Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction is an important component of nurses' lives that can impact on patient safety, productivity and performance, quality of care, retention and turnover, commitment to the organisation and the profession. Little is known about job satisfaction in early career and how it varies for different groups of nurses. This paper investigates how the components of job satisfaction vary during early career in newly qualified UK nurses. Methods Nurses were sampled using a combined census and multi-stage approach (n = 3962. Data were collected by questionnaire at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years after qualification between 1998 and 2001. Scores were calculated for seven job satisfaction components and a single item that measured satisfaction with pay. Scores were compared longitudinally and between nursing speciality (general, children's, mental health using a mixed model approach. Results No single pattern across time emerged. Trends varied by branch and job satisfaction component. Rank order of job satisfaction components, from high to low scores, was very similar for adult and child branch nurses and different for mental health. Nurses were least satisfied with pay and most satisfied with relationships at 6 and 18 months and with resources (adult and child and relationships (mental health at 3 years. Trends were typically upwards for adult branch nurses, varied for children's nurses and downwards for mental health nurses. Conclusion The impact of time on job satisfaction in early career is highly dependent on specialism. Different contexts, settings and organisational settings lead to varying experiences. Future research should focus on understanding the relationships between job characteristics and the components of job satisfaction rather than job satisfaction as a unitary construct. Research that further investigates the benefits of a formal one year preceptorship or probationary period is needed.
Murrells, Trevor; Robinson, Sarah; Griffiths, Peter
Job satisfaction is an important component of nurses' lives that can impact on patient safety, productivity and performance, quality of care, retention and turnover, commitment to the organisation and the profession. Little is known about job satisfaction in early career and how it varies for different groups of nurses. This paper investigates how the components of job satisfaction vary during early career in newly qualified UK nurses. Nurses were sampled using a combined census and multi-stage approach (n = 3962). Data were collected by questionnaire at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years after qualification between 1998 and 2001. Scores were calculated for seven job satisfaction components and a single item that measured satisfaction with pay. Scores were compared longitudinally and between nursing speciality (general, children's, mental health) using a mixed model approach. No single pattern across time emerged. Trends varied by branch and job satisfaction component. Rank order of job satisfaction components, from high to low scores, was very similar for adult and child branch nurses and different for mental health. Nurses were least satisfied with pay and most satisfied with relationships at 6 and 18 months and with resources (adult and child) and relationships (mental health) at 3 years. Trends were typically upwards for adult branch nurses, varied for children's nurses and downwards for mental health nurses. The impact of time on job satisfaction in early career is highly dependent on specialism. Different contexts, settings and organisational settings lead to varying experiences. Future research should focus on understanding the relationships between job characteristics and the components of job satisfaction rather than job satisfaction as a unitary construct. Research that further investigates the benefits of a formal one year preceptorship or probationary period is needed.
Erhel, Christine; Guergoat-Larivière, Mathilde; Leschke, Janine
and country-level characteristics (institutions and business-cycle indicators) to a possible deterioration in job quality. It shows that some socio-economic groups are more affected by decreasing trends in job quality (other things being equal), especially youth, older workers and low-educated workers. Women......This paper focuses on the consequences of the crisis on job quality in Europe. Its aim is twofold: first, to identify trends in job quality in the EU during the 2007-2009 crisis; secondly, to explore the link between these trends and cyclical as well as institutional factors. It relies on European...... seem less affected by these negative trends than men but are more likely than men to become unemployed or inactive over the period. Cross-country heterogeneity in job quality trends can be related to economic trends (unemployment variation) and, to a minor extent, to the employment distribution...
Bychowski, Brenna K. H.; Caffrey, Carolyn M.; Costa, Mia C.; Moore, Angela D.; Sudhakaran, Jessamyn; Zhang, Yuening
Job ads are supposed to provide careful descriptions of the positions being advertised. Based on this premise, an analysis of job ads over time should reveal emerging trends and changes in a profession. The existing literature on science librarianship emphasizes that there are fluctuations in the demand for subject expertise and technology skills…
Wise, Sharyn; Henninger, Maureen; Kennan, Mary Anne
The study reported in this paper is part of a larger program of studies designed to review and renew the curricula of Library and Information Science (LIS) and the broader Information Management (IM) courses. This paper analysed job advertisements as readily accessible indicators of the knowledge, skills, and competencies required of IPs by…
Spinks, Neld; Wells, Barron
Surveys of Fortune 500 companies in 1978, 1985, and 1995 revealed trends and preferences in content of resumes and cover letters. Compared to earlier years, current preferences were for both letters and resumes in the initial contact, more emphasis on grammar and spelling, and acceptance of two-page resumes. (SK)
Alameddine, Mohamad; Bauer, Jan Michael; Richter, Martin
Objective: Improving the job satisfaction of nurses is essential to enhance their productivity and retention and to improve patient care. Our aim was to analyse trends in German nurses' job satisfaction to enhance understanding of the nursing labour market and inform future policies. Methods: We...... used 1990–2012 German Socioeconomic Panel data for trends in nurses' job satisfaction. Comparisons were drawn with doctors, other health care workers, and employees in other sectors of employment. Analysis explored associations between job satisfaction trends and other aspects of employment......, such as whether full time or part time and pay. To account for fluctuations across the period of analysis, linear trends were generated using ordinary least squares. Results: Over 23 years, job satisfaction of German nurses underwent a steady and gradual decline, dropping by an average 7.5%, whereas...
Morrell, Nathan T; Mercer, Deana M; Moneim, Moheb S
Previous studies have examined possible incentives for pursuing orthopedic fellowship training, but we are unaware of previously published studies reporting the trends in the orthopedic job market since the acceptance of certain criteria for fellowship programs by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) in 1985. We hypothesized that, since the initiation of accredited postresidency fellowship programs, job opportunities for fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons have increased and job opportunities for nonfellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons have decreased. We reviewed the job advertisements printed in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume, for the years 1984, 1994, 2004, and 2009. We categorized the job opportunities as available for either a general (nonfellowship-trained) orthopedic surgeon or a fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeon. Based on the advertisements posted in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume, a trend exists in the orthopedic job market toward seeking fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons. In the years 1984, 1994, 2004, and 2009, the percentage of job opportunities seeking fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons was 16.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.1%-20.3%), 40.6% (95% CI, 38.1%-43.1%), 52.2% (95% CI, 48.5%-55.9%), and 68.2% (95% CI, 65.0%-71.4%), respectively. These differences were statistically significant (analysis of variance, Ptraining is thus a worthwhile endeavor. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Alameddine, Mohamad; Bauer, Jan Michael; Richter, Martin; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso
Improving the job satisfaction of nurses is essential to enhance their productivity and retention and to improve patient care. Our aim was to analyse trends in German nurses' job satisfaction to enhance understanding of the nursing labour market and inform future policies. We used 1990-2012 German Socioeconomic Panel data for trends in nurses' job satisfaction. Comparisons were drawn with doctors, other health care workers, and employees in other sectors of employment. Analysis explored associations between job satisfaction trends and other aspects of employment, such as whether full time or part time and pay. To account for fluctuations across the period of analysis, linear trends were generated using ordinary least squares. Over 23 years, job satisfaction of German nurses underwent a steady and gradual decline, dropping by an average 7.5%, whereas that of doctors and other health care workers increased by 14.4% and 1%, respectively. The decline for part-time nurses (13%) was more pronounced than that for full-time nurses (3%). At the same time, nurses' pay rose by only 3.8% compared to a 23.8% increase for doctors. The steady decline in nurses' job satisfaction over the last two decades may be attributable to the multiple reforms and associated policy changes that generally disadvantaged nurses. Contributing factors to job satisfaction decline include lower pay and the demanding and strenuous work environment. Irrespective of the reason, health services researchers, leaders, and policy makers should investigate the reasons for this decline given the forecast growth in work load and complexity of care. Supportive policies for nurses would help enhance the quality and sustainability of German health care. © The Author(s) 2015.
Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 81-SECURITY Security § 102-81.30 What information must job applicants at child care centers reveal...
Bean, Jacob; Parmentier, Vivien; Mansfield, Megan; Cowan, Nicolas; Kempton, Eliza; Desert, Jean-Michel; Swain, Mark; Dang, Lisa; Bell, Taylor; Keating, Dylan; Zellem, Robert; Fortney, Jonathan; Line, Michael; Kreidberg, Laura; Stevenson, Kevin
The constraints on energy transport in exoplanet atmospheres from phase curve observations is sure to be one of Spitzer's enduring legacies. However, with phase curves for 17 planets now observed we find that the previously observed trends are not coming into sharper focus. Instead, these trends in hot spot offset and day-night flux contrast vs. the fundamental planetary parameters expected to control the energy transport (e.g., irradiation and rotational period) are becoming more uncertain due to the recent discovery of outliers. At the same time, there is a growing understanding that a number of factors like magnetic fields, aerosols, and molecular chemistry could be confounding the search for these correlations. We propose a final phase curve program to advance our understanding of energy transport in transiting exoplanet atmospheres and to cement Spitzer's legacy on this topic. This program tackles the outstanding questions in this area with a comprehensive, two-pronged approach: (1) a survey of an additional 10 high signal-to-noise planets that span a broad parameter space and (2) a search for magnetic field-induced variability in the planet HAT-P-7b. The expanded survey will bring additional statistical power to the search for trends and will enable us to determine if the recently-detected outliers are indeed oddities or are instead actually representative of the intrinsic sample diversity. The variability search will test the hypothesis that the atmospheric dynamics of the partially ionized atmospheres of close-in planets are influenced by magnetic fields, which could explain the observed scatter around the existing trends. All observations will be performed at 4.5 microns, which is the consensus best channel for these measurements. The dataset from this program will provide vital context for JWST observations and will not be superseded until ARIEL flies more than a decade from now.
Bougher, Stephen W.; Olsen, Kirk; Roeten, Kali; Bell, Jared; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Elrod, Meredith; Jakosky, Bruce
The Martian dayside upper thermosphere and exosphere temperatures (Texo) have been the subject of considerable debate and study since the first Mariner ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) measurements (1969-1972), up to recent Mars Express SPICAM UVS measurements (2004-present) (e.g., see reviews by Stewart 1987; Bougher et al. 2000, 2014; Müeller-Wodarg et al. 2008; Stiepen et al. 2014). Prior to MAVEN, the Martian upper atmosphere thermal structure was poorly constrained by a limited number of both in-situ and remote sensing measurements at selected locations, seasons, and periods scattered throughout the solar cycle. Nevertheless, it is recognized that the Mars orbit eccentricity determines that both the solar cycle and seasonal variations in upper atmosphere temperatures must be considered together. The MAVEN NGIMS instrument measures the neutral composition of the major gas species (e.g. He, N, O, CO, N2, O2, NO, Ar and CO2) and their major isotopes, with a vertical resolution of ~5 km for targeted species and a target accuracy of <25% for most of these species (Mahaffy et al. 2014; 2015). Corresponding temperatures can now be derived from the neutral scale heights (especially CO2, Ar, and N2) (e.g. Mahaffy et al. 2015; Bougher et al. 2015). Texo mean temperatures spanning ~200 to 300 km are examined for both Deep Dip and Science orbits over 11-February 2015 (Ls ~ 290) to 14-July 2015 (Ls ~ 12). During these times, dayside sampling below 300 km occurred from the dusk terminator, across the dayside, and approaching the dawn terminator. NGIMS temperatures are investigated to extract spatial (e.g. SZA) and temporal (e.g. orbit-to-orbit, seasonal, solar rotational) variability and trends over this sampling period. Solar and seasonal driven trends in Texo are clearly visible, but orbit-to-orbit variability is significant, and demands further investigation to uncover the major drivers that are responsible.
Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.
Although not all current jobs require basic computer skills, technological advances in society have created new jobs and changed the ways many existing jobs are performed. Clearly, workers who are proficient in technology have a greater advantage in the current workplace and the need for technologically proficient workers will only continue to…
Amjad, Muhammad Kamal; Butt, Shahid Ikramullah; Kousar, Rubeena; Ahmad, Riaz; Agha, Mujtaba Hassan; Faping, Zhang; Anjum, Naveed; Asgher, Umer
Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP) is an extension of the classical Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP). The FJSSP is known to be NP-hard problem with regard to optimization and it is very difficult to find reasonably accurate solutions of the problem instances in a rational time. Extensive research has been carried out in this area especially over the span of the last 20 years in which the hybrid approaches involving Genetic Algorithm (GA) have gained the most popularity. Keeping in...
Muhammad Kamal Amjad
Full Text Available Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP is an extension of the classical Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP. The FJSSP is known to be NP-hard problem with regard to optimization and it is very difficult to find reasonably accurate solutions of the problem instances in a rational time. Extensive research has been carried out in this area especially over the span of the last 20 years in which the hybrid approaches involving Genetic Algorithm (GA have gained the most popularity. Keeping in view this aspect, this article presents a comprehensive literature review of the FJSSPs solved using the GA. The survey is further extended by the inclusion of the hybrid GA (hGA techniques used in the solution of the problem. This review will give readers an insight into use of certain parameters in their future research along with future research directions.
Learner, Emily R; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Fine, Jason P; Pence, Brian W; Powers, Kimberly A; Miller, William C
Evaluating chlamydia prevalence trends from sentinel surveillance is important for understanding population disease burden over time. However, prevalence trend estimates from surveillance data may be misleading if they do not account for changes in risk profiles of individuals who are screened (case mix) and changing performance of the screening tests used. We analyzed chlamydia screening data from a sentinel surveillance population of 389,555 young women (1990-2012) and 303,699 young men (2003-2012) entering the US National Job Training Program. This period follows the introduction of national chlamydia screening programs designed to prevent transmission and reduce population disease burden. After ruling out bias due to case mix, we used an expectation-maximization based maximum likelihood approach to account for measurement error from changing screening tests, and generated minimally-biased long-term chlamydia prevalence trend estimates among youth and young adults in this sentinel surveillance population. Adjusted chlamydia prevalence among women was high throughout the study period, but fell from 20% in 1990 to 12% in 2003, and remained between 12% and 14% through 2012. Adjusted prevalence among men was steady throughout the study period at approximately 7%. For both women and men, adjusted prevalence was highest among Black and American Indian youth and young adults, and in the Southern and Midwestern regions of the US throughout the study period. Our minimally-biased trend estimates provide support for an initial decrease in chlamydia prevalence among women soon after the introduction of national chlamydia screening programs. Constant chlamydia prevalence in more recent years suggests that screening may not be sufficient to further reduce chlamydia prevalence among high-risk youth and young adults.
Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…
Gruenert, Jeffrey C.
Data from the Current Population Survey reveal characteristics of second-job entrepreneurs, occupations in which these workers hold their second jobs, and the occupational and earnings relationships between their second and primary jobs. (Author)
Alexander, Karen L.; Davis, Kimberlee
This study used the Delphi method to identify trends of importance to family and consumer sciences (FCS) education. A panel of 21 FCS education experts identified 16 trends and evaluated them by importance, desirability, feasibility, and confidence in validity of the trend. Nutrition appeared as a top priority, followed by consumer economics. The…
Triumph, Therese F.; Beile, Penny M.
The primary objective of the study was to describe the number, types and titles, requested qualifications and skills, salary information, and locations of positions advertised in 2011 on the ALA JobLIST and ARL Job Announcements websites and in the print version of the Chronicle of Higher Education for purposes of determining the current state of…
Jones, Timothy Mark; Baxter, David G; Hagedorn, Gregor; Legler, Ben; Gilbert, Edward; Thiele, Kevin; Vargas-Rodriguez, Yalma; Urbatsch, Lowell E
The amount of plant biodiversity data available via the web has exploded in the last decade, but making these data available requires a considerable investment of time and work, both vital considerations for organizations and institutions looking to validate the impact factors of these online works. Here we used Google Analytics (GA), to measure the value of this digital presence. In this paper we examine usage trends using 15 different GA accounts, spread across 451 institutions or botanical projects that comprise over five percent of the world's herbaria. They were studied at both one year and total years. User data from the sample reveal: 1) over 17 million web sessions, 2) on five primary operating systems, 3) search and direct traffic dominates with minimal impact from social media, 4) mobile and new device types have doubled each year for the past three years, 5) and web browsers, the tools we use to interact with the web, are changing. Server-side analytics differ from site to site making the comparison of their data sets difficult. However, use of Google Analytics erases the reporting heterogeneity of unique server-side analytics, as they can now be examined with a standard that provides a clarity for data-driven decisions. The knowledge gained here empowers any collection-based environment regardless of size, with metrics about usability, design, and possible directions for future development.
Full Text Available The amount of plant biodiversity data available via the web has exploded in the last decade, but making these data available requires a considerable investment of time and work, both vital considerations for organizations and institutions looking to validate the impact factors of these online works. Here we used Google Analytics (GA, to measure the value of this digital presence. In this paper we examine usage trends using 15 different GA accounts, spread across 451 institutions or botanical projects that comprise over five percent of the world's herbaria. They were studied at both one year and total years. User data from the sample reveal: 1 over 17 million web sessions, 2 on five primary operating systems, 3 search and direct traffic dominates with minimal impact from social media, 4 mobile and new device types have doubled each year for the past three years, 5 and web browsers, the tools we use to interact with the web, are changing. Server-side analytics differ from site to site making the comparison of their data sets difficult. However, use of Google Analytics erases the reporting heterogeneity of unique server-side analytics, as they can now be examined with a standard that provides a clarity for data-driven decisions. The knowledge gained here empowers any collection-based environment regardless of size, with metrics about usability, design, and possible directions for future development.
Saber, Deborah A
The job satisfaction of registered nurses has been found to be associated with retention, organizational commitment, workforce safety, and cost savings to health care organizations. Satisfaction of the workforce is vital because nursing turnover can be detrimental for a labor force that is growing older. However, the summation of the most important variables that are linked to job satisfaction has been difficult to discern in part because the workforce includes 3 main generations (ie, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials) with unique work values that drive their job satisfiers. This article provides a review of existing literature to examine the differences in variables that are linked to job satisfaction that exist between the generational cohorts. Differences in stress sources, need for work-life balance, and compensation are discussed. The knowledge about generationally driven variables that influence job satisfaction can help managers develop strategies to maintain a diverse nursing workforce.
Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50
Ionides, Edward L; Wang, Zhen; Tapia Granados, José A
Many investigations have used panel methods to study the relationships between fluctuations in economic activity and mortality. A broad consensus has emerged on the overall procyclical nature of mortality: perhaps counter-intuitively, mortality typically rises above its trend during expansions. This consensus has been tarnished by inconsistent reports on the specific age groups and mortality causes involved. We show that these inconsistencies result, in part, from the trend specifications used in previous panel models. Standard econometric panel analysis involves fitting regression models using ordinary least squares, employing standard errors which are robust to temporal autocorrelation. The model specifications include a fixed effect, and possibly a linear trend, for each time series in the panel. We propose alternative methodology based on nonlinear detrending. Applying our methodology on data for the 50 US states from 1980 to 2006, we obtain more precise and consistent results than previous studies. We find procyclical mortality in all age groups. We find clear procyclical mortality due to respiratory disease and traffic injuries. Predominantly procyclical cardiovascular disease mortality and countercyclical suicide are subject to substantial state-to-state variation. Neither cancer nor homicide have significant macroeconomic association.
Renner, Martin; Parrish, Julia K.; Piatt, John F.; Kuletz, Kathy J.; Edwards, Ann E.; Hunt, George L.
The northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis is one of the most visible and widespread seabirds in the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. However, relatively little is known about its abundance, trends, or the factors that shape its distribution. We used a long-term pelagic dataset to model changes in fulmar at-sea distribution and abundance since the mid-1970s. We used an ensemble model, based on a weighted average of generalized additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and random forest models to estimate the pelagic distribution and density of fulmars in the waters of the Aleutian Archipelago and Bering Sea. The most important predictor variables were colony effect, sea surface temperature, distribution of fisheries, location, and primary productivity. We calculated a time series from the ratio of observed to predicted values and found that fulmar at-sea abundance declined from the 1970s to the 2000s at a rate of 0.83% (± 0.39% SE) per annum. Interpolating fulmar densities on a spatial grid through time, we found that the center of fulmar distribution in the Bering Sea has shifted north, coinciding with a northward shift in fish catches and a warming ocean. Our study shows that fisheries are an important, but not the only factor, shaping fulmar distribution and abundance trends in the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands.
Christensen, Julie Sophie; Nielsen, Jonas; Mørk, Maj Keum Ji Helweg; Mammen, Diana; Kristiansen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Welch, Nadia Guldbæk
Apple is perhaps today one of the most successful technological brands on the market. This company has introduced various products to the consumers, which in a relatively short time has managed to establish a world wide trend based on a functional and aesthetic design. In this project, the primary interest lies in how Apple has achieved this kind of success revolved around the late founder Steve Jobs, who undoubtedly appears as one of the central figures in creating the status that Apple has ...
During the first half of 1999, installers of wind energy systems erected more than 600 wind turbines in all parts of Germany with a total capacity of approximately 515 megawatts. The upward trend of the last years is thus continuing. It shows in the employment sector, too: manufacturers alone created more than 500 new jobs during the first half year. A mid-term valuation is given. (orig.) [German] Im ersten Halbjahr 1999 errichteten die Windkraft-Monteure bundesweit ueber 600 Windturbinen mit einer Gesamtleistung von rund 515 Megawatt. Damit setzt sich der Aufschwung der letzten Jahre fort. Das zeigt sich auch bei der Beschaeftigung: Allein die Hersteller stellten im ersten Halbjahr ueber 500 neue Mitarbeiter ein. Eine Halbzeitbilanz wird praesentiert. (orig.)
Grantham, T.; Viers, J. H.
California's current water management challenges are strongly influenced by the legacy of 19th century legal doctrines, which aim to maximize the appropriation of available water for human uses and benefits. As a consequence and over time, most of the water flowing through the state's rivers and streams has been dedicated through water rights to human uses, limiting potential for sustainable water management and climate change adaptation. This history is recorded in a database of water rights, which contains approximately 50,000 records of diversion and storage projects dating from the early 19th century to the present day. Although water rights records are rarely considered in regional water budgeting, information on the location, age, purpose, and face values of water rights offer insight into the spatial and temporal dimensions of water-use pressures and can be used to identify opportunities for management interventions. Using the state water rights database, we calculated cumulative face-value rights at the HUC12-watershed scale and compared water appropriation volumes with modeled predictions of surface water availability. Total annual allocations of current water rights exceed 340 million-acre feet (4 x 1011 m3), approximately five times the state's mean annual runoff. The total volume of face-value water rights is 25 to 1,000% of annual water availability in major river basins (greater than 400 km2), with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and coastal streams in southern California. Trends in water rights appropriation since 1900 indicate periods of rapid demand growth between 1925-1940, 1950-1960, and 1975-1985, which mirror major dam building eras. We illustrate how information on the spatial distribution of water rights, appropriation volumes, and priority of use, can guide strategic planning for re-allocating water for environmental benefits and other management objectives. We also
Anderson, R. E.; Huber, J. A.; Parsons, C.; Stüeken, E.
Since the origin of life over 4 billion years ago, life has fundamentally altered the habitability of Earth. Similarly, the environment molds the evolutionary trajectory of life itself through natural selection. Microbial genomes retain a "memory" of the co-evolution of life and Earth and can be analyzed to better understand trends and events in both the recent and distant past. To examine evolutionary trends in the more recent past, we have used metagenomics analyses to investigate which environmental factors play the strongest role in driving the evolution of microbes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, which are thought to have been important habitats in the earliest stages of life's evolution. We have shown that microbial populations in a deep, basalt-hosted system appear to be under stronger purifying selection than populations inhabiting a cooler serpentinizing system less than 20 km away, suggesting that environmental context and geochemistry have an important impact on evolutionary rates and trends. We also found evidence that viruses play an important role in driving evolution in these habitats. Changing environmental conditions may also effect long-term evolutionary trends in Earth's distant past, as revealed by comparative genomics. By reconciling phylogenetic trees for microbial species with trees of metabolic genes, we can determine approximately when crucial metabolic genes began to spread across the tree of life through horizontal gene transfer. Using these methods, we conducted an analysis of the relative timing of the spread of genes related to the nitrogen cycle. Our results indicate that the rate of horizontal gene transfer for important genes related to denitrification increased after the Great Oxidation Event, concurrent with geochemical evidence for increasing availability of nitrate, suggesting that the oxygenation of the atmosphere and surface ocean may have been an important determining factor for the spread of denitrification genes across the
Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An empirical assessment of supervisors in the state of Eritrea. ... The findings of the present research revealed that (i) recognition and self-esteem facets of job anxiety were found to be significantly related to job satisfaction, (ii) facets of organizational commitment ...
Nagami, Makiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Morimoto, Kanehisa
We examined the prospective association of psychosocial job characteristics with employee job performance among 777 full-time employees at a manufacturing company in Japan, using data from a one-year follow-up survey. Psychosocial job characteristics were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire in 2008; job performance was evaluated using the item from the World Mental Health Survey Instrument in 2008 and 2009. The association between psychosocial job characteristics and job performance was tested using multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, work status, average working hours per day, job type and job performance in 2008. Job control and coworker support in 2008 were positively related to job performance in 2009. Stratified analyses revealed that job control for staff and coworker support for managers were positively related to job performance in 2009. These associations were prominent among men; however, supervisor support in 2008 was negatively related to job performance in 2009 among men. Job demand was not significantly related to job performance. Our findings suggest that it is worthwhile to enhance employees' job control and provide a mutually supportive environment to ensure positive employee job performance.
Tian, Lin H; Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Braxton, Jim R; Groseclose, Samuel L
The authors applied a time-series approach to assess the temporal trend of racial disparity in chlamydia prevalence between young, socioeconomically disadvantaged blacks and whites entering the US National Job Training Program. Racial disparity was defined as the arithmetic difference between age group-, specimen type-, and region of residence-standardized chlamydia prevalences in blacks and whites. A regression with autoregressive moving average errors model was employed to adjust for serial correlation. Data from 46,849 women (2006-2008) and 136,892 men (2004-2008) were analyzed. Racial disparity significantly decreased among women (by an average of 0.122% per 2-month interval; P < 0.05) but not among men (-0.010%, P = 0.57). Chlamydia prevalence significantly declined for black women (-0.139% per 2-month interval; P = 0.004), black men (-0.045%, P < 0.001), and white men (-0.035%, P = 0.002) but not for white women (-0.028%, P = 0.413). Despite the decreases among black women and black men, the black-white disparities remained high for both sexes; in 2008, the racial disparity was 8.1% (95% confidence interval: 6.8, 9.3) for women and 9.0% (95% confidence interval: 8.4, 9.6) for men. These findings suggest that current chlamydia control efforts may be reaching young black men and women but need to be scaled up or modified to address the excess risk among blacks.
Swuste, P.; Dahhan, M.; Burdorf, A.
The aim of this article was to describe the structure and content of a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for historical asbestos exposure in The Netherlands. The JEM contained 309 occupational job title groups in 70 branches of industry during 10 periods of 5 years during 1945– 1994, resulting in 3090
P. Swuste (Paul); M. Dahhan; A. Burdorf (Alex)
textabstractThe aim of this article was to describe the structure and content of a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for historical asbestos exposure in The Netherlands. The JEM contained 309 occupational job title groups in 70 branches of industry during 10 periods of 5 years during 1945-1994, resulting in
Ghadeer Mohamed Badr ElDin Aboul-Ela
Full Text Available Employees are the key resources of organizational success. Developing and maintaining job embeddedness is a cornerstone success in the workplace. The purpose of this research study is to analyze selected antecedents of job embeddedness. Role ambiguity, training, and demographics (age groups, gender and education were identified from the extant literature as the selected antecedents for this study. An in-depth statistical analysis of the job embeddedness sub-dimensions was conducted in relation to the selected antecedents. Questionnaires were administered among the employees working in the private banks in Egypt. Results revealed a negative relationship between role ambiguity and job embeddedness, a positive relationship between training and job embeddedness, elder employees held higher level of embeddedness compared to young employees, females possessed higher level of embeddedness compared to males, and no significant differences among the various education levels and job embeddedness.
Loon, M; Bartram, T
This study examined whether job-performance-improvementinitiatives mediate the relationship between individuals’ job-demand for learning and job-related learning. Data were obtained from 115 full-time\\ud employees in a diverse range of occupations. A partial least squares analysis revealed that job-performance-improvement-initiatives mediate partially the effects of job-demand for learning on job-related learning. Several implications\\ud for future research and policy are drawn from the findi...
Lottig, Noah R.; Wagner, Tyler; Henry, Emily N.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Webster, Katherine E.; Downing, John A.; Stow, Craig A.
We compiled a lake-water clarity database using publically available, citizen volunteer observations made between 1938 and 2012 across eight states in the Upper Midwest, USA. Our objectives were to determine (1) whether temporal trends in lake-water clarity existed across this large geographic area and (2) whether trends were related to the lake-specific characteristics of latitude, lake size, or time period the lake was monitored. Our database consisted of >140,000 individual Secchi observations from 3,251 lakes that we summarized per lake-year, resulting in 21,020 summer averages. Using Bayesian hierarchical modeling, we found approximately a 1% per year increase in water clarity (quantified as Secchi depth) for the entire population of lakes. On an individual lake basis, 7% of lakes showed increased water clarity and 4% showed decreased clarity. Trend direction and strength were related to latitude and median sample date. Lakes in the southern part of our study-region had lower average annual summer water clarity, more negative long-term trends, and greater inter-annual variability in water clarity compared to northern lakes. Increasing trends were strongest for lakes with median sample dates earlier in the period of record (1938–2012). Our ability to identify specific mechanisms for these trends is currently hampered by the lack of a large, multi-thematic database of variables that drive water clarity (e.g., climate, land use/cover). Our results demonstrate, however, that citizen science can provide the critical monitoring data needed to address environmental questions at large spatial and long temporal scales. Collaborations among citizens, research scientists, and government agencies may be important for developing the data sources and analytical tools necessary to move toward an understanding of the factors influencing macro-scale patterns such as those shown here for lake water clarity.
Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups versus established firms by considering the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define education-specific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these measures to construct a meas...
Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct a mea...
Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation” defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002-7, which identify the start-ups and which cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than previous studies. Our findings show that while start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than a third of net job creation within...
Discusses 1987 statistics from the College Placement Council regarding new job offers to graduating industrial engineers. Identifies trends in hiring in the field. Describes several issues that will face industrial engineers. States that the industrial engineers most likely to win jobs are those with good basic mathematics and communications…
Dixon, K. A.; Storen, Duke; Van Horn, Carl E.
U.S. workers' views on discrimination and race on the job were examined in a telephone survey of 1,470 adults across the 48 contiguous United States that yielded 1,005 complete interviews. White workers were far more likely than workers of other races to believe that everyone is treated fairly at work. Race was a more powerful indicator of opinion…
Andrew J Kroll
Full Text Available Quantifying spatial and temporal variability in population trends is a critical aspect of successful management of imperiled species. We evaluated territory occupancy dynamics of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina, California, USA, 1990-2014. The study area possessed two unique aspects. First, timber management has occurred for over 100 years, resulting in dramatically different forest successional and structural conditions compared to other areas. Second, the barred owl (Strix varia, an exotic congener known to exert significant negative effects on spotted owls, has not colonized the study area. We used a Bayesian dynamic multistate model to evaluate if territory occupancy of reproductive spotted owls has declined as in other study areas. The state-space approach for dynamic multistate modeling imputes the number of territories for each nesting state and allows for the estimation of longer-term trends in occupied or reproductive territories from longitudinal studies. The multistate approach accounts for different detection probabilities by nesting state (to account for either inherent differences in detection or for the use of different survey methods for different occupancy states and reduces bias in state assignment. Estimated linear trends in the number of reproductive territories suggested an average loss of approximately one half territory per year (-0.55, 90% CRI: -0.76, -0.33, in one management block and a loss of 0.15 per year (-0.15, 90% CRI: -0.24, -0.07, in another management block during the 25 year observation period. Estimated trends in the third management block were also negative, but substantial uncertainty existed in the estimate (-0.09, 90% CRI: -0.35, 0.17. Our results indicate that the number of territories occupied by northern spotted owl pairs remained relatively constant over a 25 year period (-0.07, 90% CRI: -0.20, 0.05; -0.01, 90% CRI: -0.19, 0.16; -0.16, 90% CRI: -0.40, 0.06. However, we cannot exclude
Kroll, Andrew J; Jones, Jay E; Stringer, Angela B; Meekins, Douglas J
Quantifying spatial and temporal variability in population trends is a critical aspect of successful management of imperiled species. We evaluated territory occupancy dynamics of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), California, USA, 1990-2014. The study area possessed two unique aspects. First, timber management has occurred for over 100 years, resulting in dramatically different forest successional and structural conditions compared to other areas. Second, the barred owl (Strix varia), an exotic congener known to exert significant negative effects on spotted owls, has not colonized the study area. We used a Bayesian dynamic multistate model to evaluate if territory occupancy of reproductive spotted owls has declined as in other study areas. The state-space approach for dynamic multistate modeling imputes the number of territories for each nesting state and allows for the estimation of longer-term trends in occupied or reproductive territories from longitudinal studies. The multistate approach accounts for different detection probabilities by nesting state (to account for either inherent differences in detection or for the use of different survey methods for different occupancy states) and reduces bias in state assignment. Estimated linear trends in the number of reproductive territories suggested an average loss of approximately one half territory per year (-0.55, 90% CRI: -0.76, -0.33), in one management block and a loss of 0.15 per year (-0.15, 90% CRI: -0.24, -0.07), in another management block during the 25 year observation period. Estimated trends in the third management block were also negative, but substantial uncertainty existed in the estimate (-0.09, 90% CRI: -0.35, 0.17). Our results indicate that the number of territories occupied by northern spotted owl pairs remained relatively constant over a 25 year period (-0.07, 90% CRI: -0.20, 0.05; -0.01, 90% CRI: -0.19, 0.16; -0.16, 90% CRI: -0.40, 0.06). However, we cannot exclude small
General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...
Bachelor thesis deals with job satisfaction. It is often given to a context with the attitude to work which is very much connected to job satisfaction. Thesis summarises all the pieces of information about job satisfacion, factors that affect it negatively and positively, interconnection of work satisfaction and work motivation, work behaviour and performance of workers, relationship of a man and work and at last general job satisfaction and its individual aspects. In the thesis I shortly pay...
This bacherlor thesis deals with the importance of job analysis for personnel activities in the company. The aim of this work is to find the most suitable method of job analysis in a particular enterprise, and continues creating descriptions and specifications of each job.
Tims, Maria; Bakker, Arnold B; Derks, Daantje
This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes in job demands and job resources. Data was collected in a chemical plant at three time points with one month in between the measurement waves (N = 288). The results of structural equation modeling showed that employees who crafted their job resources in the first month of the study showed an increase in their structural and social resources over the course of the study (2 months). This increase in job resources was positively related to employee well-being (increased engagement and job satisfaction, and decreased burnout). Crafting job demands did not result in a change in job demands, but results revealed direct effects of crafting challenging demands on increases in well-being. We conclude that employee job crafting has a positive impact on well-being and that employees therefore should be offered opportunities to craft their own jobs.
Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki
Subjects with higher occupational position are speculated to have higher ability to handle with stress, and they were less affected by job stress. This study focused on the relationship between job satisfaction and three sub-scales of a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ) related to workload. This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 371 employees of a company, and all the workers sent back their responses. Among the 57 items graded on a 4-point Likert-type scale to measure job stressors, psycho-physical complaints, and support for workers, the authors studied the influence of quantitative and qualitative job overload (six items), job control (three items), and support port (six items). The job satisfaction score estimated on a 4-point Likert-type scale was also used in relation to job stress determined using a 15-item scale from the BJSQ based on demand-control-support model. Occupational positions were classified into directors, managers, and general workers, and the content of job was classified into clerical workers, skilled technicians, and unskilled manual workers. All the scales on job stress presented acceptable alpha coefficients reflecting high internal consistency (job demand: 0.855, job control: 0.644, and support: 0.878, respectively). Principal axis factor analysis was conducted, and three factors were extracted; support, job demand and job control. There was a significant difference in the mean score among four groups divided by the job satisfaction level as evaluated by Dunnett's multiple comparison, and members who were dissatisfied with their job showed a high job demand, limited job control, and poor support. The mean score of support for managers were significantly higher (lower support) than that for general workers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that job control and support contributed significantly to job satisfaction. In addition, unskilled manual workers showed significantly higher job dissatisfaction compared
Noppeney, Claus; Endrissat, Nada; Kärreman, Dan
Traditionally, employer branding has been considered relevant for knowledge intensive firms that compete in a ‘war for talent’. However, the continuous rise in service sector jobs and the negative image of these so-called McJobs has motivated a trend in rebranding service work. Building on critical...... oriented branding literature, our contribution to this stream of research is twofold: We provide an empirical account of employer branding of a grocery chain, which has repeatedly been voted among the ‘100 best companies to work for’. Second, we outline the role of symbolic compensation that employees...... of employer branding....
Calinger, Kellen M; Queenborough, Simon; Curtis, Peter S
Shifting flowering phenology with rising temperatures is occurring worldwide, but the rarity of co-occurring long-term observational and temperature records has hindered the evaluation of phenological responsiveness in many species and across large spatial scales. We used herbarium specimens combined with historic temperature data to examine the impact of climate change on flowering trends in 141 species collected across 116,000 km(2) in north-central North America. On average, date of maximum flowering advanced 2.4 days °C(-1), although species-specific responses varied from - 13.5 to + 7.3 days °C(-1). Plant functional types exhibited distinct patterns of phenological responsiveness with significant differences between native and introduced species, among flowering seasons, and between wind- and biotically pollinated species. This study is the first to assess large-scale patterns of phenological responsiveness with broad species representation and is an important step towards understanding current and future impacts of climate change on species performance and biodiversity. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.
Yasmin, Q S; Banu, L A; Rahman, M F; Paul, S
Many changes have been made in the field of Neuroanatomy teaching and assessment. One important way to know the changes in other country is by analyzing the Neuroanatomy text books and we can compare their reflections in our curriculum by analyzing the assessment system. To analyze the 'Preface's of contemporary Neuroanatomy text books, qualitatively, for noting the approaches taken and means applied in dealing with Neuroanatomy in the text books. This review was done in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka from July 2008 and June 2009. The 'Preface's of ten contemporary text books dealing with Neuroanatomy, published since 1993, was analyzed. Among them, the two that are most commonly recommended to the medical postgraduates in Bangladesh were selected for analyzing their presentation of text and illustrations. The 'Preface's of ten books were analyzed qualitatively to identify the information and explanations provided and comments made by their author(s)/editor(s) on the approaches taken and the means applied in the books in selecting and presenting topics, text and illustrations. The observations were organized into specific 'theme's. Twelve 'theme's were identified from the analyses of the 'Preface's of ten contemporary Neuroanatomy text books. These include special emphasis in the books on incorporation of new information, on practical application of Neuroanatomical facts. Addition and improvement regarding illustrations are also highlighted. By incorporating the findings of the present study with the present-day ideas and trends in Neuroanatomy in the developed world as evident from the available literature, suggestions could be formulated on improving the methods of teaching and assessment of Neuroanatomy in Bangladesh.
Klassen, Robert M.; Usher, Ellen L.; Bong, Mimi
This study examines how teachers' collective efficacy (TCE), job stress, and the cultural dimension of collectivism are associated with job satisfaction for 500 teachers from Canada, Korea (South Korea or Republic of Korea), and the United States. Multigroup path analysis revealed that TCE predicted job satisfaction across settings. Job stress was…
Caputi, Theodore L.; Leas, Eric; Dredze, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E.; Ayers, John W.
Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574) between their first (2015) and second (2016) complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173) between the products second (2016) and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017). There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79) during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep), with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn’s rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes’ rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490) times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304) compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13). Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco
Theodore L Caputi
Full Text Available Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574 between their first (2015 and second (2016 complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173 between the products second (2016 and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017. There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79 during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep, with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn's rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes' rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490 times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304 compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13. Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing
Caputi, Theodore L; Leas, Eric; Dredze, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E; Ayers, John W
Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574) between their first (2015) and second (2016) complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173) between the products second (2016) and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017). There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79) during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep), with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn's rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes' rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490) times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304) compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13). Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco
van Vianen, A.E.M.; Feij, J.A.; Krausz, M.; Taris, R.
Past research has revealed that individuals' job mobility is affected by factors such as job satisfaction, specific career enhancing attributes and job availability. This study examined personality factors predicting voluntary internal and external job mobility. Three types of voluntary job mobility
Petri Böckerman; Pekka Ilmakunnas
This study explores the potential role of adverse working conditions at the workplace in the determination of on-the-job search in the Finnish labour market. The results reveal that workers currently facing adverse working conditions have greater intentions to switch jobs and they are also more willing to stop working completely. In addition, those workers search new matches more frequently. There is evidence that adverse working conditions consistently increase the level of job dissatisfacti...
Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Peeters, M.; Jonge, de J.; Taris, T.
The increasing popularity of self-managing teams, re-engineering and other organizational innovations, coupled with the increased flexibility in work arrangements made possible by advances in information technology, has considerably expanded the complexity of professional jobs. Consequently, each
Dumas, Orianne; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Zock, Jan Paul; Henneberger, Paul K; Speizer, Frank E; Wiley, Aleta S; Le Moual, Nicole; Camargo, Carlos A
Nurses are at increased risk of occupational asthma, an observation that may be related to disinfectants exposure. Whether asthma history influences job type or job changes among nurses is unknown. We investigated this issue in a large cohort of nurses. The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective study of US female nurses enrolled in 1989 (ages 24-44 years). Job status and asthma were assessed in biennial (1989-2011) and asthma-specific questionnaires (1998, 2003). Associations between asthma history at baseline (diagnosis before 1989, n=5311) and job type at baseline were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression. The relations of asthma history and severity during follow-up to subsequent job changes were evaluated by Cox models. The analytic cohort included 98 048 nurses. Compared with nurses in education/administration (likely low disinfectant exposure jobs), women with asthma history at baseline were less often employed in jobs with likely high disinfectant exposure, such as operating rooms (odds ratio 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.86)) and emergency room/inpatient units (0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)). During a 22-year follow-up, nurses with a baseline history of asthma were more likely to move to jobs with lower exposure to disinfectants (HR 1.13 (1.07 to 1.18)), especially among those with more severe asthma (HR for mild persistent: 1.13; moderate persistent 1.26; severe persistent: 1.50, compared with intermittent asthma, p trend: 0.004). Asthma history was associated with baseline job type and subsequent job changes among nurses. This may partly reflect avoidance of tasks involving disinfectant use, and may introduce bias in cross-sectional studies on disinfectant exposure and asthma in nurses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Hutton, Clifford E.; McFarlin, Joy Simon
Universities could benefit by offering more flexible part-time job opportunities such as job-sharing, following an apparent national trend in accommodating social and economic needs. Institutions have many options in scheduling and allocating tasks. Possible benefits include improved employee attitude and productivity. (MSE)
As thousands of graduates search for new jobs each school year, networking with potential employers through social media sites can help preservice and new teachers connect with current teachers, learn about potential job openings, and engage in professional conversations. By using social media sites to follow trends in education, preservice…
Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Qin; Tang, Fa-Hui
In order to reveal the structural evolutionary trend of Mobilida ciliates, twenty-six SSU-rRNA sequences of mobilid species, including seven ones newly sequenced in the present work, were used for comparative phylogenic analysis based on the RNA secondary structure. The research results indicate that all the secondary structures except domains Helix 10, Helix 12, and Helix 37 could be regarded as the criterions in classification between the family Trichodinidae and Urceolariida, and four regions including Helix E10-1, Helix 29, Helix 43, and Helix 45-Helix 46 could be as criterions in classification between the genus Trichodinella and Trichodina in family Trichodinidae. After the analysis of common structural feature within the Mobilida, it was found that the secondary structure of V6 could prove the family Urceolariidae primitive status. This research has further suggested that the genus Trichodina could be divergent earlier than Trichodinella in the family Trichodinidae. In addition, the relationship between the secondary structure and topology of phylogenic tree that the branching order of most clades corresponds with the secondary structure of species within each clade of phylogenetic tree was first uncovered and discussed in the present study.
Full Text Available During the last decade African immigrants have been met with and exposed to severe forms of hostility towards their presence in this country. A significant number of these migrants have successfully applied their entrepreneurial flair in establishing small enterprises and employing workers, often to the envy of their local counterparts. This paper presents the findings of an empirical study conducted in 2007 on job creation by African immigrant entrepreneurs for South Africans with face-to-face interviews with 120 African immigrant entrepreneurs. These findings were triangulated 7 non-governmental organisations that interact with immigrants in Cape Town. A review of the literature on migration, entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurs formed the basis for the study The findings indicate that more than 80% of African immigrant entrepreneurs interviewed employ South Africans in their businesses. Despite a generally negative national perception towards immigrants, this study has also revealed that entrepreneurial skills are transferred from immigrant entrepreneurs to their South African employees. Whilst the study was only conducted in the suburban areas of Cape Town, the researcher believes that the results represent the general trend for South Africa. Furthermore, the study only involved those migrants who come from African continent. The overall result is the acknowledgement of the contribution that non-citizens are making to the country’s growth and development. The findings suggest recommendations geared towards policy changes regarding South African immigration law, an inclusive research about the role of immigrants on job creation in South Africa, as well as the consideration of immigrant entrepreneurs when allocating financial support.
Job Satisfaction: Rural Versus Urban Primary Health Care Workers'. Perception in ... doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one's efforts. Several ... community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. ..... study found important differences about attractors to ... their work, work-life balance, bureaucracy.
Taylor, J; Bradley, S; Nguyen, A N
This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...
.... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...
Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko
We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction.
Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko
We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction. PMID:29503623
Pudrovska, Tetyana; Karraker, Amelia
Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage. © American Sociological Association 2014.
Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.
height. The area average analysis is carried out to investigate the sensitivity of the identified trend results for the point location and found similar trends for extreme wind speed and SWH. The high (>5 m) annual maximum SWH in the study area...
Streb, Jorge M.
What happens to job market signaling under two-dimensional asymmetric information? With 2 types of productivity and noise, the equilibrium remains separating if an extended single-crossing condition is satisfied. If not, there are partially pooling equilibria where only extreme types can be distinguished, and supplementary information is needed. On-the-job interaction gives employers private information on productivity, which employment relationships may reveal to the market. While sticky wag...
Juozaitienė, Agnė; Simonaitienė, Berita
Article is seeking to answer these questions: what factors function as motivators and enhance teacher job satisfaction and which of the motivators are manifested at school? These questions are significant from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. The research problem addressed in the article encompasses three fields and is revealed in three parts of the article. The first part analyzes the notion of teacher job satisfaction and influencing factors. The second part is dedicated to...
Alameddine, Mohamad; Bauer, Jan Michael; Richter, Martin
Background: Literature reports a direct relation between nurses' job satisfaction and their job retention (stickiness). The proper planning and management of the nursing labor market necessitates the understanding of job satisfaction and retention trends. The objectives of the study are to identify...... trends in, and the interrelation between, the job satisfaction and job stickiness of German nurses in the 1990-2013 period using a flexible specification for job satisfaction that includes different time periods and to also identify the main determinants of nurse job stickiness in Germany and test...... whether these determinants have changed over the last two decades. Methods: The development of job stickiness in Germany is depicted by a subset of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1990-2013), with each survey respondent assigned a unique identifier used to calculate the year-to-year transition...
Leon T de Beer
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate job crafting and its relationship with work engagement and job satisfaction within the South African context. This research is important as job crafting has been shown to have a positive influence on employee motivation. A cross-sectional survey design was used to collect primary data from organisations in the mining and manufacturing industries of South Africa (N = 470. The results of multi-group structural equation modelling showed that the original four-factor structure of the job crafting scale was supported by the data, but that a three-factor structure was necessary due to a discriminant validity concern regarding two job crafting dimensions. Regression results revealed that increasing structural job resources with challenging job demands, and increasing social job resources were significant predictors of work engagement in both groups. Contrary to expectations decreasing hindering job demands was a negative predictor of job satisfaction in the mining group. Furthermore, increasing social job resources was also a significant predictor of job satisfaction in both groups. This study indicates the importance of job crafting for work engagement and job satisfaction in organisations.
Mehdi Behjati Ardakani
Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress can result from an imbalance between job demands and the abilities to cope them. Stress can affect individuals and lead to job dissatisfaction. This study was conducted to assess the influence of different job stress dimensions on job satisfaction in workers of a refinery control room located at the south of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study all 100 workers of an oil refinery control room were studied. Job stress and job satisfaction was measured using standard questionnaires provided by national institute of mental health (NIMH and Robbins respectively. After collecting, data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. A general linear model was used to estimate the effect of different job stress dimensions on the job satisfaction. Results: In this study 62.08 percent of workers were categorized as having high level of stress. In job satisfaction case, 9.2, 27.6, 28.7, 16.1 and 18.4 of workers were classified as totally dissatisfied, dissatisfied, not satisfied nor dissatisfied, satisfied and totally satisfied, respectively. A Pearson correlation test revealed a significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and all studied dimensions of job stress (p= 0.01. In the general regression model, partial Eta squared was 0.03, 0.3 and 0.23 for respectively interpersonal relationships, physical conditions of work and job interest. Conclusion: This study showed that job satisfaction is mostly influenced by physical conditions and job interest dimensions of job stress. Therefore, for improvement of job satisfaction in workers, different parameters of these two dimensions of job stress should be considered.
Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012
Examining the job search strategies and employment outcomes for Class of 2011 graduate business school alumni sheds light on current job market trends and the effort required to secure a first job after earning a graduate business degree. This fact sheet highlights the job search methods used by Class of 2011 business school graduates as reported…
Full Text Available Despite significant increase of interest in job motivation among the global organizations, the role of an administrator is still unclear. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction (i.e., intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic satisfaction and job motivation. A survey method was used to collect self-report survey of employees in Malaysian Fire and Rescue Department. The SmartPLS path model analysis revealed three key findings: first, job satisfaction is significantly correlated with job motivation. Second, intrinsic satisfaction is significantly correlated with job motivation. Third, extrinsic satisfaction is significantly correlated with job motivation. These findings demonstrate that the ability of administrators to provide adequate intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic satisfaction may lead to greater employees‟ job motivation. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are also presented.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...
doctors and retention of the existing doctors, in addition to the ... an employee's well-being Examples of job resources are job ..... increase physician job satisfaction for ensuring the .... both pay and benefits physicians at private hospitals.
Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P
Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.
Van den Broeck, Anja; Parker, Sharon K.
Job design or work design refers to the content, structure, and organization of tasks and activities. It is mostly studied in terms of job characteristics, such as autonomy, workload, role problems, and feedback. Throughout history, job design has moved away from a sole focus on efficiency and productivity to more motivational job designs, including the social approach toward work, Herzberg’s two-factor model, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the job demand control model of Kar...
Gorney, Eric D
The purpose of this research is to discuss employment in the United States (US) service sector. The main concern is not pinpointing numerical estimates, but instead identifying trends which lead to job growth or job loss...
Wood, Donald A.; LeBold, William K.
Discussed are two theories of professional job satisfaction--(1) unidimensional and (2) multidimensional with special reference to Herzberg's two factor theory. A national sample of over 3,000 engineering graduates responded to a questionnaire and satisfaction index. Analysis of results revealed that job satisfaction is multidimensional. Job…
The major finding of the study revealed that teachers' job perception significantly relate to teachers' job commitment. Premised on the finding, it was recommended that all hands must be on deck, that the society at large should raise teachers' morale by viewing them as achievers. The teaching profession should be seen as ...
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of ethical leadership on employees' job satisfaction, job performance, and turnover intention. A conceptual framework is developed which integrates job satisfaction as a mediating mechanism in explaining the nexus among ethical leadership, employee job performance, and turnover intention. The proposed model is tested by using the data collected from a sample (n = 196 of tourist companies in Pakistan. The results reveal that ethical leadership has a positive effect on employees' job satisfaction, job performance and negative effect on employees' turnover intentions. Further, job satisfaction mediates the effect of ethical leadership on employees' job performance and turnover intentions. The findings recommend that the demonstration of ethical leadership behaviours by managers at the workplace increases the likelihood of employees' job satisfaction and performance, while reducing their intention to leave the job. This study elucidates that, in Pakistani tourism sector, ethical leadership plays a key role in achieving performance goals. Future research could analyse the said nexus in different sectors and across different cultures while considering other measures of individual performance. The originality of this study is theorizing as well as empirically testing the intervening mechanism of job satisfaction in probing the linkages among ethical leadership, job performance, and turnover intention in Pakistani workplace context.
Discusses the career outlook for electrical/electronics engineers. Explains that the number of bachelor degree graduates continues to rise, along with average starting salaries. Reveals that although the availability of jobs in the computer industry is leveling off, prospects in the robotics and telecommunication fields are growing. (TW)
Josef Zweimüller; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer
This paper analyzes the impact of formal training on worker mobility. Using data from the Swiss Labor Force Survey, we find that both general and specific training significantly affects on-the-job search activities. The effect of training on actual job mobility differs between searchers and non-searchers. In line with human capital theory, we find that specific (general) training has a negative (positive) impact on job mobility for previous non-searchers. For individuals who have been looking...
Alameddine, Mohamad; Bauer, Jan Michael; Richter, Martin; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso
Literature reports a direct relation between nurses' job satisfaction and their job retention (stickiness). The proper planning and management of the nursing labor market necessitates the understanding of job satisfaction and retention trends. The objectives of the study are to identify trends in, and the interrelation between, the job satisfaction and job stickiness of German nurses in the 1990-2013 period using a flexible specification for job satisfaction that includes different time periods and to also identify the main determinants of nurse job stickiness in Germany and test whether these determinants have changed over the last two decades. The development of job stickiness in Germany is depicted by a subset of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1990-2013), with each survey respondent assigned a unique identifier used to calculate the year-to-year transition probability of remaining in the current position. The changing association between job satisfaction and job stickiness is measured using job satisfaction data and multivariate regressions assessing whether certain job stickiness determinants have changed over the study period. Between 1990 and 2013, the job stickiness of German nurses increased from 83 to 91%, while their job satisfaction underwent a steady and gradual decline, dropping by 7.5%. We attribute this paradoxical result to the changing association between job satisfaction and job stickiness; that is, for a given level of job (dis)satisfaction, nurses show a higher stickiness rate in more recent years than in the past, which might be partially explained by the rise in part-time employment during this period. The main determinants of stickiness, whose importance has not changed in the past two decades, are wages, tenure, personal health, and household structure. The paradoxical relation between job satisfaction and job stickiness in the German nursing context could be explained by historical downsizing trends in hospitals, an East
Precipitation durations and intensities over the period 1950–2008 are analysed using daily rain gauge data from the Deutsche Wetterdienst raingauge network—one of the densest and most properly maintained precipitation observational networks in Europe. Truncated geometric distribution of the family of discrete distributions was applied for quantifying probability distribution of the durations of wet spells. Further intensities of wet spells of different durations were analysed along with wet spell lengths. During the cold season (October–March) wet periods over the whole of Germany demonstrate a robust pattern of lengthening by about 2–3% for the mean durations of wet spells and up to 6% for extremely long wet periods. This tendency is clearly associated with growing (up to 10% per decade in Eastern Germany) intensity of precipitation during long wet periods (more than 5 days) and the weakening of precipitation events associated with short and moderately long wet periods with both signals being statistically significant. Trends are superimposed with interdecadal variability, which is the strongest in Northern and Central Germany. In the warm season (April–September) there is no robust pan-German trend pattern in the wet spell durations and associated precipitation intensities. Strong structural changes in winter precipitation over Germany potentially imply growing rates of winter ground water recharge over Germany and increasing probability of winter flash and river flooding. (paper)
Eyerman , Stijn; Michaud , Pierre; Rogiest , Wouter
International audience; —Symbiotic job scheduling exploits the fact that in a system with shared resources, the performance of jobs is impacted by the behavior of other co-running jobs. By coscheduling combinations of jobs that have low interference, the performance of a system can be increased. In this paper, we investigate the impact of using symbiotic job scheduling for increasing throughput. We find that even for a theoretically optimal scheduler, this impact is very low, despite the subs...
Peng, Jiaxi; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Tian, Yu; Miao, Danmin; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Jiaxi
This study aimed to explore how core self-evaluations influenced job burnout and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator roles of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A total of 583 female nurses accomplished the Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. The results revealed that core self-evaluations, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job burnout were significantly correlated with each other. Structural equation modeling indicated that core self-evaluations can significantly influence job burnout and are completely mediated by organizational commitment and job satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.
In order to clarify the conceptual and empirical distinction between job satisfaction and job involvement constructs, this study investigates the relationship between construction workers core job characteristics, job satisfaction and job involvement. It also investigates the mediating role of job satisfaction between core job ...
Vanden Berghe, Jae Hyung
The topic of the thesis is job satisfaction and job performance at the work place. The aim is to define the determinants for job satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance and the influence of job satisfaction on job performance. First we look into the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to account for the relationship between attitudes and behaviour. Job satisfaction is then explained as a function of job feature...
Li, Tao; Li, Tuan-Jie
The analysis of grain-size distribution enables us to decipher sediment transport processes and understand the causal relations between dynamic processes and grain-size distributions. In the present study, grain sizes were measured from surface sediments collected in the Pearl River Estuary and its adjacent coastal areas. End-member modeling analysis attempts to unmix the grain sizes into geologically meaningful populations. Six grain-size end-members were identified. Their dominant modes are 0 Φ, 1.5 Φ, 2.75 Φ, 4.5 Φ, 7 Φ, and 8 Φ, corresponding to coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand, very coarse silt, silt, and clay, respectively. The spatial distributions of the six end-members are influenced by sediment transport and depositional processes. The two coarsest end-members (coarse sand and medium sand) may reflect relict sediments deposited during the last glacial period. The fine sand end-member would be difficult to transport under fair weather conditions, and likely indicates storm deposits. The three remaining fine-grained end-members (very coarse silt, silt, and clay) are recognized as suspended particles transported by saltwater intrusion via the flood tidal current, the Guangdong Coastal Current, and riverine outflow. The grain-size trend analysis shows distinct transport patterns for the three fine-grained end-members. The landward transport of the very coarse silt end-member occurs in the eastern part of the estuary, the seaward transport of the silt end-member occurs in the western part, and the east-west transport of the clay end-member occurs in the coastal areas. The results show that grain-size end-member modeling analysis in combination with sediment trend analysis help to better understand sediment transport patterns and the associated transport mechanisms.
Brenner, O. C.; Tomkiewicz, Joseph
Sex differences in job orientation found by Manhardt (1972) were explored to determine if they still exist, or if a trend toward similarity as found in studies on traits and behaviors prevails. Implications for personnel managers in handling differences on job orientation of males and females are discussed. (Author/KC)
To identify core antecedents of job stress and job satisfaction, and to explore the potential of stress interventions to improve job satisfaction. Decreased job satisfaction for nurses is strongly associated with increased job stress. Stress management strategies might have the potential to improve job satisfaction. Comparative scoping review of studies (2000-2013) and location of their outcomes within the 'job demands-job resources' (JD-R) model of stress to identify commonalities and trends. Many, but not all, antecedents of both phenomena appeared consistently suggesting they are common mediators. Others were more variable but the appearance of 'emotional demands' as a common antecedent in later studies suggests an evolving influence of the changing work environment. The occurrence of 'shift work' as a common issue in later studies points to further implications for nurses' psychosocial well-being. Job satisfaction problems in nursing might be co-responsive to stress management intervention. Improving the buffering effectiveness of increased resilience and of prominent perceived job resource issues are urgently required. Participatory, psychosocial methods have the potential to raise job resources but will require high-level collaboration by stakeholders, and participative leadership and facilitation by managers to enable better decision-latitude, support for action planning and responsive changes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan
The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)
Gordon, H.J.; Demerouti, E.; Le Blanc, P.M.; Bipp, T.
We explore how job demands and job resources are related to job crafting, and how this, in turn, is related to performance in two samples of American (US; N = 70) and Dutch (NL; N = 144) health care professionals (HCP). A cross-sectional, cross-cultural design revealed that US HCP have higher job
Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang
There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).
Renata Silva de Carvalho Chinelato
Full Text Available AbstractJob crafting behavior refers to the changes made by workers in their job context for adjusting their activities to their preferences. We sought to adapt and collect validity evidences of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale for the Brazilian context, in a sample of 491 workers, with a mean age of 26.7 years. Factor analysis revealed that the final instrument consisted of three dimensions (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, increasing challenging job demands, which showed good internal consistency indexes. These dimensions showed low or moderate correlations with work engagement, positive psychological capital, positive job affect, and in-role performance. The scale showed evidence of validity, the use of which is recommended for future research on the changes that people make in their jobs.
Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)
Schutten, Johannes M.J.
We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with
Schutten, Johannes M.J.
The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop
Maurice Gesthuizen; Jaco Dagevos
Original title: Arbeidsmobiliteit in goede banen. Hundreds of thousands of employees change jobs each year. Why do they do this, and what benefits do they derive from it? Many employees are not in the right jobs. Job dissatisfaction is found to be a key reason for labour mobility. These
World Bank Group
Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...
This report reviews past, current, and projected future labor market trends for health physicists through 2005. Information is provided on degrees granted, available supply of new graduates, employment, job openings for new graduates, and salaries. Job openings for new graduates are compared to the available supply of new graduates to assess relative job opportunities in the health physics labor market. The report is divided into three sections: trends during 1983-1993, trends during the mid-1990s, and projected trends for 1997 through 2005
Taris, Toon W; Feij, Jan A
The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high demand and high job control would lead to high levels of learning; low demand and low job control should lead to low levels of learning; high demand and low job control should lead to high levels of strain; and low demand and high job control should lead to low levels of strain. The relation between strain and learning was also examined. The authors tested the hypotheses using ANCOVA and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that high levels of strain have an adverse effect on learning; the reverse effect was not confirmed. It appears that Karasek and Theorell's model is very relevant when examining work socialization processes.
This ebook consists of a summary of the ideas, viewpoints and facts presented by Walter Isaacson in his book "Steve Jobs". This summary offers a concise overview of the entire book in less than 30 minutes reading time. However this work does not replace in any case Walter Isaacson's book.Isaacson reveals the story of Steve Jobs career, which is a tale filled with lessons about innovation, character, leadership and being true to one's own values.
Hosseinian, Simin; Yazdi, Seyedeh-Monavar; Zahraie, Shaghayegh; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali
This study aims to investigate the effect of training some aspects of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on job satisfaction and productivity of employees. The results can help organizations to realize human capabilities and the way to improve them by paying more attention to psychological issues. We used a quasi-experimental method using a pre-test and a post-test designed with control group and a four-month follow-up. Study population consists of employees of Marine Installations and Construction Company. Considering variables like age, education and job rank, we selected 28 employees who earned the lowest score for EI. They were then randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Each employee got job satisfaction and productivity questionnaires and their managers were given employee evaluation questionnaire. Then some aspects of EI were taught to the experimental group once a week for 10 sessions. Four months later, both groups were evaluated by managers. The results show that education did not increase employees` job satisfaction nor did it improve managers` evaluation. However, employees` productivity score after training sessions and managers` evaluation improved in the long run. The results reveal that training EI by further controlling the above-mentioned variables is effective and essential to improve human resources.
As part of its role of safeguarding nuclear workers the Commission of the European Community has created a European data bank on job-related doses. The data bank is intended to correlate jobs and workers doses and is a useful instrument to observe the collected doses of workers in nuclear power plants. Set up in 1980, the database covers doses in PWRs and BWRs. To create it a questionnaire is distributed to plant operators. The database responses provide information on (i) Trends in total collective doses, including those for some ancillary jobs. It is possible to see trends by calendar year and by fuel cycle number. (ii) Other trends such as dose in terms of installed power or dose in terms of power station design. (iii) Dose differences between power stations, normalized against the differences in dose rates. This is only possible for PWRs that monitor dose rates using the EPRI standard monitoring programme. (vi) The relative dose rate in each plant for a defined job. The questionnaire is not perfectly adapted to all the working criteria in nuclear power stations but it is an effective tool for implementing radiation protection. (author)
and work experience with job satisfaction. ... were more likely to perceive the appraisal as unfair and inappropriate (Desai and ... Working freedom, salary and fringe benefits are the major factors ..... Men, women and attitudinal commitment:.
The requirements of job-related information in many domain, such as personnel selection, placement, training, personnel appraisal, job evaluation, job design etc, have developed many techniques of job analysis.In this paper, several approaches to analyze the job characteristics are reviewed; (a) conventional approach, (b) worker-oriented approach, and (c) perceived job characteristics approach.In addition, new direction of job-related information is discussed.
Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0......Objective: Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. Design: The study was designed...... as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control...
Job insecurity causes far reaching negative outcomes. The fear of job loss damages the health of employees and reduces the productivity of firms. Thus, job insecurity should result in increasing social costs. Analyzing representative data from 17 European countries, this paper investigates self perceived job insecurity. Our multi level analysis reveals significant cross-country differences in individuals' perception of job insecurity. This finding is not only driven by social-structural or in...
Oyler, Jennifer D.
This study extends job embeddedness and job satisfaction theory in several notable directions. As hypothesized, structural equation modeling revealed that community embeddedness was a partial mediator of the relationship between core self-evaluations and job satisfaction. Contrary to job embeddedness theory, this study found that organizational embeddedness and job satisfaction were best represented by a single latent factor. Thus, organizational embeddedness did not act as a mediator of the ...
Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora
We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...
Anderson, K; Forbes, R
This article is the first of a three part series discussing the impact of nurses job sharing at University Hospital, London, Ontario. This first article explores the advantages and disadvantages of job sharing for staff nurses and their supervising nurse manager, as discussed in the literature. The results of a survey conducted on a unit with a large number of job sharing positions, concur with literature findings. The second article will present the evaluation of a pilot project in which two nurses job share a first line managerial position in the Operating Room. The third article will relate the effects of job sharing on women's perceived general well being. Job sharing in all areas, is regarded as a positive experience by both nurse and administrators.
This research investigates the hypotheses that the relationship between job seniority and job satisfaction will resemble a curvilinear function of a U-shaped curve, while age and job level will be linearly related to job satisfaction; and that intrinsic rather than extrinsic aspects of job satisfaction will be the major contributor to the U-shaped…
de Jonge, Jan; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Peeters, Maria C W; Noordam, Hanneke
Research on emotional labour in health care work has not yet revealed under what conditions emotional job demands have an impact on employee health and well-being. There is a need for more theory to unveil the black box of emotional labour processes. To test the moderating role of matching (i.e. emotional) and non-matching (i.e. cognitive) job resources in the relation between emotional job demands and employee health/well-being (i.e. emotional exhaustion, employee creativity, and work motivation). A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted. A large organization for residential elderly care with eight locations in an urban area in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were distributed to 1259 health care workers, of which 826 people returned the questionnaire (66% response rate). In addition to descriptive statistics, multivariate multiple regression analysis (LISREL 8.54) with cross-validation was conducted. Findings showed that emotional job resources moderated the relation between emotional job demands and health/well-being outcomes. Firstly, emotional job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion. Secondly, both emotional job resources and, to a lesser extent, cognitive job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and positive well-being outcomes (i.e. employee creativity and work motivation). Finally, cross-validation showed that parameter estimates did not vary across subsamples. Job resources could compensate for resources lost through meeting the requirements of emotional job demands, thereby reducing stress-reactions and increasing well-being. Providing health care workers with more, preferably matching, job resources could make emotional job demands less stressful, and even stimulating and challenging. Future longitudinal studies should investigate the interplay of emotional job demands and (matching) job resources more profoundly.
Roberts-Turner, Reneé; Hinds, Pamela S; Nelson, John; Pryor, Juanda; Robinson, Nellie C; Wang, Jichuan
Job satisfaction levels among registered nurses (RNs) influence RN recruitment, retention, turnover, and patient outcomes. Researchers examining the relationship between characteristics of nursing leadership and RN job satisfaction have treated RNs as a monolithic group with little research on the satisfaction of hospital-based pediatric RNs. This study assessed the relationship of transformational and transactional nursing leadership characteristics and RN job satisfaction reported by pediatric RNs. This single site study included 935 hospital-based pediatric RNs who completed validated survey items regarding nursing leadership and job satisfaction. A structural equation model (SEM) was applied to assess how autonomy (transformational leadership) and distributive justice (transactional leadership) influence RN job satisfaction, and how RN socio-demographic characteristics influence job satisfaction via autonomy and distributive justice. Findings revealed that both autonomy and distributive justice had significant positive effects on RN job satisfaction but the largest source of influence was autonomy.
Full Text Available Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand, and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center.The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects.Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover.This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.
Zito, Margherita; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara
Background Turnover intentions refer to employees’ intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors’ support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. Method The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. Conclusion This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance. PMID:29401507
Zito, Margherita; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara
Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.
Dec 31, 2014 ... Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.
Schmitt , Thomas; Caillou , Philippe; Sebag , Michèle
International audience; This paper tackles the automatic matching of job seekers and recruiters, based on the logs of a recruitment agency (CVs, job announcements and application clicks). Preliminary experiments reveal that good recommendation performances in collaborative filtering mode (emitting recommendations for a known recruiter using the click history) co-exist with poor performances in cold start mode (emitting recommendations based on the job announcement only). A tentative interpret...
Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.
Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.
This paper investigates the effects of detailed job characteristics on job satisfaction, job search and quits using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) in a fixed effects framework. Using a factor analysis, seventeen job characteristics are reduced to seven factors that describe different aspects of a job, which are qualified as status, physical strain, autonomy, advancement opportunities, social relations at the work place, work time and job security. The effects of these facto...
Full Text Available This study examines the effects of several factors indicating economic openness- imported intermediate goods, total imports, IFDI (inward foreign direct investment, and foreign ownership-on regular, irregular jobs and the ratio of irregular employment to regular employment. Findings revealed that imported intermediate inputs and IFDI affected neither regular nor irregular job figures. However, an increase in total imports led to a decrease in the number of irregular jobs without affecting regular full time jobs, leading to a decrease in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. On the other hand, changes in foreign ownership structure had a contrary effect, that is, a decrease in the number of regular jobs and an increase in irregular ones, and, thus, an increase in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. Overall results showed that a rise in imports results in depressed overall employment, irregular employment in particular, while more IFDI results in more irregular jobs replacing regular ones, effectively exacerbating job insecurity. The implication of this analysis is that greater economic openness may have a negative impact on the South Korean labor market overall.
Pfau, Richard H.
Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…
de Lange, Annet H; Kompier, Michiel A J; Taris, Toon W; Geurts, Sabine A E; Beckers, Debby G J; Houtman, Irene L D; Bongers, Paulien M
This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a four-wave complete panel study among 1163 Dutch employees, we found significant effects of job demands and job control on sleep quality and fatigue across a 1-year time lag, supporting the strain hypothesis (Demand-Control model; Karasek and Theorell, Basic Books, New York, 1990). No reversed or reciprocal causal patterns were detected. Furthermore, our results revealed that cumulative exposure to a high-strain work environment (characterized by high job demands and low job control) was associated with elevated levels of sleep-related complaints. Cumulative exposure to a low-strain work environment (i.e. low job demands and high job control) was associated with the highest sleep quality and lowest level of fatigue. Our results revealed further that changes in exposure history were related to changes in reported sleep quality and fatigue across time. As expected, a transition from a non-high-strain towards a high-strain job was associated with a significant increase in sleep-related complaints; conversely, a transition towards a non-high-strain job was not related to an improvement in sleep-related problems.
Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J
This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.
Full Text Available Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction questionnaires, the research hypotheses have been tested through Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling. The results show that there were significant relationships between meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. Results of structure equation modeling reveal that during two chain models, at first meaning and spirituality at work are linked to job happiness and positive effect. Then job happiness and positive effect cause reinforcement of job satisfaction. The results of this study showed that meaning and spirituality at work cause positive affective spillover from job happiness and positive affect to job satisfaction.
Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva
markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...
Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas
This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with hetero-geneous JS-preferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers with w...
Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.
The booklet describes jobs in public service. The introductory chapter provides a definition and overview of public service work. Following chapters describe various levels of public service including: (1) neighborhood workers--letter carriers and postal employees, fire fighters, police officers, service repair workers, and bus drivers; (2) city…
Sener, Gönül; Boydak Özan, Mukadder
The main purpose of the research is to determine the job satisfaction levels of school administrators and teachers. The descriptive method based on screening model for revealing the existing situation was used in the study. An attempt to determine the job satisfaction levels of administrators and teachers in educational organizations was made in…
Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the job demands and job resources of public health nurses based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, and to build a model that can estimate turnover intention based on job demands and job resources.Method By adding 12 items to the existing questionnaire, the author created a questionnaire consisting of 10 factors and 167 items, and used statistical analysis to examine job demands and job resources in relation to turnover intention.Results Out of 2,668 questionnaires sent, 1993 (72.5%) were returned. Considering sex-based differences in occupational stress, I analyzed women's answers in 1766 (66.2%) mails among the 1798 valid responses. The average age of respondents was 41.0±9.8 years, and the mean service duration was 17.0±10.0 years. For public health nurses, there was a turnover intention of 9.2%. The "job demands" section consisted of 29 items and 10 factors, while the "job resources" section consisted of 54 items and 22 factors. The result of examining the structure of job demands and job resources, leading to turnover intention was supported by the JD-R model. Turnover intention was strong and the Mental Component Summary (MCS) is low in those who had many job demands and few job resources (experiencing 'burn-out'). Enhancement of work engagement and turnover intention was weak in those who had many job resources. This explained approximately 60% of the dispersion to "burn-out", and approximately 40% to "work engagement", with four factors: work suitability, work significance, positive work self-balance, and growth opportunity of job resources.Conclusion This study revealed that turnover intention is strong in those who are burned out because of many job demands. Enhancement of work engagement and turnover intention is weak in those with many job resources. This suggests that suitable staffing and organized efforts to raise awareness of job significance are effective in reducing
Full Text Available God is often portrayed extremely negatively in the Old Testament. For example, in the Book of Nahum God is pictured as being responsible for the most horrifying violence imaginable. This negative portrayal of God is also found in the Book of Job. God is responsible for the suffering that his righteous servant Job, has to endure. He is even manipulated by the satan to allow him free reign in attacking Job. God even acknowledges that the misery and pain inflicted on Job, was for no reason. Job�s children are killed in order for God to prove a point, and in his response to Job�s suffering, he doesn�t even address the issue of Job�s suffering. This is a picture of a very cruel, vicious God. This article investigates the negative, disturbing images of God in the Book of Job. Are these images of God who God really is, or is the God of Job a literary construct of the author? The focus of this study is on the prologue and epilogue to the book, as well as the speeches of God in Job 38�41.
Sansoni, J; De Caro, W; Marucci, A R; Sorrentino, M; Mayner, L; Lancia, L
The aim of the work presented was to assess job satisfaction of a number of nurses from different departments working in public hospitals in Italy. The assessment was carried out through the combined use of questionnaires, which measured different aspects of job satisfaction, such as coping abilities, stress level and optimism/pessimism. The literature supports the fact that nurses' job dissatisfaction is closely connected with high levels of stress, burnout and physical and mental exhaustion, together with high workload levels and the complexity of care. The growing interest in measuring the levels of nurses' job satisfaction is attributable to a number of problems that have been raised worldwide, two of which are becoming ever so important: turnover and shortage of nurses. The research question is: Which are the main motivating factors of Italian nurses' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction? The study used a convenience (non probability) sample of 1,304 nurses from 15 different wards working in Italian public hospitals from a number of cities in northern, central and southern Italy. The survey instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 205 items which included 5 different questionnaires combined together. The results show a low level of job satisfaction (IWS= 11.5, JSS=126.4). However, the participants were overall happy about their job and considered autonomy and salary important factors for job satisfaction. Research has shown that the nurses' level of satisfaction in Italian hospitals is low. The results revealed dissatisfaction with task requirements, organizational policies and advance in career. Nurses interviewed did not feel stressed and showed to be optimistic overall. New research on the subject should be conducted by focusing on ward differences, North and South of Italy and on gender differences.
Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Jäger, Simon
strategies and the consequences of unemployment, and motivated them to actively look for new employment. We study the causal impact of the brochure by comparing labor market outcomes of treated and untreated job seekers in administrative data containing comprehensive information on individuals’ employment...... findings indicate that targeted information provision can be a highly effective policy tool in the labor market.......We conduct a large-scale field experiment in the German labor market to investigate how information provision affects job seekers’ employment prospects and labor market outcomes. Individuals assigned to the treatment group of our experiment received a brochure that informed them about job search...
Metin M. Cosgel; Thomas J. Miceli
A fundamental principle of economics with which Adam Smith begins The Wealth of Nations is the division of labor. Some firms, however, have been pursuing a practice called job rotation, which assigns each worker not to a single and specific task but to a set of several tasks among which he or she rotates with some frequency. We examine the practice of job rotation as a serious alternative to specialization, with three objectives. The first is to consider current and historical examples of job...
Schmidt, Steven W.
Job training has become an important aspect of an employee's overall job experience. However, it is not often called out specifically on instruments measuring job satisfaction. This technical manual details the processes used in the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure job training satisfaction and overall job…
The study found that job involvement had significant relationship with work motivation and job satisfaction of the respondents. It was also found that work motivation and job satisfaction jointly and individually predict job involvement of the respondents. Nevertheless, it was established that there was significant difference in ...
Smith, M.; Jones, D.R.
The goal of exploration is to find reserves that will earn an adequate rate of return on the capital invested. Neither exploration nor economics is an exact science. The authors must therefore explore in those trends (plays) that have the highest probability of achieving this goal. Trend analysis is a technique for organizing the available data to make these strategic exploration decisions objectively and is in conformance with their goals and risk attitudes. Trend analysis differs from resource estimation in its purpose. It seeks to determine the probability of economic success for an exploration program, not the ultimate results of the total industry effort. Thus the recent past is assumed to be the best estimate of the exploration probabilities for the near future. This information is combined with economic forecasts. The computer software tools necessary for trend analysis are (1) Information data base - requirements and sources. (2) Data conditioning program - assignment to trends, correction of errors, and conversion into usable form. (3) Statistical processing program - calculation of probability of success and discovery size probability distribution. (4) Analytical processing - Monte Carlo simulation to develop the probability distribution of the economic return/investment ratio for a trend. Limited capital (short-run) effects are analyzed using the Gambler's Ruin concept in the Monte Carlo simulation and by a short-cut method. Multiple trend analysis is concerned with comparing and ranking trends, allocating funds among acceptable trends, and characterizing program risk by using risk profiles. In summary, trend analysis is a reality check for long-range exploration planning
Mrayyan, Majd T; Al-Faouri, Ibrahim
Career commitment and job performance are complex phenomena that have received little attention in nursing research. A survey was used to assess nurses' career commitment and job performance, and the relationship between the two concepts. Predictors of nurses' career commitment and job performance were also studied. A convenience sample of 640 Jordanian registered nurses was recruited from 24 teaching, governmental, and private hospitals. Nurses "agreed" on the majority of statements about career commitment, and they reported performing "well" their jobs. Using total scores, nurses were equal in their career commitment but they were different in their job performance; the highest mean was scored for nurses in private hospitals. Using the individual items of subscales, nurses were willing to be involved, on their own time, in projects that would benefit patient care. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' career commitment and job performance revealed the presence of a significant and positive relationship (r = .457). Nurses' job performance, gender, and marital status were the best predictors of nurses' career commitment: they explained 21.8% of variance of nurses' career commitment. Nurses' career commitment, time commitment, marital status, and years of experience in nursing were the best predictors of nurses' job performance: they explained 25.6% of variance of nurses' job performance. The lowest reported means of nurses' job performance require managerial interventions.
Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis
Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline.
Houtman, I.L.D.; Bossche, S. van den
This report discusses the following trends in working conditions and health in the Netherlands: exposure to psychosocial risk factors (such as job demands, job control, support, workplace violence and discrimination); exposure to physical factors (such as noise, dirt or bad smells); exposure to
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jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....
Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)
Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A
The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by
Blanc, Le P.M.; Jonge, de J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Chmiel, N.
This chapter focuses on job stress in relation to workers’ physical and psycho logical health. We begin with an outline of job stress as a social problem, fol lowed by a discussion of the main perspectives on (job) stress, resulting in a process model of job stress that will be used as a frame of
Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.
Using data for The Netherlands, this paper analyzes the relation between allocation, wages and job satisfaction. Five conclusions emerge from the empirical analysis: satisfaction with the job content is the main factor explaining overall job satisfaction; the effects of individual and job
Organisational Climate And Teachers' Job Performance In Primary Schools In Ondo ... The instrument used to collect data was a questionnaire on organisational ... revealed that most of the schools run an open climate type of organisation.
Our findings revealed that motivation has strong impact on job satisfaction of retail ... high levels of productivity and return on investment. This is the fact .... opportunities of the retail business managers, attenuate their motivational force. Test of ...
A model to look at various job components that affect individual well-being and health was developed drawing from the job design and job stress literature. Briefly stated, the model proposes job control to be a primary causal determinant of the stress outcomes. The effects of perceived demands, job content, and career/future concerns were hypothesized to influence the stress outcomes only to the extent of their influence on job control. This was tested in a population of government office employees in various clerical, professional, and managerial jobs all of which involve the use of computers. Results indicated that job control was not a crucial determinant of the stress outcomes, that job demands and career/future concerns were consistent determinants of the stress outcomes, and that job content, demands, and career/future concerns did not influence the stress outcomes through job control as described by the proposed model. The differentiation of job control levels to define specific relationships with stress outcomes and other job elements was shown to be useful because different levels of job control were associated with different stress outcomes and job elements.
Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to fit job crafting in job design theory. Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to shed more light on the types of proactive behaviours of individual employees at work. Moreover, we explored the concept of job crafting and its antecedents and consequences. Research design, approach and method: A literature study was conducted in which the focus was first on proactive behaviour of the employee and then on job crafting. Main findings: Job crafting can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources. Job crafting may be facilitated by job and individual characteristics and may enable employees to fit their jobs to their personal knowledge, skills and abilities on the one hand and to their preferences and needs on the other hand. Practical/managerial implications: Job crafting may be a good way for employees to improve their work motivation and other positive work outcomes. Employees could be encouraged to exert more influence on their job characteristics. Contribution/value-add: This article describes a relatively new perspective on active job redesign by the individual, called job crafting, which has important implications for job design theories.
Prabhakar, Anand M; Oklu, Rahmi; Harvey, H Benjamin; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Rosman, David A
The aim of this study was to assess the status of the radiology job market as represented by the ACR Jobs Board from October 2010 to June 2013. With the assistance of the ACR, data from the ACR Jobs Board from October 2010 through June 2013, including the numbers of monthly new job seekers, new job postings, and job posting clicks, were gathered and used to calculate a monthly competitive index, defined as the ratio of new job seekers to new job postings. During the study period, the mean number of new job seekers was 168 per month, which was significantly greater than the 84 average new job postings for any given month (P = .0002). There was no significant difference between 2011 and 2012 with regard to the number of new job seekers or job postings. Over the time period assessed, more new job seekers registered in October and November 2010, August to November 2011, and October and November 2012. These periods were also associated with the highest competitive index values. There were less job seekers in the winter and spring of 2011, 2012, and 2013, periods associated with lower competitive index values. ACR Jobs Board activity, measured by job posting clicks, was significantly higher in 2012 than in 2011 (P Jobs Board, there were consistently more new job seekers than job postings throughout the study period, and fall is the period in the year most associated with the highest competitive index for radiologist employment. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Job satisfaction can be defined as "the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs". This definition suggests job satisfaction is a general or global affective reaction that individuals hold about their job. Family Roles are patterns of behavior by which individuals fulfill family functions and needs. Family role changes may affect their daily activities including a person’s work. Unlike traditional job satisfaction surveys, this study was trying to explore the correlation between employee’s personal profile and their satisfaction in their job. The personal profile determinants which were compared with overall job satisfaction were - Age, Gender, Work experience, marital status, dependent children and parents. It revealed that majority of the determinants studied were having positive impact on the job satisfaction. It is interesting to note that comparatively young employees with dependents were more satisfied with their job. They were feeling satisfied and motivated to work as they were contributing to the family.
van Huizen, T.M.; Alessie, Rob
Job mobility is inherently risky as workers have limited ex ante information about the quality of outside jobs. Using a large longitudinal Dutch dataset, which includes data on risk preferences elicited through (incentivized) experiments, we examine the relation between risk aversion and job mobility. The results for men show that risk averse workers are less likely to move to other jobs. For women, the evidence that risk aversion affects job mobility is weak. Our empirical findings indicate ...
Petrosova, Liana; Pokhilenko, Irina
The aim of the study was to research levels of job satisfaction, factors affecting job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, and ways to improve job satisfaction among nursing managers. The purposes of the study were to extend knowledge in the field of healthcare management, to raise awareness about factors that affect job satisfaction in nursing management career, and to provide suggestions regarding how to increase job satisfaction among nursing managers. The method of this study is literature r...
László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael
Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.
This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes
Baeriswyl, Sophie; Krause, Andreas; Schwaninger, Adrian
The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners). Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners' job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and using work-family conflict (WFC) as an intervening variable to study relationships between work characteristics (workload and supervisor support), emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in 1,127 screeners at a European airport. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that (a) supervisor support as a major job resource predicted job satisfaction among screeners; (b) workload as a major job demand predicted their emotional exhaustion; and (c) WFC proved to be a promising extension to the JD-R model that partially mediated the impact of supervisor support and workload on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.
This paper seeks to analyse the role of job satisfaction and actual job change behaviour. The analysis is based on the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) data for Danish families 1994-2000. The results show that inclusion of job satisfaction, which is a subjective measure, does improve...... the ability to predict actual quit behaviour: Low overall job satisfaction significantly increases the probability of quit. Various job satisfaction domains are ranked according to their ability to predict quits. Satisfaction with Type of Work is found to be the most important job characteristic while...... satisfaction with Job Security is found to be insignificant. These results hold across age, gender and education sub-groups and are opposed to results for UK, where job security is found to be the most important job domain. This discrepancy between UK and Denmark might be due to differences in unemployment...
Alberda, A.P.; Bloemendal, C.; Braams, N.; Fortanier, F.; van Gaalen, R.; Rooijakkers, B.; Smit, R.
The process of internationalisation is not only reflected in increased international trade and investment flows, but also in the increased movement of people across borders, often to take on jobs abroad (labour migration). Between 2000 and 2008, labour immigration to the Netherlands displayed a v-shaped trend, decreasing to a low of 32 thousand in 2004, and rising to 59 thousand in 2008. This trend mirrors the development of Dutch unemployment rates in this period. Many labour immigrants are ...
Batigün, Ayşegül Durak; Sahin, Nesrin H
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of two instruments developed to measure Type-A behaviors and job satisfaction, two important variables mentioned in the stress literature. The data were collected from two different samples, one composed of 426 bank personnel, the other composed of 94 adults working in a private company. The findings are presented separately under the titles Study I and Study II. In both of the studies the assessment instruments used were: Stress Audit (Symptoms), Stress Audit (Vulnerability), Stress Coping Behaviors, Job Satisfaction Scale, and Type-A Behaviors Inventory. For both of the instruments, the studies were based on factor analyses. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory the analyses revealed 4 factors, while for Job Satisfaction Scale they revealed 6 factors. The factor subscales developed from these factors were found to have satisfactory Cronbach's alphas. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory they ranged between .40 and .90; whereas for Job Satisfaction Inventory these values were between .53 and .94. Both studies also included correlational analyses to specify the criterion validity values of the two instruments. The findings revealed that both of the instruments had satisfactory psychometric values, indicating that they can be reliably used in health psychology and job stress studies.
Millet, Patrick B; Vaittinen, Pauli
This study has had two main aims, the first to investigate and gather knowledge of the major job functions of Swedish rehabilitation workers, the second to study the frequency of use of these functions in the VR process. Structured questionnaires were sent to Swedish rehabilitation workers from public and private sectors. To identify the major dimensions of Swedish rehabilitation workers' job in the vocational rehabilitation (VR) process, a principal component factor analysis was performed. Results revealed that there are four main factors (dimensions) that comprised the VR process in Sweden. The four factors (dimensions) are job development and career counselling; assessment and counselling interventions; workplace adjustment and employer consultation and client support, personnel development and public relations. The VR process in Sweden is limited in both its scope and depth. This when one compares with the results of studies carried out in the USA, who found seven and six dimensions, respectively. It is argued that it cannot be excluded that the negative trend of extensive sick leave and early pensions are attributable to the limitations in the VR process that have been found. Suggested is the urgent need to put resources in place that would support the further advancement of the knowledge and competencies of the VR services in Sweden.
Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B
Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.
Karanika-Murray, M; Michaelides, G; Wood, S
Purpose: Research into job design and employee outcomes has tended to examine job design in isolation of the wider organizational context, leading to calls to attend to the context in which work is embedded. This study examines the effects of the interaction between job design and psychological climate on job satisfaction.\\ud \\ud Design/approach: Cognitive Dissonance Theory was used to explore the nature of this relationship and its effect on job satisfaction. We hypothesized that psychologic...
jacobs, Melissa, 1968-
Job insecurity in the workplace has become an increasingly important trend in organisational research. The appraisal of job insecurity by individuals plays a significant part in how reactions manifest in the experiences of workplace stressors, job satisfaction, positive and negative work attributes and social support. However, there is a lack of research regarding specific workplace stressors at work leading to certain outcomes like safety behaviour, turnover intention and mental health, espe...
Goldin, Ed; Stringer, Susan
The AAS is again sponsoring a career workshop for Astronomers seeking employment. The workshop will cover a wide range of tools needed by a job seeker with a background in astronomy. There are increasingly fewer job opportunities in the academic areas. Today, astronomers need placement skills and career information to compete strongly in a more diversified jobs arena. The workshop will offer practical training on preparing to enter the job market. Topics covered include resume and letter writing as well as how to prepare for an interview. Advice is given on resources for jobs in astronomy, statistics of employment and education, and networking strategies. Workshop training also deals with a diverse range of career paths for astronomers. The workshop will consist of an two approximately three-hour sessions. The first (1-4pm) will be on the placement tools and job-search skills described above. The second session will be for those who would like to stay and receive personalized information on individual resumes, job search problems, and interview questions and practice. The individual appointments with Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer that will take place during the second session (6-9pm) will be arranged on-site during the first session. A career development and job preparation manual "Preparing Physicists for Work" will be on sale at the workshop for \\9.00. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: How to prepare an effective resume How to research prospective employers Interviewing skills Networking to uncover employment Job prospects present and future Traditional and non-traditional positions for astronomers This workshop will be presented by Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer of the American Institute of Physics. The cost of the workshop is \\15.00 which includes a packet of resource materials supporting the workshop presentation. Please send your request for attendance by 8 May 1998 to the Executive Office along with a check, payable to the AAS, for the fee. Credit cards will not be
Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas
JS-preferences trade JS for higher wages. The relation between optimal job insecurity and the perceived dismissal probability is hump-shaped. If firms observe demand, but workers do not, separation is not contractible and firms dismiss workers at-will. Although the workers are risk-averse......, they respond to the one-sided private information by trading wage-risk for a higher JS. With two-sided private information, even JS-neutral workers pay the price for a JS guarantee, if their risk premium associated with the wage-replacement risk is larger than the social net loss from production....
As employers respond to new competitive pressures of global capitalism through layoffs and the casualization of labor, job insecurity affects a growing number of workers. It appears to harm mental health, but less is known about its effects on physical health and health behaviors and the mechanisms through which it may act. The prevailing individual-centered conceptualization of job insecurity as the perception of a threat to job continuity precludes systematic investigation of the social patterning of its health effects. Analysis of data from a 1994 Canadian national probability sample of adults determined that high levels of job insecurity lowered self-rated health and increased distress and the use of medications, but had no impact on heavy drinking. The findings support one possible mechanism of action whereby job insecurity reduces feelings of control over one's environment and opportunities for positive self-evaluation; these psychological experiences, in turn, have deleterious health consequences. There is little evidence of social patterning of this relationship by gender, education, household income, age, marital status, and social support at work.
Mrayyan, Majd T; Al-Faouri, Ibrahim
Few studies focused on nurses' career commitment and nurses' job performance. This research aimed at studying variables of nurses' career commitment and job performance, and assessing the relationship between the two concepts as well as their predictors. A survey was used to collect data from a convenient sample of 640 Registered Nurses employed in 24 hospitals. Nurses 'agreed' to be committed to their careers and they were performing their jobs 'well'. As a part of career commitment, nurses were willing to be involved, in their own time, in projects that would benefit patient care. The highest and lowest means of nurses' job performance were reported for the following aspects: leadership, critical care, teaching/collaboration, planning/evaluation, interpersonal relations/communications and professional development. Correlating of total scores of nurses' career commitment and job performance revealed the presence of a significant and positive relationship between the two concepts. Stepwise regression models revealed that the explained variance in nurses' career commitment was 23.9% and that in nurses' job performance was 29.9%. Nurse managers should promote nursing as a career and they should develop and implement various strategies to increase nurses' career commitment and nurses' job performance. These strategies should focus on nurse retention, staff development and quality of care. Nurses' career commitment and job performance are inter-related complex concepts that require further studies to understand, promote and maintain these positive factors in work environments.
Larson, Ben E.
A brief analysis of job advertisements in Swedish newspapers notes the increasing trend toward the use of English rather than Swedish words for certain terms, attributing such use to the wish to show an international labor perspective. (five references) (CB)
Arnold, Anne Jurmu
Job opportunities still exist for teachers who are willing to go where jobs are. Areas of the country with teacher shortages, subjects in demand, and future trends are explored. Demographics, salaries, and the economic health of various areas are discussed as are opportunities for teaching abroad. (PP)
Xia, Jingfeng; Wang, Minglu
This study examines job announcements for social science data librarians and professionals to identify trends in the profession. A collection of 167 job postings in 2005-2012 from the International Association for Social Science Information Services & Technology website was analyzed on the frequencies of term occurrence and co-occurrence in…
Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine
We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....
Wang, Hai-jiang; Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling
Organizational justice has been shown to play an important role in employees' affective and performance outcomes particularly in uncertain contexts. In this study, we investigated the interaction effect of job insecurity and organizational justice on employees' performance, and examined the mediating role of work engagement from the perspective of uncertainty management theory. We used 2-wave data (Study 1) from a sample of 140 Chinese employees and 3-wave data (Study 2) from a sample of 125 Chinese employees to test our hypotheses. In Study 1, we found that when employees perceived low levels of organizational justice, job insecurity was significantly negatively related to job performance. In contrast, we found that job insecurity was not related to job performance when there were high levels of organizational justice. Study 2 again supported the interaction of job insecurity and organizational justice on job performance. Furthermore, it was found that work engagement mediated the interaction effect. The results of the mediated moderation analysis revealed that job insecurity was negatively associated with job performance through work engagement when organizational justice was low. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Strazdins, Lyndall; Shipley, Megan; Clements, Mark; Obrien, Léan V; Broom, Dorothy H
In the context of high and rising rates of parental employment in Australia, we investigated whether poor quality jobs (without security, control, flexibility or paid family leave) could pose a health risk to employed parents' children. We examined the extent to which both mothers' and fathers' jobs matter, and whether disadvantaged children are more vulnerable than others. Multiple regression modelling was used to analyse cross-sectional data for 2004 from the Growing Up in Australia study, a nationally representative sample of 4-5 year old children and their families (N = 2373 employed mothers; 3026 employed fathers). Results revealed that when parents held poor quality jobs their children showed more emotional and behavioural difficulties. The associations with child difficulties were independent of income, parent education, family structure and work hours, and were evident for both mothers' and fathers' jobs. Further, the associations tended to be stronger for children in low-income households and lone-mother families. Thus job quality may be another mechanism underlying the intergenerational transmission of health inequality. Our findings also support the argument that a truly family-friendly job must not erode children's health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Matthew J; Smith, Justin D; Fleming, Michael F; Jordan, Neil; Brown, C Hendricks; Humm, Laura; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D
Four randomized controlled trials revealed that virtual-reality job interview training (VR-JIT) improved interviewing skills and the odds of obtaining a job offer among trainees with severe mental illness or autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed whether postintervention interviewing skills mediated the relationship between completion of virtual interviews and receiving job offers by six-month follow-up. VR-JIT trainees (N=79) completed pre- and posttest mock interviews and a brief survey approximately six months later to assess whether they received a job offer. As hypothesized, analyses indicated that the number of completed virtual interviews predicted greater posttest interviewing skills (β=.20, 95% posterior credible interval [PCI]=.08-.33), which in turn predicted trainees' obtaining a job offer (β=.28, 95% PCI=.01-.53). VR-JIT may provide a mechanism of action that helps trainees with various psychiatric diagnoses obtain job offers in the community. Future research can evaluate the community-based effectiveness of this novel intervention.
Full Text Available directly or indirectly from the renewable energy sector. Million Jobs Geothermal 25 000 Small Hydro 39 000 Biomass 1 174 000 Solar Thermal 645 000 Solar PV 170 000 Wind Power 300 000 Figure 1: Worldwide employment in renewable energy... threat to the way we live our lives. We need to change the way we travel, build, cook, generate and consume energy, and heat and cool our living and office spaces. We need to change the way we think about our surroundings, our families and our jobs...
Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K
Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job.......Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job....
textabstractPolicymakers’ efforts to boost trend output growth may be hampered by the presence of a tradeoff between productivity gains and job creation. This paper presents empirical evidence that the negative relationship between productivity growth and employment growth that prevailed in the
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010
Some occupations will fare better than others over the 2008-18 decade. Although it's impossible to predict the future, one can gain insight into job outlook by analyzing trends in population growth, technological advances, and business practices. This insight is helpful in planning a career. Every 2 years, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)…
Using Danish firm (workplace) data on employment reallocation merged with individual records, the effects of job creation/destruction and worker reallocation on wages are estimated using fixed effects techniques. After controlling for business cycle fluctuations, job creation is found to increase male wages. The effect of net job creation seems present at all phases of the business cycle. Entry wages as well as wages of low tenure workers appear much more sensitive to idiosyncratic job creati...
Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna
Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Method: Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study a...
Cooper, C. L.; Rout, U.; Faragher, B.
OBJECTIVE--To identify sources of job stress associated with high levels of job dissatisfaction and negative mental wellbeing among general practitioners in England. DESIGN--Multivariate analysis of large database of general practitioners compiled from results of confidential questionnaire survey. Data obtained on independent variables of job stress, demographic factors, and personality. Dependent variables were mental health, job satisfaction, alcohol consumption, and smoking. SETTING--Natio...
Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C C; Stewart, Roy E; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna
Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study among physicians starting medical training at Groningen University in 1982/83/92/93 (N = 597). Data from 506 participants (85%) were available for this study. We used regression analysis to investigate the influence of job size on physicians' job satisfaction (13 aspects) and ANOVA to examine differences in job satisfaction between physicians wishing to retain, reduce or increase job size. The majority of the respondents (57%) had an actual job size less than 1.0 FTE. More than 80% of all respondents preferred not to work full-time in the future. Respondents' average actual and preferred job sizes were .85 FTE and .81 FTE, respectively. On average, respondents who wished to work less (35% of respondents) preferred a job size reduction of 0.18 FTE and those who wished to work more (12%) preferred an increase in job size of 0.16 FTE. Job size influenced satisfaction with balance work-private hours most (β = -.351). Physicians who preferred larger job sizes were - compared to the other groups of physicians - least satisfied with professional accomplishments. A considerable group of physicians reported a gap between actual and preferred job size. Realizing physicians' preferences as to job size will hardly affect total workforce, but may greatly benefit individual physicians as well as their patients and society. Therefore, it seems time for a shift in work ethic.
Tor Jakob Klette; Astrid Mathiassen
The labour market in Norway, as in other Scandinavian countries, is often claimed to be overregulated and incapable of adjustment to changes in job opportunities. The results presented in this paper suggest to the contrary that in terms of job creation and job reallocation between plants, the manufacturing sector in Norway is surprisingly flexible, and similar to the manufacturing sector in other OECD countries such as the U.S. We show that 8.4 percent of the manufacturing jobs are eliminated...
Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…
The agricultural extension agent is a key stakeholder in extension systems. The nature of their work is so important that it has overriding effect on their job performance. This study investigates the relationship between job characteristics and job performance of agricultural extension agents in Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria.
Dec 31, 2014 ... employees, feels a tension of anxiety caused by their jobs. ...  High job stress creates negative psychological effects ... where product quality is largely dependent ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.
Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Vuuren, T. van
Since the 1970s the flexible workforce in the Netherlands has been an important factor of labour force growth. The question raised in this article is whether job flexibility gives rise to feelings of job security. It appears that flexiworkers experience more job insecurity than workers with
Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley
A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Billing Trends. Internet access: Bandwidth becoming analogous to electric power. Only maximum capacity (load) is fixed; Charges based on usage (units). Leased line bandwidth: Billing analogous to phone calls. But bandwidth is variable.
Schwenk, Nancy E.
An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)
Emine Yilmaz Karakoc
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate budget related antecedents of job performance of managers. For this purpose, relationships among budgetary participation, budget goal commitment, information sharing, and job performance of managers were examined. The sample consists of managers who are responsible from the budgets of their units in different private enterprises located in Turkey. Survey data was analyzed with confirmatory factor analyses and Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicate that budgetary participation has statistically significant and positive impact on job performance. It also positively affects budget goal commitment and information sharing. Budget goal commitment and information sharing have significant and positive impact on job performance. In addition, budget goal commitment positively affects information sharing of managers. Analyses also revealed that budget goal commitment and information sharing have partial mediation effect on the relationship between budgetary participation and job performance.
Mohan, G Madhan; Elangovan, S; Prasad, P S S; Krishna, P Rama; Mokkapati, Anil Kumar
Global competition in manufacturing sector demand higher productivity levels. In this context, workers in this sector are set with high output targets, leading to job strain. In addition to the strain, hazardous conditions also prevail in some of the manufacturing processes like foundry activities. This paper attempts to appraise the prevalence of job strain among foundry shop floor workers in India with the help of Demands-Control model . In this study, data was collected through a survey using 49-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) , a widely used and well-validated test for job strain. Then the data was subjected to statistical analysis after ascertaining the reliability. This survey has revealed that 25% of workers in foundry were experiencing high job strain. Hazardous working conditions, limited decision making authority, etc. appear to be the main contributing factors for the higher levels of strain.
Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth
Support and variety regarding work, autonomy, organizational constraints, and promotion opportunities are factors contributing to job satisfaction or lack thereof among hospital nurses together with self-perceived health, education and career orientation. The aim of this study was to explore public...... hospital nurses’ experiences of job satisfaction. This qualitative study was undertaken in a caring theory context. Ten proficient Danish hospital nurses were interviewed twice and data were analysed using a hermeneutic approach. The analysis revealed that time, team, and trust were essential components...... in job satisfaction. Time, team and trust helped the nurses collaborate with patients, care for relatives, and work in teams with other hospital staff members. Lack of job satisfaction occurred when time was to short or quality care was threatened, when the nurses felt alone and had to finish their job...
Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva
Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.
Reviews new and classic titles on career choice, job search methods, executive/professional job search, resume writing, and interviewing. Advises avoiding books with simplistic formulas and exercises or overt sales pitches for software, videos, and other products. (SK)
In cooperation with the chamber of commerce, various businesses, associations, and other community agencies, the Sarasota schools (Florida) supplement their own job placement and follow-up efforts with community job development strategies for placing high school graduates. (JT)
Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B
The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to `transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...
Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B
The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to 'transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...
LHCb is one of the four high-energy experiments running in the near future at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. LHCb will try to answer some fundamental questions about the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter. The experiment is expected to produce about 2PB of data per year. Those will be distributed to several laboratories all over Europe and then analyzed by the Physics community. To achieve this target LHCb fully uses the Grid to reprocess, replicate and analyze data. The access to the Grid happens through LHCb's own distributed production and analysis system, DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control). Dirac implements the ‘pull’ job scheduling paradigm, where all the jobs are stored in a central task queues and then pulled via generic grid jobs called Pilot Agents. The whole LHCb community (about 600 people) is divided in sets of physicists, developers, production and software managers that have different needs about their jobs on the Grid. While a Monte Carlo simulation...
President Barack Obama is putting new money to save educators' jobs and help states refurbish aging school facilities at the center of a nearly $450 billion plan to jump-start the sluggish economy. The author talks about the president's plan which is sure to face hurdles in a politically polarized Washington where one house of Congress is…
Blai, Boris, Jr.
Psychological theories about human motivation and accommodation to environment can be used to achieve a better understanding of the human factors that function in the work environment. Maslow's theory of human motivational behavior provided a theoretical framework for an empirically-derived method to predict job satisfaction and explore the…
The impact of the Self-Determined Career Development Model (hereafter called the Self-Determined Career Model) on the job performance of four adults with moderate intellectual disability employed in competitive work settings was examined. Employees learned to set work-related goals, develop an action plan, implement the plan, and adjust their…
Gregory, Vicki L.; Wohlmuth, Sonia Ramirez
Reports the results of the 1999 survey of library schools that investigated salaries and job placement. Highlights include status of graduates; average starting salaries; discrepancies between salaries of men and women; and views of graduates regarding the placement process and their library school preparation. (LRW)
Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...
Locke. Edwin A.
Despite considerable interest in the study of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, our understanding of these phenomena has not increased substantially in the past 30 years. It is argued that a major reason for this lack of progress is the implicit conception of casuality accepted by most psychologists. It is called the policy of "correlation…
Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael
This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...
The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature....
Full Text Available Increasingly, market-based job search institutions, such as employment agencies and ethnic media, are playing a more important role than migrant networks for low-skilled Chinese immigrants searching for jobs. We argue that two major factors are driving this trend: the diversification of Chinese immigrants’ provinces of origin, and the spatial diffusion of businesses in the United States owned by Chinese immigrants. We also identify some new niche jobs for Chinese immigrants and assess the extent to which this development is driven by China’s growing prosperity. We use data from multiple sources, including a survey of employment agencies in Manhattan’s Chinatown, job advertisements in Chinese-language newspapers, and information on Chinese immigrant hometown associations in the United States.
Tumen, Semih; Zeydanli, Tugba
The literature documents that job satisfaction is positively correlated with worker performance and pro- ductivity. We examine whether aggregate job satisfaction in a certain labor market environment can have an impact on individual-level job satisfaction. If the answer is yes, then policies targeted to increase job satisfaction can increase productivity not only directly, but through spillover externalities too. We seek an answer to this question using two different data sets from the United...
Leao, Izabela; Ahmed, Mansur; Kar, Anuja
The agriculture sector can play an important role in poverty reduction and sustained growth in Afghanistan, primarily through job creation, improved productivity, and inclusiveness. Using an 'agricultural jobs lens' and multidimensional approach, this report explores the sector’s direct and indirect roles in explaining the dynamics of rural employment. The report critically examines three dimensions. First, it evaluates the current jobs structure in rural areas and finds that rural jobs are c...
Boultinghouse, Oscar W; Hammack, Glenn G; Vo, Alexander H; Dittmar, Mary Lynne
Physician job satisfaction and mental workload were evaluated in a pilot study of five physicians engaged in a telemedicine practice at The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Electronic Health Network. Several previous studies have examined physician satisfaction with specific telemedicine applications; however, few have attempted to identify the underlying factors that contribute to physician satisfaction or lack thereof. One factor that has been found to affect well-being and functionality in the workplace-particularly with regard to human interaction with complex systems and tasks as seen in telemedicine-is mental workload. Workload is generally defined as the "cost" to a person for performing a complex task or tasks; however, prior to this study, it was unexplored as a variable that influences physician satisfaction. Two measures of job satisfaction were used: The Job Descriptive Index and the Job In General scales. Mental workload was evaluated by means of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index. The measures were administered by means of Web-based surveys and were given twice over a 6-month period. Nonparametric statistical analyses revealed that physician job satisfaction was generally high relative to that of the general population and other professionals. Mental workload scores associated with the practice of telemedicine in this environment are also high, and appeared stable over time. In addition, they are commensurate with scores found in individuals practicing tasks with elevated information-processing demands, such as quality control engineers and air traffic controllers. No relationship was found between the measures of job satisfaction and mental workload.
Butler, Sandra S; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Wardamasky, Sara; Ashley, Alison
An inadequate supply of direct care workers and a high turnover rate in the workforce has resulted in a "care gap" in our long-term care system. As people are increasingly choosing community-based care, retention of home care workers is particularly important. The mixed-method study described herein explored determinants of longer job tenure for home care aides (n = 261). Study participants were followed for 18 months, completing two mail surveys and one telephone interview each. Predictors of longer job tenure included older age, living rurally, lower physical function, higher wages, a greater sense of autonomy on the job, and less frequent feelings of personal accomplishment. Thematic analysis of telephone interviews revealed long-term stayers to be less concerned about low wages and inconsistent hours than those who left their jobs within a year; both groups of workers reported high levels of job satisfaction. Policy implications of study findings are discussed.
THIS PAPER SKETCHES RECENT TRENDS AND PROBLEMS THAT HAVE EMERGED IN PUBLIC TRAINING EFFORTS IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 1960S. IT CITES SHIFTS IN EMPHASIS FROM TRAINING WORKERS FOR EXISTING JOBS TO REFOCUSING ON YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND TO PREPARING THE HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED FOR WORK, AND FROM CONCERN WITH JOB TRAINING TO JOB CREATION. IT POINTS…
Thurman, J. E.
An international comparison of job satisfaction levels strongly suggests that the idea of job satisfaction as a gauge of well-being at the workplace should be rejected, but that workers' reactions to aspects of their jobs may be meaningful. The article presents data from national surveys of managers, workers, and trade unions to explain this…
Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn
Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.
van Huizen, T.M.; Alessie, Rob
Job mobility is inherently risky as workers have limited ex ante information about the quality of outside jobs. Using a large longitudinal Dutch dataset, which includes data on risk preferences elicited through (incentivized) experiments, we examine the relation between risk aversion and job
A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)
markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &
The outlook for jobs in the computer industry is excellent for people with appropriate training. The shortage of computer personnel is expected to continue, resulting in higher wages, more job mobility, increasing job security and generally greater opportunities for two million Americans by 1990. (CT)
Wagoner, Cynthia L.
Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…
Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw
Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.
Erin Parks; Andrew Holdnak
Job satisfaction among recreation professionals can be affected by many working conditions. This study has investigated the impact fourteen variables had on the job satisfaction of recreation practitioners. The sample consisted of 106 responses from members of the Resort and Commercial Recreation Association (RCRA). The results of the regression analysis for job...
Cowin, Leanne S; Moroney, Robyn
Sessional academic staff are an important part of nursing education. Increases in casualisation of the academic workforce continue and satisfaction with the job role is an important bench mark for quality curricula delivery and influences recruitment and retention. This study examined relations between four job constructs - organisation fit, organisation support, staff role and job satisfaction for Sessional Academic Staff at a School of Nursing by creating two path analysis models. A cross-sectional correlational survey design was utilised. Participants who were currently working as sessional or casual teaching staff members were invited to complete an online anonymous survey. The data represents a convenience sample of Sessional Academic Staff in 2016 at a large school of Nursing and Midwifery in Australia. After psychometric evaluation of each of the job construct measures in this study we utilised Structural Equation Modelling to better understand the relations of the variables. The measures used in this study were found to be both valid and reliable for this sample. Job support and job fit are positively linked to job satisfaction. Although the hypothesised model did not meet model fit standards, a new 'nested' model made substantive sense. This small study explored a new scale for measuring academic job role, and demonstrated how it promotes the constructs of job fit and job supports. All four job constructs are important in providing job satisfaction - an outcome that in turn supports staffing stability, retention, and motivation.
Munch, Jakob R.
This paper focuses on the adjustment costs of globalisation by studying the effects of international outsourcing on individual transitions out of jobs in the Danish manufacturing sector for the period 1990-2003. A competing risks duration model that distinguishes between job-to-job and job......-to-unemployment transitions is estimated. Outsourcing is found to increase the unemployment risk of low-skilled workers, but the quantitative impact is modest. Outsourcing is also found to reduce the job change hazard rate for all education groups. Thus, the paper provides evidence for small adjustment costs of globalisation....
Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube
Job performance is considered one of the most important constructs in human resources management because it helps to explain the value and utility that each employee adds to the organisation. The professionals in the Nigerian construction companies are not exception to the perceived low job performance rate within the industry. Extant literature points to the fact that job characteristics of employees can account for variance in their job performance rate.This study compares the job performance rate and job characteristics of construction professionals in indigenous and expatriate construction companies with a view to establish a relationship between job performance and job characteristics of construction professionals. A total of 762 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. Eighty one (81 construction companies, 50 (62% indigenous and 31 (38% expatriate were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using mean item score, spearman rank correlation, linear regression analysis where appropriate. Findings of the study revealed that the relationship between job characteristics and job performance of construction professionals in construction companies in Nigeria is positive but low and the correlation coefficient is higher in expatriate construction companies. Based on the above finding, the study recommends that construction companies in Nigeria should endeavour and improve on their current core job dimensions (task significance, skill variety, task identity, autonomy and feedback inherent in various jobs designed within their respective organizations as this will constitute as one of the variants that will improve the job performance rate of construction professionals.
Everett, Melissa; Gaffin, Larry
A wave of new thinking about success, opportunity, and responsibility has given rise to new ways of evaluating work opportunities based on their ethical practices, management models, and measures of social and environmental responsibility. Taken together, these ideas form a foundation for emerging socioeconomic visions of sustainable development.…
Gabel, Jon; Levitt, Larry; Holve, Erin; Pickreign, Jeremy; Whitmore, Heidi; Dhont, Kelley; Hawkins, Samantha; Rowland, Diane
Based on a national survey of 2,014 randomly selected public and private firms with three or more workers, this paper reports changes in employer-based health insurance from spring 2001 to spring 2002. The cost of health insurance rose 12.7 percent, the highest rate of growth since 1990. Employee contributions for health insurance rose in 2002, from $30 to $38 for single coverage and from $150 to $174 for family coverage. Deductibles and copayments rose also, and employers adopted formularies and three-tier cost-sharing formulas to control prescription drug expenses. PPO and HMO enrollment rose, while the percentage of small employers offering health benefits fell. Because increasing claims expenses rather than the underwriting cycle are the major driver of rising premiums, double-digit growth appears likely to continue.
This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies
NAKAGAWA, Yuko; INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; TSUNO, Kanami; TOMIOKA, Kimiko; NAKANISHI, Mayuko; MAFUNE, Kosuke; HIRO, Hisanori
This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performa...
Hohn, Marcia D.
This booklet provides information on job sharing that resulted from the research and experience of the Merrimack Valley Job Sharing Project. An overview of the topic considers the need for job sharing, employer benefits, types of jobs shared, job division, benefits, employer costs and savings, financial considerations for job sharers, perspectives…
Discusses the issue of job sharing as a new alternative available to workers. Topics covered include (1) a profile of job sharers, (2) response to job sharing, (3) establishing a job share, (4) job sharing in operation, and (5) legal analysis of job sharing. (CH)
Alammar, Kamila; Alamrani, Mashael; Alqahtani, Sara; Ahmad, Muayyad
To predict nurses' job involvement on the basis of their organizational commitment and personal characteristics at a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected in 2015 from a convenience sample of 558 nurses working at a large tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional correlational design was used in this study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. All commitment scales had significant relationships. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the model predicted a sizeable proportion of variance in nurses' job involvement (p organizational commitment enhances job involvement, which may lead to more organizational stability and effectiveness.
The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobs for positions addressed by the Order.
Gerards, Ruud; Welters, Ricardo
Research shows that financial pressure – implied as a consequence of benefit sanctions or exhaustion – prompts the unemployed to intensify their job search. However, there is less agreement about whether that intensified job search produces better quality job outcomes. Building on Self-Determination
Albæk, Karsten; Sørensen, B.
We map turnover of workers and jobs in Danish manufacturing over the 1980 to 1991 period, using information about all individual manufacturing plants. We examine the relation between worker flows and job flows and we study separations from and hires to existing jobs ('replacement hiring') in detail....... Our results reveal large heterogeneity among workers as well as plants, even adjusting for the level of job flows. The cyclical properties of worker reallocation point to worker flow dynamics being driven by workers quitting in upturns to find better jobs, rather than by plants upgrading the labour...
Park, Sun-A; Ahn, Seung-Hee
Nursing focuses on the development of an empathic relationship between the nurse and the patients. Compassionate competence, in particular, is a very important trait for oncology nurses. The current study sought to determine the degree of compassionate competence in oncology nurses, as well as to determine the relationships between compassionate competence, burnout, job stress, turnover intention, degrees of job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in oncology nurses. A descriptive correlational study evaluating the relationships between compassionate competence, burnout, job stress, turnover intention, degrees of job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in 419 oncology nurses was conducted between January 30 and February 20, 2015. The average score of compassionate competence for oncology nurses in the current study was higher than for clinical nurses. The correlational analysis between compassionate competence and organizational commitment, burnout, job stress, turnover intention, and degree of job satisfaction revealed a high correlation between compassionate competence and positive job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Compassionate competence was higher in oncology nurses than in nurses investigated in previous studies and positively correlated with work experience. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment in nurses may be improved through compassionate competence enhancement programs that employ a variety of experiences.
Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Mearns, Kathryn; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Eid, Jarle
Using the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) as a theoretical framework, this study investigated the relationship between risk perception as a job demand and psychological safety climate as a job resource with regard to job satisfaction in safety critical organizations. In line with the JD-R model, it was hypothesized that high levels of risk perception is related to low job satisfaction and that a positive perception of safety climate is related to high job satisfaction. In addition, it was hypothesized that safety climate moderates the relationship between risk perception and job satisfaction. Using a sample of Norwegian offshore workers (N = 986), all three hypotheses were supported. In summary, workers who perceived high levels of risk reported lower levels of job satisfaction, whereas this effect diminished when workers perceived their safety climate as positive. Follow-up analyses revealed that this interaction was dependent on the type of risks in question. The results of this study supports the JD-R model, and provides further evidence for relationships between safety-related concepts and work-related outcomes indicating that organizations should not only develop and implement sound safety procedures to reduce the effects of risks and hazards on workers, but can also enhance other areas of organizational life through a focus on safety. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
do Carmo Amorim Neto, Roque; Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Panzer, Shannon
and private schools responded to the survey. Statistical analysis revealed a moderate correlation between entrepreneurial behavior and job satisfaction. Results also show that gender and educational level are associated with entrepreneurial behavior. The discussion includes theoretical and practical......This exploratory study has two goals: exploring the relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and job satisfaction among teachers, and identifying the demographic characteristics associated with both variables. Using a snowball technique, a sample of 385 K-12 Brazilian teachers from public...
Krogsgaard-Hansen, Lone; Hudson, Ray; Schech, Susanne
, it was argued that "the majority of the area's prevailing social and economic difficulties are traced to the massive decline which the coal industry has suffered" (Durham County Council 1990, 41). Despite the devastation resulting from past colliery closures, these went largely uncontested, in part because...... of promises of alternative jobs. But these earlier efforts to counter the collapse of coal mining via the construction of an alternative branch plant economy had only had a limited effect. Thus the not entirely unexpected closure of the Consett works, which despite previous employment reductions was still far...... manufacturing to services, it was to service activities that were also dominated by the public sector, with central and local government and the services that these controlled and supplied providing the majority of such jobs. This was very much a legacy of both local and national political histories. At local...
Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte; Strunck, Jeanne
Talking about the job: The influence of management on leadership discourses Over the past decades, much research has been carried out to detail and analyse the uneven distribution of men and women in management positions (Acker 1990; Billing and Alvesson 2000; Österlind and Haake 2010). In Denmark......, this has been visible in banks and building societies where men would occupy the vast majority of senior positions, and women would be predominant in lower-ranking jobs, making it extremely difficult to climb the career ladder (Ellehave and Søndergaard 2006; Holmgreen 2009; Strunck 2013). One...... of the reasons for this is that gender inequalities continue to exist because they are deeply embedded in social structures and organisational processes, and not least upheld by the male managers whose positions are challenged by women’s entry into management (Schein 2007). In studies, this is referred...
Ikeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hisataka
cThis study examined the interactive effect of management by group goals and job interdependence on employee's activities in terms of task and contextual performance. A survey was conducted among 140 Japanese employees. Results indicated that management by group goals was related only to contextual performance. Job interdependence, however, had a direct effect on both task and contextual performance. Moreover, moderated regression analyses revealed that for work groups requiring higher interdependence among employees, management by group goals had a positive relation to contextual performance but not to task performance. When interdependence was not necessarily required, however, management by group goals had no relation to contextual performance and even negatively impacted task performance, respectively. These results show that management by group goals affects task and contextual performance, and that this effect is moderated by job interdependence. This provides a theoretical extension as well as a practical application to the setting and management of group goals.
Stagni, F.; Charpentier, Ph
In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs’ execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) simulation jobs. With our approach, independently of the time available, LHCbDIRAC will always have the possibility to execute a MC job, whose length will be adapted to the available amount of time: therefore the same job, running on different computing resources with different time limits, will produce different amounts of events. The decision on the number of events to be produced is made just in time at the start of the job, when the capabilities of the resource are known. In order to know how many events a MC job will be instructed to produce, LHCbDIRAC simply requires three values: the CPU-work per event for that type of job, the power of the machine it is running on, and the time left for the job before being killed. Knowing these values, we can estimate the number of events the job will be able to simulate with the available CPU time. This paper will demonstrate that, using this simple but effective solution, LHCb manages to make a more efficient use of
The remarkable achievements of one of the world's greatest entrepreneurs offer profound insights into the fundamental nature of economy and essential missing links in prevailing economic theory. The career of Steve Jobs dramatically illustrates the central importance of human capital in modern economy and the almost incalculable contribution that a single individual can make to technological advancement, social innovation and wealth creation, while enhancing the lifestyle of hundreds of milli...
One of the world’s most youthful countries, Zambia’s economy has been booming since the early 2000s on the back of record high copper prices and private sector investment response to the better business environment. But poverty rose from 2010 to 2015 and remains very high in rural areas. Economic transformation is underway with workers moving to off-farm jobs, but these are heavily skewed ...
Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K; Gyntelberg, F
Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job. To elucidate the perception of psychosocial work conditions among Danish hospital employees who would quit their job if economically possible and those who would not. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees. The questionnaire gave information on elements of the psychosocial work environment (job demands, job influence, job support, management quality, exposure to bullying), general health status, sick-leave during the preceding year, life style (leisure time physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking habits), age, sex and profession. There were 1809 participants with a response rate of 65%. About a quarter (26%) reported that they would quit their job if economically possible; this rose to 40% among the 17% who considered their health mediocre or bad. In a final logistic regression model, six factors were identified as independently associated with the wish to quit or not: self-assessed health status, meaningfulness of the job, quality of collaboration among colleagues, age, trustworthiness of closest superior(s) and exposure to bullying. Based on these factors it was possible to identify groups with fewer than 15% wishing to quit, and similarly, groups where 50% or more would quit if this was economically possible. Psychosocial work conditions, in particular meaningfulness of the job, were independently associated with intention to quit the job if economically possible and relevant within different job categories.
Kattenbach, Ralph; Schneidhofer, Thomas M; Lücke, Janine; Latzke, Markus; Loacker, Bernadette; Schramm, Florian; Mayrhofer, Wolfgang
By examining trends in intra-organizational and inter-organizational job transition probabilities among professional and managerial employees in Germany, we test the applicability of mainstream career theory to a specific context and challenge its implied change assumption. Drawing on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), we apply linear probability models to show the influence of time, economic cycle and age on the probability of job transitions between 1984 and 2010. Results indicate a slight negative trend in the frequency of job transitions during the analyzed time span, owing to a pronounced decrease in intra-organizational transitions, which is only partly offset by a comparatively weaker positive trend towards increased inter-organizational transitions. The latter is strongly influenced by fluctuations in the economic cycle. Finally, the probability of job transitions keeps declining steadily through the course of one's working life. In contrast to inter-organizational transitions, however, this age effect for intra-organizational transitions has decreased over time.
Yuan, Zhenyu; Li, Yongjuan; Tetrick, Lois E
Job engagement has received widespread attention in organizational research but has rarely been empirically investigated in the context of safety. In the present study, we examined the mediating role of job engagement in the relationships between job characteristics and safety performance using self-reported data collected at a coal mining company in China. Most of our study hypotheses were supported. Job engagement partially mediated the relationships between job resources and safety performance dimensions. Theoretical and practical implications and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
This study investigates the relationships between overall job satisfaction and the five task dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback-from-job for employees at different stages of their careers, as measured by their length of employment on their current jobs, as well as in their current organizations. Basically, the analysis shows that the strength of the relationships between job satisfaction and each of the task dimensions depends on both the job longevity and organizational longevity of the sampled individuals. For employees new to an organization, for example, only task significance is related positively to job satisfaction, while autonomy has a strongly negative correlation. The study presents other significant correlational differences and discusses the implications of its findings for task design, as well as for managing new employees. Approximately 3500 respondents from four different governments--two metropolitan, one county, and one state--participated in the collection of survey data.
Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling
Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064
Full Text Available Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1 to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2 to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled.A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine, psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress, job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support, and prolonged fatigue.A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue.Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers' prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables.
Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the CSR of organizational structure and job characteristics that influence employee job performance in the Malaysian context. Hence, it is important to study and analyze these two factors within the CSR taxonomy describing how these factors significantly influence employee job performance and to make recommendations how performance can be promoted among employees. This paper is based on a quantitative research approach where responses were gathered from the working population within Malaysia SMEs. The results from this study will help to point out the influence of these factors on the employee job performance and provide guidance to an organization for which these aspects should be emphasized in order to increase employees’ job performance to align performance with organizational goals. The analysis includes two dimensions of CSR taxonomy of organizational structure namely, centralization and formalization, as well as a set of five dimensions of job characteristics, such as task identity, task significance, skill variety, autonomy and feedback. The results of these findings show that job characteristics such as task significance, autonomy, feedback, and skill variety, positively influence job performance with autonomy having highest predictive power on job performance. The results of these findings reveal that the organizational structure does not contribute to the prediction of job performance even though a significant positive correlation exists between the structure and job performance in the Pearson correlation coefficient test. Therefore, this study will enrich the existing knowledge in the area of human resource management by focusing on job performance management.
Lavecchia, Luciano; Stagnaro, Carlo
The European Union is strongly promoting the adoption of renewable energy sources (RES). This policy relies mostly on environmental reasons, but its promoters also claim that RES subsidies will result into the creation of a significant number of jobs. This papers takes into examination the case of Italian policies with regard to solar panels and wind turbines. The number of RES-related jobs is estimated and it is compared with the number of jobs that are displaced by higher energy prices, due...
Motorniuk, U.; Terebukh, M.; Kharchuk, V.
The factors forming international derivatives market trends are researched in this article. The history of the formation of the global derivatives market was analyzed, in particular, events which have led to the growth of the derivatives market. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transformation of its structure, observed in recent years. Global derivatives market has revealed major changes in its trends and witnessed the gradual transf...
Barron, John M; Black, Dan A; Loewenstein, Mark A
Conventional analysis predicts that workers pay part of their on-the-job training costs by accepting a lower starting wage and subsequently realize a return to this investment in the form of greater wage growth. Missing from the conventional treatment of on-the-job training is a discussion of the process by which heterogeneous worker s are matched to jobs requiring varying amounts of training. This matching process constitutes a key feature of the on-the-job training model that is presented i...
McDonald, Katie; Rubarth, Lori Baas; Miers, Linda J
The purpose of this study was to describe the job satisfaction of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses in the Midwestern United States. The factors explored in job satisfaction were monetary compensation (pay), job stress, caring for patients in stressful situations, level of autonomy, organizational support, level of knowledge of the specialty, work environment, staffing levels, communication with physicians, communication with neonatal nurse practitioners, interdisciplinary communication, team spirit, and the amount of required "floating" to other nursing units. Participants were 109 NICU nurses working as either staff nurses (n = 72) or advanced practice nurses (n = 37). Of the participants, 96% worked in a level 3 NICU. A descriptive, correlational design was used to study job satisfaction among NICU nurses. Nurses were recruited at 2 regional NICU conferences in 2009 and 2010. The questionnaire was a researcher-developed survey consisting of 14 questions in a Likert-type response rating 1 to 5, with an area for comments. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to analyze the resulting data. The majority of participants were moderately satisfied overall in their current position and workplace (mean ranking = 4.07 out of 5.0). Kendall's Tau b (TB) revealed that the strongest positive correlations were between organizational support and team spirit with overall job satisfaction (TB = 0.53). : The individual factors with the highest mean scores were caring for patients in a stressful situation, level of autonomy, and communication between nurses and neonatal nurse practitioners. This indicates that our population of NICU nurses feels most satisfied caring for patients in stressful situations (m = 4.48), are satisfied with their level of autonomy (M = 4.17), and are satisfied with the interdisciplinary communication in their units (m = 4.13). Nurses in the NICU are relatively satisfied with their jobs. The small sample size (n = 109) of Midwest NICU
Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p job resources and job demands [F(1.474) = 4.004; F(1.474) = 4.166; p job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474) = 2.748; p job demands and personal resources [F(3.474) = 3.021; p job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1) in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001) or low (p = 0.0157); 2) when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001). The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees.
Ning, Sun; Zhong, He; Libo, Wang; Qiujie, Li
This paper is a report of a study conducted to test Kanter's organizational empowerment theoretical model specifying the relationships among demographics, structural empowerment, and job satisfaction. Empowerment has become an increasingly important factor in determining nurses' job satisfaction in current restructured work environments in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used to test Kanter's organizational empowerment model with a sample of 650 full-time nurses employed in six Chinese hospitals in 2007, with a response rate of 92% (n = 598). The instruments used were the Demographic Data Questionnaire, Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, and Job Satisfaction Scale. The three lowest scoring items for Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II were resources, opportunity and informal power. The job satisfaction items revealing most dissatisfaction were workload and compensation, professional promotion, amount of work responsibility, work environments, and organizational policies. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between empowerment and job satisfaction (r = 0.547, P work objectives and age. The influencing factors for job satisfaction were work objectives and education level. The results provide support for Kanter's organizational empowerment theory in the Chinese nurse population. Nurses who view their work environments as empowering are more likely to provide high quality care. Enhancing empowerment in a supportive environment would allow nurses to experience satisfaction with their jobs.
This study makes three critical contributions to the "Do Contacts Matter?" debate. First, the widely reported null relationship between informal job searching and wages is shown to be mostly the artifact of a coding error and sample selection restrictions. Second, previous analyses examined only active informal job searching without fully considering the benefits derived from unsolicited network assistance (the "invisible hand of social capital") - thereby underestimating the network effect. Third, wage returns to networks are examined across the earnings distribution. Longitudinal data from the NLSY reveal significant wage returns for network-based job finding over formal job searching, especially for individuals who were informally recruited into their jobs (non-searchers). Fixed effects quantile regression analyses show that contacts generate wage premiums among middle and high wage jobs, but not low wage jobs. These findings challenge conventional wisdom on contact effects and advance understanding of how social networks affect wage attainment and inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fitzgerald, Sheila T; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Suchday, Sonia; Ewart, Craig K
This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that characteristics of work that contribute to job strain also increase anger in young service-sector workers. A new measure of anger directed at coworkers, supervisors, and customers was regressed on job strain indices (job control, coworker and supervisor support, dissatisfaction) in models that controlled for dispositional negative affect and work status. Results in a sample of 230 young Black and White men and women revealed that low levels of job control and social support, and high levels of job dissatisfaction, were independently associated with increased work-related anger. Moreover, social support moderated the impact of low job control on anger directed at coworkers. Findings indicate that anger experienced at work may be an early marker of job stress, which has been prospectively related to cardiovascular disease.
Coogle, Constance L; Parham, Iris A; Rachel, Colleen A
This study investigated the relation between job satisfaction and career commitment among 262 Alzheimer's care staff working in long-term and community-based care settings. It was anticipated that the results would suggest whether career commitment could be enhanced to positively influence job satisfaction, and conversely, if improvements in job satisfaction might contribute to a deepened sense of vocational empowerment. Participants attended dementia-specific training and completed 2 short work-related questionnaires that measured job satisfaction and career commitment. The results of stepwise regression revealed interrelations between the 2 constructs. Congruence appeared to be reciprocal with respect to the overall scale scores and the intrinsic job satisfaction measure. Unexpected relations appeared in analyses of the extrinsic job satisfaction measure and the career planning subscale. Results are indicative of the fundamental distinction between job satisfaction and career commitment. Implications for efforts to reduce turnover and improve staff empowerment are also considered.
Karimi, Leila; Karimi, Hamidreza; Nouri, Aboulghassem
The present study examined the effects of two models of work–family conflict (WFC) and job-strain on the job-related and context-free well-being of employees. The participants of the study consisted of Iranian employees from a variety of organizations. The effects of three dimensions of the job-strain model and six forms of WFC on affective well-being were assessed. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the number of working hours, strain-based work interfering with family life (WIF) along with job characteristic variables (i.e. supervisory support, job demands and job control) all make a significant contribution to the prediction of job-related well-being. On the other hand, strain-based WIF and family interfering with work (FIW) significantly predicted context-free well-being. Implications are drawn and recommendations made regarding future research and interventions in the workplace.
Full Text Available The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997 and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, et al., 1985; were administered to a sample (N=400 along with a demographic sheet. The results of the study revealed a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction of Pakistani army soldiers. The findings of the study also showed a significant age, education, salary, and marital status differences in job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Age, marital status, and salary variables had positive correlation with job satisfaction and life satisfaction but education had a negative association with job satisfaction and life satisfaction
Leonard, Kurt J
A brief personal history illustrates how fortunate I was to have stumbled into a career in plant pathology, which turned out to be the ideal job for me. Several of the people who steered me or facilitated my development in research on plant diseases are mentioned. Starting with my PhD research, I have had the good fortune to indulge a career-long fascination with epidemiology and genetics of disease resistance in plants, particularly coevolution of gene-for-gene host-pathogen systems. I hope that my example may inspire others of like minds to consider a research career in plant pathology.
Zandersen, Marianne; Martinsen, Louise
The report reviews the different initiatives aiming to measure aspects of “green” sectors, jobs and technologies. The report discusses whether the statistics collected under the present initiatives aimed at measuring these aspects increase insights into the fundamental questions motivating...... the initiatives. An alternative framework is suggested, as it appears fundamentally impossible to make consistent frameworks for a division of the economy into “green” and “non-green” activities. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2011 – March 2012 by Vista Analysis AS, Gaia Consulting...
Research has shown that job insecurity affects both mental and physical health, though the effects are lower when employees are easily re-employable. The detrimental effects of job insecurity can also be partly mitigated by employers allowing greater employee participation in workplace decision-making in order to ensure fair procedures. But as job insecurity is felt by many more people than just the unemployed, the negative health effects during recessions are multiplied and extend through th...
LaMarche, Kimberley; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan
To examine the level of job satisfaction and its association with extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction characteristics among Canadian primary healthcare nurse practitioners (NPs). A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data on NPs' job satisfaction and on the factors that influence their job satisfaction. A convenience sample of licensed Canadian NPs was recruited from established provincial associations and special-interest groups. Data about job satisfaction were collected using two valid and reliable instruments, the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Survey and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to describe the results. The overall job satisfaction for this sample ranged from satisfied to highly satisfied. The elements that had the most influence on overall job satisfaction were the extrinsic category of partnership/collegiality and the intrinsic category of challenge/autonomy. These findings were consistent with Herzberg's Dual Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction. The outcomes of this study will serve as a foundation for designing effective human health resource retention and recruitment strategies that will assist in enhancing the implementation and the successful preservation of the NP's role.
Thornicroft, G.; Strathdee, G.
Job sharing offers advantages to both employer and employee but it is still uncommon in medicine. Based on the experiences of two psychiatrists sharing a consultant post this article describes some of the problems in obtaining a job share. The most difficult part can be getting an interview, and once a post has been obtained the terms and conditions of service may have to be modified to suit job sharing. Getting on well with your job sharing partner and good communication will not only help o...
Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this study presents new evidence on the effects of job quality on the occurrence of severe acute conditions, the level of cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal disorders, mental health, functional disabilities and self-assessed health among workers aged 50+. By combining intrinsic job quality with job insecurity and pay the study maps out multiple potential pathways through which work may affect health and well-being. Levering longitudinal data and external information on early retirement ages allows for accounting of unobserved heterogeneity, selection bias and reverse causality. The empirical findings suggest that inequities in health correlate with inequities in job quality, though a substantial fraction of these associations reflect time-constant unobserved heterogeneity. Still, there is evidence for genuine protective effects of better jobs on musculoskeletal disorders, mental health and general health. The effect could contribute to a substantial number of avoidable disorders among older workers, despite relatively modest effect sizes at the level of individuals. Mental health, in particular, responds to changes in job quality. Selection bias such as the healthy worker effect does not alter the results. But the influence of job quality on health may be transitional among older workers. An in-depth analysis of health dynamics reveals no evidence for persistence.
Full Text Available This study explored the degree to which infant-toddler child-care teachers were involved in their caregiving tasks, the nature of their job condition, and the relationships among caregiving involvement, SES variables (e.g., age, income, education, and work hours, and job condition including job satisfaction, burnout, and quitting behavior. Forty-one teachers from 10 daycare centers in small towns of the Southwest participated in the study. Results indicate that there was a high level of caregiving involvement and job satisfaction among the teachers. However, most teachers were dissatisfied with their current income levels, showed a moderate level of burnout, and yet did not express their intention to quit their present job. Correlation analyses reveal that teachers’ job satisfaction was positively related to their interaction with children and colleagues, resources, and training but negatively correlated to burnout and quitting behavior. Teachers’ burnout and quitting behavior were negatively correlated to their interaction with children and colleagues, resources, training, and income. While the desire to work with children had a significant impact on teachers’ job satisfaction and burnout, income and level of collegiality significantly predicted their quitting behavior.
Ladebo, Olugbenga J.; Abubakar, Bello Z.; Adamu, Comfort O.
Orientation: The mechanism facilitating the development of organisational commitment and performance of citizenship behaviours is of research interest to scholars. Recent research trends suggest that job satisfaction can mediate the development of employee commitment and citizenship behaviours. Research purpose: The present study hypothesised that job satisfaction mediated the relationships between the predictors (perceived organisational support and protestant work ethics) and outcomes (o...
Abouserie, Hossam Eldin Mohamed Refaat
The study investigated and analyzed the state of academic web-based job announcements in Library and Information Science Field. The purpose of study was to get in depth understanding about main characteristics and trends of academic job market in Library and Information science field. The study focused on web-based version announcement as it was…
Chung, Eun-Kyung; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong
This study was conducted to investigate medical residents' job satisfaction and their related factors to improve the quality of residency program. The study subjects were 159 medical residents being trained at Chonnam National University Hospital, South Korea, in 2011. The participants were asked to complete a short form Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ). The mean score for 20 items on the short form MSQ varied between 2.91 and 3.64 on a 5-point Likert scale. The assessment of related factors with job satisfaction revealed that medical residents had higher levels for job satisfaction, particularly those who were women (beta=0.200, p=0.022), and those who had mentorship experience (beta=0.219, p=0.008). This study results indicate that we should expand and support the mentorship program during medical residency to promote job satisfaction.
Full Text Available The remarkable achievements of one of the world's greatest entrepreneurs offer profound insights into the fundamental nature of economy and essential missing links in prevailing economic theory. The career of Steve Jobs dramatically illustrates the central importance of human capital in modern economy and the almost incalculable contribution that a single individual can make to technological advancement, social innovation and wealth creation, while enhancing the lifestyle of hundreds of millions of people. Jobs demonstrated that the real basis of economic value is providing valuable products and services that fulfill human needs and aspirations, not unregulated markets and financial speculation. His apparent failures point to the dual nature of uncertainty that presides over all human activity - both the ever present threat of error and the untold opportunities hidden behind the veil. Widely regarded as a genius for inventing better products, his greatest commercial achievement has been in recognizing the central importance of services in modern society and fashioning integrated social service systems within which products act as an enabling technology.
Mr. Goldfinger, Research Director of AFL-CIO, examines the problem of energy in general, nuclear in particular, and the employment relationship. The energy shortages in the U.S. and its dependence on oil are cited. Directly connected with this serious problem relating to energy are jobs, income, and living standards. If energy is not available, industries will be unable to expand to meet the needs of the growing population; and prices of goods will rise. From an evaluation of what experts have said, Mr. Goldfinger concludes that increased coal production and better coal technology cannot meet energy demands; so the sharp increase both in volume and as a percentage of total energy needed in the future will have to come from nuclear power. Development of alternative sources is necessary, he feels, and intense research on these is needed now. The employment impact in the nuclear energy scenario is analyzed according to the trades involved. It is estimated that 1.5 million jobs in the nuclear industry would be open by the year 2000 if nuclear is to provide one-fourth of energy supplies. The employment picture, assuming abandonment of nuclear energy, is then discussed
Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard
A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…
Schreurs, B.; van Emmerik, H.; De Cuyper, N.; Probst, T.; van den Heuvel, M.; Demerouti, E.
Purpose - Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact
Schreurs, B.H.J.; Emmerik, van I.J.H.; Cuyper, De N.; Probst, T.; van den Heuvel, Machteld; Demerouti, E.
Purpose : Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact
Gotvassli, Kjell-Åge; Haugset, Anne Sigrid
Within macroeconomics it is a well established point of view that investments in human capital is important for the economic growth of a region. In this paper we will look at the connection between job satisfaction and job performance and its impact on the “use” of human capital.
Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna
Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and
Sims, Johnnie M.; Foxley, Cecelia H.
Job analysis, job descriptions, and performance appraisal can benefit student services administration in many ways. Involving staff members in the development and implementation of these techniques can increase commitment to and understanding of the overall objectives of the office, as well as communication and cooperation among colleagues.…
In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs' execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) si...
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-reported job stress and job dissatisfaction and the prevalence of stress related illnesses and risk factors amongst educators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 21,307 educators from public schools in South Africa.
This study examined the relationships between perceived job insecurity, job satisfaction and intention to quit among employees of selected banks in Nigeria. A total of two hundred and nine (n = 209) randomly selected employees of Guaranty Trust Bank, Oceanic International Bank, Zenith Bank, First Bank of Nigeria, Union ...
Broersma, L.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper stresses the importance of a specification of the matching function in which the measure of job matches corresponds to the measure of job searchers. In many empirical studies on the matching function this requirement has not been fulfilled because it is difficult to find information about
Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael
We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...
Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael
We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...
Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael
We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobilityboth in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labourmarket. In addition, there is a clear negative...
something about organization and some psychological factors as well as job satisfaction. Job satisfaction broadly is considered to be as attitude of a person reflecting the degree to which his/her important needs are satisfied by this job. To study the job satisfaction level and factors associated with job satisfaction of ...
The paper analyzes middle managers' job attitudes, in particular job satisfaction, based on case studies. Employees' job satisfaction is expected to reduce human resource management risks, leading to higher loyalty, organizational commitment and motivation and resulting in less turnover. Components of job satisfaction include achievement, recognition, work itself, job security, supervision, interpersonal relationships, compensation, organization, personal life and working conditions. They cau...
Whitlatch, Jo Bell
Discussion of job satisfaction and the level of job performance focuses on the effect of automation on job satisfaction among reference librarians. The influence of stress is discussed, a job strain model is explained, and examples of how to design a job to reduce the stress caused by automation are given. (12 references) (LRW)
Rosmiati, Rosmiati; Ekawarna, Ekawarna; Haryanto, Eddy
The objective of this research is to obtain information on the effect of working environment, job Characteristic and job motivation to job satisfaction. The population of this research is the Lecture Jambi University. The total number of the research sample was 273 Official Member of Lecture Jambi University and they were taken randomly. Data analysis technique was used path analisys with SPSS and LISREL program.The formulation of this research are: 1) Is the work environment (X1) directly in...
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the musculoskeletal pain of care workers and investigate its effect on their job satisfaction. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 87 care workers working at C elderly care service center in P region. The average age of men was 62.5 ± 3.4 years and that of women was 57.3 ± 2.7 years. The 'Guidelines for Risk Factor Survey on Tasks with Musculoskeletal Burden' of the KOSHA CODE (H-30-2003) of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) was used for measurement of musculoskeletal pain. This survey tool for job satisfaction consisted of 12 questions including the areas of wage satisfaction, professional satisfaction, job performance satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. [Results] Study results showed that musculoskeletal pain varied depending on professional satisfaction, job performance satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. The correlation between the areas of musculoskeletal pain and job satisfaction was examined and the following was revealed. Professional satisfaction was correlated with arm/elbow pain and lower back pain, job performance satisfaction with lower back pain, and relationship satisfaction with shoulder pain and lower back pain. [Conclusion] In this study, subjects were older and could have been easily exposed to diseases because of their age. To improve job efficiency among care workers, continuing education related to the job should take precedence. In addition, social support is required that can alleviate the heavy workload related to physical activity support, which is among the responsibilities of care workers. Moreover, application standards and coverage of industrial insurance for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders of care workers should be extended further to relieve the burden of medical costs. A series of such measures will have a positive effect on improving the job satisfaction of care workers.
Ngimbudzi, Fredy Wilson
The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that are associated with teachers‟ job satisfaction. A study sample of 162 (N=162) teachers was surveyed. The descriptive statistics techniques revealed that teachers are satisfied with aspects under the following dimensions: social benefits, meaningfulness of the job and support from administration. Conversely, the teachers indicated they are least satisfied with the aspects under the job characteristics dimension. Additionally, the inde...
Morgeson, Frederick P; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Hemingway, Monica A
Role theory suggests and empirical research has found that there is considerable variation in how broadly individuals define their jobs. We investigated the theoretically meaningful yet infrequently studied relationships between incumbent job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, role breadth, and job performance. Using multiple data sources and multiple measurement occasions in a field setting, we found that job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill were positively related to role breadth, accounting for 23% of the variance in role breadth. In addition, role breadth was positively related to job performance and was found to mediate the relationship between job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, and job performance. These results add to our understanding of the factors that predict role breadth, as well as having implications for how job aspects and individual characteristics are translated into performance outcomes and the treatment of variability in incumbent reports of job tasks.
Full Text Available It is imperative that Sri Lanka grasps the concepts of green jobs to meet the most vital but intricatechallenge of the 21st Century, which is the transformation to a sustainable and a low-carbon economy.Such a transformation or a paradigm shift, which can be gradual or rapid depending on the circumstances,will undoubtedly have a considerable positive effect on the way we produce and/or consume goods andservices. The speed at which this transformation would occur is likely to accelerate in the near future asthere is a trend of global transition from a traditional to a low-carbon economy, in order to attainsustainable economies. Such trends will help create an array of different forms of green jobs across manysectors, and most probably can become a catalyst for further development. The International LabourOrganization (ILO has defined green jobs as “Jobs created when they help in reducing the negativeenvironmental impacts ultimately leading to environmentally, economically and socially sustainableenterprises and economies”. Green jobs, in general, stand on two pillars: decent work and environmentalsustainability. Thus, green jobs can be defined as decent work that contributes to environmentalsustainability. In a broader sense decent work needs to address the core of international labour standardssuch as freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, eliminationof all forms of forced or compulsory labour, effective abolition of child labour, elimination ofdiscrimination in respect of employment and occupation, occupational health and safety, etc. whilstaligning to laws applicable to Sri Lanka. Environmental sustainability addresses issues such as effectivelycombating climate change, pollution prevention and control, conservation of eco-systems and biodiversityetc. (ILO, 2007.
Thoresen, Carl J; Bradley, Jill C; Bliese, Paul D; Thoresen, Joseph D
This study extends the literature on personality and job performance through the use of random coefficient modeling to test the validity of the Big Five personality traits in predicting overall sales performance and sales performance trajectories--or systematic patterns of performance growth--in 2 samples of pharmaceutical sales representatives at maintenance and transitional job stages (K. R. Murphy, 1989). In the maintenance sample, conscientiousness and extraversion were positively associated with between-person differences in total sales, whereas only conscientiousness predicted performance growth. In the transitional sample, agreeableness and openness to experience predicted overall performance differences and performance trends. All effects remained significant with job tenure statistically controlled. Possible explanations for these findings are offered, and theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved
Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.
To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment…
This document provides guidelines for conducting job analyses and writing job descriptions. It covers the following topics: the rationale for job descriptions, the terminology of job descriptions, who should write job descriptions, getting the information to write job descriptions, preparing for staff interviews, conducting interviews, writing the…
Shin, Jung Cheol; Jung, Jisun
This study examined job satisfaction and job stress across 19 higher education systems. We classified the 19 countries according to their job satisfaction and job stress and applied regression analysis to test whether new public management has impacts on either or both job satisfaction and job stress. According to this study, strong market driven…
Dehghan; Mobinyzadeh; Habibi
Background Job satisfaction, job performance, job stress and heat stress affect the productivity of workers. Objectives This research aimed to study the relationship between heat stress indices with job satisfaction, job performance and job stress in casting workers. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical cross sectional survey was performed during summer 2013 on one hund...
Hanson, Sandra L.; Sloane, Douglas M.
Used data from General Social Surveys to examine effect of young children on job satisfaction of men and women. Findings suggest that young children have no effect on job satisfaction of male or female workers regardless of time period, work status, or marital status. This was true for women working in labor market as well as in home. (Author/NB)
Boydell, T. H.
There is considerable evidence that a large number of recently appointed training specialists would welcome a straightforward account of job analysis. It is in the hope of providing such an account and of providing practical guidance that this booklet has been written. Major sections of this guide include: (1) Job Analysis--A Process, (2)…
Boydell, T. H.
Job training involves preparing a job description and specification, and, if necessary, further analyses of skills, knowledge, and attitudes in order to identify areas of difficulty which will affect the choice of what must be learned and appropriate training techniques. (DM)
Onuoha, Alphonso R. A.
In testing Herzberg's two-factor theory of job satisfaction, it was found that theories of job satisfaction may be closely related to the methods used in collecting data; hence, the results of studies employing different methods raise questions about the validity of a particular theory. (Author/IRT)
Moorman, Barbara; And Others
Job sharing is defined as "two people sharing the responsibilities of one full-time position with salary and benefits prorated"; the concept focuses on positions usually offered only as full-time jobs, often in professional and managerial categories. This book is a guide for teachers and administrators on the implementation and use of…
Brown, Shelley; Feltham, Wendy
The coprincipals of a California elementary school share their ideas for building a successful job-sharing partnership. They suggest it is important to find the right partner, develop and present a job-sharing proposal, establish systems of communication with each other, evaluate one's progress, focus on the principalship, and provide leadership…
Adaramola, Samson Sunday
This paper examines mental and physical pressures that workers bear at work. The authors discuss how on the-job stress affects a person's capabilities and productivity, and how such pressures lend to higher incidences of accidents at work. The paper also discuss methods of reducing job-related stress and increasing productivity. An intervention was conducted amongst workers in a private firm. It shows mental and emotional pressure can affect performance and productivity of a worker on the job. One of the biggest influences of today's worker is on the-job stress. Job stress occurs when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. This consequently affects how a person would normally deal with customer service problems, grievances, violence, conflict, and decisions on the job. Stress is an inevitable part of everyday life, and is therefore a distinct part of a person's job. To properly control the outcome of stress, there are certain precautions and methods that should be taken that will boost productivity.
Lynch, Vickie E.; Cobb, John W; Green, Mark L.; Kohl, James Arthur; Miller, Stephen D.; Ren, Shelly; Smith, Bradford C.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.
The Neutron Science Portal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory submits jobs to the TeraGrid for remote job execution. The TeraGrid is a network of high performance computers supported by the US National Science Foundation. There are eleven partner facilities with over a petaflop of peak computing performance and sixty petabytes of long-term storage. Globus is installed on a local machine and used for job submission. The graphical user interface is produced by java coding that reads an XML file. After submission, the status of the job is displayed in a Job Information Service window which queries globus for the status. The output folder produced in the scratch directory of the TeraGrid machine is returned to the portal with globus-url-copy command that uses the gridftp servers on the TeraGrid machines. This folder is copied from the stage-in directory of the community account to the user's results directory where the output can be plotted using the portal's visualization services. The primary problem with remote job execution is diagnosing execution problems. We have daily tests of submitting multiple remote jobs from the portal. When these jobs fail on a computer, it is difficult to diagnose the problem from the globus output. Successes and problems will be presented
Pollnac, Richard; Bavinck, Maarten; Monnereau, Iris
This article draws comparative lessons from seven job satisfaction studies on marine capture fishing that were recently carried out in nine countries and three geographical regions--Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. The seven studies made use of an identical job satisfaction assessment tool and present information on a selection of metiers mainly…
Zasadziński, Michał; Muntés-Mulero, Victor; Solé, Marc; Ludwig, Thomas
In this technical report, we show insights and results of operational data analysis from petascale supercomputer Mistral, which is ranked as 42nd most powerful in the world as of January 2018. Data sources include hardware monitoring data, job scheduler history, topology, and hardware information. We explore job state sequences, spatial distribution, and electric power patterns.
Some of the research done to date concerning job satisfaction of junior college faculty is reviewed in this "Brief." Part I of the "Brief" describes four frameworks that have been applied to the analysis of job satisfaction: the traditional approach, the two-factor approach, the need hierarchy, and the cognitive dissonance approach. Part II…
Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.
In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or
Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.
Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support
de Graaf-Zijl, M.
This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call
Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas
Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.
Merwin, Elizabeth G.; Voss, Sondra
Job sharing is a relatively new idea in which two or more people share the hours, the work, and the responsibilities of one job. Advantages and disadvantages to this situation are discussed in relation to the experiences of two nurses who shared a position as district nurse. (JN)
Lerner, Nancy; Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Flynn, Linda
This secondary data analysis explored factors influencing job satisfaction in a sample of nursing assistants employed in Maryland skilled nursing facilities. Multiple factors have been shown to affect job satisfaction and turnover in nursing assistants (NAs), but the problem of turnover persists in skilled nursing facility environments affecting quality of care. An existing data set of 556 nursing assistants from 12 Maryland skilled nursing facilities was used. To explore factors found to influence job satisfaction from other studies, a multiple regression analysis was performed. Nine dependent variables previously shown to affect job satisfaction were used. Of these variables, only years of experience (β = .230) and performance of restorative care (β = .095) were found to be positively associated with job satisfaction. Self-esteem (β = -.094) was found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Only length of experience and exemplary care as evidenced by the performance of restorative care were associated with job satisfaction. These results mirror results found in other studies. Self-esteem was negatively associated with job satisfaction in this population, a finding needing further study. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Dubbelt, L.; Rispens, S.; Demerouti, E.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender discrimination and the perceived job demands and job resources of women and men. This is important because it may provide insight into what factors contribute to women’s disadvantaged position at work.
Leschke, Janine; Watt, Andrew; Finn, Mairéad
-time and fixed-term contracts and/or in the extent to which workers reported that they were working in such jobs involuntarily. Moreover, the numbers of workers who are afraid to lose their job have increased markedly which are clear signs of the declining bargaining power of labour brought on by the crisis....
On 12 December 2016, in Echo No. 259, we already discussed at length the MERIT and benchmark jobs. Still, we find that a couple of issues warrant further discussion. Benchmark job – administrative decision on 1 July 2017 On 12 January 2017, the HR Department informed all staff members of a change to the effective date of the administrative decision regarding benchmark jobs. The benchmark job title of each staff member will be confirmed on 1 July 2017, instead of 1 May 2017 as originally announced in HR’s letter on 18 August 2016. Postponing the administrative decision by two months will leave a little more time to address the issues related to incorrect placement in a benchmark job. Benchmark job – discuss with your supervisor, at the latest during the MERIT interview In order to rectify an incorrect placement in a benchmark job, it is essential that the supervisor and the supervisee go over the assigned benchmark job together. In most cases, this placement has been done autom...
Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg
Sector switching is new to the public administration literature and our knowledge about the prevalence and trends is limited. Yet, sector switching is an important phenomenon which casts light on public-private differences. We study sector switching in a modern economy using unique Danish register......-based employer-employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching constitutes 18.5 percent of all job-to-job mobility and the trend is increasing both in general, for administrative professionals, for top managers and, in particular, for middle managers. These findings are robust...
This article compares the results of two surveys sent to New Jersey science supervisors in 1978 and 1982 regarding the status of secondary science education in their schools. It discusses trends that have developed during the four-year period and compares them to national trends revealed in recent studies. The comparison shows that New Jersey faces many of the same problems in science education found across the country. Instruction time in science, double laboratory periods, and the use of national curriculum studies have all declined. Respondents also reported a marked increase in the number of science teachers leaving the classroom for jobs in business and industry. The recruiting of qualified teachers was a difficult task and over 9% of the public schools reported having to use teachers with emergency certification in science to meet their staffing requirements. Difficulties in using staff effectively, in obtaining adequate financial support, and in providing professional development programs were the major concerns of science supervisors.Received: 12 April 1983
Cunningham, J. Barton; Eberle, Ted
Describes job design alternatives--job enrichment, the job characteristics model, Japanese style management, and quality-of-worklife approaches. Focuses on the problems that human resources professionals may encounter when attempting to implement these approaches. (Author/JOW)
Adrianna Potocka; Małgorzata Waszkowska
Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with...
Khan, Kamran; Wozniak, Susan E; Giannone, Anna Lucia; Abdulmassih, Maria Elena
Job's syndrome (hyper IgE syndrome) is a very rare primary immunodeficiency disease that has an annual approximate incidence of less than 1/1,000,000. This manuscript aims to provide education regarding diagnosis and management strategies of this syndrome worldwide. A 6-year-old boy was seen at the clinic secondary to persistent pruritus interfering with sleep. At the age of 2 months, the patient developed diffuse eczematous and desquamating skin lesions. He was subsequently diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and managed conservatively. From 2 months to 7 years of age, intermittent exacerbations of dermatitis persisted despite an aggressive treatment regimen. The serum IgE level increased exponentially over a period of 7 years, with a peak value of 57,400 IU/ml. Molecular genetic testing revealed a dominant negative mutation within the SH2 domain of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT3) gene. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with Job's syndrome. Management included proper skin care, prophylactic antibiotics, immunomodulating agents, and psychotherapy. Job's syndrome can often go unrecognized and masquerade as atopic dermatitis. Therefore, genetic testing for this condition should be obtained in all patients with treatment-refractory AD. Additionally, psychotherapy can be a successful management strategy for the grating psychological impact that can be imposed on children with excessive pruritus.
Haut, Elliott R; Sicoutris, Corinna P; Meredith, Denise M; Sonnad, Seema S; Reilly, Patrick M; Schwab, C William; Hanson, C William; Gracias, Vicente H
The change from a "mandatory consultation" to a "semiclosed" surgical intensive care unit (SICU) model will impact nurses considerably. We hypothesize that nurse job satisfaction, job turnover rates, and hospital costs for temporary agency nurses will improve and these improvements will be more dramatic in SICU sections with greater involvement of a dedicated surgical critical care service (SCCS). Prospective longitudinal survey. Tertiary-care university hospital. SICU staff nurses. Change from mandatory consultation to semiclosed SICU. We surveyed SICU nurses during the year-long transition to a semiclosed SICU service (five time points, 3-month intervals). The first four surveys included ten questions on nurse job satisfaction. The final survey included two additional questions. All questions were on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Nurse job turnover rates and money spent on agency nurses were compared over time; 503 of a possible 914 surveys were completed (55% overall return rate). Nurse job satisfaction scores significantly improved over time for all questions (p job turnover rate dropped from 25% to 16% (p = .15). The scores for both year-end statements ("I am more satisfied with my job now than 1 year ago" and "The SCCS management of all orders has improved my job satisfaction") were significantly higher in sections with greater SCCS involvement (p = .0070 and p job satisfaction improved significantly with the transition to a semiclosed SICU. This higher satisfaction was associated with a significant decrease in spending on temporary agency nurses and a trend toward increased staff nurse job retention. SICU sections with greater SCCS involvement had more dramatic improvements. This semiclosed SICU model may help retain SICU nurses in a competitive job market in which experienced nurses are in short supply.
Jerković-Ćosić, K; van Offenbeek, M A G; van der Schans, C P
This study compares the scope of practice of Dutch dental hygienists (DHs) educated through a 2- or 3-year curriculum ('old-style DHs') with that of hygienists educated through a new extended 4-year curriculum leading to a bachelor's degree ('new-style DHs'), with the aim to investigate whether an extended scope of practice positively affects perceived skill variety, autonomy and job satisfaction. The questionnaires were obtained from old- and new-style DHs (n = 413, response 38%; n = 219, response 59%, respectively), in which respondents had recorded their dental tasks, perceived skill variety, autonomy and job satisfaction. T -tests were used to analyse differences between old- and new-style DHs, and regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between scope of practice and skill variety, autonomy and job satisfaction. New-style DHs have a more extended scope of practice compared with old-style DHs. Despite their more complex jobs, which are theoretically related to higher job satisfaction, new-style DHs perceive lower autonomy and job satisfaction (P job satisfaction (β = 0.462), followed by autonomy (β = 0.202) and caries decisive tasks, the last affecting job satisfaction negatively (β = -0.149). Self-employment is the strongest significant predictor for autonomy (β = 0.272). The core business of DHs remains the prevention and periodontology services. New-style DHs combine these tasks with extended tasks in the caries field, which can lead to comparatively less job satisfaction, because of a lower experienced autonomy in performing these extended tasks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg
unemployment, for whom the exogenous mobility assumption is not rejected, to estimate firm fixed effects. We then decompose the variance of wage growth of all job movers. We find that 66% of the variance of wage growth experienced by job movers can be attributed to variance in match quality. Expected match......We measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. We reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixed-effects wage regression in the Danish matched employer-employee data. We exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from...... quality growth is higher for higher-skilled occupations....
McDonald, Steve; Benton, Richard A.; Warner, David F.
Drawing on the embeddedness, varieties of capitalism and macrosociological life course perspectives, we examine how institutional arrangements affect network-based job finding behaviors in the United States and Germany. Analysis of cross-national survey data reveals that informal job matching is highly clustered among specific types of individuals…
Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg
. In this qualitative study, home caregivers’ perceptions of job characteristics are investigated. Semi-structured interviews and observations reveal three main themes: Optimization, helping others and emotional work. These show a dual perception of job characteristics consequently influencing the experienced...... engagement. Using Public Service Motivation literature, these dual perceptions are discussed...
Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Rosenberg Hansen, Jesper
. In this qualitative study, home caregivers’ perceptions of job characteristics are investigated. Semi-structured interviews and observations reveal three main themes: Optimization, helping others and emotional work. These show a dual perception of job characteristics consequently influencing the experienced...... engagement. Using Public Service Motivation literature, these dual perceptions are discussed...
Karl, Katherine A.; Sutton, Cynthia L.
A comparison of 47 public- and 170 private-sector workers revealed private-sector workers value good wages most and public-sector workers value interesting work. Results suggest that employers must keep in touch with employee values to design jobs, reward systems, and human-resource policies that will result in maximum job satisfaction. (JOW)
Schaufeli, W.B.; Bakker, A.B.; Rhenen, van W.
The present longitudinal survey among 201 telecom managers supports the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that postulates a health impairment process and a motivational process. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) increases in job demands (i.e.,
Gooden, Susan Tinsley; Bailey, Margo
Comparison of differences in job-retention outcomes for 1,777 welfare-to-work employees and 16,723 other employees in federal agencies reveals that welfare-to-work employees have greater odds of retaining their jobs. (Contains 32 references.) (JOW)
Kambayashia, Ryo; Kato, Takao
important role that seniority plays in protecting workers from job loss in Japan than in the United States and reveals that this gap in seniority’s influence on job stability between the two countries widened. Overall, it is the U.S. economy with the longest economic expansion, not the Japanese economy...
Lottinville, Elinor; Scherman, Avraham
Examined whether early divorce would affect job satisfaction of professional or clerical/technical women (N=88) working in hospitals and explored differences among married, divorced, and single working women in their perceptions of different areas of their work. Results revealed significant positive relationship between job level and job…
The work follows the new trend of job offers in the hotel industry. The aim is to provide a comprehensive summary of selected new professional positions and put them into the context of hotel organization, and to analyze the current requirements for the position of Revenue Manager. The information obtained by monitoring the current job at the advertising portals and by an interview with a human recources officer of 5 * Prague hotel.
de Croon, E M; Blonk, R W B; de Zwart, B C H; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Broersen, J P J
Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers (adjusted response 63%) self reported information was gathered by questionnaire on the independent variables (job control, quantitative workload, physical demands, and supervisor demands) and the dependent variables (fatigue and job dissatisfaction). Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the main effects of job demands and job control and the interaction effect between job control and job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction. The inclusion of physical and supervisor demands in the JD-C model explained a significant amount of variance in fatigue (3%) and job dissatisfaction (7%) over and above job control and quantitative workload. Moreover, in accordance with Karasek's interaction hypothesis, job control buffered the positive relation between quantitative workload and job dissatisfaction. Despite methodological limitations, the results suggest that the inclusion of (occupation) specific job control and job demand measures is a fruitful elaboration of the JD-C model. The occupation specific JD-C model gives occupational stress researchers better insight into the relation between the psychosocial work environment and wellbeing. Moreover, the occupation specific JD-C model may give practitioners more concrete and useful information about risk factors in the psychosocial work environment. Therefore, this model may provide points of departure for effective stress reducing interventions at work.
Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki
The relationship between job stress and job satisfaction by the follow-up study should be more evaluated for workers' health support. Job stress is strongly affected by the content of the job and the personality of a worker. This study was focused on determining the changes of the job stress and job satisfaction levels over a two-year interval, using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the same 310 employees of a Japanese industrial company in 2009 and 2011. Sixty-one employees were lost from 371 responders in 2009. Data of 16 items from 57 items graded on a four-point Likert-type scale to measure the job stressors, psycho-physical complaints and support for workers, job overload (six items), job control (three items), support (six items) and job satisfaction score (one item) were selected for the analysis. The age-adjusted partial correlation coefficients for job overload, job control and support were 0.684 (pjob overload, job control and support were 0.681 (0.616-0.736), 0.473 (0.382-0.555), and 0.623 (0.549-0.687), respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean score for job overload, job control or support, although significant decline in the job satisfaction level was apparent at the end of the two-year period (pjob satisfaction in 2009 and in 2011 for subjects with keeping low job strain. No significant changes in the scores on the three elements of job stress were observed over the two-year study period, and the job satisfaction level deteriorated significantly during this period. There was a decline in the job satisfaction in the two-year period, although subjects did not suffer from job stress at the same period.
Abul-basher, M M
Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends.
Ayodotun Stephen Ibidunni
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to present a data article that identify the relationship between workforce diversity, job satisfaction and employee commitment among public healthcare workers in Nigeria. Copies of structured questionnaire were administered to 133 public healthcare workers from the Lagos state ministry of health in Nigeria. Using descriptive and structural equation modelling statistical analysis, the data revealed the relationship between workforce diversity and job satisfaction, workforce diversity and organisational commitment, and the role of job satisfaction on organisational commitment was also established. Keywords: Workforce diversity, Job satisfaction, Employee commitment, Public healthcare, Diversity management
Jenkins, Sarah; Chenneville, Tiffany; Salnaitis, Christina
This study was designed to examine the impact of role clarity and job training on job satisfaction among peer specialists. A 3-part survey assessing job training, job satisfaction, and role clarity was administered online to 195 peer specialists who are members of the International Association of Peer Specialists. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlational analyses to include multiple linear regressions and analysis of variance. Self-study and online training methods were negatively correlated with job satisfaction while job shadowing was positively correlated with job satisfaction. Role clarity was positively correlated with job satisfaction and job training satisfaction as well as job shadowing and one-on-one training. The use of self-study and online training for peer specialists is contraindicated by current findings, which suggest the need to utilize job shadowing or training methods that allow for personal interaction between peer specialists and their colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg
in the quality of the worker-firm match rather than transitions to better firms. Also, 66% of the variance of wage growth experienced by job movers can be attributed to variance in match quality. Expected match quality growth is higher for higher-skilled occupations and high-educated workers.......In this paper, we measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. Using the Danish matched employer-employee data, we reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixedeffects wage regression. To estimate firm fixed effects, we...... exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from unemployment, for whom the exogenous mobility assumption is not rejected. Then we decompose the mean and the variance of wage growth of jobto-job movers. We find that most of the wage growth experienced by job movers is attributable to an improvement...
...) is to compute composite validity coefficients. using criterion data derived from the 1987 - 1989 Skill Qualifications Test program, for the 7-test ASVAB for 150, 17, and 9 job family structures...
Clark, Leah; Leedy, Stephen; McDonald, Laurie; Muller, Barbara; Lamb, Cheryl; Mendez, Tracy; Kim, Sehwan; Schonwetter, Ronald
As a continuing effort to enhance the quality of palliative care for the dying, this study examined (1) the prevalence of spirituality among hospice interdisciplinary team (IDT) members; (2) whether spirituality is related to job satisfaction; and (3) the structural path relationships among four variables: spiritual belief, integration of spirituality at work, self actualization and job satisfaction. The study surveyed 215 hospice IDT members who completed the Jarel Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Chamiec-Case Spirituality Integration and Job Satisfaction Scales. Multiple regression and structural path modeling methods were applied to explain the path relationships involving all four variables. The IDT members surveyed were: nurses, 46.4%; home health aids, 24.9%; social workers, 17.4%; chaplains, 4.2%; physicians, 2.3%; and other, 4.8%. Ninety-eight percent of the respondents viewed themselves as having spiritual well-being. On a 0-100 scale, IDT staff reported high spiritual belief (mean = 89.4) and they were self-actualizing (mean = 82.6). Most reported high job satisfaction (mean = 79.3) and spiritual integration (mean = 67.9). In multiple regression, spirituality, integration and self-actualization explained 22% of the variation in job satisfaction (R = 0.48; adjusted R(2) = 0.218; df = 3,175; F = 17.2; p = 0.001). Structural path models revealed that job satisfaction is more likely to be realized by a model that transforms one's spirituality into processes of integrating spirituality at work and self actualization (chi(2) = 0.614; df = 1; p = 0.433) than a model that establishes a direct path from spirituality to job satisfaction (chi(2) = 1.65; df = 1; p = 0.199). Hospice IDT member's integration of their spirituality at work and greater self actualization significantly improve job satisfaction.
Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL; Coates, Cameron W [ORNL
The prediction of future events and trends was the purview of fortune tellers and science writers; however futuristic studies are now an acceptable form of sociological research including workplace dynamics. The nuclear industry is also affected by workplace trends which currently indicate that there will be fewer jobs and individuals who are employed will be required to have greater technical skills. This reshaping of the workforce is partially due to an aging workforce and diversity within the work environment. The reshaping brings with it the need for greater productivity and employee expectations for increased pay and/or benefits. If employee satisfaction is not realized there is a real possibility of disgruntled employees who then become a potential insider risk to the organization. Typically this is an individual who has been employed for several years, becomes dissatisfied with the job, or some other aspect of their life. If the dissatisfaction is directly related to work the individual may retaliate in a destructive manner. Perceived inequities are a major factor and directly related to situational pressures, opportunity, and personal integrity. It is known that the greatest losses within an organization are attributed to employees working alone or in a conspiracy with fellow employees who engage in theft and other fraudulent activities. In the nuclear industry this threat is intensified by the nature of the work, the materials employees come in contact with and the potential of an occurrence that could adversely affect a large geographic region and/or the security of a country. The paper will address motivating factors, recommendations, and include a profile discussion of a possible disgruntled employee.
Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues
Discrimination is one of the most controversial phenomena to challenge the Human Resources (HR) function in the work place. It has been discussed in depth by sociologists, politicians and lawyers and remains a topical issue. Despite advances gender discrimination still persists, and continues to be experienced by women in the contemporary work space. Purpose - As job satisfaction has been shown to directly affect business performance, there has been increased interest in how job satisfact...
This study investigated the influences of professional skills and personal competencies on job performances of registry staff in University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research deign while 102 registry staff participated. Finding from the study revealed that registry staff in University of Ibadan presses ...
Szabo Hangya, Adrienn; Arevshatian, Lilith
We develop Roberson et al.’s (2005) model by investigating how recruitment processes influence candidate perceptions leading to job acceptance. Using a qualitative case study design (n=5) and thematic analysis, the data reveals that values, reasons for applying, considerations in applying, views on company and previous experience impact on candidate perceptions. We discussed theoretical implications and propose recommendations for practice.
The study investigated the attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of female extension agents in Edo State, Nigeria. A random sample of 35 female extension agents was selected for the study. Findings reveal that the majority of the respondents (57.1%) were in the age group of 31 – 40 years and ...
This meant that more studies on the job attitude of library administrators should be undertaken to lessen this common dissatisfaction among female librarians. The study revealed the need for a new approach to librarianship in Nigeria by considering the human side of the profession as well as its technical side. Samaru ...
This paper examines the use and impact of job search methods of both unemployed and employed job seekers. Informal job search methods are associated with relativel high level of job exit and shorter search duration. Job exists through the public employment agency (PEA) display positive duration dependence for the unemployed. This may suggest that the PEA is used as a job search method of last resort. Informal job search methods have lower associated duration in search and higher wages than th...
Foster, D; Wilcox, C; Gibson, H
A job-sharing arrangement for the Assistant Directors of Physiotherapy at the Royal Jubilee Hospital proved to be an innovative and successful experience demonstrating the feasibility of job-sharing at administrative levels in rehabilitation. Physiotherapy is traditionally a female dominated profession. By the time therapists are most highly skilled and clinically experienced, they have arrived at prime marriage and child-bearing years. Many valuable members are lost to the profession each year as therapists leave the work force to take care of their families, continue their education and participate in recreational activities. Alternative employment opportunities are needed to retain and return therapists to the work force. Convenience of work time is often important. Financial expectations may become a secondary consideration. A search of the literature revealed that while job-sharing has much to recommend it, it is not yet generally accepted in most health professional situations. A few anecdotal references described job-sharing in nursing. An industry-wide literature search revealed few references to the application of job-sharing at administrative levels.
Croon, E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Zwart, B.C.H. de; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Broersen, J.P.J.
Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers self reported information was
de Croon, E. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Broersen, J. P. J.
Objectives: Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers.
Large-scale integration of small molecule-induced genome-wide transcriptional responses, Kinome-wide binding affinities and cell-growth inhibition profiles reveal global trends characterizing systems-level drug action
Full Text Available The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS project is a large-scale coordinated effort to build a comprehensive systems biology reference resource. The goals of the program include the generation of a very large multidimensional data matrix and informatics and computational tools to integrate, analyze, and make the data readily accessible. LINCS data include genome-wide transcriptional signatures, biochemical protein binding profiles, cellular phenotypic response profiles and various other datasets for a wide range of cell model systems and molecular and genetic perturbations. Here we present a partial survey of this data facilitated by data standards and in particular a robust compound standardization workflow; we integrated several types of LINCS signatures and analyzed the results with a focus on mechanism of action and chemical compounds. We illustrate how kinase targets can be related to disease models and relevant drugs. We identified some fundamental trends that appear to link Kinome binding profiles and transcriptional signatures to chemical information and biochemical binding profiles to transcriptional responses independent of chemical similarity. To fill gaps in the datasets we developed and applied predictive models. The results can be interpreted at the systems level as demonstrated based on a large number of signaling pathways. We can identify clear global relationships, suggesting robustness of cellular responses to chemical perturbation. Overall, the results suggest that chemical similarity is a useful measure at the systems level, which would support phenotypic drug optimization efforts. With this study we demonstrate the potential of such integrated analysis approaches and suggest prioritizing further experiments to fill the gaps in the current data.
Full Text Available This study examines the effect of personal and work-related factors on job satisfaction based on a sample from the Czech Republic. The study, which was based on a questionnaire survey of 1,776 respondents in organizations in the Czech Republic, proposed a number of hypotheses related to demographic and organizational variables and tests using ANOVA. Results of the data analysis revealed similarities to findings in Western countries, in which men show higher job satisfaction than women. Age does not seem to have a significant effect on job satisfaction. There is low job satisfaction in public/governmental organizations and among young people entering the job market. It is suggested that it is necessary to develop a human resources strategy for the public/governmental sector that will not only increase its social prestige but also increase positive feelings among its employees. The need to better prepare undergraduates for the demands of the job market is also discussed.
Full Text Available This paper examined the effects of cognitive emotion regulation on employees’ job satisfaction. In this survey, Questionnaire and the questions were divided into two categories of cognitive emotion regulation and job satisfaction. To measure cognitive emotion regulation, including unadjusted emotion regulation strategies and adjusted strategies, 36 items questionnaire was used originally developed by Garnefski et al. (2001 [Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation, and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1311–1327.]. The questionnaires were distributed among 340 staff employee of the Islamic Republic of Iran Customs Administration. The results revealed that the adjusted cognitive emotion regulation strategies increase job satisfaction of employees. However, unadjusted cognitive emotion regulation strategies reduce employees' job satisfaction. Moreover, among adjusted emotion regulation strategies, put in perspective strategy did not have significant effect on job satisfaction and rumination, had no significant effect on job satisfaction, which was one of the unadjusted strategies of cognitive emotion regulation.
Sayyed Yaser Ebrahimian Jolodar
Full Text Available Because of the paramount importance of job satisfaction and due to its main consequences such as reduction of work absence and resignation, personnel promotion and society‟s health, and more importantly, its role in achievement of organization goals, this study aimed at investigating the effects of six social factors including personnel‟s belief, salary and benefits, participation in organizational decision-making, sense of job security, interaction with colleagues and meeting the basic needs of personnel on job satisfaction. The statistical population of this study was the personnel of Remedial Service Insurance Department in Sari and the questionnaire was distributed among them. The results showed that there is a significant and positive correlation among all these factors and they have meaningful effects on personnel job satisfaction based on multiple regression analysis. Furthermore, findings revealed that personnel‟s belief about their job has the most effects on job satisfaction.
Full Text Available Purpose: According to the Job Demands-Resources (JDR model, engagement and job satisfaction may be produce by two types of working conditions: job demands (i.e. role stress and job resources (i.e. self-efficacy. This study examines the role of role stress and work engagement as antecedents of job satisfaction in a sample of Spanish workers. Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised a sample of 435 Spanish workers. A cross sectional study was used to examine the relationship between role stress, work engagement and job satisfaction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaires. Findings and Originality/value: Hierarchical multiple regression models have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by role stress and work engagement. Results support JDR model by showing that positive outcomes, such as job satisfaction can be predicted by motivational process and job demands. Research limitations/implications: The cross-sectional design cannot evidence of causal relationships. This study relies on self-reports, which might increase the risk of common method variance. Practical implications: On a practical level, the JDR model provides a framework for understanding motivating workplaces and engaged and satisfied employees. Originality/value: The JDR model could be useful in designing strategies for which engaged employees may be advantageous to improving the quality of services, while at the same time increasing employees’ job satisfaction and well-being.
Sone, Miyuki; Mizunuma, Kimiyoshi; Nakajima, Yasuo; Yasunaga, Hideo; Ohtomo, Kuni
This study aimed to verify radiologists' demographics and job satisfaction in Japan and analyze factors affecting job satisfaction. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 7,491 eligible radiologists between April and June 2008. The questionnaire consisted of items concerning participants' demographics and job satisfaction. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to analyze the impact of practice environments on radiologists' overall job satisfaction. There were 3,986 (53%) valid responses. In 2008, 67.7% of radiologists reported being extremely or somewhat satisfied with their job. With regard to changes in job satisfaction over the previous 5 years, 45.8% felt much increased or somewhat increased satisfaction, whereas 18.8% felt somewhat decreased or much decreased. The significant factors associated with overall job satisfaction were annual income (p<0.01) and working at larger hospitals (500 or more beds) (p<0.01). Older age (p<0.01) and night duty (p<0.01) was significantly related to dissatisfaction. The main reasons for increasing job satisfaction over 5 years were interest and lifestyle, whereas the strongest reason for decreasing job satisfaction was workload. This survey revealed Japanese radiologists had a high level of job satisfaction. (author)
Sone, Miyuki; Mizunuma, Kimiyoshi; Nakajima, Yasuo; Yasunaga, Hideo; Ohtomo, Kuni
This study aimed to verify radiologists' demographics and job satisfaction in Japan and analyze factors affecting job satisfaction. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 7,491 eligible radiologists between April and June 2008. The questionnaire consisted of items concerning participants' demographics and job satisfaction. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to analyze the impact of practice environments on radiologists' overall job satisfaction. There were 3,986 (53 %) valid responses. In 2008, 67.7 % of radiologists reported being extremely or somewhat satisfied with their job. With regard to changes in job satisfaction over the previous 5 years, 45.8 % felt much increased or somewhat increased satisfaction, whereas 18.8 % felt somewhat decreased or much decreased. The significant factors associated with overall job satisfaction were annual income (p job satisfaction over 5 years were interest and lifestyle, whereas the strongest reason for decreasing job satisfaction was workload. This survey revealed Japanese radiologists had a high level of job satisfaction.
Nakagawa, Yuko; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori
This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, and demographic survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, decision latitude (β=0.107, p=0.001) and extrinsic reward (β=0.158, pjob performance while supervisor support (β=-0.102, p=0.002) was negatively and significantly associated with job performance. On the other hand, psychological demands or co-worker support was not significantly associated with job performance. These findings suggest that higher decision latitude and extrinsic reward enhance job performance among Japanese employees.
Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.
This thesis deals with online marketing trends. Its main goal is to define the latest online marketing trends, create a website with the free online marketing trends, and analyse their effectiveness. The theoretical part brings a thorough description of the latest online marketing trends. Moreover, it provides an insight into the latest trends in the website development. The chosen online marketing trends defined in the theoretical part are subsequently applied on a newly created website. All...
Full Text Available SMEs are the most dynamic sector of the economy, representing a key factor in employment growth. Although SMEs have been severely affected by the economic crisis from 2008, they continue to be a more and more important source of generating jobs, regardless of size class. Given the differentiated contribution of SMEs to job creation as a result of their heterogeneity, the article analyses the dynamics of staff in enterprises by size classes and activities of the national economy. The statistical analysis is followed by a SWOT analysis of policies and tools to support SMEs in creating jobs both with direct action - management, recruitment, training and indirectly action by addressing general business issues. Measures that support the economic growth of SMEs through internationalization, innovation and improved access to finance foster competitiveness and, implicitly, the creation of new jobs.
Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders
We study whether entrepreneurial spinoffs are important drivers of industry dynamics. More precisely, we investigate whether the quality of jobs in spinoff entrepreneurs are higher than for other entrepreneurs. We distinguish spinoff firms by different types and distinguish between growing...
Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia
Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...
Jonge, de J.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Peeters, M.C.W.; Noordam, H.
Background Research on emotional labour in health care work has not yet revealed under what conditions emotional job demands have an impact on employee health and well-being. There is a need for more theory to unveil the black box of emotional labour processes. Objectives To test the moderating role
Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p < 0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that job resources and job demands [F(1.474 = 4.004; F(1.474 = 4.166; p < 0.05] were statistically significant sources of variation in job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474 = 2.748; p < 0.05], as well as between job demands and personal resources [F(3.474 = 3.021; p < 0.05] had a significant impact on job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1 in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001 or low (p = 0.0157; 2 when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees. Med Pr 2013;64(2:217–225
Kayler, Z. E.; Nitzsche, K. N.; Gessler, A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Hoffmann, C.; Premke, K.; Ellerbrock, R.
Steep environmental gradients develop across the interface between terrestrial and aquatic domains that influence organic matter (OM) retention. In NE Germany, kettle holes are small water bodies found in high density across managed landscapes. Kettle hole water budgets are generally fed through precipitation and overland flow and are temporarily connected to groundwater resulting in distinct hydroperiods. We took advantage of the range of environmental conditions created by the fluctuating shoreline to investigate patterns of OM stability along transects spanning from hilltops to sediments within a single kettle hole. We physically and chemically separated OM fractions that are expected to be loosely bound, such as particulate organic matter, to those that are tightly bound, such as OM associated with mineral or metal surfaces. The study design allowed us to investigate stabilization processes at the aggregate, transect, and kettle hole catchment scale. At the aggregate scale, we analyzed soil characteristics (texture, pH, extractable Al, Fe, Ca) to contribute to our understanding of OM stabilization. At the transect scale, we compared isotopic trends in the different fractions against a simple Rayleigh distillation model to infer disruption of the transfer of material, for example erosion, by land management such as tillage or the addition of OM through fertilization. At the kettle hole catchment scale, we correlated our findings with plant productivity, landform properties, and soil wetness proxies. Aggregate scale patterns of OM 13C and 15N were fraction dependent; however, we observed a convergence in isotopic patterns with soil properties from OM of more stabilized fractions. At the transect scale, loosely bound fractions did not conform to the simple model, suggesting these fractions are more dynamic and influenced by land management. The stabilized fractions did follow the Rayleigh model, which implies that transfer processes play a larger role in these
Hjollund, N H; Kold Jensen, T; Bonde, Jens Peter
The association between fertility and job strain defined as high job demands and low job control has not previously been studied. A follow-up study was conducted with prospective collection of information on job strain among women, achievement of pregnancy, and potential confounding variables....
Full Text Available Education is an effective vehicle for producing the required skills to maintain economic growth. The benefits of education range from human to economic, social and cultural. In Pakistan, there is significant rise in the average level of education, but over time, more and more workers incapable to use their educational background on the job. Supply of labor may have outstripped the demand of labor in some professions, and high qualified peoples taking job on low positions. Such underemployment/overeducation has not been fully explored in Pakistan. The theme of paper is “underemployment symbolizes an inefficient usage of human resources and lost output for society”.The research is based on case study on clerical workers of SNGPL. By comparing their educational backgrounds with their nature of job, this paper examines the impact of overeducation on job satisfaction. Our results show that underemployment/overeducation is correlated with higher level of job dissatisfaction, reduced job involvement, impaired co-worker relationship, and more emphasis on future aspirations.
This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs
Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P
To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment support workers, using structured questionnaires adapted from well-established instruments. Job resources and age were positively associated with job satisfaction. Job demands and personality showed no significant direct associations with job satisfaction. Moderation analyses showed that for people with ID with high conscientiousness, enhanced job demands were associated with reduced job satisfaction, which was not the case for those with low conscientiousness. This study emphasizes the importance of job design.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the ethical climate on the organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction of Malaysian auditors. Using a survey questionnaire comprising instruments about the ethical climate, organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction, 263 usable responses were received. To achieve the objectives, mean scores, standard deviations, correlations and multiple regressions were performed. The study revealed that a significant positive influence of a caring ethical climate on professional and organizational commitment as well as job satisfaction existed. There was also a positive significant association between the law and code ethical climate and professional commitment. On the other hand, the study discovered that the instrumental ethical climate type had a significant negative relationship with organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A significant negative relationship was also revealed between the independent ethical climate type and organizational and professional commitment. A significant negative relationship between the rules ethical climate and job satisfaction was also discovered.
Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim
Inoue, T; Karima, R; Harada, K
The aim of this study was to examine how hospital patient-safety procedures affect the job satisfaction of hospital nurses. Additionally, we investigated the association between perceived autonomy and hospital patient-safety procedures and job satisfaction. Recently, measures for patient safety have been recognized as an essential requirement in hospitals. Hospital patient-safety procedures may enhance the job satisfaction of nurses by improving the quality of their work. However, such procedures may also decrease their job satisfaction by imposing excessive stress on nurses because they cannot make mistakes. The participants included 537 nurses at 10 private hospitals in Japan (The surveys were collected from March to July 2012). Factors related to hospital patient-safety procedures were demonstrated using factor analysis, and the associations between these factors and nurses' self-perceived autonomy and job satisfaction were examined using structural equation modelling. Five factors regarding hospital patient-safety procedures were extracted. Additionally, structural equation modelling revealed statistically significant associations between these factors and the nurses' self-perceived autonomy and job satisfaction. The findings showed that nurses' perceived autonomy of the workplace enhanced their job satisfaction and that their perceptions of hospital patient-safety procedures promoted their job satisfaction. However, some styles of chief nurses' leadership regarding patient safety restrict nurses' independent and autonomous decision-making and actions, resulting in a lowering of job satisfaction. This study demonstrated that hospital patient-safety procedures have ambiguous effects on nurses' job satisfaction. In particular, chief nurses' leadership relating to patient safety can have a positive or negative effect on nurses' job satisfaction. The findings indicated that hospital managers should demonstrate positive attitudes to improve patient safety for
Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.
The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…
Tooren, van den M.
In the field of Industrial and Organizational psychology, several job stress models have been developed that aim to explain the relation between job demands, job resources, and job strain. One of these job stress models is the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model. The aim of this thesis
Schmidt, Steven W.
As stand-alone concepts, job satisfaction and job training have each been researched extensively. However, encouraged by researchers who have found a myriad of effects of job training on employee behavior in the workplace, the concepts of job training and job satisfaction are being examined together. Results of many studies indicate that the…
Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M; Rahim, Sheikh Idris A; Abumadini, Mahdi S; Wosornu, Lade
Job satisfaction is a major determinant of job performance, manpower retention and employee well-being. To explore the state of job satisfaction among the academic staff of King Faisal University - Dammam (KFU-D), and detect the areas and groups at a higher risk of being dissatisfied. A fully-structured 5-option Likert-type Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ) composed of an evaluative item and eleven domains making a total of 46 items was used. It was distributed by internal mail to all the 340 academic staff, 248 of whom returned completed questionnaires (response rate = 72.9 %). The overall mean Job Satisfaction Rate (JSR) was 73.6 %. The highest JSR's were found in three domains ("Supervision", "Responsibility", and "Interpersonal Relationships"), and the lowest in four others ("Salary", "My Work Itself", "Working Conditions", and "Advancement"). The JSR was significantly lower among Saudi nationals, females, those below age 40, those from clinical medical and Dentistry departments. Multiple Regression identified six independent variables which conjointly explained 25 % of the variance in job satisfaction (p jobs, but there was significant dissatisfaction with several job-related aspects and demographic features. Appropriate interventions are indicated. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to monitor future trends.
Bergman, Peter N; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Johansson, Gun; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Aborg, Carl; Hallsten, Lennart; Lundberg, Ingvar
The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.
Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas
With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.
Mohamed Hossam El-Din KHALIFA
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between employee perception of equity and job satisfaction in the Egyptian private universities. Data were gathered using a face-to-face survey of 80 teaching staff members at three Egyptian universities. Findings revealed positive relationships between perceptions of equity, where a "motivator" was the outcome in the comparison, and job satisfaction. The study also revealed that there was no relationship between perceptions of equity and job satisfaction where a "hygiene factor" was the outcome in the comparison. This study is exploratory and findings are not conclusive. Its implications and limitations are discussed.
Park, Yujeong; Seo, Dong Gi; Park, Jaekook; Bettini, Elizabeth; Smith, Jamie
This study aims to explore the influences of personal, vocational, and job environment related factors that are associated with job satisfaction of individuals with disabilities in South Korea. Data for wage-based working employees from a nationwide survey were obtained, which resulted in a total number of 417 participants. The six hypotheses and mediation effects of personal and work related environmental factors were tested using the structural equation modeling drawn from existing research evidence. Results revealed that (a) life satisfaction and job related environments directly influenced job satisfaction; (b) the relationship between personal experience and job satisfaction was mediated by life satisfaction for both mild/moderate and severe/profound disabilities group; and (c) the mediating role of job environment between vocational preparedness and job satisfaction was only observed for individuals with mild/moderate disabilities. Summary of findings and implications for future research and practices are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners. Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners’ job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the job demands–resources (JD−R model and using work–family conflict (WFC as an intervening variable to study relationships between work characteristics (workload and supervisor support, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in 1,127 screeners at a European airport. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that (a supervisor support as a major job resource predicted job satisfaction among screeners; (b workload as a major job demand predicted their emotional exhaustion; and (c WFC proved to be a promising extension to the JD–R model that partially mediated the impact of supervisor support and workload on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Baeriswyl, Sophie; Krause, Andreas; Schwaninger, Adrian
The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners). Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners’ job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the job demands–resources (JD–R) model and using work–family conflict (WFC) as an intervening variable to study relationships between work characteristics (workload and supervisor support), emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in 1,127 screeners at a European airport. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that (a) supervisor support as a major job resource predicted job satisfaction among screeners; (b) workload as a major job demand predicted their emotional exhaustion; and (c) WFC proved to be a promising extension to the JD–R model that partially mediated the impact of supervisor support and workload on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27242581
Ward, M; Cowman, S
In recent years, mental health services across Europe have undergone major organizational change with a move from institutional to community care. In such a context, the impact of change on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses has received little attention in the literature. This paper reports on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses and data were collected in 2003. The population of qualified psychiatric nurses (n = 800) working in a defined geographical health board area was surveyed. Methodological triangulation with a between-methods approach was used in the study. Data were collected on job satisfaction using a questionnaire adopted from the Occupational Stress Indicator. A response rate of 346 (43%) was obtained. Focus groups were used to collect qualitative data. Factors influencing levels of job satisfaction predominantly related to the nurses work location. Other factors influencing job satisfaction included choice of work location, work routine, off duty/staff allocation arrangements, teamwork and working environment. The results of the study highlight to employers of psychiatric nurses the importance of work location, including the value of facilitating staff with choices in their working environment, which may influence the recruitment and retention of nurses in mental health services.
McNab, A; Stagni, F; Garcia, M Ubeda
We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously 'in the vacuum' rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.
Nie, Peng; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso
This study uses data from the 2012 China Labor Force Dynamics Survey and 2010–2012 China Family Panel Studies to investigate job satisfaction and job expectations, as well as the association between job satisfaction and job turnover by gender among employees aged 16–65. We find not only that job satisfaction levels are relatively low, with only 46% of workers explicitly satisfied, but also that worker expectations differ significantly from what their jobs actually provide. In particular, many...
Hetschko, Clemens; Chadi, Adrian
We investigate a crucial event for job satisfaction: changing the workplace. For representative German panel data, we show that the reason why the previous employment ended is strongly linked to the satisfaction with the new job. When workers initiate a change of employer, they experience relatively high job satisfaction, though only in the short-term. To test causality, we exploit plant closure as exogenous trigger of job switching and find no causal effect of job changes on job satisfaction...
Dina Maria LUT
On defining the connection between job motivation and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and work performance is still not complete agreement among experts, given the complexity of the phenomena studied. Over time, the relationship between job motivation and job satisfaction has been addressed in many ways in the organizational psychology. The issue of the connection between job satisfaction and work performance is also at least as controversial as the issues mentioned above with r...
Hoboubi, Naser; Choobineh, Alireza; Kamari Ghanavati, Fatemeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Akbar Hosseini, Ali
Background: Job stress and job satisfaction are important factors affecting workforce productivity. This study was carried out to investigate the job stress, job satisfaction, and workforce productivity levels, to examine the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on workforce productivity, and to identify factors associated with productivity decrement among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry. Methods: In this study, 125 randomly selected employees of an Iranian petrochemic...
The study was concerned with the identification of the job dimension underlying the job elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ ), Form B...The PAQ is a structured job analysis instrument consisting of 187 worker-oriented job elements which are divided into six a priori major divisions...The statistical procedure of principal components analysis was used to identify the job dimensions of the PAQ . Forty-five job dimensions were
Wong Yvonne; Rabeatul Husna Abdull Rahman; Choi Sang Long
This study examines the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance among the employees. Job satisfaction is being discussed in term of its nine facets: pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating procedures, co-workers, nature of works and communication. On the other hand, job performance is being viewed in the aspects of contextual performance and task performance. The result of the study found that the two variables (job satisfaction and job pe...
Pagés, Carmen; Madrigal, Lucía
The formality status of a job is the most widely used indicator of job quality in developing countries. However, a number of studies argue that, at least for some workers, the informality status may be driven by choice rather than exclusion. This paper uses job satisfaction data from three low-income countries (Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador) to assess whether informal jobs are less valued than formal jobs. The paper finds substantial differences in job satisfaction within different type...
Full Text Available While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.
Vantilborgh, Tim; Bidee, Jemima; Pepermans, Roland; Griep, Yannick; Hofmans, Joeri
While it has been shown that psychological contract breach leads to detrimental outcomes, relatively little is known about factors leading to perceptions of breach. We examine if job demands and resources predict breach perceptions. We argue that perceiving high demands elicits negative affect, while perceiving high resources stimulates positive affect. Positive and negative affect, in turn, influence the likelihood that psychological contract breaches are perceived. We conducted two experience sampling studies to test our hypotheses: the first using daily surveys in a sample of volunteers, the second using weekly surveys in samples of volunteers and paid employees. Our results confirm that job demands and resources are associated with negative and positive affect respectively. Mediation analyses revealed that people who experienced high job resources were less likely to report psychological contract breach, because they experienced high levels of positive affect. The mediating role of negative affect was more complex, as it increased the likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach, but only in the short-term.
Arceo-Gómez, Eva Olimpia
We develop an on-the-job search model in which immigrants search for jobs through formal channels or networks, and the quality of job offers differs across search methods. The model predicts networks unambiguously lead to a larger share of network jobs in job-to-job transitions, whereas the effect is ambiguous in unemployment-to-job transitions.
Li, Huanhuan; Shi, Ying; Li, Yuan; Xing, Zhuangjie; Wang, Shouqi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Meiling; Sun, Jiao
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize and analyse studies that explored the relationship between the psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of nurses. Nurse turnover is an important cause of staff shortage. Job satisfaction is a major predictor of nurse turnover and is connected to the psychological empowerment of nurses. This systematic review and meta-analysis is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. A total of 1,572 articles on psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were retrieved from PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science. The articles were written in English and published before or by April 2017. Studies on the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were summarized. The majority of the included studies revealed that psychological empowerment and job satisfaction are significantly correlated. Only two studies showed that the two factors are not significantly correlated. The result of this meta-analysis is consistent with the results of most studies. One study reported that psychological empowerment partially mediates the structural empowerment and job satisfaction of school health nurses. Two studies, however, did not find that the mediating role of psychological empowerment between structural empowerment and job satisfaction. The results of this review provided evidence for the importance of psychological empowerment for the job satisfaction of among nurses. Exploring the correlation between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction can provide guidelines and recommendation for the development of strategies to promote nurse retention and alleviate nursing shortage. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G
Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.
Sargsyan, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Campana, S; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Saiz, P; Schovancova, J; Tuckett, D
Monitoring of the large-scale data processing of the ATLAS experiment includes monitoring of production and user analysis jobs. The Experiment Dashboard provides a common job monitoring solution, which is shared by ATLAS and CMS experiments. This includes an accounting portal as well as real-time monitoring. Dashboard job monitoring for ATLAS combines information from PanDA job processing database, Production system database and monitoring information from jobs submitted through GANGA to Workload Management System (WMS) or local batch systems. Usage of Dashboard-based job monitoring applications will decrease load on the PanDA database and overcome scale limitations in PanDA monitoring caused by the short job rotation cycle in the PanDA database. Aggregation of the task/job metrics from different sources provides complete view of job processing activity in ATLAS scope.
to a few examples of the fate of Job in Jewish tradition and concerned with Scripture's role with respect to religious normativity, this article will be guided by the following question: How can The Book of Job maintain its role within Jewish tradition as a normative text? My reading suggests that The Book......Job's piety in The Book of Job is so ideal that it becomes problematic on two levels. First, it renders God a tyrant. Second, no one can fully identify with Job. Surely, we may suffer just as much as Job does and even feel that God is unjust, but no man can ever claim to be as pious as Job. Limited...... of Job in itself is not normative. Rather, it serves as a counterpoint up against which the reception and transformation of Jewish theology can unfold and as such The Book of Job exerts its function on Jewish religiosity....
Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D; Sargsyan, L; Schovancova, J
Monitoring of the large-scale data processing of the ATLAS experiment includes monitoring of production and user analysis jobs. The Experiment Dashboard provides a common job monitoring solution, which is shared by ATLAS and CMS experiments. This includes an accounting portal as well as real-time monitoring. Dashboard job monitoring for ATLAS combines information from the PanDA job processing database, Production system database and monitoring information from jobs submitted through GANGA to Workload Management System (WMS) or local batch systems. Usage of Dashboard-based job monitoring applications will decrease load on the PanDA database and overcome scale limitations in PanDA monitoring caused by the short job rotation cycle in the PanDA database. Aggregation of the task/job metrics from different sources provides complete view of job processing activity in ATLAS scope.
Results: Based on Pearson correlation coefficient, SI was significantly correlated with job performance among the employees. In addition, there was a significant correlation between internal locus of control and job performance; however, external locus of control did not exhibit any correlation with job performance. Furthermore, the results showed a significant relationship between SI components and job performance (P = 0.000. The results of the regression analysis revealed that all the components of SI were predictors of variables for job performance (R2 = 0.26. Conclusion: Considering the tests, it was revealed that there is a positive and meaningful relation between the internal control of attributional style and the elements of the SI with personnel job performance. However, based on the result of the regression with the fixed amount of 26 percent, it seems necessary to pay attention to other effective elements on the performance of personnel, except internal control and elements of SI.
Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control as amount of influence. Employed nurses in Denmark. We included a sub-sample of 6188 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort, which consisted of the nurses who participated in surveys in 1993, 1999 and 2009. A linear trend in weight gain was seen in nurses who were often busy in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0·003) or sustained low influence (P=0·02). For speed, no associations were found. Busyness, speed and influence differed in their relationship to subsequent weight gain. A decrease in job influence and a sustained burden of busyness were most strongly related to subsequent weight gain. Focus on job strain reduction and healthy diet is essential for public health.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences as one of the oldest and largest universities of medicine in Iran with 50 years history has more than 450 faculty members and 5000 students. This study is an attempt to find out the level of job satisfaction among Shiraz University ofMedical Sciences’ faculty members.Methods: In midterm of 2003-2004, data on job satisfaction level among 404 faculty members from all schools of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were collected. The translation of Spector’s job satisfaction score was used including 34 questions in 9 items of job satisfaction and each one based on Likert’s Scale with score an of 1-5. A question related to overall job satisfaction of faculty members was added.Results: Of all faculties,, 252 responded to the questionnaire and 70.1% expressed satisfaction in response the added question. The mean scores of job satisfaction in items of coworkers, work nature, supervision, management methods, academic relations, promotion, salary and suitable benefits were3.771, 3.265, 2.557, 2.454, 2.395, and 2.376 out of 5 respectively (F=223.8, p=0.0001. In the promotion item, the satisfaction of female faculty was lower than male subjects. The level of job satisfaction was not different between clinical faculty members of Medical School with or without private activity. The results of linear regression analysis between the items of job satisfaction revealed that reimbursement and fringe benefits could predict the overall job satisfaction (r2=0.70, p<0.01.Conclusion: As a whole, the faculty members of the university were satisfied with their jobs, but a correction in reimbursement, benefits and promotion regulations especially in lower academic ranks is needed to improve the level of job satisfaction in this group.Key words: JOB SATISFACTION, FACULTY MEMBER, BASIC AND CLINICAL DEPARTMENTS, FULLTIME, PART-TIME
Choi, Sang Long; Goh, Chin Fei; Adam, Muhammad Badrull Hisyam; Tan, Owee Kowang
Recent studies have revealed that nursing staff turnover remains a major problem in emerging economies. In particular, nursing staff turnover in Malaysia remains high due to a lack of job satisfaction. Despite a shortage of healthcare staff, the Malaysian government plans to create 181 000 new healthcare jobs by 2020 through the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP). This study investigated the causal relationships among perceived transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction among nurses and medical assistants in two selected large private and public hospitals in Malaysia. This study also explored the mediating effect of empowerment between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This study used a survey to collect data from 200 nursing staff, i.e., nurses and medical assistants, employed by a large private hospital and a public hospital in Malaysia. Respondents were asked to answer 5-point Likert scale questions regarding transformational leadership, employee empowerment, and job satisfaction. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the measurement models and to estimate parameters in a path model. Statistical analysis was performed to examine whether empowerment mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This analysis showed that empowerment mediated the effect of transformational leadership on the job satisfaction in nursing staff. Employee empowerment not only is indispensable for enhancing job satisfaction but also mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction among nursing staff. The results of this research contribute to the literature on job satisfaction in healthcare industries by enhancing the understanding of the influences of empowerment and transformational leadership on job satisfaction among nursing staff. This study offers important policy insight for healthcare managers who seek to increase job
Full Text Available Objectives: A casual relationship between temperament, job stress and depressive symptoms has not been established yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between job stress, temperament and depressive symptoms in female nurses at a Japanese general hospital. Material and Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among 706 nurses. We measured job stress, temperament, and depressive symptoms using the Brief-Job Stress Questionnaire, the TEMPS-A and a screening scale of items from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. In order to examine the causal relationship between the measures the stepwise multiple regression and path analyses were used. Results: Depressive symptoms were modestly correlated with job stress (γ = -0.23-0.30. Except for hyperthymic temperament measures, the correlations between depressive symptoms and temperament types were significant and moderate (γ = 0.36-0.50. Overtime, job control as well as depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.15, p < 0.05; β = 0.19, p < 0.01; β = 0.26, p < 0.001; β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Path-analysis revealed that depressive and cyclothymic types of temperament influenced depressive symptoms both directly (β = 0.67, p < 0.001 and indirectly via job stress (β = 0.35, p < 0.001 from temperament to job stress; β = 0.20, p < 0.05 from job stress to depressive symptoms. Irritable and anxious types of temperament and quantitative job overload did not contribute to the path-analytic model. Conclusions: Health care professionals should consider temperament, especially depressive and cyclothymic types, in order to help employees cope better with job stress factors. We need further research about the effective intervention to help employees better cope with their job stress.
Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel
be readily solved with continuous exogenous worker heterogene- ity, where high type workers (high outside options and productivity) earn higher wages in high type jobs and are hired at least as frequently to the better job types as low type workers (low outside options and productivity). Third, we...... a number of new theoretical results, which are essential for the empirical application of this type of model to matched employer-employee microdata. First, we o¤er a robust equilibrium concept in which there is a continu- ous dispersion of job productivities and wages. Second, we show that our model can...... of these results preserve the essential tractability of the baseline model with aggregate shocks. Therefore, we o¤er a parsimonious, general equilibrium framework in which to study the process by which the contin- uous dispersion of wages and productivities varies over the business cycle for a large population...
Alef, M. [KIT, Karlsruhe; Cass, T. [CERN; Keijser, J. J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam; McNab, A. [Manchester U.; Roiser, S. [CERN; Schwickerath, U. [CERN; Sfiligoi, I. [Fermilab
Within the HEPiX virtualization group and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid’s Machine/Job Features Task Force, a mechanism has been developed which provides access to detailed information about the current host and the current job to the job itself. This allows user payloads to access meta information, independent of the current batch system or virtual machine model. The information can be accessed either locally via the filesystem on a worker node, or remotely via HTTP(S) from a webserver. This paper describes the final version of the specification from 2016 which was published as an HEP Software Foundation technical note, and the design of the implementations of this version for batch and virtual machine platforms. We discuss early experiences with these implementations and how they can be exploited by experiment frameworks.
Full Text Available Managers’ psychosocial working conditions are important for managerial sustainability in the public sector. The job demands-resources (JD-R model is a widely applied and well-recognized framework for measuring psychosocial working conditions. However, there is still a need for methodological contributions including more objective as well as qualitative ways to assess these conditions. In this study, job demands and job resources as well as the balance between them was qualitatively and externally assessed for first-line human service managers using a work content analysis method. Conditions and actions were focused upon with an external perspective. Special attention was paid to concrete examples and consequences of work characteristics with predefined criteria and cut-off points to guide the assessments. The results reveal an imbalance for human service managers between high levels of job demands and the lack of job resources available to meet these demands. Work overload, conflicting and unclear goals and tasks, emotional demands, restricted control, and lack of supervisory and organizational support generally characterized the managerial assignment. The analysis provided concrete explanations of the current work strain in this group of employees, thereby giving both short-term and long-term possibilities for improvement of managerial work and sustainability.
Brandstätter, Veronika; Job, Veronika; Schulze, Beate
Person-environment fit has been identified as a key prerequisite for employee well-being. We investigated to what extent a misfit between motivational needs and supplies at the workplace affects two key health outcomes: burnout and physical symptoms. Individual needs (implicit affiliation and power motives) and environment supplies (motive specific job characteristics) were assessed in an online survey of full time employees (n = 97), using a picture story exercise measuring implicit motives and a scale listing affiliation and power related job characteristics. Outcomes were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a checklist of physical symptoms. We conducted polynomial regressions with response surface analysis. Results reveal that motivational incongruence with respect to the affiliation motive was related to high job burnout, while motivational incongruence concerning the power motive predicted increased physical symptoms. This was true for both those with a strong affiliation or power motive and low corresponding job characteristics and those with a weak affiliation or power motive and job characteristics demanding the respective motive. Results hint at potential interventions toward preventing or remedying a lack of needs-supply fit and reducing the risk of impairments of well-being.
Ng, Kok-Yee; Ang, Soon; Chan, Kim-Yin
The trait theory of leadership is advanced by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) leadership self-efficacy (LSE = leader's perceived capabilities to perform leader roles) in linking neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness and (b) the moderating role of job demands and job autonomy in influencing the mediation. Using K. J. Preacher, D. D. Rucker, and A. F. Hayes' (2007) moderated mediation framework, the authors tested the model (over a 2-year period) with matched data from 394 military leaders and their supervisors. Results showed that LSE mediated the relationships for neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness with leader effectiveness. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed that LSE mediated the relationships for (a) all 3 personality variables for only those leaders with low job demands; (b) neuroticism and conscientiousness for only those leaders with high job autonomy; and (c) extraversion, regardless of a leader's level of job autonomy. Results underscore the importance of accounting for leaders' situational contexts when examining the relationships between personality, LSE, and effectiveness.
Full Text Available Person-environment fit has been identified as a key prerequisite for employee well-being. We investigated to what extent a misfit between motivational needs and supplies at the workplace affects two key health outcomes: burnout and physical symptoms. Individual needs (implicit affiliation and power motives and environment supplies (motive specific job characteristics were assessed in an online survey of full time employees (n = 97, using a picture story exercise measuring implicit motives and a scale listing affiliation and power related job characteristics. Outcomes were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a checklist of physical symptoms. We conducted polynomial regressions with response surface analysis. Results reveal that motivational incongruence with respect to the affiliation motive was related to high job burnout, while motivational incongruence concerning the power motive predicted increased physical symptoms. This was true for both those with a strong affiliation or power motive and low corresponding job characteristics and those with a weak affiliation or power motive and job characteristics demanding the respective motive. Results hint at potential interventions towards preventing or remedying a lack of needs-supply fit and reducing the risk of impairments of well-being.
We discuss two main job creation statistics often used by solar advocates to support increased solar deployment. Whilst overall solar technologies have a tendency to be labor-intensive, we find that the jobs per gigawatt hour statistic is relatively mis-leading as it has a tendency to reward technologies that have a low capacity factor. Ultimately the lower the capacity factor the more amplified the solar job creation number. - Highlights: → Solar generation is labor intensive. → Jobs per gigawatt hour statistics are often mis-leading. → The lower the capacity factor the higher the jobs per gigawatt. → Reliance on job creation statistics may lead to inefficient deployment.
Croucher, Matt, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Economics, L. William Seidman Research Institute, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 873806, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)
We discuss two main job creation statistics often used by solar advocates to support increased solar deployment. Whilst overall solar technologies have a tendency to be labor-intensive, we find that the jobs per gigawatt hour statistic is relatively mis-leading as it has a tendency to reward technologies that have a low capacity factor. Ultimately the lower the capacity factor the more amplified the solar job creation number. - Highlights: > Solar generation is labor intensive. > Jobs per gigawatt hour statistics are often mis-leading. > The lower the capacity factor the higher the jobs per gigawatt. > Reliance on job creation statistics may lead to inefficient deployment.
Niken Dwi Wijayanti
Full Text Available Multiple job holding - i.e., a phenomenon in which workers have more than one job has become a trend in developed countries and is beginning to occur in developing countries, such as Indonesia. Existing studies provide the evidence that wages are a significant and consistent criterion to determine multiple job decisions. Wage increases in the primary job will decrease the incentive to have a second job as the reservation wage increases. However, we do not find any study which links the current multiple job decision with the past multiple job status. In this study, we use data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS in 2007 and 2014 to investigate whether or not a wage increase in the primary job reduces the incentive to have a second job in 2014, controlling for the multiple job status in 2007. Using logit and multinomial logit estimations, we find that the wage increase in the primary job decreases the probability of having a second job in 2014.
ARINA, ARTEN RISKI
This study entitled ‘Coherence in Steve Jobs Speech' Coherence is a study about relation of meaning between sentence in the text, and coherence is one of the seven norms in discourse analysis. This study is attempt to identify, classify, and analyze the relation of meaning of coherence contained in the speech. The data collected, the writer reads the speech of Steve Jobs for several times deep understanding. The writer used the theory of Alba-Juez and supported the theory by Van Dijk the theo...
Kennes, John; le Maire, Daniel
We develop a new directed search model of a frictional labor market with a continuum of heterogenous workers and firms. We estimate two versions of the model - auction and price posting - using Danish data on wages and productivities. Assuming heterogenous workers with no comparative advantage, we...... the job ladder, how the identification of assortative matching is fundamentally different in directed and undirected search models, how our theory accounts for business cycle facts related to inter-temporal changes in job offer distributions, and how our model could also be used to identify...
Shama Mazahir, Afsheen Masood, Rubab Musarrat
The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...
Afsheen Masood; Rubab Musarrat; Shama Mazahir
The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among...
Andrew J Parker
Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.
Stolove, Catherine A; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bonanno, George A
Job loss has been associated with the emergence of depression and subsequent long-term diminished labor market participation. In a sample of 500 adults who lost their jobs, trajectories of depression severity from four years before to four years after job loss were identified using Latent Growth Mixture Modeling. Rates of unemployment by trajectory were compared at two and four years following job loss. Four trajectories demonstrated optimal model fit including resilience (72%), chronic pre-to-post job loss depression (9%), emergent depression (10%), and remitting depression (9%). Logistic regression comparing reemployment status by class while controlling for age, gender, and education at two-years post job loss revealed no significant differences by class. An identical logistic regression on four-year reemployment revealed significant differences by class with post-hoc analyses revealing emergent depression resulting in a 33.3% reemployment rate compared to resilient individuals (60.4%) together indicating that depression affects reemployment rather than lack of reemployment causing the emergence of depression. The emergence of depression following job loss significantly increases the risk of continued unemployment. However, observed high rates of resilience with resulting downstream benefits in reemployment mitigates significant concern about the effects of wide spread unemployment on ongoing global economic recovery following the Great Recession. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muratsubaki, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tomomi; Li, Jue; Fukudo, Shin; Munakata, Masanori
Karoshi, or death due to overwork, has now become a serious social problem in China. Worsening of cardiovascular risks by stress might initiate karoshi. Many studies have examined the relationship between job stress and obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but less evidence exists for dyslipidemia like hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia (hypo-HDL). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between job stress and hypo-HDL of Chinese workers in Shanghai. We studied 2219 Chinese workers in Shanghai, who participated in the Japan-China cooperative study for the prevention of karoshi. A questionnaire was administered to examine the lifestyle characteristics, job category, weekly working hours, and job stress. Job demand and job control were quantified using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health questionnaire. Modified job strain measure was defined by the combination of low job control and high demand. Hypo-HDL was defined as plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of <1.04 mmol/L (40 mg/dl). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for hypo-HDL as a dependent variable. Modified job strain was not related to hypo-HDL either in men or women. In men, multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) for having hypo-HDL was significantly higher in the lowest job control tertile compared with the highest job control tertile (OR = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.87, P = 0.034). In the same model, a similar trend was observed for women, but it did not reach a statistically significant level (OR = 1.51, 95% CI, 0.88-2.56, P = 0.132). A low level of job control but not modified job strain was significantly related to higher prevalence of hypo-HDL of Chinese workers in Shanghai.
Boschman, Julitta S; van der Molen, Henk F; van Duivenbooden, Cor; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions undertaken by them within the scope of a job
Sluiter Judith K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS group (n = 206 with that of a control (WHS group (n = 206. The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the
Bacopanos, Eleni; Edgar, Susan
Objective Previous studies have highlighted the short career intentions and high attrition rates of physiotherapists from the profession. The aim of the present study was to examine the job satisfaction and attrition rates of early career physiotherapists graduating from one Western Australian university. Methods A self-administered online survey was conducted of 157 Notre Dame physiotherapy graduates (2006-2012), incorporating a job satisfaction rating scale. Results Results showed that lowered job satisfaction was related to working in the cardiorespiratory area of physiotherapy and working in multiple jobs since graduation. The majority of graduates did not predict a long-term career in physiotherapy, highlighting a lack of career progression and limited scope of practice as influential factors. Conclusions Job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists varies across different clinical areas of practice related to several factors, including challenge and flexibility. New roles in the profession, including extended scope roles, may impact on the future job satisfaction of physiotherapists. Further studies are needed to explore the effect of these roles on workforce trends, including attrition rates. What is known about the topic? Physiotherapists predict careers of 10 years or less on entry into the profession. No previous studies have explored the individual factors influencing job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists across different clinical settings. What does this paper add? This study highlights specific factors influencing the job satisfaction of early career physiotherapists, including clinical area of practice. Physiotherapists working in the cardiorespiratory area were less satisfied, as were physiotherapists undertaking multiple positions since graduation. What are the implications for practitioners? This study informs employers and workforce planners on the factors affecting job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists. In addition
Full Text Available In this study Ajzen' theory (1991 of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650. In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment variables to build a model of predictors for both criterion variables. Financial pressure, intention to seek employment, job seek - self - efficacy, job - seek controllability, marriage and job - seek attitude predicted job - seeking behavior, while attitude toward job - seeking, subjective norm, job - seek self - efficacy and financial pressure predicted job seek - intention. Results are discussed in light of theory of planned behavior, current research of job - seeking behavior and recommendations are made for practice.
Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Walls, Melanie
This study investigated job demands and job control as predictors of safety citizenship role definition, that is, employees' role orientation toward improving workplace safety. Data from a survey of 334 trackside workers were framed in the context of R. A. Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model. High job demands were negatively related to safety citizenship role definition, whereas high job control was positively related to this construct. Safety citizenship role definition of employees with high job control was buffered from the influence of high job demands, unlike that of employees with low job control, for whom high job demands were related to lower levels of the construct. Employees facing both high job demands and low job control were less likely than other employees to view improving safety as part of their role orientation. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Shen, Winny; Allen, Tammy D.; Zhang, Haiyan
Summary The job demands–resources model is a dominant theoretical framework that describes the influence of job demands and job resources on employee strain. Recent research has highlighted that the effects of job demands on strain vary across cultures, but similar work has not explored whether this is true for job resources. Given that societal characteristics can influence individuals' cognitive structures and, to a lesser extent, values in a culture, we address this gap in the literature and argue that individuals' strain in reaction to job resources may differ across cultures. Specifically, we theorize that the societal cultural dimensions of individualism–collectivism and uncertainty avoidance shape individual‐level job resource–strain relationships, as they dictate which types of resources (i.e., individual vs. group preference‐oriented and uncertainty‐reducing vs. not) are more likely to be valued, used, or effective in combating strain within a culture. Results revealed that societal individualism–collectivism and uncertainty avoidance independently moderated the relationships between certain job resources (i.e., job control, participation in decision making, and clear goals and performance feedback) and strain (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intentions). This study expands our understanding of the cross‐cultural specificity versus generalizability of the job demands–resources model. PMID:29780207
Jang, Seulki; Shen, Winny; Allen, Tammy D; Zhang, Haiyan
The job demands-resources model is a dominant theoretical framework that describes the influence of job demands and job resources on employee strain. Recent research has highlighted that the effects of job demands on strain vary across cultures, but similar work has not explored whether this is true for job resources. Given that societal characteristics can influence individuals' cognitive structures and, to a lesser extent, values in a culture, we address this gap in the literature and argue that individuals' strain in reaction to job resources may differ across cultures. Specifically, we theorize that the societal cultural dimensions of individualism-collectivism and uncertainty avoidance shape individual-level job resource-strain relationships, as they dictate which types of resources (i.e., individual vs. group preference-oriented and uncertainty-reducing vs. not) are more likely to be valued, used, or effective in combating strain within a culture. Results revealed that societal individualism-collectivism and uncertainty avoidance independently moderated the relationships between certain job resources (i.e., job control, participation in decision making, and clear goals and performance feedback) and strain (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intentions). This study expands our understanding of the cross-cultural specificity versus generalizability of the job demands-resources model.
Full Text Available Background and aims Job burnout is one of the syndromes which is known by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and deterioration of job performance. Due to the negative impact this syndrome on patients, employees, and organization in healthcare settings this issue has drawn attention of many researchers to itself during recent years. Despite the large number of publications in this area however, limited attention has been paid to the factors influencing job burnout. The goal of the present study was to determine the level of job burnout and impacts of job rotation on nurses burnout in Ayatollah Kashani hospital , Tehran. Methods In order to do this research a historical cohort study was done to determine degree of job burnout among nurses with and without job rotation in Ayatollah Kashani Hospital in Tehran. The number for nurses with job rotation was (n=59 and without job rotation (n=29. Data was collected via a self-report ques tionnaire. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was used to assess the job burnout of the subjects. Results The overall findings revealed that nurses had low level of emotional exhaustion, low level of depersonalization and middle level of declining in personal accomplishment. No significant difference was observed between the job burnout of the tow group of nurses - with and without rotation. In comparing the level of job burnout among the nurses of different wards (i.e. between wards comparison the findings revealed that nurses of the emergency ward, had higher rate of depersonalization (P=0.012. Conclusion The nurses burnout showed to be at the medium level with respect to the personal accomplishment subscale, which seems to require a managerial intervention in this hospital. Apparently job rotation as it is done currently has no significant impact on the nurses’ job burnout in Ayatollah Kashani hospital and these researchers suggest that other alternative approaches to be consider to be used to improve
Maietta, Heather N.
Searching for employment during this recession-battered market has proven difficult for many new college graduates. As unemployment trends and hiring outlooks continue their slow resurgence, the competition for jobs remains fierce, and the students are feeling the pressure. In this article, the author describes Nichols College's new, web-based…
Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.
As a result of concern about the apparent increase in collective radiation dose to workers at nuclear power plants, this project will provide information to industry in preplanning for radiation protection during maintenance operations. This study identifies Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) repetitive jobs, and respective collective dose trends and dose reduction techniques. 3 references, 2 tables
Wheeler, James S; Ngo, Tien; Cecil, Jasmine; Borja-Hart, Nancy
Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certifications are credentials viewed by academic pharmacy communities and professional organizations as positive assets for those seeking pharmacist jobs; however, a key question merits further investigation: do these views match employer expectations? The primary objective of this study was to identify the most common qualifications employers require as stated in job advertisements. Pharmacist job postings from the aggregate jobs website Indeed.com were evaluated for the 20 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Search criteria included: pharmacist, full-time, and within a 50-mile radius of the metropolitan area. Positions were excluded if they were not pharmacist specific, did not require a pharmacy degree, were part-time, or were temporary. Required and preferred qualifications were collected in the following categories: practice type, experience needed, training, certification, and desired skills. Six hundred and eleven of 1356 postings met inclusion criteria. Positions were classified as community (113), health-system (264), industry (149), academia (9), or other (76). Four hundred and six (66.4%) required a minimum of a Bachelor's of Pharmacy degree, while 174 (28.4%) required a Doctor of Pharmacy degree. Experience was required for 467 positions (range of 6 months to 14 years). Postgraduate training was required for 73 positions (66 residency/7 fellowship). One job required a Master's degree, type unspecified. BPS certifications were required for 7 positions (1.1%) and preferred for 22 positions (3.6%). Certifications and skills most required by employers were verbal and written skills (248), Microsoft Office proficiency (93), immunization certifications (51), and Basic Life Support/Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation certifications (37). Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certification were not significant factors in the qualification criteria for the positions identified. The qualifications
Hoboubi, Naser; Choobineh, Alireza; Kamari Ghanavati, Fatemeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Akbar Hosseini, Ali
Job stress and job satisfaction are important factors affecting workforce productivity. This study was carried out to investigate the job stress, job satisfaction, and workforce productivity levels, to examine the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on workforce productivity, and to identify factors associated with productivity decrement among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry. In this study, 125 randomly selected employees of an Iranian petrochemical company participated. The data were collected using the demographic questionnaire, Osipow occupational stress questionnaire to investigate the level of job stress, Job Descriptive Index to examine job satisfaction, and Hersey and Goldsmith questionnaire to investigate productivity in the study population. The levels of employees' perceived job stress and job satisfaction were moderate-high and moderate, respectively. Also, their productivity was evaluated as moderate. Although the relationship between job stress and productivity indices was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between job satisfaction and productivity indices was statistically significant. The regression modeling demonstrated that productivity was significantly associated with shift schedule, the second and the third dimensions of job stress (role insufficiency and role ambiguity), and the second dimension of job satisfaction (supervision). Corrective measures are necessary to improve the shift work system. "Role insufficiency" and "role ambiguity" should be improved and supervisor support must be increased to reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction and productivity.
Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.
Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1)
Activation theory suggests that intermediate rather than low or high levels of quantitative job demands benefit job performance and job satisfaction among managers. Using an equity theory framework, I hypothesize that perceptions of effort-reward fairness moderate these inverted U-shaped
Hsu, Hsiu-Chin; Wang, Pao-Yu; Lin, Li-Hui; Shih, Whei-Mei; Lin, Mei-Hsiang
This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between professional commitment and job satisfaction among nurses. A total of 132 registered nurses were recruited from a hospital in northern Taiwan. A self-reported structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings revealed significant differences among nurses in willingness to make an effort and their marital status, appraisal in continuing their careers, job level, and goals and values related to working shifts. Significant differences were found between inner satisfaction and work sector and marital status. Nurses' professional commitment was strongly related to job satisfaction; aspects of professional commitment explained 32% of the variance in job satisfaction. Study results may inform health care institutions about the importance of nurses' job satisfaction and professional commitment so hospital administration can improve these aspects of organizational environment. © 2015 The Author(s).
Barrick, Murray R; Stewart, Greg L; Piotrowski, Mike
Research shows consistent relations between personality and job performance. In this study the authors develop and test a model of job performance that examines the mediating effects of cognitive-motivational work orientations on the relationships between personality traits and performance in a sales job (N = 164). Covariance structural analyses revealed proximal motivational variables to be influential mechanisms through which distal personality traits affect job performance. Specifically, striving for status and accomplishment mediate the effects of Extraversion and Conscientiousness on ratings of sales performance. Although Agreeableness was related to striving for communion, neither Agreeableness nor communion striving was related to success in this sales job. The importance of the proposed motivational orientations model is discussed.
G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); A. van Dijk (Bram); J. de Koning (Jaap)
textabstractThe paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and labour market transitions. Using a multinomial logit model, a model is estimated on the basis of individual data in which transitions are explained from individual characteristics, job characteristics, dissatisfaction
understanding the concept of job insecurity as represented by two core ... commitment as a unidimensional construct based on employees' emotional .... outcomes such as increased job satisfaction, organisational commitment, motivation.
Urbanek, Steve J.
A county personnel department undertook reclassification of all positions by collecting and using job analysis data to rewrite job descriptions. External pay equity and validated selection procedures resulted with only a modest increase in payroll costs. (SK)
... improves your efficiency and keeps you on the job. Your podiatric physician and surgeon is a specialist ... 20814 FP-65M-4/96 2014 ON-THE-JOB FOOT HEALTH YOUR PODIATRIC PHYSICIAN TALKS ABOUT ON- ...
Munch, Jakob Roland
This paper studies the effects of international outsourcing on individual transitions out of jobs in the Danish manufacturing sector for the period 1992-2001. Estimation of a single risk duration model, where no distinction is made between different types of transitions out of the job, shows...... that outsourcing has a clear significant positive effect on the job separation rate, but the effect corresponds to a limited number of lost jobs. A competing risks duration model that distinguishes between job-to-job and job-to-unemployment transitions is also estimated. Outsourcing is found to increase...... the unemployment risk of workers and in particular low-skilled workers, but again the quantitative impact is not dramatic. Outsourcing also increases the job change hazard rate and mostly so for high-skilled workers...
Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie; Buhl, Rita
Anmeldelse af bog om det norske fag Utdanningsvalg - inspiration til arbejde med uddannelse og job......Anmeldelse af bog om det norske fag Utdanningsvalg - inspiration til arbejde med uddannelse og job...
Lenz, Janet G.; Reardon, Robert C.
Suggests ways that career counselors can use Loughead and Black's "job change thermostat" in working with clients. Program and policy issues include service delivery settings, crisis-oriented versus long-term client needs, individual versus group approaches, staff competence, and availability of resources. (34 references) (SK)
Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.
The Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women in October 1970 adopted a statement of principles that views childbirth and complications of pregnancy, for all job-related purposes, as temporary disabilities that should be treated as such under any health insurance, temporary disability insurance, or sick leave plan of an employer, union, or…
Grossman, Richard; Daneker, Gail
This document is a review of the work being done in the area of energy and the economy. The authors believe that increased energy efficiency, plus transition to a solar economy, can actually lead to a more stable economy and to more jobs than the large-scale system scenario, which corporate energy interests, many industrialists, and some…
Describes various energy-related projects and legislation, with new job estimates, to improve or design buildings and methods to reduce the annual growth in energy consumption by reducing gasoline consumption, cutting oil imports, increasing coal production, insulating buildings, and installing solar energy devices. (MF)
Hersch, Joni; Stone, Joe A.
A comparison of data from a Eugene, Oregon, worker survey with data from the Quality of Employment Survey found that union job dissatisfaction arises from factors independent of wages and working conditions. Union perspectives of working conditions do not accurately reflect objective measures of conditions. The dissatisfaction expressed has real…
Lantz, Mahlon L.
Describes responses of principals, teachers, and parents to a job sharing program instituted to reduce impact of staff layoffs. Principals were satisfied overall; teachers believed that students benefited from interaction with two instructors; and a majority of parents felt likewise. (TE)
Dumitrescu, Catalin [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Nowack, Andreas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Padhi, Sanjay [University of California San Diego (United States); Sarkar, Subir, E-mail: email@example.com [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)
This paper presents a web-based Job Monitoring framework for individual Grid sites that allows users to follow in detail their jobs in quasi-real time. The framework consists of several independent components : (a) a set of sensors that run on the site CE and worker nodes and update a database, (b) a simple yet extensible web services framework and (c) an Ajax powered web interface having a look-and-feel and control similar to a desktop application. The monitoring framework supports LSF, Condor and PBS-like batch systems. This is one of the first monitoring systems where an X.509 authenticated web interface can be seamlessly accessed by both end-users and site administrators. While a site administrator has access to all the possible information, a user can only view the jobs for the Virtual Organizations (VO) he/she is a part of. The monitoring framework design supports several possible deployment scenarios. For a site running a supported batch system, the system may be deployed as a whole, or existing site sensors can be adapted and reused with the web services components. A site may even prefer to build the web server independently and choose to use only the Ajax powered web interface. Finally, the system is being used to monitor a glideinWMS instance. This broadens the scope significantly, allowing it to monitor jobs over multiple sites.
BARSKY, LILLIAN; TERLIN, ROSE
DETAILED INFORMATION IS PROVIDED ON A VARIETY OF PROFESSIONS FOR WOMEN. EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS, JOB OPPORTUNITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES, ESTIMATED SALARIES, AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADVANCEMENT ARE DISCUSSED IN SUCH OCCUPATIONS AS ACCOUNTANT, HOME ECONOMIST, ENGINEER, OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST, NURSE, SCIENTIST, REAL ESTATE AGENT AND BROKER,…
Job prospects in mining, metal-extraction, steel, and refining industries are depressed, but technological discoveries are opening up new fields for metallurgical engineers. Enrollment/employment opportunities and salaries in these areas are discussed a well as the roles of foreign competition, plastics applications, and ceramics research and…
The Private Sector Initiative Program (PSIP), Title VII of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), is planned to put employment and training back in private business through grants to employers for on-the-job training programs, with private industry councils as links between business and industry and the federal government. (MF)
Dumitrescu, Catalin; Nowack, Andreas; Padhi, Sanjay; Sarkar, Subir
This paper presents a web-based Job Monitoring framework for individual Grid sites that allows users to follow in detail their jobs in quasi-real time. The framework consists of several independent components: (a) a set of sensors that run on the site CE and worker nodes and update a database, (b) a simple yet extensible web services framework and (c) an Ajax powered web interface having a look-and-feel and control similar to a desktop application. The monitoring framework supports LSF, Condor and PBS-like batch systems. This is one of the first monitoring systems where an X.509 authenticated web interface can be seamlessly accessed by both end-users and site administrators. While a site administrator has access to all the possible information, a user can only view the jobs for the Virtual Organizations (VO) he/she is a part of. The monitoring framework design supports several possible deployment scenarios. For a site running a supported batch system, the system may be deployed as a whole, or existing site sensors can be adapted and reused with the web services components. A site may even prefer to build the web server independently and choose to use only the Ajax powered web interface. Finally, the system is being used to monitor a glideinWMS instance. This broadens the scope significantly, allowing it to monitor jobs over multiple sites.
Using the 1957-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women's job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others' pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women's occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions.
Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I
Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....
Only 181 people have used the Clearing House set up to find jobs for redundant London nurses. And almost a quarter have rejected the posts which it says are suitable for them, with 21 per cent of employers turning down candidates selected by the initiative.
Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…
Roch, Christine H.; Sai, Na
We examine whether working conditions in charter schools and traditional public schools lead to different levels of job satisfaction among teachers. We distinguish among charter schools managed by for-profit education management organizations (EMOs) and non-profit charter management organizations (CMOs) and stand-alone charter schools. We…
Adrian Pais shared his views on the way he got a job in the Netherlands after completing his bachelor and Ph.D degrees in electrical and electronics engineering. He interacted with two consultants from TNO, a Netherlands-based research and consultancy organization that provided technical support and
Moore, Andrew; Donnelly, Andrew
What should authorities establish as the job of ethics committees and review boards? Two answers are: (1) review of proposals for consistency with the duly established and applicable code and (2) review of proposals for ethical acceptability. The present paper argues that these two jobs come apart in principle and in practice. On grounds of practicality, publicity and separation of powers, it argues that the relevant authorities do better to establish code-consistency review and not ethics-consistency review. It also rebuts bad code and independence arguments for the opposite view. It then argues that authorities at present variously specify both code-consistency and ethics-consistency jobs, but most are also unclear on this issue. The paper then argues that they should reform the job of review boards and ethics committees, by clearly establishing code-consistency review and disestablishing ethics-consistency review, and through related reform of the basic orientation, focus, name, and expertise profile of these bodies and their actions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I
The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...
School Planning & Management, 2002
Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)
This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.
... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...
Déry, Johanne; Clarke, Sean P; D'Amour, Danielle; Blais, Régis
While professional nursing, like other health professions, has a recognized educational base and a legal scope of practice that is remarkably consistent across societies, there are important variations even within the same institution or organization in the extent to which professional nurses engage in the full range of activities for which they are qualified. There has been limited study of enacted (actual) scope of nursing practice (ESOP) or of its impacts on nurse job outcomes, such as job satisfaction. The aim of this study is to measure ESOP, as well as its predictors and impact on job satisfaction, in a specialty university-affiliated tertiary referral center in one of the few remaining jurisdictions outside the United States that continue to educate registered nurses at multiple educational levels. This was a correlational cross-sectional design using structural equation modeling. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 301 registered nurses holding permanent positions in specific clinical areas for 6 months or longer in a pediatric hospital in the province of Quebec, Canada. ESOP or actual scope of practice was low-on average, nurses applied the range of skills within their theoretical scopes of practice only occasionally or "less than frequently" in their daily work (3.21 out of a possible 6 points). ESOP was strongly related to decision latitude (β = 0.319; p = .012), role ambiguity (β = 0.297; p = .011), and role overload (β = 0.201; p = .012). The personal characteristics that exerted the greatest direct influence on ESOP were education level (β = 0.128; p = .015) and growth need strength (β = 0.151; p = .008). Results also showed that ESOP exerts a direct positive influence on nurses' job satisfaction (β = 0.118; p = .006). Structural equation modeling analyses revealed a good fit of the data to the hypothesized conceptual model (χ²/df ratio index = 1.68, root mean square error of approximation = 0
I use Swedish establishment-level panel data to test Bertola and Rogerson’s (1997) hypothesis of a positive relation between the degree of wage compression and job reallocation. Results indicate that the effect of wage compression on job turnover is positive and significant in the manufacturing sector. The wage compression effect is stronger on job destruction than on job creation, consistent with downward wage rigidity. Further results include a strong positive relationship between the fract...
Using a new construct, Job Embeddedness (JE), from the business management literature, this study examines the effects of JE on Job Performace (JP) and Costumer Satisfaction (CS) at PT. Bayer Indonesia. Samples from the company at PT Bayer Indonesia were collected by mailing a questionnaire survey to those who agreed to participate.The results of this study indicate that the following variables have a significant impact on Job Embeddedness Fit, Links, Sacrifice, Job Performance...
PUBLISHED In this paper, I examine whether and to which degree the quality of work and employment differs between men and women and how these gender differences are shaped by societal beliefs about `gender equality.? Using data from the 2004 wave of the European Social Survey, I compare the jobs of men and women across a variety of measures of perceived job quality in 26 countries. Key findings are that job quality is gendered: Jobs of men are typically characterized by hig...
Reiner-Benaim, Anat; Grabarnick, Anna; Shmueli, Edi
Separating the short jobs from the long is a known technique to improve scheduling performance. In this paper we describe a method we developed for accurately predicting the runtimes classes of the jobs to enable this separation. Our method uses the fact that the runtimes can be represented as a mixture of overlapping Gaussian distributions, in order to train a CART classifier to provide the prediction. The threshold that separates the short jobs from the long jobs is determined during the ev...
Linden, Dimitri; Pelt, Dirk; Dunkel, Curtis; Born, Marise
markdownabstractJob Performance: The term job performance can either refer to the objective or subjective outcomes one achieves in a specific job (e.g., the profit of a sales persons, the number of publications of a scientist, the number of successful operations of a surgeon) or to work-related activities (e.g., writing an article, conducting specific surgical acts). In the majority of research on this topic, job performance as an outcome is used. Personnel selection: Personnel selection refe...
The objective of this study is to find out the level of job satisfaction in Company Teija Jousi Viikarit. One intention is to find out what the factors affecting employees’ job satisfaction are and how to increase the job satisfaction within these fields. Another intention is to provide for the case company a complete job satisfaction survey package, which they can use continuously to keep their employee satisfaction as high as possible. The theoretical framework was based on the factors of j...
The Internet has fundamentally changed the way workers and firms are matched on the job market. Compared to newspapers and other traditional employment resources, online job boards presumably lead to better matches by providing a wider choice of job advertisements and more sophisticated methods for finding suitable vacancies. This study investigates the association of online job search and matching quality using individual-level data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). My results sho...
"This article examines the incidence of [job-related] transfers in Malaysia. The retrospective migration data from the Malaysia Family Life Survey [conducted in 1976-1977] are used to demonstrate that transfers comprise 18 percent of all migration in the country and that there has been a rise in the incidence of transfers over a 35 year period. Factors underlying this trend are outlined. Furthermore, significant differences in age, educational attainment and other characteristics between transferees and other types of migrants are identified and their implications discussed." excerpt
The business trends and life style of humans are changing rapidly due to globalization and it visibly affects the work environment and employee’s attitude towards the work as the needs and desires of human being are changing too. In such circumstance, it is essential to have motivated team to survive in the market is vital agenda for the firms, where Posti Oyj is not an exception. It has become a challenge for HR officials to study about job satisfaction and motivation including factors affec...
Federici, Roger A.
The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual…
Swider, Brian W.; Boswell, Wendy R.; Zimmerman, Ryan D.
This study examined factors that may help explain under what conditions employee job search effort may most strongly (or weakly) predict subsequent turnover. As predicted, the job search-turnover relationship was stronger when employees had lower levels of job embeddedness and job satisfaction and higher levels of available alternatives. These…
Evers, Arnoud; Van der Heijden, Béatrice; Kreijns, Karel; Vermeulen, Marjan
Building upon previous research that focused on the relationships between job demands, job resources, and employee psychological well-being, this longitudinal research makes a unique contribution by relating job demands and job resources to teachers’ professional development (TPD) at work and
Suandi, Turiman; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Othman, Zulfadli
This research aims at finding out the relationship between Organizational Climate, job stress and job performance among State Education Department (JPN) officers . The focus of the research is to determine the job performance of state education department officers, level of job stress among the officers, level of connection between organizational…
... with their pay and promotion opportunities. However, they were found to be satisfied with the type of work they carry out daily. The study concludes that job satisfaction has a significant influence on job performance of teacher librarians. Keywords: job satisfaction, job performance, teacher librarians, employees satisfaction ...
Jung, Jisun; Shin, Jung Cheol
The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of administrative staff's job competency on their job satisfaction in a Korean research university. We conceptualized job satisfaction into three subcomponents: satisfaction in the job field, in the workplace, and with the actual task. In the regression analysis, we included demographics, inner…