Musarrat; Shama Mazahir

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...

  17. Toxicogenomic analysis reveals profibrogenic effects of trichloroethylene in autoimmune-mediated cholangitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Anna K; Sullivan, Bradley P; Kassel, Karen M; Joshi, Nikita; Luyendyk, James P

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to environmental chemicals increases the risk of developing autoimmune liver disease. However, the identity of specific chemical perpetrators and the mechanisms whereby environmental chemicals modify liver disease is unclear. Previous studies link exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) with the development of autoimmune liver disease and exacerbation of autoimmunity in lupus-prone MRL mice. In this study, we utilized NOD.c3c4 mice, which spontaneously develop autoimmune cholangitis bearing resemblance to some features of primary biliary cirrhosis. Nine-week-old female NOD.c3c4 mice were given TCE (0.5 mg/ml) or its vehicle (1% Cremophor-EL) in drinking water for 4 weeks. TCE had little effect on clinical chemistry, biliary cyst formation, or hepatic CD3+ T-cell accumulation. Hepatic microarray profiling revealed a dramatic suppression of early growth response 1 (EGR1) mRNA in livers of TCE-treated mice, which was verified by qPCR and immunohistochemical staining. Consistent with a reported link between reduced EGR1 expression and liver fibrosis, TCE increased hepatic type I collagen (COL1A1) mRNA and protein levels in livers of NOD.c3c4 mice. In contrast, TCE did not increase COL1A1 expression in NOD.ShiLtJ mice, which do not develop autoimmune cholangitis. These results suggest that in the context of concurrent autoimmune liver disease with a genetic basis, modification of hepatic gene expression by TCE may increase profibrogenic signaling in the liver. Moreover, these studies suggest that NOD.c3c4 mice may be a novel model to study gene-environment interactions critical for the development of autoimmune liver disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The importance of energetic utilization is increasing; Energetische Verwertung waechst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk; Meyer, Christian [trend:research GmbH, Institut fuer Trend- und Marktforschung, Bremen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In spite of uniform standards and regulations, sewage treatment strategies of the European states differ dramatically. A current study shows that thermal treatment in monocombustion or cocombustion plants is increasingly important. Forecasts of the trend:research trend and marketing research institute, energetic utilization will become the dominant utilization strategy in Europe, with a share that will have increase by about 50 percent by 2020. (orig.)

  19. Pyrosequencing reveals the microbial communities in the Red Sea sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and their impressive shifts in abnormal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Tian, Ren-Mao; Wong, Yue Him; Bougouffa, Salim; Batang, Zenon; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Lafi, Feras F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from the Rabigh Bay along the Red Sea coast. Microbial communities in both healthy and abnormal sponge tissues and adjacent seawater were compared to check the influences of these abnormalities on sponge-associated microbes. In healthy tissues, we revealed low microbial diversity with less than 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample. Cyanobacteria, affiliated mainly with the sponge-specific species "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum," were the dominant bacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Intraspecies dynamics of microbial communities in healthy tissues were observed among sponge individuals, and potential anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were found. In comparison with healthy tissues and the adjacent seawater, abnormal tissues showed dramatic increase in microbial diversity and decrease in the abundance of sponge-specific microbial clusters. The dominated cyanobacterial species Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum decreased and shifted to unspecific cyanobacterial clades. OTUs that showed high similarity to sequences derived from diseased corals, such as Leptolyngbya sp., were found to be abundant in abnormal tissues. Heterotrophic Planctomycetes were also specifically enriched in abnormal tissues. Overall, we revealed the microbial communities of the cyanobacteria-rich sponge, C. foliascens, and their impressive shifts under abnormality.

  20. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Microbial Communities in the Red Sea Sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and Their Impressive Shifts in Abnormal Tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhaoming

    2014-04-24

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from the Rabigh Bay along the Red Sea coast. Microbial communities in both healthy and abnormal sponge tissues and adjacent seawater were compared to check the influences of these abnormalities on sponge-associated microbes. In healthy tissues, we revealed low microbial diversity with less than 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample. Cyanobacteria, affiliated mainly with the sponge-specific species “Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum,” were the dominant bacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Intraspecies dynamics of microbial communities in healthy tissues were observed among sponge individuals, and potential anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were found. In comparison with healthy tissues and the adjacent seawater, abnormal tissues showed dramatic increase in microbial diversity and decrease in the abundance of sponge-specific microbial clusters. The dominated cyanobacterial species Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum decreased and shifted to unspecific cyanobacterial clades. OTUs that showed high similarity to sequences derived from diseased corals, such as Leptolyngbya sp., were found to be abundant in abnormal tissues. Heterotrophic Planctomycetes were also specifically enriched in abnormal tissues. Overall, we revealed the microbial communities of the cyanobacteria-rich sponge, C. foliascens, and their impressive shifts under abnormality.

  1. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  2. A point mutation in the [2Fe–2S] cluster binding region of the NAF-1 protein (H114C) dramatically hinders the cluster donor properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamir, Sagi; Eisenberg-Domovich, Yael [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus at Givat Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Conlan, Andrea R.; Stofleth, Jason T.; Lipper, Colin H.; Paddock, Mark L. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Mittler, Ron [University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Jennings, Patricia A. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Livnah, Oded, E-mail: oded.livnah@huji.ac.il; Nechushtai, Rachel, E-mail: oded.livnah@huji.ac.il [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus at Givat Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2014-06-01

    NAF-1 has been shown to be related with human health and disease, is upregulated in epithelial breast cancer and suppression of its expression significantly suppresses tumor growth. It is shown that replacement of the single His ligand with Cys resulted in dramatic changes to the properties of its 2Fe-2S clusters without any global crystal structural changes. NAF-1 is an important [2Fe–2S] NEET protein associated with human health and disease. A mis-splicing mutation in NAF-1 results in Wolfram Syndrome type 2, a lethal childhood disease. Upregulation of NAF-1 is found in epithelial breast cancer cells, and suppression of NAF-1 expression by knockdown significantly suppresses tumor growth. Key to NAF-1 function is the NEET fold with its [2Fe–2S] cluster. In this work, the high-resolution structure of native NAF-1 was determined to 1.65 Å resolution (R factor = 13.5%) together with that of a mutant in which the single His ligand of its [2Fe–2S] cluster, His114, was replaced by Cys. The NAF-1 H114C mutant structure was determined to 1.58 Å resolution (R factor = 16.0%). All structural differences were localized to the cluster binding site. Compared with native NAF-1, the [2Fe–2S] clusters of the H114C mutant were found to (i) be 25-fold more stable, (ii) have a redox potential that is 300 mV more negative and (iii) have their cluster donation/transfer function abolished. Because no global structural differences were found between the mutant and the native (wild-type) NAF-1 proteins, yet significant functional differences exist between them, the NAF-1 H114C mutant is an excellent tool to decipher the underlying biological importance of the [2Fe–2S] cluster of NAF-1 in vivo.

  3. ECG-triggered {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging of the rat heart is dramatically enhanced by acipimox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussier, Sylvain [Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancyclotep, Nancy (France); CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancy University, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Hopital de Brabois, Nancyclotep, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Maskali, Fatiha [Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancyclotep, Nancy (France); CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Tran, Nguyen [Nancy University, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Surgery School, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U961, Nancy (France); Person, Christophe; Boutley, Henri; Karcher, Gilles [Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancyclotep, Nancy (France); CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancy University, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Maureira, Pablo [Nancy University, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Surgery School, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); CHU-Nancy, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Nancy (France); Lacolley, Patrick; Regnault, Veronique [Nancy University, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U961, Nancy (France); Fay, Renaud [Centre d' Investigation Clinique, INSERM, U9501, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre Yves [Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancyclotep, Nancy (France); CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancy University, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U961, Nancy (France)

    2010-09-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging, provided by current positron emission tomography (PET) systems dedicated to small animals, might provide a precise functional assessment of the left ventricle (LV) in rats, although conventional metabolic conditioning by hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamping is not well adapted to this setting. This study was aimed at assessing cardiac FDG PET in rats pre-medicated with acipimox, a potent nicotinic acid derivative yielding comparable image quality to clamping in man. Metabolic conditioning was compared in Wistar rats between a conventional oral glucose loading (1.5 mg/kg) and acipimox, which was given at high but well tolerated doses subcutaneously (25 mg/kg) or orally (50 mg/kg). Myocardial to blood (M/B) activity ratio and myocardial signal to noise (S/N) ratio were analysed on gated FDG PET images. The S/N ratio of the gated cardiac images evolved in parallel with the M/B activity ratio and these two ratios were independently enhanced by glucose loading and acipimox. However, these enhancements were: (1) dramatic for acipimox, especially for the high oral dose of 50 mg/kg (from 2.85 {+-} 0.57 to 10.73 {+-} 0.54 for the M/B ratio of rats with or without glucose loading; p < 0.0001) and (2) much more limited for glucose loading (from 6.61 {+-} 0.49 to 7.89 {+-} 0.41 for the M/B ratio of rats with or without acipimox administration; p = 0.049). With the high oral dose of acipimox, the gated cardiac FDG PET images had very high S/N ratios, at least equivalent to those currently documented in man. Metabolic conditioning by oral doses of acipimox is highly efficient for experimental studies planned with cardiac FDG PET in rats. (orig.)

  4. One-step synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hierarchical porous structure nanosheets with dramatic ultraviolet light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Jianfeng, E-mail: huangjfsust@126.com; Cao, Liyun; Li, Jiayin; Hai, Guojuan; Bai, Zhe

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets with hierarchical porous structure were synthesized via one step. • The band gap of the nanosheets was wider and investigated in detail. • The nanosheets can degrade almost all of the RhB within 9 min. • The photocurrent of the nanosheets is 5.97 times as high as that of the P-25. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) nanosheets with hierarchical porous structure were synthesized via one-step thermal condensation-oxidation process. The microstructure of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was characterized to explain the dramatic ultraviolet light photocatalytic activity. The results showed that g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hierarchical aggregates were assembled by nanosheets with a length of 1–2 μm and a thickness of 20–30 nm. And the N{sub 2}-adsorption/desorption isotherms further informed the presence of fissure form mesoporous structure. An enhanced photocurrent of 37.2 μA was obtained, which is almost 5 times higher than that of P-25. Besides, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets displayed the degradation of Rhodamine B with 99.4% removal efficiency in only 9 min. Such highly photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the nano platelet morphology which improves electron transport ability along the in-plane direction. In addition, the hierarchical porous structure adapted a wider band gap of C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Therefore, the photoinduced electron-hole pairs have a stronger oxidation-reduction potential for photocatalysis.

  5. Dramatic repositioning of c-Myb to different promoters during the cell cycle observed by combining cell sorting with chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Quintana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The c-Myb transcription factor is a critical regulator of proliferation and stem cell differentiation, and mutated alleles of c-Myb are oncogenic, but little is known about changes in c-Myb activity during the cell cycle. To map the association of c-Myb with specific target genes during the cell cycle, we developed a novel Fix-Sort-ChIP approach, in which asynchronously growing cells were fixed with formaldehyde, stained with Hoechst 33342 and separated into different cell cycle fractions by flow sorting, then processed for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays. We found that c-Myb actively repositions, binding to some genes only in specific cell cycle phases. In addition, the specificity of c-Myb is dramatically different in small subpopulations of cells, for example cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, than in the bulk population. The repositioning of c-Myb during the cell cycle is not due to changes in its expression and also occurs with ectopically expressed, epitope-tagged versions of c-Myb. The repositioning occurs in established cell lines, in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and in primary human acute myeloid leukemia cells. The combination of fixation, sorting and ChIP analysis sheds new light on the dynamic nature of gene regulation during the cell cycle and provides a new type of tool for the analysis of gene regulation in small subsets of cells, such as cells in a specific phase of the cell cycle.

  6. Steric/π-electronic insulation of the carbo-benzene ring: dramatic effects of tert-butyl vs phenyl crowns on geometric, chromophoric, redox and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listunov, Dymytrii; Duhayon, Carine; Poater, Albert; Mazères, Serge; Saquet, Alix; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi

    2018-04-13

    Hexa-tert-butyl-carbo-benzene C18tBu6 and three phenylated counterparts C18tBumPh6-m (m = 4, 2) have been synthesized. The peralkylated version (m = 6) provides experimental access to intrinsic features of the insulated C18 core independently from the influence of π-conjugated substituent. Over the series, structural, spectroscopical and electrochemical properties are compared with those of the hexaphenylated reference (m = 0). Anchoring tBu substituents at the C18 macrocycle is shown to enhance stability and solubility, and to dramatically modify UV-vis absorption and redox properties. Whereas all the carbo-benzenes reported hitherto were obtained as dark-reddish/greenish solids, crystals and solutions of C18tBu6 happen to be yellow (max = 379 nm vs 472 nm for C18Ph6). By comparison to C18Ph6, reduction of C18tBu6 remains reversible but occurs at a twice higher absolute potential (E1/2 = -1.36 V vs -0.72 V). Systematic X-ray diffraction analyses and DFT calculations show that the C18 ring symmetry is the nearest to D6h for m = 6, indicating a maximum geometrical aromaticity. According to calculated nucleus independent chemical shifts, the macrocyclic magnetic aromaticity is also found to be maximum for C18tBu6: NICS(0)=-17.2 ppm, vs -18.0±0.1 ppm for the theoretical references C18H6 and C18F6, and -13.5 ppm for C18Ph6. Accurate correlations of NICS(0) with experimental or calculated maximum UV-vis absorption wavelength max and chemical hardness =ELUMO-EHOMO are evidenced. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A point mutation in the [2Fe–2S] cluster binding region of the NAF-1 protein (H114C) dramatically hinders the cluster donor properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamir, Sagi; Eisenberg-Domovich, Yael; Conlan, Andrea R.; Stofleth, Jason T.; Lipper, Colin H.; Paddock, Mark L.; Mittler, Ron; Jennings, Patricia A.; Livnah, Oded; Nechushtai, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    NAF-1 has been shown to be related with human health and disease, is upregulated in epithelial breast cancer and suppression of its expression significantly suppresses tumor growth. It is shown that replacement of the single His ligand with Cys resulted in dramatic changes to the properties of its 2Fe-2S clusters without any global crystal structural changes. NAF-1 is an important [2Fe–2S] NEET protein associated with human health and disease. A mis-splicing mutation in NAF-1 results in Wolfram Syndrome type 2, a lethal childhood disease. Upregulation of NAF-1 is found in epithelial breast cancer cells, and suppression of NAF-1 expression by knockdown significantly suppresses tumor growth. Key to NAF-1 function is the NEET fold with its [2Fe–2S] cluster. In this work, the high-resolution structure of native NAF-1 was determined to 1.65 Å resolution (R factor = 13.5%) together with that of a mutant in which the single His ligand of its [2Fe–2S] cluster, His114, was replaced by Cys. The NAF-1 H114C mutant structure was determined to 1.58 Å resolution (R factor = 16.0%). All structural differences were localized to the cluster binding site. Compared with native NAF-1, the [2Fe–2S] clusters of the H114C mutant were found to (i) be 25-fold more stable, (ii) have a redox potential that is 300 mV more negative and (iii) have their cluster donation/transfer function abolished. Because no global structural differences were found between the mutant and the native (wild-type) NAF-1 proteins, yet significant functional differences exist between them, the NAF-1 H114C mutant is an excellent tool to decipher the underlying biological importance of the [2Fe–2S] cluster of NAF-1 in vivo

  8. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  9. Epalrestat increases intracellular glutathione levels in Schwann cells through transcription regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epalrestat (EPS, approved in Japan, is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Here we report that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH, which is important for protection against oxidative injury, through transcription regulation. Treatment of Schwann cells with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. EPS increased the mRNA levels of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, the enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in regulating the expression of γ-GCS. ELISA revealed that EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels. Knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, pretreatment with EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2, tert-butylhydroperoxide, 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride, and menadione, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting against oxidative stress. This is the first study to show that EPS induces GSH biosynthesis via the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has new beneficial properties that may prevent the development and progression of disorders caused by oxidative stress.

  10. The use of first language scaffolding to teach English as a foreign language to pre-school children during dramatic play in West Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulia Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian community generally perceives that English language teaching should require phonology, vocabulary, grammar, discourse, and pragmatics. As a result, this often demands that pre-school teachers use English all the time. Code switching between English, Indonesian, and Minang – the local language of the region – is perceived negatively, and teachers are often criticized for using a multilingual approach that is “part snake and part eel” [sakarek ula sakarek baluik]. This refers to a negative perception of mixing languages in educational settings. In fact, code switching between Minang (first language, Indonesian (second language, and English (foreign language is the norm of language use in this part of Indonesia. However, in this community, there is a lack of respect for pre-school teachers' professionalism as well as scepticism towards the effectiveness of a multilingual teaching approach, which is used widely at the pre-school level. Vygotsky [14], the Russian psychologist, presents a different perspective on this phenomenon, noting that children learn languages by playing. Their first language can be the main tool to help them understand new words and utterances in context. By using code switching, teachers help pre-school children to link their prior knowledge and experience to the new forms of expression that enable them to derive the meaning of new words from the social context of language use. For this reason, scaffolding techniques should be used by pre-school teachers, particularly in ways which support children's cognitive development in constructing new meanings based on their first language experience. This paper, based on a research study-in-progress at Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia, explores patterns of interaction between pre-school teachers and their students as teachers scaffold the development of EFL through dramatic play in West Sumatera, Indonesia. This interaction is systemic in nature and

  11. Disruption of M-T5, a novel myxoma virus gene member of poxvirus host range superfamily, results in dramatic attenuation of myxomatosis in infected European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, K; Lee, S F; Barry, M; Boshkov, L; McFadden, G

    1996-07-01

    Myxoma virus is a pathogenic poxvirus that induces a lethal myxomatosis disease profile in European rabbits, which is characterized by fulminating lesions at the primary site of inoculation, rapid dissemination to secondary internal organs and peripheral external sites, and supervening gram-negative bacterial infection. Here we describe the role of a novel myxoma virus protein encoded by the M-T5 open reading frame during pathogenesis. The myxoma virus M-T5 protein possesses no significant sequence homology to nonviral proteins but is a member of a larger poxviral superfamily designated host range proteins. An M-T5- mutant virus was constructed by disruption of both copies of the M-T5 gene followed by insertion of the selectable marker p7.5Ecogpt. Although the M-T5- deletion mutant replicated with wild-type kinetics in rabbit fibroblasts, infection of a rabbit CD4+ T-cell line (RL5) with the myxoma virus M-T5- mutant virus resulted in the rapid and complete cessation of both host and viral protein synthesis, accompanied by the manifestation of all the classical features of programmed cell death. Infection of primary rabbit peripheral mononuclear cells with the myxoma virus M-T5-mutant virus resulted in the apoptotic death of nonadherent lymphocytes but not adherent monocytes. Within the European rabbit, disruption of the M-T5 open reading frame caused a dramatic attenuation of the rapidly lethal myxomatosis infection, and none of the infected rabbits displayed any of the characteristic features of myxomatosis. The two most significant histological observations in rabbits infected with the M-T5-mutant virus were (i) the lack of progression of the infection past the primary site of inoculation, coupled with the establishment of a rapid and effective inflammatory reaction, and (ii) the inability of the virus to initiate a cellular reaction within secondary immune organs. We conclude that M-T5 functions as a critical virulence factor by allowing productive infection of

  12. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  13. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  14. The commercial impact of burnup increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzlein, C.; Schricker, W.

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation has a dramatic effect on competition in the electricity markets. This will lead to a continued pressure on the prices in virtually all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle and will encourage further optimization, technical and technological progress and innovations with respect to further cost reductions of power production. The permission of direct disposal, in Germany legally granted in 1994 as an alternative to the reprocessing path, made possible cost savings and has consequently resulted in a decline of reprocessing prices. In addition, suppliers as well as operators are making considerable efforts to reduce the disposal costs fraction by optimizing disposal technologies and concepts. The increase of discharge has essentially contributed to the reduction the disposal cost fraction. Compared to former scenarios, the economic potential of burn-up increase is decreasing

  15. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrikova, Nadezhda Aleksandrovna; Dolgikh, Irina Nikolaevna; Dyrina, E. N.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator's working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this ...

  16. Increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, P; Hu, G-H; Kang, H-Y; Yao, H-B; Kou, W; Liu, H; Hong, S-L

    2014-02-01

    A predominant Th17 population is a marker of allergic rhinitis (AR). As a ligand-activated transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a vital role in promoting or inhibiting the development of specific Th cells. However, its role in AR remains undefined. To analyze the potential role of AhR in the pathogenesis of AR. In total, 30 AR patients and 13 healthy controls were recruited for this study and AR patients had clinical features, as demonstrated by rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaires, total symptom scores and visual analog scale scores. The expression of AhR, IL-17 and IL-22 and the presence of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured before and after treatment with the nontoxic AhR ligand 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). Pretreatment ITE studies revealed that all AR patients had a significant increase in AhR expression compared with controls and AhR expression positively correlated with clinical parameters. After ITE intervention, a severe reduction in the differentiation of Th17 cells and the production of IL-17 and IL-22 was noted in both AR patients and normal subjects. Simultaneously, a dramatic enhancement of AhR expression was also observed in all healthy controls, but not in AR patients. The results suggested that the AhR may be one of the mechanisms underlying the Th17 response during the pathogenesis of AR and AhR levels were closely related to clinical severity in all AR patients. Additionally, ITE may represent a new drug candidate in the treatment of AR.

  17. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Radio-telescope images have revealed previously-unseen galactic cannibalism -- a triggering event that leads to feeding frenzies by gigantic black holes at the cores of galaxies. Astronomers have long suspected that the extra-bright cores of spiral galaxies called Seyfert galaxies are powered by supermassive black holes consuming material. However, they could not see how the material is started on its journey toward the black hole. Optical/Radio Comparison Visible-light (left) and radio (right) image of galaxy pair: Radio image shows gas streaming between galaxies. CREDIT: Kuo et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more graphics. One leading theory said that Seyfert galaxies have been disturbed by close encounters with neighboring galaxies, thus stirring up their gas and bringing more of it within the gravitational reach of the black hole. However, when astronomers looked at Seyferts with visible-light telescopes, only a small fraction showed any evidence of such an encounter. Now, new images of hydrogen gas in Seyferts made using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show the majority of them are, in fact, disturbed by ongoing encounters with neighbor galaxies. "The VLA lifted the veil on what's really happening with these galaxies," said Cheng-Yu Kuo, a graduate student at the University of Virginia. "Looking at the gas in these galaxies clearly showed that they are snacking on their neighbors. This is a dramatic contrast with their appearance in visible starlight," he added. The effect of the galactic encounters is to send gas and dust toward the black hole and produce energy as the material ultimately is consumed. Black holes, concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull, reside at the cores of many galaxies. Depending on how rapidly the black hole is eating, the galaxy can show a wide range of energetic activity. Seyfert galaxies have the mildest version of this activity, while

  18. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  19. Simulated 21st century's increase in oceanic suboxia by CO2-enhanced biotic carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschlies, Andreas; Schulz, Kai G.; Riebesell, Ulf; Schmittner, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The primary impacts of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on marine biogeochemical cycles predicted so far include ocean acidification, global warming induced shifts in biogeographical provinces, and a possible negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 levels by CO2-fertilized biological production. Here we report a new potentially significant impact on the oxygen-minimum zones of the tropical oceans. Using a model of global climate, ocean circulation, and biogeochemical cycling, we extrapolate mesocosm-derived experimental findings of a pCO2-sensitive increase in biotic carbon-to-nitrogen drawdown to the global ocean. For a simulation run from the onset of the industrial revolution until A.D. 2100 under a "business-as-usual" scenario for anthropogenic CO2 emissions, our model predicts a negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 levels, which amounts to 34 Gt C by the end of this century. While this represents a small alteration of the anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle, the model results reveal a dramatic 50% increase in the suboxic water volume by the end of this century in response to the respiration of excess organic carbon formed at higher CO2 levels. This is a significant expansion of the marine "dead zones" with severe implications not only for all higher life forms but also for oxygen-sensitive nutrient recycling and, hence, for oceanic nutrient inventories.

  20. Targeted Disruption of NF1 in Osteocytes Increases FGF23 and Osteoid With Osteomalacia-like Bone Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Aruwajoye, Olumide; Kim, Audrey J; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Phipps, Matthew; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Feng, Jian Q; Kim, Harry Kw

    2017-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, OMIM 162200), caused by NF1 gene mutations, exhibits multi-system abnormalities, including skeletal deformities in humans. Osteocytes play critical roles in controlling bone modeling and remodeling. However, the role of neurofibromin, the protein product of the NF1 gene, in osteocytes is largely unknown. This study investigated the role of neurofibromin in osteocytes by disrupting Nf1 under the Dmp1-promoter. The conditional knockout (Nf1 cKO) mice displayed serum profile of a metabolic bone disorder with an osteomalacia-like bone phenotype. Serum FGF23 levels were 4 times increased in cKO mice compared with age-matched controls. In addition, calcium-phosphorus metabolism was significantly altered (calcium reduced; phosphorus reduced; parathyroid hormone [PTH] increased; 1,25(OH) 2 D decreased). Bone histomorphometry showed dramatically increased osteoid parameters, including osteoid volume, surface, and thickness. Dynamic bone histomorphometry revealed reduced bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate in the cKO mice. TRAP staining showed a reduced osteoclast number. Micro-CT demonstrated thinner and porous cortical bones in the cKO mice, in which osteocyte dendrites were disorganized as assessed by electron microscopy. Interestingly, the cKO mice exhibited spontaneous fractures in long bones, as found in NF1 patients. Mechanical testing of femora revealed significantly reduced maximum force and stiffness. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased FGF23 protein in the cKO bones. Moreover, primary osteocytes from cKO femora showed about eightfold increase in FGF23 mRNA levels compared with control cells. The upregulation of FGF23 was specifically and significantly inhibited by PI3K inhibitor Ly294002, indicating upregulation of FGF23 through PI3K in Nf1-deficient osteocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that Nf1 deficiency in osteocytes dramatically increases FGF23 production and causes a mineralization

  1. Increased SRP reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAfee, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    Major changes in the current reactor hydraulic systems could be made to achieve a total of about 1500 MW increase of reactor power for P, K, and C reactors. The changes would be to install new, larger heat exchangers in the reactor buildings to increase heat transfer area about 24%, to increase H 2 O flow about 30% per reactor, to increase D 2 O flow 15 to 18% per reactor, and increase reactor blanket gas pressure from 5 psig to 10 psig. The increased reactor power is possible because of reduced inlet temperature of reactor coolant, increased heat removal capacity, and increased operating pressure (larger margin from boiling). The 23% reactor power increase, after adjustment for increased off-line time for reactor reloading, will provide a 15% increase of production from P, K, and C reactors. Restart of L Reactor would increase SRP production 33%

  2. Increased Materialistic Trends among Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Masood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among youth nowadays. Because thought patterns of youth and societal demands have changed totally. Factors that are increasing materialism include social media, brand consciousness; self-centeredness; fake personality development and desire to be socially accepted. The implications indicate that materialistic trend should stop by controlling the social media possession among youth which is the primary source of enhancing materialism among youth.

  3. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  4. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  5. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  6. Spin-crossover in [Fe(3-bpp)2][BF4]2 in different solvents--a dramatic stabilisation of the low-spin state in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Simon A; Kilner, Colin A; Halcrow, Malcolm A

    2011-12-07

    The temperature of spin-crossover in [Fe(3-bpp)(2)][BF(4)](2) (3-bpp = 2,6-di{pyrazol-3-yl}pyridine) tends to increase in associating solvents. In particular, T(½) shifts to 60-70 K higher temperature in water compared to organic solvents.

  7. Why noise-induced hearing loss of industrial workers is dramatic while that of similarly assessed musicians has been described as trivial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies, David

    2005-09-01

    Criteria for noise exposure considered acceptable for hearing protection are based upon industrial experience, yet these same criteria do not describe the experience of musicians. Investigation of the physics of the human ear reveals a basic design compromise that explains this anomaly. Acoustic stimulation is encoded in the velocity response of the basilar membrane, which makes possible the use of damping control to achieve the dynamic range of the ear. The use of damping control for this purpose without unacceptable distortions is possible if damping is slowly varying. The ear is free running and guided by previous instruction, making it vulnerable to loud impulsive sounds. To protect the ear the aural reflex is provided, but this protection is limited to frequencies below about 1 to 2 kHz. In the natural environment this design compromise is satisfactory, but in the industrial environment loud impulsive sounds are common and the compromise fails. It is to be noted that impulsive sounds of high frequency and level for which the ear has no defense, and which are not characteristic of music, are averaged to zero using standard assessment procedures.

  8. Metabolomic profiling reveals mitochondrial-derived lipid biomarkers that drive obesity-associated inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brante P Sampey

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Several animal models of obesity exist, but studies are lacking that compare traditional lard-based high fat diets (HFD to "Cafeteria diets" (CAF consisting of nutrient poor human junk food. Our previous work demonstrated the rapid and severe obesogenic and inflammatory consequences of CAF compared to HFD including rapid weight gain, markers of Metabolic Syndrome, multi-tissue lipid accumulation, and dramatic inflammation. To identify potential mediators of CAF-induced obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, we used metabolomic analysis to profile serum, muscle, and white adipose from rats fed CAF, HFD, or standard control diets. Principle component analysis identified elevations in clusters of fatty acids and acylcarnitines. These increases in metabolites were associated with systemic mitochondrial dysfunction that paralleled weight gain, physiologic measures of Metabolic Syndrome, and tissue inflammation in CAF-fed rats. Spearman pairwise correlations between metabolites, physiologic, and histologic findings revealed strong correlations between elevated markers of inflammation in CAF-fed animals, measured as crown like structures in adipose, and specifically the pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids and oxidation intermediates laurate and lauroyl carnitine. Treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages with lauroyl carnitine polarized macrophages towards the M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype through downregulation of AMPK and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results presented herein demonstrate that compared to a traditional HFD model, the CAF diet provides a robust model for diet-induced human obesity, which models Metabolic Syndrome-related mitochondrial dysfunction in serum, muscle, and adipose, along with pro-inflammatory metabolite alterations. These data also suggest that modifying the availability or metabolism of saturated fatty acids may limit the inflammation associated with obesity

  9. Super-resolution microscopy reveals the insulin-resistance-regulated reorganization of GLUT4 on plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Chen, Junling; Gao, Jing; Wang, Hongda; Xiong, Wenyong

    2017-01-15

    GLUT4 (also known as SLC2A4) is essential for glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes, which play central roles in whole-body glucose metabolism. Here, using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to investigate the characteristics of plasma-membrane-fused GLUT4 at the single-molecule level, we have demonstrated that insulin and insulin resistance regulate the spatial organization of GLUT4 in adipocytes. Stimulation with insulin shifted the balance of GLUT4 on the plasma membrane toward a more dispersed configuration. In contrast, insulin resistance induced a more clustered distribution of GLUT4 and increased the mean number of molecules per cluster. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the F 5 QQI motif and lipid rafts mediate the maintenance of GLUT4 clusters on the plasma membrane. Mutation of F 5 QQI (F 5 QQA-GLUT4) induced a more clustered distribution of GLUT4; moreover, destruction of lipid rafts in adipocytes expressing F 5 QQA-GLUT4 dramatically decreased the percentage of large clusters and the mean number of molecules per cluster. In conclusion, our data clarify the effects of insulin stimulation or insulin resistance on GLUT4 reorganization on the plasma membrane and reveal new pathogenic mechanisms of insulin resistance. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Mutational studies reveal a complex set of positive and negative control elements within the chicken vitellogenin II promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, S N; Davis, D L; Burch, J B

    1991-05-01

    The endogenous chicken vitellogenin II (VTGII) gene is transcribed exclusively in hepatocytes in response to estrogen. We previously identified two estrogen response elements (EREs) upstream of this gene. We now present an analysis of the VTGII promoter activated by these EREs in response to estrogen. Chimeric VTGII-CAT genes were cotransfected into LMH chicken hepatoma cells along with an estrogen receptor expression vector, and transient CAT expression was assayed after culturing the cells in the absence or presence of estrogen. An analysis of constructs bearing deletions downstream of the more proximal ERE indicated that promoter elements relevant to transcription in LMH cells extend to between -113 and -96. The relative importance of sequences within the VTGII promoter was examined by using 10 contiguous linker scanner mutations spanning the region from -117 to -24. Although most of these mutations compromised VTGII promoter function, one dramatically increased expression in LMH cells and also rendered the VTGII promoter capable of being activated by cis-linked EREs in fibroblasts cotransfected with an estrogen receptor expression vector. Gel retardation and DNase I footprinting assays revealed four factor-binding sites within this promoter. We demonstrate that three of these sites bind C/EBP, SP1, and USF (or related factors), respectively; the fourth site binds a factor that we denote TF-V beta. The biological relevance of these findings is suggested by the fact that three of these binding sites map to sites previously shown to be occupied in vivo in response to estrogen.

  11. Enfermagem e o Jogo Dramático: Reflexões de enfermeiros sobre o cuidado da enfermagem através da imagem Enfermería y Juego Dramatic: Reflexiones de enfermeros acerca del cuidado de la enfemería mediante la imagen Nursing and Dramatic Game: Reflexions of nurses about the care of nursing through the picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nébia Maria Almeida de Figueiredo

    2010-12-01

    descodificados en dos categorías: la imagen que veo en la imagen INDUCTORA y la imagen CONSTRUIDA en la práctica de pensar el cuidado. Conclusión: el juego es una pedagogía provocadora de reflexiones sobre la profesión y el cuidado; al reflexionar se destacan las implicaciones del orden del mirar/oír/intervenir.This study reports the results of reflexive pedagogical activities in the classroom in Nursing: the professional thinking and actions of those attending the Master’s Course in Nursing EEAP/UNIRIO, when 28 students created images related to an image presented by teachers through the Dramatic Game. Guiding question: What images are produced and how do they talk about them when they think about care? Objectives: a to identify pedagogical implications of the Dramatic Game - the inductor image as a means to teach thinking about Nursing and Care; b to highlight the implications of the strategy used, based on the results of the game. Methodology: qualitative within a pedagogical approach. Results: The data produced were organized through content analysis and coded into two categories: the image that I see in the INDUCTOR image and the image CONSTRUCTED in practice to think about care. Conclusion: the game is a pedagogy which provokes reflections on the profession and care; the reflections have implications for seeing/ listening/intervening.

  12. EOR increases 24% worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritis, G.

    1992-01-01

    Although the higher cost of enhanced oil recovery has taken its toll in projects, the Journal's worldwide EOR survey reveals that production from EOR is a significant and growing component of the world's oil production. This paper outlines hundreds of projects in 14 countries. Pilot, field wide, and planned projects are all included

  13. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects...... a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy can reveal increases in brain activity related to animal-assisted therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, Yuka; Ebara, Fumio; Morita, Yoshimitsu; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19?21 years) of the Faculty of Agricultur...

  15. Molecular systematics reveals increased diversity within the South African Laurencia complex (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Caitlynne; Bolton, John J; Mattio, Lydiane; Mandiwana-Neudani, Tshifhiwa G; Anderson, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    Previous publications list ten species in the Laurencia complex from South Africa with all ascribed to the genus Laurencia sensu stricto. However, the diversity of the complex in South Africa has not yet been re-assessed following the numerous recent taxonomic changes. This study investigated the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of this group in South Africa using recent collections. Methods included molecular phylogenetic analyses of plastid rbcL gene sequences (a total of 146; including eleven outgroup taxa) using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, and the examination of morphological and anatomical characters, including the number of corps en cerise when present. The seven genera of the Laurencia complex formed monophyletic clades with high posterior probabilities. Seventeen morphotypes were identified: 14 in the genus Laurencia sensu stricto, among which eight corresponded to Laurencia species currently recognized from South Africa and one each to species of Palisada, Chondrophycus, and Laurenciella. The six remaining morphotypes in Laurencia sensu stricto did not match any descriptions and are described here as five new species: Laurencia alfredensis sp. nov., Laurencia dichotoma sp. nov., Laurencia digitata sp. nov., Laurencia multiclavata sp. nov. and Laurencia sodwaniensis sp. nov. and a new variety: Laurencia pumila var. dehoopiensis var. nov. Laurencia stegengae nom. nov. is established to replace Laurencia peninsularis Stegenga, Bolton and Anderson nom. illeg. The diversity is likely greater, with six additional unidentified specimens found in this molecular investigation. These findings place South Africa alongside Australia in having one of the most diverse floras of this group in the world. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  16. Increasing organ donation rates by revealing recipient details to families of potential donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David; Gardiner, Dale

    2018-02-01

    Many families refuse to consent to donation from their deceased relatives or over-rule the consent given before death by the patient, but giving families more information about the potential recipients of organs could reduce refusal rates. In this paper, we analyse arguments for and against doing so, and conclude that this strategy should be attempted. While it would be impractical and possibly unethical to give details of actual potential recipients, generic, realistic information about the people who could benefit from organs should be provided to families before they make a decision about donation or attempt to over-rule it. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Equilibrium sampling reveals increasing thermodynamic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during sewage sludge digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøholm, Karina Knudsmark; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Jahnke, Annika

    2018-01-01

    The reuse of digested sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as soil fertilizer poses a risk for contamination of soil and water environments. The present study provides a new approach for investigating the exposure of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sewage sludge. The methodology...... (Cfree). The PAHs with logKow > 6 had ARs close to 1.3, whereas PAHs with logKow sediment....

  18. Increased detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sandakan division, Sabah as revealed by PlasmoNex?

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Xiang Ting; Lim, Yvonne AL; Vythilingam, Indra; Chew, Ching Hoong; Lee, Ping Chin; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tian Chye; Yap, Nan Jiun; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Chua, Kek Heng

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that is widespread in humans in Malaysian Borneo. However, little is known about the incidence and distribution of this parasite in the Sandakan division, Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, the aim of the present epidemiological study was to investigate the incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi as well as other Plasmodium species in this division based on a most recent developed hexaplex PCR system (PlasmoNex?). Methods A total of 189 ...

  19. Tropical forcing of increased Southern Ocean climate variability revealed by a 140-year subantarctic temperature reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turney, Chris S.M.; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Van Sebille, Erik; Thomas, Zoë; McGlone, Matt; Richardson, Sarah; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Fenwick, Pavla; Zunz, Violette; Goosse, Hugues; Wilson, Kerry Jayne; Carter, Lionel; Lipson, Mathew; Jones, Richard T.; Harsch, Melanie; Clark, Graeme; Marzinelli, Ezequiel; Rogers, Tracey; Rainsley, Eleanor; Ciasto, Laura; Waterman, Stephanie; Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Visbeck, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Occupying about 14% of the world's surface, the Southern Ocean plays a fundamental role in ocean and atmosphere circulation, carbon cycling and Antarctic ice-sheet dynamics. Unfortunately, high interannual variability and a dearth of instrumental observations before the 1950s limits our

  20. Employee responses to health insurance premium increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Leibowitz, Arleen A; Robalino, David A

    2004-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of employees' health insurance decisions--including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage--during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a "cafeteria-style" benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. We modeled the probability that an employee would drop coverage or switch plans in response to employee premium increases using data from a single large US company with employees across 47 states during the 3-year period of 1989 through 1991, a time of large premium increases within and across plans. Premium increases induced substantial plan switching. Single employees were more likely to respond to premium increases by dropping coverage, whereas families tended to switch to another plan. Premium increases of 10% induced 7% of single employees to drop or severely cut back on coverage; 13% to switch to another plan; and 80% to remain in their existing plan. Similar figures for those with family coverage were 11%, 12%, and 77%, respectively. Simulation results that control for known covariates show similar increases. When faced with a dramatic increase in premiums--on the order of 20%--nearly one fifth of the single employees dropped coverage compared with 10% of those with family coverage. Employee coverage decisions are sensitive to rapidly increasing premiums, and single employees may be likely to drop coverage. This finding suggests that sustained premium increases could induce substantial increases in the number of uninsured individuals.

  1. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  2. HIV incidence on the increase among homosexual men attending an Amsterdam sexually transmitted disease clinic: using a novel approach for detecting recent infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.; Spaargaren, Joke; Geskus, Ronald B.; Beijnen, Jos; Coutinho, Roel A.; Fennema, Han S. A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Dramatic increases have occurred in sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and in sexual risk behaviour among homosexual men in Amsterdam and internationally. We investigated whether these trends indicate a resurgence of the HIV epidemic. Methods: HIV incidence was determined among

  3. Designing Programme Implementation Strategies to Increase the Adoption and Use of Biosand Water Filters in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy K.K. Ngai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost household water treatment systems are innovations designed to improve the quality of drinking water at the point of use. This study investigates how an NGO can design appropriate programme strategies in order to increase the adoption and sustained use of household sand filters in rural India. A system dynamics computer model was developed and used to assess 18 potential programme strategies for their effectiveness in increasing filter use at two and ten years into the future, under seven scenarios of how the external context may plausibly evolve. The results showed that the optimal choice of strategy is influenced by the macroeconomic situation, donor funding, presence of alternative options, and the evaluation time frame. The analysis also revealed some key programme management challenges, including the trade-off between optimising short- or long-term gains, and counter-intuitive results, such as higher subsidy fund allocation leading to fewer filter distribution, and technology advances leading to fewer sales. This study outlines how an NGO can choose effective strategies in consideration of complex system interactions. This study demonstrated that small NGOs can dramatically increase their programme outcomes without necessarily increasing operational budget.

  4. Molecular portrait of breast cancer in China reveals comprehensive transcriptomic likeness to Caucasian breast cancer and low prevalence of luminal A subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Dugo, Matteo; Callari, Maurizio; Sandri, Marco; De Cecco, Loris; Valeri, Barbara; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Xue, Jingyan; Bi, Rui; Veneroni, Silvia; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Ménard, Sylvie; Tagliabue, Elda; Shao, Zhimin; Wu, Jiong; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence across China with progressive urbanization and economic development has signaled the urgent need for molecular and clinical detailing of breast cancer in the Chinese population. Our analyses of a unique transethnic collection of breast cancer frozen specimens from Shanghai Fudan Cancer Center (Chinese Han) profiled simultaneously with an analogous Caucasian Italian series revealed consistent transcriptomic data lacking in batch effects. The prevalence of Luminal A subtype was significantly lower in Chinese series, impacting the overall prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease in a large cohort of Chinese/Caucasian patients. Unsupervised and supervised comparison of gene and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of Chinese and Caucasian samples revealed extensive similarity in the comprehensive taxonomy of transcriptional elements regulating breast cancer biology. Partition of gene expression data using gene lists relevant to breast cancer as “intrinsic” and “extracellular matrix” genes identified Chinese and Caucasian subgroups with equivalent global gene and miRNA profiles. These findings indicate that in the Chinese and Caucasian groups, breast neoplasia and the surrounding stromal characteristics undergo the same differentiation and molecular processes. Transcriptional similarity across transethnic cohorts may simplify translational medicine approaches and clinical management of breast cancer patients worldwide

  5. Dramatically improve the Safety Performance of Li ion Battery Separators and Reduce the Manufacturing Cost Using Ultraviolet Curing and High Precision Coating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Gary [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States); Arnold, John [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States)

    2017-06-30

    cost of a ceramic coating. Another innovation is high precision, high speed, printing techniques that can apply a unique pattern of ceramic particles on base separators. The pattern will maximize ionic conductivity and minimize ceramic coating weight and thickness, while retaining the benefits of increased puncture strength, reduced thermal shrinkage and no decomposition. This project has met all of its goals and has been successfully completed. This successful completion has enabled Miltec UV to take the final steps leading to the commercialization of an innovative technology that will result in ceramic coated separators that can be manufactured and sold from the US, with increased production capacity, reduced cost, and improved battery safety.

  6. Revealing the hidden structural phases of FeRh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoong; Ramesh, R.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal that tetragonal distortion has a dramatic effect on the relative stability of the various magnetic structures (C-, A-, G-, A'-AFM, and FM) of FeRh giving rise to a wide range of novel stable/metastable structures and magnetic phase transitions between these states. We predict that the cubic G-AFM structure, which was believed thus far to be the ground state, is metastable and that the tetragonally expanded G-AFM is the stable structure. The low energy barrier separating these states suggests phase coexistence at room temperature. We propose an A'-AFM phase to be the global ground state among all magnetic phases which arises from the strain-induced tuning of the exchange interactions. The results elucidate the underlying mechanism for the recent experimental findings of electric-field control of magnetic phase transition driven via tetragonal strain. The magnetic phase transitions open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering for the next-generation memory devices.

  7. Analysis reveals potential rangeland impacts if Williamson Act eliminated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Wetzel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available California budget cuts have resulted in dramatic reductions in state funding for the Williamson Act, a land protection program that reduces property taxes for the owners of 15 million acres of California farms and rangeland. With state reimbursements to counties eliminated, the decision to continue Williamson Act contracts lies with individual counties. We investigated the consequences of eliminating the Williamson Act, using a geospatial analysis and a mail questionnaire asking ranchers for plans under a hypothetical elimination scenario. The geospatial analysis revealed that 72% of rangeland parcels enrolled in Williamson Act contracts contained habitat important for statewide conservation goals. Presented with the elimination scenario, survey respondents reported an intention to sell 20% of their total 496,889 acres. The tendency of survey participants to respond that they would sell land was highest among full-time ranchers with low household incomes and without off-ranch employment. A majority (76% of the ranchers who reported that they would sell land predicted that the buyers would develop it for nonagricultural uses, suggesting substantial changes to California's landscape in a future without the Williamson Act.

  8. Changes in climate, catchment vegetation and hydrogeology as the causes of dramatic lake-level fluctuations in the Kurtna Lake District, NE Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vainu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous lakes in the world serve as sensitive indicators of climate change. Water levels for lakes Ahnejärv and Martiska, two vulnerable oligotrophic closed-basin lakes on sandy plains in northeastern Estonia, fell more than 3 m in 1946–1987 and rose up to 2 m by 2009. Earlier studies indicated that changes in rates of groundwater abstraction were primarily responsible for the changes, but scientifically sound explanations for water-level fluctuations were still lacking. Despite the inconsistent water-level dataset, we were able to assess the importance of changing climate, catchment vegetation and hydrogeology in water-level fluctuations in these lakes. Our results from water-balance simulations indicate that before the initiation of ground­water abstraction in 1972 a change in the vegetation composition on the catchments triggered the lake-level decrease. The water-level rise in 1990–2009 was caused, in addition to the reduction of groundwater abstraction rates, by increased precipitation and decreased evaporation. The results stress that climate, catchment vegetation and hydrogeology must all be considered while evaluating the causes of modern water-level changes in lakes.

  9. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosana; Brossa, Ricard; Gil, Luis; Pita, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of abscisic acid found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN) and stomatal conductance (gS) in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m(-2) s(-1)) AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM) and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  10. Stem girdling evidences a trade-off between cambial activity and sprouting and dramatically reduces plant transpiration due to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis and hormone signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana eLópez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthesis source-sink relationship in young Pinus canariensis seedlings was modified by stem girdling to investigate sprouting and cambial activity, feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, and stem and root hydraulic capacity. Removal of bark tissue showed a trade-off between sprouting and diameter growth. Above the girdle, growth was accelerated but the number of sprouts was almost negligible, whereas below the girdle the response was reversed. Girdling resulted in a sharp decrease in whole plant transpiration and root hydraulic conductance. The reduction of leaf area after girdling was strengthened by the high levels of ABA found in buds which pointed to stronger bud dormancy, preventing a new needle flush. Accumulation of sugars in leaves led to a coordinated reduction in net photosynthesis (AN and stomatal conductance (gS in the short term, but later (gS below 0.07 mol m-2 s-1 AN decreased faster. The decrease in maximal efficiency of photosystem II (FV/FM and the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII in girdled plants could suggest photoprotection of leaves, as shown by the vigorous recovery of AN and ΦPSII after reconnection of the phloem. Stem girdling did not affect xylem embolism but increased stem hydraulic conductance above the girdle. This study shows that stem girdling affects not only the carbon balance, but also the water status of the plant.

  11. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  12. Early lens ablation causes dramatic long-term effects on the shape of bones in the craniofacial skeleton of Astyanax mexicanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Dufton

    Full Text Available The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, exists as two morphs of a single species, a sighted surface morph and a blind cavefish. In addition to eye regression, cavefish have an increased number of taste buds, maxillary teeth and have an altered craniofacial skeleton compared to the sighted morph. We investigated the effect the lens has on the development of the surrounding skeleton, by ablating the lens at different time points during ontogeny. This unique long-term study sheds light on how early embryonic manipulations on the eye can affect the shape of the adult skull more than a year later, and the developmental window during which time these effects occur. The effects of lens ablation were analyzed by whole-mount bone staining, immunohistochemisty and landmark based morphometric analyzes. Our results indicate that lens ablation has the greatest impact on the skeleton when it is ablated at one day post fertilisation (dpf compared to at four dpf. Morphometric analyzes indicate that there is a statistically significant difference in the shape of the supraorbital bone and suborbital bones four through six. These bones expand into the eye orbit exhibiting plasticity in their shape. Interestingly, the number of caudal teeth on the lower jaw is also affected by lens ablation. In contrast, the shape of the calvariae, the length of the mandible, and the number of mandibular taste buds are unaltered by lens removal. We demonstrate the plasticity of some craniofacial elements and the stability of others in the skull. Furthermore, this study highlights interactions present between sensory systems during early development and sheds light on the cavefish phenotype.

  13. Demand effects of consumers’ stated and revealed preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...

  14. Revealing ionization-induced dynamic recovery in ion-irradiated SrTiO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velisa, Gihan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division; Wendler, Elke [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Institut fur Festkorperphysik; Xue, Haizhou [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering; Zhang, Yanwen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering; Weber, William J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division

    2018-03-02

    The lack of fundamental understanding on the coupled effects of energy deposition to electrons and atomic nuclei on defect processes and irradiation response poses a significant roadblock for the design and control of material properties. In this work, SrTiO3 has been irradiated with various ion species over a wide range of ion fluences at room temperature with a goal to deposit different amounts of energy to target electrons and atomic nuclei by varying the ratio of electronic to nuclear energy loss. Here, the results unambiguously show a dramatic difference in behavior of SrTiO3 irradiated with light ions (Ne, O) compared to heavy ions (Ar). While the damage accumulation and amorphization under Ar ion irradiation are consistent with previous observations and existing models, the damage accumulation under Ne irradiation reveals a quasi-saturation state at a fractional disorder of 0.54 at the damage peak for an ion fluence corresponding to a dose of 0.5 dpa; this is followed by further increases in disorder with increasing ion fluence. In the case of O ion irradiation, the damage accumulation at the damage peak closely follows that for Ne ion irradiation up to a fluence corresponding to a dose of 0.5 dpa, where a quasi-saturation of fractional disorder level occurs at about 0.48; however, in this case, the disorder at the damage peak decreases slightly with further increases in fluence. This behavior is associated with changes in kinetics due to irradiation-enhanced diffusional processes that are dependent on electronic energy loss and the ratio of electronic to nuclear energy dissipation. Lastly, these findings are critical for advancing the fundamental understanding of ion-solid interactions and for a large number of applications in oxide electronics where SrTiO3 is a foundational material.

  15. Persistent increase in oxygen consumption and impaired neurovascular coupling after spreading depression in rat neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Piilgaard; Lauritzen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with a dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis and increased energy metabolism. There is strong clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that CSD is the mechanism of migraine, and involved in progressive neuronal injury in stroke and head t...

  16. Circulações, dramáticas, eficácias da atividade industriosa Circulations, "dramatics", efficacies of the industrious activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schwartz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da relação entre uma certa abordagem do trabalho (como "atividade industriosa" e o manejo dos coeficientes essenciais da gestão econômica e social. É sugerida a necessidade de os reproblematizar profundamente a partir das dificuldades suscitadas de maneira crescente no setor dito de "serviços". Deste ponto de vista, o crescimento dos serviços poderia ser a oportunidade de repensar, em geral, o modo de fabricação dos coeficientes gestionários. A utilização da noção de atividade exigia, naturalmente, uma breve investigação sobre a história deste conceito, essencialmente a partir da sua utilização ambivalente por Marx. Enfim, desenvolve-se no texto a idéia de "valores sem dimensões", na medida em que a articulação - sempre a renegociar e de maneira altamente problemática - entre valores quantificáveis e tais valores (que operam inicialmente num universo estrangeiro aos instrumentos de medida, nos parece um ponto crítico essencial da matriz da historicidade do espaço social. E nós reencontramos aí os desafios diretamente operatórios de tais interrogações conceituais: qual impacto na gestão que experimentam formas renovadas de construção de coeficientes econômicos, ao considerar essas "negociações complexas de eficácia-eficiência"?This article deals with the relationship between a certain approach to work (as "industrious activity" and the manipulation of the essential coefficients of economic and social management. We suggest that there is a need to equate these two things more deeply because of the difficulties that are increasingly appearing in the so-called "service sector". From this point of view, the growth of services could be an opportunity to generally rethink the way management coefficients are designed. Clearly, in order to make use of the notion of activity it will be necessary to carry out a brief investigation of the history of this concept, particularly after its ambivalent use by

  17. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sue Ashley; Dr. Harmen Schaap; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  18. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  19. Increasing Public Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ben Zaed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP in the short and long term where you see the Wagner hypothesis that causal heading of GDP to government spending while there is a causal relationship analysis positive trending of government spending to GDP according to the Keynesian hypothesis in this study will be used descriptive analytical method to validate these hypotheses. Results in the short and long term made it clear that there is a difference in the outcome of Applied Studies where we find that each supports a relationship Wagner in the sense that the causal trending of real GDP to government spending and more precisely to increase the economic growth lead to increased aggregate demand which leads in turn increasing the need to increase government spending and to increase the resources available to the government sector to finance the increase in spending by the additional resources resulting from the economic growth while others opines opposes the existence of the relationship.

  20. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  1. Social change and birth cohort increase in loneliness among Chinese older adults: a cross-temporal meta-analysis, 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhimin; Yang, Xun; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Yuhan; Yu, Lin

    2014-11-01

    In China, rapid economic growth and increasing social problems constitute the two basic characteristics underlying contemporary social change. With dramatic social change, loneliness in older adults may have changed across birth cohorts, thus altering older adults' mental health. The present study aims to identify birth cohort changes in Chinese older adults' loneliness and the social indicators underlying these changes. Cross-temporal meta-analysis was utilized to investigate changes in Chinese older adults' loneliness from 1995 to 2011. We analyzed 25 studies (N = 13,280 adults; age ≥ 60 years) employing the University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale. We correlated loneliness scores with social indicators and matched these correlations for three periods: ten years before the data collection, five years before data collection, and during the year of data collection. Loneliness levels in Chinese older adults have increased by 1.02 standard deviations from 1995 to 2011. Social indicators such as increased urbanization level, personal medical expenditure, divorce rate, the Gini coefficient, and unemployment rate significantly predicted loneliness in Chinese older adults. Decrease in social connectedness and increase in levels of health threat may be responsible for the observed increase in levels of loneliness. Cross-temporal meta-analysis revealed a birth cohort increase in loneliness among Chinese older adults. We conclude that changes in social connectedness and levels of health threat likely play an important role in predicting loneliness in the population of Chinese elderly adults.

  2. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  3. Increased fibrosis: A novel means by which GH influences white adipose tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, Lara A; Comisford, Ross; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lee, Kevin; Troike, Katie; Wilson, Cody; Jara, Adam; Harberson, Mitchell; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2018-04-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis - the buildup of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily collagen - is now a recognized hallmark of tissue dysfunction and is increased with obesity and lipodystrophy. While growth hormone (GH) is known to increase collagen in several tissues, no previous research has addressed its effect on ECM in WAT. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine if GH influences WAT fibrosis. This study examined WAT from four distinct strains of GH-altered mice (bGH and GHA transgenic mice as well as two tissue specific GH receptor gene disrupted lines, fat growth hormone receptor knockout or FaGHRKO and liver growth hormone receptor knockout or LiGHRKO mice). Collagen content and adipocyte size were studied in all cohorts and compared to littermate controls. In addition, mRNA expression of fibrosis-associated genes was assessed in one cohort (6month old male bovine GH transgenic and WT mice) and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with GH. Collagen stained area was increased in WAT from bGH mice, was depot-dependent, and increased with age. Furthermore, increased collagen content was associated with decreased adipocyte size in all depots but more dramatic changes in the subcutaneous fat pad. Notably, the increase in collagen was not associated with an increase in collagen gene expression or other genes known to promote fibrosis in WAT, but collagen gene expression was increased with acute GH administration in 3T3-LI cells. In contrast, evaluation of 6month old GH antagonist (GHA) male mice showed significantly decreased collagen in the subcutaneous depot. Lastly, to assess if GH induced collagen deposition directly or indirectly (via IGF-1), fat (Fa) and liver (Li) specific GHRKO mice were evaluated. Decreased fibrosis in FaGHRKO and increased fibrosis in LiGHRKO mice suggest GH is primarily responsible for the alterations in collagen. Our results show that GH action is positively associated with an increase in WAT collagen content as

  4. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION AND DRAMATIC RITUAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALISBURY, LEE H.

    THE AUTHOR'S PROGRAM, COLLEGE ORIENTATION PROGRAM FOR ALASKAN NATIVES (COPAN), WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE A SMOOTH TRANSITION FOR NATIVE ALASKAN STUDENTS INTO THE AREA OF WESTERN CULTURE, IN COLLEGE. THE FINE ARTS WERE UTILIZED AS A COMMUNICATION BRIDGE BETWEEN THE ESKIMO AND WESTERN CULTURES. THE MEDIA OF THE DANCE AND DRAMA WERE THE BASES FOR…

  5. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  6. Dramaturgie et interculturel (Dramatics and the Intercultural).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhendler, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The use of techniques from drama and psychodrama to explore intercultural differences and relations is described. The process used incorporates eight stages of discovery of perceptions, stereotypes, cultural identity, communication taboos, and bringing together individuals from different cultures. (MSE)

  7. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hsieh, Sean [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Lee, Joon [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Baghzouz, Yahia [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Cross, Andrew [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chatterjee, Sarah [NV Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by adjusting settings. In a sense the customer can choose between greater comfort and greater money savings during demand response circumstances. Finally a battery application was to be considered. Initially it was thought that a large battery (probably a sodium-sulfur type) would be installed. However, after the contract was awarded, it was determined that a single, centrally-located battery system would not be appropriate for many reasons, including that with the build out plan there would not be any location to put it. The price had risen substantially since the budget for the project was put together. Also, that type of battery has to be kept hot all the time, but its use was only sought for summer operation. Hence, individual house batteries would be used, and these are discussed at the end of this report. Many aspects of the energy use for climate control in selected houses were monitored before residents moved in. This was done both to understand the magnitude of the energy flows but also to have data that could be compared to the computer simulations. The latter would be used to evaluate various aspects of our plan. It was found that good agreement existed between actual energy use and computed energy use. Hence, various studies were performed via simulations. Performance simulations showed the impact on peak energy usage between a code built house of same size and shape compared to the Villa Trieste homes with and without the PV arrays on the latter. Computations were also used to understand the effect of varying orientations of the houses in this typical housing development, including the effect of PV electrical generation. Energy conservation features of the Villa Trieste homes decreased the energy use during peak times (as well as all others), but the resulting decreased peak occurred at about the same time as the code-built houses. Consideration of the PV generation decreases the grid energy use further during daylight hours, but did not extend long enough many days to decrease the peak. Hence, a demand response approach, as planned, was needed. With participation of the residents in the demand response program developed does enable the houses to reduce the peak demand between 66% and 72%, depending on the built years. This was addressed fully in the latter part the study and is described in the latter part of this report.

  8. Impact on Adults of Dramatized Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, Roderic; And Others

    Psychosocial adaptations are sometimes affected by experiences that are ordinarily considered to be amusements. In 1974, a field study was undertaken by the Program on Psychosocial Adaptation and the Future to determine if it is possible to measure the effect of television on adult viewers. A sample of 260 couples, controlled for demographic…

  9. LANGUAGE IN AFRICAN DRAMATIC LITERATURE: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imitch

    Language therefore, is a communication tool used by man to transmit information in a particular community. This tool of communication can be verbal or non verbal (signs, symbols). ... his approach since in his plays, the mode of communication is basically through ..... Theatre and the Rite of Post-Negritude Remembering.

  10. Dramatic Aspects of Medieval Magic in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn.......The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn....

  11. Why have connection costs soared so dramatically?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahjejian, L.

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of small photovoltaic power stations are demanding their connection to the national power grid. ERDF, the manager of the grid, has to adapt and reinforce some lines. The connection costs that were previously supported by the consumers has to be paid by the demander as the law NOME stipulates it. For installations below 18 kVA the cost ranges from 800 to 1600 euros and for more powerful installations an estimate has to be drawn by ERDF and the cost will depends on the presence or not of an adequate transformer in the vicinity, on the possible upgrading of the transformer, on the length of the cables necessary to make the connection and on whether the installation is in an urban area or not. A table gives the ERDF tariffs for the connection and the case of the connection of a 35 kVA station built on the roof of a shed in a rural zone is dealt with. The procedure to follow for demanding the connection to ERDF is detailed. (A.C.)

  12. Dramatic literature, digitisation and cultural mediatisation: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature, unarguably, mirrors and reflects the essence of the society in all its socio-cultural and ethno-political ramifications. It captures the self-esteem of the society; it also symbolizes the psyche of the society. Literature, therefore, becomes a tool for measuring, archiving and transmitting the societal ethos and values.

  13. Dramatic Advance in Quality in Flexographic Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Richter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The enormous changes in flexography printing in recent years concerning the printing quality achievable cannot generally be ascribed to a single revolutionary invention, but are the result of continuous developments to the complete system. Thus the direct drive technology in all machine types and its associated advantages in terms of printing length corrections has become established since drupa 2000. The race for ever finer raster rolls has also been completed to the benefit of improvements in bowl geometry and in ceramic surfaces. Clearly improved colour transfer behaviour has become feasible as a result. In a closely intermeshed system such as flexography printing this naturally has to have an effect on the printing colours used. Further improvements in bonding agents and pigment concentrations now allow users to print ever thinner colour layers while maintaining all of the required authenticities.Furthermore, it has become possible to reduce additional disturbing characteristics in the UV colour area, such as the unpleasant odour. While the digital imaging of printing plates has primarily been improved in terms of economic efficiency by the use of up to eight parallel laser beams, extreme improvements in the system are noticeable especially in the area of directly engraved printing moulds. Whereas many still dismissed directly engraved polymer plates at the last drupa as a laboratory system, the first installation was recently placed on the market a mere three years later. A further noteworthy innovation of recent years that has reached market maturity is thin sleeve technology, which combines the advantages of a photopolymer plate with a round imaged printing mould. There are no high sleeve costs for each printing mould, except for one-off cost for an adapter sleeve. To conclude, it can be said that although flexography printing has experienced many new features in the time between drupa 2000 and today, it still has enormous potential for further development.

  14. The Mexican-American and Dramatic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Hector M.

    In the area of the arts, the Mexican American has discovered a rich cultural heritage which gives him a strong sense of pride and a deep feeling of satisfaction. A new interest in the literature of Mexico and the Southwestern states of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and California has started the Chicano people reading classic and modern…

  15. DRAMATIC LITERATURE FOR DEVELOPMENT: IMPERATIVES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precious

    physicalized, is a useful tool for the social re-engineering that this state of affairs beckons. It is on ... fashions it for didactic purposes. Again Adeniyi concurs ..... Nwamuo presents a photographic view of the rural dwellers in. Akom and his wives, ...

  16. Dramatic Vascular Course of Behcet's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsharawy, Mohamed A.; Hassan, Khairi A.; Al-Awami, Majed; Al-Mulhim, Fatma A.

    2004-01-01

    Vascular involvement in Behcet's disease is rare (approximately 14% venous and 1.6% arterial), serious and recurrent. We report a case of Behcet's disease with deep venous thrombosis and right iliac pseudoaneurysm which was repaired with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft. The patient received warfarin, aspirin, clopidogrel, immunosupressive and corticosteroids. Two months later the patient developed manifestations of superior vena cava thrombosis and the graft was blocked. Three months later, ischemia of the right foot deteriorated and left femoral artery crossover (PTFE) graft was performed. (author)

  17. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...

  18. Integrated engineering increases flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Integrated Engineering (IE) can be used to describe the best use of increasingly rare good engineering talent in an increasingly competive world. A number of organisations are now moving towards IE without any general agreement on a precise definition. The engineering division of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is one such organisation. This feature covers the reasoning behind the decision, and our experience to date. BNFL engineering division is responsible primarily for the provision of major facilities on BNFL operational sites. This provision includes feasibility, front end and detailed design, procurement, installation and commissioning. Task force working has been used for some of the large projects. But the future workload is expected to comprise many more smaller projects. At the same time, equipment is becoming more complex and the need for mutual understanding and appreciation between disciplines is increasing. To meet this increasing need for flexibility, BNFL has decided to move to the matrix structure of project management and functional departments described in the article. (Author)

  19. Increasing precipitation volatility in twenty-first-century California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Daniel L.; Langenbrunner, Baird; Neelin, J. David; Hall, Alex

    2018-05-01

    Mediterranean climate regimes are particularly susceptible to rapid shifts between drought and flood—of which, California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012 and 2016 to extreme wetness during the 2016-2017 winter provides a dramatic example. Projected future changes in such dry-to-wet events, however, remain inadequately quantified, which we investigate here using the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble of climate model simulations. Anthropogenic forcing is found to yield large twenty-first-century increases in the frequency of wet extremes, including a more than threefold increase in sub-seasonal events comparable to California's `Great Flood of 1862'. Smaller but statistically robust increases in dry extremes are also apparent. As a consequence, a 25% to 100% increase in extreme dry-to-wet precipitation events is projected, despite only modest changes in mean precipitation. Such hydrological cycle intensification would seriously challenge California's existing water storage, conveyance and flood control infrastructure.

  20. Gene expression profiling of preovulatory follicle in the buffalo cow: effects of increased IGF-I concentration on periovulatory events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna U Rao

    Full Text Available The preovulatory follicle in response to gonadotropin surge undergoes dramatic biochemical, and morphological changes orchestrated by expression changes in hundreds of genes. Employing well characterized bovine preovulatory follicle model, granulosa cells (GCs and follicle wall were collected from the preovulatory follicle before, 1, 10 and 22 h post peak LH surge. Microarray analysis performed on GCs revealed that 450 and 111 genes were differentially expressed at 1 and 22 h post peak LH surge, respectively. For validation, qPCR and immunocytochemistry analyses were carried out for some of the differentially expressed genes. Expression analysis of many of these genes showed distinct expression patterns in GCs and the follicle wall. To study molecular functions and genetic networks, microarray data was analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis which revealed majority of the differentially expressed genes to cluster within processes like steroidogenesis, cell survival and cell differentiation. In the ovarian follicle, IGF-I is established to be an important regulator of the above mentioned molecular functions. Thus, further experiments were conducted to verify the effects of increased intrafollicular IGF-I levels on the expression of genes associated with the above mentioned processes. For this purpose, buffalo cows were administered with exogenous bGH to transiently increase circulating and intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I. The results indicated that increased intrafollicular concentrations of IGF-I caused changes in expression of genes associated with steroidogenesis (StAR, SRF and apoptosis (BCL-2, FKHR, PAWR. These results taken together suggest that onset of gonadotropin surge triggers activation of various biological pathways and that the effects of growth factors and peptides on gonadotropin actions could be examined during preovulatory follicle development.

  1. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  2. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for atlantic leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI. Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively. Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by

  5. Physical pain increases interpersonal trust in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Gao, J; Ma, Y; Zhu, C; Dong, X-W

    2018-01-01

    People behave and interact with others differently when experiencing physical pain. Pain has dramatic effects on one's emotional responses, cognitive functions and social interaction. However, little has been known about whether and how physical pain influences interpersonal trust in social interaction. In the present study, we examined the influence of physical pain on trusting behaviour. A total of 112 healthy participants were recruited and assigned to physical pain condition (induced by Capsaicin) and control condition (with hand cream), respectively. Thirty minutes after pain induction, three decision-making tasks were conducted to measure behaviours in social interaction, including trust and trustworthiness (trust game), non-social risk-taking (risk game) and altruism (dictator game). Results showed that physical pain increased interpersonal trust among females, but not among males. Pain did not influence non-social risk-taking, altruism or trustworthiness, as evaluated by monetary transfers in those tasks. Moreover, the effect of physical pain on interpersonal trust was fully mediated by expectation of monetary profit. These findings demonstrate an effect of pain on interpersonal trust and suggest a reciprocity mechanism that the effect may be driven by self-interest rather than altruistic motivation. The pain effect on trust was evident only in females, implying distinct pain coping strategies used by both genders. The present work highlights the social component of pain and extends our understanding of mutual interactions between pain and social cognition. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  6. Multimodal MR-imaging reveals large-scale structural and functional connectivity changes in profound early blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Corinna M.; Hirsch, Gabriella V.; Zajac, Lauren; Koo, Bang-Bon; Collignon, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    In the setting of profound ocular blindness, numerous lines of evidence demonstrate the existence of dramatic anatomical and functional changes within the brain. However, previous studies based on a variety of distinct measures have often provided inconsistent findings. To help reconcile this issue, we used a multimodal magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging approach to provide complementary structural and functional information regarding this neuroplastic reorganization. This included gray matter structural morphometry, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of white matter connectivity and integrity, and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) analysis. When comparing the brains of early blind individuals to sighted controls, we found evidence of co-occurring decreases in cortical volume and cortical thickness within visual processing areas of the occipital and temporal cortices respectively. Increases in cortical volume in the early blind were evident within regions of parietal cortex. Investigating white matter connections using HARDI revealed patterns of increased and decreased connectivity when comparing both groups. In the blind, increased white matter connectivity (indexed by increased fiber number) was predominantly left-lateralized, including between frontal and temporal areas implicated with language processing. Decreases in structural connectivity were evident involving frontal and somatosensory regions as well as between occipital and cingulate cortices. Differences in white matter integrity (as indexed by quantitative anisotropy, or QA) were also in general agreement with observed pattern changes in the number of white matter fibers. Analysis of resting state sequences showed evidence of both increased and decreased functional connectivity in the blind compared to sighted controls. Specifically, increased connectivity was evident between temporal and inferior frontal areas. Decreases in functional connectivity were observed

  7. ORIC Beam Energy Increase

    CERN Document Server

    Mallory, Merrit L; Dowling, Darryl; Hudson, Ed; Lord, Dick; Tatum, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The detection of and solution to a beam interference problem in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) extraction system has yielded a 20% increase in the proton beam energy. The beam from ORIC was designed to be extracted before the nu r equal one resonance. Most cyclotrons extract after the nu r equal one resonance, thus getting more usage of the magnetic field for energy acceleration. We have now determined that the electrostatic deflector septum interferes with the last accelerated orbit in ORIC, with the highest extraction efficiency obtained near the maximum nu r value. This nu r provides a rotation in the betatron oscillation amplitude that is about the same length as the electrostatic septum thus allowing the beam to jump over the interference problem with the septum. With a thinned septum we were able to tune the beam through the nu r equal one resonance and achieve a 20% increase in beam energy. This nu r greater than one extraction method may be desirable for very high field cyclotrons since it...

  8. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  9. Beyond δ : Tailoring marked statistics to reveal modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valogiannis, Georgios; Bean, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Models that seek to explain cosmic acceleration through modifications to general relativity (GR) evade stringent Solar System constraints through a restoring, screening mechanism. Down-weighting the high-density, screened regions in favor of the low density, unscreened ones offers the potential to enhance the amount of information carried in such modified gravity models. In this work, we assess the performance of a new "marked" transformation and perform a systematic comparison with the clipping and logarithmic transformations, in the context of Λ CDM and the symmetron and f (R ) modified gravity models. Performance is measured in terms of the fractional boost in the Fisher information and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for these models relative to the statistics derived from the standard density distribution. We find that all three statistics provide improved Fisher boosts over the basic density statistics. The model parameters for the marked and clipped transformation that best enhance signals and the Fisher boosts are determined. We also show that the mark is useful both as a Fourier and real-space transformation; a marked correlation function also enhances the SNR relative to the standard correlation function, and can on mildly nonlinear scales show a significant difference between the Λ CDM and the modified gravity models. Our results demonstrate how a series of simple analytical transformations could dramatically increase the predicted information extracted on deviations from GR, from large-scale surveys, and give the prospect for a much more feasible potential detection.

  10. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  11. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  12. Comparative analysis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf transcriptomes reveals genotype-specific salt tolerance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Xu, Yuxing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Lu, Chengkai; Shen, Guojing; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Juan; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-02-15

    Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to salt stress, particularly among different salt-tolerant cultivars. Among seven alfalfa cultivars, we found that Zhongmu-1 (ZM) is relatively salt-tolerant and Xingjiang Daye (XJ) is salt-sensitive. Compared to XJ, ZM showed slower growth under low-salt conditions, but exhibited stronger tolerance to salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed 2237 and 1125 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ZM and XJ in the presence and absence of salt stress, among which many genes are involved in stress-related pathways. After salt treatment, compared with the controls, the number of DEGs in XJ (19373) was about four times of that in ZM (4833). We also detected specific differential gene expression patterns: In response to salt stress, compared with XJ, ZM maintained relatively more stable expression levels of genes related to the ROS and Ca 2+ pathways, phytohormone biosynthesis, and Na + /K + transport. Notably, several salt resistance-associated genes always showed greater levels of expression in ZM than in XJ, including a transcription factor. Consistent with the suppression of plant growth resulting from salt stress, the expression of numerous photosynthesis- and growth hormone-related genes decreased more dramatically in XJ than in ZM. By contrast, the expression levels of photosynthetic genes were lower in ZM under low-salt conditions. Compared with XJ, ZM is a salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar possessing specific regulatory mechanisms conferring exceptional salt tolerance, likely by maintaining high transcript levels of abiotic and biotic stress resistance-related genes. Our results suggest that maintaining this specific physiological status and/or plant adaptation to salt stress most likely arises by inhibition of plant growth in ZM through

  13. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  14. Transcriptomic profiling-based mutant screen reveals three new transcription factors mediating menadione resistance in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jufen; Yu, Xinxu; Xie, Baogui; Gu, Xiaokui; Zhang, Zhenying; Li, Shaojie

    2013-06-01

    To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of oxidative stress responses in filamentous fungi, the genome-wide transcriptional response of Neurospora crassa to menadione was analysed by digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, which identified 779 upregulated genes and 576 downregulated genes. Knockout mutants affecting 130 highly-upregulated genes were tested for menadione sensitivity, which revealed that loss of the transcription factor siderophore regulation (SRE) (a transcriptional repressor for siderophore biosynthesis), catatase-3, cytochrome c peroxidase or superoxide dismutase 1 copper chaperone causes hypersensitivity to menadione. Deletion of sre dramatically increased transcription of the siderophore biosynthesis gene ono and the siderophore iron transporter gene sit during menadione stress, suggesting that SRE is required for repression of iron uptake under oxidative stress conditions. Contrary to its phenotype, the sre deletion mutant showed higher transcriptional levels of genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers than wild type during menadione stress, which implies that the mutant suffers a higher level of oxidative stress than wild type. Uncontrolled iron uptake in the sre mutant might exacerbate cellular oxidative stress. This is the first report of a negative regulator of iron assimilation participating in the fungal oxidative stress response. In addition to SRE, eight other transcription factor genes were also menadione-responsive but their single gene knockout mutants showed wild-type menadione sensitivity. Two of them, named as mit-2 (menadione induced transcription factor-2) and mit-4 (menadione induced transcription factor-4), were selected for double mutant analysis. The double mutant was hypersensitive to menadione. Similarly, the double mutation of mit-2 and sre also had additive effects on menadione sensitivity, suggesting multiple transcription factors mediate oxidative stress resistance in an additive manner

  15. Kisspeptin Antagonists Reveal Kisspeptin 1 and Kisspeptin 2 Differential Regulation of Reproduction in the Teleost, Morone saxatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmora, Nilli; Stubblefield, John David; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Millar, Robert Peter; Zohar, Yonathan

    2015-09-01

    The importance of kisspeptin in regulating vertebrate reproduction has been well established, but the exact mechanism continues to unfold. Unlike mammals, many lower vertebrates possess a dual kisspeptin system, Kiss1 and Kiss2. To decipher the roles of the kisspeptins in fish, we identified two potential kisspeptin antagonists, pep 234 and pep 359, by screening analogs for their ability to inactivate striped bass Kiss1 and Kiss2 receptors expressed in COS7 cells. Pep 234 (a mammalian KISS1 antagonist) antagonizes Kiss1r signaling activated by Kiss1 and Kiss2, and pep 359 (a novel analog) antagonizes Kiss2 activation of both receptors. In vitro studies using brain slices demonstrated that only Kiss2 can upregulate the expression of the hypophysiotropic gnrh1, which was subsequently diminished by pep 234 and pep 359. In primary pituitary cell cultures, the two antagonists revealed a complex network of putative endogenous and exogenous regulation by kisspeptin. While both kisspeptins stimulate Fsh expression and secretion, Kiss2 predominately induces Lh secretion. Pep 234 and 359 treatment of spawning males hindered sperm production. This effect was accompanied with decreased brain gnrh1 and gnrh2 mRNA levels and peptide content in the pituitary, and increased levels of pituitary Lh, probably due to attenuation of Lh release. Strikingly, the mRNA levels of arginine-vasotocin, the neurons of which in the preoptic area coexpress kiss2r, were dramatically reduced by the antagonists. Our results demonstrate differential actions of Kiss1 and Kiss2 systems along the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and interactions with other neuropeptides, and further reinforce the importance of kisspeptin in the execution of spawning. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  16. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae-Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. A phylogenomic analysis of Marek's disease virus reveals independent paths to virulence in Eurasia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpert, Jakob; Groenke, Nicole; Jenckel, Maria; He, Shulin; Kunec, Dusan; Szpara, Moriah L; Spatz, Stephen J; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; McMahon, Dino P

    2017-12-01

    Virulence determines the impact a pathogen has on the fitness of its host, yet current understanding of the evolutionary origins and causes of virulence of many pathogens is surprisingly incomplete. Here, we explore the evolution of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a herpesvirus commonly afflicting chickens and rarely other avian species. The history of MDV in the 20th century represents an important case study in the evolution of virulence. The severity of MDV infection in chickens has been rising steadily since the adoption of intensive farming techniques and vaccination programs in the 1950s and 1970s, respectively. It has remained uncertain, however, which of these factors is causally more responsible for the observed increase in virulence of circulating viruses. We conducted a phylogenomic study to understand the evolution of MDV in the context of dramatic changes to poultry farming and disease control. Our analysis reveals evidence of geographical structuring of MDV strains, with reconstructions supporting the emergence of virulent viruses independently in North America and Eurasia. Of note, the emergence of virulent viruses appears to coincide approximately with the introduction of comprehensive vaccination on both continents. The time-dated phylogeny also indicated that MDV has a mean evolutionary rate of ~1.6 × 10 -5 substitutions per site per year. An examination of gene-linked mutations did not identify a strong association between mutational variation and virulence phenotypes, indicating that MDV may evolve readily and rapidly under strong selective pressures and that multiple genotypic pathways may underlie virulence adaptation in MDV.

  18. Observations and operational model simulations reveal the impact of Hurricane Matthew (2016) on the Gulf Stream and coastal sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.; Tuleya, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In October 7-9, 2016, Hurricane Matthew moved along the southeastern coast of the U.S., causing major flooding and significant damage, even to locations farther north well away from the storm's winds. Various observations, such as tide gauge data, cable measurements of the Florida Current (FC) transport, satellite altimeter data and high-frequency radar data, were analyzed to evaluate the impact of the storm. The data show a dramatic decline in the FC flow and increased coastal sea level along the U.S. coast. Weakening of the Gulf Stream (GS) downstream from the storm's area contributed to high coastal sea levels farther north. Analyses of simulations of an operational hurricane-ocean coupled model reveal the disruption that the hurricane caused to the GS flow, including a decline in transport of ∼20 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). In comparison, the observed FC reached a maximum transport of ∼40 Sv before the storm on September 10 and a minimum of ∼20 Sv after the storm on October 12. The hurricane impacts both the geostrophic part of the GS and the wind-driven currents, generating inertial oscillations with velocities of up to ±1 m s-1. Analysis of the observed FC transport since 1982 indicated that the magnitude of the current weakening in October 2016 was quite rare (outside 3 standard deviations from the mean). Such a large FC weakening in the past occurred more often in October and November, but is extremely rare in June-August. Similar impacts on the FC from past tropical storms and hurricanes suggest that storms may contribute to seasonal and interannual variations in the FC. The results also demonstrated the extended range of coastal impacts that remote storms can cause through their influence on ocean currents.

  19. Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy of the anti-HIV agent KP1212 reveals protonated and neutral tautomers that influence pH-dependent mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chunte Sam; Fedeles, Bogdan I; Singh, Vipender; Li, Deyu; Amariuta, Tiffany; Essigmann, John M; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2015-03-17

    Antiviral drugs designed to accelerate viral mutation rates can drive a viral population to extinction in a process called lethal mutagenesis. One such molecule is 5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (KP1212), a selective mutagen that induces A-to-G and G-to-A mutations in the genome of replicating HIV. The mutagenic property of KP1212 was hypothesized to originate from its amino-imino tautomerism, which would explain its ability to base pair with either G or A. To test the multiple tautomer hypothesis, we used 2D IR spectroscopy, which offers subpicosecond time resolution and structural sensitivity to distinguish among rapidly interconverting tautomers. We identified several KP1212 tautomers and found that >60% of neutral KP1212 is present in the enol-imino form. The abundant proportion of this traditionally rare tautomer offers a compelling structure-based mechanism for pairing with adenine. Additionally, the pKa of KP1212 was measured to be 7.0, meaning a substantial population of KP1212 is protonated at physiological pH. Furthermore, the mutagenicity of KP1212 was found to increase dramatically at pH KP1212 molecules. Overall, our data reveal that the bimodal mutagenic properties of KP1212 result from its unique shape shifting ability that utilizes both tautomerization and protonation.

  20. Apolipoprotein A-V is present in bile and its secretion increases with lipid absorption in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linda S; Sato, Hirokazu; Yang, Qing; Ryan, Robert O; Wang, David Q-H; Howles, Philip N; Tso, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-V is a protein synthesized only in the liver that dramatically modulates plasma triglyceride levels. Recent studies suggest a novel role for hepatic apoA-V in regulating the absorption of dietary triglycerides, but its mode of action on the gut remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test for apoA-V in bile and to determine whether its secretion is regulated by dietary lipids. After an overnight recovery, adult male Sprague-Dawley bile fistula rats indeed secreted apoA-V into bile at a constant rate under fasting conditions. An intraduodenal bolus of intralipid (n = 12) increased the biliary secretion of apoA-V but not of other apolipoproteins, such as A-I, A-IV, B, and E. The lipid-induced increase of biliary apoA-V was abolished under conditions of poor lymphatic lipid transport, suggesting that the stimulation is regulated by the magnitude of lipids associated with chylomicrons transported into lymph. We also studied the secretion of apoA-V into bile immediately following bile duct cannulation. Biliary apoA-V increased over time (∼6-fold increase at hour 16, n = 8) but the secretions of other apolipoproteins remained constant. Replenishing luminal phosphatidylcholine and taurocholate (n = 9) only enhanced apoA-V secretion in bile, suggesting that the increase was not due to depletion of phospholipids or bile salts. This is the first study to demonstrate that apoA-V is secreted into bile, introducing a potential route of delivery of hepatic apoA-V to the gut lumen. Our study also reveals the uniqueness of apoA-V secretion into bile that is regulated by mechanisms different from other apolipoproteins. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Bya rog prog zhu, The raven crest : the life and teachings of bDe chen 'od gsal rdo rje treasure revealer of contemporary Tibet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terrone, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This research starts from the historical assertion that notwithstanding their claim of increased religious tolerance, the dramatic post-Mao political campaigns have continued to weaken the pervasive force of religious faith, traditional monastery-centered religious power, religious leadership, and

  2. Increasing paternal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, P

    1985-01-01

    Increasing numbers of fathers of children born out of wedlock are not contributing to these children's economic support. In 1981, a tiny minority (14%) of the 1.7 million never-married mothers living with a child with an absent father had a child-support award, and of these, just 112,000 actually received some payment in 1981. The high rates of noncompliance, and the low level of legal efforts to enforce child support, are the result of attempts to collect payments through inefficient traditional methods, not the inability of fathers to pay, a Wisconsin study has shown. A basic problem with collecting child support under the present system is that it relies on fathers to control their expenditures and voluntarily to send the payment on a weekly, biweekly or monthly basis, year after year. As a Wisconsin study shows, full compliance with court-ordered payments dropped from 38% in the 1st year to below 20% by the 5th year among 163 ex-husbands tracked. A proposal by researchers at the University of Wisconsin's Institute for Research on Poverty calls for an "absent-parent tax." The Wisconsin Plan, as it is known, is simply a withholding tax based on the father's gross income and the number of his absent children. If his income falls below a certain level, payments will stop automatically, but will resume if and when it rises above the cutoff point. The Wisconsin plan removes all judicial discretion and lawyer's skill as factors in child-support awards, thus eliminating erratic awards. It also insures that support payments will be maintained during periods of conflict between the father and mother. However, before the Wisconsin Plan can effectively protect children both out of wedlock, a feature needs to be added that will establish paternity at birth. Imposing a real child-support obligation on fathers of children born outside of marriage will introduce a potentially powerful economic incentive for responsible male reproductive and parental behavior.

  3. [Sinus histiocytosis (Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman disease) revealed by extranodal spinal involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Sarran, N; Serre, I; Baldet, P; Callamand, P; Margueritte, G; Astruc, J

    1999-02-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive cervical lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) is a non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disorder. Extranodal involvement, especially of the nervous system, is unusual. We report a case revealed by neurological symptoms. A 10-year-old girl presented with paraparesis due to a dural extramedullary mass on magnetic resonance imaging. Massive cervical lymphadenopathy appeared secondarily. Radiological investigations showed mediastinal, paranasal sinus and lower eyelid involvement. The diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease was established histologically and by immunohistochemical studies of nodal lesions by the demonstration of characteristic sinus histiocytosis with sheets of S-100 protein and CD-68 positive large histiocytes displaying lymphocyte phagocytosis. A dramatic response occurred with complete resolution of all clinical findings after treatment with corticosteroids and etoposide, although neurological lesions were unchanged on magnetic resonance imaging. Despite its rarity, this case underlines the unknown pathogenesis of this disease (immune dysfunction?) and the difficulties of treatment (choice of chemotherapeutic agents, duration).

  4. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Voordeckers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts.

  5. The Inevitability of Ethnocentrism Revisited: Ethnocentrism Diminishes As Mobility Increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Soham; Gelfand, Michele J; Nau, Dana; Roos, Patrick

    2015-12-08

    Nearly all major conflicts across the globe, both current and historical, are characterized by individuals defining themselves and others by group membership. This existence of group-biased behavior (in-group favoring and out-group hostile) has been well established empirically, and has been shown to be an inevitable outcome in many evolutionary studies. Thus it is puzzling that statistics show violence and out-group conflict declining dramatically over the past few centuries of human civilization. Using evolutionary game-theoretic models, we solve this puzzle by showing for the first time that out-group hostility is dramatically reduced by mobility. Technological and societal advances over the past centuries have greatly increased the degree to which humans change physical locations, and our results show that in highly mobile societies, one's choice of action is more likely to depend on what individual one is interacting with, rather than the group to which the individual belongs. Our empirical analysis of archival data verifies that contexts with high residential mobility indeed have less out-group hostility than those with low mobility. This work suggests that, in fact, group-biased behavior that discriminates against out-groups is not inevitable after all.

  6. A dramatização como estratégia de aprendizagem da linguagem escrita para o deficiente auditivo Dramatization as a strategy in learning written language for the deaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kele Jaqueline Pinotti

    2008-04-01

    of the present study was to verify the possibility of using dramatization as a therapeutic instrument for learning written language, so as to promote the development of interpretation and understanding of written texts for deaf students. The study was developed with four deaf students, aged between 9 and 15 years, patients of the Speech Pathology Course Clinic - UNIARA. The study had three stages: reading the text and individually filling out a questionnaire, dramatization, and repetition of the application of the questionnaire. The participants' understanding of the text improved 100%; they demonstrated that they were able to understand the text and express their comprehension, albeit with some grammatical and syntactic difficulties. The dramatization enabled the deaf students to experience the text concretely, which helped them to understand and interpret that which they hadn't understood while reading.

  7. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active layer of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostag, Morten; Stibal, Marek; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Bælum, Jacob; Taş, Neslihan; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, Janet K.; Semenchuk, Philipp; Priemé, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which likely affect bacterial activity and community structure. We studied seasonal variations in the bacterial community of active layer soil from Svalbard (78°N) by co-extracting DNA and RNA from 12 soil cores collected monthly over a year. PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes (DNA) and reverse transcribed transcripts (cDNA) were quantified and sequenced to test for the effect of low winter temperature and seasonal variation in concentration of easily degradable organic matter on the bacterial communities. The copy number of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed no distinct seasonal changes indicating potential bacterial activity during winter despite soil temperatures well below −10°C. Multivariate statistical analysis of the bacterial diversity data (DNA and cDNA libraries) revealed a season-based clustering of the samples, and, e.g., the relative abundance of potentially active Cyanobacteria peaked in June and Alphaproteobacteria increased over the summer and then declined from October to November. The structure of the bulk (DNA-based) community was significantly correlated with pH and dissolved organic carbon, while the potentially active (RNA-based) community structure was not significantly correlated with any of the measured soil parameters. A large fraction of the 16S rRNA transcripts was assigned to nitrogen-fixing bacteria (up to 24% in June) and phototrophic organisms (up to 48% in June) illustrating the potential importance of nitrogen fixation in otherwise nitrogen poor Arctic ecosystems and of phototrophic bacterial activity on the soil surface. PMID:25983731

  8. Quantitative mass spectrometry of histones H3.2 and H3.3 in Suz12-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells reveals distinct, dynamic post-translational modifications at Lys-27 and Lys-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Pasini, Diego; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    distinct coexisting modifications. In certain cases, high mass accuracy LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS allowed precise localization of near isobaric coexisting PTMs such as trimethylation and acetylation within individual peptides. ETD MS/MS facilitated sequencing and annotation of phosphorylated histone peptides....... The combined use of ETD and CID MS/MS increased the total number of identified modified peptides. Comparative quantitative analysis of histones from wild type and Suz12-deficient ESCs using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture and LC-MS/MS revealed a dramatic reduction of H3K27me2 and H3K27......me3 and an increase of H3K27ac, thereby uncovering an antagonistic methyl/acetyl switch at H3K27. The reduction in H3K27 methylation and increase in H3K27 acetylation was accompanied by H3K36 acetylation and methylation. Estimation of the global isoform percentage of unmodified and modified histone...

  9. Microradiometers Reveal Ocean Health, Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA researcher Stanford Hooker is in the field, he pays close attention to color. For Hooker, being in the field means being at sea. On one such research trip to the frigid waters of the Arctic, with a Coast Guard icebreaker looming nearby and the snow-crusted ice shelf a few feet away, Hooker leaned over the edge of his small boat and lowered a tethered device into the bright turquoise water, a new product devised by a NASA partner and enabled by a promising technology for oceanographers and atmospheric scientists alike. Color is a function of light. Pure water is clear, but the variation in color observed during a visit to the beach or a flight along a coastline depends on the water s depth and the constituents in it, how far down the light penetrates and how it is absorbed and scattered by dissolved and suspended material. Hooker cares about ocean color because of what it can reveal about the health of the ocean, and in turn, the health of our planet. "The main thing we are interested in is the productivity of the water," Hooker says. The seawater contains phytoplankton, microscopic plants, which are the food base for the ocean s ecosystems. Changes in the water s properties, whether due to natural seasonal effects or human influence, can lead to problems for delicate ecosystems such as coral reefs. Ocean color can inform researchers about the quantities and distribution of phytoplankton and other materials, providing clues as to how the world ocean is changing. NASA s Coastal Zone Color Scanner, launched in 1978, was the first ocean color instrument flown on a spacecraft. Since then, the Agency s ocean color research capabilities have become increasingly sophisticated with the launch of the SeaWiFS instrument in 1997 and the twin MODIS instruments carried into orbit on NASA s Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites. The technology provides sweeping, global information on ocean color on a scale unattainable by any other means. One issue that arises from

  10. Nací mujer, la vida de Mame: una puesta en escena sobre la inclusión intergeneracional I was born a woman, the life of Mame: the dramatization of intergenerational inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. del Pilar Lasheras Amat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nací mujer, la vida de Mame es la dramatización de una historia intergeneracional ficticia, pero que recoge acontecimientos y sentimientos reales de las mujeres inmigrantes. Narra la historia de una mujer desde la instalación en Andalucía de sus padres, recién inmigrados de Senegal, hasta la adolescencia de su hija. Se desarrolla con un personaje en escena que, a través de las modificaciones del vestuario, va encarnando las tres generaciones de mujeres: madre, hija y nieta, con intervenciones grabadas en vídeo de otros personajes (matrona y maestro que transmiten sus visiones desde la sociedad de acogida; todo ello ambientado con música africana e imágenes del país de origen. En este artículo se exponen sus propósitos como comunicación en congresos, un resumen muy sintético del guión, reflexiones sobre el proceso de inclusión expuesto y la evaluación realizada después de una representación.I was born a woman, the life of Mame is the dramatization a fictitious intergenerational story. However, the story is based on true events and the feelings of real immigrant women. The dramatization narrates the life of a woman, from the time her parents-who had recently emigrated from Senegal-settled in Andalusia, up to the adolescence of Mame's own daughter. The story is told with one person on stage who, through the use of three costume changes, plays three different generations of women: mother, daughter and granddaughter, with the video-recorded testimonies of other characters (a teacher and a midwife, who express their views of the host society against a background of African music and pictures of their native country. The present article describes their goals, such as communication in conferences, and includes a concise summary of the script, reflections on the process of integrating, and the evaluation made after a performance.

  11. An Exponential Increase in Regional Health Information Exchange With Collaborative Policies and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, N Lance; Lane, Steven; Eisenberg, Mathew; Sharp, Christopher; Palma, Jonathan; Longhurst, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the ability to securely exchange health information between organization has been limited by technical interoperability, patient identity matching, and variable institutional policies. Here, we examine the regional experience in a national health information exchange network by examining clinical data sharing between eleven Northern California organizations using the same health information exchange (HIE) platform between 2013-2014. We identify key policies and technologies that have led to a dramatic increase in health information exchange.

  12. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA's Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This presentation specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as an overview of the content of the final report for that internship.

  13. Omics strategies for revealing Yersinia pestis virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cui, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. Omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. Mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. In this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of Yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. These studies serve as foundations for further hypothesis-driven research and help us gain insight into Y. pestis pathogenesis. PMID:23248778

  14. Revealed Preference Theory, Rationality, and Neoclassical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealed Preference Theory (Samuelson 1938) is an attempt to establish economic theory as a genuine empirical science by ridding it of nonempirical psychological concepts. Samuelson's goal was to rid economic theory of the last vestiges of utility analysis. Samuelson structured his theory on a set of preference axioms ...

  15. [Mastitis revealing Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannepond, C; Le Fourn, E; de Muret, A; Ouldamer, L; Carmier, D; Machet, L

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome often involves the skin, and this may sometimes reveal the disease. A 25-year-old woman was referred to a gynaecologist for inflammation of the right breast with breast discharge. Cytological analysis of the liquid showed numerous inflammatory cells, particularly polymorphonuclear eosinophils and neutrophils. Ultrasound examination of the breast was consistent with galactophoritis. CRP was normal, and hypereosinophilia was seen. The patient was subsequently referred to a dermatology unit. Skin examination revealed inflammation of the entire breast, which was painful, warm and erythematous; the border was oedematous with blisters. Necrotic lesions were also present on the thumbs and knees. Skin biopsy of the breast showed a dermal infiltrate with abundant infiltrate of polymorphonuclear eosinophils, including patchy necrosis and intraepidermal vesicles. Histological examination of a biopsy sample from a thumb revealed eosinophilic granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was also presenting asthma, pulmonary infiltrates and mononeuropathy at L3, consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Breast involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is very rare (only one other case has been reported). This is the first case in which the breast condition revealed the disease. Cutaneous involvement of the breast is, however, also compatible with Wells' cellulitis. The lesions quickly disappeared with 1mg/kg/d oral prednisolone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Revealed preference tests for collective household behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.; Verriest, E.; Molina, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains a state of the art of revealed preference tests for consistency of observed household behavior with Pareto efficiency. These tests are entirely nonparametric, since they do not require any assumptions regarding the parametric form of individual preferences or the intrahousehold

  17. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  18. Perceptions of unfairness in price increases: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Feder Mayer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigates antecedents and consequences of perceptions of price unfairness in a price increase situation. The proposed theoretical model states that consumer dependence on the service provider as well as the relevance the consumer attributes to the service (for the consumer's life will affect his/her degree of (a unfairness price perception, (b anger, and (c intention to complain and retaliate. The results support all the hypotheses specified in the model. The findings not only indicate that some situations of unfairness price perception lead to stronger emotions and more dramatic reactions from consumers, but also allow us to predict which situations of perceived unfairness offer greater risks and have greater potential for conflict.

  19. Increased phencyclidine-induced hyperactivity following cortical cholinergic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Anna; Lindqvist, Eva; Ogren, Sven Ove; Olson, Lars

    2005-11-07

    Altered cholinergic function is considered as a potential contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We hypothesize that cortical cholinergic denervation may result in changes in glutamatergic activity. Therefore, we lesioned the cholinergic corticopetal projections by local infusion of 192 IgG-saporin into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of rats. Possible effects of this lesion on glutamatergic systems were examined by phencyclidine-induced locomotor activity, and also by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding. We find that cholinergic lesioning of neocortex leads to enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine in the form of a dramatic increase in horizontal activity. Further, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor binding is unaffected in denervated rats. These results suggest that aberrations in cholinergic function might lead to glutamatergic dysfunctions, which might be of relevance for the pathophysiology for schizophrenia.

  20. Application of a Salt Coformer in a Co-Amorphous Drug System Dramatically Enhances the Glass Transition Temperature: A Case Study of the Ternary System Carbamazepine, Citric Acid, and l-Arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenqi; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Müllertz, Anette; Rades, Thomas

    2018-04-13

    The use of co-amorphous systems containing a combination of low molecular weight drugs and excipients is a relatively new technology in the pharmaceutical field to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, some co-amorphous systems show a lower glass transition temperature ( T g ) than many of their polymeric solid dispersion counterparts. In this study, we aimed at designing a stable co-amorphous system with an elevated T g . Carbamazepine (CBM) and citric acid (CA) were employed as the model drug and the coformer, respectively. co-amorphous CBM-CA at a 1:1 molar ratio was formed by ball milling, but a transition from the glassy to the supercooled melt state was observed under ambient conditions, due to the relatively low T g of 38.8 °C of the co-amorphous system and moisture absorption. To improve the T g of the coformer, salt formation of a combination of l-arginine (ARG) with CA was studied. First, ball milling of CA-ARG at molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 forming co-amorphous systems was performed and led to a dramatic enhancement of the T g , depending on the CA-ARG ratio. Salt formation between CA and ARG was observed by infrared spectroscopy. Next, ball milling of CBM-CA-ARG at molar ratios of 1:1:1, 1:1:2, and 1:1:3 resulted in co-amorphous blends, which had a single T g at 77.8, 105.3, and 127.8 °C, respectively. These ternary co-amorphous samples remained in a solid amorphous form for 2 months at 40 °C. From these results, it can be concluded that blending of the salt coformer with a drug is a promising strategy to design stable co-amorphous formulations.

  1. Substitution of the Lys linker with the β-Ala linker dramatically decreased the renal uptake of 99mTc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Adam M; Yang, Jianquan; Miao, Yubin

    2014-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the substitution of the Lys linker with the β-Ala could reduce the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptides. RSD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (1) {c[Arg-Ser-Asp-dTyr-Asp]-β-Ala-Cys-Cys-Glu-His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2}, RTD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (2), RVD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (3), RAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (4), NAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (5), and EAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (6) peptides were synthesized and evaluated for their melanocortin 1 (MC1) receptor binding affinities in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The biodistribution of their (99m)Tc-conjugates were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The substitution of the Lys linker with β-Ala linker dramatically reduced the renal uptake of all six (99m)Tc-peptides. (99m)Tc-4 exhibited the highest melanoma uptake (15.66 ± 6.19% ID/g) and the lowest kidney uptake (20.18 ± 3.86% ID/g) among these (99m)Tc-peptides at 2 h postinjection. The B16/F1 melanoma lesions could be clearly visualized by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT using (99m)Tc-4 as an imaging probe.

  2. Dramatic and long-term lake level changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from Cryosat-2 altimeter: validation and augmentation by results from repeat altimeter missions and satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheinway; Huang, YongRuei; Cheng, Ys; Shen, WenBin; Pan, Yuanjin

    2017-04-01

    The mean elevation of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) exceeds 4000 m. Lake levels in the QTP are less affected by human activities than elsewhere, and may better reflect the state of contemporary climate change. Here ground-based lake level measurements are rare. Repeat altimeter missions, particularly those from the TOPEX and ERS series of altimetry, have provided long-term lake level observations in the QTP, but their large cross-track distances allow only few lakes to be monitored. In contrast, the Cryosat-2 altimeter, equipped with the new sensor SIRAL (interferometric/ synthetic aperture radar altimeter), provides a much better ranging accuracy and a finer spatial coverage than these repeated missions, and can detect water level changes over a large number of lakes in the QTP. In this study, Cryosat-2 data are used to determine lake level changes over 75˚E-100˚E and 28˚N-37.5˚N, where Cryosat-2 covers 60 lakes and SARAL/ AltiKa covers 32 lakes from 2013 to 2016. Over a lake, Cryosat-2 in different cycles can pass through different spots of the lake, making the numbers of observations non-uniform and requiring corrections for lake slopes. Four cases are investigated to cope with these situations: (1) neglecting inconsistency in data volume and lake slopes (2) considering data volume, (3) considering lake slopes only, and (4) considering both data volume and lake slopes. The CRYOSAT-2 result is then compared with the result from the SARAL to determine the best case. Because Cryosat-2 is available from 2010 to 2016, Jason-2 data are used to fill gaps between the time series of Cryosat-2 and ICESat (2003-2009) to obtain >10 years of lake level series. The Cryosat-2 result shows dramatic lake level rises in Lakes Kusai, Zhuoaihu and Salt in 2011 caused by floods. Landsat satellite imagery assists the determination and interpretation of such rises.

  3. Activation of the alpha-globin gene expression correlates with dramatic upregulation of nearby non-globin genes and changes in local and large-scale chromatin spatial structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Sergey V; Galitsyna, Aleksandra A; Flyamer, Ilya M; Golov, Arkadiy K; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Imakaev, Maxim V; Abdennur, Nezar A; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Razin, Sergey V

    2017-07-11

    In homeotherms, the alpha-globin gene clusters are located within permanently open genome regions enriched in housekeeping genes. Terminal erythroid differentiation results in dramatic upregulation of alpha-globin genes making their expression comparable to the rRNA transcriptional output. Little is known about the influence of the erythroid-specific alpha-globin gene transcription outburst on adjacent, widely expressed genes and large-scale chromatin organization. Here, we have analyzed the total transcription output, the overall chromatin contact profile, and CTCF binding within the 2.7 Mb segment of chicken chromosome 14 harboring the alpha-globin gene cluster in cultured lymphoid cells and cultured erythroid cells before and after induction of terminal erythroid differentiation. We found that, similarly to mammalian genome, the chicken genomes is organized in TADs and compartments. Full activation of the alpha-globin gene transcription in differentiated erythroid cells is correlated with upregulation of several adjacent housekeeping genes and the emergence of abundant intergenic transcription. An extended chromosome region encompassing the alpha-globin cluster becomes significantly decompacted in differentiated erythroid cells, and depleted in CTCF binding and CTCF-anchored chromatin loops, while the sub-TAD harboring alpha-globin gene cluster and the upstream major regulatory element (MRE) becomes highly enriched with chromatin interactions as compared to lymphoid and proliferating erythroid cells. The alpha-globin gene domain and the neighboring loci reside within the A-like chromatin compartment in both lymphoid and erythroid cells and become further segregated from the upstream gene desert upon terminal erythroid differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of tissue-specific transcription activation are not restricted to the host genomic locus but affect the overall chromatin structure and transcriptional output of the encompassing

  4. Loss of the interferon-γ-inducible regulatory immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, causes activation of effector IRG proteins on lysosomes, damaging lysosomal function and predicting the dramatic susceptibility of Irgm1-deficient mice to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric-Biresev, Jelena; Hunn, Julia P; Krut, Oleg; Helms, J Bernd; Martens, Sascha; Howard, Jonathan C

    2016-04-20

    The interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-inducible immunity-related GTPase (IRG), Irgm1, plays an essential role in restraining activation of the IRG pathogen resistance system. However, the loss of Irgm1 in mice also causes a dramatic but unexplained susceptibility phenotype upon infection with a variety of pathogens, including many not normally controlled by the IRG system. This phenotype is associated with lymphopenia, hemopoietic collapse, and death of the mouse. We show that the three regulatory IRG proteins (GMS sub-family), including Irgm1, each of which localizes to distinct sets of endocellular membranes, play an important role during the cellular response to IFN-γ, each protecting specific membranes from off-target activation of effector IRG proteins (GKS sub-family). In the absence of Irgm1, which is localized mainly at lysosomal and Golgi membranes, activated GKS proteins load onto lysosomes, and are associated with reduced lysosomal acidity and failure to process autophagosomes. Another GMS protein, Irgm3, is localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes; in the Irgm3-deficient mouse, activated GKS proteins are found at the ER. The Irgm3-deficient mouse does not show the drastic phenotype of the Irgm1 mouse. In the Irgm1/Irgm3 double knock-out mouse, activated GKS proteins associate with lipid droplets, but not with lysosomes, and the Irgm1/Irgm3(-/-) does not have the generalized immunodeficiency phenotype expected from its Irgm1 deficiency. The membrane targeting properties of the three GMS proteins to specific endocellular membranes prevent accumulation of activated GKS protein effectors on the corresponding membranes and thus enable GKS proteins to distinguish organellar cellular membranes from the membranes of pathogen vacuoles. Our data suggest that the generalized lymphomyeloid collapse that occurs in Irgm1(-/-) mice upon infection with a variety of pathogens may be due to lysosomal damage caused by off-target activation of GKS proteins on lysosomal

  5. Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases

    OpenAIRE

    Shengjun Wu; Zhihao Ma; Zhihua Chen; Sixia Yu

    2014-01-01

    An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches ...

  6. Experimentally reducing clutch size reveals a fixed upper limit to egg size in snakes, evidence from the king ratsnake, Elaphe carinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Du, Wei-Guo; Li, Hong; Lin, Long-Hui

    2006-08-01

    Snakes are free of the pelvic girdle's constraint on maximum offspring size, and therefore present an opportunity to investigate the upper limit to offspring size without the limit imposed by the pelvic girdle dimension. We used the king ratsnake (Elaphe carinata) as a model animal to examine whether follicle ablation may result in enlargement of egg size in snakes and, if so, whether there is a fixed upper limit to egg size. Females with small sized yolking follicles were assigned to three manipulated, one sham-manipulated and one control treatments in mid-May, and two, four or six yolking follicles in the manipulated females were then ablated. Females undergoing follicle ablation produced fewer, but larger as well as more elongated, eggs than control females primarily by increasing egg length. This finding suggests that follicle ablation may result in enlargement of egg size in E. carinata. Mean values for egg width remained almost unchanged across the five treatments, suggesting that egg width is more likely to be shaped by the morphological feature of the oviduct. Clutch mass dropped dramatically in four- and six-follicle ablated females. The function describing the relationship between size and number of eggs reveals that egg size increases with decreasing clutch size at an ever-decreasing rate, with the tangent slope of the function for the six-follicle ablation treatment being -0.04. According to the function describing instantaneous variation in tangent slope, the maximum value of tangent slope should converge towards zero. This result provides evidence that there is a fixed upper limit to egg size in E. carinata.

  7. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  8. Eucalypts face increasing climate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Nathalie; Pollock, Laura J; McAlpine, Clive A

    2013-12-01

    , will change dramatically in terms of species composition and ecosystem structure.

  9. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large......-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value...... of increased instruction time....

  10. Aquatic insect ecophysiological traits reveal phylogenetically based differences in dissolved cadmium susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, David B; Cain, Daniel J; Martin, Caitrin A; Xie, Lingtian; Luoma, Samuel N; Garland, Theodore

    2008-06-17

    We used a phylogenetically based comparative approach to evaluate the potential for physiological studies to reveal patterns of diversity in traits related to susceptibility to an environmental stressor, the trace metal cadmium (Cd). Physiological traits related to Cd bioaccumulation, compartmentalization, and ultimately susceptibility were measured in 21 aquatic insect species representing the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. We mapped these experimentally derived physiological traits onto a phylogeny and quantified the tendency for related species to be similar (phylogenetic signal). All traits related to Cd bioaccumulation and susceptibility exhibited statistically significant phylogenetic signal, although the signal strength varied among traits. Conventional and phylogenetically based regression models were compared, revealing great variability within orders but consistent, strong differences among insect families. Uptake and elimination rate constants were positively correlated among species, but only when effects of body size and phylogeny were incorporated in the analysis. Together, uptake and elimination rates predicted dramatic Cd bioaccumulation differences among species that agreed with field-based measurements. We discovered a potential tradeoff between the ability to eliminate Cd and the ability to detoxify it across species, particularly mayflies. The best-fit regression models were driven by phylogenetic parameters (especially differences among families) rather than functional traits, suggesting that it may eventually be possible to predict a taxon's physiological performance based on its phylogenetic position, provided adequate physiological information is available for close relatives. There appears to be great potential for evolutionary physiological approaches to augment our understanding of insect responses to environmental stressors in nature.

  11. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals the role of selenium in spermatogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Sebastian; Malinouski, Mikalai; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Kasaikina, Marina V.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Zhou, You; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element with important roles in human health. Several selenoproteins have essential functions in development. However, the cellular and tissue distribution of Se remains largely unknown because of the lack of analytical techniques that image this element with sufficient sensitivity and resolution. Herein, we report that X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) can be used to visualize and quantify the tissue, cellular and subcellular topography of Se. We applied this technique to characterize the role of Se in spermatogenesis and identified a dramatic Se enrichment specifically in late spermatids, a pattern that was not seen in any other elemental maps. This enrichment was due to elevated levels of the mitochondrial form of glutathione peroxidase 4 and was fully dependent on the supplies of Se by Selenoprotein P. High-resolution scans revealed that Se concentrated near the lumen side of elongating spermatids, where structural components of sperm are formed. During spermatogenesis, maximal Se associated with decreased phosphorus, whereas Zn did not change. In sperm, Se was primarily in the midpiece and co-localized with Cu and Fe. XFM allowed quantification of Se in the midpiece (0.8 fg) and head (0.14 fg) of individual sperm cells, revealing the ability of sperm cells to handle the amounts of this element well above its toxic levels. Overall, the use of XFM allowed visualization of tissue and cellular Se and provided important insights in the role of this and other trace elements in spermatogenesis. PMID:19379757

  12. Increasing nursing treatment for pediatric procedural pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, April A; Gunther, Mary; Wyatt, Tami

    2014-03-01

    Procedural pain management is an underused practice in children. Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, many nurses do not provide adequate analgesia for painful interventions. Complementary therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions are additionally essential to managing pain. Owing to the increasing awareness of inadequate nursing utilization of pharmacologic measures for procedural pain, this paper focuses only on analgesic treatments. The aim of this review was to examine how varying degrees of quality improvement affect nursing utilization of treatments for routine pediatric procedural pain. A comprehensive search of databases including Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Psycinfo, and Cochrane Library was performed. Sixty-two peer-reviewed research articles were examined. Ten articles focusing on quality improvement in pediatric pain management published in English from 2001 to 2011 were included. Three themes emerged: 1) increasing nursing knowledge; 2) nursing empowerment; and 3) protocol implementation. Research critique was completed with the use of guidelines and recommendations from Creswell (2009) and Garrard (2011). The literature reveals that nurses still think that pediatric pain management is essential. Quality improvement increases nursing utilization of procedural pain treatments. Although increasing nursing knowledge improves pediatric pain management, it appears that nursing empowerment and protocol implementation increase nursing compliance more than just education alone. Nurses providing pain management can enhance their individual practice with quality improvement measures that may increase nursing adherence to institutional and nationally recommended pediatric procedural pain management guidelines. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Insulin Increases Ceramide Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of insulin on ceramide metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods. Skeletal muscle cells were treated with insulin with or without palmitate for various time periods. Lipids (ceramides and TAG were isolated and gene expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes were quantified. Additionally, adult male mice received daily insulin injections for 14 days, followed by muscle ceramide analysis. Results. In muscle cells, insulin elicited an increase in ceramides comparable to palmitate alone. This is likely partly due to an insulin-induced increase in expression of multiple enzymes, particularly SPT2, which, when knocked down, prevented the increase in ceramides. In mice, 14 days of insulin injection resulted in increased soleus ceramides, but not TAG. However, insulin injections did significantly increase hepatic TAG compared with vehicle-injected animals. Conclusions. This study suggests that insulin elicits an anabolic effect on sphingolipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, resulting in increased ceramide accumulation. These findings reveal a potential mechanism of the deleterious consequences of the hyperinsulinemia that accompanies insulin resistance and suggest a possible novel therapeutic target to mitigate its effects.

  14. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  15. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  16. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem

    2012-01-01

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  17. Structures of Astromaterials Revealed by EBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M.

    2018-01-01

    Groups at the Johnson Space Center and the University of Tokyo have been using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) to reveal the crystal structures of extraterrestrial minerals for many years. Even though we also routinely use transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and conventional electron diffraction, we find that EBSD is the most powerful technique for crystal structure elucidation in many instances. In this talk I describe a few of the cases where we have found EBSD to provide crucial, unique information. See attachment.

  18. [Encopresis revealing myotonic dystrophy in 2 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avez-Couturier, J; Michaud, L; Cuisset, J-M; Lamblin, M-D; Dolhem, P; Turck, D; Vallée, L; Gottrand, F

    2009-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very frequent in myotonic dystrophy but largely unrecognized. They can be the revealing factors of the disease. We report 2 cases of 10 and 17-year-old children with persistent encopresis starting at the age of 3 and 5 years in spite of laxative treatment. Neurological examination and anorectal manometry provided the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy. Procainamide treatment was introduced and the digestive symptoms improved. Any child with encopresis should have complete evaluation to rule out the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy and physicians should look for upper and/or lower gastrointestinal symptoms in every patient with myotonic dystrophy.

  19. Transcriptome classification reveals molecular subtypes in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainali Chrysanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterised by chronically elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, leading to aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although certain clinical phenotypes, such as plaque psoriasis, are well defined, it is currently unclear whether there are molecular subtypes that might impact on prognosis or treatment outcomes. Results We present a pipeline for patient stratification through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in paired lesional and non-lesional psoriatic tissue samples, compared with controls, to establish differences in RNA expression patterns across all tissue types. Ensembles of decision tree predictors were employed to cluster psoriatic samples on the basis of gene expression patterns and reveal gene expression signatures that best discriminate molecular disease subtypes. This multi-stage procedure was applied to several published psoriasis studies and a comparison of gene expression patterns across datasets was performed. Conclusion Overall, classification of psoriasis gene expression patterns revealed distinct molecular sub-groups within the clinical phenotype of plaque psoriasis. Enrichment for TGFb and ErbB signaling pathways, noted in one of the two psoriasis subgroups, suggested that this group may be more amenable to therapies targeting these pathways. Our study highlights the potential biological relevance of using ensemble decision tree predictors to determine molecular disease subtypes, in what may initially appear to be a homogenous clinical group. The R code used in this paper is available upon request.

  20. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Global variation in the cost of increasing ecosystem carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Kanninen, Markku; Gordillo, Harold; Koskinen, Joni; Kukkonen, Markus; Käyhkö, Niina; Larson, Anne M.; Wunder, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Slowing the reduction, or increasing the accumulation, of organic carbon stored in biomass and soils has been suggested as a potentially rapid and cost-effective method to reduce the rate of atmospheric carbon increase1. The costs of mitigating climate change by increasing ecosystem carbon relative to the baseline or business-as-usual scenario has been quantified in numerous studies, but results have been contradictory, as both methodological issues and substance differences cause variability2. Here we show, based on 77 standardized face-to-face interviews of local experts with the best possible knowledge of local land-use economics and sociopolitical context in ten landscapes around the globe, that the estimated cost of increasing ecosystem carbon varied vastly and was perceived to be 16-27 times cheaper in two Indonesian landscapes dominated by peatlands compared with the average of the eight other landscapes. Hence, if reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and other land-use mitigation efforts are to be distributed evenly across forested countries, for example, for the sake of international equity, their overall effectiveness would be dramatically lower than for a cost-minimizing distribution.

  2. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.; Janssen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited. [nl

  3. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Physiological activation of the human cerebral cortex during auditory perception and speech revealed by regional increases in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Friberg, L

    1988-01-01

    by measuring regional cerebral blood flow CBF after intracarotid Xenon-133 injection are reviewed with emphasis on tests involving auditory perception and speech, and approach allowing to visualize Wernicke and Broca's areas and their contralateral homologues in vivo. The completely atraumatic tomographic CBF...

  5. The proteomic signature of insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle reveals increased glycolytic and decreased mitochondrial enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebelstein, J; Poschmann, G; Højlund, K

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in skeletal muscle are incompletely understood. Here, we aimed to obtain a global picture of changes in protein abundance in skeletal muscle in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and those associated with whole-body measures of insulin action....

  6. Genome-wide, Single-Cell DNA Methylomics Reveals Increased Non-CpG Methylation during Human Oocyte Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of DNA methylation patterns in oocytes is a highly dynamic process marking gene-regulatory events during fertilization, embryonic development, and adulthood. However, after epigenetic reprogramming in primordial germ cells, how and when DNA methylation is re-established in developing human oocytes remains to be characterized. Here, using single-cell whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we describe DNA methylation patterns in three different maturation stages of human oocytes. We found that while broad-scale patterns of CpG methylation have been largely established by the immature germinal vesicle stage, localized changes continue into later development. Non-CpG methylation, on the other hand, undergoes a large-scale, generalized remodeling through the final stage of maturation, with the net overall result being the accumulation of methylation as oocytes mature. The role of the genome-wide, non-CpG methylation remodeling in the final stage of oocyte maturation deserves further investigation.

  7. Analysis of triclosan-selected Salmonella enterica mutants of eight serovars revealed increased aminoglycoside susceptibility and reduced growth rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Rensch

    Full Text Available The biocide triclosan (TRC is used in a wide range of household, personal care, veterinary, industrial and medical products to control microbial growth. This extended use raises concerns about a possible association between the application of triclosan and the development of antibiotic resistance. In the present study we determined triclosan mutant prevention concentrations (MPC for Salmonella enterica isolates of eight serovars and investigated selected mutants for their mechanisms mediating decreased susceptibility to triclosan. MPCTRC values were 8-64-fold higher than MIC values and ranged between 1-16 µg/ml. The frequencies at which mutants were selected varied between 1.3 x 10(-10-9.9 x 10(-11. Even if MIC values of mutants decreased by 3-7 dilution steps in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphtylamide, only minor changes were observed in the expression of genes encoding efflux components or regulators, indicating that neither the major multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC nor AcrEF are up-regulated in triclosan-selected mutants. Nucleotide sequence comparisons confirmed the absence of alterations in the regulatory regions acrRA, soxRS, marORAB, acrSE and ramRA of selected mutants. Single bp and deduced Gly93→Val amino acid exchanges were present in fabI, the target gene of triclosan, starting from a concentration of 1 µg/ml TRC used for MPC determinations. The fabI genes were up to 12.4-fold up-regulated. Complementation experiments confirmed the contribution of Gly93→Val exchanges and fabI overexpression to decreased triclosan susceptibility. MIC values of mutants compared to parent strains were even equal or resulted in a more susceptible phenotype (1-2 dilution steps for the aminoglycoside antibiotics kanamycin and gentamicin as well as for the biocide chlorhexidine. Growth rates of selected mutants were significantly lower and hence, might partly explain the rare occurrence of Salmonella field isolates exhibiting decreased susceptibility to triclosan.

  8. VLA Observations Of T CrB Reveal Increase in Radio Flux Density Between 2014 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J.; Weston, J.; Chomiuk, L.; Sokoloski, J.; Nelson, T.; Mukai, K.; Finzell, T.; Rupen, M.; Mioduszewski, A.

    2016-06-01

    We report new observations of the symbiotic binary and known recurrent nova T Coronae Borealis (T CrB) with the Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA). We recently began monitoring T CrB in 2016 May after reports that it was in a super-active state at other wavelengths (Munari, Dallaporta, & Cherini 2016, NewA, 47, 7; ATEL #8675; AAVSO Special Notice 415).

  9. NMR-based metabonomics reveals that plasma betaine increases upon intake of high-fiber rye buns in hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine S.; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2009-01-01

    fiber for 9-10 wk. Fasting plasma samples were collected 2 days before and after 8 and 12 days on the experimental diets, while postprandial samples taken after 58-67 days, and( 1)H NMR spectra were acquired on these. Principal component analysis on the obtained NMR spectra demonstrated clear effects...

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 ...

  11. Comparative Proteomics and Glycoproteomics Reveal Increased N-Linked Glycosylation and Relaxed Sequon Specificity in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Nichollas E.; Marzook, N. Bishara; Cain, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni encodes a protein glycosylation (Pgl) locus responsible for the N-glycosylation of membrane-associated proteins. We examined two variants of the genome sequenced strain NCTC11168: O, a representative of the original...

  12. Loss of vitamin D receptor produces polyuria by increasing thirst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Juan; Zhang, Zhongyi; Li, Dongdong; Wong, Kari E; Zhang, Yan; Szeto, Frances L; Musch, Mark W; Li, Yan Chun

    2008-12-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mice develop polyuria, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the relationship between vitamin D and homeostasis of water and electrolytes. VDR-null mice had polyuria, but the urine osmolarity was normal as a result of high salt excretion. The urinary responses to water restriction and to vasopressin were similar between wild-type and VDR-null mice, suggesting intact fluid-handling capacity in VDR-null mice. Compared with wild-type mice, however, renin and angiotensin II were dramatically upregulated in the kidney and brain of VDR-null mice, leading to a marked increase in water intake and salt appetite. Angiotensin II-mediated upregulation of intestinal NHE3 expression partially explained the increased salt absorption and excretion in VDR-null mice. In the brain of VDR-null mice, expression of c-Fos, which is known to associate with increased water intake, was increased in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the subfornical organ. Treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist normalized water intake, urinary volume, and c-Fos expression in VDR-null mice. Furthermore, despite a salt-deficient diet to reduce intestinal salt absorption, VDR-null mice still maintained the increased water intake and urinary output. Together, these data indicate that the polyuria observed in VDR-null mice is not caused by impaired renal fluid handling or increased intestinal salt absorption but rather is the result of increased water intake induced by the increase in systemic and brain angiotensin II.

  13. [Localized purpura revealing vascular prosthetic graft infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boureau, A S; Lescalie, F; Cassagnau, E; Clairand, R; Connault, J

    2013-07-01

    Prosthetic graft infection after vascular reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. We report a case of infection occurring late after implantation of an iliofemoral prosthetic vascular graft. The Staphylococcus aureus infection was revealed by vascular purpura localized on the right leg 7 years after implantation of a vascular prosthesis. This case illustrates an uncommonly late clinical manifestation presenting as an acute infection 7 years after the primary operation. In this situation, the presentation differs from early infection, which generally occurs within the first four postoperative months. Diagnosis and treatment remain a difficult challenge because prosthetic graft infection is a potentially life-threatening complication. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Here we detail specific aspects of the clinical and radiological presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Chain networking revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yexin; Tsige, Mesfin; Wang, Shi-Qing

    Based on Kremer-Grest model for entangled polymer melts, we demonstrate how the response of a polymer glass depends critically on the chain length. After quenching two melts of very different chain lengths (350 beads per chain and 30 beads per chain) into deeply glassy states, we subject them to uniaxial extension. Our MD simulations show that the glass of long chains undergoes stable necking after yielding whereas the system of short chains is unable to neck and breaks up after strain localization. During ductile extension of the polymer glass made of long chain significant chain tension builds up in the load-bearing strands (LBSs). Further analysis is expected to reveal evidence of activation of the primary structure during post-yield extension. These results lend support to the recent molecular model 1 and are the simulations to demonstrate the role of chain networking. This work is supported, in part, by a NSF Grant (DMR-EAGER-1444859)

  15. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  16. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  17. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured, in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the n-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a “phylogenetic tree” across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study many additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  18. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals decline of a neustonic planktonic population

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia; Thimma, Manjula; Kumaran, M.; Sougrat, Rachid; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    The neuston layer in tropical seas provides a good model to study the effects of increased levels of different stressors (e.g., temperature, ultraviolet radiation and Trichodesmium blooms). Here, we use a comparative in situ metatranscriptomics approach to reveal the functional genomic composition of metabolically active neustonic mesozooplankton community in response to the summer conditions in the Red Sea. The neustonic population exhibited changes in composition and abundance with a significant decline in copepods and appendicularia in July, when Trichodesmium cells were more abundant along with high temperatures and UV-B radiation. Nearly 23,000 genes were differentially expressed at the community level when the metatranscriptomes of the neustonic zooplankton were compared in April, July, and October. On a wider Phylum level, the genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, carbon, nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids were significantly overrepresented in both arthropods and chordates in April and October. On organism level for copepods, expression of genes responsive to oxidative stress, defense against bacteria, immune response, and virus reproduction were increased along with the observed increased appearance of copepod carcasses in the samples collected during July. The differences in expression correspond either to secondary effects of the Trichodesmium bloom or more likely to the increased UV-B radiation in July. Given the dearth of information on the zooplankton gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, our study provides the first transcriptome landscape of the mesozooplankton community during a period of increased mortality of the copepod and appendicularia population.

  19. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals decline of a neustonic planktonic population

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2016-10-20

    The neuston layer in tropical seas provides a good model to study the effects of increased levels of different stressors (e.g., temperature, ultraviolet radiation and Trichodesmium blooms). Here, we use a comparative in situ metatranscriptomics approach to reveal the functional genomic composition of metabolically active neustonic mesozooplankton community in response to the summer conditions in the Red Sea. The neustonic population exhibited changes in composition and abundance with a significant decline in copepods and appendicularia in July, when Trichodesmium cells were more abundant along with high temperatures and UV-B radiation. Nearly 23,000 genes were differentially expressed at the community level when the metatranscriptomes of the neustonic zooplankton were compared in April, July, and October. On a wider Phylum level, the genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, carbon, nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids were significantly overrepresented in both arthropods and chordates in April and October. On organism level for copepods, expression of genes responsive to oxidative stress, defense against bacteria, immune response, and virus reproduction were increased along with the observed increased appearance of copepod carcasses in the samples collected during July. The differences in expression correspond either to secondary effects of the Trichodesmium bloom or more likely to the increased UV-B radiation in July. Given the dearth of information on the zooplankton gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, our study provides the first transcriptome landscape of the mesozooplankton community during a period of increased mortality of the copepod and appendicularia population.

  20. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  1. Ceres Revealed in a Grain of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Fries, M.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Komatsu, M.; Ohsumi, K.; Steele, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zag and Monahans (1998) are H chondrite regolith breccias containing 4.5 giga-year-old halite crystals which contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics. These all originated on a cryo-volcanically-active C class asteroid, probably 1 Ceres; the halite was transported to the regolith of the H chondrite parent asteroid, potentially 6 Hebe. Detailed analysis of these solids will thus potentially reveal the mineralogy of Ceres. Mineralogy of solids in the Monahans Halite Solid grains are present in the halites, which were entrained within the mother brines during eruption, including material from the interior and surface of the erupting body. The solids include abundant, widely variable organics that could not have been significantly heated (which would have resulted in the loss of fluids from the halite). Our analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, UPLC-FD/QToF-MS, C-XANES and TEM reveal that these trapped grains include macromolecular carbon (MMC) similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, phyllosilicates, magnetite, sulfides, metal, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and zeolites. Conclusions: The halite in Monahans and Zag derive from a water and carbon-rich object that was cryo-volcanically active in the early solar system, probably Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft found that Ceres includes C chondrite materials. Our samples include both protolith and aqueously-altered samples of the body, permitting understanding of alteration conditions. Whatever the halite parent body, it was rich in a wide variety of organics and warm, liquid water at the solar system's dawn.

  2. Enhanced limonene production in cyanobacteria reveals photosynthesis limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Xin, Changpeng; Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yanbing; Sun, Su; Li, Runze; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Dai, Susie Y; Rentzepis, Peter M; Yuan, Joshua S

    2016-12-13

    Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study. Computational modeling of limonene flux in response to photosynthetic output has revealed the downstream terpene synthase as a key metabolic flux-controlling node in the MEP (2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate) pathway-derived terpene biosynthesis. By enhancing the downstream limonene carbon sink, we achieved over 100-fold increase in limonene productivity, in contrast to the marginal increase achieved through stepwise metabolic engineering. The establishment of a strong limonene flux revealed potential synergy between photosynthate output and terpene biosynthesis, leading to enhanced carbon flux into the MEP pathway. Moreover, we show that enhanced limonene flux would lead to NADPH accumulation, and slow down photosynthesis electron flow. Fine-tuning ATP/NADPH toward terpene biosynthesis could be a key parameter to adapt photosynthesis to support biofuel/bioproduct production in cyanobacteria.

  3. Space Movie Reveals Shocking Secrets Of The Crab Pulsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Just when it seemed like the summer movie season had ended, two of NASA's Great Observatories have produced their own action movie. Multiple observations made over several months with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope captured the spectacle of matter and antimatter propelled to near the speed of light by the Crab pulsar, a rapidly rotating neutron star the size of Manhattan. "Through this movie, the Crab Nebula has come to life," said Jeff Hester of Arizona State University in Tempe, lead author of a paper in the September 20th issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We can see how this awesome cosmic generator actually works." The Crab was first observed by Chinese astronomers in 1054 A.D. and has since become one of the most studied objects in the sky. By combining the power of both Chandra and Hubble, the movie reveals features never seen in still images. By understanding the Crab, astronomers hope to unlock the secrets of how similar objects across the universe are powered. Crab Nebula Composite Image Crab Nebula Composite Image Bright wisps can be seen moving outward at half the speed of light to form an expanding ring that is visible in both X-ray and optical images. These wisps appear to originate from a shock wave that shows up as an inner X-ray ring. This ring consists of about two dozen knots that form, brighten and fade, jitter around, and occasionally undergo outbursts that give rise to expanding clouds of particles, but remain in roughly the same location. "These data leave little doubt that the inner X-ray ring is the location of the shock wave that turns the high-speed wind from the pulsar into extremely energetic particles," said Koji Mori of Penn State University in University Park, a coauthor of the paper. Another dramatic feature of the movie is a turbulent jet that lies perpendicular to the inner and outer rings. Violent internal motions are obvious, as is a slow motion outward into the surrounding nebula of

  4. Increasing tobacco taxes : A cheap tool to increase public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    Introduction: Several studies have estimated health effects resulting from tobacco tax increases. However, studies on the cost effectiveness of tobacco taxes are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of tobacco tax increases from a health care perspective, explicitly

  5. A Novel Splice-Site Mutation in Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene, c.3691+1G>A (IVS25+1G>A), Causes a Dramatic Increase in Circulating ACE through Deletion of the Transmembrane Anchor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Persu (Alexandre); M. Lambert (Michael); J. Deinum (Jacob); M. Cossu (Marta); N. de Visscher (Nathalie); L. Irenge (Leonid); J. Ambroise (Jerôme); J.M. Minon (Jean-Marc); A.B. Nesterovitch (Andrew); A. Churbanov (Alexander); I.A. Popova (Isolda); S.M. Danilov (Sergei); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); J.L. Gala (Jean-Luc)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC 4.15.1) metabolizes many biologically active peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels are associated with different cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Methods and

  6. A novel splice-site mutation in angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, c.3691+1G>A (IVS25+1G>A), causes a dramatic increase in circulating ace through deletion of the transmembrane anchor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persu, A.; Lambert, M.; Deinum, J.; Cossu, M.; Visscher, N. de; Irenge, L.; Ambroise, J.; Minon, J.M.; Nesterovitch, A.B.; Churbanov, A.; Popova, I.A.; Danilov, S.M.; Danser, A.H.; Gala, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC 4.15.1) metabolizes many biologically active peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels are associated with different cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two

  7. Increasing diversity in radiologic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is increasingly important in the radiologic technology workplace. For significant changes to occur in work force diversity, educators must first recruit and retain students from a wide variety of backgrounds. This article examines personality, race and gender as factors affecting career choice and how educators can use these factors to increase diversity in their programs. An overview of the ASRT's efforts to improve diversity within the profession is presented, along with suggestions for developing effective recruitment and retention plans to increase diversity.

  8. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Erway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  9. RNA-Seq Revealed Differences in Transcriptomes between 3ADON and 15ADON Populations of Fusarium graminearum In Vitro and In Planta

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Krishna D.; Yan, Changhui; Leng, Yueqiang; Zhong, Shaobin

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley and wheat in North America. The fungus not only causes yield loss of the crops but also produces harmful trichothecene mycotoxins [Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives-3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON), and nivalenol (NIV)] that contaminate grains. Previous studies showed a dramatic increase of 3ADON-producing isolates with higher aggressiveness and DON production than ...

  10. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  11. Increasing climate whiplash in 21st century California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D. L.; Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J. D.; Hall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Temperate "Mediterranean" climate regimes across the globe are particularly susceptible to wide swings between drought and flood—of which California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012-2016 to extreme wetness during 2016-2017 provides a dramatic example. The wide-ranging human and environmental impacts of this recent "climate whiplash" event in a highly-populated, economically critical, and biodiverse region highlight the importance of understanding weather and climate extremes at both ends of the hydroclimatic spectrum. Previous studies have examined the potential contribution of anthropogenic warming to recent California extremes, but findings to date have been mixed and primarily drought-focused. Here, we use specific historical California flood and drought events as thresholds for quantifying long-term changes in precipitation extremes using a large ensemble of multi-decadal climate model simulations (CESM-LENS). We find that greenhouse gas emissions are already responsible for a detectable increase in both wet and dry extremes across portions of California, and that increasing 21st century "climate whiplash" will likely yield large increases in the frequency of both rapid "dry-to-wet" transitions and severe flood events over a wide range of timescales. This projected intensification of California's hydrological cycle would seriously challenge the region's existing water storage, conveyance, and flood control infrastructure—even absent large changes in mean precipitation.

  12. Salt appetite is not increased in summer heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Micah

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that salt appetite increases in summer heat due to increased sodium loss due to increased drinking and perspiration. A test battery in the same sample of healthy young people tested in summer and winter revealed no seasonal differences in salt appetite (or fluid intake) despite a 10 °C rise in mean environmental temperature. Unexpectedly, sweet preference is reduced in summer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased thyrotropin binding in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Gärtner, H W; Schneider, C; Bay, V; Tadt, A; Rehpenning, W; de Heer, K; Jessel, M

    1987-08-01

    The object of this study was to investigate TSH receptors in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HFN). In HFN, obtained from seven patients, 125-I-TSH binding as determined by equilibrium binding analysis on particulate membrane preparations, was found to be significantly increased as compared with normal thyroid tissues (five patients; P less than 0.001). Scatchard analysis of TSH-binding revealed two kinds of binding sites for both normal thyroid tissue and HFN, and displayed significantly increased association constants of high- and low-affinity binding sites in HFN (Ka = 11.75 +/- 6.8 10(9) M-1, P less than 0.001 and Ka = 2.1 +/- 1.0 10(7) M-1, P less than 0.025; x +/- SEM) as compared with normal thyroid tissue (Ka = 0.25 +/- 0.06 10(9) M-1, Ka = 0.14 +/- 0.03 10(7) M-1; x +/- SEM). The capacity of the high-affinity binding sites in HFN was found to be decreased (1.8 +/- 1.1 pmol/mg protein, x +/- SEM) in comparison with normal thyroid tissue (4.26 +/- 1.27 pmol/mg protein; x +/- SEM). TSH-receptor autoradiography applied to cryostatic tissue sections confirmed increased TSH binding of the follicular epithelium in HFN. These data suggest that an increased affinity of TSH-receptor sites in HFN in iodine deficient areas may be an important event in thyroid autonomy.

  14. Drastic increase of myosin light chain MLC-2 in senescent skeletal muscle indicates fast-to-slow fibre transition in sarcopenia of old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Joan; Doran, Philip; Kirwan, Anne; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2009-11-01

    The age-dependent decline in skeletal muscle mass and function is believed to be due to a multi-factorial pathology and represents a major factor that blocks healthy aging by increasing physical disability, frailty and loss of independence in the elderly. This study has focused on the comparative proteomic analysis of contractile elements and revealed that the most striking age-related changes seem to occur in the protein family representing myosin light chains (MLCs). Comparative screening of total muscle extracts suggests a fast-to-slow transition in the aged MLC population. The mass spectrometric analysis of the myofibril-enriched fraction identified the MLC2 isoform of the slow-type MLC as the contractile protein with the most drastically changed expression during aging. Immunoblotting confirmed an increased abundance of slow MLC2, concomitant with a switch in fast versus slow myosin heavy chains. Staining of two-dimensional gels of crude extracts with the phospho-specific fluorescent dye ProQ-Diamond identified the increased MLC2 spot as a muscle protein with a drastically enhanced phosphorylation level in aged fibres. Comparative immunofluorescence microscopy, using antibodies to fast and slow myosin isoforms, confirmed a fast-to-slow transformation process during muscle aging. Interestingly, the dramatic increase in slow MLC2 expression was restricted to individual senescent fibres. These findings agree with the idea that aged skeletal muscles undergo a shift to more aerobic-oxidative metabolism in a slower-twitching fibre population and suggest the slow MLC2 isoform as a potential biomarker for fibre type shifting in sarcopenia of old age.

  15. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  16. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  17. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  18. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalel, Amir; Yuval; Broday, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  19. VISTA Reveals the Secret of the Unicorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. An active stellar nursery lies hidden inside a massive dark cloud rich in molecules and dust in the constellation of Monoceros. Although it appears close in the sky to the more familiar Orion Nebula it is actually almost twice as far from Earth, at a distance of about 2700 light-years. In visible light a grouping of massive hot stars creates a beautiful collection of reflection nebulae where the bluish starlight is scattered from parts of the dark, foggy outer layers of the molecular cloud. However, most of the new-born massive stars remain hidden as the thick interstellar dust strongly absorbs their ultraviolet and visible light. In this gorgeous infrared image taken from ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA [1], eso0949) penetrates the dark curtain of cosmic dust and reveals in astonishing detail the folds, loops and filaments sculpted from the dusty interstellar matter by intense particle winds and the radiation emitted by hot young stars. "When I first saw this image I just said 'Wow!' I was amazed to see all the dust streamers so clearly around the Monoceros R2 cluster, as well as the jets from highly embedded young stellar objects. There is such a great wealth of exciting detail revealed in these VISTA images," says Jim Emerson, of Queen Mary, University of London and leader of the VISTA consortium. With its huge field of view, large mirror and sensitive camera, VISTA is ideal for obtaining deep, high quality infrared images of large areas of the sky, such as the Monoceros R2 region

  20. On revealing graph cycles via boundary measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belishev, M I; Wada, N

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with boundary value inverse problems on a metric graph, the structure of the graph being assumed unknown. The question under consideration is how to detect from the dynamical and/or spectral inverse data whether the graph contains cycles (is not a tree). For any graph Ω, the dynamical as well as spectral boundary inverse data determine the so-called wave diameter d w : H -1 (Ω) → R defined on functionals supported in the graph. The known fact is that if Ω is a tree then d w ≥ 0 holds and, in this case, the inverse data determine Ω up to isometry. A graph Ω is said to be coordinate if the functions {dist Ω (., γ)} γin∂Ω constitute a coordinate system on Ω. For such graphs, we propose a procedure, which reveals the presence/absence of cycles. The hypothesis is that Ω contains cycles if and only if d w takes negative values. We do not justify this hypothesis in the general case but reduce it to a certain special class of graphs (suns)