Waning, Brenda; Maddix, Jason; Tripodis, Yorghos; Laing, Richard; Leufkens, Hubert Gm; Gokhale, Manjusha
A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI) designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI) private pharmacies located in the region. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70%) medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57%) medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13%) medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30%) medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74%) competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47%) decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26%) increasing in price. The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the potential to leverage medicine price competition as a means
Leufkens Hubert GM
Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI private pharmacies located in the region. Methods We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Results Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70% medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57% medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13% medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30% medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74% competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47% decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26% increasing in price. Conclusions The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the
Scott, Mollie Ashe; Kiser, Stephanie; Park, Irene; Grandy, Rebecca; Joyner, Pamela U
An innovative certificate program aimed at expanding the rural pharmacy workforce, increasing the number of pharmacists with expertise in rural practice, and improving healthcare outcomes in rural North Carolina is described. Predicted shortages of primary care physicians and closures of critical access hospitals are expected to worsen existing health disparities. Experiential education in schools and colleges of pharmacy primarily takes place in academic medical centers and, unlike experiential education in medical schools, rarely emphasizes the provision of patient care in rural U.S. communities, where chronic diseases are prevalent and many residents struggle with poverty and poor access to healthcare. To help address these issues, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy developed the 3-year Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program. The program curriculum includes 4 seminar courses, interprofessional education and interaction with medical students, embedding of each pharmacy student into a specific rural community for the duration of training, longitudinal ambulatory care practice experiences, community engagement initiatives, leadership training, development and implementation of a population health project, and 5 pharmacy practice experiences in rural settings. The Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program at UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy seeks to transform rural pharmacy practice by creating a pipeline of rural pharmacy leaders and teaching a unique skillset that will be beneficial to healthcare systems, communities, and patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Peterson, G M; Fitzmaurice, K D; Rasiah, R L; Kruup, H
The shortage of community and hospital pharmacists is particularly acute in rural and remote areas of Australia. Pharmacy students, in particular, as those who may be able to alleviate this shortage, need to be made more aware of the challenges and rewards of rural pharmacy practice. A marketing tool was developed to promote rural and remote pharmacy practice as a career option. A DVD was produced from interviews with health professionals working in rural and remote areas of Australia. This DVD will complement current rural practical placements, which have been incorporated into the curriculum of Australian schools of pharmacy. Interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals from areas in Tasmania, Northern Queensland and the Northern Territory. Interviewees included pharmacists, graduate pharmacists, pharmacy students, aboriginal health workers and a general practitioner. Each of the interviewees was able to provide personal accounts of experiences in rural and remote healthcare, and roles and opportunities for pharmacists. A final draft of the DVD was shown to University of Tasmania students to assess the impact and quality of the production. A number of common themes arose from interviewing and these were subsequently converted into five key chapters of the DVD - Lifestyle, Belonging, Diversity, Indigenous Health and 'Give it a go'. The final DVD, produced from over 15 h of footage, runs for 35 min. Students reported positive feedback on both the technical quality and the information contained within the DVD; 37% of students who viewed the DVD felt that it increased their awareness of what rural pharmacy has to offer. The rural pharmacy, 'Enjoy the Lifestyle' DVD can be used to increase awareness of rural and remote pharmacy practice to students and other pharmacists, and complements other pharmacy workforce strategies for rural and remote areas of Australia. It could also be a useful approach for adaptation in other countries.
Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...
Nicholas E. Hagemeier
Full Text Available Purpose: Practice-based research networks (PBRN seek to shorten the gap between research and application in primary patient care settings. Inclusion of community pharmacies in primary care PBRNs is relatively unexplored. Such a PBRN model could improve care coordination and community-based research, especially in rural and underserved areas. The objectives of this study were to: 1 evaluate rural Appalachian community pharmacy key informants’ perceptions of PBRNs and practice-based research; 2 explore key informants’ perceptions of perceived applicability of practice-based research domains; and 3 explore pharmacy key informant interest in PBRN participation. Methods: The sample consisted of community pharmacies within city limits of all Appalachian Research Network (AppNET PBRN communities in South Central Appalachia. A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from November 2013 to February 2014. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between key informant and practice characteristics, and PBRN interest and perceptions. Findings: A 47.8% response rate was obtained. Most key informants (88% were very or somewhat interested in participating in AppNET. Enrichment of patient care (82.8%, improved relationships with providers in the community (75.9%, and professional development opportunities (69.0% were perceived by more than two-thirds of respondents to be very beneficial outcomes of PBRN participation. Respondents ranked time constraints (63% and workflow disruptions (20% as the biggest barriers to PBRN participation. Conclusion: Key informants in rural Appalachian community pharmacies indicated interest in PBRN participation. Integration of community pharmacies into existing rural PBRNs could advance community level care coordination and promote improved health outcomes in rural and underserved areas. Type: Original Research
Full Text Available Recently, a part of healthcare services has been assigned to the private sector to increase the quality of medical services, increase patient satisfaction and reduce costs. In this regard, the outsourcing approach has been significantly considered for pharmaceutical services provided by healthcare centers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of outsourced pharmacies of rural healthcare centers on service quality using structural equations modelling. The methodology used was descriptive using correlation by structural equations modelling. The studied population included those patients who provided their medicines from pharmacies of rural healthcare centers in Abhar and Soltanieh counties. The samples included 384 of these patients. Data was collected by outsourcing and service quality questionnaires. A structural equation modelling was used to analyze data by LISREAL software. Results indicated a positive significant effect of outsourced pharmacies of rural healthcare centers on quality of tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. findings emphasize the role of outsourcing on quality of services. Outsourced pharmacies of rural healthcare centers of Abhar and Soltanieh counties lead to improved service quality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals
Waning, Brenda; Maddix, Jason; Soucy, Lyne
Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007). Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative
Bigbee, Jeri L.; Abood, Richard; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Maderas, Nicole Monastersky; Foster, Diana Greene; Ravnan, Susan
Context: Timely access to emergency contraception (EC) has emerged as a major public health effort in the prevention of unintended pregnancies. The recent FDA decision to allow over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception for adult women presents important rural health implications. American women, especially those living in rural and…
Cochran, Gerald T; Engel, Rafael J; Hruschak, Valerie J; Tarter, Ralph E
Opioid misuse imposes a disproportionately heavy burden on individuals living in rural areas. Community pharmacy has the potential to expand and coordinate with health professionals to identify and intervene with those who misuse opioids. Rural and urban community pharmacy patients were recruited in this pilot project to describe and compare patterns of opioid misuse. We administered a health screening survey in 4 community pharmacies among patients filling opioid medications. Univariate statistics were used to assess differences in health characteristics and opioid medication misuse behaviors between rural and urban respondents. Multivariable statistics were used to identify risk factors associated with rural and urban opioid misuse. A total of 333 participants completed the survey. Participants in rural settings had poorer overall health, higher pain levels, lower education, and a higher rate of unemployment compared to patients in urban pharmacies. Rural respondents with illicit drug use (adjustable odds ratio [aOR]: 14.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.16-95.38), posttraumatic stress disorder (aOR: 5.44, 95% CI = 1.52-19.50), and ≤high school education (aOR: 6.68, 95% CI = 1.06-42.21) had increased risk for opioid misuse. Community pharmacy represents a promising resource for potential identification of opioid misuse, particularly in rural communities. Continued research must extend these findings and work to establish collaborative services in rural settings.
Saini, Bandana; Filipovska, Julija; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Taylor, Susan; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol
To compare the effect of a pharmacist-delivered rural asthma management service (RAMS) on health outcomes for people with asthma in a rural/regional area with 'standard care' delivered through community pharmacies. A parallel group controlled repeated measures study. Community pharmacies in Central West New South Wales. Standardised protocols and resources based on national asthma management guidelines, delivered by specially trained community pharmacists. Patients visited the pharmacy at baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months after baseline in the intervention group and at baseline plus 6 months after baseline in the control group. The intervention pharmacists (n = 12) were trained to deliver the RAMS model, while control pharmacists (n = 8) provided standard asthma care to their recruited patients. Fifty-one and 39 patients were recruited by intervention and control pharmacists. Asthma severity score which was a composite score based on recency, frequency and severity of asthma symptoms, and asthma history. Data compared at the final visit between groups indicated that the RAMS patient group demonstrated a significant reduction in the asthma severity scores (7.9 +/- 2.6 versus 10.4 +/- 2.6, P < 0.001); a reduction in the risk of non-adherence to medication scores (1.6 +/- 0.7 versus 2.3 +/- 1.1, P < 0.001); and an increase in the proportion of patients owning a written action plan (50% versus 23%, P = 0.04). These results indicated that the community pharmacy-based RAMS model can improve asthma outcomes for patients in rural settings, and similar models for asthma and other chronic diseases should be tested rigorously and adopted in rural primary care practice.
Wijesinghe, P R; Jayakody, R L; De A Seneviratne, R
To evaluate the compliance of private pharmacies to good pharmacy practice (GPP) in an urban and rural district in Sri Lanka and identify deficiencies with a view to improving supply of safe and effective drugs to consumers. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used to determine the number of pharmacies that need to be studied and the threshold limit of defective elements. An inspection of 20 pharmacies in the urban and all 18 pharmacies in the rural district was carried out using a structured checklist. Compliance to seven subsystems of GPP was studied. Storage of drugs, maintenance of cold chain, dispensing and documentation were comprehensively substandard in both districts. Individual items of supervision in registration, physical environment and order of the pharmacy were also found to be substandard in both districts. This study shows that the LQAS method can be used to identify inadequate pharmacy services in the community as a whole. There was poor compliance to GPP by the private pharmacies in both districts. There are concerns about the quality of drugs and the safety of private pharmacy services to the community. Some of the deficiencies could be easily corrected by educating the pharmacists and authorised officers, and more effective and streamlined supervision.
Kooienga, Sarah; Singh, Reshmi L
Electronic prescribing (ERx) is the ability for prescriber to send a digital prescription directly to a pharmacist through a dedicated secure network. A number of federally funded incentives such as the health information technology for economic and clinical health (HITECH) and Meaningful Use standards have led to ERx implementation. ERx is an integral part of primary care practice and today most community pharmacies are enabled to accept e-prescriptions. Little is known about the experience of rural pharmacists, primary care providers and patients regarding e-prescribing. This paper reports on the results of ERx from their perspectives. The findings are a portion of a larger qualitative descriptive study focused on the meaning of Meaningful Use in remote rural communities. One remote rural community in the Pacific Northwest was used for this research endeavor. Explore understandings of e-prescribing from both pharmacist and primary care provider perspective. Explore patients' understandings and experiences of e-prescribing. The conceptual model for this research was the Ecological Transactional Model. This model informed the research design, interview questions and analysis. A qualitative descriptive methodology - focused ethnography was used for this study. Six key informant interviews, 14 patient interviews and 15 hours of participant observation provided the data. Data analysis occurred collectively between a social pharmacy researcher, a primary care nurse practitioner-researcher and pharmacy graduate students. The research qualitatively identified contextual understandings and dimensions of ERx in this setting. Based on a focused ethnographic methodology, contextual understandings of rurality and role identity, both pharmacist and primary care provider, were explored. Perspectives on ERx of patients, clinic manager and RN staff were also elicited. Three dimensions of ERx were identified - technological, structural and communication. The structural
Berger, Elisabeth J; Jazayeri, Darius; Sauveur, Marcel; Manasse, Jean Joel; Plancher, Inel; Fiefe, Marquise; Laurat, Guerline; Joseph, Samahel; Kempton, Kathryn; Fraser, Hamish S F
Managing the stock and supply of medication is essential for the provision of health care, especially in resource poor areas of the world. We have developed an innovative, web-based stock management system to support nine clinics in rural Haiti. Building on our experience with a web-based EMR system for our HIV patients, we developed a comprehensive stock tracking system that is modeled on the appearance of standardized WHO stock cards. The system allows pharmacy staff at all clinics to enter stock levels and also to request drugs and track shipments. Use of the system over the last 2 years has increased rapidly and we now track 450 products supporting care for 1.78 million patient visits annually. Over the last year drug stockouts have fallen from 2.6% to 1.1% and 97% of stock requests delivered were shipped within 1 day. We are now setting up this system in our clinics in rural Rwanda.
Daniela Ruxandra Andrei
Full Text Available Research on sustainable tourism involves developing an appropriate framework to highlight the interdependences of economic, social and environmental systems. The interdependence is based on the entropy of the system while respecting the principle of holism and diversity of rural tourism sustainability. In this context, sustainability in general and rural tourism in particular can be considered a complex system of development, which in some ways can be studied by statistical and econometric methods that allow the analysis of the interdependences between the variables of rural tourism at county level and at the level of rural communities. Conducting such studies involves identifying the rural communities where rural tourism has reached significant levels. Based on this consideration, this paper aims to identify the development regions and counties of Romania where the trends of development of rural tourism are significantly above the average recorded at country level, as a first step towards particular studies of sustainability in rural communities.
Keast, Shellie L; Jacobs, Elgene; Harrison, Donald; Farmer, Kevin; Thompson, David
There is growing concern over increasingly limited access to local health care, including pharmacies, for rural citizens of the United States. Although geographically distant from most competitors, rural pharmacies may still struggle to generate an acceptable profit to remain economically viable. Therefore, a method for calculating the economic viability for a community pharmacy to recruit a potential new owner to assume the entrepreneurial risk is an important issue to consider when evaluating rural pharmacy access. The primary objective of this study was to use a modified break-even analysis to predict the future financial potential of the current pharmacy business to attract a new owner. The secondary objective was to forecast a risk level for a Nebraska county to sustain the number of pharmacies in the country beyond current ownership. This research used data provided by pharmacies that responded to a Nebraska Medicaid cost of dispensing (COD) survey in addition to data from the US Census Bureau, US Office of Management and Budget, and the Nebraska State Board of Pharmacy. Break-even analysis was used to determine the point where the prescription volume of the pharmacy not only covered the variable and fixed costs but also maintained a reasonable profit to attract new ownership. Counties were classified into 3 risk levels based on the projected available prescription volume and the number of pharmacies in each county. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the risk levels to determine the impact of variance in projected available prescription volume on the projected future outlook for the pharmacies in each county. Regression analysis of responses to the COD survey indicated that the annual break-even prescription volume ranged from 44,790 to 49,246 prescriptions per pharmacy per annum. The number of rural Nebraska pharmacies was projected to decline from 126 to 78. The number of counties in Nebraska without a single pharmacy was projected to increase from 19 to
Luciana Tarbes Mattana Saturnino
Full Text Available The 2002 Brazilian Curricular Lines established a new curriculum for Pharmacy Programs, including amplified information about the Unified Health System (SUS. Following this, some Colleges have implemented a Rural Internship (RI discipline, as a way to promote: a adequate information on the SUS, and b students' interaction with pharmaceutical assistance. In this study we analyzed the perceptions of students enrolled in the Rural Internship program of the undergraduate Pharmacy Program at the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Eight students participated in this study and their perceptions and ideas were obtained by focus groups, both before and after the RI. This information was analyzed by content analysis. The students had a fragmented, distorted view on assistance, before as well as after taking the RI. Nevertheless, the RI provided students with a view of the professional realities and difficulties routinely faced by pharmacists in the public health system. The RI course of the Pharmacy Programs was viewed as an opportunity to improve the professional work within the SUS.As Diretrizes Curriculares de 2002 implantaram um novo currículo para o Curso de Farmácia, trazendo como propósito a aprendizagem para o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Para atender a esta demanda, algumas Faculdades têm implantado a disciplina de Internato Rural (IR como forma de viabilizar o ensino para o SUS e a interação do aluno com a assistência farmacêutica. Este trabalho analisa a concepção de alunos do IR do Curso de Farmácia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais sobre a assistência farmacêutica e sobre a atividade do profissional farmacêutico no SUS. A coleta das informações foi realizada por meio da técnica do grupo focal antes e após o IR. Para a análise dos discursos foi utilizada a técnica da análise de conteúdo. Participaram do estudo oito estudantes. Observou-se que os alunos apresentavam uma visão fragmentada sobre a assist
Full Text Available Substantial complementary medicines (CAM use is reported worldwide. Australian consumers use CAM for health maintenance, minor self-limiting disease states, and also for chronic conditions. The increasing use of CAM has required pharmacists to become increasingly more knowledgeable about CAM and the ethics of CAM recommendation. When the first Australian non-metropolitan pharmacy program was started at Charles Sturt University, in 1997, it was decided to incorporate two innovative courses to assist rurally educated students to engage with health consumers who expect pharmacists to be able to assist them with CAM. This discussion traces and reflects on the development, implementation and current situation of the Complementary Medicines for Pharmacy course. Over time, this course has evolved from a final year elective with a focus on familiarization to a mandated course with a phytomedicine focus to an integrated topic in final year with a focus on evidence, quality of evidence and professional decision-making demonstrated in a reflective professional portfolio. Of potentially greater importance, however, has been the introduction of complementary medicines as a topic in every year of the course with the goal of facilitating effective professional engagement with health consumers.
Leia M. Minaker
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with morbidity and mortality. The retail food environment influences food and beverage purchasing and consumption. This study assesses the impact of a community pharmacy’s removal of sweet beverages on overall community sales of carbonated soft drinks (CSD in a rural setting. We also examined whether the pharmacy intervention affected CSD sales in the town’s other food stores. Methods Weekly CSD sales data were acquired from the three food retailers in the town of Baddeck, Nova Scotia (January 1, 2013 to May 8, 2015, n = 123 weeks. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA analysis was used to analyse the interrupted time series data and estimate the impact of the pharmacy intervention (September 11, 2014 on overall CSD sales at the community level. Data were analysed in 2015. Results Before the intervention, the pharmacy accounted for approximately 6 % of CSD sales in the community. After the intervention, declines in total weekly average community CSD sales were not statistically significantly. CSD sales at the other food stores did not increase after the pharmacy intervention. Conclusions This study was among the first to examine the impact of a restrictive retail food environment intervention, and found a non-significant decline in CSD sales at the community level. It is the first study to examine a retail food environment intervention in a community pharmacy. Pharmacies may have an important role to play in creating healthy retail food environments.
% of those diagnosed with COPD were from regional areas. Conclusion: A brief community pharmacy-based COPD case-finding service utilizing the ISQ, LFT and GP referral is feasible and may lead to identification and diagnosis of a substantial number of people with COPD. This might be an important strategy for reducing the burden of COPD, particularly for those living in rural locations. Keywords: COPD, community pharmacy, case finding, case detection, screening
Fathima, Mariam; Saini, Bandana; Foster, Juliet M; Armour, Carol L
Case finding of patients at risk of COPD by community pharmacists could identify a substantial number of people with undiagnosed COPD, but little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of pharmacy-based COPD case finding using microspirometry. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of COPD case-finding service provided by community pharmacists, utilizing a combination of risk assessment questionnaire and microspirometry. A 6-month service was conducted in 21 community pharmacies in Australia. Pharmacists trained in COPD case finding, including lung function test (LFT), invited their patients aged ≥35 years with a history of smoking and/or respiratory symptoms to participate. High-risk patients were identified via a COPD risk assessment questionnaire (Initial Screening Questionnaire [ISQ]) and underwent LFT. Pharmacists referred patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV 6 ) ratio 3 indicating high COPD risk. Of the 157 patients who were able to complete LFT, 61 (39%) had an FEV 1 /FEV 6 ratio of 3) were at a significantly higher risk of an FEV 1 /FEV 6 ratio of strategy for reducing the burden of COPD, particularly for those living in rural locations.
Background Inequity in health workforce distribution has been a national concern of the Thai health service for decades. The government has launched various policies to increase the distribution of health workforces to rural areas. However, little is known regarding the attitudes of health workers and the factors influencing their decision to work in rural areas. This study aimed to explore the current attitudes of new medical, dental and pharmacy graduates as well as determine the linkage between their characteristics and the preference for working in rural areas. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using self-administered questionnaires, with a total of 1,225 medical, dental and pharmacy graduates. They were participants of the meeting arranged by the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) on 1–2 April 2012. Descriptive statistics using mean and percentage, and inferential statistics using logistic regression with marginal effects, were applied for data analysis. Results There were 754 doctors (44.4%), 203 dentists (42.6%) and 268 pharmacists (83.8%) enrolled in the survey. Graduates from all professions had positive views towards working in rural areas. Approximately 22% of doctors, 31% of dentists and 52% of pharmacists selected ‘close proximity to hometown’ as the most important reason for workplace selection. The multivariable analysis showed a variation in attributes associated with the tendency to work in rural areas across professions. In case of doctors, special track graduates had a 10% higher tendency to prefer rural work than those recruited through the national entrance examination. Conclusions The majority of graduates chose to work in community hospitals, and attitudes towards rural work were quite positive. In-depth analysis found that factors influencing their choice varied between professions. Special track recruitment positively influenced the selection of rural workplaces among new doctors attending the MOPH annual meeting for
Sankaranarayanan, Jayashri; Sallach, Rory E
This pilot study explores the patient-centered demand for mobile phone-based health (mobile health [m-health]) services in the rural United States by documenting rural patients' access to mobile phones and patients' willingness to receive m-health services. An anonymous institutional review board-approved survey was completed by patients visiting two rural pharmacies in Nebraska from August to October 2011. Patients who volunteered to complete the survey provided their demographic data, disease state information, health status, mobile phone access, and willingness to receive (in terms of using and giving time to) m-health services. The majority of the 24 survey respondents were 19-40 years old (52%), female (88%), married (63%), with excellent to very good health status (63%), with no comorbidities (83%), with ≤$100 monthly medication expenses (80%), with private insurance (78%), living within 5 miles of their pharmacy (71%), and reporting that m-health services are important to them (75%; 12/16). Approximately 95%, 81%, 73%, and 55% of respondents reported access to a mobile phone, voice mails, text messaging, and mobile phone applications, respectively. Of the respondents, 65%, 57%, 52%, and 48% were willing to receive prerecorded messages for appointment reminders from the doctor, disease information, medication use/self-care information, and symptom monitoring information, respectively. In total, 70%, 63%, 61%, 54%, and 50% were willing to receive prerecorded messages from the pharmacist containing contact requests, new/refill prescription reminders, information on medication problems, reviewing/monitoring of medication use, and medication self-management/preventive screenings/immunizations, respectively. Of 44% (7/16) respondents willing to give time for m-health services, 83% were willing to give 15 min, and 17% were willing to give 30 min every month. By demonstrating rural patients' demand for m-health (including pharmacy) services, this is one of the
Fathima, Mariam; Saini, Bandana; Foster, Juliet M; Armour, Carol L
Mariam Fathima,1 Bandana Saini,1,2 Juliet M Foster,1 Carol L Armour1,3 1Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Medical School, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, 3Central Sydney Area Health Service, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background and objective: Case finding of patients at risk of COPD by community pharmacists could identify a substantial number of people with undiagnosed COPD, but little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of pharmacy-based COPD case fin...
Full Text Available Abstract The importance of health workforce provision has gained significance and is now considered one of the most pressing issues worldwide, across all health professions. Against this background, the objectives of the work presented here were to systematically explore and identify contemporary issues surrounding expansion of the global pharmacy workforce in order to assist the International Pharmaceutical Federation working group on the workforce. International peer and non-peer-reviewed literature published between January 1998 and February 2008 was analysed. Articles were collated by performing searches of appropriate databases and reference lists of relevant articles; in addition, key informants were contacted. Information that met specific quality standards and pertained to the pharmacy workforce was extracted to matrices and assigned an evidence grade. Sixty-nine papers were identified for inclusion (48 peer reviewed and 21 non-peer-reviewed. Evaluation of evidence revealed the global pharmacy workforce to be composed of increasing numbers of females who were working fewer hours; this decreased their overall full-time equivalent contribution to the workforce, compared to male pharmacists. Distribution of pharmacists was uneven with respect to location (urban/rural, less-developed/more-developed countries and work sector (private/public. Graduates showed a preference for completing pre-registration training near where they studied as an undergraduate; this was of considerable importance to rural areas. Increases in the number of pharmacy student enrolments and pharmacy schools occurred alongside an expansion in the number and roles of pharmacy technicians. Increased international awareness and support existed for the certification, registration and regulation of pharmacy technicians and accreditation of training courses. The most common factors adding to the demand for pharmacists were increased feminization, clinical governance measures
Tan, Amy Cw; Emmerton, Lynne M; Hattingh, Laetitia; La Caze, Adam
revealed that their sessional employment model increased access to pharmacist-mediated medication management support in rural hospitals. The contracting arrangements and scope of services may be evaluated and adapted in other rural hospitals.
Full Text Available To evaluate the status of community pharmacies, their staff, and practices toward dispensing antibiotics.Cross-sectional, prospective.Community pharmacies in two districts of central Nepal, from March 2016 to May 2016.A systematic random sampling approach was adopted to sample 161 community pharmacies. Data on the registration status of pharmacies, qualification or training of dispensing staff, and the practice of dispensing antibiotics were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Face to face interviews were carried out by a previously trained interviewer. Data were analyzed for descriptive and inferential statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics 21.Among 161 community pharmacies, 25% were not registered and most of them were located in rural areas. It was typical (66.5% to dispense antibiotics without prescription and most (91.4% of the staffs involved in dispensing were non-pharmacists. Furthermore, the study revealed common practices of replacing one brand of antibiotic with other brands (66%, dispensing incomplete courses of antibiotics (73%, and not giving any advice regarding antibiotic use (39% or completion of a full course of therapy (80%. There were significant (p < 0.001 relationships between the location of pharmacies (rural vs urban and the qualifications of the pharmacy staff.Dispensing antibiotics without prescription and by non-pharmacists are common in this region. The study also found several issues regarding the irrational use of antibiotics. Thus, there is an urgent need to address these issues and promote the informed use of antibiotics.
Dam, van F.; Heins, S.; Elbersen, B.S.
Dutch rural areas have changed into a post-modern countryside and have become marketable commodities. The demand for rural space and rural amenities has increased, with concomitant tensions on the rural housing market, tensions which are enhanced by the restrictive spatial policy in Dutch rural
... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...
Tanmoy Gangopadhyay; Ananya Mandal; Sonai Mandal; Bishan Basu; Tamoghna Maiti; Abhijit Das; Soumitra Mandal; Sekhar Mandal
Context: Newly started government sponsored pharmacies providing discounts have been available to the public at the medical college hospitals in West Bengal. Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the drug prescribing trends from the prescriptions at such a pharmacy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: The study was a prospective cross-sectional study that spanned for a period of 1-month from 1 to 31 August 2015. Prescriptions were reviewed and analyzed using the World Health Org...
Law, Michael R; Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S
Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients' access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46.
Kiani, Behzad; Bagheri, Nasser; Tara, Ahmad; Hoseini, Benyamin; Tabesh, Hamed; Tara, Mahmood
Poor access to haemodialysis facilities is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. This study investigated factors affecting revealed access to the haemodialysis facilities considering patients living in rural and urban areas without any haemodialysis facility (Group A) and those living urban areas with haemodialysis facilities (Group B). This study is based on selfreported Actual Access Time (AAT) to referred haemodialysis facilities and other information regarding travel to haemodialysis facilities from patients. All significant variables on univariate analysis were entered into a univariate general linear model in order to identify factors associated with AAT. Both spatial (driving time and distance) and non-spatial factors (sex, income level, caregivers, transportation mode, education level, ethnicity and personal vehicle ownership) influenced the revealed access identified in Group A. The non-spatial factors for Group B patients were the same as for Group A, but no spatial factor was identified in Group B. It was found that accessibility is strongly underestimated when driving time is chosen as accessibility measure to haemodialysis facilities. Analysis of revealed access determinants provides policymakers with an appropriate decision base for making appropriate decisions and finding solutions to decrease the access time for patients under haemodialysis therapy. Driving time alone is not a good proxy for measuring access to haemodialysis facilities as there are many other potential obstacles, such as women's special travel problems, poor other transportation possibilities, ethnicity disparities, low education levels, low caregiver status and low-income.
Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee
Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.
Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.
Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…
Robles, Janie; Gutierrez, Ashley; Seifert, Charles F
Childhood obesity continues to be a problem. Children in rural populations are more likely to be overweight or obese and a lack of resources in those areas may contribute to this problem. We aimed to assess the impact of a pilot pharmacy health-care professional out-of-school time vigorous physical activity and nutrition education program on fourth and fifth graders in a rural Texas community. We conducted a prospective 12-week cohort study from August to November 2012. Thirty-three children, aged 8-11 years, in Bailey County, Texas, were enrolled in the study. Body mass index, body mass index percentile, blood pressure, waist circumference, and a diet preferences and activities knowledge survey were obtained at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Study participants completed a twice weekly physical activity and nutrition education program with exercise over weeks 1-4 with no intervention during weeks 5-12. Thirty-one (94%) of the 33 children, predominately Hispanic girls, completed the program. Body mass index (-0.30 (95% confidence interval, -0.44 to -0.17); P = Positive survey results at 3 months indicated a decrease in fried/sweet foods; increase in exercise; decreases in video games and computer use; and a change in knowledge regarding the selection of the most healthy food group servings per day. In this pharmacy health-care directed pilot study, participants had a reduction of body mass index, body mass index percentile, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and improvement in certain survey results at the end of 12 weeks despite no further intervention after 4 weeks.
Gosling, Laura; Sparks, Tim H; Araya, Yoseph; Harvey, Martin; Ansine, Janice
Hedges are both ecologically and culturally important and are a distinctive feature of the British landscape. However the overall length of hedges across Great Britain is decreasing. Current challenges in studying hedges relate to the dominance of research on rural, as opposed to urban, hedges, and their variability and geographical breadth. To help address these challenges and to educate the public on the importance of hedge habitats for wildlife, in 2010 the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme coordinated a hedge-focused citizen science survey. Results from 2891 surveys were analysed. Woody plant species differed significantly between urban and rural areas. Beech, Holly, Ivy, Laurel, Privet and Yew were more commonly recorded in urban hedges whereas Blackthorn, Bramble, Dog Rose, Elder and Hawthorn were recorded more often in rural hedges. Urban and rural differences were shown for some groups of invertebrates. Ants, earwigs and shieldbugs were recorded more frequently in urban hedges whereas blowflies, caterpillars, harvestmen, other beetles, spiders and weevils were recorded more frequently in rural hedges. Spiders were the most frequently recorded invertebrate across all surveys. The presence of hard surfaces adjacent to the hedge was influential on hedge structure, number and diversity of plant species, amount of food available for wildlife and invertebrate number and diversity. In urban hedges with one adjacent hard surface, the food available for wildlife was significantly reduced and in rural hedges, one adjacent hard surface affected the diversity of invertebrates. This research highlights that urban hedges may be important habitats for wildlife and that hard surfaces may have an impact on both the number and diversity of plant species and the number and diversity of invertebrates. This study demonstrates that citizen science programmes that focus on hedge surveillance can work and have the added benefit of educating the public on the importance of
Malewski, David F; Ream, Aimrie; Gaither, Caroline A
Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care can be a strong predictor of medication and other health-related outcomes. Less understood is the role that location of pharmacies in urban or suburban environments plays in patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to serve as a pilot examining urban and suburban community pharmacy populations for similarities and differences in patient satisfaction. Community pharmacy patients were asked to self-administer a 30-question patient satisfaction survey. Fifteen questions addressed their relationship with the pharmacist, 10 questions addressed satisfaction and accessibility of the pharmacy, and five questions addressed financial concerns. Five urban and five suburban pharmacies agreed to participate. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Most patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with pharmacist relationship and service was 70% or higher with no significant differences between locations. There were significant differences between the urban and suburban patients regarding accessibility of pharmacy services, customer service and some patient/pharmacist trust issues. The significant differences between patient satisfaction in the suburban and urban populations warrant a larger study with more community pharmacies in other urban, suburban and rural locations to better understand and validate study findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine
To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.
Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine
Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735
Hemphill, Elizabeth; Dunn, Steve; Barich, Hayley; Infante, Rebecca
This paper repositions the challenge of attracting and retaining rural GPs in a marketing context as a new focus for future research and policy development. Case study with mixed design of surveys of GPs and medical students and depth interviews with GPs, medical students, regional-division administrators and GP recruitment agents. GP recruitment and retention in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia. Twenty-seven Limestone Coast (LC) GPs; random sample of medical students from Adelaide University, Adelaide University Rural Health Society and Flinders University; snowball sampling two adjacent rural regions (20 GPs); and administrators from LC and adjacent regions and GP recruitment agencies in Adelaide. Drawing from marketing theory, creative suggestion of 'promotion of the practice and not the region' offers a means of GP recruitment and retention for structured succession planning for rural general practices. Structural attempts to broaden the GP market with overseas recruitment have done little for improving full-time equivalent GP levels. Market segmentation and market orientation offer a new emphasis on value exchange between the corporation (the practice), customer (GPs) and competition (all practices) to influence future mobility. A marketing orientation to the GP challenge emphasises individual's perceptions of value, GP expectations and practice offerings. Failure to acknowledge benefits of this marketing approach means that solutions such as those developed in the Limestone Coast region are unlikely. Research is now required to define GP satisfaction and value for long-term viability of general practices.
Full Text Available Objectives: Childhood obesity continues to be a problem. Children in rural populations are more likely to be overweight or obese and a lack of resources in those areas may contribute to this problem. We aimed to assess the impact of a pilot pharmacy health-care professional out-of-school time vigorous physical activity and nutrition education program on fourth and fifth graders in a rural Texas community. Methods: We conducted a prospective 12-week cohort study from August to November 2012. Thirty-three children, aged 8–11 years, in Bailey County, Texas, were enrolled in the study. Body mass index, body mass index percentile, blood pressure, waist circumference, and a diet preferences and activities knowledge survey were obtained at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Study participants completed a twice weekly physical activity and nutrition education program with exercise over weeks 1–4 with no intervention during weeks 5–12. Results: Thirty-one (94% of the 33 children, predominately Hispanic girls, completed the program. Body mass index (−0.30 (95% confidence interval, −0.44 to −0.17; P = <0.0001, body mass index percentile (−2.75 (95% confidence interval, −4.89 to −0.62; P = 0.0026, systolic blood pressure (−1.9 (95% confidence interval, −2.9 to −0.9; P = <0.0001, and waist circumference (−0.47 (95% confidence interval, −0.85 to −0.10; P = <0.0001 mean change decreased between baseline and week 12 with no intervention for 8 weeks. Positive survey results at 3 months indicated a decrease in fried/sweet foods; increase in exercise; decreases in video games and computer use; and a change in knowledge regarding the selection of the most healthy food group servings per day. Conclusion: In this pharmacy health-care directed pilot study, participants had a reduction of body mass index, body mass index percentile, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and improvement in certain survey results at the
Cordina, Maria; Journal of the Malta College of Pharmacy Practice Editorial Board
The Malta College of Pharmacy Practice, will be hosting the 13th International Social Pharmacy Workshop next summer. The concept of social pharmacy is very clearly explained in the article by Professor Ellen West Sørensen and colleagues, who are considered to be pioneers in this field. Malta has successfully hosted a number of pharmacy conferences, however this one is somewhat different and rather special.
Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît
Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717
Hill, John D; Williams, Jonathan P; Barnes, Julie F; Greenlee, Katie M; Cardiology, Bcps-Aq; Leonard, Mandy C
The development of a pharmacy resident rotation to expand decentralized clinical pharmacy services is described. In an effort to align with the initiatives proposed within the ASHP Practice Advancement Initiative, the department of pharmacy at Cleveland Clinic, a 1,400-bed academic, tertiary acute care medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, established a goal to provide decentralized clinical pharmacy services for 100% of patient care units within the hospital. Patient care units that previously had no decentralized pharmacy services were evaluated to identify opportunities for expansion. Metrics analyzed included number of medication orders verified per hour, number of pharmacy dosing consultations, and number of patient discharge counseling sessions. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of this service and potential resident learning opportunities. A learning experience description was drafted, and feedback was solicited regarding the development of educational components utilized throughout the rotation. Pharmacists who were providing services to similar patient populations were identified to serve as preceptors. Staff pharmacists were deployed to previously uncovered patient care units, with pharmacy residents providing decentralized services on previously covered areas. A rotating preceptor schedule was developed based on geographic proximity and clinical expertise. An initial postimplementation assessment of this resident-driven service revealed that pharmacy residents provided a comparable level of pharmacy services to that of staff pharmacists. Feedback collected from nurses, physicians, and pharmacy staff also supported residents' ability to operate sufficiently in this role to optimize patient care. A learning experience developed for pharmacy residents in a large medical center enabled the expansion of decentralized clinical services without requiring additional pharmacist full-time equivalents. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of
Claudia CIULCA-VLADAIA; Călin MUNTEAN
Objective: Describing a model of evaluation seen from a customer’s point of view for the current needed pharmacy computer system. Data Sources: literature research, ATTOFARM, WINFARM P.N.S., NETFARM, Info World - PHARMACY MANAGER and HIPOCRATE FARMACIE. Study Selection: Five Pharmacy Computer Systems were selected due to their high rates of implementing at a national level. We used the new criteria recommended by EUROREC Institute in EHR that modifies the model of data exchanges between the E...
Braun, Lesley A; Tiralongo, Evelin; Wilkinson, Jenny M; Spitzer, Ondine; Bailey, Michael; Poole, Susan; Dooley, Michael
Complementary medicines (CMs) are popular amongst Australians and community pharmacy is a major supplier of these products. This study explores pharmacy customer use, attitudes and perceptions of complementary medicines, and their expectations of pharmacists as they relate to these products. Pharmacy customers randomly selected from sixty large and small, metropolitan and rural pharmacies in three Australian states completed an anonymous, self administered questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. 1,121 customers participated (response rate 62%). 72% had used CMs within the previous 12 months, 61% used prescription medicines daily and 43% had used both concomitantly. Multivitamins, fish oils, vitamin C, glucosamine and probiotics were the five most popular CMs. 72% of people using CMs rated their products as 'very effective' or 'effective enough'. CMs were as frequently used by customers aged 60 years or older as younger customers (69% vs. 72%) although the pattern of use shifted with older age. Most customers (92%) thought pharmacists should provide safety information about CMs, 90% thought they should routinely check for interactions, 87% thought they should recommend effective CMs, 78% thought CMs should be recorded in customer's medication profile and 58% thought pharmacies stocking CMs should also employ a complementary medicine practitioner. Of those using CMs, 93% thought it important for pharmacists to be knowledgeable about CMs and 48% felt their pharmacist provides useful information about CMs. CMs are widely used by pharmacy customers of all ages who want pharmacists to be more involved in providing advice about these products.
Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise
In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.
A suit was filed by an HIV-positive man against a pharmacy that inadvertently disclosed his HIV status to his ex-wife and children. His ex-wife tried to use the information in a custody battle for their two children. The suit against the pharmacy was settled, but the terms of the settlement remain confidential.
Kotey, Bernice; Saini, Bandana; While, Lesley
The study investigated employee learning strategies in community pharmacies in Australia and the factors that explain differences among pharmacies in the strategies employed. A qualitative methodology was applied, involving semi-structured interviews with owners, managers, or senior employees of 12 pharmacies. The findings revealed learning…
Koehler, Tamara; Brown, Andrew
Understanding how pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres assist pharmacists in the healthcare system will facilitate developing health systems with the ability to achieve universal health coverage as it is defined in different country contexts. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the present global variety in the technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres considering; their scope, roles, supervision, education and legal framework. A structured online survey instrument was administered globally using the Survey Monkey platform, designed to address the following topic areas: roles, responsibilities, supervision, education and legislation. The survey was circulated to International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations and a variety of global list serves where pharmaceutical services are discussed. 193 entries from 67 countries and territories were included in the final analysis revealing a vast global variety with respect to the pharmacy support workforce. From no pharmacy technicians or other pharmacy support workforce cadres in Japan, through a variety of cadre interactions with pharmacists, to the autonomous practice of pharmacy support workforce cadres in Malawi. From strictly supervised practice with a focus on supply, through autonomous practice for a variety of responsibilities, to independent practice. From complete supervision for all tasks, through geographical varied supervision, to independent practice. From on the job training, through certificate level vocational courses, to 3-4 year diploma programs. From well-regulated and registered, through part regulation with weak implementation, to completely non-regulated contexts. This paper documents wide differences in supervision requirements, education systems and supportive legislation for pharmacy support workforce cadres globally. A more detailed understanding of specific country practice settings is required if the use of pharmacy
D. Todd Bess
Full Text Available A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners, but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. The mock Board of Pharmacy meeting engages the students in a way that lectures alone often fail to achieve with some initial evidence of successful student learning. Utilizing this teaching format as a law education tool challenges the status quo of pharmacy education and may serve as an impetus and catalyst for future innovations. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents, and royalties. Dr. Wang’s time was partly supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AG040146 and R01AG049696. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Type: Idea Paper
Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Full Text Available Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Heinsohn, Jörg G; Flessa, Steffen
Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an offensive and competitive stance are quite
Department of Veterans Affairs — The OneVA Pharmacy application design consists of 3 main components: VistA Medication Profile screen, Health Data Record Clinical Data Service (HDR/CDS), and OneVA...
Method: Sixty (60) pre-tested questionnaires were randomly administered to community pharmacists. Forty-three (43) questionnaires were retrieved for analysis. Results: The study revealed that the use of community pharmacies as places where routine immunization services can be provided is feasible as shown by 95.3% ...
Speedie, Marilyn K.
Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…
Nanji, Karen C; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Boehne, Jennifer J; Keohane, Carol A; Ash, Joan S; Poon, Eric G
Electronic prescribing systems have often been promoted as a tool for reducing medication errors and adverse drug events. Recent evidence has revealed that adoption of electronic prescribing systems can lead to unintended consequences such as the introduction of new errors. The purpose of this study is to identify and characterize the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing on pharmacy workflow in an outpatient pharmacy. A multidisciplinary team conducted direct observations of workflow in an independent pharmacy and semi-structured interviews with pharmacy staff members about their perceptions of the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing systems. We used qualitative methods to iteratively analyze text data using a grounded theory approach, and derive a list of major themes and subthemes related to the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing. We identified the following five themes: Communication, workflow disruption, cost, technology, and opportunity for new errors. These contained 26 unique subthemes representing different facets of our observations and the pharmacy staff's perceptions of the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing. We offer targeted solutions to improve electronic prescribing systems by addressing the unrealized potential and residual consequences that we identified. These recommendations may be applied not only to improve staff perceptions of electronic prescribing systems but also to improve the design and/or selection of these systems in order to optimize communication and workflow within pharmacies while minimizing both cost and the potential for the introduction of new errors.
Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas
The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic
Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha
The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced
Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mort, Jane R
Objective To describe patients’ perceived value and use of quality measures in evaluating and choosing community pharmacies. Design Focus group methodology was combined with a survey tool. During the focus groups, participants assessed the value of the Pharmacy Quality Alliance's quality measures in evaluating and choosing a pharmacy. Also, participants completed questionnaires rating their perceived value of quality measures in evaluating a pharmacy (1 being low value and 5 being high) or choosing a pharmacy (yes/no). Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the focus groups and surveys, respectively. Setting Semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting space of an urban and a rural area of a Mid-western State in the USA. Participants Thirty-four adults who filled prescription medications in community pharmacies for a chronic illness were recruited in community pharmacies, senior centres and public libraries. Results While comments indicated that all measures were important, medication safety measures (eg, drug-drug interactions) were valued more highly than others. Rating of quality measure utility in evaluating a pharmacy ranged from a mean of 4.88 (‘drug-drug interactions’) to a mean of 4.0 (‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’). Patients were hesitant to use quality information in choosing a pharmacy (depending on the participant's location) but might consider if moving to a new area or having had a negative pharmacy experience. Use of select quality measures to choose a pharmacy ranged from 97.1% of participants using ‘drug-drug interactions’ (medication safety measure) to 55.9% using ‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’. Conclusions The study participants valued quality measures in evaluating and selecting a community pharmacy, with medication safety measures valued highest. The participants reported that the quality measures would not typically cause a
Kristina D. Wood
Full Text Available Purpose: As community pharmacies are implementing increasingly more clinical services they are faced with a new challenge of marketing these services. This article discusses The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Clinical Partners Program's (Clinical Partners experiences in marketing clinical services to patients, barriers encountered through these experiences, and presents suggestions for future marketing of services. Experience: Clinical Partners developed two targeted marketing projects and evaluated impact on patient enrollment in services. In January 2008, the pharmacy ran a series of radio advertisements, newspaper print advertisements, and face to face marketing in the community with the focus of each being patient care services. During this project five individuals expressed interest in Clinical Partners' services. Four indicated that they heard about Clinical Partners through the radio ad and one through the pharmacy website, though none chose to enroll in services. In 2009 Clinical Partners focused on marketing MTM in the form of a comprehensive medication review to current patients already enrolled in its anticoagulation management service. Following a three month period, 6 patients (8% of the 71 patients receiving the marketing intervention chose to enroll in MTM. Four additional patients have enrolled in MTM since conclusion of the project. Discussion: These projects and a review of available literature revealed barriers that pharmacies encounter when marketing clinical services to patients in an outpatient setting including patients' unawareness of the role a pharmacist can play outside dispensing medications, patients' belief they do not need clinical services, and patients' unwillingness to pay a pharmacist out of pocket for services. Future Implications: To overcome these identified challenges, community pharmacies should consider integration of marketing techniques such as tailoring marketing to a target population
Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., B.C.P.S.
Full Text Available Purpose: As community pharmacies are implementing increasingly more clinical services they are faced with a new challenge of marketing these services. This article discusses The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Clinical Partners Program’s (Clinical Partners experiences in marketing clinical services to patients, barriers encountered through these experiences, and presents suggestions for future marketing of services.Experience: Clinical Partners developed two targeted marketing projects and evaluated impact on patient enrollment in services. In January 2008, the pharmacy ran a series of radio advertisements, newspaper print advertisements, and face to face marketing in the community with the focus of each being patient care services. During this project five individuals expressed interest in Clinical Partners’ services. Four indicated that they heard about Clinical Partners through the radio ad and one through the pharmacy website, though none chose to enroll in services. In 2009 Clinical Partners focused on marketing MTM in the form of a comprehensive medication review to current patients already enrolled in its anticoagulation management service. Following a three month period, 6 patients (8% of the 71 patients receiving the marketing intervention chose to enroll in MTM. Four additional patients have enrolled in MTM since conclusion of the project.Discussion: These projects and a review of available literature revealed barriers that pharmacies encounter when marketing clinical services to patients in an outpatient setting including patients’ unawareness of the role a pharmacist can play outside dispensing medications, patients’ belief they do not need clinical services, and patients’ unwillingness to pay a pharmacist out of pocket for services.Future Implications: To overcome these identified challenges, community pharmacies should consider integration of marketing techniques such as tailoring marketing to a target
Hilliard, N.L.; Pickett, M.; Thaxton, P.; Norenberg, J.P.; Wittstrom, K.; Rhodes, B.
Aim: (1) Increase the nuclear pharmacy education opportunities across the United States and the around the world. (2) Establish collaborative educational agreements between colleges of pharmacy and local nuclear pharmacy preceptors. (3) Decrease the shortage of radio pharmacists. 4) Provide nuclear education courses to supplement existing educational programs. Materials and Methods: Nuclear Education Online (www.nuclearonline.org) is an educational consortium between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the University of New Mexico. The faculty members from each institution have collaborated to design an online didactic curriculum and experiential training materials. The didactic portion is delivered via WebCT (www.webct.com) and involves interactive studies with faculty from UNM and UAMS. The student-centered curriculum is based on the APhA Syllabus for Nuclear Pharmacy Training and includes interactive web-based course materials, discussion groups, preceptor-led activities and problem-based learning (PBL) case studies based upon actual clinical studies and real-life pharmacy situations. Individual units of study include Nuclear Physics, Radiation Biology, Radiation Safety, Instrumentation, and Radiochemistry/Radiopharmacology. Students can begin the program at anytime. Once a cohort of students is established, the students proceed through the PBL cases, working interactively as a group. Results: Since June 2001, over 26 students have completed the 10-week certificate program. These students have been located across the U.S. and in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen students have completed individual courses in nuclear physics and instrumentation through colleges of pharmacy course offerings using the NEO faculty as instructors. Student evaluations revealed that 78% of the students thought that the NEO program was a 'great way to learn' (highest rating). When comparing PBL to a traditional classroom setting, two thirds of students preferred problem
White, S J; Generali, J A
Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.
Almarsdottir, Anna Birna; Granas, Anne Gerd
This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in play. Forces that still keep clinical and social pharmacy apart are university structures, research traditions, and the management of pharmacy services. There are key (but shrinking) differences between clinical and social pharmacy which entail the levels of study within pharmaceutical sciences, the location in which the research is carried out, the choice of research designs and methods, and the theoretical foundations. Common strengths and opportunities are important to know in order to join forces. Finding common ground can be developed in two areas: participating together in multi-disciplinary research, and uniting in a dialogue with internal and external key players in putting forth what is needed for the profession of pharmacy. At the end the question is posed, "What's in a name?" and we argue that it is important to emphasize what unifies the families of clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy for the benefit of both fields, pharmacy in general, and society at large.
Woloschuk, Donna M M; Raymond, Colette B
Many Canadian hospital pharmacies are experiencing difficulties recruiting supervisory personnel. It was expected that, through a "learning-by-doing" course, pharmacy staff would learn to apply basic skills in the day-to-day supervision of pharmacy operations and human resources and to apply the principles of supervisory documentation. A supervisory skills course targeted to pharmacy staff members was developed and implemented by the pharmacy department of a large urban health region. The course was initially offered to practising pharmacy technicians. The course design emphasized a constructivist framework incorporating authentic learning and reflective practice during seminars, with experiential and self-directed learning in the workplace. Preceptors assisted learners to achieve the course goals. Learners and preceptors provided feedback about hours spent (as the course progressed) and about their satisfaction with the course itself (at the end of the course). Learners and preceptors completed a post-program evaluation 2 months after completing the course to help in the assessment of the transfer of learning (lasting impact) associated with the course. Overall performance in the course was assessed on a pass/fail basis. Eighteen pharmacy technicians were admitted to the program, but one withdrew because of a job change. All learners successfully completed the course. Two months after the course, learners and preceptors described enhanced organization, time management, leadership, communication, and conflict-resolution skills on the part of learners, as well as their increased confidence, maturity, and ability to supervise staff. Learners' evaluations revealed a broadened perspective of pharmacy. The preceptors valued the enhancement of learners' skills and their increased enthusiasm. At the time of writing, 6 of the participants had secured supervisory positions. Creating formal instruction that engages pharmacy staff to pursue management positions is challenging
Raifman, Sarah; Orlando, Megan; Rafie, Sally; Grossman, Daniel
To discuss the potential for improving access to early abortion care through pharmacies in the United States. Despite the growing use of medications to induce termination of early pregnancy, pharmacist involvement in abortion care is currently limited. The Food and Drug Administration's Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for Mifeprex® (mifepristone 200 mg), the principal drug used in early medication abortion, prohibits the dispensing of the drug by prescription at pharmacies. This commentary reviews the pharmacology of medication abortion with the use of mifepristone and misoprostol, as well as aspects of service delivery and data on safety, efficacy, and acceptability. Given its safety record, mifepristone no longer fits the profile of a drug that requires an REMS. The recent implementation of pharmacy dispensing of mifepristone in community pharmacies in Australia and some provinces of Canada has improved access to medication abortion by increasing the number of medication abortion providers, particularly in rural areas. Provision of mifepristone in pharmacies, which involves dispensing and patient counseling, would likely improve access to early abortion in the United States without increasing risks to women. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hitch, William; Ransom, Matthew
To support a medical team, organized by Shoulder to Shoulder, with pharmacy services in an effort to expand ongoing health care to a rural community in Honduras. Pharmacy services in a temporary medical clinic in a schoolhouse in Colomarigua, a small mountain village in Honduras. Pharmacy services and medical care to address acute care needs of the people of Colomarigua, Honduras, during a week-long clinic. Interpreters assisted with patient counseling. Medication labels with pictures that connected doses to mealtimes increased patient understanding and the potential for medications to be dosed correctly. Fill lines were drawn on delivery devices for pediatric suspensions. An effort was made to avoid polypharmacy by communicating with physicians about the different prescriptions that were being prescribed in each household. Not applicable. Not applicable. We created a temporary clinic with a pharmacy and provided medical care to more than 600 children and adults in the surrounding regions. The medical team identified need for a feeding program, and local Shoulder to Shoulder teams began activities to support the community's development. Education programs were initiated to allow promising local children access to higher education. Challenges to providing optimal pharmaceutical care included language barriers, space and flow of the pharmacy, and a limited formulary. Benefits included gaining a whole new perspective on pharmacotherapy, health, and the importance of service to those in need whether abroad or at home.
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as befo...
Rapport, F L; Doel, M A; Jerzembek, G S
This paper presents a novel, qualitative, bio-photographic study with intertextual analysis highlighting the relationship between community pharmacy workspace and practice. Sixteen pharmacists working across pharmacy types such as independent shops, large and small pharmacy chains and multiple pharmacies such as those in supermarkets participated in data capture and feedback consultation. Findings disclosed workspaces unfit for purpose and a workforce ill at ease with their new professional identity, involving increasingly complex tasks in health provision and retail. There was conflict between delegating to others and taking personal responsibility, and there were pressures from a demanding public within the context of a target-driven, litigious society. The study highlights that innovative, mixed methods in this context reveal nuanced, rich data.
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Full Text Available Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45. Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA=0.03. Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy
The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.
Macesková, B; Lipská, J
Medical appliances dispensed in basic type pharmacies for cash or vouchers for medical or orthopedic appliances require expertise of pharmacists and laboratory assistants concerning the assortment, payment, construction of prices, conditions for prescription, ordering, properties, and functions of individual appliances. Using the method of frequency analysis, the analysis of data from five pharmacies within a period of three months (more than 17,000 records) revealed how individual subgroups of medical appliances and their concrete items are represented in both types of dispensation. The method of the semistructured questionnaire (10 respondents) was used to find what problems are encountered in dispensation, and which medical appliances and their subgroups are the sources of the problems. The respondents regard the contemporary level of knowledge concerning medical appliances gained in pregradual studies as insufficient.
L. Yu. Babintseva
Full Text Available It’s considered ontological models for formalization of knowledge in pharmacy. There is emphasized the view that the possibility of rapid exchange of information in the pharmaceutical industry, it is necessary to create a single information space. This means not only the establishment of uniform standards for the presentation of information on pharmaceutical groups pharmacotherapeutic classifications, but also the creation of a unified and standardized system for the transfer and renewal of knowledge. It is the organization of information in the ontology helps quickly in the future to build expert systems and applications to work with data.
Patterson, Brandon J; Bakken, Brianne K; Doucette, William R; Urmie, Julie M; McDonough, Randal P
The evolving health care system necessitates pharmacy organizations' adjustments by delivering new services and establishing inter-organizational relationships. One approach supporting pharmacy organizations in making changes may be informal learning by technicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy owners. Informal learning is characterized by a four-step cycle including intent to learn, action, feedback, and reflection. This framework helps explain individual and organizational factors that influence learning processes within an organization as well as the individual and organizational outcomes of those learning processes. A case study of an Iowa independent community pharmacy with years of experience in offering patient care services was made. Nine semi-structured interviews with pharmacy personnel revealed initial evidence in support of the informal learning model in practice. Future research could investigate more fully the informal learning model in delivery of patient care services in community pharmacies. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rupp, Michael T
In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.
Anzenberger, Peter; Popov, Sergey B; Ostermann, Herwig
A number of identified factors can influence clinicians' location of practice decisions; however, little is known about the location decisions of pharmacists. In general, males are more likely to work in rural and remote regions, and students with a rural background are more likely to work in rural communities after graduation. In the Ukraine, pharmaceutical health care is important because a patient's first visit is often to the pharmacy, rather than to a GP. This study sought to understand what motivates Ukraine pharmacy students to practice in rural areas. The first part of the study used a quantitative design with questionnaires based on Füglistaller's model for measuring the motivation of entrepreneurs, because working in a rural Ukraine pharmacy means, in most cases, operating a privately owned pharmacy. The second part was qualitative to verify these results. The students' motivation to work in rural areas after graduation depended on their sex and place of birth, but this was not decisive. More influential were the factors that motivate operating a privately owned pharmacy. Within the group that considered working in a privately owned pharmacy in a rural community, motivation was more intrinsic (eg enjoys helping people), while negative factors were more external (eg financial risk). Students from the National University of Pharmacy in Kharkiv comprise the majority of pharmacists in the Ukraine. They are interested in working in a rural area as long as opportunities align with their individual expectations. The two main factors found that would supply more young graduates to rural areas were: (1) improving rural living conditions; and (2) fostering the mental attitude required for operating a private pharmacy. In addition, decreasing related bureaucracy, and increasing financial and fiscal grants may enhance medical and pharmaceutical health care in rural communities of the Ukraine.Key words: graduate pharmacists, living conditions, motivation, privately
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines.We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu, co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC. For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC as described in The International Pharmacopoeia's monograph for artemether-lumefantrine.The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6% passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4% gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was largely limited to one product and
Kaale, Eliangiringa; Manyanga, Vicky; Chambuso, Mhina; Liana, Jafary; Rutta, Edmund; Embrey, Martha; Layloff, Thomas; Johnson, Keith
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines. We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu), co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as described in The International Pharmacopoeia's monograph for artemether-lumefantrine. The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6%) passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4%) gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was largely limited to one product and likely due to
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M
Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...
Hickey, Lisa M; Farris, Karen B; Peterson, N Andrew; Aquilino, Mary L
To determine whether the population demographics of the location of pharmacies were associated with tobacco sales in pharmacies, when controlling for pharmacy type. Retrospective analysis. Iowa. All retailers in Iowa that obtained tobacco licenses and all pharmacies registered with the Iowa Board of Pharmacy in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE AND INTERVENTIONS: Percentage of pharmacies selling tobacco (examined by pharmacy type using chi-square analysis); median income and distribution of race/ethnicity in the county for pharmacies that did or did not sell tobacco (t tests); predictors of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco (logistic regression using the independent variables county-level demographic variables and pharmacy characteristics). County gender composition, race/ethnicity make-up, and income levels were different for tobacco-selling and -nonselling pharmacies. Logistic regression showed that whether a pharmacy sold tobacco was strongly dependent on the type of pharmacy; compared with independent pharmacies (of which only 5% sold tobacco products), chain pharmacies were 34 times more likely to sell tobacco products, mass merchandiser outlets were 47 times more likely to stock these goods, and grocery stores were 378 times more likely to do so. Pharmacies selling tobacco were more likely to be located in counties with significantly higher numbers of multiracial groups. The best predictor of whether an Iowa pharmacy sells tobacco products is type of pharmacy. In multivariable analyses, population demographics of the county in which pharmacies were located were generally not predictive of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco.
Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.
... chapter). The pharmacy must ensure that logical access controls in the pharmacy application are set so... pharmacy, the pharmacist must check its records to ensure that the electronic version was not received and... prescription had not dispensed the prescription, that pharmacy must mark the electronic version as void or...
Welfare Pharmacy contains medical formulas documented by the government and official prescriptions used by the official pharmacy in the pharmaceutical process. In the last years of Southern Song Dynasty, anonyms gave a lot of prescription annotations, made textual researches for the name, source, composition and origin of the prescriptions, and supplemented important historical data of medical cases and researched historical facts. The annotations of Welfare Pharmacy gathered the essence of medical theory, and can be used as precious materials to correctly understand the syndrome differentiation, compatibility regularity and clinical application of prescriptions. This article deeply investigated the style and form of the prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy, the name of prescriptions and the evolution of terminology, the major functions of the prescriptions, processing methods, instructions for taking medicine and taboos of prescriptions, the medical cases and clinical efficacy of prescriptions, the backgrounds, sources, composition and cultural meanings of prescriptions, proposed that the prescription annotations played an active role in the textual dissemination, patent medicine production and clinical diagnosis and treatment of Welfare Pharmacy. This not only helps understand the changes in the names and terms of traditional Chinese medicines in Welfare Pharmacy, but also provides the basis for understanding the knowledge sources, compatibility regularity, important drug innovations and clinical medications of prescriptions in Welfare Pharmacy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare
To: (1) determine the percentage of the population in England that have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk; (2) explore any relationship between the walking distance and urbanity; (3) explore any relationship between the walking distance and social deprivation; and (4) explore any interactions between urbanity, social deprivation and community pharmacy access. This area level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and lower super output area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score). Access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. Overall, 89.2% of the population is estimated to have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. For urban areas, that is 98.3% of the population, for town and fringe, 79.9% of the population, while for rural areas, 18.9% of the population. For areas of lowest deprivation (deprivation decile 1) 90.2% of the population have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk, compared to 99.8% in areas of highest deprivation (deprivation decile 10), a percentage difference of 9.6% (8.2, 10.9). Our study shows that the majority of the population can access a community pharmacy within 20 min walk and crucially, access is greater in areas of highest deprivation--a positive pharmacy care law. More research is needed to explore the perceptions and experiences of people--from various levels of deprivation--around the accessibility of community pharmacy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.
Shaw, S.M.; Cox, P.H.
Education of nuclear pharmacists exists in many countries around the world. The approach and level of education varies between countries depending upon the expectations of the nuclear pharmacist, the work site and the economic environment. In Australia, training is provided through distance learning. In Europe and Canada, nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists receive postgraduate education in order to engage in the small-scale preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals as well as research and development. In the U.S.A., nuclear pharmacy practitioners obtain basic knowledge primarily through undergraduate programs taken when pursuit the first professional degree in pharmacy. Licensed practitioners in pharmacy enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy through distance learning programs or short courses. While different approaches to education exist, there is a basic core of knowledge and a level of competence required of all nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists providing radiopharmaceutical products and services. It was with this realization that efforts were initiated to develop harmonization concepts and documents pertaining to education in nuclear pharmacy. The benefits of international harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education are numerous. Assurance of the availability of quality professionals to provide optimal products and care to the patient is a principle benefit. Spanning national barriers through the demonstration of self governance and unification in education will enhance the goal of increased freedom of employment between countries. Harmonization endeavors will improve existing education programs through sharing of innovative concepts and knowledge between educators. Documents generated will benefit new educational programs especially in developing nations. A committee on harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education was formed consisting of educators and practitioners from the international community. A working document on education was
Kinney, Ashley; Bui, Quyen; Hodding, Jane; Le, Jennifer
Background: Innovative approaches, including LEAN systems and dashboards, to enhance pharmacy production continue to evolve in a cost and safety conscious health care environment. Furthermore, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of these novel methods continues to be challenging for pharmacies. Objective: To describe a comprehensive, real-time pharmacy dashboard that incorporated LEAN methodologies and evaluate its utilization in an inpatient Central Intravenous Additives Services (CIVAS) pharmacy. Methods: Long Beach Memorial Hospital (462 adult beds) and Miller Children's and Women's Hospital of Long Beach (combined 324 beds) are tertiary not-for-profit, community-based hospitals that are served by one CIVAS pharmacy. Metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were developed and implemented on a dashboard in real-time from March 2013 to March 2014. Results: The metrics that were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were quality and value, financial resilience, and the department's people and culture. Using a dashboard that integrated these metrics, the accuracy of manufacturing defect-free products was ≥99.9%, indicating excellent quality and value of CIVAS. The metric for financial resilience demonstrated a cost savings of $78,000 annually within pharmacy by eliminating the outsourcing of products. People and value metrics on the dashboard focused on standard work, with an overall 94.6% compliance to the workflow. Conclusion: A unique dashboard that incorporated metrics to monitor 3 important areas was successfully implemented to improve the effectiveness of CIVAS pharmacy. These metrics helped pharmacy to monitor progress in real-time, allowing attainment of production goals and fostering continuous quality improvement through LEAN work.
Bui, Quyen; Hodding, Jane; Le, Jennifer
Background: Innovative approaches, including LEAN systems and dashboards, to enhance pharmacy production continue to evolve in a cost and safety conscious health care environment. Furthermore, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of these novel methods continues to be challenging for pharmacies. Objective: To describe a comprehensive, real-time pharmacy dashboard that incorporated LEAN methodologies and evaluate its utilization in an inpatient Central Intravenous Additives Services (CIVAS) pharmacy. Methods: Long Beach Memorial Hospital (462 adult beds) and Miller Children's and Women's Hospital of Long Beach (combined 324 beds) are tertiary not-for-profit, community-based hospitals that are served by one CIVAS pharmacy. Metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were developed and implemented on a dashboard in real-time from March 2013 to March 2014. Results: The metrics that were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were quality and value, financial resilience, and the department's people and culture. Using a dashboard that integrated these metrics, the accuracy of manufacturing defect-free products was ≥99.9%, indicating excellent quality and value of CIVAS. The metric for financial resilience demonstrated a cost savings of $78,000 annually within pharmacy by eliminating the outsourcing of products. People and value metrics on the dashboard focused on standard work, with an overall 94.6% compliance to the workflow. Conclusion: A unique dashboard that incorporated metrics to monitor 3 important areas was successfully implemented to improve the effectiveness of CIVAS pharmacy. These metrics helped pharmacy to monitor progress in real-time, allowing attainment of production goals and fostering continuous quality improvement through LEAN work. PMID:28439134
Stargardt, Tom; Schreyögg, Jonas; Busse, Reinhard
To examine the price reactions of German pharmacies to changes made to OTC drug regulations in 2004. Prior to these changes, regulations guaranteed identical prices in all German pharmacies. Two years after market deregulation, 256 pharmacies were surveyed to determine the retail prices of five selected OTC drugs. A probit regression model was used to identify factors that increased the likelihood of price changes. In addition, 409 pharmacy consumers were interviewed to gather information on their knowledge of the regulatory changes and to better explain consumer behaviour. Data was collected on a total of 1215 prices. Two years after deregulation, 23.1% of the participating pharmacies had modified the price of at least one of the five OTCs included in our study. However, in total, only 7.5% of the prices differed from their pre-deregulation level. The probit model showed that population density and the geographic concentration of pharmacies were significantly associated with price changes. Interestingly, the association with the geographic concentration of pharmacies was negative. The consumer survey revealed that 47.1% of those interviewed were aware of the deregulation. Our findings indicate that, two years after deregulation, very few pharmacies had made use of individual pricing strategies; price competition between pharmacies in Germany is thus taking place only a very small scale.
Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Submissions ... The reference section should be typed on separate pages. ... human subjects in their work to seek approval from the appropriate Ethical Committees.
Lee, Charlene M; Soin, Herpreet K; Einarson, Thomas R
Research in statistical methods is essential for maintenance of high quality of the published literature. To update previous reports of the types and frequencies of statistical terms and procedures in research studies of selected professional pharmacy journals. We obtained all research articles published in 2001 in 6 journals: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy, and Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. Two independent reviewers identified and recorded descriptive and inferential statistical terms/procedures found in the methods, results, and discussion sections of each article. Results were determined by tallying the total number of times, as well as the percentage, that each statistical term or procedure appeared in the articles. One hundred forty-four articles were included. Ninety-eight percent employed descriptive statistics; of these, 28% used only descriptive statistics. The most common descriptive statistical terms were percentage (90%), mean (74%), standard deviation (58%), and range (46%). Sixty-nine percent of the articles used inferential statistics, the most frequent being chi(2) (33%), Student's t-test (26%), Pearson's correlation coefficient r (18%), ANOVA (14%), and logistic regression (11%). Statistical terms and procedures were found in nearly all of the research articles published in pharmacy journals. Thus, pharmacy education should aim to provide current and future pharmacists with an understanding of the common statistical terms and procedures identified to facilitate the appropriate appraisal and consequential utilization of the information available in research articles.
Jarfaut, A; Nivoix, Y; Vigouroux, D; Kehrli, P; Gaudias, J; Kempf, J-F; Levêque, D; Gourieux, B
Clinical pharmacy has been developed and evaluated in various medical hospital activities. Reviews conducted in this area reported a higher value of this discipline. In surgical services, evenly adverse drug events may occur, so clinical pharmacy activities must also help to optimize the management of drug's patient. The objectives of this literature review is to determine the profile of clinical pharmacy activities developed in surgical services and identify indicators. The research was conducted on Pubmed(®) database with the following keywords (2000-2013), "surgery", "pharmacy", "pharmacist", "pharmaceutical care", "impact" and limited to French or English papers. Studies dealing on simultaneously medical and surgical areas were excluded. Twenty-one papers were selected. The most frequently developed clinical pharmacy activities were history and therapeutic drug monitoring (antibiotics or anticoagulants). Two types of indicators were identified: activity indicators with the number of pharmaceutical interventions, their description and clinical signification, the acceptance rate and workload. Impact indicators were mostly clinical and economic impacts. The development of clinical pharmacy related to surgical patients is documented and appears to have, as for medical patients, a clinical and economical value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul
The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…
Barrett, Ann; Helwig, Melissa; Neves, Karen
This study describes the literature of hospital pharmacy and identifies the journals most commonly cited by authors in the field, the publication types most frequently cited, the age of citations, and the indexing access to core journals. The study also looks at differing citation practices between journals with a wide audience compared to a national journal with a focus on regional issues and trends in the field. Cited references from five discipline-specific source journals were collected and analyzed for publication type and age. Two sets were created for comparison. Bradford's Law of Scattering was applied to both sets to determine the most frequently cited journals. Three-quarters of all cited items were published within the last 10 years (71%), and journal articles were the most heavily cited publication type (n=65,760, 87%). Citation analysis revealed 26 journal titles in Zone 1, 177 journal titles in Zone 2, and the remaining were scattered across 3,886 titles. Analysis of a national journal revealed Zone 1 comprised 9 titles. Comparison of the 2 sets revealed that Zone 1 titles overlapped, with the exception of 2 titles that were geographically focused in the national title. Hospital pharmacy literature draws heavily from its own discipline-specific sources but equally from core general and specialty medical journals. Indexing of cited journals is complete in PubMed and EMBASE but lacking in International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Gray literature is a significant information source in the field.
Claudia F Ortiz Lopez
Full Text Available First year pharmacy Immersion students from University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy used a three question survey during their rotation at Moses H. Cone Hospital that analyzed patients’ medication adherence. Data collection revealed common trends that have been shown in the literature and areas for improvement. This method of evaluation was used by Phase I Immersion students to gain perspective on the problems we continue to have with medication adherence. Conflict of Interest We do not have any potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Type: Student Project
Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.
Rationale: Wildfire smoke often impacts rural areas without air quality monitors, limiting assessment of health impacts. A 2008 wildfire in Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge produced massive quantities of smoke affecting eastern NC, a rural area with limited air quality moni...
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration On November 12, 2010, I, the then Deputy Administrator of the Drug... Pharmacy Care, Inc., d/b/a Esplanade Pharmacy (Registrant), of New Orleans, Louisiana. The Show Cause Order...
Csaky, T. Z.
Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)
Holdford, David A
The objectives of this article are to define business models, contrast the business models in pharmacy schools, and discuss issues that can arise from misunderstandings about whom pharmacy schools serve and how they do so.
Full Text Available Opening an independent pharmacy is a process that involves multiple components. The rationale of this project is to discuss different issues that must be investigated prior to opening a new independency pharmacy. This includes the location, structure of the corporation, start-up cost, picking a wholesaler, fulfilling state board requirements and Philadelphia requirements, having a valid license, making professional relationships, and knowing basic marketing research. Methods used include using the knowledge and expertise from an independent pharmacy owner, visiting pharmacies, and interviewing neighbors for basic marketing research. Many aspects of opening an independent pharmacy differ significantly from a retail pharmacy, as there are various issues within the pharmacy and outside the pharmacy that must be extensively researched prior to opening in order to be successful. Type: Student Project
K.Šliogeryte`s master thesis. Master thesis supervisor associate professor Jonas Grincevičius (2015/2016), lecturer J. Daukšienė(2016/2017); Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical technology and Social pharmacy department. – Kaunas. Master thesis: prescription medicine sharing experience among pharmacy students. The aim: to evaluate LUHS Pharmacy faculty students` experience in prescription drugs` sharing. Methods: empirical qualitative method...
Park, Taehwan; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S
To examine pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students' debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. These 3 themes in students' attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pharmacy services. 51.180... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... aspects of the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt and...
Keith A. Wilson; Yvonne Perrie
Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787) — A journal of pharmacy education and practice is an international scientific open access journal on pharmacy education and practice, and is published by MDPI online quarterly. The practice of pharmacy is changing at an unprecedented rate as the profession moves from a focus upon preparation and supply of medicines to a clinical patient-facing role. While an understanding of the science related to medicines remains core to pharmacy education, the changes in practice ...
Max Joseph Herman
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional
Lengel, Matthew; Kuhn, Catherine H; Worley, Marcia; Wehr, Allison M; McAuley, James W
To assess the impact of technician involvement on the completion of medication therapy management (MTM) services in a community pharmacy setting and to describe pharmacists' and technicians' perceptions of technician involvement in MTM-related tasks and their satisfaction with the technician's role in MTM. Prospective observational study. In the fall of 2015, pharmacists and selected technicians from 32 grocery store-based community pharmacies were trained to use technicians within MTM services. Completed MTM claims were evaluated at all pharmacies for 3 months before training and 3 months after training. An electronic survey, developed with the use of competencies taught in the training and relevant published literature, was distributed via e-mail to trained employees 3 months after training. The total number of completed MTM claims at the 32 pharmacy sites was higher during the posttraining time period (2687 claims) versus the pretraining period (1735 claims). Of the 182 trained participants, 112 (61.5%) completed the survey. Overall, perceived technician involvement was lower than expected. However, identifying MTM opportunities was the most commonly reported technician MTM task, with 62.5% of technicians and 47.2% of pharmacists reporting technician involvement. Nearly one-half of technicians (42.5%) and pharmacists (44.0%) agreed or strongly agreed they were satisfied with the technician's role in MTM services, and 40.0% of technicians agreed that they were more satisfied with their work in the pharmacy after involvement in MTM. Three months after initial training of technicians in MTM, participation of technicians was lower than expected. However, the technicians involved most often reported identifying MTM opportunities for pharmacists, which may be a focus for future technician trainings. In addition, technician involvement in MTM services may increase satisfaction with many aspects of work for actively involved technicians. Copyright © 2018 American
Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.. They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future.
He, Hua; Pham-Huy, Lien Ai; Dramou, Pierre; Xiao, Deli; Zuo, Pengli
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.). They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future. PMID:24195076
Feletto, Eleonora; Lui, Grace Wan Ying; Armour, Carol; Saini, Bandana
This study aimed to investigate the application of a research-based change-management tool, the Pharmacy Change Readiness Wheel (PCRW), in practice, and the impact it had on the implementation of an asthma service (Pharmacy Asthma Management Service or PAMS). All pharmacists implementing the PAMS in the state of New South Wales, Australia, were provided training using a custom-designed module explaining change readiness as it applied to the PAMS. This training and a self-administered PCRW checklist were completed before PAMS implementation. Following PAMS service delivery, semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with the pharmacists and any additional staff involved regarding their experiences of change management. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analysed. Thirty seven of the forty five pharmacies who delivered PAMS returned the PCRW checklist (82% response rate) and participants from 29 pharmacies were interviewed (29 pharmacists and six additional staff). Perception of readiness for change before service delivery was remarkably high. From the interviews conducted after service delivery it was evident that systematic management of the practice change using theoretical concepts had not really been undertaken and that many challenges were faced in the implementation of practice change (PAMS). The results of the content analysis from the interviews revealed that factors external or internal to the pharmacy or those related to the individual pharmacist could affect implementation of practice change. Change is not as straightforward as it may appear and is a multi-step process over time. Pharmacists were unaware of this. A change-management framework should be applied to specific services with enough flexibility so that pharmacists can individualise them for their pharmacies. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L
Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site.
Morton, Kate J; Harrand, Brianna; Floyd, Carly Cloud; Schaefer, Craig; Acosta, Julie; Logan, Bridget Claire; Clark, Karen
To highlight New Mexico's multifaceted approach to widespread pharmacy naloxone distribution and to share the interventions as a tool for improving pharmacy-based naloxone practices in other states. New Mexico had the second highest drug overdose death rate in 2014 of which 53% were related to prescription opioids. Opioid overdose death is preventable through the use of naloxone, a safe and effective medication that reverses the effects of prescription opioids and heroin. Pharmacists can play an important role in providing naloxone to individuals who use prescription opioids. Not applicable. Not applicable. A multifaceted approach was utilized in New Mexico from the top down with legislative passage of provisions for a statewide standing order and New Mexico Department of Health support for pharmacy-based naloxone delivery. A bottom up approach was also initiated with the development and implementation of a training program for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. Naloxone Medicaid claims were used to illustrate statewide distribution and utilization of the pharmacist statewide standing order for naloxone. Percent of pharmacies dispensing naloxone in each county were calculated. Trained pharmacy staff completed a program evaluation form. Questions about quality of instruction and ability of trainer to meet stated objectives were rated on a Likert scale. There were 808 naloxone Medicaid claims from 100 outpatient pharmacies during the first half of 2016, a 9-fold increase over 2014. The "A Dose of R x eality" training program evaluation indicated that participants felt the training was free from bias and met all stated objectives (4 out of 4 on Likert scale). A multi-pronged approach coupling state and community collaboration was successful in overcoming barriers and challenges associated with pharmacy naloxone distribution and ensured its success as an effective avenue for naloxone acquisition in urban and rural communities. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists
Somers, A; Spinewine, A; Spriet, I; Steurbaut, S; Tulkens, P; Hecq, J D; Willems, L; Robays, H; Dhoore, M; Yaras, H; Vanden Bremt, I; Haelterman, M
Objectives The goal is to develop clinical pharmacy in the Belgian hospitals to improve drug efficacy and to reduce drug-related problems. Methods From 2007 to 2014, financial support was provided by the Belgian federal government for the development of clinical pharmacy in Belgian hospitals. This project was guided by a national Advisory Working Group. Each funded hospital was obliged to describe yearly its clinical pharmacy activities. Results In 2007, 20 pharmacists were funded in 28 pilot hospitals; this number was doubled in 2009 to 40 pharmacists over 54 institutions, representing more than half of all acute Belgian hospitals. Most projects (72%) considered patient-related activities, whereas some projects (28%) had a hospital-wide approach. The projects targeted patients at admission (30%), during hospital stay (52%) or at discharge (18%). During hospital stay, actions were mainly focused on geriatric patients (20%), surgical patients (15%), and oncology patients (9%). Experiences, methods, and tools were shared during meetings and workshops. Structure, process, and outcome indicators were reported and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats were described. The yearly reports revealed that the hospital board was engaged in the project in 87% of the cases, and developed a vision on clinical pharmacy in 75% of the hospitals. In 2014, the pilot phase was replaced by structural financing for clinical pharmacy in all acute Belgian hospitals. Conclusion The pilot projects in clinical pharmacy funded by the federal government provided a unique opportunity to launch clinical pharmacy activities on a broad scale in Belgium. The results of the pilot projects showed clear implementation through case reports, time registrations, and indicators. Tools for clinical pharmacy activities were developed to overcome identified barriers. The engagement of hospital boards and the results of clinical pharmacy activities persuaded the government to start structural
Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.
Weber, Robert J.
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212
Ann Barrett, MLIS
Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes the literature of hospital pharmacy and identifies the journals most commonly cited by authors in the field, the publication types most frequently cited, the age of citations, and the indexing access to core journals. The study also looks at differing citation practices between journals with a wide audience compared to a national journal with a focus on regional issues and trends in the field. Method: Cited references from five discipline-specific source journals were collected and analyzed for publication type and age. Two sets were created for comparison. Bradford’s Law of Scattering was applied to both sets to determine the most frequently cited journals. Results: Three-quarters of all cited items were published within the last 10 years (71%, and journal articles were the most heavily cited publication type (n¼65,760, 87%. Citation analysis revealed 26 journal titles in Zone 1, 177 journal titles in Zone 2, and the remaining were scattered across 3,886 titles. Analysis of a national journal revealed Zone 1 comprised 9 titles. Comparison of the 2 sets revealed that Zone 1 titles overlapped, with the exception of 2 titles that were geographically focused in the national title. Conclusion: Hospital pharmacy literature draws heavily from its own discipline-specific sources but equally from core general and specialty medical journals. Indexing of cited journals is complete in PubMed and EMBASE but lacking in International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Gray literature is a significant information source in the field.
Peter Bai James
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of skilled pharmaceutical workforce in the African region, and this is partly due to a limited number of prospective students entering the profession. An understanding of the factors that influence the choice of pharmacy as a career is needed to attract highly motivated and skilled individuals into the profession. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess pharmacy students’ motivation to study pharmacy, their attitude and future career intentions in Sierra Leone. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate pharmacy students enrolled at the College of Medicine, and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone (COMAHS – USL was carried out between May and June 2015. Descriptive statistics, as well as chi-square and Fisher exact two-tailed tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Close to a quarter (24.3% of pharmacy students surveyed chose pharmacy as their preferred major. The choice of pharmacy as a preferred major was common among first-year students, (p=0.001, those who were married (p<0.001 and have had pharmacy practice experience (p<0.001. Motivation for choosing pharmacy was assessed based on three domains (education, personal and career-related factors.Students cited a subject teacher at school ̸ College (66.7% as the most education-related influence, while friends and family members (61.1% was the major personal-related factor. Also, students considered the desire for self-employment in a healthcare related job (27.8%, and excellent career opportunities (27.8% as the major career-related factors that influenced their choice of pharmacy as a preferred major. Medicine was the first choice of study among the majority (95% of students that chose pharmacy as a second choice when seeking admission into the university. Pharmacy students demonstrated a positive attitude toward the profession, and considered drug manufacturing (47.3% and hospital pharmacy (43
I. V. Voronovich
Full Text Available The most important index which determines the level and quality of pharmaceutical support is the correspondence of assortment to consumers needs. Assortment policy is determined by the functions implemented, and the problems of organization of pharmaceutical support of medicinal organizations within the frameworks of substantiated and reasonable expenditure of budget funds, and affordable pharmaceutical support of the population. The purpose of this research was the study of assortment and price policy of state pharmacies of Moscow. The objects were pharmacy subdivisions of state pharmacy network of Moscow. We have used sociological methods (questionnaire, interviewing, method of marketing, and statistic analysis. We have studied the assortment structure, assortment groups’ distribution on price segments. We have established that the drugs, more than 60% of which are foreign-made occupied more than a half of the assortment. Medicinal drugs in 50 rubles price spectrum occupy the biggest share of pharmacy assortment. Distribution within every assortment group revealed that more than a half of drugs are in average price spectrum from 50 to 500 rubles. Average charge for VED amounts to 21.87%, and for drugs which were not included in VED list – 34.07%. The charge for the goods, the price of which is not regulated, trade charge is more.
operation should *provide the pharmacist with more patient care contact if pharmacists are uti - lized as members of the hospital emergency team. Moreover...experience and knowledge, the pharmacist all too often remains an under-challenged and under-utilized member of the health care team. From April to June 1979...pharmacies surveyed reported having adequate space for Pharmacist -patient consultation and Drug information services. Unit dose medications were
Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna
In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy and indu......In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...
By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.
Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan
To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.
Dominick P Trombetta, Pharm.D
Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the main contributor to both health care costs and mortality in the United States, with medication non-adherence and lifestyle modifications being leading causes. To motivate patients with several co-morbidities, the longitudinal care class was used to educate on maintaining adherence to prescribed regimens. Twenty pharmacy students were trained in health coaching and motivational interviewing methods. Specifically, students were to provide patients with education sheets, apply the teach-back method, and motivate the patient to develop and reach SMART goals made with the pharmacy student over a course of one academic school year. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties. Type: Note
Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann
Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.
Cisneros, Robert M; Jawaid, Sarah Parnapy; Kendall, Debra A; McPherson, Charles E; Mu, Keli; Weston, Grady Scott; Roberts, Kenneth B
To identify reasons for inclusion of international practice experiences in pharmacy curricula and to understand the related structure, benefits, and challenges related to the programs. A convenience sample of 20 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States with international pharmacy education programs was used. Telephone interviews were conducted by 2 study investigators. University values and strategic planning were among key driving forces in the development of programs. Global awareness and cultural competency requirements added impetus to program development. Participants' advice for creating an international practice experience program included an emphasis on the value of working with university health professions programs and established travel programs. Despite challenges, colleges and schools of pharmacy value the importance of international pharmacy education for pharmacy students as it increases global awareness of health needs and cultural competencies.
Polinski, Jennifer M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Levin, Raisa; Shrank, William H
In the elderly (those aged >or=65 years), retail pharmacy claims are used to study drug use among the uninsured after drug policy changes, to prevent drug-drug interactions and duplication of therapy, and to guide medication therapy management. Claims include only prescriptions filled at 1 pharmacy location or within 1 pharmacy chain and do not include prescriptions filled at outside pharmacies, potentially limiting research accuracy and pharmacy-based safety interventions. The aims of this study were to assess elderly patients' pharmacy loyalty and to identify predictors of using multiple pharmacies. Patients enrolled in the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (PACE) pharmacy benefit program with corresponding Medicare claims in the state of Pennsylvania comprised the study cohort. Among patients with pharmacy claims from all pharmacies used in 2004-2005, a primary pharmacy was defined as the pharmacy where at least 50% of a patient's prescriptions were filled. The number of pharmacies/chains used and prescriptions filled in 2005 was calculated. Predictors of using multiple pharmacies in 2005 were age, female gender, white race, urban residency, comorbidities, number of distinct chemical drugs (unique medications) used, and number of prescriptions filled, which were all assessed in 2004. In total, pharmacy claims data from 182,116 patients (147,718 women [81.1%]; mean [SD] age, 78.8 [7.1] years; 168,175 white [92.3%]; 76,580 [42.1%] residing in an urban zip code area) were included. Of the 182,116 PACE patients in the study, a primary pharmacy was identified for 180,751 patients (99.3%). In 2005, patients filled an average of 59.3 prescriptions, with 57.0 prescriptions (96.1%) having been filled at the primary pharmacy. Compared with patients who used or=15 unique medications had a 2.66 times (95% CI, 2.53-2.80) greater likelihood of using multiple pharmacies in 2005. Patients aged >or=85 years were 1.07 times (95% CI, 1.04-1.11) as likely to use
Alemayehu B Mekonnen
Full Text Available Objective: Clinical pharmacy practice has developed internationally to expand the role of a pharmacist well beyond the traditional roles of compounding and supplying drugs to roles more directly in caring for patients and providing medication consultation to staff. This area of practice is at the infant stage in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to explore key informants’ perspective in the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Method: A qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with the heads of departments (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, nurse, pharmacy, medical director, administration and pharmacy student representatives. Qualitative data analysis was done after audiotapes were transcribed verbatim and notes were compiled. Results: All of the respondents interviewed express diverse and conflicting perspectives on pharmacists’ role, varying from a health-care professional to a business man. Despite this, the current pace of change worldwide takes the professions’ mission to that of a provider of clinical pharmacy services. The data ascertained the change in pharmacy practice, and integrating clinical pharmacy services within the health-care system should be seen as a must. Pharmacists should delineate from a business perspective and focus on widening the scope of the profession of pharmacy and should come close to the patient to serve directly. Conclusions: Although the perception of people on traditional roles of pharmacists was weak, there were promising steps in developing clinical pharmacy practice within the health-care system. Moreover, the results of this study revealed a high demand for this service among health-care providers.
Wilkinson, Tracey A; Miller, Courtney; Rafie, Samantha; Landau, Sharon Cohen; Rafie, Sally
To examine adolescent attitudes toward accessing contraception through a new pharmacist prescribing model in the State of California. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted in summer 2015 with 30 females ages 18 to 19 in California. Participants were recruited using a social media advertisement. Semi-structured interviews utilized open-ended questions to understand teens' experiences with pharmacies, experiences obtaining contraception, and views on pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Responses were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using an independent-coder method to identify salient themes. Participants were ethnically diverse and primarily living in suburban areas. All participants had completed high school and many had completed one year of college. Nearly all participants were supportive of California's new law allowing pharmacist prescribing of contraception. Thematic analyses revealed that while participants were satisfied with traditional service providers and valued those relationships, they appreciated the benefit of increased access and convenience of going directly to a pharmacy. Participants expected increased access to contraception in pharmacies would lead to both personal and societal benefits. They expressed concerns regarding parental involvement, as well as confidentiality in the pharmacy environment and with insurance disclosures. Older teens in California are very supportive of pharmacies and pharmacists as direct access points for contraception, but confidentiality concerns were noted. Policy makers and pharmacies can incorporate study findings when designing policies, services, and physical pharmacy spaces to better serve teens. Further research is warranted after pharmacies implement this new service to assess teen utilization and satisfaction as well as outcomes. Several states recently passed legislation enabling pharmacists to prescribe contraception and other states are considering similar legislation. Older teens are
Full Text Available Abstract Background Outpatient drugs are dispensed through both community and mail order pharmacies. There is no empirical evidence that substitution of community pharmacy with mail order reduces overall drug expenditures. The need for evaluating the potential effects on utilization and costs of the possible extension of mail order services in Medicaid provides the rationale for conducting this study. This study compares drug utilization and drug product cost in community vs. mail order pharmacy dispensing services in a Medicaid population. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study comparing utilization and cost patterns in community vs. mail order pharmacy. A simulation model was employed to assess drug utilization and cost in mail order pharmacy using community pharmacy claim data. The model assumed that courses of drug therapy (CDT in mail order pharmacy would have utilization patterns similar to those found in community pharmacy. A 95% confidence interval surrounding changes in average utilization and average cost were estimated using bootstrap analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed by varying drug selection criteria and supply, fill point, and medication possession ratio (MPR. Sub-analyses were performed to address differences between mail order and community pharmacy related to therapeutic class and dual-eligible patients. Data for the study derived from pharmacy claims database of Ohio Medicaid State program for the period January 2000-September 2004. Drug claims were aggregated to obtain a set of CDTs representing unique patient IDs and unique drug products. Drug product cost estimates excluded dispensing fees and were used to estimate the cost reduction required in mail order to become cost neutral in comparison with community pharmacy. Results The baseline model revealed that the use of mail order vs. community pharmacy would result in a 5.5% increase in drug utilization and a 5.4% cost reduction required in mail order
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the
Yang, Z; Peterson, R T; Huang, L
Like most businesses, online pharmacy companies will only be successful if they make sure customers are satisfied with the service they receive. But what attributes of service quality lead to satisfaction and dissatisfaction? This study identified 19 Internet pharmacy service quality dimensions in three categories: (1) product cost and availability, (2) customer service, and (3) the online information system. Our analysis uncovered attributes that tend to determine consumer satisfaction and points out ways to improve overall service quality in the Internet pharmacy arena.
Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a multi-stakeholder perspective of community pharmacy practice change. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Community pharmacy in rural Mississippi. Participants: Fourteen key stakeholders of the patient care practice including pharmacists (n=4, support staff (n=2, collaborating providers (n=4, patients (n=3, and a payer (n=1. Intervention: Semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques were used. Main outcome measures: Description of the community pharmacy's practice and business model and identification of practice change facilitators. Results: Change facilitators for this practice included: a positive reputation in the community, forming solid relationships with providers, and convenience of patient services. Communication in and outside of the practice, adequate reimbursement, and resource allocation were identified as challenges. Conclusions: This case study is a multi-stakeholder examination of community pharmacy practice change and readers are provided with a real-world example of a community pharmacy's successful establishment of a patient care practice. Type: Case Study
Gabriel, Meghan E; Furukawa, Michael F; Vaidya, Varun
The objective of this study is to describe the growth in provider (physician, nurse practitioner, and physician assistant) adoption of e-prescribing and the growth in pharmacies actively accepting e-prescriptions using nationally representative data from December 2008 to December 2012. Additionally, this study explored e-prescribing adoption variation by urban and rural counties. Descriptive analysis of nationally representative, transactional e-prescribing data. Data for this analysis were from Surescripts. Surescripts is a leading e-prescription network utilized by a majority of all chain, franchise, or independently owned pharmacies in the United States routing prescriptions for more than 240 million patients through their network. The total number of prescribers, including physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants e-prescribing via an electronic health record (EHR) on the Surescripts network has increased from 7% to 54%. Additionally, the number of pharmacies actively accepting e-prescriptions is 94%. These increases in pharmacies actively accepting e-prescriptions and the provider's eprescribing mirror the increase in the volume of e-prescriptions sent on the Surescripts network. This analysis shows that the vast majority of pharmacies in the United States are able to accept e-prescriptions and over half of providers are e-prescribing via an EHR.
Phipps, D.L.; Bie, J. de; Herborg, H.; Guerreiro, M.; Eickhoff, C.; Fernandes-Llimos, F.; Bouvy, M.L.; Rossing, C.; Mueller, U.; Ashcroft, D.M.
Objective: To evaluate the internal reliability, factor structure and construct validity of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire (PSCQ) when applied to a pan-European sample of community pharmacies. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Setting: Community pharmacies in Denmark,
Okolo, E N
Conflict occurs in the pharmacy as employees seek limited resources, prestige, power, and position. An organization such as the pharmacy has a diversity of employees, including professional, semiprofessional, skilled, and technical, which makes the pharmacy susceptible to constant confrontation. Various strategies exist for the pharmacist to use in resolving conflict situations in the workplace. These include win-lose, lose-lose, and win-win strategies. To achieve a win-win situation, the pharmacy manager must have good communication skills that help employees clarify the meaning of words and avoid misunderstandings.
Financial risk management of pharmacy benefits in integrated health systems is explained. A managed care organization should assume financial risk for pharmacy benefits only if it can manage the risk. Horizontally integrated organizations often do not have much control over the management of drug utilization and costs. Vertically integrated organizations have the greatest ability to manage pharmacy financial risk; virtual integration may also be compatible. Contracts can be established in which the provider is incentivized or placed at partial or full risk. The main concerns that health plans have with respect to pharmacy capitation are formulary management and the question of who should receive rebates from manufacturers. The components needed to managed pharmacy financial risk depend on the type of contract negotiated. Health-system pharmacists are uniquely positioned to take advantage of opportunities opening up through pharmacy risk contracting. Functions most organizations must provide when assuming pharmacy financial risk can be divided into internal and external categories. Internally performed functions include formulary management, clinical pharmacy services and utilization management, and utilization reports for physicians. Functions that can be outsourced include claims processing and administration, provider- and customer support services, and rebates. Organizations that integrate the pharmacy benefit across the health care continuum will be more effective in controlling costs and improving outcomes than organizations that handle this benefit as separate from others. Patient care should not focus on payment mechanisms and unit costs but on developing superior processes and systems that improve health care.
McKeirnan, Kimberly C; Frazier, Kyle R; Nguyen, Maryann; MacLean, Linda Garrelts
To evaluate the effectiveness of an immunization training program for pharmacy technicians on technicians' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and number of vaccines administered. A one-group pre- and posttest study was conducted with certified pharmacy technicians from Albertsons and Safeway community pharmacies in Idaho. Thirty pharmacy technicians were recruited to participate in an immunization administration training program comprising a 2-hour home study and a 2-hour live training. Pharmacy technician scores on a 10-question knowledge assessment, responses on a pre- and posttraining survey, and number of immunizations administered in the 6-month period following the training were collected. Twenty-five pharmacy technicians completed the home study and live portions of the immunization training program. All 29 pharmacy technicians who took the home study assessment passed with greater than 70% competency on the first attempt. Technicians self-reported increased confidence with immunization skills between the pretraining survey and the posttraining survey. From December 2016 to May 2017, the technicians administered 953 immunizations with 0 adverse events reported. For the first time, pharmacy technicians have legally administered immunizations in the United States. Trained pharmacy technicians demonstrated knowledge of vaccination procedures and self-reported improved confidence in immunization skills and administered immunizations after participating in a 4-hour training program. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Polinski, Jennifer M.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Levin, Raisa; Shrank, William H.
Background In the elderly (those aged ≥65 years), retail pharmacy claims are used to study drug use among the uninsured after drug policy changes, to prevent drug drug interactions and duplication of therapy, and to guide medication therapy management. Claims include only prescriptions filled at one pharmacy location or within one pharmacy chain and do not include prescriptions filled at outside pharmacies, potentially limiting research accuracy and pharmacy-based safety interventions. Objectives The aims of this study were to assess elderly patients’ pharmacy loyalty and to identify predictors of using multiple pharmacies. Methods Patients enrolled in the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly pharmacy benefit program with corresponding Medicare claims in the state of Pennsylvania comprised the study cohort. Among patients with pharmacy claims from all pharmacies used in 2004–2005, a primary pharmacy was defined as the pharmacy where >50% of a patient’s prescriptions were filled. The number of pharmacies/chains used and prescriptions filled in 2005 was calculated. Predictors of using multiple pharmacies in 2005 were age, gender, race, urban residency, comorbidities, number of unique medications used, and number of prescriptions, which were all assessed in 2004. Results In total, pharmacy claims data from 182,235 patients (147,718 [81.1%] women; mean [SD] age 78.8 [7.1] years; 168,175 white; 76,580 residing in an urban zip code area) were included. In 2005, patients filled an average of 59.3 prescriptions, with 57.0 (96.1%) prescriptions having been filled at the primary pharmacy. Compared with patients who used <5 unique medications in 2004, patients who used 6 to 9 unique medications had 1.39 times (95% CI, 1.34–1.44), and patients who used 15 unique medications had 2.68 times (95% CI, 2.55–2.82) greater likelihood of using multiple pharmacies in 2005. Patients aged ≥85 years were 1.07 times (95% CI, 1.03–1.11) as likely to use
Howley, Aimee; Wood, Lawrence; Hough, Brian
Based on survey responses from more than 500 third-grade teachers, this study addressed three research questions relating to technology integration and its impact in rural elementary schools. The first analyses compared rural with non-rural teachers, revealing that the rural teachers had more positive attitudes toward technology integration. Then…
Look, Kevin A; Mott, David A
To evaluate trends and patterns in the prevalence of multiple pharmacy use (MPU) and to describe the number and types of pharmacies used by multiple pharmacy users from 2003 to 2009. Retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. United States from 2003 to 2009. 89,941 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey over 7 years. Analysis of respondent pharmacy use behaviors. Annual use of more than one pharmacy and number and types of pharmacies used. MPU among patients using medications increased significantly during the study period (from 36.4% [95% CI 35.2-37.6] in 2003 to 43.2% [41.9-44.4] in 2009)-a relative increase of 18.7% ( P = 0.01). Multiple pharmacy users used between 2 and 17 different pharmacies per year to obtain prescription medications. Although approximately 70% of multiple pharmacy users used only two pharmacies, the proportion using three or more pharmacies increased from 24.1% (22.5-25.7) in 2003 to 29.1% (27.4-30.8) in 2009. Mail service pharmacy use had the largest relative increase among multiple pharmacy users during the study period (27.2%), and MPU was nearly twice as high (75%) among mail service users compared with non-mail service users. MPU is common on a national level and has increased greatly in recent years. Patient use of pharmacies that have the potential to share medication information electronically is low among multiple pharmacy users, suggesting increased workload for pharmacists and potential medication safety concerns. This has important implications for pharmacists, as it potentially impedes their ability to maintain accurate medication profiles for patients.
Wallman, Andy; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Gustavsson, Maria; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Johansson, Markus; Ring, Lena
To identify what pharmacy students learn during the 6-month advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 pharmacy APPE students and 17 pharmacist preceptors and analyzed in a qualitative directed content analysis using a defined workplace learning typology for categories. The Swedish APPE provides students with task performance skills for work at pharmacies and social and professional knowledge, such as teamwork, how to learn while in a work setting, self-evaluation, understanding of the pharmacist role, and decision making and problem solving skills. Many of these skills and knowledge are not accounted for in the curricula in Sweden. Using a workplace learning typology to identify learning outcomes, as in this study, could be useful for curricula development. Exploring the learning that takes place during the APPE in a pharmacy revealed a broad range of skills and knowledge that students acquire.
Rim, Matthew H; Thomas, Karen C; Chandramouli, Jane; Barrus, Stephanie A; Nickman, Nancy A
The implementation and quality assessment of a pharmacy services call center (PSCC) for outpatient pharmacies and specialty pharmacy services within an academic health system are described. Prolonged wait times in outpatient pharmacies or hold times on the phone affect the ability of pharmacies to capture and retain prescriptions. To support outpatient pharmacy operations and improve quality, a PSCC was developed to centralize handling of all outpatient and specialty pharmacy calls. The purpose of the PSCC was to improve the quality of pharmacy telephone services by (1) decreasing the call abandonment rate, (2) improving the speed of answer, (3) increasing first-call resolution, (4) centralizing all specialty pharmacy and prior authorization calls, (5) increasing labor efficiency and pharmacy capacities, (6) implementing a quality evaluation program, and (7) improving workplace satisfaction and retention of outpatient pharmacy staff. The PSCC centralized pharmacy calls from 9 pharmacy locations, 2 outpatient clinics, and a specialty pharmacy. Since implementation, the PSCC has achieved and maintained program goals, including improved abandonment rate, speed of answer, and first-call resolution. A centralized 24-7 support line for specialty pharmacy patients was also successfully established. A quality calibration program was implemented to ensure service quality and excellent patient experience. Additional ongoing evaluations measure the impact of the PSCC on improving workplace satisfaction and retention of outpatient pharmacy staff. The design and implementation of the PSCC have significantly improved the health system's patient experiences, efficiency, and quality. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Renberg, Tobias; Wichman Törnqvist, Kristina; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Kettis Lindblad, Asa; Tully, Mary P
Pharmacy practice is evolving according to general health-care trends such as increased patient involvement and public health initiatives. In addition, pharmacists strive to find new professional roles. Clients' expectations of service encounters at pharmacies is an under-explored topic but crucial to understanding how pharmacy practice can evolve efficiently. To identify and describe different normative expectations of the pharmacy encounter among pharmacy clients. Q methodology, an approach to systematically explore subjectivity that retains complete patterns of responses and organizes these into factors of operant subjectivity. Eighty-five regular prescription medication users recruited at Swedish community pharmacies and by snowballing. Seven factors of operant subjectivity were identified, and organized into two groups. Factors that emphasized the physical drug product as the central object of the pharmacy encounter were labelled as independent drug shopping; logistics of drug distribution; and supply of individual's own drugs. Factors that emphasized personal support as desirable were labelled competence as individual support; individualist professional relations, just take care of me; and practical health-care and lifestyle support. The systematic Q-methodological approach yielded valuable insights into how pharmacy clients construct their expectations for service encounters. They hold differentiating normative expectations for pharmacy services. Understanding these varying viewpoints may be important for developing and prioritizing among efficient pharmacy services. Clients' expectations do not correspond with trends that guide current pharmacy practice development. This might be a challenge for promoting or implementing services based on such trends. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach
Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP...... teaching and research, often illustrated by the four levels: individual, group, organizational, and societal. In this paper the relevance of maintaining a broad approach to SP research is argued for and examples of the importance of such type of research is presented....
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
Action research (AR) is based on a collaborative problem-solving relationship between researcher and client, and the aims of this research are to solve the problem and to generate new knowledge. The chapter describes and shows how several different methods might be used for data collection in an AR......-based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...
Full Text Available Anandi V Law, Eric K Gupta, Micah Hata, Karl M Hess, Roger S Klotz, Quang A Le, Emmanuelle Schwartzman, Bik-Wai Bilvick Tai Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative practice among health professionals is slowly coming of age, given the global focus on efficiency and effectiveness of care to achieve positive patient outcomes and to reduce the economic burden of fragmented care. Collaborative pharmacy practice (CPP is accordingly evolving within different models including: disease management, medication therapy management, patient centered medical home, and accountable care organizations. Pharmacist roles in these models relate to drug therapy management and include therapy introduction, adjustment, or discontinuation, patient counseling and education, and identification, resolution, and prevention of problems leading to drug interactions and adverse reactions. Most forms of CPP occur with physicians in various settings. Collaborative practice agreements exist in many states in the US and are mentioned in the International Pharmaceutical Federation policy statement. Impetus for CPP comes from health system and economic concerns, as well as from a regulatory push. There are positive examples in community, ambulatory care, and inpatient settings that have well documented protocols, indicators of care, and measurement and reporting of clinical, economic, and patient reported outcomes; however, implementation of the practice is still not widespread. Conceptual and implementation challenges include health professional training, attitudes, confidence and comfort levels, power and communication issues, logistic barriers of time, workload, proximity, resistance to establish and adopt regulations, and importantly, payment models. Some of the attitudinal and perceptual challenges can be mitigated by incorporation of interprofessional concepts and
Um, Irene S I; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B
To explore pharmacists' opinions about the provision of weight management services in community pharmacy and their attitudes towards the establishment of an accredited training course in weight management in pharmacy. Interviews were conducted with practising pharmacists on site in various community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with twenty practising pharmacists were conducted. Of the twenty interviewed pharmacists, sixteen were involved in the provision of one or more pharmacy based weight management programs in their pharmacies. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the grounded theory approach. The data were thematically analysed to identify facilitators and perceived barriers to the provision of high quality services, and pharmacists' willingness to undertake training and accreditation. Participants clearly perceived a role for pharmacy in weight management. Key facilitators to provision of service were accessibility and the perception of pharmacists as trustworthy healthcare professionals. The pharmacists proposed collaboration with other healthcare professionals in order to provide a service incorporating diet, exercise and behavioural therapy. A program that was not-product-centred, and supported by ethical marketing was favoured. Appropriate training and accreditation were considered essential to assuring the quality of such services. Barriers to the provision of high quality services identified were: remuneration, pharmacy infrastructure, client demand and the current marketing of product-centred programs. Australian pharmacists believe there is a role for pharmacy in weight management, provided training in accredited programs is made available. A holistic, evidence-based, multi-disciplinary service model has been identified as ideal.
Petkova, Valentina; Atkinson, Jeffrey
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital) pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union. PMID:28970446
Full Text Available Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm. degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.
Petkova, Valentina; Atkinson, Jeffrey
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital) pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.
This thesis deals with the development of patient education in the community pharmacy. The research questions concentrate on the determinants of technicians patient education behavior and the effects of a one-year lasting intervention program on the patient education activities in the pharmacy.
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research December 2013; 12 (6): 1107-1112 ... Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts .... National Institute of Medical and Dental .... There is no clinical.
Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai
To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.
Trinh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Huong T L; Pham, Van T T; Ba, Hai L; Dong, Phuong T X; Cao, Thao T B; Nguyen, Hanh T H; Brien, Jo-Anne
Background Clinical pharmacy is key to the quality use of medicines. While there are different approaches in different countries, international perspectives may inform health service development. The Vietnamese Ministry of Health introduced a legal regulation of clinical pharmacy services in December 2012. Objective To describe the services, and to explore reported barriers and facilitators in implementing clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals after the introduction of Vietnamese Ministry of Health legal regulation. Setting Thirty-nine hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, including 22 provincial and 17 district hospitals. Method A mixed methods study was utilized. An online questionnaire was sent to the hospitals. In-depth interviews were conducted with pairs of nominated pharmacists at ten of these hospitals. The questionnaire focused on four areas: facilities, workforce, policies and clinical pharmacy activities. Main outcome measure Proportion of clinical pharmacy activities in hospitals. Themes in clinical pharmacy practice. Results 34/39 (87%) hospitals had established clinical pharmacy teams. Most activities were non-patient-specific (87%) while the preliminary patient-specific clinical pharmacy services were available in only 8/39 hospitals (21%). The most common non-patient-specific activities were providing medicines information (97%), reporting adverse drug reactions (97%), monitoring medication usage (97%). The patient specific activities varied widely between hospitals and were ad hoc. The main challenges reported were: lack of workforce and qualified clinical pharmacists. Conclusion While most hospitals had hospital-based pharmacy activities, the direct patient care was limited. Training, education and an expanded work forces are needed to improve clinical pharmacy services.
Redman, B K
The pharmacy profession's responsibility to provide ethical leadership to its members is explained, and areas where pharmacy should take a leadership role are described. Changes taking place in health care offer many opportunities for pharmacy in its transformation into a fully clinical discipline. The profession needs to address the ethical issues that will affect it as part of this revolution. The role pharmacy is taking to eliminate medication misadventuring will be a test case for the profession's ability to exert the leadership it must, as part of its new definition of itself. Pharmacy needs to define the structure, process, and outcomes necessary to improve its own practice to avoid drug misadventuring, with a clear set of practice and ethical standards, and engage medicine and nursing to adopt similar standards. Pharmacy should also take a leadership role in health care reform, working with other clinicians to ensure that the changes provide better outcomes for patients. Health care professionals are bound together by a common moral purpose: to act in the patient's best interest. Thus, each health profession is a moral community, which must determine and promote ethical behavior among its members. Pharmacy must practice ethical leadership: it must define and prove its contribution to patient outcomes, further develop legal and ethical standards, and examine its responsibilities for vulnerable patient groups such as children. It must work to overcome the traditional dominance of medicine; pharmacy, nursing, and medicine must come together in service of the patient and develop a cross-professional conception of ethics. Pharmacy also must participate in the broader debate about health care. Pharmacy has begun to take a leadership role among the health professions through its efforts to eliminate medication misadventuring. Additional leadership challenges for the profession are suggested.
Desselle, Shane P
Pharmacy technicians are a vital part of the health care workforce. Little is known about perceptions of their own work environment that would engender more effective recruitment, retention, and management strategies by pharmacists and employers. The purpose of this study was to gain a greater understanding of certified pharmacy technician worklife. Specific objectives included the identification of themes of worklife phenomena to assist with the development of appropriate responses by other pharmacy stakeholders and to ascertain the contribution of various factors engendering or discouraging career commitment of pharmacy technicians. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with a convenience sample of pharmacy technicians in one U.S. state, who varied by their work settings and level of experience. The interview guide and corresponding participant responses were framed from around an organizational cultural basis rooted in organizational behavior theory. Notes from the interviews were analyzed thematically using directed content analysis. Four primary themes emerged, including: career impetus, job responsibilities, quality of work life, and equitable partnership. The data revealed pharmacy technicians' need for self-actualization and recognition of the value they bring to the organization. The participants identified primary responsibilities that contribute to their sense of worth and those that if not managed adequately potentially detract from their well-being and effectiveness. Findings in regard to rate of pay corroborate previous work on wages as both an intrinsic and extrinsic motivator. Pharmacy technicians seek equity among each other (their peers) and in a mutually beneficial relationship with their employing organization. This study provides the impetus for interventions and further study that should serve to enhance pharmacy technician effectiveness, quality of work life, and longevity in an emerging profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
Santos, Thiago R; Penm, Jonathan; Baldoni, André O; Ayres, Lorena Rocha; Moles, Rebekah; Sanches, Cristina
This study aims to describe the distribution of the hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil. Data were acquired, during 2016, through the Brazilian National Database of Healthcare Facilities (CNES). The following variables were extracted: hospital name, registry number, telephone, e-mail, state, type of institution, subtype, management nature, ownership, presence of research/teaching activities, complexity level, number of hospital beds, presence of pharmacists, number of pharmacists, pharmacist specialization. All statistical analyses were performed by IBM SPSS v.19. The number of hospitals with a complete registry in the national database was 4790. The majority were general hospitals (77.9%), managed by municipalities (66.1%), under public administration (44.0%), had no research/teaching activities (90.5%), classified as medium complexity (71.6%), and had no pharmacist in their team (50.6%). Furthermore, almost 60.0% of hospitals did not comply with the minimum recommendations of having a pharmacist per 50 hospital beds. The Southeast region had the highest prevalence of pharmacists, with 64.4% of hospitals having a pharmaceutical professional. This may have occurred as this region had the highest population to hospital ratio. Non-profit hospitals were more likely to have pharmacists compared to those under public administration and private hospitals. This study mapped the hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil, showing a higher prevalence of hospital pharmacists in the Southeast region, and in non-profit specialized hospitals.
Corelli, Robin L; Chai, Tiffany; Karic, Alda; Fairman, Melinda; Baez, Karina; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek
To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.
Schommer, Jon C; Bonnarens, Joseph K; Brown, Lawrence M; Goode, Jean-Venable Kelly R
To describe and compare perceptions of key informants representing U.S. colleges/schools of pharmacy and community pharmacy practice sites regarding (1) value associated with community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) and (2) barriers to offering CPRPs . Descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study. United States, June 13, 2009, through July 13, 2009. 554 respondents to a Web-based survey. Key informants representing the following four organizational groups were surveyed: (1) colleges/schools of pharmacy participating in CPRPs, (2) colleges/schools of pharmacy not participating in CPRPs, (3) CPRP community pharmacy practice sites, and (4) non-CPRP community pharmacy practice sites. Value of CPRPs to participating pharmacies, value of CPRPs to participating colleges/schools of pharmacy, and barriers to offering CPRPs. Overall, 267 key informants from colleges/schools of pharmacy and 287 key informants from pharmacy practice sites responded to the survey (n = 554 total respondents). Of these, 334 responders provided data that were usable for analysis. The most important types of value to the respondents were altruistic in nature (e.g., pharmacy education development, pharmacy profession development, community engagement). However, barriers to offering CPRPs were more practical and included challenges related to accreditation and operational issues. Further, evidence indicated that (1) lack of leadership, (2) lack of revenue generated from such programs, and (3) the cost of reimbursement for residents may be fundamental, multidimensional barriers to implementing CPRPs. Guidelines for starting and continuing CPRPs, "industry norms" that would require CPRP training for certain types of employment, and creation of models for patient care revenue would help develop and position CPRPs in the future.
Mandt, Ingunn; Horn, Anne Marie; Ekedahl, Anders; Granas, Anne Gerd
Evidence suggests that prescription intervention frequencies have been found to vary as much as 10-fold among Norwegian pharmacies and among pharmacists within the same pharmacy. To explore community pharmacists' perceptions of how their prescription intervention practices were influenced by their working environment, their technological resources, the physical and social structures of the pharmacies, their relations with colleagues, and to the individual pharmacist's professional skills. Two focus groups consisting of 14 community pharmacists in total, from urban and rural areas in Norway, discussed their working procedures and professional judgments related to prescription interventions. Organizational theories were used as theoretical and analytical frameworks in the study. A framework based on Leavitt's organizational model was to structure our interview guide. The study units were the statements of the individual pharmacists. Recurrent themes were identified and condensed. Two processes describing variations in the dispensing workflow including prescription interventions were derived--an active dispensing process extracting information about the patient's medication from several sources and a fast dispensing process focusing mainly on the information available on the prescription. Both workflow processes were used in the same pharmacies and by the same pharmacist but on different occasions. A pharmacy layout allowing interactions between pharmacist and patients and a convenient organization of technology, layout, pharmacist-patient and pharmacist-coworker transactions at the workplace was essential for detecting and solving prescription problems. Pharmacists limited their contact with general practitioners when they considered the problem a formality and/or when they knew the answers themselves. The combined use of dispensing software and the Internet was a driving force toward more independent and cognitively advanced prescription interventions
Lecher, Shirley Lee; Shrestha, Ram K; Botts, Linda W; Alvarez, Jorge; Moore, James H; Thomas, Vasavi; Weidle, Paul J
To document the cost of implementing point-of-care (POC) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rapid testing in busy community pharmacies and retail clinics. Providing HIV testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics is an innovative way to expand HIV testing. The cost of implementing POC HIV rapid testing in a busy retail environment needs to be documented to provide program and policy leaders with adequate information for planning and budgeting. Cost analysis from a pilot project that provided confidential POC HIV rapid testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics. The pharmacy sites were operated under several different ownership structures (for-profit, nonprofit, sole proprietorship, corporation, public, and private) in urban and rural areas. We included data from the initial six sites that participated in the project. We collected the time spent by pharmacy and retail clinic staff for pretest and posttest counseling in an activity log for time-in-motion for each interaction. Pharmacists and retail clinic staff. HIV rapid testing. The total cost was calculated to include costs of test kits, control kits, shipping, test supplies, training, reporting, program administration, and advertising. The six sites trained 22 staff to implement HIV testing. A total of 939 HIV rapid tests were conducted over a median time of 12 months, of which 17 were reactive. Median pretest counseling time was 2 minutes. Median posttest counseling time was 2 minutes for clients with a nonreactive test and 10 minutes for clients with a reactive test. The average cost per person tested was an estimated $47.21. When we considered only recurrent costs, the average cost per person tested was $32.17. Providing POC HIV rapid testing services required a modest amount of staff time and costs that are comparable to other services offered in these settings. HIV testing in pharmacies and retail clinics can provide an additional alternative venue for increasing the
Perepelkin, Jason; Dobson, Roy Thomas
Ownership of community pharmacies is increasingly being controlled by a relatively small number of corporate entities. The influence of this ownership type should not be ignored, because ownership has the ability to impact pharmacy practice. To examine the relationship between ownership type and community pharmacy managers with regard to role orientation, role affinity, and role conflict. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacy managers in Canada by means of a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to a stratified sample of community pharmacies. Statistical analysis consisted of exploratory factor analysis with reliability testing on identified constructs. Frequencies, 1-way analyses of variance, and Scheffe post hoc tests were used to determine significant differences among groups, including ownership structure, on each of the constructs. A total of 646 completed questionnaires were received (32.9% response rate). Most of the respondents were males (60.8%), with slightly less than half of the respondents identifying their practice type as an independent pharmacy (44.6%). There were 5 multi-item scale constructs (professional orientation, business orientation, professional affinity, business affinity, and role conflict) arising from the data, which were analyzed against the pharmacy ownership structure (independent, franchise, corporate) independent variable. Analysis revealed significant differences for 3 of the 5 constructs; however, no differences were seen regarding the 2 professionally focused constructs. Community pharmacy managers/owners are generally oriented to their professional role; however, those working in a corporate pharmacy environment are less oriented to their business role when compared with those working in an independent or franchise pharmacy environment. Further research is needed to identify different practice cultures that may exist in various practice settings and the extent to which these cultures
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is the...
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
... by means of the Internet as an online pharmacy (but continue its business activity as a non-online... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under...
Kujundzić, N; Inić, S
The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry).
The Nuclear Pharmacy Certificate Program (NPCP) was developed to meet the need for licensed pharmacists wishing to change career paths and enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy. Additionally, the NPCP benefits employers that wish to employ a nuclear pharmacist in lieu of waiting for graduates that are available only at one time yearly from a college of pharmacy. The NPCP is not intended to replace traditional nuclear pharmacy education in academic institutions, but to offer an another option to pharmacists and potential employers. The NPCP is divided into two components. One component involves over 130 hours of instruction through videotapes and accompanying workbooks. This component is completed while working in a nuclear pharmacy and with the assistance of a nuclear pharmacist serving as a supervisor. The nuclear pharmacist is available to answer questions and to administer examinations over the videotape material. Examinations are prepared by Purdue faculty and returned for grading. Scores on exams must reflect learning to the same degree as in an academic environment. In the second component of the NPCP, the trainee attends a two-week session in the School of Pharmacy at Purdue University. the trainee must complete a significant portion of the videotape material before the on-campus session. In the on-campus component, videotape material is reinforced and expanded by laboratory exercises and lectures in dedicated, fully-equipped laboratories employed in the School of Pharmacy undergraduate program in nuclear pharmacy. Nuclear pharmacy faculty and consultants provide individualized instruction to each trainee. Assimilation of lecture and laboratory material is determined through several examinations. A comprehensive examination is administered which includes content from the videotape-workbook component of the NPCP. Certification is awarded to trainees who have completed the program and demonstrated their knowledge and competence by examination. Almost 200
Chanakit, Teeraporn; Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire
To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization's (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards' Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council's Quality Assessment (ONESQA). This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country's needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated.
Atkinson, Jeffrey; de Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie
This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education), and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it), on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist. PMID:28970385
Full Text Available This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education, and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it, on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents < 40 and > 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist.
Olin, Bernie R.
The root cause of most chronic diseases in America is self-inflicted through an unhealthy lifestyle including poor diet, insufficient exercise, inability to maintain a healthy weight, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. Americans' ability to adhere to healthy lifestyles appears to be declining.1,2 The pharmacy profession, while positioned to provide an answer to this problem, has done little. In addition, academic pharmacy's primary focus is on drugs and diseases with limited instruction in the area of wellness. It is time for pharmacy education to step up and take a leadership role in enhancing the wellness of Americans. PMID:20585430
Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D
research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing.......This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie
Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....
Cochran, Gerald; Bacci, Jennifer L; Ylioja, Thomas; Hruschak, Valerie; Miller, Sharon; Seybert, Amy L; Tarter, Ralph
Opioid pain medication misuse is a major concern for US public health. The purpose of this article is to: 1) describe the demographic and physical, behavioral, and mental health characteristics of patients who fill opioid medications in community pharmacy settings; and 2) describe the extent of opioid medication misuse behaviors among these patients. We recruited and screened a convenience sample of patients with the use of a tablet computer-based assessment protocol that examined behavioral, mental, and physical health. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated to describe respondents and their opioid medication misuse and health characteristics. Patients were screened in 2 urban and 2 rural community pharmacies in southwestern Pennsylvania. Survey participants were adult patients filling opioid pain medications who were not currently receiving treatment for a cancer diagnosis. None. Validated screening measures included the Prescription Opioid Misuse Index, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test C, Short Form 12, Drug Abuse Screening Test 10, Primary Care Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) screen, and the Patient Health Questionnaire 2. A total of 333 patients were screened (71.2% response rate). Nearly the entire population reported pain above and general health below national norms. Hydrocodone (19.2%) and morphine (20.8%) were found to be the medications with the highest rates of misuse-with hydrocodone having more than 4 times higher odds of misuse compared with other medications (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-17.4). Patients with positive screens for illicit drug use (AOR 8.07, 95% CI 2.7-24.0), PTSD (AOR 5.88, 95% CI 2.3-14.7), and depression (AOR 2.44, 95% CI 1.0-5.9) also had significantly higher odds for misuse compared with those with negative screening results. These findings provide important foundational data that suggest implementation of regular opioid misuse screening protocols within
Full Text Available New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As a result, this vacuum is on the verge of being impinged by pharmacy professionals specialized in entirely different domains which would be detrimental to the future prospects of the development of pharmacy practice in Pakistan.
Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural ...
Full Text Available The contemporary trends and concepts in pharmacy are widely affected by the emergence of Nano-, Bio- or Info- technologies (NBI as an attempt to develop different principles of medicine. This commentary is trying to make a think tank room for 50 years ahead of today’s pharmacy, where the ambience of pharmacy will be affected by such technologies together with cognition (NBIC to achieve intelligent, low adverse reaction and holistic action medicals.
Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra
Background: There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. Objectives: To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. Material and Methods: The final year students o...
Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya
The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were assessed on four point Likert scale of agreement. The scores were summed and dichotomized based on an arbitrary 50% cut-off score to assess positive and negative beliefs. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. A total of 313 participants (89.4%) responded to the questionnaire. Participants' behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership with the mean scores of 13.90 ± 0.41 (score range: 6-24), 9.66 ± 0.49 (score range: 4-16) and 16.88 ± 0.40 (score range: 7-28) respectively. Professional year and family business were significantly associated with intentions of pharmacy students to own a pharmacy (p entrepreneurship course in pharmacy school may transform the beliefs of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership.
Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy education has been changed in recent years. Pharmacy students need more practical and clinical skills which come from direct interaction with patients and other health care providers. To achieve this, students need more effective courses and clerkships. In this paper we describe our method to design and evaluate clinical pharmacy clerkship for the first time in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS.Methods: To determine the most beneficial way of education we designed a pilot study in educational hospital of AJUMS. After analyzing the conclusions from pilot study, 40 fifth year pharmacy student divided in ten groups and each group had a six week rotation in three different wards under supervision of medical residents. Each student was asked to provide evaluations during six total weeks of three different rotation sites.Results and Discussion: Clinical pharmacy clerkship led to successfully improved clinical skills for students such as being familiar with different practice environments, direct communication whit patients and medical team and participation in direct patient care activities. All the students participate in the course could pass the final exam and 85% of students believed this would be a necessary education course in their clerkship programs. Although there were some problems but pharmacy students benefited from this course and it gives them advantages in clinical knowledge and professional communication skills.
Isabel Pimenta Jacinto
Full Text Available Community Pharmacies’ legal framework (regulated by the decree-law nº 307/2007, 31st August established the possibility of provision of pharmaceutical services to promote health and well-being by pharmacies. Due to its characteristics in terms of access and geographical distribution, pharmacies are health providers which can contribute to increase the immunization coverage with benefits in terms of public health. In this article, it is described the national and international framework of the implementation of vaccination services in pharmacies and the results of its implementation. It is also conducted a reflection on strengthening the role of pharmacies and its contribution to the national targets for immunization coverage and public health.
Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed
Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.
... using Community Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe): A ... (CP) for filling prescription, and purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) and health ... Prescription Filling, Over-the-counter Products, Financial Management ...
Gourley, Dick R; Vaidya, Varun A; Hufstader, Meghan A; Ray, Max D; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A
This report describes the experiences of the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy over 20 years with an international capstone educational experience for students. Although the university provides reciprocal opportunities to international students, this report focuses on the experiences of the college's pharmacy students who have participated in the program. This capstone course is offered as an elective course in the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) component of the college's experiential program. Goals of the program and a brief description of its organizational structure are provided. Results of a structured student satisfaction survey and a survey covering the most recent 3 years of the program are presented. This program has greatly broadened participants' cultural horizons and expanded their global view and understanding of the contributions of pharmacy to health care.
Austin, Zubin; Gregory, Paul A; Martin, Craig
To develop and establish the validity and reliability of a conflict management scale specific to pharmacy practice and education. A multistage inventory-item development process was undertaken involving 93 pharmacists and using a previously described explanatory model for conflict in pharmacy practice. A 19-item inventory was developed, field tested, and validated. The conflict management scale (CMS) demonstrated an acceptable degree of reliability and validity for use in educational or practice settings to promote self-reflection and self-awareness regarding individuals' conflict management styles. The CMS provides a unique, pharmacy-specific method for individuals to determine and reflect upon their own conflict management styles. As part of an educational program to facilitate self-reflection and heighten self-awareness, the CMS may be a useful tool to promote discussions related to an important part of pharmacy practice.
Devnani, M; Gupta, Ak; Nigah, R
The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy.
Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...
Peirce, Gretchen L; Smith, Michael J; Abate, Marie A; Halverson, Joel
Prescription drug abuse is a major health concern nationwide, with West Virginia having one of the highest prescription drug death rates in the United States. Studies are lacking that compare living subjects with persons who died from drug overdose for evidence of doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances. The study objectives were to compare deceased and living subjects in West Virginia for evidence of prior doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances and to identify factors associated with drug-related death. A secondary data study was conducted using controlled substance, Schedule II-IV, prescription data from the West Virginia Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and drug-related death data compiled by the Forensic Drug Database between July 2005 and December 2007. A case-control design compared deceased subjects 18 years and older whose death was drug related with living subjects for prior doctor and pharmacy shopping. Logistic regression identified factors related to the odds of drug-related death. A significantly greater proportion of deceased subjects were doctor shoppers (25.21% vs. 3.58%) and pharmacy shoppers (17.48% vs. 1.30%) than living subjects. Approximately 20.23% of doctor shoppers were also pharmacy shoppers, and 55.60% of pharmacy shoppers were doctor shoppers. Younger age, greater number of prescriptions dispensed, exposure to opioids and benzodiazepines, and doctor and pharmacy shopping were factors with greater odds of drug-related death. Doctor and pharmacy shopping involving controlled substances were identified, and shopping behavior was associated with drug-related death. Prescription monitoring programs may be useful in identifying potential shoppers at the point of care.
Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J
Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.
Khan, M O Faruk; Deimling, Michael J; Philip, Ashok
The origins and advancements of pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and drug discovery are interwoven in nature. Medicinal chemistry provides pharmacy students with a thorough understanding of drug mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships (SAR), acid-base and physicochemical properties, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles. A comprehensive understanding of the chemical basis of drug action equips pharmacy students with the ability to answer rationally the "why" and "how" questions related to drug action and it sets the pharmacist apart as the chemical expert among health care professionals. By imparting an exclusive knowledge base, medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in providing critical thinking and evidence-based problem-solving skills to pharmacy students, enabling them to make optimal patient-specific therapeutic decisions. This review highlights the parallel nature of the history of pharmacy and medicinal chemistry, as well as the key elements of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery that make it an indispensable component of the pharmacy curriculum.
A. A. Deltsov
Full Text Available Nowadays there is an active growth of veterinary pharmacy organizations and consumed medicinal drugs for veterinary use. Content-analysis showed that there was an insufficient number of studies devoted to the activity of veterinary pharmacies. The purpose of our work was the analysis of correspondence of range fullness of veterinary pharmacies to the contemporary state of pharmaceutical market of drugs for veterinary use. Veterinary clinics and pharmacies of Moscow and Moscow oblast were the object of our study. We have applied sociological methods (questionnaire, interview, marketing and statistic analysis methods. We have established that liquid dosage forms (53% occupy the biggest part of drugs in the State Registry of Veterinary Drugs. Solutions occupy 68% of this amount. Antimicrobial drugs for systematic use (40% are the most numerous drugs from pharmacotheraperutic group represented in the State Registry. Assortment of veterinary drugs is targeted mainly on a farm livestock (more than 50%. 58% of the market share is domestic drugs. Principal commodity groups which are released by veterinary pharmacies are feed-stuff (31% and drugs (30%. Pharmacy organizations does not have sufficient number of drugs in their assortment (fullness coefficient 7.9% which speaks about nonconformity of the assortment fullness.
Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C; Jungnickel, Paul W; Correia, Christopher J
To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.
Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra
There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. The final year students of Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) from four colleges of Nagpur were enrolled for the study after informed consent. Their base knowledge was assessed through a written test which comprised of 27 objective questions related to rational pharmacy practice. This was followed by a series of seven articles on rational medicine use, published in leading local English news daily. The participants were reminded to read them on the day of publication of each article. As a backup, the articles were displayed on the notice board of respective colleges. Second intervention was a half day interactive session where series of six lectures were delivered to the participants on the right and wrong approaches in pharmacy practice. Posters about the do's and dont's of rational pharmacy practice were also displayed at the venue. The session was followed by a repeat test using the same pre-test to assess the change. Pre and post intervention data was compared using Fisher's Exact test. It was observed that the intervention did bring about a positive change in the attitude and knowledge of the final year Pharmacy students about rational pharmacy practice. The role of a pharmacist in health care provision is usually overlooked in India. Hence there is strong need for reinforcement in final year B. Pharm when most of the students go in for community service. Such interventions will be helpful in bringing about a positive change towards rational practice of pharmacy. This study showed that a properly timed and meticulously implemented intervention brings
Background Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines “the Basel Statements”. Method We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Results Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors’ prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies’ marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Conclusions Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in
Full Text Available Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements".We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements.Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none.Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal
Shrestha, Mina; Moles, Rebekah; Ranjit, Eurek; Chaar, Betty
Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements". We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. Adoption and
Full Text Available Reflective inquiries to better understand ‘the rural’ have tried to embed rural research within the notion of performativity. Performativity assumes that the capacity of language is not simply to communicate but also to consummate action, whereupon citational uses of concepts produce a series of material effects. Of late, this philosophical shift has also implicated geographers as active agents in producing, reproducing and performing rurality. This paper provides a critical evaluation of what this new insistence really means for the production of geographical knowledge. Using framework analysis as a method, the paper scrutinizes several reportedly influential papers on the topic of rural performativity. Our findings reveal that, while indeed reflexive on issues of academic integrity, methodology and ethics, performances of rurality are continuedly placed ‘out there’ amongst ‘rural people’, i.e. in a priori defined and often stereotypically understood contexts, either by way of ‘spatial delimitation’ or ‘activity delimitation’. Effectively, such testimonies provide a truncated state of fidelity, where performance- oriented reflexivity is seconded by contradictory empirics of uneven value and with few commonalities. We conclude that by turning towards performativity as an allegedly more helpful way of obtaining rural coherence, we at the same time overlook our own role in keeping ‘rural theory’ alive.
Erstad, Brian L; Mann, Henry J; Weber, Robert J
Critical care medicine has grown from a small group of physicians participating in patient care rounds in surgical and medical intensive care units (ICUs) to a highly technical, interdisciplinary team. Pharmacy's growth in the area of critical care is as exponential. Today's ICU requires a comprehensive pharmaceutical service that includes both operational and clinical services to meet patient medication needs. This article provides the elements for a business plan to justify critical care pharmacy services by describing the pertinent background and benefit of ICU pharmacy services, detailing a current assessment of ICU pharmacy services, listing the essential ICU pharmacy services, describing service metrics, and delineating an appropriate timeline for implementing an ICU pharmacy service. The structure and approach of this business plan can be applied to a variety of pharmacy services. By following the format and information listed in this article, the pharmacy director can move closer to developing patient-centered pharmacy services for ICU patients.
This article describes a pharmacy student's notebook in Lille in the 1870s. The Medical Natural History course is taught by Alfred Mathieu Giard. Following a brief biography of the latter, excerpts of the manuscript are presented, they reveal the extent of scientific knowledge of the late nineteenth century, especially in the field of Parasitology.
Naughton, Cynthia A; Friesner, Daniel L
To determine whether a correlation exists between third-year PharmD students' perceived pharmacy knowledge and actual pharmacy knowledge as assessed by the Pharmacy Curricular Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). In 2010 and 2011, the PCOA was administered in a low-stakes environment to third-year pharmacy students at North Dakota State University College of Pharmacy, Nursing, and Allied Sciences (COPNAS). A survey instrument was also administered on which students self-assessed their perceived competencies in each of the core areas covered by the PCOA examination. The pharmacy students rated their competencies slightly higher than average. Performance on the PCOA was similar to but slightly higher than national averages. Correlations between each of the 4 content areas (basic biomedical sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, social/administrative sciences, and clinical sciences) mirrored those reported nationally by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP). Student performance on the basic biomedical sciences portion of the PCOA was significantly correlated with students' perceived competencies in the biomedical sciences. No other correlations between actual and perceived competencies were significant. A lack of correlation exists between what students perceive they know and what they actually know in the areas of pharmaceutical science; social, behavioral, and administrative science; and clinical science. Therefore, additional standardized measures are needed to assess curricular effectiveness and provide comparisons among pharmacy programs.
Friesner, Daniel L.
Objective. To determine whether a correlation exists between third-year PharmD students’ perceived pharmacy knowledge and actual pharmacy knowledge as assessed by the Pharmacy Curricular Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Methods. In 2010 and 2011, the PCOA was administered in a low-stakes environment to third-year pharmacy students at North Dakota State University College of Pharmacy, Nursing, and Allied Sciences (COPNAS). A survey instrument was also administered on which students self-assessed their perceived competencies in each of the core areas covered by the PCOA examination. Results. The pharmacy students rated their competencies slightly higher than average. Performance on the PCOA was similar to but slightly higher than national averages. Correlations between each of the 4 content areas (basic biomedical sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, social/administrative sciences, and clinical sciences) mirrored those reported nationally by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP). Student performance on the basic biomedical sciences portion of the PCOA was significantly correlated with students’ perceived competencies in the biomedical sciences. No other correlations between actual and perceived competencies were significant. Conclusion. A lack of correlation exists between what students perceive they know and what they actually know in the areas of pharmaceutical science; social, behavioral, and administrative science; and clinical science. Therefore, additional standardized measures are needed to assess curricular effectiveness and provide comparisons among pharmacy programs. PMID:22611272
Koehler, Tamara; Brown, A.
a b s t r a c t Introduction: Understanding how pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres assist pharmacists in the healthcare system will facilitate developing health systems with the ability to achieve universal health coverage as it is defined in different country contexts.
Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel
Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…
Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig
of pharmacists in ADR reporting, although varies significantly among countries. Pharmacists in community pharmacies are in a unique position for detection of experienced ADRs by the drug users. The study reports from a study on community pharmacy internship students' proactive role in ADR detection through...
Dobson, Roy Thomas; Perepelkin, Jason
In recent years, the number of independently owned pharmacies has declined even as the total number of pharmacies in Canada has increased. With increasing corporate ownership, there is concern that this trend will adversely affect the profession's ability to influence pharmacy practice and practice change. To examine the relationship between ownership type and community pharmacy managers in terms of professional and employer authority, managerial autonomy, decision making, and amount of control. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacy managers in Canada by means of a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to a stratified sample of community pharmacies. Statistical analysis consisted of exploratory factor analysis with reliability testing on identified constructs. Frequencies, 1-way analyses of variance, Scheffe post hoc tests, and general linear modeling were used to determine significant differences among groups based on ownership type. In total, 646 of 1961 questionnaires from pharmacy managers were completed and returned (response rate 32.9%). Respondents rated their authority similarly across ownership types. Autonomy, decision-making capabilities, and control needed to carry out the professional role appear most limited among corporate respondents and, to a lesser extent, franchise managers. Pharmacy managers currently perceive a high level of authority; but with limited autonomy among corporate managers, it is unclear whether this authority is sufficient to prevent the subordination of both patient and professional interests to financial interests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poirier, Suzanne; Mrtek, Robert G.
An undergraduate professional elective course emphasizing the study of literary and fine arts works portraying pharmacy and pharmacists, developed to give pharmacy students a variety of experiences with role perceptions, is described. Students examine, discuss, and critique fiction, drama, music, the visual arts, and other creative works. (MSE)
Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.
Ullah, Hanif; Zada, Wahid; Khan, Muhammad Sona; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chohan, Osaam; Raza, Naeem; Khawaja, Naeem Raza; Abid, Syed Mobasher Ali; Murtazai, Ghulam
The main objective of this study was to assess the practice at retail pharmacies in Pakistan and to compare the same in rural and urban areas. The maintenance of pharmacy and drug inspectors' visit was also assessed. This cross sectional study was conducted in Abbottabad, Pakistan during October-November, 2012. A sample of 215 drug sellers or drug stores was selected by employing convenient sampling method. With a response rate of 91.6%, 197 drug sellers participated in this study. All the drug sellers were male. Overall, 35% (n = 197) of the drug sellers did not have any professional qualification. A majority of the drug sellers were involved in various malpractices like selling of medicines without prescription (80.7%), prescribing practice (60.9%), prescription intervention (62.4%) and selling of controlled substances (66%) without a license for selling it. These malpractices were significantly higher in rural area than that in urban area.
McDonough, Randal P; Harthan, Aaron A; McLeese, Kelly E; Doucette, William R
To determine the net financial gain or loss for medication therapy management (MTM) services provided to patients by an independent community pharmacy during 16 months of operation. Retrospective study. Independent community pharmacy in Iowa City, IA, from September 1, 2006, to December 31, 2007. Patients receiving MTM services during the specified period who had proper documentation of reimbursement for the services. MTM services were provided to the patient and documented by the pharmacist or student pharmacist. Net financial gains or losses for providing MTM services. Sensitivity analyses included costs that might be incurred under various conditions of operation. 103 initial and 88 follow-up MTM visits were conducted during a 16-month time period. The total cost for these services to the pharmacy was $11,191.72. Total revenue from these services was $11,195.00; therefore, the pharmacy experienced a net financial gain of $3.28. Sensitivity analyses were conducted, revealing the net gain/loss to the pharmacy if a student pharmacist was used and the net gain/loss if the pharmacist needed extra training to provide the services. Using a student pharmacist resulted in a net gain of $6,308.48, while extra training for the pharmacist resulted in a net loss of $1,602.72. The MTM service programs showed a positive financial gain after 16 months of operation, which should encourage pharmacists to incorporate these services into their practice.
Stig Nørgaard, Lotte; Wallman, Andy; Bjornsdóttir, Ingunn
Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future Conference Paper in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 13(3):e14 · May 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.02.099 Conference: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy......Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future Conference Paper in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 13(3):e14 · May 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.02.099 Conference: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy...
Wisell, Kristin; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia
Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim...... of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who...... are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks...
Full Text Available Moral and ethical principles in production and distribution of medicaments in R Slovenia are based on medieval heritage reflected in Dispensatorium Norinbergense by Valerius Cordus (1545 as proven by the solemn pledge given by Joanes Leykauff, apothecary at Novo mesto (1598 and the Apothecaries ordinance for the Duchy of Creina (given in Ljubljana, 1710. The subsequent evolution of pharmacy demonstrates the continuos care for quality production and distribution of medicament according to ethical and deontological normatives of its time.Codex of pharmaceutical ethics of the Slovenian pharmaceutical society (2000, Codex of apothecaries deontology by the Apothecaries chamber of Slovenia (1994, The deontological codex of medicinal biochemists of Slovenia (1992 are three basic documents for pharmacist’s activities in Slovenia. Detailed instructions on production, distribution, prescribing and expediting to patients are given by the Medicinal products act and Medical devices act already harmonized with the European aquis communautaire.Some ethical dilemmas concerning prescription free medicinals and selfmedication in EC and R Slovenia are presented. Insufficient or nonexistent communication between patients, medical doctors and pharmacists lead to noncompliant or risky medicamentation.
Veatch, R M
Characteristics of ethical evaluations as they apply to the dilemmas faced by the pharmacist in the workplace are described, and the general principles and theories of Western normative ethics are discussed. Because ethical dilemmas are commonplace in pharmacy practice, pharmacists must develop a working knowledge of formal and systematic ethical analysis, as well as learn to distinguish ethical issues from social, psychological, political, and legal issues. Ethical evaluations are distinguished by three characteristics: They are ultimate, they possess universality, and they treat the good of everyone alike. Ethical analyses can be thought of as having four different and successive stages. The first stage is ensuring that all parties understand the facts of the specific case. If controversy remains after the facts are clear, parties to the dispute can proceed through three successive stages of general moral reflection: (1) the level of moral rules, (2) the level of ethical principles, and (3) the level of ethical theories. Specific moral rules cover groups of cases, and they generally are regarded as being derived from a shorter list of abstract moral principles. An ethical theory is a systematic position about which principles are morally significant, how the principles relate to each other, and how they should be tested. Pursuit of ethical dilemmas through the full hierarchy of levels of analysis exposes simplistic or irrational moral decisions and clarifies the nature of disputes.
Kwai Chong, David Weng; Ahmadi, Keivan; Se, Wong Pei; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Hata, Ernieda Mohammed; Hadi, Muhammed Abdul; Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yean, Low Bee; Efendie, Benny
Objectives To identify and evaluate factors affecting the career preferences of fourth-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students in Malaysia in the presence of a 4-year period of mandatory government service. Methods A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to collect data from final-year BPharm students enrolled at 3 government-funded universities and 1 private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results Three hundred fourteen students responded (213 from public universities and 101 from the private university). Approximately 32% of public university students and 37% of private university students ranked their own interest in pharmacy as the reason for undertaking pharmacy degree studies; 40.4% of public and 19.8% of private university respondents stated that they would enter a nonpharmacy-related career upon graduation if given the choice. Public university students ranked hospital pharmacy as their choice of first career setting (4.39, p = 0.001), while private students ranked community pharmacy first (4.1, p = 0.002). On a scale of 1 to 5, salary received the highest mean score (3.9 and 4.0, p = 0.854) as the extrinsic factor most influencing their career choice. Conclusions Final-year students at Malaysian public universities were most interested in hospital pharmacy practice as their first career step upon graduation, while private university students were most interested in community pharmacy. The top 3 extrinsic factors rated as significant in selecting a career destination were salary, benefits, and geographical location. PMID:21301600
N. O. Tkachenko
Full Text Available Today professionalism is important not only for the characteristics of an individual, but also for the manifestation of professional activities. Self-education, self-training and training on the working place are integral elements of the whole continuous professional development. Various components of professionalism form the social responsibility of pharmacist in contemporary conditions. During all professional activities of pharmacists the continuous formation of administrative, economic, legal, communication, social and information competence takes place. Professionally oriented periodical publications, scientific and practical activities act as assistants in it. The aim of this work was to study the sources of the information professional field of pharmaceutical establishments’ staff in the South-eastern region of Ukraine and to determine the frequency of their use and orientation. Gathering of information was carried out using questionnaires. The structure of the developed questionnaire provided conventional separation of questions into two blocks. The first set of questions in the questionnaire provided respondents’ characteristics by demographic and psychological criteria: age, position, length of service, type of enterprise’s ownership. The second set of questions provided the opportunity to identify the main sources of professional information of the specialists in the region, the frequency of their use and the orientation of information for practical activities. Results and discussion. The respondents were proposed the list of periodicals, which today pharmacy specialists are guided by for understanding of modern trends in medicine and pharmacy. The survey results made it possible to determine the most required in practice, sources of information on modern medicine and pharmacy: special edition "Mister blister", "Weekly Drugstore" and "Pharmacist Practical worker". Experts of various levels of pharmacy management use these
Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Adhikari, Kishor; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; K C, Vikash Kumar; Basnet, Suyog
Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to
Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek
Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted
Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.
Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…
Chilton, H.M.; Witcofski, R.L.
This introductory text reviews fundamental concepts of nuclear pharmacy in a logical, stepwise manner. It presents those aspects of radioactivity basic to nuclear pharmacy including production of radioactivity and the types of instrumentation used to detect and measure radiation
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Bissell, Paul
Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81.......Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81....
... memory to prevent the unauthorized access to, or use of, the private key. (v) The pharmacy application... prescription data into a database or spreadsheet that is readable and sortable. (13) The pharmacy application...
Nazar, Hamde; Nazar, Zachariah
Self-care advice and management of minor ailments have long been provided in community pharmacies across England. However, formal pharmacy minor ailment service provision is geographically variable and has yet to gain recognition and political support as a valued sustainable service for nationwide adoption and commissioning. To investigate the sustainability potential of pharmacy minor ailment services from the perspective of community pharmacy stakeholders within the North East of England. A mixed methods approach was adopted to survey and interview stakeholders from the North East of England who commission; provide; and/or represent groups influencing the design, delivery and investment in community pharmacy clinical and public health services. The 40-item Programme Sustainability Assessment Tool, a validated instrument to assess a public health programme's capacity for sustainability across eight domains, was administered to fifty-three stakeholders, identified from a pharmacy minor ailments showcase event. The same stakeholders were invited for a semi-structured interview to explore issues further. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and underwent framework analysis. Forty-two (79.2% response rate) stakeholders representing commissioning, provider and influencing (e.g. Local Professional Network) organisations completed the assessment tool. Pharmacy minor ailment services were rated as unsustainable across the majority of the domains. Elements within the domain 'Partnerships' demonstrated potential for sustainability. Stakeholder interviews provided detailed explanation for the low scoring sustainability domains, highlighting the multifaceted challenges threatening these services. The Programme Sustainability Assessment Tool allowed stakeholders to evaluate the potential of pharmacy minor ailment services in England. Follow-up interviews highlighted that initial design and implementation of services was poorly conceived and lacked evidence
Full Text Available The role of pharmacies in the social and health systems has gone through significant changes in the last decades of the twentieth century. From the place for the production of medicines, through procurement and distribution, pharmacy eventually became the modern health care facilities that participates in the health system and the retail pharmaceutical market. The dualistic role of pharmacy requires adjustment to the demands of contemporary health policy and market principles. Implementation of modern tools of business, such as marketing, was not present to a greater extent until recently in pharmacies, so this study is focused on the example of Pharmacy Subotica, which emphasizes the practical importance and specifics of marketing in pharmaceutical practice. Activities in the implementation of the marketing mix in the period 2009-2012 will be shown in this paper, as well as indicators of business success of Pharmacies Subotica in the same period. Following a four-year period in which strategy related to elements of the marketing mix strategy (4P, was implemented the growth of financial performance indicators (number of issued fiscal receipt and financially volume of business. At the same time, due to the more rigid regulations, the number of prescriptions in 2012 declined in amount. Pharmacy Subotica is one of the first pharmacies in Serbia, which has structured and implemented marketing planning tools for the purpose of positioning in the retail pharmaceutical market. By modeling business policy in line with modern market principles, developments of information technology and the ethics of health care workers, this institution has made pioneering steps in pharmaceutical marketing in the Serbian pharmacy.
Marković-Peković, Vanda; Grubiša, Nataša
Self-medication with antibiotics adds to the global risk of increased spread of bacterial resistance. Attitudes and behavior of health professionals also may reinforce self-medication with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-medication with antibiotics is possible in our community pharmacies and to what extent, and to evaluate the behavior and service of pharmacy health professionals regarding non-prescription antibiotic dispensation. An observational, cross-section study was conducted, and pseudo-patient methodology was used to establish the kind of professional service provided in case of patient's explicit demand to buy an antibiotic for treatment of self-diagnosed upper respiratory tract infection. Of the total 318 community pharmacies, 131 (41%) were visited and included in the study. Non-prescription antibiotics were dispensed in 76 (58%) pharmacies. Counseling and symptomatic therapy was offered in 88 (67%) pharmacies. In 25% of pharmacies, no symptomatic therapy was offered; instead, only an antibiotic was sold. Amoxicillin was sold in 85% of cases and, mostly, the one of 1.30 Euro per pack. Both oral and written use instructions were given in 78% cases, whereas none was given in 3% of cases. Self-medication with antibiotics occurs in our community pharmacies, despite being illegal. Pharmacy staff behavior can be a factor that puts patients at risk for self-medication with antibiotics. Community pharmacies are failing their tasks in enhancing rational use of antibiotics. Such a practice may be a consequence of weak enforcement and control over the legislation and professional standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan
To describe practice behavior and understanding among pharmacy personnel, both pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff, in the management of mild and moderate migraines. Migraine is recognized as a prevalent and chronic neurological disorder. In developing countries, such as Thailand, community pharmacies are a widely used source of health care for various illnesses including migraine. However, the quality of migraine management and knowledge among pharmacy personnel is unclear. Cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 142 randomly selected community pharmacies in a city in the south of Thailand. Simulated clients visited the pharmacies twice, at least 1 month apart, to ask for the treatment of mild and moderate migraines. After the encounters, question asking, drug dispensing, and advice giving by pharmacy staff were recorded. Subsequently, the providers in 135 pharmacies participated in the interview to evaluate their knowledge in migraine management. The majority of pharmacy personnel were less likely to ask questions in cases of mild migraine when compared with moderate attack (mean score [full score = 12] 1.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.6 ± 1.5, respectively, P knowledge on migraine management. Pharmacists had better knowledge on question asking (mild migraine 5.1 ± 2.1 vs 3.1 ± 1.3, respectively, P knowledge on advice giving but poorer drug dispensing in moderate migraine according to the guidelines, relative to non-pharmacists (20.5% vs 40.3%, P = .014). A large number of community pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff had inappropriate practice behavior and understanding. Continuing education and interventions are important to improve the practice and knowledge of pharmacy personnel, particularly the pharmacists. © 2013 American Headache Society.
Clark, Bartholomew E; Mount, Jeanine K
The importance of organizational culture in shaping everyday organizational life is well accepted, but little work has focused on organizational culture in pharmacy. Examining new pharmacists' experiences at various practice sites may help us to understand how these shape their professional ethos and practice habits. (1) Present development and assessment of the Pharmacy Service Orientation (PSO) measure, a tool for assessing pharmacists' impressions of pharmacy practice sites. (2) Use data gathered from a sample of new pharmacists to explore potential predictors of PSO, including type of practice site, type of pharmacy work experience, and type of pharmacy degree. Mail survey of randomly selected class of 1999 pharmacy graduates within 3 months of graduation (response rate: 259 of 1,850; 14%), each of whom reported on up to 6 different pharmacy practice sites for a total of 1,192 pharmacy observations. Pharmacy Service Orientation is scored on a 1-10 semantic differential scale and reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Predictors of PSO were explored using t test and ordinary least squares regression procedures. Reliability of the PSO across all observations was 0.86. When divided according to recency of experience and type of experience, reliabilities ranged from 0.78 to 0.87. Analysis of potential predictors of PSO showed that non-corporate-community sites had significantly greater pharmaceutical care-oriented cultures (mean PSOs of 7.42 and 5.13, respectively; PService Orientation is a reliable measure. Statistically significant differences in PSO comparisons by degree and by experience type are explained by significant differences between the PSOs of corporate-community and non-corporate-community sites.
In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.
Parrett, E E; Hurd, P D; Northcraft, G; McGhan, W F; Bootman, J L
The leadership styles of hospital pharmacy directors and the association between leadership style, participative management, and innovative pharmaceutical services were studied using a mail questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to 570 randomly selected hospital pharmacy directors. Included were a validated instrument that measures task-oriented versus relationship-oriented leadership behavior and other questions about participation of staff members, innovative services, and respondents' personal characteristics. The response rate was 69%. The majority of respondents perceived their leadership as highly relationship-oriented as well as highly task-oriented. Respondents with the "high relationship-high task" leadership style had the highest scores for subordinate participation. There were no significant differences in scores for innovative services by leadership style. A positive correlation between scores for subordinate participation and scores for innovative services was demonstrated. Most hospital pharmacy directors used a management style in which relationships and staff participation were important.
Morgall, Janine M.; Almarsdóttir, Anna B.
In this article, we argue that the extended role of the pharmacy profession appears to be driven more by professional interests than by the interests of the consumer. We believe that a better understanding of market trends in general, as well as research into consumer needs, will ultimately give...... the best results for the profession. We focus on the rise of consumerism and what is referred to as the 'new' or 'aggressive' consumer. We argue that unless the pharmacy profession understands this widespread phenomenon, it will continue to shoot wide of its goal to increase public support and to develop...... an appreciation of the pharmacist's professional skills. We propose that pharmacy practice research should analyse the current situation from the consumer perspective within the context of changes in society, specifically within the health care system....
Cisneros, Robert M
To determine whether changes occur over 1 academic year in pharmacy students' critical thinking skills and disposition to think critically. First, second, third, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) at the beginning and end of 1 academic year. One hundred thirty-seven students completed the study. No significant changes occurred over the year in total scores on either instrument. However, scores in 3 of 12 subscale scores changed significantly and several significant correlations were found. Pharmacy students' scores on 2 critical thinking instruments showed no major improvements over 1 academic year but most scores were above average. Some areas of possible weakness were identified. Additional studies comparing scores over a longer period of time (eg, admission to graduation) are needed.
Stuart, Gina M; Kale, Helen L
Fall injuries among people aged 65 years and over (older people) cause substantial health decline and cost to the health system. In 2009 in New South Wales, 25.6% of older people fell in the previous year, and 10.7% (32 000) were hospitalised. Pharmacists are trusted professionals, who interact extensively with older people and have potential to augment fall prevention in pharmacies. This brief report describes how professional development improved pharmacist's knowledge and confidence in fall prevention, encouraged implementation of fall prevention plans and facilitated the provision of brief fall prevention interventions for older clients, after identification of fall risk. In 2014, pharmacists from all Central Coast pharmacies (n = 76) were invited to free, continuing professional development (CPD) in fall prevention. It provided education and resources to identify clients' fall risk, conduct brief fall prevention interventions and implement fall prevention health promotion plans (FPHPP). Pharmacists completed written: Baseline and post-workshop questionnaires to assess changes in pharmacist's knowledge and confidence, and existing fall prevention in pharmacies. Logs of client fall risk and brief fall prevention interventions offered to clients. Four-month follow-up questionnaires to assess implementation of FPHPPs and pharmacy practice changes. Pharmacists representing 36% of pharmacies participated. At four-month follow-up, 67% had implemented FPHPPs, and 62% delivered brief interventions determined by client fall risk. Fall prevention in pharmacies can be augmented through locally provided CPD tailored for pharmacists. SO WHAT?: This model could increase fall prevention reach. It is transferable to settings where health professionals provide services to older adults and require reregistration through professional development. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.
Fuller, Patrick D
An innovative, structured approach to incorporating leadership development activities into pharmacy residency training is described. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) has called for increased efforts to make leadership development an integral component of the training of pharmacy students and new practitioners. In 2007, The Nebraska Medical Center (TNMC) took action to systematize leadership training in its pharmacy residency programs by launching a new Leadership Development Series. Throughout the residency year, trainees at TNMC participate in a variety of activities: (1) focused group discussions of selected articles on leadership concepts written by noted leaders of the past and present, (2) a two-day offsite retreat featuring trust-building exercises and physical challenges, (3) a self-assessment designed to help residents identify and use their untapped personal strengths, (4) training on the effective application of different styles of communication and conflict resolution, and (5) education on the history and evolution of health-system pharmacy, including a review and discussion of lectures by recipients of ASHP's Harvey A. K. Whitney Award. Feedback from residents who have completed the series has been positive, with many residents indicating that it has stimulated their professional growth and helped prepared them for leadership roles. A structured Leadership Development Series exposes pharmacy residents to various leadership philosophies and principles and, through the study of Harvey A. K. Whitney Award lectures, to the thoughts of past and present pharmacy leaders. Residents develop an increased self-awareness through a resident fall retreat, a StrengthsFinder assessment, and communication and conflict-mode assessment tools.
Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.
Pattin, Anthony J; Kelling, Sarah E; Szyskowski, Jim; Izor, Michelle L; Findley, Susan
Pharmacy internships provide students with practical experiences that lead to enhancement of clinical skills and personal growth. To describe the design and implementation of a structured 10-week summer pharmacy internship program in a supermarket chain pharmacy. The pharmacy leadership team developed and piloted a new format of the pharmacy internship during the summer of 2013. Pharmacy students in professional year 1 (P1), 2 (P2), and 4 (P4) were invited to apply for a paid internship. Pharmacy students were recruited from all colleges of pharmacy in the state of Michigan. The goal of the new program was to create a focused learning opportunity that encouraged students to develop knowledge, skills, and abilities about patient care, pharmacy management, and working within a team. A total of 19 interns were recruited (P1 = 7, P2 = 7, and P4 = 5). Students practiced 40 hours per week and participated in the medication dispensing process and employee biometrics screening program. Interns provided approximately 500 assessments on pharmacy employees and all P1 and P2 interns completed a patient care project. The restructured internship program provided pharmacy students with a 10-week program that exposed them to many aspects of community pharmacy practice. The program needs future refinement and assessment measures to verify interns improve skills throughout the program. © The Author(s) 2015.
McDowell, Alissa L; Huang, Yu-Li
A weighted scoring system was used to select a pharmacy layout redesign. Facilities layout design techniques were applied at a local hospital pharmacy using a step-by-step design process. The process involved observing and analyzing the current situation, observing the current available space, completing activity flow charts of the pharmacy processes, completing communication and material relationship charts to detail which areas in the pharmacy were related to one another and how they were related, researching applications in other pharmacies or in scholarly works that could be beneficial, numerically defining space requirements for areas within the pharmacy, measuring the available space within the pharmacy, developing a set of preliminary designs, and modifying preliminary designs so they were all acceptable to the pharmacy staff. To select a final layout that could be implemented in the pharmacy, those layouts were compared via a weighted scoring system. The weighted aspect further allowed additional emphasis on categories based on their effect on pharmacy performance. The results produced a beneficial layout design as determined through simulated models of the pharmacy operation that more effectively allocated and strategically located space to improve transportation distances and materials handling, employee utilization, and ergonomics. Facilities layout designs for a hospital pharmacy were evaluated using a weighted scoring system to identify a design that was superior to both the current layout and alternative layouts in terms of feasibility, cost, patient safety, employee safety, flexibility, robustness, transportation distance, employee utilization, objective adherence, maintainability, usability, and environmental impact.
Objective: To evaluate pharmacy students' perception of the application of learning management system (LMS) in their education in a Doctor of Pharmacy program in Benin City. Method: In a special ICT class, 165 pharmacy students were introduced to LMS using an open source program, DoceboÓ after which a ...
Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J
Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Lincoln Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration... Order to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration (Order) to Lincoln Pharmacy (Respondent... pharmacy located at 52 Lincoln Highway, Edison, New Jersey, which is owned and operated by Mr. Vincent Hsia...
Rosenthal, Meagen; Chen, Christopher B; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T
More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy's Commitment to Act. The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy's website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message.
... performance of undergraduate Pharmacy students of the University of Jos, Nigeria ... was conducted using self-completed questionnaires among Pharmacy students of ... Pharmacy students; Test Competence, Time Management; Test Anxiety ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.
Mark, M. P.
Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six
Lauzier, Sophie; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain; Moisan, Jocelyne
Community pharmacists can use medication records to assist individuals who are loyal to their pharmacy in better managing their pharmacotherapy. However, the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia remains unknown. To assess the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia and identify factors associated with loyalty. Using the Quebec Health Insurance Board databases, a cohort study of individuals with schizophrenia who claimed an antipsychotic drug for the first time between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005 was conducted. Such individuals were considered loyal to their community pharmacy if they filled all their prescriptions for any drug at the same community pharmacy during the second year after antipsychotics initiation. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with community pharmacy loyalty (measured in the first year after antipsychotics initiation). Of the 6159 individuals in the study, 57.8% were loyal to one pharmacy. Men were more likely to be loyal (Adjusted OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.16-1.44), as were individuals aged 30-64 years and those aged ≥65 years, when compared to individuals 20-29 years (1.70; 1.48-1.95 and 2.39; 1.97-2.90, respectively). Individuals who filled their antipsychotics on a weekly basis were also more likely to be loyal (1.39; 1.18-1.63). Factors associated with non-loyalty were welfare beneficiary status (0.79; 0.70-0.89), having substance-use disorder (0.69; 0.60-0.80), a greater number of different types of drugs (5-8 types = 0.76; 0.66-0.87; 9-51 = 0.59; 0.50-0.69), and emergency department visits (0.71; 0.60-0.82). Results suggest that medication records in community pharmacies are incomplete for 42.2% of individuals with schizophrenia. Individuals more likely to experience more severe illness were also those less likely to be loyal. Given the potentially severe consequences of medication-related problems
This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.
Kawada, T.K.; Tubis, M.; Ebenkamp, T.; Wolf, W.
An operational profile for nuclear pharmacy practice is presented, and the technical and professional role of nuclear pharmacists is reviewed. Key aspects of nuclear pharmacy practice in hospitals discussed are the basic facilities and equipment for the preparation, quality control, and distribution of radioactive drug products. Standards for receiving, storing, and processing radioactive material are described. The elements of a radiopharmaceutical quality assurance program, including the working procedures, documentation systems, data analysis, and specific control tests, are presented. Details of dose preparation and administration and systems of inventory control for radioactive products are outlined
McCall, Richard P
To offer a physics course that is relevant to pharmacy students, yet still contains many of the fundamental principles of physics. The course was modified over a period of several years to include activities and examples that were related to other courses in the curriculum. Course evaluations were given to assess student attitudes about the importance of physics in the pharmacy curriculum. Students' attitudes have changed over time to appreciate the role that physics plays in their studies. Students gained confidence in their ability to learn in other courses.
Full Text Available Receiving the customer is in todays market realities top marketing companies. The build a sustainable partnership relation between the seller and the buyer is decide on businesses, takings and profit potential. Increasingly, therefore, perpetuates the view that create lasting relationships is an essential factor in improving the effectiveness of marketing activities conducted by modern businesses. The paper presents the implementation costs of loyalty programmes in pharmacies. These costs are presented based on a study of one of the largest pharmacy loyalty programmes in Poland: I care for health.
Rushworth, Gordon F; Cunningham, Scott; Pfleger, Sharon; Hall, Jenny; Stewart, Derek
Access to medicines and healthcare is more problematic in remote and rural areas. To quantify issues of access to general practitioners (GPs), community pharmacies and prescribed medicines in older people resident in the Scottish Highlands. Anonymized questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 2000 older people (≥60 years) resident in the Scottish Highlands. Questionnaire items were: access and convenience to GP and pharmacy services (10 items); prescribed medicines (13 items); attitudinal statements based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (12 items); quality of life (SF8, 8 items); and demographics (12 items). Results were analysed using descriptive, inferential and spatial statistics, and principal component analysis (PCA) of attitudinal items. With a response rate of 54.2%, the majority reported convenient access to GPs (89.1%) and community pharmacies (84.3%). Older age respondents (p rural areas to community pharmacies (p rural areas and taking five or more prescribed medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Patient satisfaction has emerged as a prerequisite to improving patients' health behaviors leading to better health care outcomes. This study was to identify predictive determinants for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services using national-level data.A cross-sectional evaluation was conducted using 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES data. To assess the predictive factors for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services, an ordinal logistic regression model was conducted adjusting for patient characteristics, clinical comorbidities, and perception of health.A total of 9,744 people, a representative sample of 48.2 million Koreans, participated in the 2008 KNHANES, of whom 2,188 (23.6% reported visits to pharmacy within the last 2 weeks prior to the survey. Of the patients who visited the pharmacy, 74.6% reported to be either "very satisfied" or "satisfied," and 25.4% responded as being "neutral," "dissatisfied," or "very dissatisfied." A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis with weighted observations revealed that patients with fair perception of health (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.01-1.74; p<0.05 and those with middle to low family incomes (adjusted OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.76; p<0.05 were more likely to be satisfied with pharmacy services, and employment-based insurers were less likely to be satisfied with pharmacy services (adjusted OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; p<0.05.Our findings indicated that three out of four patients expressed satisfaction toward pharmacy services. Middle to low family incomes, fair perception of health, and employee insured individuals were significant predictors of patient satisfaction with pharmacy services.
Turner, A; Ellertson, C; Thomas, S; Garcia, S
Objectives: People in developing countries often seek medical advice for common ailments from pharmacies. As one example, pharmacists routinely diagnose and treat symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to assess the quality of advice provided in Mexico City pharmacies by presenting hypothetical STI related syndromes and recording pharmacy attendants' suggested diagnoses and treatments.
Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Bauer, Michael
There is increasing use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs. While some online pharmacies are legitimate and safe, there are many unsafe and illegal so-called "rogue" online pharmacies. This study investigated the availability of psychotropic drugs online to consumers in the US, using 5 commonly prescribed drugs for bipolar disorder. Using the search term "buy [drug name]" in the Google, Yahoo and Bing search engines, the characteristics of the online pharmacies found on the first two pages of search results were investigated. The availability of the requested dosage and formulations of two brand (Seroquel XR, Abilify) and three generic drugs (lamotrigine, lithium carbonate and bupropion SR) were determined. Of 30 online pharmacies found, 17 (57%) were rated as rogue by LegitScript. Of the 30 pharmacies, 15 (50%) require a prescription, 21 (70%) claim to be from Canada, with 20 of these having a Canadian International Pharmacy association (CIPA) seal on the website. Only 13 of the 20 sites with a CIPA seal were active CIPA members. There were about the same number of trust verification seals on the rogue and legitimate pharmacy sites. Some rogue pharmacies are professional in appearance, and may be difficult for consumers to recognize as rogue. All five brand and generic drugs were offered for sale online, with or without a prescription. However, many substitutions were presented such as different strengths and formulations including products not approved by the FDA. No evaluation of product quality, packaging or purchasing. Psychotropic medications are available online with or without a prescription. The majority of online pharmacy websites were rogue. Physicians should ask about the use of online pharmacies. For those who choose to use online pharmacies, two measures to detect rogue pharmacies are recommended: (1) only purchase drugs from pharmacies that require a prescription, and (2) check all pharmacy verification seals directly on the website
To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu's description of field, species of capital, and habitus. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs.
Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065
Eule, B; Sullivan, M K; Schroeder, S A; Hudmon, K S
To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in these retail establishments. 100 randomly selected San Francisco pharmacies were visited in 2003. Pharmacies were characterised based on the sale of cigarettes, advertising for cigarettes, and the merchandising of non-prescription NRT products. In 2003, 61% of pharmacies sold cigarettes, a significant decrease compared to 89% of pharmacies selling cigarettes in 1976 (p merchandise the primary known risk factor for death in the USA.
Svensberg, Karin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
Good communication skills are essential for pharmacy students to help patients with their medicines. Students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will influence their willingness to engage in communication training, and their skills when dealing with patients later on in their professional life. The aim of this study was to explore Nordic pharmacy students' attitudes to communication skills learning, and the associations between those attitudes and various student characteristics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 11 Nordic pharmacy schools between April 2015 and January 2016. The overall response rate for the final study population was 77% (367 out of 479 students). Pharmacy students who had fulfilled all mandatory communication training and most of their pharmacy practical experience periods were included. The communication skills attitudes scale was the main outcome. Linear regression models were fitted with the outcome variable and various student characteristics as the predictors, using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering within pharmacy schools. Nordic pharmacy students in general have moderately positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitudes towards learning communication skills among pharmacy students were associated with being female (β adjusted 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p skills improvement (β adjusted 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.71, pskills are not the result of personality (β adjusted -0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.04, p=0.017). The study provides important information for faculty members responsible for curriculum improvements and teachers to refine their teaching of communication skills. From this, the teaching can be better tailored to suit different students. The students' chances of being able to effectively help patients in the future will be increased by that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina
Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.
Jennifer L. Rodis
Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration. Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed. Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty. Type: Case Study
McMillan, Sara S; Kelly, Fiona; Sav, Adem; Kendall, Elizabeth; King, Michelle A; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wheeler, Amanda J
Health professionals, including pharmacists, are encouraged to meet the needs of their consumers in an efficient and patient-centred manner. Yet, there is limited information as to what consumers with chronic conditions need from pharmacy as a healthcare destination or how well pharmacy staff understand these needs. The aim of this study was to identify service user priorities for ideal community pharmacy services for consumers with chronic conditions and their carers, and compare these priorities with what pharmacy staff think these groups want. The nominal group technique was undertaken with pharmacist, pharmacy support staff, consumer and carer groups in four Australian regions between December 2012 and April 2013. Participant ideas and priorities for ideal services or care were identified, and contextual insight was obtained by thematic analysis. Twenty-one nominal group sessions are accepted, including 15 consumer and carer, four pharmacist and two pharmacy support staff groups. Pharmacy staff views generally aligned with consumer priorities, such as access, affordability, patient-centred care and continuity and coordinated care, yet diverged with respect to consumer information or education on medication and services. Fundamentally, consumers and carers sought streamlined access to information and medication, in a coordinated, patient-centred approach. Alleviating financial burden was a key consumer priority, with a call for the continuation and extension of medication subsidies. Overall, pharmacy staff had a reasonable understanding of what consumers would prioritise, but further emphasis on the importance, delivery, or both, of consumer information is needed. Greater consideration is needed from policy makers regarding the financial barriers to accessing medication for consumers with chronic conditions.
Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS
Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed.Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.
Walsh, Kristin E.; Chui, Michelle Anne; Kieser, Mara A.; Williams, Staci M.; Sutter, Susan L.; Sutter, John G.
Objective To explore community pharmacy technician workflow change after implementation of an automated robotic prescription-filling device. Methods At an independent community pharmacy in rural Mayville, WI, pharmacy technicians were observed before and 3 months after installation of an automated robotic prescription-filling device. The main outcome measures were sequences and timing of technician workflow steps, workflow interruptions, automation surprises, and workarounds. Results Of the 77 and 80 observations made before and 3 months after robot installation, respectively, 17 different workflow sequences were observed before installation and 38 after installation. Average prescription filling time was reduced by 40 seconds per prescription with use of the robot. Workflow interruptions per observation increased from 1.49 to 1.79 (P = 0.11), and workarounds increased from 10% to 36% after robot use. Conclusion Although automated prescription-filling devices can increase efficiency, workflow interruptions and workarounds may negate that efficiency. Assessing changes in workflow and sequencing of tasks that may result from the use of automation can help uncover opportunities for workflow policy and procedure redesign. PMID:21896459
Purpose: To assess the consumer preference for community pharmacy (CP) for filling prescription, and ... For OTC products, preference among consumers was almost the same among. CPs and local stores. With regard to health supplements and screening test kits, most ..... MARA, Malaysia for financial support for this.
McCarthy, Robert L.; Perrolle, Judith A.
The current and potential impact of computerization on pharmacy practice is discussed, focusing on ethical dilemmas in the pharmacist-patient relationship, confidentiality of records, and the role of artificial intelligence in decision making about drug therapy. Case studies for use by teachers of pharmaceutical ethics are provided. (Author/MSE)
Consumers are increasingly using online pharmacies, but these sites may not provide an adequate level of security with the consumers' personal data. There is a gap in this research addressing the problems of security vulnerabilities in this industry. The objective is to identify the level of web application security vulnerabilities in online pharmacies and the common types of flaws, thus expanding on prior studies. Technical, managerial and legal recommendations on how to mitigate security issues are presented. The proposed four-step method first consists of choosing an online testing tool. The next steps involve choosing a list of 60 online pharmacy sites to test, and then running the software analysis to compile a list of flaws. Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed on the types of web application vulnerabilities. The majority of sites had serious vulnerabilities, with the majority of flaws being cross-site scripting or old versions of software that have not been updated. A method is proposed for the securing of web pharmacy sites, using a multi-phased approach of technical and managerial techniques together with a thorough understanding of national legal requirements for securing systems.
Baia, Patricia; Strang, Aimee F
Objective. To investigate motives of pharmacy educators who pursue pedagogical knowledge through professional development programs and to develop a model of motivation to inform future development. Methods. A mixed-methods approach was used to study both qualitative and quantitative data. Written narratives, postmodule quizzes, and survey data were collected during a 5-year period (2010-2014) from pharmacy educators who participated in an online professional development program titled Helping Educators Learn Pedagogy (HELP). Grounded theory was used to create a model of motivation for why pharmacy educators might pursue pedagogical knowledge. Results. Participants reported being driven intrinsically by a passion for their own learning (self-centered motivation) and by the need to improve student learning (student-centered motivation) and extrinsically by program design, funding, and administrator encouragement. Conclusion. A new model of pharmacy educator motivation to pursue pedagogy knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge Acquisition Theory (PKAT), emerged as a blended intrinsic and extrinsic model, which may have value in developing future professional development programs.
Motycka, Carol A.; St. Onge, Erin L.; Williams, Jennifer
Objective: To better understand the technology being used today in pharmacy education through a review of the current methodologies being employed at various institutions. Also, to discuss the benefits and difficulties of asynchronous and synchronous methodologies, which are being utilized at both traditional and distance education campuses.…
Maldonado, Angela Q; Seiger, Todd C; Urann, Christina L; McCleary, Jo Ann; Goroski, Angela L; Ojogho, Okechukwu N
The economic impact of out-patient pharmacy services in a transplant program was evaluated. Full-time kidney transplant pharmacy services were implemented at Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center (PSHMC) in the fall of 2008, with two pharmacists combining hours to provide one full-time-equivalent position. At PSHMC, posttransplantation patients are seen three times per week. The number of patient visits with pharmacists for 2010 was compared with the total number of patient visits. The face-to-face time spent with the patient was translated to a level of billing that was associated with a set reimbursement schedule. For each patient encounter in which a pharmacist was involved, the incremental difference between the nursing and pharmacy levels of billing was examined, as were the levels most often billed by pharmacists. The difference in billing levels between pharmacists and nurses for the same patient encounter was also evaluated. Overall, pharmacist visits accounted for 208 (22%) of the 994 out-patient kidney transplant visits in 2010, with pharmacists billing at a higher level of acuity compared with nursing for the same patient encounter 48% of the time. This translated to an approximate increase of $100 per patient visit. For the one-year study period, pharmacists utilizing facility- fee billing increased out-patient reimbursement by approximately $10,000. By utilizing outpatient facility-fee billing for pharmacy services, the transplant program at PSHMC increased reimbursement in the outpatient setting.
negative perception items, namely, (a) people who got HIV through sex deserve it (p = 0.003), (b) ... Conclusions: Discriminatory attitudes against PLWHA among pharmacy students and .... “young” for students less than 25 years and ... higher percentage of older pharmacists thought ... from infected mother to child?(Yes).
Full Text Available Objective: A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty.Results: The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%; inadequate communication style (21.9%; lack of identification of patients’ needs (7.7% and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%.Conclusions: These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients.
Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle
This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Benrimoj, Shalom I; Roberts, Alison S
To describe Australia's community pharmacy network in the context of the health system and outline the provision of services. The 5000 community pharmacies form a key component of the healthcare system for Australians, for whom health expenditures represent 9% of the Gross Domestic Product. A typical community pharmacy dispenses 880 prescriptions per week. Pharmacists are key partners in the Government's National Medicines Policy and contribute to its objectives through the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS). The Third Community Pharmacy Agreement included funding for CPS including medication review and the provision of written drug information. Funding is also provided for a quality assurance platform with which the majority of pharmacies are accredited. Fifteen million dollars (Australian) have been allocated to research in community pharmacy, which has focused on achieving quality use of medicines (QUM), as well as developing new CPS and facilitating change. Elements of the Agreements have taken into account QUM principles and are now significant drivers of practice change. Although accounting for 10% of remuneration for community pharmacy, the provision of CPS represents a significant shift in focus to view pharmacy as a service provider. Delivery of CPS through the community pharmacy network provides sustainability for primary health care due to improvement in quality presumably associated with a reduction in healthcare costs. Australian pharmacy practice is moving strongly in the direction of CPS provision; however, change does not occur easily. The development of a change management strategy is underway to improve the uptake of professional and business opportunities in community pharmacy.
Ip, Eric J; Nguyen, Kathy; Shah, Bijal M; Doroudgar, Shadi; Bidwal, Monica K
Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. In multivariate analysis, the only predictor for cheating in pharmacy school was a history of cheating in undergraduate studies. Conclusion. Cheating occurs in pharmacy schools and is motivated by fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. A history of past cheating predicts pharmacy school cheating. The information presented may help programs better understand their student population and lead to a reassessment of ethical culture, testing procedures, and prevention programs.
Nguyen, Kathy; Shah, Bijal M.; Doroudgar, Shadi; Bidwal, Monica K.
Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. In multivariate analysis, the only predictor for cheating in pharmacy school was a history of cheating in undergraduate studies. Conclusion. Cheating occurs in pharmacy schools and is motivated by fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. A history of past cheating predicts pharmacy school cheating. The information presented may help programs better understand their student population and lead to a reassessment of ethical culture, testing procedures, and prevention programs. PMID:27899829
Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope.
Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika
pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects...... no significant differences. Conclusions: The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation...
Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M
Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.
Peterson, A M
To determine whether differences in the provision of pharmacy services exist among different types of Internet pharmacies. Survey of selected pharmacies with a presence on the Internet. Data were abstracted onto a data collection form for further analysis. Data collection was limited to 3 weeks. U.S.-based Internet pharmacies that allow patients to purchase prescription medications online. Pharmacies were identified using a metasearch engine with the search terms "Internet pharmacy" and "Internet pharmacist." Survey. Comparisons of availability of 10 commonly used products representing a variety of product categories, prescription verification methods, and privacy issues; and determinations of site navigability, drug information and provider access, and payment methods. Sites were categorized as "chain pharmacy extensions," "mail order pharmacies," "independent pharmacy extensions," and "online pharmacies." Thirty-three sites were reviewed. There was significant variation among the four types of pharmacies selling prescriptions over the Internet. Most pharmacies provided all of the drugs in the survey. Patients were required to provide their own prescription at 88% of the sites, and 75% of sites used mail or fax to verify prescription integrity. More than 50% of sites had privacy policies posted, and 64% used cookies. Chain pharmacy extensions required completion of an average of 10.2 pages to order drugs versus 2.4 to 4 pages for all other site types. Drug information was written at an eighth-grade reading level at 36% of the sites. More than two-thirds of the sites provided a toll-free telephone for a health care professional. Nearly 80% of the sites accepted health insurance, and 95% accepted credit cards; however, only 40% used a secure transmission mechanism for patient or payment information. Internet pharmacies provide varying levels of service. Policies regarding the use of the Internet for obtaining medications should focus on improving the privacy of
Castronovo, A; Gervais, F; Mongaret, C; Slimano, F
While many international studies widely describe pharmacists' interventions (PIs) on drug-related problems (DRP) in community pharmacies, in France, these activities are underreported. The aim of this study is to describe the PI rate, given as the number of interventions in among all prescriptions reviewed during the study period. This study was conducted in one French rural community pharmacy during a 7-month period. Age, sex, type of prescriber, type of problems, intervention and the outcome were prospectively recorded. PIs were prospectively formalized and classified using the validated tool from the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. In addition, all interventions were reviewed by an independent pharmacist. Among the 20,238 prescriptions, n=211 pharmacists' interventions on 159 prescriptions (0.79%) were performed. Prescriptions were ordered by general practitioners in 78.6%. The most common DRP were the improper prescription (30.8%), a drug or medical device not received by the patient (21.8%, all linked to drug shortages) or a dosage problem (18.9%). Antibiotics were the most common drugs involved in DRP (13.3%). The main PI were the drug switch/establishment of a therapeutic alternative (38.4%), dose adjustment (25.6%) and optimization of the dispensing/administration modalities (25.1%). The overall acceptance rate of PIs was 93.4%. We found a PI rate, as well as acceptance rate by prescribers, in the same range than as reported in studies performed in other countries. A consequent large part percentage of PIs can be classified as "administrative". This first prospective French study needs to be further supported by multi-site studies. Copyright © 2018 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Iyer, Priya; McFarland, Reanna; La Caze, Adam
Most sales of complementary medicines within pharmacies are conducted by pharmacy support staff. The absence of rigorous evidence for the effectiveness of many complementary medicines raises a number of ethical questions regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies. Explore (1) what consumers expect from pharmacists/pharmacies with regard to the sale of complementary medicines, and (2) how pharmacy support staff perceive their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of pharmacy support staff and consumers in pharmacies in Brisbane. Consumers were asked to describe their expectations when purchasing complementary medicines. Pharmacy support staff were asked to describe their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. Interviews were conducted and analysed using the techniques developed within Grounded Theory. Thirty-three consumers were recruited from three pharmacies. Consumers described complementary medicine use as a personal health choice. Consumer expectations on the pharmacist included: select the right product for the right person, expert product knowledge and maintaining a wide range of good quality stock. Twenty pharmacy support staff were recruited from four pharmacies. Pharmacy support staff employed processes to ensure consumers receive the right product for the right person. Pharmacy support staff expressed a commitment to aiding consumers, but few evaluated the reliability of effectiveness claims regarding complementary medicines. Pharmacists need to respect the personal health choices of consumers while also putting procedures in place to ensure safe and appropriate use of complementary medicines. This includes providing appropriate support to pharmacy support staff. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Haggerty, Lauren; Tran, Deanna
To summarize the literature on cholesterol point-of-care tests (POCTs). This article would serve as a resource to assist community pharmacists in developing cholesterol point-of-care (POC) pharmacy services. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database using the following medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: point-of-care test, cholesterol, blood chemical analysis, rapid testing, collaborative practice, community pharmacy, and ambulatory care. Additional resources including device manufacturer web sites were summarized to supplement the current literature. All human research articles, review articles, meta-analyses, and abstracts published in English through September 1, 2014, were considered. A total of 36 articles were applicable for review. Information was divided into the following categories to be summarized: devices, pharmacists' impact, and operational cost for the pharmacy. The current literature suggests that POCTs in community pharmacies assist with patient outcomes by providing screenings and referring patients with dyslipidemia for further evaluation. The majority of studies on cholesterol POC devices focused on accuracy, revealing the need for further studies to develop best practices and practice models with successful reimbursement. Accuracy, device specifications, required supplies, and patient preference should be considered when selecting a POC device for purchase.
Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ford, Heath; von Waldner, Trina; Perri, Matthew
To characterize the roles pharmacists have assumed in disasters and clarify the types of roles and disasters that may be less well-documented in the pharmacy literature. This research examines how balanced or equally proportioned role categories are in the pharmacy literature, whether pharmacy journals differ in the proportion of role categories reported, and whether journals significantly differ in the proportion of reported chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN), and natural disasters. Data coding was performed solely by the lead author using Concordance (Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts), a Web-based content analysis software, and Minitab(®) (version 15; Minitab, Inc; State College, Pennsylvania) for descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Pharmacy journals publishing at least 2 articles about pharmacist disaster roles from September 11, 2001 to September 30, 2011 were used in the study and were available electronically. Chi-square analyses reveal significant differences in the weighted counts of roles, roles categorized by journal, and CBRN disasters categorized by journal. Data suggest that pharmacists may be prepared to respond to hurricanes and biological and chemical disasters in pharmaceutical supply and patient management roles. Future research should highlight efforts to prepare health systems for the effects of nuclear, radiological, and chemical disasters. © The Author(s) 2013.
... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...
Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an "e-professionalism" concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking.
Sweeney, Marc A; Mauro, Vincent F; Cable, Gerald L; Rudnicki, Barbara M; Wall, Andrea L; Murphy, Christine C; Makarich, Joseph A; Kahaleh, Abir A
To develop pharmacist practice standards, pharmacy preceptor standards, and objectives for students completing advanced practice community pharmacy rotations. Ohio. Pharmacy schools and community pharmacies that serve as advanced practice rotation sites. Developed standards for preceptors and objectives for student experiences. Focus groups that included both community pharmacists and pharmacy faculty collaborated on defining key standards for advanced community pharmacy rotations. Not applicable. Three main documents were produced in this initiative, and these are provided as appendices to this article. Professional and patient care guidelines for preceptors define minimum standards for these role models. Expectations of pharmacists as preceptors provide insights for managing this student-teacher relationship, which is fundamentally different from the more common employer-employee and coworker relationships found in pharmacies of all types. Objectives for student experiences during advanced practice community pharmacy rotations present core expectations in clinical, dispensing, patient education, wellness, and drug information areas. Through this collaboration, Ohio colleges of pharmacy developed a partnership with practitioners in community settings that should enhance the Ohio experiential educational program for student pharmacists. Use of the established guidelines will help educators and practitioners achieve their shared vision for advanced practice community pharmacy rotations and promote high-quality patient care.
Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam
Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.
Nemes-Nagy, Enikő; Fazakas, Zita; Preg, Zoltán; László, Mihály; Fogarasi, Erzsébet; Germán-Salló, Márta; Bálint-Szentendrey, Dalma; Ianosi, Edith Simona; Ábrám, Zoltán; Balázs, Péter; Kristie, Foley; Pái, István Kikeli
Smoking is common among health professional students. The aim of this study was to assess the smoking habits of the pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Târgu Mureș (UMPh TM), Romania. Smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among 414 pharmacy students attending UMPh TM (86% female) were evaluated using a self-completed questionnaire. The rate of smoking increases during the time students attend the university (24.1% to 33.3% from 1st to 5th year) and males are significantly are more likely to smoke than females (41.4% vs. 27.3%, p=0.042). 36.9% of the smoking pharmacy students are tobacco-dependent, and 40.4% of smokers started daily smoking at the age of 16-19. We found significant differences between smoker and non-smoker pharmacy students regarding their attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, with non-smokers being more supportive of smoke-free policies. Prevention programs and education have a very important role in decreasing the percentage of smokers and support for smokefree policies, but it is critical to begin such programs early in their university training.
Rosenquist, Ashley; Best, Brookie M; Miller, Teresa A; Gilmer, Todd P; Hirsch, Jan D
Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Oltmann, Carmen; Boughey, Chrissie
This article challenges the idea that positivism is capable of representing the complexity of social pharmacy and pharmacy education. It is argued that critical realism provides a framework that allows researchers to look at the nature of reality and at mechanisms that produce, or have the tendency to produce, events and experiences of those events. Critical realism is a framework, not a method. It allows researchers to make observations about phenomena and explain the relationships and connections involved. The researcher has to look for mechanisms and structures that could explain why the phenomena, the connections, and the relationships exist (or do not) and then try to show that these mechanisms do exist. This article first contextualizes critical realism, then briefly describes it, and lastly exemplifies the use of critical realism in a discussion of a research project conducted in pharmacy education. Critical realism may be particularly useful in interdisciplinary research, for example, where practitioners and researchers are working together in a social pharmacy or pharmacy education setting. Critical realism requires the practitioners and the researchers to question and make known their assumptions about their own realities and to think of a complex problem or phenomenon in terms of a stratified reality, generative mechanisms, and tendencies. Critical realism may make research more rigorous and also allow researchers to conceive of a greater breadth of research designs for their work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cain, Jeff; Bird, Eleanora R; Jones, Mikael
To identify mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education, including how devices are obtained, supported, and utilized within the curriculum. An 18-item questionnaire was developed and delivered to academic affairs deans (or closest equivalent) of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Fifty-four colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a 55% completion rate. Thirteen of those schools have implemented mobile computing requirements for students. Twenty schools reported they were likely to formally consider implementing a mobile computing initiative within 5 years. Numerous models of mobile computing initiatives exist in terms of device obtainment, technical support, infrastructure, and utilization within the curriculum. Responders identified flexibility in teaching and learning as the most positive aspect of the initiatives and computer-aided distraction as the most negative, Numerous factors should be taken into consideration when deciding if and how a mobile computing requirement should be implemented.
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...... by establishing partnerships with staff. On the background of the authors' widespread action research (AR)-based experiences, recommendations and comments for how to conduct an AR-study is described, and one of their AR-based studies illustrate the methodology and the research methods used. Methodology AR...... is defined as an approach to research which is based on a problem-solving relationship between researchers and clients, which aims at both solving a problem and at collaboratively generating new knowledge. Research questions relevant in AR-studies are: what was the working process in this change oriented...
Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A
This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.
Michael J Peeters
Full Text Available The concept of development is ubiquitous throughout higher education. Development of critical thinking, problem-solving, and clinical reasoning are noted as important outcomes in higher education, including health professions education. In this era of widening scrutiny, demonstration of this outcome within programmatic assessment is becoming increasingly important. Programmatic assessment of critical thinking is complicated because of its multiple definitions, array of theoretical frameworks, and variety of measurement instruments. Additionally, recent guidelines and standards for pharmacy education have affirmed “habits of mind,” which are not new to education and encompass analytical critical thinking. In this paper, we sought to provide: 1 an overview of various critical thinking measurement instruments with their different associated critical thinking definitions, 2 a background and framework for thinking using the Dimensions of Learning model, 3 implications and applications for assessing cognitive development (critical and complex thinking within the context of pharmacy education, and 4 specific suggestions for assessment in pharmacy education. Type: Idea Paper
Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca
To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.
Haumschild, Ryan J; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J
Managing conflict among a variety of people and groups is a necessary part of creating a high performance pharmacy department. As new pharmacy managers enter the workforce, much of their success depends on how they manage conflict. The goal of this article is to provide a guide for the pharmacy director on conflict in the workplace. By evaluating each type of conflict, we can learn how to respond when it occurs. Resolving conflict requires a unique and individualized approach, and the strategy used may often be based on the situational context and the personality of the employee or manager. The more that pharmacy leaders can engage in conflict resolution with employees and external leaders, the more proactive they can be in achieving positive results. If pharmacy directors understand the source of conflicts and use management strategies to resolve them, they will ensure that conflicts result in a more effective patient-centered pharmacy service.
Zillich, Alan J; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B
To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy technicians before and after attending a continuing education program about smoking cessation. A pre/post survey of a single group. Two statewide meetings of the Iowa Pharmacy Association. Pharmacy technicians. One 2-hour continuing education (CE) course about smoking cessation for pharmacy technicians. Changes in scores before and after the CE sessions among three domains (knowledge, efficacy, and outcome) of a validated survey instrument. Fifty-one technicians completed both the presession and postsession questionnaire. For the three survey domains, technicians' knowledge (P = .034), efficacy (P < .001), and outcome (P < .001) showed significant improvement between the presession and postsession surveys (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Pharmacy technicians who attended a CE program on smoking cessation improved their knowledge, attitudes, and self-confidence in helping smokers quit. Additional research should be conducted to test the role of pharmacy technicians in smoking cessation promotion.
Crawford, Stephanie Y
Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.
Lin, Che-Wei; Chang, Elizabeth H; Clinciu, Daniel L; Peng, Yun-Ting; Huang, Wen-Chen; Wu, Chien-Chih; Wu, Jen-Chieh; Li, Yu-Chuan
Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been used in many areas of healthcare training over the years. However, it constantly needs to be upgraded and enhanced due to technological and teaching changes. We aim at implementing an integrative OSCE method which employs informatics via the virtual patient within the pharmacy education curriculum at Taipei Medical University to enhance the pharmacy students' competence for using and disseminating information and to also improve critical thinking and clinical reasoning. We propose an integrated pharmacy OSCE which uses standardized patients and virtual patients (DxR Clinician). To evaluate this method, we designed four simulated stations and pilot tested with 19 students in the first year of the Master in Clinical Pharmacy program. Three stations were simulated as the inpatient pharmacy: 1) History and lab data collection; 2) Prescription review; 3) Calling physician to discuss potential prescription problems. The fourth was simulated as the patient ward station to provide patient education. A satisfaction questionnaire was administered at the end of the study. Students rated their ability of 2.84, 2.37, 2.37, and 3.63 of 5 for each of the four stations, with the second and third being the most difficult stations. The method obtained an average rating of 4.32 of 5 for relevance, 4.16 for improving clinical ability, 4.32 for practicality in future healthcare work, and 4.28 for willing to have another similar learning experience. The integration of Virtual Patient in this study reveals that this assessment method is efficient and practical in many aspects. Most importantly, it provides the test taker with a much closer real-life clinical encounter. Although it is in many ways more difficult, it also provides for better "learning from mistakes" opportunities for test-takers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Haumschild, Ryan J.; Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.
Managing conflict among a variety of people and groups is a necessary part of creating a high performance pharmacy department. As new pharmacy managers enter the workforce, much of their success depends on how they manage conflict. The goal of this article is to provide a guide for the pharmacy director on conflict in the workplace. By evaluating each type of conflict, we can learn how to respond when it occurs. Resolving conflict requires a unique and individualized approach, and the strateg...
The Use of Antibiotics Based on Prescriptions Dispenced in Pharmacies SUMMARY Baronienė J., Vadapalaitė-Mašalienė V. The use of antibiotics based on prescriptions dispenced in pharmacies: pharmacy master's thesis. Vilnius University, faculty of medicine – Vilnius, 2017. – 43 p. Antibiotics are not a cure-all. There are many diseases that are insurmountable without antibiotics: these diseases are caused by bacteria. Antibacterial therapy prevents from complications and sometimes saves lives. H...
Aljadhey, Hisham; Asiri, Yousef; Albogami, Yaser; Spratto, George; Alshehri, Mohammed
Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the need for
Mohamed E Amin; Amira Amine; Mohammad Shoukry Newegy
Background: Egyptian pharmacists routinely provide antibiotics without a prescription. A few pills of common cold products are offered under the name “cold group”. A cold group may contain one or more pills of antibiotics. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that provide subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics in community pharmacies as part of a CG or upon direct request from a simulated client. Methods: A probability sample of community pharmacies in Alexandria, Egypt ...
Schenkat, Dan; Rough, Steve; Hansen, Amanda; Chen, David; Knoer, Scott
The results of a survey of multihospital pharmacy leaders are summarized, and a road map for creating organizational value with the pharmacy enterprise is presented. A survey was designed to evaluate the level of integration of pharmacy services across each system's multiple hospitals, determine the most commonly integrated services, determine whether value was quantified when services were integrated, collect common barriers for finding value through integration, and identify strategies for successfully overcoming these barriers. The comprehensive, 59-question survey was distributed electronically in September 2016 to the top pharmacy executive at approximately 160 multihospital systems located throughout the United States. Survey respondents indicated that health systems are taking a wide range of approaches to integrating services systemwide. Several themes emerged from the survey responses: (1) having a system-level pharmacy leader with solid-line reporting across the enterprise increased the likelihood of integrating pharmacy services effectively, (2) integration of pharmacy services across a multihospital system was unlikely to decrease the number of pharmacy full-time equivalents within the enterprise, and (3) significant opportunities exist for creating value for the multihospital health system with the pharmacy enterprise, particularly within 4 core areas: system-level drug formulary and clinical standardization initiatives, supply chain initiatives, electronic health record integration, and specialty and retail pharmacy services. Consistently demonstrating strong organizational leadership, entrepreneurialism, and the ability to create value for the organization will lead to the system-level pharmacy leader and the pharmacy enterprise being well-positioned to achieve positive outcomes for patients, payers, and the broader health system. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mott, David A; Croes, Kenneth D
To describe older adults' perceptions of evaluating and comparing pharmacies based on the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey (CEPSS), describe older adults' perceived importance of the CEPSS and its specific domains, and explore older adults' perceptions of the influence of specific CEPSS domains in choosing/switching pharmacies. Focus group methodology was combined with the administration of a questionnaire. The focus groups explored participants' perceived importance of the CEPSS and their perception of using the CEPSS to choose and/or switch pharmacies. Then, using the questionnaire, participants rated their perceived importance of each CEPSS domain in evaluating a pharmacy, and the likelihood of using CEPSS to switch pharmacies if their current pharmacy had low ratings. Descriptive and thematic analyses were done. 6 semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting room in a Mid-Western state in the USA. 60 English-speaking adults who were at least 65 years, and had filled a prescription at a retail pharmacy within 90 days. During the focus groups, the older adults perceived the CEPSS to have advantages and disadvantages in evaluating and comparing pharmacies. Older adults thought the CEPSS was important in choosing the best pharmacies and avoiding the worst pharmacies. The perceived influence of the CEPSS in switching pharmacies varied depending on the older adult's personal experience or trust of other consumers' experience. Questionnaire results showed that participants perceived health/medication-focused communication as very important or extremely important (n=47, 82.5%) in evaluating pharmacies and would be extremely likely (n=21, 36.8%) to switch pharmacies if their pharmacy had low ratings in this domain. The older adults in this study are interested in using patient experiences as a quality metric for avoiding the worst pharmacies. Pharmacists' communication about health and medicines is perceived important and likely
Roseamelia, Carrie; Greenwald, James L; Bush, Tiffany; Pratte, Morgan; Wilcox, Jessica; Morley, Christopher P
Rural tracks (RTs) exist within medical schools across the United States. These programs often target those students from rural areas and those with primary care career interests, given that these factors are robust predictors of eventual rural practice. However, only 26% to 64% of graduates from RTs enter eventual rural practice. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory study of medical students enrolled in one school's RT, examining their interests in rural training, specialization, and eventual rural practice, via open coding of transcripts from focus groups and in-depth individual interviews, leading to identification of emerging themes. A total of 16 out of 54 eligible first- and second-year preclinical medical students participated in focus group sessions, and a total of seven out of 17 eligible third- and fourth-year medical students participated in individual interviews. Analyses revealed the recognition of a "Rural Identity," typical characteristics, and the importance of "Program Fit" and "Intentions for Practice" that trended toward family medicine specialization and rural practice. However, nuances within the comments reveal incomplete commitment to rural practice. In many cases, student preference for rural practice was driven largely by a disinterest in urban practice. Students with rural and primary care practice interests are often not perfectly committed to rural practice. However, RTs may provide a haven for such students within medical school.
Extavour, Rian Marie; Allison, Gillian L
Blended learning (BL) integrates face-to-face and online instructional methods, with applications in pharmacy education. This study aimed to assess pharmacy students' perceptions of BL in a pharmacy seminar course at The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine campus, Trinidad and Tobago. Topics based on the use of medicines and public health were presented by student groups during live seminars, supplemented with online activities. An online survey of students' perceptions was administered at the end of the course. The usefulness of learning resources and course activities were assessed using 5-point Likert-like scales (1 = not helpful to 5 = very helpful). The effectiveness of the instructor, blended delivery, time value, and development of critical-thinking were rated on a 5-point Likert scale for agreement (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Topics that were most instructive and additional topics of interest were also identified. Approximately 51% of students (37/72) completed the questionnaire; 73% were female and mean age was 24 years. The learning resources and most course activities were generally helpful (median = 4) in facilitating learning. There was strong agreement (median = 5) on the ease of navigating the online platform, and instructor encouraging interest in pharmacy issues. Students agreed (median = 4) that the course facilitated critical thinking, the BL approach was effective, and the time spent was worthwhile. The most instructive topics included medication errors, antibiotic resistance, and medicines in children and the elderly. BL in pharmacy seminars is a valuable approach to engage students learning about pharmacy and public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Irwin, Adriane N; Heilmann, Rachel M F; Gerrity, Theresa M; Kroner, Beverly A; Olson, Kari L
The ability of a pharmacy technician to support the patient screening and documentation-related functions of a pharmacist-driven osteoporosis management service was evaluated. A two-phase prospective study was conducted within a large integrated health system to assess a pharmacy technician's performance in supporting a multisite team of clinical pharmacy specialists providing postfracture care. In phase I of the study, a specially trained pharmacy technician provided support to pharmacists at five participating medical offices, helping to identify patients requiring pharmacist intervention and, when applicable, collecting patient-specific clinical information from the electronic health record. In phase II of the study, the amount of pharmacist time saved through the use of technician support versus usual care was evaluated. The records of 127 patient cases were reviewed by the pharmacy technician during phase I of the study, and a pharmacist agreed with the technician's determination of the need for intervention in the majority of instances (92.9%). An additional 91 patient cases were reviewed by the technician in phase II of the research. With technician support, pharmacists spent less time reviewing cases subsequently determined as not requiring intervention (mean ± S.D., 5.0 ± 3.8 minutes per case compared with 5.2 ± 4.5 minutes under the usual care model; p = 0.78). In cases requiring intervention, technician support was associated with a reduction in the average pharmacist time spent on care plan development (13.5 ± 7.1 minutes versus 18.2 ± 16.6 minutes with usual care, p = 0.34). The study results suggest that a pharmacy technician can accurately determine if a patient is a candidate for pharmacist intervention and collect clinical information to facilitate care plan development. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bussières, Jean-François; Delicourt, Anais; Belaid, Nedjma; Quirion, Marie-Pierre; Desroches, Julien; Bégin, Josiane; Fragasso-Marquis, Anne-Marie; Lamarre, Diane
To evaluate the impact of a debate on pharmacy students' perceptions, using online pharmacy practice as the debate topic. This is a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series study. A 60 min debate was organized as a lunchtime meeting. A four-category Likert scale questionnaire (fully agree, partially agree, partially disagree, fully disagree) measured the debate participants' level of agreement with 25 statements (main issues associated with online pharmacy) in the pre-phase (before the debate), post-phase 1 (after the debate) and post-phase 2 (6 months after the debate). One hundred and seventy-seven students were recruited (response rate of 100% in the pre-phase and post-phase 1, 31% in post-phase 2). Four questions measured the perceptions of the students on this pedagogical technique. The overall proportion of respondents in favour of online pharmacy practice showed little variation among the three phases. However, on average (mean ± SD) 43 ± 8% of the respondents changed their opinion, 21 ± 7% reversed their opinion, 22 ± 4% nuanced their opinion and 1 ± 1% radically changed their opinion. Respectively 98% (post-phase 1) and 96% (post-phase 2) of the respondents were of the opinion that debate was a very useful teaching formula in their pharmacist training and 79 and 66% thought debate significantly changed their opinion of the issue. Few data have been collected on the use of debates as part of healthcare professional training. The impact of a debate on how pharmacy students feel about online pharmacy practice is described. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Lee, Sunkyung; Godwin, Onyeka Peter; Kim, Kyungah; Lee, Euni
Objectives Patient satisfaction has emerged as a prerequisite to improving patients’ health behaviors leading to better health care outcomes. This study was to identify predictive determinants for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services using national-level data. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation was conducted using 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. To assess the predictive factors for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services, an ordinal logistic regression model was conducted adjusting for patient characteristics, clinical comorbidities, and perception of health. Results A total of 9,744 people, a representative sample of 48.2 million Koreans, participated in the 2008 KNHANES, of whom 2,188 (23.6%) reported visits to pharmacy within the last 2 weeks prior to the survey. Of the patients who visited the pharmacy, 74.6% reported to be either “very satisfied” or “satisfied,” and 25.4% responded as being “neutral,” “dissatisfied,” or “very dissatisfied.” A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis with weighted observations revealed that patients with fair perception of health (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.01–1.74; ppatient satisfaction with pharmacy services. PMID:26540165
Full Text Available Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization. This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector.
Wisell, Kristin; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector. PMID:28970376
Gmeiner, Tanja; Horvat, Nejc; Kos, Mitja; Obreza, Aleš; Vovk, Tomaž; Grabnar, Iztok; Božič, Borut
This article presents the results of mapping the Slovenian pharmacy curriculum to evaluate the adequacy of the recently developed and validated European Pharmacy Competences Framework (EPCF). The mapping was carried out and evaluated progressively by seven members of the teaching staff at the University of Ljubljana’s Faculty of Pharmacy. Consensus was achieved by using a two-round modified Delphi technique to evaluate the coverage of competences in the current curriculum. The preliminary results of the curriculum mapping showed that all of the competences as defined by the EPCF are covered in Ljubljana’s academic program. However, because most EPCF competences cover healthcare-oriented pharmacy practice, a lack of competences was observed for the drug development and production perspectives. Both of these perspectives are important because a pharmacist is (or should be) responsible for the entire process, from the development and production of medicines to pharmaceutical care in contact with patients. Nevertheless, Ljubljana’s graduates are employed in both of these pharmaceutical professions in comparable proportions. The Delphi study revealed that the majority of differences in scoring arise from different perspectives on the pharmacy profession (e.g., community, hospital, industrial, etc.). Nevertheless, it can be concluded that curriculum mapping using the EPCF is very useful for evaluating and recognizing weak and strong points of the curriculum. However, the competences of the framework should address various fields of the pharmacist’s profession in a more balanced way. PMID:28970436
Spies, Alan R; Wilkin, Noel E; Bentley, John P; Bouldin, Alicia S; Wilson, Marvin C; Holmes, Erin R
To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations.
Braund, Rhiannon; Chesney, Kate Marie; Keast, Emilia Paulina; Ng, Lye Jinn; Qi, Sarah; Samaranayaka, Sashika; Wang, Eddie
To determine the current perceived roles and responsibilities of pharmacy staff in community pharmacies in New Zealand, and attitudes to proposed new advanced roles for pharmacy staff. Structured interviews were conducted within five community pharmacies, including at least two pharmacists, two dispensary staff and two pharmacy assistants. The interviews were structured to determine previous experience, current roles and responsibilities and the perceived future roles of pharmacy staff within a community pharmacy setting. Thematic analysis from 27 interviews identified key findings. Current roles appeared to be fairly well defined. Pharmacy assistants listed key roles as customer interactions and sales focus, noting that the dispensary was outside their area of responsibility. Technicians identified their role as being dispensary focused while pharmacists saw their role as the 'final check' to ensure accuracy as well as providing dispensing, counselling and managerial roles. With potential future roles, the assistants were less interested than the other groups, citing contentment with current situation and training as a barrier. Some technicians indicated an interest in furthering their roles, but many were reluctant and saw that additional training was too time consuming. Whilst pharmacists appeared to be interested in further scopes of practice, they appeared more reluctant to do this at the expense of handing dispensing responsibility to a non-pharmacist. Whilst there is a push for pharmacists to provide advanced clinical services, it is important to acknowledge that many staff working within community pharmacies are satisfied with their current role. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Anna Birna Almarsdottir
Full Text Available This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in play. Forces that still keep clinical and social pharmacy apart are university structures, research traditions, and the management of pharmacy services. There are key (but shrinking differences between clinical and social pharmacy which entail the levels of study within pharmaceutical sciences, the location in which the research is carried out, the choice of research designs and methods, and the theoretical foundations. Common strengths and opportunities are important to know in order to join forces. Finding common ground can be developed in two areas: participating together in multi-disciplinary research, and uniting in a dialogue with internal and external key players in putting forth what is needed for the profession of pharmacy. At the end the question is posed, “What’s in a name?” and we argue that it is important to emphasize what unifies the families of clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy for the benefit of both fields, pharmacy in general, and society at large.
Lindstrom, Nicolette S Raya; Casper, Kristin A; Green, Tara R; Pedersen, Craig A
To assess preferences of grocery store patrons concerning pharmacy services and identify study participant characteristics that may predict the success of pharmacy services in the community setting. Self-administered survey. Central Ohio from December 16, 2005, to January 12, 2006. 163 grocery store patrons. Eight grocery store survey events. Responses to survey items about (1) perceived importance of 28 pharmacy services, (2) identification of the 3 most important services, (3) frequency of grocery store and pharmacy use, (4) preferred methods of advertising pharmacy services, and (5) socioeconomic demographics. Preferred services delineated by various demographics also were analyzed. A total of 163 surveys were returned from study participants. Nine services appeared in both the top 12 overall preferred services and the 12 highest-ranked services. Statistically significant differences were observed among services ranked as important or very important by age, race, employment, income, caregiver status, and prescription drug coverage status. The three advertising tools selected most frequently included: weekly grocery store ads (68.6%), in-store signs (51.0%), and flyers attached to prescription bags (36.0%). Grocery store patrons would like a wide range of nontraditional pharmacy services that could be implemented into community pharmacies. Pharmacies in grocery stores need to provide both traditional and expanded pharmacy services to meet the desires and expectations of current and potential patients, and expanded marketing methods should be considered.
Koster, Ellen S.; van Meeteren, Marijke M.; Van Dijk, M; van de Bemt, Bart J F; Ensing, Hendrikus T.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Blom, Lyda; van Dijk, Liset
Objective: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Methods: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed
Koster, E.S.; Meeteren, M.M. van; Dijk, M. van; Bemt, B.J.F. van de; Ensing, H.T.; Bouvy, M.; Blom, L.; Dijk, L. van
Objective: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Methods: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed
Koster, E.S.; Meeteren, M.M. van; Dijk, M.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Ensing, H.T.; Bouvy, M.L.; Blom, L.; Dijk, L. van
OBJECTIVE: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. METHODS: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed
Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L
Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.
Scott, David M; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan
The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists' delivery of public health services. To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists' practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking.
Scott, David M.; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan
Background: The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists’ delivery of public health services. Objective: To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists’ practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. Methods: This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Results: Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking. PMID:28042356
The diploma thesis is focused on marketing strategy plan of a private pharmacy using service blueprint as a marketing tool. At the beginning the thesis deals with characteristics of specifics and state regulations of pharmacy marketing. Then the thesis analyses Czech pharmacy market in particular with regard to the expansion of pharmacy chains and also puts emphasis on current pharmacy trends that influence management and marketing of private pharmacies. The main goal is firstly to describe t...
dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...
Full Text Available Community pharmacies in Nepal and other South Asian countries are in a mediocre state due to poor regulation and the fact that many pharmacies are run by people with insufficient training in dispensing. This has led to the inappropriate use of medicines. The problems due to poor regulation and the mediocre state of community pharmacies in South Asia encompass both academia and clinical practice. In this paper, a 2-week community pharmacy internship programme completed by 2 graduating pharmacy students of Pokhara University (a Nepalese public university at Sankalpa Pharmacy, Pokhara, Nepal is illustrated. During the internship, they were systematically trained on store management, pharmaceutical care, counselling skills, the use of medical devices, pharmaceutical business plans, medicine information sources, and adverse drug reaction reporting. An orientation, observations and hands-on training, case presentation, discussion, and feedback from 2 senior pharmacists were used as the training method. A proper community pharmacy internship format, good pharmacy practice standards, and a better work environment for pharmacists may improve the quality of community pharmacies.
Timsina, Sangita; K C, Bhuvan; Adhikari, Dristi; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Kaundinnyayana, Atisammodavardhana
Community pharmacies in Nepal and other South Asian countries are in a mediocre state due to poor regulation and the fact that many pharmacies are run by people with insufficient training in dispensing. This has led to the inappropriate use of medicines. The problems due to poor regulation and the mediocre state of community pharmacies in South Asia encompass both academia and clinical practice. In this paper, a 2-week community pharmacy internship programme completed by 2 graduating pharmacy students of Pokhara University (a Nepalese public university) at Sankalpa Pharmacy, Pokhara, Nepal is illustrated. During the internship, they were systematically trained on store management, pharmaceutical care, counselling skills, the use of medical devices, pharmaceutical business plans, medicine information sources, and adverse drug reaction reporting. An orientation, observations and hands-on training, case presentation, discussion, and feedback from 2 senior pharmacists were used as the training method. A proper community pharmacy internship format, good pharmacy practice standards, and a better work environment for pharmacists may improve the quality of community pharmacies.
Adams, Alex J; Dering-Anderson, Allison; Klepser, Michael E; Klepser, Donald
Progressive pharmacy laws do not always lead to progressive pharmacy practice. Progressive laws are necessary, but not sufficient for pharmacy services to take off in practice. Pharmacy schools can play critical roles by working collaboratively with community pharmacies to close the gap between law and practice. Our experiences launching pharmacy-based point-of-care testing services in community pharmacy settings illustrate some of the roles schools can play, including: developing and providing standardized training, developing template protocols, providing workflow support, sparking collaboration across pharmacies, providing policy support, and conducting research.
James, Kirstyn; Dolan, Eamon; O'Brien, Eoin
Ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM), although recommended for the diagnosis and management of hypertension, has limited availability. The objective of this study was to show that if the characteristics of patients attending pharmacies for ABPM are similar to those attending primary care, the technique can be made more widely available to patients through pharmacies. A comparative study using a software program that allowed central collection, analysis and comparison of ABPM data from patients attending primary care and pharmacies for assessment of hypertension in Ireland. ABPM data from 46 978 patients attending primary care were compared with 1698 attending pharmacies between 2007 and 2013. The age, sex and blood pressure characteristics of patients attending primary care and pharmacies were similar. The mean pressures in all categories, except for systolic blood pressure recorded in primary care, were higher in men. The first ABPM measurements recorded in pharmacies were slightly higher than those in primary care (150.8 ± 19.5/88.7 ± 13.7 vs. 149.6 ± 20.7/88.0 ± 14.4 mmHg). More patients attending primary care were normotensive than those attending pharmacies (19.5 vs. 16.4%), whereas more patients attending pharmacies were hypertensive than those attending primary care (62.8 vs. 60.7%), particularly female patients (61.0 vs. 56.4%). White-coat hypertension was similar in patients attending primary care and pharmacies (19.8 vs. 20.8%), but it was more prevalent in men attending pharmacies (22.0 vs. 17.4%) and in women attending primary care (21.9 vs. 19.7%). There were more dippers in pharmacy then primary care ABPMs (84.7 vs. 79.4%). A preference for having ABPM on Fridays and Saturdays was evident in patients attending pharmacies (19.6 vs. 6.6%), whereas there was a preference for early morning recording in primary care (4.1 vs. 1.1%). This study, which is the first to report on ABPM data from the pharmacy setting, shows that the blood pressure
Shiyanbola, Olayinka O.; Mort, Jane R.
Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages) and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05). Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”). Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality report systems. PMID
Full Text Available Objective: To describe consumer understanding of pharmacy quality measures and consumer preferences for pharmacy quality information. Methods: Semi-structured focus group design was combined with survey methods. Adults who filled prescription medications for self-reported chronic illnesses at community pharmacies discussed their understanding of Pharmacy Quality Alliance approved quality measures. Questions examined preference of pharmacy quality information rating systems (e.g. stars versus percentages and desired data display/formats. During the focus group, participants completed a survey examining their understanding of each pharmacy quality measure. All focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. Results: Thirty-four individuals participated (mean age= 62.85; SD=16.05. Participants were unfamiliar with quality measures information and their level of understanding differed for each quality measure. Surveys indicated 94.1% understood “Drug-Drug Interactions” and “Helping Patients Get Needed Medications” better than other measures (e.g., 76.5% understood “Suboptimal Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes”. Qualitative analysis indicated participants preferred an overall pharmacy rating for quick access and use. However, participants also wanted quality measures information displayed by health conditions. Participants favored comparison of their pharmacy to city data instead of state data. Most participants liked star ratings better than percentages, letter grades, or numerical ratings. Conclusions: Individuals who have a chronic illness and regularly use community pharmacies are interested in pharmacy quality measures. However, specific quality measures were not understood by some participants. Participants had specific preferences for the display of pharmacy quality information which will be helpful in the design of appropriate quality
Martins, Sílvia Filipa; van Mil, J W Foppe; da Costa, Filipa Alves
The role of the pharmacist has undergone profound changes over the recent years. In most European countries, the tendency seems to be that pharmacists are moving from being product-oriented to service-oriented. An interesting series of papers describing care related services of pharmacy in various countries has been published in 2006, but much has changed since then. This paper aims to provide an updated view on the overall health care sector in Europe, with a special focus on services in community pharmacy. To list and compare health care and community pharmacy structure in Europe; and to discuss the facilitators and barriers that can be found in health care systems and may promote or hinder the implementation of new community pharmacy services. European community pharmacy practice. A cross-sectional study was undertaken where data were collected using an online survey sent to a purposive sample of representatives from 27 European countries. Main outcome measure variation in professional community pharmacy services across Europe. Data were obtained from 22 respondents in 19 countries (70.4%). Health care is mainly provided by a form of public National Health Services in 17 of the 19 countries. Demographic criteria for founding new pharmacies were present in 17 countries. Medicines are exclusively available in pharmacies in approximately one third of the countries. Smoking cessation (93.8%), drug waste management (81.3%) and pharmaceutical care programmes for specific diseases (77.8%) were reported as the most widely disseminated services in European pharmacies. There are still major differences between community pharmacy practice in Europe. Differences are mostly due to the legal framework and remuneration issues, which impact on the range of services available from pharmacies to the community of each country.
Meadows, Andrew B; Maine, Lucinda L; Keyes, Elizabeth K; Pearson, Kathy; Finstuen, Kenn
To identify challenges that current and future pharmacy executives are facing or will face in the future and to define what skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) are required to successfully negotiate these challenges. Delphi method for executive decision making. Civilian pharmacy profession. 110 pharmacists who graduated from the GlaxoSmithKline Executive Management Program for Pharmacy Leaders. Two iterations of the Delphi method for executive decision making separated by an expert panel content analysis. Round 1--participants were asked to identify five major issues they believed to be of greatest importance to pharmacy leaders in the next 5-10 years and name specific SKAs that might be needed by future leaders to successfully deal with those issues. An expert panel reviewed the issues, classified issues into specific domains, and titled each domain. Round 2-participants rated the SKAs on a 7-point scale according to their individual assessment of importance in each domain. For Delphi rounds 1 and 2, response rates were 21.8% and 18.2%, respectively. More than 100 total issue statements were identified. The expert panel sorted the issues into five domains: management and development of the pharmacy workforce, pharmacy finance, total quality management of work-flow systems, influences on the practice of pharmacy, and professional pharmacy leadership. Five of the top 15 SKAs-and all four highest ranked items--came from the professional pharmacy leadership domain, including ability to see the big picture, ability to demonstrate the value of pharmacy services, ability to lead and manage in an ethical manner, and skills for influencing an organization's senior leadership. Through successful integration of communication skills, critical thinking, and problem solving techniques, future public-sector pharmacy executives will be better equipped to effectively position their organizations and the profession for the challenges that lie ahead.
Humphries, Tammy L; Delate, Thomas; Helling, Dennis K; Richardson, Bruce
To evaluate the impact of an automated dispensing system (ADS) on pharmacy staff work activities and job satisfaction. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) outpatient pharmacies in September 2005. Pharmacists and technicians from 18 outpatient pharmacies. All KPCO outpatient pharmacists (n = 136) and technicians (n = 160) were surveyed regarding demographics and work activities and pharmacist job satisfaction. Work activities and job satisfaction were compared between pharmacies with and without ADS. Historical prescription purchase records from ADS pharmacies were assessed for pre-ADS to post-ADS changes in productivity. Self-reported pharmacy staff work activities and pharmacist job satisfaction. Pharmacists who responded to the demographic questionnaire (n = 74) were primarily women (60%), had a bachelor's degree in pharmacy (68%), and had been in practice for 10 years or more (53%). Responding technicians (n = 72) were predominantly women (80%) with no postsecondary degree (90%) and fewer than 10 years (68%) in practice. Pharmacists in ADS pharmacies who responded to the work activities questionnaire (n = 50) reported equivalent mean hours spent in patient care activities and filling medication orders compared with non-ADS pharmacists (n = 33; P > 0.05). Similarly, technicians in ADS pharmacies who responded to the work activities questionnaire (n = 64) reported equivalent mean hours spent in filling medication orders compared with non-ADS technicians (n = 38; P > 0.05). An equivalent proportion of ADS pharmacists reported satisfaction with their current job compared with non-ADS pharmacies (P > 0.05). Mean productivity did not increase appreciably after automation (P >0.05). By itself, installing an ADS does not appear to shift pharmacist work activities from dispensing to patient counseling or to increase job satisfaction. Shifting pharmacist work activities from dispensing to counseling and monitoring drug therapy outcomes
Walelign, Solomon Zena
role in lifting poor out poverty which could be due to restricted access to more remunerative environmental resources, (ii) the developed approach for livelihood clustering (combining household income and asset variables using regression models) outperform both existing income and asset approaches (iii......Improved understanding of rural livelihoods is required to reduce rural poverty faster. To that end, this PhD study quantified rural livelihood dynamics emphasizing (i) the role of environmental resources use in helping rural households to escape poverty, (ii) development of a new approach...... households. Two groups of attrite households were identified: ‘movers’ (households that left their original location) and ‘non-movers’ (households that still resided in the same location but were not interviewed for different reasons). The findings revealed that (i) total environmental income had a limited...
Doucette, William R; McDonough, Randal P; Mormann, Megan M; Vaschevici, Renata; Urmie, Julie M; Patterson, Brandon J
To assess the financial performance of pharmacy services including vaccinations, cholesterol screenings, medication therapy management (MTM), adherence management services, employee health fairs, and compounding services provided by an independent community pharmacy. Three years (2008-10) of pharmacy records were examined to determine the total revenue and costs of each service. Costs included products, materials, labor, marketing, overhead, equipment, reference materials, and fax/phone usage. Costs were allocated to each service using accepted principles (e.g., time for labor). Depending on the service, the total revenue was calculated by multiplying the frequency of the service by the revenue per patient or by adding the total revenue received. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for the adherence management services to account for average dispensing net profit. 7 of 11 pharmacy services showed a net profit each year. Those services include influenza and herpes zoster immunization services, MTM, two adherence management services, employee health fairs, and prescription compounding services. The services that realized a net loss included the pneumococcal immunization service, cholesterol screenings, and two adherence management services. The sensitivity analysis showed that all adherence services had a net gain when average dispensing net profit was included. Most of the pharmacist services had an annual positive net gain. It seems likely that these services can be sustained. Further cost management, such as reducing labor costs, could improve the viability of services with net losses. However, even with greater efficiency, external factors such as competition and reimbursement challenge the sustainability of these services.
O'Neil, Christine K.; Poirier, Therese I.
The first six courses of this online program successfully increased participants' knowledge and perceived preparedness to provide pharmaceutical care. This success provided the stimulus for the development of the entire online Doctor of Pharmacy program. Participants felt that the online program facilitated more active and enhanced learning and…
Alston, Greg L; Waitzman, Jennifer A
To describe a mechanism by which pharmacists could create a disruptive innovation to provide professional primary care services via a Web-based delivery model. Several obstacles have prevented pharmacists from using available technology to develop business models that capitalize on their clinical skills in primary care. Community practice has experienced multiple sustaining innovations that have improved dispensing productivity but have not stimulated sufficient demand for pharmacy services to disrupt the marketplace and provide new opportunities for pharmacists. Pharmacists are in a unique position to bridge the gap between demand for basic primary medical care and access to a competent medical professional. Building on the historic strengths of community pharmacy practice, modern pharmacists could provide a disruptive innovation in the marketplace for primary care by taking advantage of new technology and implementing the I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model (I-Tribe). This model would directly connect pharmacists to patients through an interactive, secure Web presence that would liberate the relationship from geographic restrictions. The I-Tribe is a disruptive innovation that could become the foundation for a vibrant market in pharmacist professional service offerings. The I-Tribe model could benefit society by expanding access to primary medical care while simultaneously providing a new source of revenue for community practice pharmacists. Entrepreneurial innovation through I-Tribe pharmacy would free pharmacists to become the care providers envisioned by the profession's thought leaders.
Oliver W. Holmes, III
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages. Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used. Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals. Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system. Type: Original Research
Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.
Gidman, Wendy; Coomber, Ross
Internationally, community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in providing harm reduction services and health advice to people who use illicit drugs. This paper considers public opinion of community pharmacy services. It discusses attitudes to harm reduction services in the context of stigmatization of addiction and people who use drugs. This exploratory study involved twenty-six purposively sampled members of the public, from the West of Scotland, participating in one of 5 focus groups. The groups were composed to represent known groups of users and non-users of community pharmacy, none of whom were problem drug users. Three thematic categories were identified: methadone service users in community pharmacies; attitudes to harm reduction policies; contested space. Harm reduction service expansion has resulted in a high volume of drug users in and around some Scottish pharmacies. Even if harm reduction services are provided discretely users' behavior can differentiate them from other pharmacy users. Drug users' behavior in this setting is commonly perceived to be unacceptable and can deter other consumers from using pharmacy services. The results of this study infer that negative public opinion is highly suggestive of stereotyping and stigmatization of people who use drugs. Participants considered that (1) community pharmacies were unsuitable environments for harm reduction service provision, as they are used by older people and those with children; (2) current drug policy is perceived as ineffective, as abstinence is seldom achieved and methadone was reported to be re-sold; (3) people who use drugs were avoided where possible in community pharmacies. Community pharmacy harm reduction services increasingly bring together the public and drug users. Study participants were reluctant to share pharmacy facilities with drug users. This paper concludes by suggesting mechanisms to minimize stigmatization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter
Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the consumers' preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; 'convenience customers') were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; 'loyal customers') were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy's staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; 'convenience and price-sensitive customers') were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist's opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs, received the highest ratings. The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct
Reddy, Indra K
Working with Roman and Arabic NumeralsUsing Fractions and Decimals in Pharmacy MathUsing Ratios, Proportions and Percentages in Dosage CalculationsApplying Systems of MeasurementsInterpreting Medication OrdersIdentifying Prescription Errors and OmissionsWorking with Liquid Dosage FormsWorking with Solid Dosage FormsAdjusting IsotonicityWorking with Buffer and Ionization ValuesDealing with ReconstitutionsDetermining Milliequivalent StrengthsCalculating Caloric Values Determining IV Flow RatesWorking with Insulin and Heparin ProductsAppendices: A: Working with Temperature ConversionsB: Working with Capsule Dosage FormsC: Dealing with Pediatric Dosages D: Understanding Essential Business Math.
The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.
Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco
Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in
(1) In France, legislation adopted in 2005 recognises the right of dying patients to refuse further treatment, and the right of physicians to ease their suffering with treatments that, due to adverse effects, may shorten their life. Measures deliberately aimed at hastening death are forbidden. (2) In Belgium, medical euthanasia was decriminalised in 2002, and can now be carried out either in hospital or at home. Nearly 20 cases of euthanasia are reported per month in Belgium. (3) A Belgian pharmacy chain now markets a "euthanasia kit".
Full Text Available A pharmacy degree in Finland includes a six-month obligatory internship. The internship is integrated with theoretical studies and adds up to 30 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS credits of the BSc (Pharm degree. Learning is supported by reflective assignments from the university. The preceptors have an important role in organizing the internship and tutoring students successfully in community pharmacy settings. Objective: to assess whether the preceptors of University of Helsinki’s teaching pharmacies need pedagogic support in tutoring and if so, in which core pharmaceutical tasks or tutoring skills. Methods: The survey was sent to all preceptors of University of Helsinki´s teaching pharmacies (n=326 in 2011 (response rate 58%, n=190. The data was analyzed statistically using Excel (version 12.3.6. The open-ended questions were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The majority of preceptors found their skills in tutoring the students mainly good. However, assessment of learning (27% of the respondents, giving feedback (23% and organizing the learning situations supportive for learning (23% were the areas in which the preceptors mostly indicated a need for support. Teaching current care guidelines and pharmaceutical care (36% and multi-professional collaboration (28% were the areas in which the preceptors expressed that they needed to update their skills. Conclusions: The faculty should focus the support on the pedagogic skills of preceptors, particularly in improving their skills in assessment of learning and in reflective dialogue. In addition, their skills in teaching clinical and patient care aspects of pharmacy practice should be enhanced. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings
Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.
Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance...
Bachmann, Kenneth A.; And Others
A survey was sent to eighty-five American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy-member schools and affiliates to learn how many lectures are accorded to core sequences in pharmacology. The data were intended to provide a frame of reference for the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy. (Author/MLW)
Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; And Others
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy guidelines for required and elective instructional content concerning substance abuse for pharmacy students is presented. Recommended required content includes psychosocial aspects of drug use; pharmacology and toxicology; identification, intervention, and treatment of addiction; and legal issues.…
Purpose: To assess pharmacy students' knowledge of communicating medication errors in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and conducted from February to May 2014. A previously validated questionnaire was adopted, modified and distributed to final year pharmacy students in four ...
Sera, Leah; Wheeler, Erin
Gamification is the use of game mechanics to promote engagement and enjoyment of problem-solving in non-game situations. Gamification has been used widely in recent years in industry and academia as a tool for training and education. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of gamification and digital game-based learning (DGBL), review the use of digital games in health professional education, and provide suggestions for future use in pharmacy curricula. Many examples of game-based learning in pharmacy and other health professional curricula have been published, however the body of literature on DGBL is less developed. Overall, evaluations of these techniques show that students find them engaging and enjoyable. A recent meta-analysis of studies comparing DGBL to non-game based learning in primary, secondary, post-secondary education found that DGBL significantly enhances learning. Challenges to implementing game-based learning are financial, cultural, and technological. Many areas of the pharmacy curriculum could be appropriate for digital gamification. With more students entering pharmacy school familiar with video games and game-based living the time has come for pharmacy educators to explore how these instructional technologies could benefit a new generation of pharmacy students. As serious games are developed and researched in pharmacy curricula, test scores, student confidence in knowledge and skills, and retention of knowledge and skills are all outcomes that, if published, will help advance the adoption of DGBL into the pharmacy school classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Purpose: To identify the prevalence as well as determine gender differences in overweight and obesity among undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: Undergraduate pharmacy students (n = 172) of University of Benin, aged 18 years and above, were recruited for the study ...
This study investigated the customers' perceptions of community pharmacies and ... study. Permission was obtained from the pharmacist in charge to interview consumers while they were still in the premises. Seven consumers visiting each pharmacy were ... health insurance cover (medical aid). The respondents' mean age ...
Methodology: Fifty two pharmacy and chemist shops were selected using simple random number sampling technique from 120 registered pharmacy and chemist shops in Jos Metropolis. A semi-structured questionnaire, examining the screening practice of the sales persons was interviewer administered to all the sales ...
To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs. Setting: The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008. Method: Data concerning the financial ...
Pharmacy as a health profession has major responsibilities and contributions in maintaining health of the society. Thus, pharmacists have to maintain professional behaviour and attitude that is worthy of the respect the public has for the profession. Studies on pharmacy students' attitude and career choice are important to ...
Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; Scott, David M.; DeSimone, Edward M., II; Forrester, Joy H.; Fankhauser, Martha P.
The objective of this study was to profile and compare alcohol and other drug (AOD) use attitudes and behaviors in three pharmacy colleges. Student surveys of AOD use attitudes and behaviors were conducted at one southwestern and two midwestern pharmacy colleges. Response was 86.5% (566/654). Reported past-year use included alcohol 82.8%, tobacco…
Young, Anita M.
Extensive research indicates that adults learn best when they are motivated, self-directed and choose what and how they learn. This project focuses on continuing pharmacy education and seeks to answer the question: "How can pharmacists be motivated to participate in continuing pharmacy education programs because they want to, not because they…
The quality of pharmacy practice provided by dispensers in private pharmacies was studied. Parameters used include levels of education of the dispensers, access to health information, knowledge and practice regarding dispensing of drugs to patients, and disposal of expired drugs. A total of 150 dispensers selected from ...
Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse the dispensing patterns of vitamins (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) group A11) over a one-year period in a group of community pharmacies in South Africa. Design and setting: A retrospective drug utilisation study was conducted on community pharmacy ...
Pharmacy practice has transcended from largely a dispensary practice to pharmaceutical care practice. The capacity of community pharmacies to deliver pharmaceutical care was studied using pretested self survey methods. Ninety five percent (95%) of the respondents always educated customers on drug related needs, ...
Purpose: The study was carried out to evaluate the quality of artesunate tablets sold in retail and wholesale pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana. In particular, the study sought to ascertain the presence or otherwise of counterfeit artesunate tablets in Kumasi. Method: Artesunate tablets were purchased from pharmacies in Kumasi ...
Information technology (IT) has transformed the practice of pharmacy worldwide. This study was undertaken to determine the pharmacists\\' IT use, utilization patterns and their opinions regarding IT use. The majority of pharmacies had networked computers (71.7%) and internet connections (60.9%). Pharmacists had poor ...
White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane
Although various instruments have been developed to measure customer satisfaction with community pharmacy services, there is limited research regarding pharmacy staffs' understanding of service quality and its determinants. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of pharmacy staff regarding the factors that constitute a high level of service quality using the service quality determinants proposed by the Conceptual Model of Service Quality. Structured interviews were conducted with 27 pharmacy assistants and 6 pharmacists in 3 community pharmacies in Sydney. The interview questions focused on the participants' perceptions of consumer expectations, the translation of these perceptions into service quality specifications, the actual service delivery, and the communication to customers. From the pharmacy staff perspective, service quality is significantly limited by insufficient internal communication and control processes that impede role clarity and the resolution of conflicting role expectations among customer service personnel. Participants indicated that these problems could be alleviated through the implementation of more transparent, realistic, measurable, and accepted quality specifications by pharmacy management. The study indicates that the extent to which pharmacy management sets, maintains, and communicates service quality specifications to staff directly affects role clarity, role conflict, and organizational commitment among customer service staff, which in turn directly influence the level of service quality provided to the customers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente
% offer inhalation counseling, a reimbursed service. Research in pharmacy practice is well established and conducted primarily at universities and at Pharmakon A/S, which is owned by the Danish Pharmaceutical Association. DISCUSSION: Extended services in clinical pharmacy are priorities for all Danish...
Boucher, Elizabeth A; Burke, Margaret M; Johnson, Peter N; Klein, Kristin C; Miller, Jamie L
Colleges of pharmacy provide varying amounts of didactic and clinical hours in pediatrics resulting in variability in the knowledge, skills, and perceptions of new graduates toward pediatric pharmaceutical care. The Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) endorses the application of a minimum set of core competencies for all pharmacists involved in the care of hospitalized children.
Seidenberg, Andrew B; Behm, Ilan; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N
Several US jurisdictions have adopted policies prohibiting pharmacies from selling tobacco products. Little is known about how pharmacies contribute to total cigarette sales. Pharmacy and total cigarette sales in the USA were tabulated from AC Nielsen and Euromonitor, respectively, for the years 2005-2009. Linear regression was used to characterise trends over time, with observed trends extrapolated to 2020. Between 2005 and 2009, pharmacy cigarette sales increased 22.72% (p=0.004), while total cigarette sales decreased 17.43% (p=0.015). In 2005, pharmacy cigarette sales represented 3.05% of total cigarette sales, increasing to 4.54% by 2009. Extrapolation of these findings resulted in estimated pharmacy cigarette sales of 14.59% of total US cigarette sales by 2020. Cigarette sales in American pharmacies have risen in recent years, while cigarette sales nationally have declined. If current trends continue, pharmacy cigarette market share will, by 2020, increase to more than four times the 2005 share.
Thurston, Maria Miller; Chesson, Melissa M; Harris, Elaine C; Ryan, Gina J
Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive.
Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din
Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research.
Drozda, Katarzyna; Labinov, Yana; Jiang, Ruixuan; Thomas, Margaret R; Wong, Shan S; Patel, Shitalben; Nutescu, Edith A; Cavallari, Larisa H
To utilize a comprehensive, pharmacist-led warfarin pharmacogenetics service to provide pharmacy students, residents, and fellows with clinical and research experiences involving genotype-guided therapy. First-year (P1) through fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students, pharmacy residents, and pharmacy fellows participated in a newly implemented warfarin pharmacogenetics service in a hospital setting. Students, residents, and fellows provided genotype-guided dosing recommendations as part of clinical care, or analyzed samples and data collected from patients on the service for research purposes. Students', residents', and fellows' achievement of learning objectives was assessed using a checklist based on established core competencies in pharmacogenetics. The mean competency score of the students, residents, and fellows who completed a clinical and/or research experience with the service was 97% ±3%. A comprehensive warfarin pharmacogenetics service provided unique experiential and research opportunities for pharmacy students, residents, and fellows and sufficiently addressed a number of core competencies in pharmacogenetics.
Thurston, Maria Miller; Harris, Elaine C.; Ryan, Gina J.
Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive. PMID:28720912
Naik Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol
The aim of this review is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the available literature in order to identify and evaluate studies measuring patient satisfaction with pharmacy services delivered by pharmacists in a community setting. An extensive literature search was conducted in five databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Psychinfo, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) using the search terms "patient/client/consumer satisfaction" AND "community pharmacy/pharmacies" AND "pharmacy service/pharmaceutical services/pharmacy program/intervention/intervention studies". Only those articles where the main focus was measuring patient satisfaction with services delivered in community pharmacies were included in the review. Patient satisfaction was explored with three different levels of pharmacy services -- general services, intervention services and cognitive services. Twenty-four articles measuring patient satisfaction with community pharmacy services were retrieved. Of these, eleven measured patient satisfaction with general services, six measured satisfaction with intervention services and seven measured satisfaction with cognitive services. The majority of studies reviewed had adopted and measured satisfaction as a multidimensional construct. None of the studies reviewed tested any theoretical models of satisfaction. Further a lack of consistent instruments measuring patient satisfaction was observed, with most of the reviewed studies using self developed, non-validated or ad hoc instruments with items from various previously published papers. The review also observed high levels of patient satisfaction with pharmacy services be they general, intervention or cognitive services. This review found that patient satisfaction has been measured within the community pharmacy context to a certain degree. Further research is needed to develop and test instruments based on theoretical frameworks, to test satisfaction pre and post hoc and in well designed randomized controlled
Lucas, Amber; Massey, Lindsay; Gill, Taylor; Burger, Gregory; Little, Jeff D
The successful enactment of mandatory pharmacy technician certification in Kansas is described. In 2004, Kansas began requiring registration of all pharmacy technicians with the state board of pharmacy. Registration identified individuals working as pharmacy technicians but did not require any specific education or certification. In September 2012, the Kansas Board of Pharmacy created a task force of key stakeholders including pharmacists from multiple areas of practice, the University of Kansas School of Pharmacy, organizational leaders from the Kansas Council of Health-System Pharmacists (KCHP) and Kansas Pharmacists Association, and professional lobbyists. The goals of this task force were to research practices of technician certification in other states and to make recommendations to the state board of pharmacy on how Kansas could accomplish mandatory technician certification. The task force outlined the steps needed to achieve legislation that could be supported by the members. These topics included the creation of a technician trainee category, grandfathering certain technicians who had been practicing for a designated period of time, state board-approved exemptions, training requirements, age and education requirements, continuing-education requirements, and pharmacist:technician ratio. The recommendations were finalized at the August 2013 Kansas Pharmacy Summit, and the proposed legislation was introduced and passed during the 2014 legislative session. KCHP members learned many valuable lessons about advocacy and the legislative process with this initiative, including building relationships, working with legislators, and working with other professional organizations. The formation of a task force led to the successful passage of a bill granting the Kansas Board of Pharmacy the authority to issue regulations regarding mandatory pharmacy technician certification. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bostwick, Jolene R; Leung, Gillian P; Smith, Tawny L; Ahmed, Uzma; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L; Peyronnet, Jean-Xavier
Introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) are 1 requirement schools and colleges of pharmacy must fulfill to meet accreditation standards. The purpose of this manuscript is to report existing IPPEs in psychiatry and neurology across the United States. Two separate electronic surveys were administered to individual College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists members with board certification in psychiatric pharmacy with an academic affiliation and academic institutions in the 2014-15 academic year to assess the neuropsychiatric curriculum in pharmacy programs. Results focusing on IPPEs were summarized using descriptive statistics. Academic institutional data reveal only 37.3% offered IPPEs in psychiatry, and 6.7% offered neurology. The number of available IPPEs is low even if a program offered an available rotation. The majority of College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists member respondents (69.9%) did not offer IPPEs in psychiatry in the 2014-15 academic year, and none offered an IPPE in neurology. More than half of individual respondents feel their institution should increase IPPEs in psychiatry and neurology in order to enhance their curriculum. To expand IPPE availability, pharmacy programs should increase early exposure of pharmacy students to patients with psychiatric and neurologic conditions. Longitudinal experiences may allow students to engage in hands-on experiences, which may impact future career aspirations and reduce stigma. Current example IPPEs at the authors' institutions are included to stimulate discussion and action among readers on how IPPEs in these practice areas may be developed. Implementation of IPPEs in psychiatry and neurology is needed for students to gain experience working with these patients.
Buurma, Henk; de Smet, Peter A G M; van den Hoff, Olga P; Egberts, Antoine C G
modification was also higher (OR = 1.61 [1.33-1.94]). Multivariate analysis revealed that a nonprinted prescription was the strongest independent determinant of prescription modifications (OR = 3.32 [2.87-3.84]), remaining so after adjustment for GP computer link to the pharmacy and for type of prescriber. Conclusions At least 30% of Dutch community pharmacies corrected 2.8 POM prescriptions per pharmacy per working day, which could potentially have had clinical consequences if not altered. If the study sample is representative for The Netherlands, Dutch community pharmacies correct a total of approximately 4400 of these prescriptions per working day. Using computerized systems to generate prescriptions is an important strategy to reduce the incidence of prescription errors. PMID:11453894
Levaggi, Rosella; Orizio, Grazia; Domenighini, Serena; Bressanelli, Maura; Schulz, Peter J; Zani, Claudia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto
Internet and e-commerce have profoundly changed society, the economy, and the world of health care. The web offers opportunities to improve health, but it may also represent a big health hazard since it is a basically unregulated market with very low consumer protection. In this paper we analyze marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies (OPs). Our analysis shows that OPs use strategies that would be more suitable for a commodity market than for drugs. These strategies differentiate according to variety (brand or generic), quality, quantity, and target group. OPs are well aware that the vacuum in the legislation allows them to reach a target of consumers that pharmacies cannot normally reach, such as those who would like to use the drug without consulting a physician (or, even worse, against the physician's advice). In this case, they usually charge a higher price, reassure the users by minimizing on the side effects, and induce them to bulk purchase through sensible price discounts. This analysis suggests that the selling of drugs via the Internet can turn into a "public health risk", as has been pointed out by the US Food and Drug Administration.
Smith, J E; Black, B L
Participation by hospital pharmacy departments in planning and development of diversified services is described. Diversification requires market planning. Seven basic marketing steps are identification of mission, goals, and objectives; identification of growth strategies (market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification); market analysis of external factors (size, growth, and logistics; reimbursement and financial considerations; competition; regulatory issues; and legal issues); market analysis of internal factors (departmental organization and reporting lines, demographics of the institution, and costs and productivity associated with the new service); program development and design; implementation; and evaluation. Hospitals can diversify by expanding acute-care services through management contracts and mergers; developing new services to include long-term-care, ambulatory-care, occupational-health, and wellness programs; starting other health-care ventures, such as consulting, continuing medical education, and continuing education for nurses; and expanding into non-health-care businesses. Vertical diversification is finding new markets for existing services; horizontal diversification is development of new services for new markets. To diversify, an institution may need to change its corporate structure; it may form a family of corporations that includes a university, nonprofit hospitals, holding companies, for-profit corporations, joint ventures, and service organizations. Through diversification, institutions and pharmacy departments can create alternative sources of funding and offer more comprehensive services to patients.
Pick De Weiss, S
The Institute Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion, A.C. (IMIFAP) tested the effectiveness of a training course and educational materials that were designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of pharmacy employees concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its prevention, and to promote condoms. 174 employees participated in workshops that included information on transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS, and condom usage. Pre- and post-session tests were performed to ascertain the short-term retention of information; the long-term effect was assessed via incognito shopper visits and monitoring of condom sales. Short, intensive training, when reinforced by posters, pamphlets, and video, significantly increased knowledge of AIDS (symptoms, transmission, and prevention) and correct condom usage. Awareness of risk behaviors and groups at risk for AIDS improved. Printed materials alone did not have a substantial impact on knowledge or sales of condoms, and increased knowledge alone did not increase information disseminated. After 6 months there was a significantly higher rise in condom sales (16%) in the course-plus-materials group. This group also took a greater initiative in providing information to clients. In spite of these positive results, knowledge and initiative are still unsatisfactory, especially when the role of pharmacies in general health care and the suspected prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus in Mexico are considered.
Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M
To explore the challenges that Danish community pharmacy staff encounter when serving non-Western immigrant customers. Special attention was paid to similarities and differences between the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. A questionnaire was distributed to one pharmacist and one pharmacy assistant employed at each of the 55 community pharmacies located in the five local councils in Denmark with the highest number of immigrant inhabitants. The total response rate was 76% (84/110). Most respondents found that the needs of immigrant customers were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.27-8.04). Forty-two per cent (n = 35) perceived that immigrant customers put pressure on pharmacy staff resources, while 27% (n = 23) found that the immigrant customer group make work more interesting. More pharmacists than assistants agreed on the latter (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.04-11.33). Within the past 14 days, 86% (n = 72) experienced that their advice and counselling were not understood by immigrant customers, whereas 49% (n = 41) experienced lack of understanding by ethnic Danes; and 30% (n = 25) had consciously refrained from counselling an immigrant, whereas 19% (n = 16) had done so with an ethnic Dane. Use of under-aged children as interpreters during the past month was reported by 79% of respondents. Regarding suggestions on how to improve encounters with immigrant customers, most respondents listed interventions aimed at patients, general practitioners and pharmaceutical companies. Community pharmacy staff report poorer quality in their encounters with immigrant customers, including sub-optimal counselling and frequent use of under-aged children as
Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando
The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L; Hussainy, Safeera Y
The objectives of this study were to investigate how pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel about community pharmacy involvement in weight management, and to identify what pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women want in weight management educational resources. Three homogenous and one heterogeneous nominal group (NG) sessions of up to 120-min duration were conducted with nine women, ten pharmacists and eight pharmacy assistants. The NG technique was used to conduct each session to determine the most important issues that should be considered surrounding community pharmacy weight management services and development of any educational resources. The heterogeneous NG session was used to finalise what women, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants want in educational resources. Overall, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women believe that pharmacy staff have an important role in the management of overweight and obesity because of their accessibility, trust and the availability of products in pharmacy. Regarding the most suitable healthcare professional(s) to treat overweight and obesity, the majority of participants believed that no one member of the healthcare team was most suitable and that overweight and obesity needs to be treated by a multidisciplinary team. The importance of having weight management educational resources for pharmacy staff and women that come from trustworthy resources without financial gain or commercialisation was also emphasised. Pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel that community pharmacies have a definite role to play in weight management. Pharmacy-specific weight management educational resources that are readily available to pharmacy staff and women are highly desirable. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1,2 Lacy Daniels,1,2 Elaine Demps21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, 2Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, USAAbstract: Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL, an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple
Garavalia, Linda S; Prabhu, Sunil; Chung, Eunice; Robinson, Daniel C
The Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) is a recent assessment requirement for US pharmacy professional programs. This study analyses PCOA scores for uses described in the 2016 Standards with data from one professional program. PCOA data were analyzed for two consecutive classes (n=215) of pharmacy students at the end of their didactic curriculum to explore relationships among PCOA scores, grade point average (GPA), and North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) scores utilizing regression analyses. Decisions about student learning based on PCOA scores and GPA indicated remediation would have been prescribed for approximately 7% of students. In comparison, NAPLEX scores revealed a 1% failure rate among the study sample. Relationships between PCOA scores and GPA (r=0.47) and NAPLEX (r=0.51) were moderate to large, respectively. GPA explained a larger portion of unique variance (14%) than PCOA (8%) in NAPLEX scores. In this sample of students, academic decisions would have varied depending upon the learning assessment, which is consistent with a moderate correlation between GPA and PCOA scores. Although PCOA scores correlate with GPA and NAPLEX, PCOA scores explained a smaller portion of unique variance in NAPLEX scores than GPA. The ongoing establishment of validity evidence of PCOA scores is important for meaningful interpretation of scores for the intended uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohammad, Annim; Hanrahan, Jane R; Sainsbury, Erica; Chaar, Betty B
To explore the opinions and knowledge of Australian pharmacists about impairment in the profession, and their awareness of new legislation regarding impairment and mandatory reporting. Pharmacy practice in Australia. Pharmacists' opinions and knowledge were explored using a purposively designed, de-identified survey distributed by an intermediate mailing house to randomly selected pharmacists registered with the Pharmacy Board. Descriptive statistics and thematic analyses were conducted on the data. KEY OUTCOME MEASURES: This being an explorative study, we analysed various items using standard statistical methods and qualitative thematic analysis for responses to open-ended questions. Responses from 370 registered pharmacists were obtained. Of these, nearly 60% were not confident in their knowledge of legislation relating to impairment. The vast majority stated they would consider reporting an impaired colleague in principle, but only after consulting the colleague. Older pharmacists demonstrated increased awareness of new legislation; this was accompanied however, by a marked decrease in confidence regarding knowledge about impairment. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data revealed four main themes: (1) perception of impairment and support systems available (2) stigma related to implications of impairment and whistle-blowing (3) factors affecting reporting of impairment and (4) management of impairment. Australian pharmacists in this study recognised the importance of the issue of impairment, but appeared to lack confidence and/or awareness of legislative requirements regarding impairment in the profession. There is a need for educative programs and accessible, profession-specific rehabilitative programs to be instigated for management of impairment in the profession of pharmacy in Australia.
Zhou, Jiyin; Zhou, Shiwen; Huang, Chunji; Xu, Rufu; Zhang, Zuo; Zeng, Shengya; Qian, Guisheng
This review provides a critical overview of problem-based learning (PBL) practices in Chinese pharmacy education. PBL has yet to be widely applied in pharmaceutical education in China. The results of those studies that have been conducted are published in Chinese and thus may not be easily accessible to international researchers. Therefore, this meta-analysis was carried out to review the effectiveness of PBL. Databases were searched for studies in accordance with the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently performed the study identification and data extraction. A meta-analysis was conducted using Revman 5.3 software. Sixteen randomized controlled trials were included. The meta-analysis revealed that PBL had a positive association with higher theoretical scores (SMD = 1.17, 95% CI [0.77, 11.57], P methods are superior to conventional teaching methods in improving students' learning interest, independent analysis skills, scope of knowledge, self-study, team spirit, and oral expression. This meta-analysis indicates that PBL pedagogy is superior to traditional lecture-based teaching in Chinese pharmacy education. PBL methods could be an optional, supplementary method of pharmaceutical teaching in China. However, Chinese pharmacy colleges and universities should revise PBL curricula according to their own needs, which would maximize the effectiveness of PBL.
Chen, Judy T.; LaLopa, Joseph
Objective To determine the impact of the Patient Empathy Modeling pedagogy on students' empathy towards caring for the underserved during an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Design Pharmacy students completing an APPE at 2 primary care clinics participated in a Patient Empathy Modeling assignment for 10 days. Each student “became the patient,” simulating the life of an actual patient with multiple chronic diseases who was coping with an economic, cultural, or communication barrier to optimal healthcare. Students completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) before and after completing the assignment, and wrote daily journal entries and a reflection paper. Assessment Twenty-six students completed the PEM exercises from 2005-2006. Scores on the JSPE improved. Students' comments in journals and reflection papers revealed 3 major themes: greater appreciation of the difficulty patients have with adherence to medication and treatment regimens, increased empathy for patients from different backgrounds and patients with medical and psychosocial challenges, and improved ability to apply the lessons learned in the course to their patient care roles. Conclusion A Patient Empathy Modeling assignment improved pharmacy students' empathy toward underserved populations. Integrating the assignment within an APPE allowed students to immediately begin applying the knowledge and insight gained from the exercise. PMID:18483606
Bacci, Jennifer L; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Pringle, Janice L; Maguire, Michelle A; McGivney, Melissa Somma
To identify facilitators and barriers to implementing targeted medication adherence interventions in community chain pharmacies, and describe adaptations of the targeted intervention and organizational structure within each individual pharmacy practice. Qualitative study. Central and western Pennsylvania from February to April 2012. Rite Aid pharmacists staffed at the 118 Pennsylvania Project intervention sites. Qualitative analysis of pharmacists' perceptions of facilitators and barriers experienced, targeted intervention and organizational structure adaptations implemented, and training and preparation prior to implementation. A total of 15 key informant interviews were conducted from February to April 2012. Ten pharmacists from "early adopter" practices and five pharmacists from "traditionalist" practices were interviewed. Five themes emerged regarding the implementation of targeted interventions, including all pharmacists' need to understand the relationship of patient care programs to their corporation's vision; providing individualized, continual support and mentoring to pharmacists; anticipating barriers before implementation of patient care programs; encouraging active patient engagement; and establishing best practices regarding implementation of patient care services. This qualitative analysis revealed that there are a series of key steps that can be taken before the execution of targeted interventions that may promote successful implementation of medication therapy management in community chain pharmacies.
Farnsworth, Norman R.
The visit to the PCR by a herbal pharmacology study group during June 1-26, 1976 is reported. Although the primary purpose was not to study pharmacy and pharmaceutical education, the group observed many activities related to pharmacy, visiting several hospital and community pharmacies as well as one college of pharmacy. (LBH)
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S
Despite pharmacists' extensive knowledge in the optimization of patients' medical treatments, community pharmacies are still fighting to earn patients' trust with respect to medicinal counselling at the counter. The aim was to investigate how patients perceive pharmacy counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. One hundred and eight customers in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. Customers perceive community pharmacies very differently in terms of both expectations of and positive experiences with counselling. They appear to be in favour of pharmacy counselling with respect to over-the-counter medicine and first-time prescription medicine in contrast to refills. Customers find it difficult to express the health-care role of pharmacies even when experiencing and appreciating it. Lack of appreciation of pharmacy counselling for refill prescription medicine and the difficulty in defining the role of pharmacies might stem from the difficulties that customers have in understanding medicine and thus the role of counselling services with respect to medicine. The pharmacy staff does not seem to realize these barriers. For pharmacies to encourage customer interest in pharmacy counselling, the staff should start taking the identified barriers into account when planning communication strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kristina, Susi Ari; Yulianto, Yulianto; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo
Objective: To implement a new health promotion course as part of pharmacy public health practices and to identify pharmacy students' knowledge, perceived role and self-efficacy with respect to what was learned through this. Method: A total of 119 fifth-year pharmacy students undertook a new health promotion course in a pharmacy school in…
The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…
Israel Kofi Nyarko
Advertising which uses electronic energy to transmit information to the end user is called electronic media advertising. It appears as TV, radio, internet. The objective of this study is to establish the contribution of electronic media advertising to rural banking in Ghana. Hitherto, studies have covered advertising rural banks; the outcome of this study will help reveal contributions of electronic media ads to rural banking. Questionnaires were administered to 350 rural bank customers in Ho...
Mohamed E Amin
Results: The simulated client visited 104 pharmacies and was sold an antibiotic at 68 pharmacies in total. A cold group with one or more antibiotic pills was provided in 31 pharmacies. Upon request for two antibiotic pills, 2-8 antibiotic pills were provided in 30 pharmacies whereas an antibiotic carton was provided in three pharmacies. In four pharmacies, the simulated client was sold a cold group containing an antibiotic as well as another antibiotic upon request. Beta-lactam antibiotics comprised 76% of antibiotics provided. In five encounters, the simulated client was told that the cold group contained an antibiotic when, in fact, it did not. Conclusions: Subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics are provided at dangerous rates in Alexandria’s community pharmacies. Interventions are urgently needed to tackle different factors contributing to this dangerous practice. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties Type: Original Research
Singleton, Judith A; Nissen, Lisa M
This paper highlights the hypercompetitive nature of the current pharmacy landscape in Australia and to suggest either a superior level of differentiation strategy or a focused differentiation strategy targeting a niche market as two viable, alternative business models to cost leadership for small, independent community pharmacies. A description of the Australian health care system is provided as well as background information on the current community pharmacy environment in Australia. The authors propose a differentiation or focused differentiation strategy based on cognitive professional services (CPS) which must be executed well and of a superior quality to competitors' services. Market research to determine the services valued by target customers and that they are willing to pay for is vital. To achieve the superior level of quality that will engender high patient satisfaction levels and loyalty, pharmacy owners and managers need to develop, maintain and clearly communicate service quality specifications to the staff delivering these services. Otherwise, there will be a proliferation of pharmacies offering the same professional services with no evident service differential. However, to sustain competitive advantage over the long-term, these smaller, independent community pharmacies will need to exploit a broad core competency base in order to be able to continuously introduce new sources of competitive advantage. With the right expertise, the authors argue that smaller, independent community pharmacies can successfully deliver CPS and sustain profitability in a hypercompetitive market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody
OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (pinternational study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance.
Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers' view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered. Type: Idea Paper
Timothy McPherson, PhD, RPh
Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers’ view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.
Mospan, Cortney M
To encourage the academy to pursue innovative management education strategies within pharmacy curricula and highlight these experiences in a scholarly dialogue. Management has often been a dreaded, dry, and often neglected aspect of pharmacy curricula. With the release of Center for Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) Educational Outcomes 2013 as well as Entry-Level Competencies Needed for Community Pharmacy Practice by National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS) Foundation, National Community Pharmacists Association (NCPA), and Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) in 2012, managerial skills have seen a new emphasis in pharmacy education. Further, management has greater emphasis within ACPE "Standards 2016" through adoption of CAPE Educational Outcomes 2013 into the standards. Previous literature has shown success of innovative learning strategies in management education such as active learning, use of popular television shows, and emotional intelligence. The academy must build a more extensive scholarly body of work highlighting successful educational strategies to engage pharmacy students in an often-dreaded subject through applying the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BackgroundViolence in community pharmacies in Ireland is thought to be common but underreported. The frequency and consequences of violence has not been studied previously.AimsTo establish the frequency and nature of violence in community pharmacies over 12 months, and to investigate the impact of violence on employees and possible consequence for the industry.MethodsA two-part survey was distributed to community pharmacies in Ireland in 2011 (n = 200). The first part related to pharmacy demographics, the frequency of various violent events (verbal abuse, threats etc.), the respondents\\' worry regarding violence and its impact on their co-workers. The second part concerned individual employees\\' subjective response to a violent event, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).ResultsFifty-seven per cent of the pharmacies responded, with 77% reporting some violent event (verbal or physical), over the past year. Eighteen per cent reported physical assault, and 63% were worried about workplace violence. There was no association between late night opening hours or pharmacy size and violence frequency. Positive statistically significant correlations were present between all types of violence and absenteeism and employee fear levels. An IES-R score could be calculated for 75 respondents; the median IES-R score was 8 with 19% reporting clinically significant scores.ConclusionsViolence is common in Irish community pharmacies and impacts on employees and the industry.
Ubaka, Chukwuemeka; Brechtelsbauer, Erich; Goff, Debra A
Health-system and community pharmacy practice in the United States is experiencing transformational change; however, this transformation is lagging in the international arena. As a result, efforts are being made to provide support and education to the international pharmacy leaders and practitioners. This article describes one effort, the Mandela Washington Fellows Program, and suggests areas where pharmacy leaders can be involved to help advance the practice of pharmacy on an international level. The Mandela Washington Fellows Program for young Africa leaders consists of a US-Africa pharmacy-mentoring program identified ranging from educational opportunities to collaboration for implementation of patient care programs. The specifics of the mentoring program include daily meetings, clinic and ward rounds, round table discussions with mentors, and visits to various hospital care systems. Lessons were learned and strategies for sustaining the program are discussed. These types of programs represent leadership opportunities that may not be apparent to most pharmacy directors, but expanding their view to helping international pharmacists expand their practice only strengthens the professional goal of providing patient-centered pharmacy services.
Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J
Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.
DiVall, Margarita V; Zgarrick, David P
To explore the potential of tablet technology to address the specific workload challenges of pharmacy practice faculty members and to evaluate tablet usage after a department-wide iPad initiative. After conducting a needs assessment to determine pharmacy faculty attitudes towards tablet technology and to identify potential usage scenarios, all faculty members in a department of pharmacy practice received an iPad. After iPad distribution, training sessions and virtual tutorials were provided. An anonymous survey was administered to evaluate the pilot. The needs assessment survey revealed positive attitudes towards iPad technology, identified use scenarios, and led to a department-wide iPad pilot program. Most faculty members used iPads for connectivity with students (86%), paper/project annotation (68%), assessment (57%), and demonstration of tools used in practice (36%). For teaching, 61% of faculty members used iPads in seminars/laboratories, 57% used iPads in the experiential setting, and 43% used iPads in the classroom. Use of iPads for patient-care activities varied and depended on site support for mobile technology. The 23 faculty members with external practice sites used iPads to a greater extent and had more positive attitudes towards this technology compared with campus-based faculty members. Integration of tablet technology into the pharmacy education setting resulted in faculty-reported increased productivity and decreased paper waste. It also allowed faculty members to experiment with new teaching strategies in the classroom and experiential setting. Administrators at institutions exploring the use of tablet technology should allocate resources based on faculty needs and usage patterns.
Mylrea, Martina F; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Glass, Beverley D
Self-determination theory (SDT), which describes a continuum of motivation regulators, is proposed as an appropriate framework to study pharmacy student motivation. The aim was to develop a Pharmacy Motivation Scale (Pharm-S) to determine motivation regulators in undergraduate students and explore a possible link to professional identity development. The Pharm-S was adapted from the SDT-based, Sports Motivation Scale (SMS-II), and administered to undergraduate students in an Australian pharmacy course. Convergent validity was assessed by conducting a correlation analysis between the Pharm-S and MacLeod Clark Professional Identity Scale (MCPIS-9). Face, content and construct validity were established for the Pharm-S through the analysis of 327 survey responses. Factor analysis extracted four of the six theoretical subscales as proposed by SDT (variance explained: 65.7%). Support for the SDT structure was confirmed by high factor loadings in each of the subscales and acceptable reliability coefficients. Subscale correlations revealed a simplex pattern, supporting the presence of a motivation continuum, as described by SDT. A moderate positive correlation (0.64) between Pharm-S responses and the validated professional identity instrument, MCPIS-9, indicated a possible link between levels of motivation and professional identity. and conclusions: Content and structural validity and internal consistency of the Pharm-S confirmed the reliability of the Pharm-S as a valid tool to assess motivational regulators. Pharm-S and the MCPIS-9 were positively correlated, lending support to a link between motivation and professional identity. This suggests a potential role for the Pharm-S as a valid tool to measure pharmacy student professional identity development. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...
Ratsimbazafimahefa, H R; Sadeghipour, F; Trouiller, P; Pannatier, A; Allenet, B
Madagascar's health care system has operated without formal hospital pharmacies for more than two decades. The gradual integration of pharmacists in public hospitals since 2012 will allow the structuring of this field. This study was conducted to characterize the current situation regarding all aspects relating to the general functioning of hospital pharmacies and the services provided. This qualitative research used semi-structured interviews. Interviewees' perceptions about the general organization and functioning of hospital pharmacies and details on services provided were collected. The 16 interviewees were Ministry of Health staff members involved in hospital pharmacy, hospital directors, medical staff members and hospital pharmacy managers. Interviews were recorded, translated into French if conducted in Malagasy, and fully transcribed. Verbatim transcripts were coded according to the themes of hospital pharmacy and topical content analysis was performed. The principal issue perceived by interviewees was the heterogeneity of the system in terms of technical and financing management, with a main impact on the restocking of pharmaceutical products. The drug supply chain is not under control: no internal procedure has been established for the selection of pharmaceutical products, the quantification of needs is complex, stock management is difficult to supervise, a standard prescription protocol is lacking, dispensing is performed by unqualified staff, no pharmaceutical preparation is manufactured in the hospitals and administration occurs without pharmaceutical support. Progressive structuring of efficient hospital pharmacy services using the Basel statements for the future of hospital pharmacy is urgently needed to improve health care in Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Sawalha, Ansam F
Improving pharmacy education requires continuous research to optimize education and consequently pharmacy practice. The goal of this study is to assess national and international contributions to pharmacy education research and present results in comparative bibliometric format. Search strategy based on journal name and specific keywords pertaining to pharmacy education were used to retrieve the worldwide literature in pharmacy education using Scopus database during the period from 2000 to 2016. Bibliometric indicators were presented as top 10 list of countries, institutions and authors. VOSviewer was used to visualize international collaboration, while ArcMap10.1 software was used for geographical mapping of publications. A total of 5363 documents, mostly as research articles (4027; 75.1%), were retrieved. A noticeable increase in publications was seen from 2007 to 2011. The USA contributed to more than half (53.6%) of worldwide research output. Saudi Arabia had the highest percentage of international authors representing international collaboration. There was an increase in multi-authored publications with time. The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education (AJPE) ranked first (2822, 52.6%) while the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) had the largest research output with 141 (2.6%) publications. The vast majority of highly cited articles were published in AJPE, and highly cited topics included the use of social media in pharmacy education and the multi-professional learning experience. Pharmacy education research is gaining momentum and is addressing various fields in education. Research in pharmacy education should be encouraged, particularly in developing countries, where education and practice are still lagging behind. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S
of counselling services with respect to medicine. The pharmacy staff does not seem to realize these barriers. CONCLUSIONS: For pharmacies to encourage customer interest in pharmacy counselling, the staff should start taking the identified barriers into account when planning communication strategies....... counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. DESIGN: Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and eight customers...... in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. RESULTS: Customers perceive community pharmacies very...
Mohamed Hassan Elnaem
Full Text Available Pharmacy informatics is demonstrated to have a positive effect on pharmacy practice. The incorporation of pharmacy informatics in academic programs is a common feature in the pharmacy curriculum. This work aims to provide an overview of the current and potential role of mobile applications (apps in pharmacy education and practice. Mobile apps are the most common informatics tools used by medical and pharmacy practitioners as well as students. Both students and practitioners have overall positive perceptions toward using mobile apps in their daily clinical training and practice although the fact that the number of pharmacy apps is still small relatively in comparison with other medical-related apps. There are many potential roles for mobile apps in pharmacy practice and education. The future efforts of educational uses of mobile apps in pharmacy should target playing a role in the provision of customized tools for clinical pharmacy education.
Grindrod, Kelly; Forgione, Andrea; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Gavura, Scott; Giustini, Dean
New "social" information and communication technologies such as social media and smartphones are allowing non-experts to access, interpret and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Pharmacists may also benefit from increased connectivity, but first there needs to be an understanding of how pharmacists engage with social media. A scoping review methodology was used to describe pharmacist and pharmacy student participation in social media networks and to describe the gaps in research. Three themes that emerged from reviewing social media use in pharmacy education were student engagement, boundaries and e-professionalism. For pharmacists, the themes of liability and professional use were prominent. Few pharmacy leadership organizations are providing guidance on social media but that appears to be changing. As the control of medical knowledge shifts from health professionals to the larger social community, pharmacists need to be present. Social media use and training in undergraduate programs is promising but experienced pharmacists also need to join the conversation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Duke, Lori J; Staton, April G; McCullough, Elizabeth S; Jain, Rahul; Miller, Mindi S; Lynn Stevenson, T; Fetterman, James W; Lynn Parham, R; Sheffield, Melody C; Unterwagner, Whitney L; McDuffie, Charles H
To document the annual number of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) placement changes for students across 5 colleges and schools of pharmacy, identify and compare initiating reasons, and estimate the associated administrative workload. Data collection occurred from finalization of the 2008-2009 APPE assignments throughout the last date of the APPE schedule. Internet-based customized tracking forms were used to categorize the initiating reason for the placement change and the administrative time required per change (0 to 120 minutes). APPE placement changes per institution varied from 14% to 53% of total assignments. Reasons for changes were: administrator initiated (20%), student initiated (23%), and site/preceptor initiated (57%) Total administrative time required per change varied across institutions from 3,130 to 22,750 minutes, while the average time per reassignment was 42.5 minutes. APPE placements are subject to high instability. Significant differences exist between public and private colleges and schools of pharmacy as to the number and type of APPE reassignments made and associated workload estimates.
Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine
Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy
V. L. Adzhienko
Full Text Available A purpose of this study was to determine the probability of bankruptcy by various methods in order to predict the financial crisis of pharmacy organization. Estimating the probability of pharmacy organization bankruptcy was conducted using W. Beaver’s method adopted in the Russian Federation, with integrated assessment of financial stability use on the basis of scoring analysis. The results obtained by different methods are comparable and show that the risk of bankruptcy of the pharmacy organization is small.
Silvester, Janet A
Thought leaders in Virginia came together to achieve consensus on the pharmacy practice innovations required to advance the medication-related health outcomes of patients in the Commonwealth. The participants identified key elements and strategies needed for practice transformation and these became the foundation for practice change. The primary key elements included legislation and regulation modifications, payment reform, and business model development. The Virginia Pharmacy Congress, which represents key pharmacy stakeholders in the Commonwealth, became the home for the transformation movement and the development and implementation of a unified action plan for achieving the envisioned practice transformation.
Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Latif, David A; Al-Rousan, Rabaa M
Although the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination (FPGEE) is not intended to measure educational outcomes or institutional effectiveness, it may be a reliable and valid criterion to assess the quality or success of international pharmacy programs. This comprehensive review describes the evolution and historical milestones of the FPGEE, along with trends in structure, administration, and passing rates, and the impact of country of origin on participant performance. Similarities between the FPGEE and the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) are also explored. This paper aims to provide a global prospective and insight for foreign academic institutions into parameters for evaluating their students' educational capabilities.
Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship.
Shakib, Shaun C; Che, Chengjian; Lau, Lee Min
The 3M Health Information Systems (HIS) Healthcare Data Dictionary (HDD) is used to encode and structure patient medication data for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA). HDD Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) are responsible for initial and maintenance mapping of disparate, standalone medication master files from all 100 DoD host sites worldwide to a single concept-based vocabulary, to accomplish semantic interoperability. To achieve higher levels of automation, SMEs began defining a growing set of knowledge rules. These knowledge rules were implemented in a pharmacy mapping tool, which enhanced consistency through automation and increased mapping rate by 29%.
In early modem China, natural history and medicine were shifting along with the boundaries of the empire. Naturalists struggled to cope with a pharmacy's worth of new and unfamiliar substances, texts, and terms, as plants, animals, and the drugs made from them travelled into China across land and sea. One crucial aspect of this phenomenon was the early modern exchange between Islamic and Chinese medicine. The history of theriac illustrates the importance of the recipe for the naturalization of foreign objects in early modem Chinese medicine. Theriac was a widely sought-after and hotly debated product in early modern European pharmacology and arrived into the Chinese medical canon via Arabic and Persian texts. The dialogue between language and material objects was critical to the Silk Road drug trade, and transliteration was ultimately a crucial technology used to translate drugs and texts about them in the early modern world.
Rutter, Paul M; Duncan, Gregory
To explore how the use of digital media could affect how people view professional behaviour. The growth in social networking sites has been phenomenal and they are now an extremely popular medium for interacting with others both commercially and privately. This as-yet-uncontrolled digital media provides ample opportunities for public and professional scrutiny for the unwary. Instances of employer screening and employee dismissal are already documented. All pharmacists who use digital media now need to be conscious that their virtual presence could be subject to regulator investigation. It is important that individuals are aware of the risks associated with using digital media and that pharmacy organisations begin to provide clear leadership to help pharmacists know what is and is not acceptable. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Whittlesea, C. (2013). The impact of automation on workload and dispensing errors in a hospital pharmacy . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice , 21...Welsh NHS hospitals. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice , 16, 175–188. Lin, A. C., Huang, Y.-C., Punches, G., & Chen, Y. (2007). Effect of a...expectations of outpatient pharmacy services in a teaching hospital. International Journal of Pharmacy Medicine , 5(3), 128–132. 79 INITIAL
Utsumi, Miho; Hirano, Sachi; Fujii, Yuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi
The purpose of this study was to highlight concerns with the current pharmacy practice program and suggest aspects for improvement. A further aim of the study was to enhance the educational effects of the program, from the students' point of view. We surveyed 1,607 pharmacy students in Japan who had completed the pharmacy practice program in either 2010 or 2011. The students completed a self-descriptive questionnaire comprising 48 questions examining their experience of the pharmacy practice program. For community pharmacy practice, four factors were extracted through exploratory analysis: "satisfactory learning (pharmacy)," "support system of the university," "creation and clarification of the training plan," and "dialogue with patients." When comparing the mean values for each of the four factors between 2011 and 2012, the 2012 group scored significantly higher (p programs. From the results of McNemar's test, from 2011 to 2012, there was a significant decrease in the number of students who were unable to experience "charge system of patients" at neither hospitals nor pharmacies (p program introduced some initiatives. Furthermore, conducting training at multiple facilities deepens student learning and assists with the correction of problems, such as the disparities within the teaching system and learning content at each of the training facilities.
Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika
All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects possible. All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed no significant differences. The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions.
Galt, Kimberly A; Fuji, Kevin T; Faber, Jennifer
To implement a communication network for safety problem identification and solution sharing among rural community pharmacists and to report participating pharmacists' perceived value and impact of the network on patient safety after 1 year of implementation. Action research study. Rural community pharmacies in Nebraska from January 2010 to April 2011. Rural community pharmacists who voluntarily agreed to join the Pharmacists for Patient Safety Network in Nebraska. Pharmacists reported errors, near misses, and safety concerns through Web-based event reporting. A rapid feedback process was used to provide patient safety solutions to consider implementing across the network. Qualitative interviews were conducted 1 year after program implementation with participating pharmacists to assess use of the reporting system, value of the disseminated safety solutions, and perceived impact on patient safety in pharmacies. 30 of 38 pharmacists participating in the project completed the interviews. The communication network improved pharmacist awareness, promoted open discussion and knowledge sharing, contributed to practice vigilance, and led to incorporation of proactive safety prevention practices. Despite low participation in error and near-miss reporting, a dynamic communication network designed to rapidly disseminate evidence-based patient safety strategies to reduce risk was valued and effective at improving patient safety practices in rural community pharmacies.
Full Text Available Improved access to effective contraceptive methods is needed in Canada, particularly in rural areas, where unintended pregnancy rates are high and specific sexual health services may be further away. A rural pharmacist may be the most accessible health care professional. Pharmacy practice increasingly incorporates cognitive services. In Canada many provinces allow pharmacists to independently prescribe for some indications, but not for hormonal contraception. To assess the acceptability for the implementation of this innovative practice in Canada, we developed and piloted a survey instrument. We chose questions to address the components for adoption and change described in Rogers’ “diffusion of innovations” theory. The proposed instrument was iteratively reviewed by 12 experts, then focus group tested among eight pharmacists or students to improve the instrument for face validity, readability, consistency and relevancy to community pharmacists in the Canadian context. We then pilot tested the survey among urban and rural pharmacies. 4% of urban and 35% of rural pharmacies returned pilot surveys. Internal consistency on repeated re-phrased questions was high (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.901. We present our process for the development of a survey instrument to assess the acceptability and feasibility among Canadian community pharmacists for the innovative practice of the independent prescribing of hormonal contraception.
Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. Objective: This study aimed to examine customers’ key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Methods: Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. Results: A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%. Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%, trust in the products (73%, and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95% were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. Conclusions: High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or
Chan, Vincent; Tran, Hung
Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. This study aimed to examine customers' key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale) examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%). Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%), trust in the products (73%), and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95%) were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or existing levels of stress and health.
Batra, Peter; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B
To evaluate pharmacy staff perspectives of a 2-year pharmacy intervention aimed at reducing unintended pregnancy in 18- to 30-year-old women. Pharmacy staff completed a 48-item, self-administered paper survey consisting of scaled and open-ended questions. 55 community pharmacies in 12 Iowa counties. All pharmacy staff participated, including pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and other pharmacy employees. Online continuing education (CE) training was made available to all pharmacy staff. Promotional materials including posters, brochures, and shelf talkers were displayed in all of the pharmacies. Pharmacy staff perceptions and self-reported behaviors related to displaying posters, brochures, and shelf talkers in their pharmacies and providing contraceptive information and counseling to patients/customers. A total of 192 (43% return rate) pharmacy staff responded. Only 44% of respondents consistently provided contraceptive information and counseling, yet more than 90% felt that talking with patients/customers about contraceptives was easy, and more than 50% could do so privately. The study showed increased pharmacy staff desire to make this topic a priority. Community pharmacy staff can play a key role in educating and counseling young adult women about contraceptive health and pregnancy planning. This study indicates that staff are comfortable providing this service and that patients/customers are open to receiving guidance from pharmacists. However, pharmacy staff are missing additional opportunities to provide information and counseling. There is also a need for greater attention to provision of nonprescription contraceptive education.
Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan
To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.
Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Yimenu, Dawit Kumilachew; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku
Pharmacy professionals, as the most available members of medical team, have an important role in educating patients about the effective and appropriate use of contraceptives. The purpose of this study was to assess pharmacy professionals' dispensing practice, knowledge, and attitude towards emergency contraceptives use in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was employed from May 14 to June 14, 2016, on 60 pharmacy professionals, who have been working in 8 randomly selected pharmacies and 6 drug stores. The collected data was entered to and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. More than half 33 (55.0%) of the participants were druggist with 5-9 years of experience. About 56 (93.3%) of the participants knew about the dosing schedule (when and how much to take) and side effects of emergency contraceptives. More than two-thirds of the participants (39, 65%) agreed that the existence of emergency contraceptives is a positive thing and considered their use is ethical (42, 63.3%). The majority of participants (51, 85%) also reported that they counsel all women when dispensing emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). This study revealed that knowledge, attitude, and dispensing practice of emergency contraceptives are very good even though there were variations with respect to different factors. Findings suggested that additional training and proper counseling technique on emergency contraceptives will improve the service delivery.
Sewunet Admasu Belachew
Full Text Available Background. Pharmacy professionals, as the most available members of medical team, have an important role in educating patients about the effective and appropriate use of contraceptives. The purpose of this study was to assess pharmacy professionals’ dispensing practice, knowledge, and attitude towards emergency contraceptives use in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was employed from May 14 to June 14, 2016, on 60 pharmacy professionals, who have been working in 8 randomly selected pharmacies and 6 drug stores. The collected data was entered to and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. Result. More than half 33 (55.0% of the participants were druggist with 5–9 years of experience. About 56 (93.3% of the participants knew about the dosing schedule (when and how much to take and side effects of emergency contraceptives. More than two-thirds of the participants (39, 65% agreed that the existence of emergency contraceptives is a positive thing and considered their use is ethical (42, 63.3%. The majority of participants (51, 85% also reported that they counsel all women when dispensing emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs. Conclusion. This study revealed that knowledge, attitude, and dispensing practice of emergency contraceptives are very good even though there were variations with respect to different factors. Findings suggested that additional training and proper counseling technique on emergency contraceptives will improve the service delivery.
Full Text Available Summary: Background: Infectious diseases are a great threat to humankind, and antibiotics are a viable proposition to numerous pathologies. However, antibiotic resistance is a global concern. Therefore, the aims of this survey were to explore the understanding and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic use and resistance. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on final-year undergraduate pharmacy students from 5 public universities. A validated, self-administered questionnaire written in English was used to collect data. It was made up of six domains and forty-five questions. Raosoft software was used to determine the minimum required sample size. Descriptive and inferential data analyses were carried out using SPSS version 20 software. Results: Out of 346 students, only 59.5% showed a strong understanding of antibiotic usage, while 84.4% of students demonstrated a good level of understanding regarding the issue of antibiotic resistance. However, only 34.1% of students demonstrated a positive attitude toward this issue. Conclusion: This survey reveals that final-year pharmacy students at Malaysian public universities have a relatively good understanding of antibiotic resistance. However, their attitudes did not strongly correlate to their knowledge. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Pharmacy students, Malaysian public universities
Vrignaud, S; Le Pêcheur, V; Jouan, G; Valy, S; Clerc, M-A
This work aims to provide staff accreditation methodology to harmonize and secure practices for parenteral nutrition bags preparation. The methodology used in the present study is inspired from project management and quality approach. Existing training supports were used to produce accreditation procedure and evaluation supports. We first defined abilities levels, from level 1, corresponding to accredited learning agent to level 3, corresponding to expert accredited agent. Elements assessed for accreditation are: clothing assessment either by practices audit or by microbiologic test, test bags preparation and handling assessment, bag production to assess aseptic filling for both manual or automatized method, practices audit, number of days of production, and non-conformity following. At Angers Hospital, in 2014, production staff is composed of 12 agents. Staff accreditation reveals that 2 agents achieve level 3, 8 agents achieve level 2 and 2 agents are level 1. We noted that non-conformity decreased as accreditation took place from 81 in 2009 to 0 in 2014. To date, there is no incident due to parenteral bag produced by Angers hospital for neonatal resuscitation children. Such a consistent study is essential to insure a secured nutrition parenteral production. This also provides a satisfying quality care for patients. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dimitrios Phaedon Kevrekidis
Full Text Available Background: Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the consumers’ preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Results: Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; ‘convenience customers’ were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; ‘loyal customers’ were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy’s staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; ‘convenience and price-sensitive customers’ were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist’s opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs
Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs. PMID:27168614
Salter, Sandra M; Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M
Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy education effectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels.
Guimarães Morais JA
Full Text Available A survey of quality assurance (QA systems in European faculties of pharmacy was carried out under the auspices of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy PHARMINE consortium. A questionnaire based on the quality criteria of the International Pharmaceutical Federation and the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (USA was sent out to European faculties. Replies were obtained from 28 countries. Just above half has a working QA system. QA scores were high concerning matters such as complete curriculum and training, use of European Credit Transfer System, students’ representation and promotion of professional behavior. QA scores were low concerning matters such as evaluation of achievement of mission and goals, and financial resources. The PHARMINE consortium now has a basis upon which to elaborate and promote QA in European pharmacy faculties.
Research Activity in Middle Eastern Arab Countries: 2003 -. 2012. Waleed M ... International cooperation was highest with Malaysia (9.7 %) followed by ... Arab countries. Keywords: Community pharmacy, Middle East, Bibliometric review.
Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of a standard educational module on pharmacy students' inhaler technique .... found in the market next to a checklist showing its technique steps). ... educational strategies in this area. To ensure.
Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine
Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These public use files contain formulary, pharmacy network, and pricing data for Medicare Prescription Drug Plans and Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plans...
The availability of Misoprostol in pharmacies and patent medicine stores in two Nigerian ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... pharmacists or vendors of pharmaceutical and patent medicine outlets in two ...
Ubaka, Chukwuemeka M; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Ukwe, Chinwe V
Objective. To evaluate cognitive factors that might influence academic performance of students in Nigerian pharmacy schools. Methods. A cross-sectional, multi-center survey of Nigerian pharmacy students from 7 schools of pharmacy was conducted using 2 validated questionnaires measuring cognitive constructs such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, time management, and strategic study habits. Results. Female students and older students scored significantly better on time management skills and study habits, respectively. Test anxiety was negatively associated with academic performance while test competence, academic competence, and time management were positively associated with academic performance. These 4 constructs significantly discriminated between the lower and higher performing students, with the first 2 contributing to the most differences. Conclusion. Test and academic competence, test anxiety, and time management were significant factors associated with low and high academic performance among Nigerian pharmacy students. The study also demonstrated the significant effects of age, gender, and marital status on these constructs.
Van den Bemt, P.M.L.A.; Van Roon, E.N.; Hekster, Y.A.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.
Apart from their traditional responsibilities (aimed at dispensing good products), Dutch hospital pharmacists are increasingly involved in patient-oriented responsibilities. Although the Dutch Hospital Pharmacy Standard (Ziekenhuis Apotheek Norm) warrants certain procedures for drug use evaluation,
Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan; Hughes, Fiona; Jones, David; Laverty, Garry; Parsons, Carole; Ryan, Cristin
To create, implement, and evaluate debate as a method of teaching pharmacy undergraduate students about ethical issues. Debate workshops with 5 hours of contact with student peers and facilitators and 5 hours of self-study were developed for second-year pharmacy students. Student development of various skills and understanding of the topic were assessed by staff members and student peers. One hundred fifty students completed the workshops. The mean score for debating was 25.9 out of 30, with scores ranging from 23.2 to 28.7. Seventy percent of students agreed that the debates were a useful teaching method in the degree program. A series of workshops using debates effectively delivered course content on ethical issues and resulted in pharmacy students developing skills such as teamwork, peer assessment, communication, and critical evaluation. These findings suggest that pharmacy students respond favorably to a program using debates as a teaching tool.
Karia, Ajay; Sanfilippo, Frank M.; Clifford, Rhonda M.
Over the past 2 decades, e-learning has evolved as a new pedagogy within pharmacy education. As learners and teachers increasingly seek e-learning opportunities for an array of educational and individual benefits, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. This systematic review of the literature examines the quality of e-learning effectiveness studies in pharmacy, describes effectiveness measures, and synthesizes the evidence for each measure. E-learning in pharmacy education effectively increases knowledge and is a highly acceptable instructional format for pharmacists and pharmacy students. However, there is limited evidence that e-learning effectively improves skills or professional practice. There is also no evidence that e-learning is effective at increasing knowledge long term; thus, long-term follow-up studies are required. Translational research is also needed to evaluate the benefits of e-learning at patient and organizational levels. PMID:24850945
Sadowski, Cheryl A; Li, Johnson Ching-hong; Pasay, Darren; Jones, C Allyson
To evaluate an interprofessional peer-teaching activity during which physical therapy students instructed undergraduate pharmacy students on 3 ambulatory devices (canes, crutches, walkers). The pre/post evaluation of 2 pharmacy undergraduate classes included 220 students, 110 per year. After pharmacy students completed a 10-point, knowledge-based pretest, they participated in a hands-on activity with physical therapy students teaching them about sizing, use, and safety of canes, crutches, and walkers. A 10-point posttest was completed immediately afterward. The mean difference of pre/post scores was 3.5 (SD 1.9) for the peer-led teaching, and 3.8 (SD 2.2) for the peer learning group. Students had positive responses regarding the learning exercise and recommended further peer teaching. The peer-learning activity involving physical therapy students teaching pharmacy students was an effective method of improving knowledge and skills regarding basic ambulatory devices.
Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. P.O. Box 19676-00202, ... of plant used, the dosage form and procedures for preparation and ... by thermal gravimetric methods. In finely.
Moeller, Karen E; Woods, Barbara
To determine pharmacy students' knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers' questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum.
Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa
Social media is becoming increasingly ubiquitous. It has significant potential as a health communication and educational tool, and may provide a medium for the delivery of health-related services. This systematic review aimed to investigate the use of social media in professional pharmacy practice and pharmacy education, and includes an evaluation of the research designs utilized. Medline, Embase, PubMed, IPA, and CINAHL databases were broadly searched for peer-reviewed research studies about pharmacy and social media (SM). The search was restricted to years 2000 to June 2013, with no other restrictions applied. Key words used were within three concept areas: "social media" and "pharmacist or student" and "pharmacy." Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. SM was broadly addressed as a general concept in 3 of the 24 studies. The other 21 studies investigated/used specific SM tools. Fourteen of those addressed social networking sites (SNS), four wikis, two blogs, and one Twitter. The studies' foci were to describe SM use (n = 17 studies) by pharmacist, pharmacy educators, and pharmacy students and investigate usage related topics (such as e-professionalism and student-educator boundary issues); or the use of SM as an educational tool in pharmacy education (n = 7). Pharmacy students were the subject of 12 studies, pharmacists of six, and faculty members and administrators of four. Survey methods were used in 17 studies, alone or with an additional method; focus groups were used in two; interviews in one; and direct observation of social media activity in seven. Results showed that SM in general and SNS in particular were used mainly for personal reasons. Wikis, Facebook, and Twitter were used as educational tools in pharmacy education with positive feedback from students. Research investigating the use of SM in the practice of pharmacy is growing; however, it is predominantly descriptive in nature with no controlled studies identified. Although some
Al-Araidah, Omar; Momani, Amer; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Momani, Mohammed
The healthcare arena, much like the manufacturing industry, benefits from many aspects of the Toyota lean principles. Lean thinking contributes to reducing or eliminating nonvalue-added time, money, and energy in healthcare. In this paper, we apply selected principles of lean management aiming at reducing the wasted time associated with drug dispensing at an inpatient pharmacy at a local hospital. Thorough investigation of the drug dispensing process revealed unnecessary complexities that contribute to delays in delivering medications to patients. We utilize DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) and 5S (Sort, Set-in-order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain) principles to identify and reduce wastes that contribute to increasing the lead-time in healthcare operations at the pharmacy understudy. The results obtained from the study revealed potential savings of > 45% in the drug dispensing cycle time.
Full Text Available Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126 was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. Results: The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%, lack of pharmacist time (83.3%, organizational obstacles (82.6%, and pharmacists’ physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%. Conclusion: Pharmacy students’ attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University
Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Kombian, Samuel B
Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients' quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. To investigate pharmacy students' attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance of the various pharmaceutical care activities, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students (n=126) was conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University. Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (SD) were calculated and compared using SPSS, version 19. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of 0.05 or lower. The response rate was 99.2%. Pharmacy students expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Perceived pharmaceutical care competencies grew as students progressed through the curriculum. The students also appreciated the importance of the various pharmaceutical care competencies. They agreed/strongly agreed that the major barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (95.2%), lack of pharmacist time (83.3%), organizational obstacles (82.6%), and pharmacists' physical separation from patient care areas (82.6%). Pharmacy students' attitudes and perceived preparedness can serve as needs assessment tools to guide curricular change and improvement. Student pharmacists at Kuwait University understand and advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also
Rodis, Jennifer; Aungst, Timothy Dy; Brown, Nicole V; Cui, Yan; Tam, Leonard
Background The use of mobile apps in health care is growing. Current and future practitioners must be equipped with the skills to navigate and utilize apps in patient care, yet few strategies exist for training health care professional students on the usage of apps. Objective To characterize first-year pharmacy student use of medical apps, evaluate first-year pharmacy student's perception of skills in finding, evaluating, and using medical apps before and after a focused learning experience, ...
Full Text Available Rosemin Kassam1, John B Collins2, Jonathan Berkowitz31School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Educational Studies, Faculty of Education, 3Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaBackground: The purpose of this study was to validate previously published satisfaction scales in larger and more diversified patient populations; to expand the number of community pharmacies represented; to test the robustness of satisfaction measures across a broader demographic spectrum and a variety of health conditions; to confirm the three-factor scale structure; to test the relationships between satisfaction and consultation practices involving pharmacists and pharmacy students; and to examine service gaps and establish plausible norms.Methods: Patients completed a 15-question survey about their expectations regarding pharmaceutical care-related activities while shopping in any pharmacy and a parallel 15 questions about their experiences while shopping in this particular pharmacy. The survey also collected information regarding pharmaceutical care consultation received by the patients and brief demographic data.Results: A total of 628 patients from 55 pharmacies completed the survey. The pilot study’s three-factor satisfaction structure was confirmed. Overall, satisfaction measures did not differ by demographics or medical condition, but there were strong and significant store-to-store differences and consultation practice advantages when pharmacists or pharmacists-plus-students participated, but not for consultations with students alone.Conclusion: Patient satisfaction can be reliably measured by surveys structured around pharmaceutical care activities. The introduction of pharmaceutical care in pharmacies improves patient satisfaction. Service gap details indicated that pharmacy managers need to pay closer attention to various consultative activities involving patients
This Bachelor's Thesis studies application of marketing to a pharmacy in a small to medium sized town. The theoretical part addresses marketing elements that are relevant for this field of entrepreneurship. I also add the specifics of marketing in the field of medical care. The analysis deals mainly with marketing mix in a traditional sense and competiton in the area. The Theoretical part also includes specifics of operation of a pharmacy. The Practical part contains basic information about t...
Fejza A; Kryeziu Z; Kadrija K; Musa M
Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. Methods: 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated presc...
Clark, Thomas R
Assess performance of long-term care pharmacy providers on key services offered to nursing facilities. Cross-sectional; nursing facility team. Random phone survey of nursing facility team members. 485 nursing facility team members (practicing in nursing facilities, interacting with > or = 1 consultant pharmacist); 46 members excluded, unable to identify facility's pharmacy provider. Directors of nursing, medical directors, and administrators were asked to rate long-term care pharmacy provider performance of eight commonly offered pharmacy services. All groups evaluated pharmacy provider performance of these services using a five-point scale. Results are broken down by employer type. Average rating for eight pharmacy services was 3.64. Top two services: "Labeling medications accurately" ranked in top 1-2 services for all groups (combined rating of 3.97) and "Provides medication administration system" ranked in top 1-3 services for all groups (combined rating of 3.95). One service, "Provides educational inservices," ranked lowest for all groups (combined rating of 3.54). In general, when looking at the eight services in combination for all providers, all services were ranked between Good and Very Good (average score of 3.64). Therefore, while the pharmacy provider is performing above average for these services, there is room for improvement in all of these services. These results can be used as a benchmark. Detailed data results and sample surveys are available online at www.ascp.com/supplements. These surveys can be used by the pharmacy provider to solicit assessments from their own facilities on these services.
Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika K; Kulovaara, Heidi; Bell, J Simon; Enäkoski, Marianne; Airaksinen, Marja S
The importance of email as a mode of communication between medication users and pharmacists is likely to increase. However, little is known about the email medication counseling practices of community pharmacies. To determine the prevalence of email medication counseling services in Finland and to assess the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses by pharmacies providing the opportunity for email medication counseling to inquiries related to use of antidepressants. An inventory was made of all Finnish community pharmacies that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. Data related to the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses were collected, using a virtual pseudo-customer method with 3 scenarios related to common concerns of patients on antidepressants. Two inquiries were emailed to each pharmacy that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling in January and February 2005. The responses were content analyzed by 2 researchers, using a prestructured scoring system. Almost one-third (30%, n = 182) of Finnish community pharmacies maintained a working Web site, and 94% of those provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. An online "ask-the-pharmacist" service was offered by 13% (n = 23) of the pharmacies with a Web site. Pharmacies responded to 54% of the email inquiries sent by the virtual pseudo-customers. The response rate and the content score ratio between mean and maximum scores varied among the scenarios. The content score ratio was highest for the scenarios concerning the adverse effects of fluoxetine (0.53, n = 55) and interactions with mirtazapine (0.52, n = 63) and lowest for the scenario related to sexual dysfunction and weight gain associated with citalopram (0.38, n = 52). Community pharmacies are potential providers of email medication counseling services. However, more attention should be directed to responding to consumer inquiries and to the content of these responses.
Allen, Loyd V
A quality-based program is vital in every compounding pharmacy to ensure that each preparation is compounded properly and is stable for its expected duration of use. This article discusses quality control, quality assurance, continuous quality improvement, and also describes the components of an in-house (in-pharmacy) quality program, as well as the role of outside laboratories. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.
JENNIFER TAN SEE HUI
Full Text Available The International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP adopted a set of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP guidelines in 1993 and recommended that the regulatory bodies of individual countries should adapt the guidelines in accordance with their resources. The Malaysian Pharmaceutical Society (MPS introduced its benchmarking guidelines (BMG in 2003 as a means to raise the professional standards of the community pharmacy practice in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the extent to which community pharmacies have adopted the BMG. A cross-sectional study was conducted using mail questionnaires, which were posted to all community pharmacies in Malaysia. A total of 371 questionnaires (29.2% were returned. Only 51.0% of the respondents were aware of the BMG. The extent of compliance with the guidelines was 62.6+21.1% (mean + standard deviation, with a median of 65%. The type and ownership of the community pharmacies were significantly associated with compliance with certain aspects of the guidelines. The main problem in complying with the BMG was financial constraint, and this problem was more likely to occur with independent than with chain pharmacies. However, the respondents generally agreed that most aspects of the BMG could be achieved in less than five years. Since the level of awareness among community pharmacists regarding the BMG is low, the MPS should promote or publicise the BMG further. The BMG should be reviewed before being used as part of the criteria for the accreditation of community pharmacies, as proposed by the MPS to further improve the quality and standards of community pharmacies in Malaysia.
El Hajji, Feras W D; Scullin, Claire; Scott, Michael G; McElnay, James C
This study aimed to determine the value of using a mix of clinical pharmacy data and routine hospital admission spell data in the development of predictive algorithms. Exploration of risk factors in hospitalized patients, together with the targeting strategies devised, will enable the prioritization of clinical pharmacy services to optimize patient outcomes. Predictive algorithms were developed using a number of detailed steps using a 75% sample of integrated medicines management (IMM) patients, and validated using the remaining 25%. IMM patients receive targeted clinical pharmacy input throughout their hospital stay. The algorithms were applied to the validation sample, and predicted risk probability was generated for each patient from the coefficients. Risk threshold for the algorithms were determined by identifying the cut-off points of risk scores at which the algorithm would have the highest discriminative performance. Clinical pharmacy staffing levels were obtained from the pharmacy department staffing database. Numbers of previous emergency admissions and admission medicines together with age-adjusted co-morbidity and diuretic receipt formed a 12-month post-discharge and/or readmission risk algorithm. Age-adjusted co-morbidity proved to be the best index to predict mortality. Increased numbers of clinical pharmacy staff at ward level was correlated with a reduction in risk-adjusted mortality index (RAMI). Algorithms created were valid in predicting risk of in-hospital and post-discharge mortality and risk of hospital readmission 3, 6 and 12 months post-discharge. The provision of ward-based clinical pharmacy services is a key component to reducing RAMI and enabling the full benefits of pharmacy input to patient care to be realized. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Yuwen; Fu, Frank Q
This study focuses on the impacts of service quality and examines the mediating effects of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty on willingness to pay more. The authors collected survey data from 479 actual retail pharmacy customers in China and used the structural equation modeling approach to test the hypotheses. The results reveal six dimensions of service quality and the differential impact of these dimensions on customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. This study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the dimensionality of the service quality construct and mediating effects of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a non-Western setting.
Conway, Susan E; Smith, Winter J; Truong, Teresa H; Shadid, Jill
Interprofessional learning is a key component of today's health sciences education. Within a two-course series in dental pharmacology and therapeutics, a dental curriculum was revised to provide an interprofessional activity to expose dental students to a community pharmacy setting. The objectives of this activity were to augment students' learning about drug laws and prescription writing, as well as to foster interprofessional relationships and collaboration between pharmacists and dentists. Dental students were scheduled for one-hour observations at community pharmacies on campus. Learning objectives to guide this activity focused on demonstrating community pharmacy operating procedures, identifying ways to minimize prescribing and dosing errors, and understanding how pharmacists can assist dentists in prescribing. Following the observation, students were required to submit a written assignment, which accounted for 14 percent of their course grade. All 119 dental students (100 percent) enrolled in the course for the summers of 2012 and 2013 completed the activity. The average grade on the written assignment was 96.2 out of 100. At the end of the course, students were asked to participate in an online course evaluation survey, for which response rates were 37 percent and 43 percent for 2012 and 2013, respectively. The students rated the pharmacy observation activity favorably on this course evaluation. The pharmacy observation activity provided a successful interprofessional component to the didactic pharmacy course and was well received by the dental students as well as the community pharmacists.
Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted. To clarify the research philosophy, four research paradigms, i.e. positivism (or empiricism), postpositivism (or realism), interpretivism (or constructivism) and pragmatism, are investigated according to philosophical realms, i.e. ontology, epistemology, axiology and logic of inquiry. With the application of research philosophy, some examples of quantitative and qualitative research were elaborated along with the conventional research approach. Understanding research philosophy is crucial for pharmacy researchers and pharmacists, as it underpins the choice of methodology and data collection. The review provides the overview of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Further discussion on this vital issue is warranted to help generate quality evidence for pharmacy practice. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
To describe the paradox in pharmacy between the vision of patient care and the reality of community pharmacy practice and to explore how integrated reimbursement for the retail prescription and linking cognitive patient care services directly to prescription processing could benefit the profession. A dichotomy exists between what many pharmacists do and what they've been trained to do. Pharmacy leaders have formulated a vision for pharmacists to become more involved in direct patient care. All graduates now receive PharmD-level training, and some leaders call for requirements of postgraduate residency training and board certification for pharmacists who provide patient care. How such requirements would relate to community pharmacy practice is unclear. The retail prescription remains the primary link between the pharmacist and the health care consumer. Cognitive services, such as medication therapy management (MTM), need to be integrated into the standard workflow of community pharmacies so as to become a natural extension of the professional services rendered in the process of filling a prescription. Current prescription fees are not sufficient to support legitimate professional services. A proposed integrated pricing system for retail prescriptions includes a $15 professional fee that is scaled upward for value-added services, such as MTM. Pharmacy includes a diversity of practice that has historically been a source of division. For pharmacists to reach their potential as patient care providers, the various factions within the profession must forge a unified vision of the future that addresses all realms of practice.
Berry, Tricia M.; Chichester, Clinton O.; Sanoski, Cynthia A.; Woodward, Donald A.; Worley, Marcia M.; Early, Johnnie L.
Objective To determine the prevalence, characteristics, and use of professional technical standards among colleges and schools of pharmacy accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Methods The Web site of every college and school of pharmacy accredited by ACPE was searched to identify information regarding the availability, content, and use of technical standards and to obtain demographic information. Results Information was obtained from all of the 114 colleges and schools of pharmacy and 67 (59%) had technical standards in place. Common themes for technical standards were: observation; communication; motor; intellectual, conceptual, integrative and quantitative abilities; and behavioral and social attributes. Of those colleges and schools with technical standards, 61 (91%) had standards that addressed all 5 of these themes and 34 (51%) specified that the technical standards were used in their admission, progression, and graduation procedures. Conclusion More than half of the colleges and schools of pharmacy examined in this study have technical standards; however, 41% have yet to develop and implement them. Colleges and schools of pharmacy looking for guidance in technical standards development could use the technical standards themes identified in this study. PMID:21655404
Westerlund, Tommy; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, Arne
Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document the inte......Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document...... the interventions made by pharmacy personnel with patients and prescribers. Method. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn nationwide in Sweden; 144 (63 per cent) of the employees fulfilling the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented drug......-related problems, interventions and patient variables on a data collection form, and tallied the number of patients they served on another form. Setting. One hundred and sixteen community pharmacies and 12 outpatient hospital pharmacies. Key findings. One problem or more was identified among 2.5 per cent...
Shane, Patricia; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Yoshizuka, Keith; Chan, Paul; Vo, Thuy
Objective. To determine whether bullying is a significant factor in the clinical training of pharmacy students. Methods. The literature as well as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) surveys were reviewed for mention and/or measurement of bullying behaviors in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The authors used a Delphi process to define bullying behavior. The consensus definition was used to analyze 2,087 in-house student evaluations of preceptors for evidence of bullying behaviors. The authors mapped strings of text from in-house student comments to different, established categories of bullying behaviors. Results. The ACPE Standards and AACP surveys contained no mention or measures of bullying. The 2013 AACP survey data reported overwhelmingly positive preceptor ratings. Of the 2,087 student evaluations of preceptors, 119 (5.7%) had at least 1 low rating. Within those 119 survey instruments, 34 comments were found describing bullying behaviors. Students’ responses to the AACP survey were similar to data from the national cohort. Conclusions. Given the evidence that bullying behaviors occur in pharmacy education and that bullying has long-term and short-term damaging effects, more attention should be focused on this problem. Efforts should include addressing bullying in ACPE Standards and AACP survey tools developing a consensus definition for bullying and conducting more research into bullying in the clinical training of pharmacy students. PMID:25147389
Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Mansell, Kerry; Vatanparastc, Hassanali; Steeves, Megan; Zeng, Wu; Farag, Marwa
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of pharmacy-based interventions on clinical outcomes associated with diabetes-related complications as well as on nonclinical outcomes in people with diabetes. We searched 4 main databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) for studies that considered clinical and nonclinical outcomes of pharmacy-based interventions among people with diabetes. Clinical outcomes included patients' mean reductions of glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels and body mass indexes (BMIs). Nonclinical outcomes included patients' healthcare utilization and quality of life. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled net mean difference in clinical outcomes between the pharmacy-intervention and the control groups. Of the 44 studies included in the systematic review, 32 studies reported results from randomized controlled trials measuring reductions of A1C levels in 4,132 patients. Meta-analysis revealed that the standardized absolute mean difference in reduction of A1C levels from baseline to the time of the last follow up significantly favoured the pharmacy intervention versus the control group (0.96%; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.22; p<0.001). Of the studies, 13 reported BMI kg/m 2 in 1,827 patients. The estimation of standardized absolute mean difference in reduction of BMI unit calculated through meta-analysis was 0.61 (95% CI 0.20 to 1.03; p=0.000) in favour of the pharmacy-intervention group. Pharmacy-based interventions have significant positive effects on controlling 2 major risks factors associated with diabetes-related complications: A1C levels and BMI. However, there is a dearth of evidence about the effects of pharmacy-based intervention on nonclinical outcomes, including healthcare utilization and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asayut, Narong; Sookaneknun, Phayom; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Saramunee, Kritsanee
Identify costs, outcomes and stakeholders' perspectives associated with incorporation of community pharmacy services into the Thai National Health Insurance System and their values to all stakeholders. Using a combination of search terms, a comprehensive literature search was performed using the Thai Journal Citation Index Centre, Health System Research Institute database, PubMed and references from recent reviews. Identified studies were published between January 2000 and December 2014. The review included publications in English and Thai on primary research undertaken in community pharmacies associated with the National Health Insurance System. Two independent authors performed study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. The literature search yielded 251 titles, with 18 satisfying the inclusion criteria. Clinical outcomes of community pharmacy services included control and reduction in blood pressure and blood sugar, improved adherence to medications, an increase in acceptance of interventions, and an increase in healthy behaviours. Thirty-three percentage of those at risk of diabetes and hypertension achieved normal blood sugar and blood pressure levels after being followed for 2-6 months by a community pharmacist. The cost of collaborative screening by community pharmacies and primary care units was US$ 4.5. Diabetes management costs were US$ 5.1-30.7. Community pharmacists reported high satisfaction rates. Stakeholders' perspectives revealed support for the community pharmacists' roles and the inclusion of community pharmacies as partners with the National Health Insurance System. Community pharmacy services improved outcomes for diabetic and hypertensive patients. This review supports the feasibility of incorporating community pharmacies into the Thai National Health System. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
US Department of Agriculture, 2016
Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…
Home delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal illiteracy among the poor in rural India are frequent. The rural poor prefer to seek healthcare from private providers, most of whom have no formal medical training and buy medicines from private pharmacies without a prescription owing to a weakly regulated environment. This report is of a 4-month-old baby from a remote village in northern India, who presented with exogenous Cushing syndrome. This baby was a full-term low birth weight home delivery. As the baby was not growing well, treatment was started at 1 month by a private doctor with betamethasone drops The mother on her own volition continued giving the betamethasone drops by buying the medicine over the counter from a private pharmacy. This case highlights the gaps in essential health services in rural India and the steps being taken to improve the situation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Seidenberg, Andrew B; Hong, Weiwei; Liu, Jiayue; Noel, Jonathan K; Rees, Vaughan W
New tobacco control policies have been introduced in Massachusetts which restrict tobacco product sales in pharmacies. The purpose of this investigation was to outline the scope of pharmacy involvement in the tobacco market by assessing the availability and range of tobacco products sold in Massachusetts pharmacies. Public listings of licenced pharmacies and tobacco retailers in Massachusetts were examined to determine the proportion of pharmacies licenced to sell tobacco, and the proportion of tobacco retailers possessing a pharmacy licence. Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample (n=70) of pharmacies possessing a tobacco licence to assess the availability and range of tobacco products for sale. The availability of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products was assessed as a comparison. The majority of pharmacies in Massachusetts possessed a tobacco licence (69%), and pharmacies made up 9% of licenced tobacco retailers. Among pharmacies surveyed that reported selling tobacco (90%), cigarettes were the most available tobacco product for sale (100%), followed by cigars (69%), little cigars/cigarillos (66%), moist snuff (53%), pipe tobacco (49%), roll-your-own tobacco (34%), snus (14%), dissolvable tobacco (11%) and electronic cigarettes (2%). Nearly all pharmacies selling tobacco offered the nicotine patch (100%), gum (100%) and lozenge (98%). Tobacco-free pharmacy policies would affect a majority of Massachusetts pharmacies and remove a variety of tobacco products from their store shelves. Further, nearly one in ten tobacco retailers would be eliminated by prohibiting tobacco sales in Massachusetts pharmacies statewide.
Siden, Rivka; Tamer, Helen R; Skyles, Amy J; Dolan, Christopher S; Propes, Denise J; Redic, Kimberly
Results of a survey assessing trends and innovations in the use of pharmacy technicians and other nonpharmacist staff in the research pharmacy setting are reported. A Web-based survey was distributed to Internet communities of members of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists and the University Health-System Consortium involved in investigational drug research and related practice areas. The survey collected data on the characteristics of institutions with pharmacy department staff dedicated to such research activities and the participation of pharmacists, technicians, and other staff in key areas of research pharmacy operations. Survey responses from 51 institutions were included in the data analysis. Overall, the reported distribution of assigned responsibility for most evaluated research pharmacy tasks reflected traditional divisions of pharmacist and technician duties, with technicians performing tasks subject to a pharmacist check or pharmacists completing tasks alone. However, some institutions reported allowing technicians to perform a number of key tasks without direct pharmacist supervision, primarily in the areas of inventory management and sponsor monitoring and auditing; almost half of the surveyed institutions reported technician involvement in teaching activities. In general, the reported use of "tech-check-tech" arrangements in research pharmacies was very limited. Some responding institutions reported the innovative use of nonpharmacist staff (e.g., paid interns, students and residents on rotation). Although the majority of research pharmacy tasks related to direct patient care are performed by or under the direct supervision of pharmacists, a variety of other essential tasks are typically assigned to pharmacy technicians and other nonpharmacist staff. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosenthal, Meagen; Tsao, Nicole W; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Marra, Carlo A
Legislative changes are affording pharmacists the opportunity to provide more advanced pharmacy services. However, many pharmacists have not yet been able to provide these services sustainably. Research from implementation science suggests that before sustained change in pharmacy can be achieved an improved understanding of pharmacy context, through the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists' personality traits, is required. The primary objective of this study was to investigate possible relationships between cultural factors, and personality traits, and the uptake of advanced practice opportunities by pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada. The study design was a cross-sectional survey of registered, and practicing, pharmacists from one Canadian province. The survey gauged respondents' characteristics, practice setting, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services, and contained the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), a measure of professional culture, as well as the Big Five Inventory (BFI), a measure of personality traits. A total of 945 completed survey instruments were returned. The majority of respondents were female (61%), the average age of respondents was 42 years (SD: 12), and the average number of years in practice was 19 (SD: 12). A significant positive relationship was identified for respondents perceiving greater value in the OCP factors competitiveness and innovation and providing a higher number of all advanced services. A positive relationship was observed for respondents scoring higher on the BFI traits extraversion and the immunizations provided, and agreeableness and openness and medication reviews completed. This is the first work to identify statistically significant relationships between the OCP and BFI, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services. As such, this work serves as a starting place from which to develop more detailed insight into how the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists personality traits may
Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Mahaffey, Thomas; Mackinnon, Neil J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn
Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality-related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice. This study was aimed to gain a better understanding of the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies, and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (Deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven Deputy registrars/Practice managers, and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may help to mitigate this conflict
This qualitative study examined recruitment and retention of home support workers (HSWs) providing home support in rural communities. Thirty-two participants were recruited across four island-based communities located in British Columbia, Canada. Thematic analysis of interview data revealed several key themes: (a) how the rural context shapes HSWs' employment decisions and opportunities; (b) why people become (and stay) HSWs in rural communities; and (c) how rurality influences the nature and scope of HSWs' work. These findings suggest that health human resource policies and programs aimed at HSW recruitment and retention should be tailored to characteristics, strengths, and challenges of rural communities.
Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R
Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.
Douglas, Charles Allen
The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of
Rattinger, Gail B; Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C Daniel
Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services.
Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C. Daniel
Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services. PMID:18698403
James, Chris D; Peabody, John; Solon, Orville; Quimbo, Stella; Hanson, Kara
Physicians' links with pharmacies may create perverse financial incentives to overprescribe, prescribe products with higher profit margins, and direct patients to their pharmacy. Interviews with pharmacy customers in the Philippines show that those who use pharmacies linked to public-sector physicians had 5.4 greater odds of having a prescription from such physicians and spent 49.3 percent more than customers using other pharmacies. For customers purchasing brand-name medicines, switching to generics would reduce drug spending by 58 percent. Controlling out-of-pocket spending on drugs requires policies to control financial links between doctors and pharmacies, as well as tighter regulation of nongeneric prescribing.
Full Text Available Frequent, suboptimal use of antimicrobial drugs has resulted in the emergence of microbial resistance, compromised clinical outcomes and increased costs, particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU. Mounting on these challenges is the paucity of new antimicrobial agents.Objectives: The study aims to determine the impact of prospective pharmacy-driven antimicrobial stewardship in the ICU on clinical and potential financial outcomes. The primary objectives were to determine the mean length of stay (LOS and mortality rate in the ICU resulting from prospective pharmacy interventions on antimicrobial therapy. The secondary objective was to calculate the difference in total drug acquisition costs resulting from pharmacy infectious diseases (ID-related interventions.Methods: In collaboration with an infectious disease physician, the ICU pharmacy team provided prospective audit with feedback to physicians on antimicrobial therapies of 70 patients over a 4-month period in a 31-bed ICU. In comparison with published data, LOS and mortality of pharmacy-monitored ICU patients were recorded. Daily cost savings on antimicrobial drugs and charges for medication therapy management (MTM services were added to calculate potential total cost savings. Pharmacy interventions focused on streamlining, dose optimization, intravenous-to-oral conversion, antimicrobial discontinuation, new recommendation and drug information consult. Antimicrobial education was featured in oral presentations and electronic newsletters for pharmacists and clinicians.Results: The mean LOS in the ICU was 6 days, which was lower than the published reports of LOS ranging from 11 to 36 days. The morality rate of 14% was comparable to the reported range of 6 to 20% in published literature. The total drug cost difference was a negative financial outcome or loss of USD192 associated with ID-related interventions.Conclusion: In collaboration with the infectious disease physician, prospective
King, C M; Oliver, E J; Jeffrey, L P
Personal and professional characteristics of men and women hospital pharmacy residents were studied to identify differences that could affect future hospital pharmacy practice. Residents in 111 ASHP-accredited pharmacy residency programs received a survey containing questions on demographic information, reasons for selecting a residency, areas of professional interest, postresidency career goals, responsibilities to home and family, and advantages and disadvantages associated with gender. Of 286 residents receiving questionnaires, 226 responded; the percentages of men and women responding corresponded to the ratio of men and women in hospital pharmacy residencies. While men and women expressed educational goals that were not significantly different, more men than women had earned or were in the process of earning advanced degrees. No significant differences were evident between men's and women's plans for marriage and children, but 73% of the women indicated that they would take time out from their practice to raise children, compared with only 9% of the men. The majority of residents did not think their gender affected them in their residency programs, but in professional interactions more men saw gender as an advantage and more women as a disadvantage. Significantly more than women aspired to be hospital pharmacy directors. The results suggest that men are obtaining advanced training closer to the time they graduate from pharmacy school and that in the future women competing for promotions may be older than men competing for comparable positions. Those planning pharmacy staffing should consider the needs of women, and men, who expect to take time out from their careers for family responsibilities and possibly seek part-time positions when they return to the work force.
Gavilan, Diana; Avello, Maria; Abril, Carmen
Changes that have occurred over the past few decades in retailing and in the health care sector--namely, a drastic reduction in drug profit-margins, and a more critical use of health services by patients--have created a scenario characterized by rising competitiveness. This new context is necessitating community pharmacies (hereafter, pharmacies) to improve their business model through new strategies. Shopper marketing has proven invaluable in other retail settings and therefore, could be a critical element for new practices in pharmacies. First, to analyze how shopping experiences in pharmacies based on new practices in shopper marketing affect shopping behavior. Second, to study the mediating effect of customer satisfaction on the relationship between shopping experiences and shopping behavior. A self-reported questionnaire was developed to measure four concepts: hedonic experience (enjoyable), functional experience (goal-oriented), customer satisfaction and shopping behavior. Data were collected from 28 different pharmacies dispersed throughout Spain. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships in the theoretical model. First, the measurement model was estimated to assess model fit, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity. Then, the parameters of the structural model were estimated and the mediation effects were subsequently tested. Functional experience and hedonic experience each significantly and positively correlate with consumer satisfaction and with customer shopping behavior (purchases and loyalty). Moreover, the effects of each type of experience on shopping behavior are partially mediated by customer satisfaction. The results suggest that even in Spanish pharmacies, which have traditionally been considered as strictly functional retailers, ensuring customer satisfaction and enhancing shopping behavior now demand more than just functional experiences. Moreover, a customer's experience at a pharmacy can itself trigger a
Full Text Available Maria Bell, Jan Douglas, Christopher CuttsCentre for Pharmacy Postgraduate Education, Manchester Pharmacy School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: Social media is progressively being used for sharing health information and for networking among health professionals and patients; this is particularly evident among the younger age groups. There is great potential for pharmacy to engage in the utilization of such platforms to improve health outcomes, and this paper explores some of the areas where social media is already in use in pharmacy and potential areas where using social media could make a positive impact on the determinants of health. The literature around this subject is limited; nevertheless, the number of published studies has increased in recent years. This paper concentrates on the use and application of social media by pharmacy to improve health outcomes. The subject was explored in five main areas: provision of medicines information, safer use of medicines, medicines use in chronic disease, implementation of evidence-based medicine and guidelines, and finally clinical research. In each of these areas, there is an increase in uptake and use of social media platforms by pharmacists and other health care professionals to improve patient outcomes. A variety of the more popular social media platforms have been used by health care professionals and the relative merits of these are discussed within each of the subject areas and consideration given to their application in pharmacy practice. It is evident that the majority of social media users fall into the younger age bracket, which is understandable. However, the majority of patients living with long-term conditions typically fall into the older age bracket (over 65 years of age and this should be taken into account when utilizing social media platforms to improve health outcomes.Keywords: social media, pharmacy, outcomes, impact, health
Leach, Caitlin; Layson-Wolf, Cherokee
1) To measure the general perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacy residents toward transgender patients and health; 2) to identify gaps in didactic education regarding transgender health care among residents; and 3) to evaluate residents' level of support for pharmacists receiving education in transgender health care. This study was a cross-sectional survey delivered online. Community residency directors were e-mailed a cover letter and a 34-question online survey. The directors were asked to forward the survey to their residents for completion within 4 weeks. Responses were anonymous with no identifiers collected on the survey. Survey responses used a combination of open-response, multiple-choice, and Likert-scale questions aimed at gathering respondents' demographic information, perceptions of managing transgender patients and the need for receiving additional education in transgender health care. Overall, the results of the survey indicated that community pharmacy residents support integrating transgender health management into pharmacy education and recognize that the overwhelming barriers to care for these patients include discrimination and lack of provider knowledge. Significant findings include: 82.7% of community residents think that community pharmacists play an important role in providing care for transgender patients; 98.2% think that they have a responsibility to treat transgender patients; and 71.4% were not educated about transgender patient issues in pharmacy school. Only 36.2% of community residents felt confident in their ability to treat transgender patients. Community pharmacy residents list discrimination and lack of provider knowledge as the major barriers to care for transgender patients. Residents do not feel confident in their ability to treat and manage transgender patients. The majority of residents were not educated about transgender patient issues while in pharmacy school and think that community pharmacists need more education
Pritchett, Jon; McCrory, Gary; Kraemer, Cheri; Jensen, Brenda; Allen, Loyd V
The terms certification, accreditation, and credentialing are often used interchangeably when they apply to compounding-pharmacy qualifications, but they are not synonymous. The reasons for obtaining each, the requirements for each, and the benefits of each differ. Achieving such distinctions can negatively or positively affect the status of a pharmacy among peers and prescribers as well as a pharmacy's relationships with third-party payors. Changes in the third-party payor industry evolve constantly and, we suggest, will continue to do so. Compounding pharmacists must be aware of those changes to help ensure success in a highly competitive marketplace. To our knowledge at the time of this writing, there is no certification program for compounding pharmacists, although pharmacy technicians can achieve certification and may be required to do so by the state in which they practice (a topic beyond the scope of this article). For that reason, we primarily address accreditation and credentialing for 503A compounding pharmacies. In this article, the evolution of the third-party payment system for compounds is reviewed; the definitions of certification, accreditation, and credentialing are examined; and the benefits and recognition of obtaining accredited or credentialed status are discussed. Suggestions for selecting an appropriate agency that offers accreditation or credentialing, preparing for and undergoing an onsite survey, responding to findings, and maintaining a pharmacy practice that enables a successful survey outcome are presented. The personal experience of author CK during accreditation and credentialing is discussed, as is the role of a consultant (author BJ) in helping compounders prepare for the survey process. A list of agencies that offer accreditation and credentialing for compounding pharmacies is included for easy reference. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.