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Sample records for reveal increased thickness

  1. Image registration reveals central lens thickness minimally increases during accommodation

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    Schachar RA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald A Schachar,1 Majid Mani,2 Ira H Schachar31Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, 2California Retina Associates, El Centro, 3Byers Eye Institute of Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAPurpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth, central crystalline lens thickness and lens curvature during accommodation.Setting: California Retina Associates, El Centro, CA, USA.Design: Healthy volunteer, prospective, clinical research swept-source optical coherence biometric image registration study of accommodation.Methods: Ten subjects (4 females and 6 males with an average age of 22.5 years (range: 20–26 years participated in the study. A 45° beam splitter attached to a Zeiss IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Jena, Germany biometer enabled simultaneous imaging of the cornea, anterior chamber, entire central crystalline lens and fovea in the dilated right eyes of subjects before, and during focus on a target 11 cm from the cornea. Images with superimposable foveal images, obtained before and during accommodation, that met all of the predetermined alignment criteria were selected for comparison. This registration requirement assured that changes in anterior chamber depth and central lens thickness could be accurately and reliably measured. The lens radii of curvatures were measured with a pixel stick circle.Results: Images from only 3 of 10 subjects met the predetermined criteria for registration. Mean anterior chamber depth decreased, −67 µm (range: −0.40 to −110 µm, and mean central lens thickness increased, 117 µm (range: 100–130 µm. The lens surfaces steepened, anterior greater than posterior, while the lens, itself, did not move or shift its position as appeared from the lack of movement of the lens nucleus, during 7.8 diopters of accommodation, (range: 6.6–9.7 diopters.Conclusion: Image registration, with stable invariant references for image correspondence, reveals that during accommodation a

  2. Increased choroidal thickness in patient with high-altitude retinopathy

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    Kyoko Hirukawa-Nakayama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of high-altitude retinopathy with increased choroidal thickness detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. A 36-year-old Japanese man developed an acute vision decrease in his left eye after he had trekked at an altitude of 4600 m in Tibet for 1 week. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/200 OS with refractive errors of − 0.25 diopters (D OD and − 0.50 D OS 3 weeks after the onset of the visual decrease. Funduscopic examinations revealed multiple intraretinal hemorrhages bilaterally and a macular hemorrhage in the left eye. SD-OCT showed that the thickness of choroidal layer at the fovea was 530 μm OD and 490 μm OS which is thicker than that in normal subjects of approximately 300 μm. We suggest that the increase in the retinal blood flow under hypoxic conditions may be associated with an increase in the choroidal blood flow resulting in an increase in choroidal thickness.

  3. Long-term increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness after surgery for senile cataracts.

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    Noda, Yasuo; Ogawa, Asako; Toyama, Taku; Ueta, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of cataract surgery on subfoveal choroidal thickness and central retinal thickness in the elderly. Prospective observational case series. This cohort study included 29 eyes of 29 patients with senile cataract, but no previous ocular surgery or other ocular abnormality. All 29 eyes received standard surgery by phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Subfoveal choroidal thickness and central retinal thickness were measured at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of larger changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness, including sex, age, baseline choroidal thickness, axial length, refractive status before surgery, and duration of surgery. The 29 patients with senile cataract received cataract surgery without complication. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 193.8, 208.9, 210.2, and 209.3 μm at baseline and at postoperative 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, with a statistically significant increase after surgery (repeated-measures ANOVA; P choroidal thickness remained high even 6 months after surgery. Multiple regression analysis revealed that male sex (P = .014) and thicker baseline choroid (P = .0048) predicted larger increases in subfoveal choroidal thickness. In contrast, the tendency of transient increase in central retinal thickness was not statistically significant. Most elderly patients with senile cataracts are expected to maintain increased subfoveal choroidal thickness for at least 6 months after cataract surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased Cortical Thickness in Professional On-Line Gamers

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    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. Methods High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. Results Career length was positively correlated with cortical thickness in three brain regions: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility. PMID:24474988

  5. Increased cortical thickness in professional on-line gamers.

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    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam; Han, Doug Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. CAREER LENGTH WAS POSITIVELY CORRELATED WITH CORTICAL THICKNESS IN THREE BRAIN REGIONS: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility.

  6. Increased intima-media thickness after early-onset preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, Judith; van Pampus, Maria G; Van Doormaal, Jasper J; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Fidler, Vaclav; Smit, Andries J; Aarnoudse, Jan G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is associated with cardiovascular atherosclerotic events later in life. However, little is known about earlier subdinical signs of atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate whether women who recently had preeclampsia show increased intima-media thickness (IMT), as marker of ea

  7. Weekly doxorubicin increases coronary arteriolar wall and adventitial thickness.

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    Delrae M Eckman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX is associated with premature cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction. This study was performed to determine if the weekly administration of DOX influenced coronary arteriolar medial and/or adventitial wall thickening. METHODS: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 25.1± 2.4 weeks were randomly divided into three groups and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of normal saline (saline, n = 7, or low (1.5 mg/kg to 1.75 mg/kg, n = 14 or high (2.5 mg/kg, n = 11 doses of DOX. The animals were treated for 2-12 weeks, and euthanized at pre-specified intervals (2, 4, 7, or 10+ weeks to obtain histopathologic assessments of coronary arteriolar lumen diameter, medial wall thickness, adventitial wall thickness, and total wall thickness (medial thickness + adventitial thickness. RESULTS: Lumen diameter was similar across all groups (saline: 315±34 µm, low DOX: 286±24 µm, high DOX: 242±27 µm; p = 0.22. In comparison to animals receiving weekly saline, animals receiving weekly injections of 2.5 mg/kg of DOX experienced an increase in medial (23±2 µm vs. 13±3 µm; p = 0.005, and total wall thickness (51±4 µm vs. 36±5 µm; p = 0.022, respectively. These increases, as well as adventitial thickening became more prominent after normalizing for lumen diameter (p<0.05 to p<0.001 and after adjusting for age, weight, and total cumulative DOX dose (p = 0.02 to p = 0.01. Animals receiving low dose DOX trended toward increases in adventitial and total wall thickness after normalization to lumen diameter and accounting for age, weight, and total cumulative DOX dose (p = 0.06 and 0.09, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these data demonstrate that weekly treatment of rats with higher doses of DOX increases coronary arteriolar medial, adventitial, and total wall thickness. Future studies are warranted to determine if DOX related coronary arteriolar effects are

  8. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

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    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-01-18

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Increased brain cortical thickness associated with visceral fat in adolescents.

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    Saute, R L; Soder, R B; Alves Filho, J O; Baldisserotto, M; Franco, A R

    2016-10-27

    There has been a growing amount of evidence indicating that excess visceral fat is associated with alterations in brain structure and function, including brain cortical thinning in adults. This study aims to investigate the relationship between brain cortical thickness with obesity assessments, in adolescents. In this study, we measured three different obesity assessments within an adolescent population (aged 15 - 18 years): body mass index (BMI), visceral fat ratio measured with an MRI and hepatorenal gradient measured with an ultrasound. Volunteers also underwent an MRI scan to measure brain structure. Results indicated that there was no relationship of BMI or hepatorenal gradient with brain cortical dimensions. However, there was a significant association between visceral fat ratio and an increase of cortical thickness throughout the brain. These results suggest that visceral fat, but not BMI, is correlated with cortical thickening in adolescence. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  10. iNOS-dependent increase in colonic mucus thickness in DSS-colitic rats.

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    Olof Schreiber

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h, the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. RESULTS: Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm. During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm. While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm, L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm. The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. CONCLUSION: Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an i

  11. Pulmonary nodules: optimal slice thickness of CT in revealing bronchial imageology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenjiang Li; Yuanyuan Wang; Changcheng Li; Xing Wang; Debin Liu; Wenjie Liang; Feng Zhu; Yan Zhu; Xuefeng Cui; Fangang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to determine an optimal slice thickness that was efficient in revealing bronchial imageology of pulmonary nodules (PNs) on multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) images preliminarily. Methods: Fifty-four patients with 62 PNs (diameter ≤ 3 cm) underwent multidetector-row computed tomography of the chest in a single-breath-hold technique. The raw data were acquired with a collimation of 0.625 mm. Three sets of contiguous im-ages were reconstructed with 1-, 2-, and 5-mm slice thickness, respectively. Bronchial imageology of SPNs on the CT images presented in 1-, 2-, and 5-mm slice thickness was compared. Using the 1-mm sections as the gold standard, an optimal slice thickness in revealing bronchial imageology of PNs was determined. Results: Bronchial imageology of PNs on the CT im-ages presented in 1 mm slice thickness involved 85 bronchi (35 second-fourth generation bronchi; 50 fifth-eighth generation bronchi). Bronchial imageology on 2-mm-thick sections was as same as that on 1-mm-thick sections in 34 second- fourth generation bronchi. No statistically significant difference in number of second- fourth generation bronchi with same bronchial imageology was found between that on 2-mm-thick images and 1-mm-thick images (P = 0.836 > 0.05). Bronchial imageology on 5-mm-thick sections was as same as that on 1-mm-thick sections in 24 second-fourth generation bronchi. There was statistically significant difference in number of second-fourth generation bronchi with same bronchial imageology between that on 5-mm-thick images and 1-mm-thick images (P = 0.026 < 0.05). Bronchial imageology on 2-mm-thick sections was as same as that on 1-mm-thick sections in 38 fifth-eighth generation bronchi. There was statistically significant difference in number of fifth-eighth generation bronchi with same bronchial imageology between that on 2-mm-thick images and 1-mm-thick images (P = 0.029 < 0.05). Bronchial imageology on 5-mm-thick images was

  12. Increased cortical thickness in a frontoparietal network in social anxiety disorder.

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    Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Hänggi, Jürgen; Baur, Volker; Rufer, Michael; Delsignore, Aba; Weidt, Steffi; Jäncke, Lutz; Herwig, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the second leading anxiety disorder. On the functional neurobiological level, specific brain regions involved in the processing of anxiety-laden stimuli and in emotion regulation have been shown to be hyperactive and hyper-responsive in SAD such as amygdala, insula and orbito- and prefrontal cortex. On the level of brain structure, prior studies on anatomical differences in SAD resulted in mixed and partially contradictory findings. Based on previous functional and anatomical models of SAD, this study examined cortical thickness in structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 46 patients with SAD without comorbidities (except for depressed episode in one patient) compared with 46 matched healthy controls in a region of interest-analysis and in whole-brain. In a theory-driven ROI-analysis, cortical thickness was increased in SAD in left insula, right anterior cingulate and right temporal pole. Furthermore, the whole-brain analysis revealed increased thickness in right dorsolateral prefrontal and right parietal cortex. This study detected no regions of decreased cortical thickness or brain volume in SAD. From the perspective of brain networks, these findings are in line with prior functional differences in salience networks and frontoparietal networks associated with executive-controlling and attentional functions.

  13. Increased nuchal translucency thickness and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, Signe G; Pedersen, L H; Miltoft, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    (ASDs), cerebral palsy, epilepsy and febrile seizures. RESULTS: There was no excess risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among euploid children with a NT between 95(th) and 99(th) percentile. For children with a NT >99(th) percentile, there were increased risks of mental retardation (OR=6.16, 95...... (OR= 1.51, 95%CI: 0.63-3.66, 5 cases) or febrile seizures (OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.44-1.16, 17 cases) among children with a NT >99(th) percentile. CONCLUSION: In a large unselected cohort, euploid fetuses with a NT 95(th) -99(th) percentile had no increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Among...

  14. An Arctic sea ice thickness variability revealed from satellite altimetric measurements

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    BI Haibo; HUANG Haijun; SU Qiao; YAN Liwen; LIU Yanxia; XU Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    A modified algorithm taking into account the first year (FY) and multiyear (MY) ice densities is used to derive a sea ice thickness from freeboard measurements acquired by satellite altimetry ICESat (2003-2008). Estimates agree with various independent in situ measurements within 0.21 m. Both the fall and winter campaigns see a dramatic extent retreat of thicker MY ice that survives at least one summer melting sea-son. There were strong seasonal and interannual variabilities with regard to the mean thickness. Seasonal increases of 0.53 m for FY the ice and 0.29 m for the MY ice between the autumn and the winter ICESat campaigns, roughly 4-5 month separation, were found. Interannually, the significant MY ice thickness de-clines over the consecutive four ICESat winter campaigns (2005-2008) leads to a pronounced thickness drop of 0.8 m in MY sea ice zones. No clear trend was identified from the averaged thickness of thinner, FY ice that emerges in autumn and winter and melts in summer. Uncertainty estimates for our calculated thick-ness, caused by the standard deviations of multiple input parameters including freeboard, ice density, snow density, snow depth, show large errors more than 0.5 m in thicker MY ice zones and relatively small stan-dard deviations under 0.5 m elsewhere. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is implemented to determine the separate impact on the thickness estimate in the dependence of an individual input variable as mentioned above. The results show systematic bias of the estimated ice thickness appears to be mainly caused by the variations of freeboard as well as the ice density whereas the snow density and depth brings about relatively insignificant errors.

  15. Ground-penetrating radar reveals ice thickness and undisturbed englacial layers at Kilimanjaro's Northern Ice Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Sold, Leo; Hardy, Douglas R.; Schwikowski, Margit; Klenk, Patrick; Fischer, Andrea; Sirguey, Pascal; Cullen, Nicolas J.; Potocki, Mariusz; Hoffmann, Helene; Mayewski, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Although its Holocene glacier history is still subject to debate, the ongoing iconic decline of Kilimanjaro's largest remaining ice body, the Northern Ice Field (NIF), has been documented extensively based on surface and photogrammetric measurements. The study presented here adds, for the first time, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data at centre frequencies of 100 and 200 MHz to investigate bed topography, ice thickness and internal stratigraphy at NIF. The direct comparison of the GPR signal to the visible glacier stratigraphy at NIF's vertical walls is used to validate ice thickness and reveals that the major internal reflections seen by GPR can be associated with dust layers. Internal reflections can be traced consistently within our 200 MHz profiles, indicating an uninterrupted, spatially coherent internal layering within NIF's central flat area. We show that, at least for the upper 30 m, it is possible to follow isochrone layers between two former NIF ice core drilling sites and a sampling site on NIF's vertical wall. As a result, these isochrone layers provide constraints for future attempts at linking age-depth information obtained from multiple locations at NIF. The GPR profiles reveal an ice thickness ranging between (6.1 ± 0.5) and (53.5 ± 1.0) m. Combining these data with a very high resolution digital elevation model we spatially extrapolate ice thickness and give an estimate of the total ice volume remaining at NIF's southern portion as (12.0 ± 0.3) × 106 m3.

  16. Enhanced selectivity of boron doped diamond electrodes for the detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid by increasing the film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yao; Long, Hangyu; Ma, Li; Wei, Quiping; Li, Site; Yu, Zhiming; Hu, Jingyuan; Liu, Peizhi; Wang, Yijia; Meng, Lingcong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, boron doped diamond (BDD) with different thickness were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The performance of BDD electrodes for detecting dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra reveal the grain size increases and the film quality improves with the increase of film thickness. Electrochemical test show that the transfer coefficient in [Fe3 (CN) 6]3-/4- redox system increases with the increase of the film thickness. The results of selectivity and sensitivity for DA mixed with AA detection show that 8h-BDD and 12h-BDD electrodes possess well selective separated oxidation peaks of DA and AA, and the 12h-BDD electrode exhibits optimal sensitivity until the DA concentration drops to 1 μ M.

  17. Increased Hs-CRP/adiponectin ratio is associated with increase carotid intima-media thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Huocheng; Li, Zhiming; Zheng, Dongdan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Chun; Wang, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Background High sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and adiponectin (APN) are two critical cytokines and exert inverse effects on atherosclerosis initiation and progression. The purpose of our study was to investigate the value of Hs-CRP and ANP ratio (Hs-CRP/APN ratio) on evaluating atherosclerosis progression. Method One hundred sixty consecutive participants underwent carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by ultrasound were enrolled and drawn fasting blood samples for plasma l...

  18. Residential Exposure to Urban Traffic Is Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children

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    Rodrigo X. Armijos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to urban traffic pollution is documented to promote atherosclerosis in adults but little is known about its potential effects in children. Our study examined the association of long-term exposure to traffic with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in 287 healthy children. Residential proximity and distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD were used as proximity markers for traffic-related air pollution exposure. The multivariable analyses revealed that children residing <100 meters from the nearest heavily trafficked road had cIMT mean and maximum measurements that were increased by 15% and 11% compared to those living ≥ 200 meters away (P=0.0001. Similar increases in cIMT were identified for children in the highest versus lowest DWTD tertile. Children who resided 100–199 meters from traffic or in the middle DWTD tertile also exhibited increased cIMT but these differences were not statistically significant. No statistically significant differences were identified between residential distance to traffic or DWTD and systemic inflammation indicators (CRP, IL-6. The study results suggest that exposure to urban traffic promotes arterial remodeling in children. This finding is important since even small increases in cIMT over time can potentially lead to earlier progression to atherosclerosis. It is also important because traffic-related pollution is potentially modifiable.

  19. Resveratrol increases nitric oxide production in the rat thick ascending limb via Ca2+/calmodulin.

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    Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente

    Full Text Available The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorbs 30% of the NaCl filtered through the glomerulus. Nitric oxide (NO produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3 inhibits NaCl absorption by this segment. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, has beneficial cardiovascular and renal effects, many of which are mediated by NO. Resveratrol increases intracellular Ca2+ (Cai and AMP kinase (AMPK and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1 activities, all of which could activate NO production. We hypothesized that resveratrol stimulates NO production by thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. To test this, the effect of resveratrol on NO bioavailability was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions. Cai was measured in single perfused thick ascending limbs. SIRT1 activity and expression were measured in thick ascending limb lysates. Resveratrol (100 µM increased NO bioavailability in thick ascending limb suspensions by 1.3±0.2 AFU/mg/min (p<0.03. The NOS inhibitor L-NAME blunted resveratrol-stimulated NO bioavailability by 96±11% (p<0.03. The superoxide scavenger tempol had no effect. Resveratrol elevated Cai from 48±7 to 135±24 nM (p<0.01 in single tubules. In Ca2+-free media, the resveratrol-induced increase in NO was blunted by 60±20% (p<0.05 and the rise in Cai reduced by 80%. Calmodulin inhibition prevented the resveratrol-induced increase in NO (p<0.002. AMPK inhibition had no effect. Resveratrol did not increase SIRT1 activity. We conclude that resveratrol increases NO production in thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism, and SIRT1 and AMPK do not participate. Resveratrol-stimulated NO production in thick ascending limbs may account for part of its beneficial effects.

  20. Resveratrol increases nitric oxide production in the rat thick ascending limb via Ca2+/calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Cabral, Pablo D; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorbs 30% of the NaCl filtered through the glomerulus. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl absorption by this segment. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, has beneficial cardiovascular and renal effects, many of which are mediated by NO. Resveratrol increases intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) and AMP kinase (AMPK) and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activities, all of which could activate NO production. We hypothesized that resveratrol stimulates NO production by thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. To test this, the effect of resveratrol on NO bioavailability was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions. Cai was measured in single perfused thick ascending limbs. SIRT1 activity and expression were measured in thick ascending limb lysates. Resveratrol (100 µM) increased NO bioavailability in thick ascending limb suspensions by 1.3±0.2 AFU/mg/min (pthick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism, and SIRT1 and AMPK do not participate. Resveratrol-stimulated NO production in thick ascending limbs may account for part of its beneficial effects.

  1. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

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    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women.

  2. Domains of increased thickness in microvillar membranes of the small intestinal enterocyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunding, Andreas H; Christensen, Sune M; Danielsen, E Michael;

    2010-01-01

    in orchestrating absorptive/digestive action of dietary nutrients at this important cellular interface. Increased membrane thickness is believed to be a morphological characteristic of rafts. Thus, we investigated whether the high contents of lipid rafts in the microvillar membrane is reflected in local variations...... was clearly monophasic. The encountered domains of increased thickness (DITs) occupied 48% of the microvillar membrane and from the data we estimated the area of a single DIT to have a lower limit of 600 nm(2). In other experiments we mapped the organization of biochemically defined lipid rafts by immunogold...

  3. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase in the a......Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...... in the average thickness of eggshells over the period of 0.19% per year, corresponding to a change in eggshell thinning from 13.9% in 1972 to 7.8% in 2003. Backwards extrapolation of the data, suggests that the Greenlandic Peregrine population probably was never critically affected by DDT-induced eggshell...... thinning. By sampling eggshell fragments in many nests the spatial and temporal sample distribution was enlarged, allowing the detection of a significant long-term decrease in pollutant-induced eggshell thinning—a trend that could not have been identified if only the rarer whole, addled eggs had been...

  4. Increased Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

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    Gholamreza Yousefzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of progressive carotid artery disorders. The current study evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in pregnant women with gestational diabetes at two time points of mid-term and full-term pregnancy to determine whether gestational diabetes mellitus causes increased IMT.Methods: This cross-sectional study carried out at Afzalipour Hospital (Kerman, Iran between 2009 and 2010, recruited50 women who were at high risk of gestational diabetes during pregnancy and had an oral glucose challenge test (OGCT as screening for gestational diabetes. B-mode ultrasound scans were performed at baseline and at two time points of mid- term pregnancy (20 to 24 weeks and full-term pregnancy (36 to 38 weeks on all the participants. The mean IMT of common carotids and internal carotid arteries from two walls (near and far walls at four different angles was assessed.Results: An overall comparison between the impaired OGCT test group and the control group revealed significant differences in carotid IMT in the mid-term (0.65 ± 0.07 vs. 0.59 ± 0.06 mm; p value = 0.002 and full-term (0.65 ± 0.05 vs. 0.59 ± 0.04 mm; p value < 0.001 pregnancy; however, the trend of the changes in carotid IMT during mid to full-term pregnancy was insignificant in each group (p value > 0.05.Conclusion: Carotid IMT was significantly higher in the women with gestational diabetes than that in the normoglycemic group in different trimesters. This finding denotes that atherosclerosis might start years before the diagnosis of gestational diabetes in vulnerable women.

  5. Increased carotid artery intima-media thickness in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Gholamreza; Hojat, Hashem; Enhesari, Ahmad; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Eftekhari, Nahid; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2012-11-01

    Pregnant women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of progressive carotid artery disorders. The current study evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in pregnant women with gestational diabetes at two time points of mid-term and full-term pregnancy to determine whether gestational diabetes mellitus causes increased IMT. This cross-sectional study carried out at Afzalipour Hospital (Kerman, Iran) between 2009 and 2010, recruited 50 women who were at high risk of gestational diabetes during pregnancy and had an oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) as screening for gestational diabetes. B-mode ultrasound scans were performed at baseline and at two time points of mid-term pregnancy (20 to 24 weeks) and full-term pregnancy (36 to 38 weeks) on all the participants. The mean IMT of common carotids and internal carotid arteries from two walls (near and far walls) at four different angles was assessed. An overall comparison between the impaired OGCT test group and the control group revealed significant differences in carotid IMT in the mid-term (0.65 ± 0.07 vs. 0.59 ± 0.06 mm; p value = 0.002) and full-term (0.65 ± 0.05 vs. 0.59 ± 0.04 mm; p value 0.05). Carotid IMT was significantly higher in the women with gestational diabetes than that in the normoglycemic group in different trimesters. This finding denotes that atherosclerosis might start years before the diagnosis of gestational diabetes in vulnerable women.

  6. IS THERE A ROLE OF ACTH IN INCREASED CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN CUSHING SYNDROME?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Cagatay; Karaca, Zuleyha; Kahraman, Nisa; Sirakaya, Ender; Oner, Ayse; Mirza, Galip Ertugrul

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) in patients with Cushing syndrome (CS) with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Twenty-eight patients with CS and 38 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this observational cross-sectional study. Patients with newly diagnosed CS who have been admitted to Erciyes University Department of Endocrinology in 3 years time interval were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and 2 points nasal and 2 points temporal to the fovea with 500-μm intervals each. Choroidal thickness measurements were higher in patients with CS than in the control group at all examination points; however, the difference was found to be significant at the center of the fovea (367.8 ± 94.4 μm vs. 329 ± 90.5 μm) and 1,000 μm temporal to the fovea. Choroidal thickness measurements were significantly higher in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-dependent CS group than in the control group at all measurement points (CT at fovea 388.2 ± 92.4 μm vs. 329.1 ± 90.5 μm). All CT measurements were found to be correlated with ACTH levels. Cushing syndrome is associated with increased CT. The ACTH-dependent CS may increase CT more than ACTH-independent CS. This effect may be directly related to ACTH itself or increased plasma cortisol levels or both.

  7. Inattention Predicts Increased Thickness of Left Occipital Cortex in Men with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörös, Peter; Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Kanat, Manuela; Hoxhaj, Eliza; Matthies, Swantje; Feige, Bernd; Müller, Helge H O; Thiel, Christiane; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a serious and frequent psychiatric disorder with the core symptoms inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The principal aim of this study was to investigate associations between brain morphology, i.e., cortical thickness and volumes of subcortical gray matter, and individual symptom severity in adult ADHD. Surface-based brain morphometry was performed in 35 women and 29 men with ADHD using FreeSurfer. Linear regressions were calculated between cortical thickness and the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity subscales of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Two separate analyses were performed. For the first analysis, age was included as additional regressor. For the second analysis, both age and severity of depression were included as additional regressors. Study participants were recruited between June 2012 and January 2014. Linear regression identified an area in the left occipital cortex of men, covering parts of the middle occipital sulcus and gyrus, in which the score on the CAARS inattention subscale predicted increased mean cortical thickness [F(1,27) = 26.27, p < 0.001, adjusted R(2) = 0.4744]. No significant associations were found between cortical thickness and the scores on CAARS subscales in women. No significant associations were found between the volumes of subcortical gray matter and the scores on CAARS subscales, neither in men nor in women. These results remained stable when severity of depression was included as additional regressor, together with age. Increased cortical thickness in the left occipital cortex may represent a mechanism to compensate for dysfunctional attentional networks in male adult ADHD patients.

  8. Increased left ventricular torsion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers with normal wall thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Tim J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased left ventricular (LV torsion has been observed in patients with manifest familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, and is thought to be caused by subendocardial dysfunction. We hypothesize that increased LV torsion is already present in healthy mutation carriers with normal wall thickness. Methods Seventeen carriers with an LV wall thickness Results LV volumes, mass and circumferential strain were comparable between groups, whereas LV ejection fraction, torsion and TECS-ratio were increased in carriers compared to controls (63 ± 3% vs. 60 ± 3%, p = 0.04, 10.1 ± 2.5° vs. 7.7 ± 1.2°, p = 0.001, and 0.52 ± 0.14°/% vs. 0.42 ± 0.10°/%, p = 0.02, respectively. Conclusions Carriers with normal wall thickness display increased LV torsion and TECS-ratio with respect to controls, which might be due to subendocardial myocardial dysfunction. As similar abnormalities are observed in patients with manifest HCM, the changes in healthy carriers may be target for clinical intervention to delay or prevent the onset of hypertrophy.

  9. DRY NEEDLING INCREASES MUSCLE THICKNESS IN A SUBJECT WITH PERSISTENT MUSCLE DYSFUNCTION: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kevin M; McMurray, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Muscle dysfunction is very common following musculoskeletal injury. There is very little evidence to suggest that muscle function may be positively impacted by soft tissue interventions, such as dry needling. The purpose of this case report is to describe the immediate effect of dry needling on muscle thickness in a subject after shoulder surgery. A 22 year-old competitive gymnast presented seven months post shoulder surgery with significant impairments and functional limitations. Previous physical therapy focused on restoration of range of motion and strength using general exercise interventions, but the subject had persistent tightness and weakness of musculature of the shoulder complex. A subject-specific physical therapy program including manual physical therapy resulted in significant initial improvement, but lack of flexibility and weakness of the rotator cuff limited progress. Dry needling was used to address persistent myofascial trigger points. Immediately after dry needling the infraspinatus, the muscle's thickness was significantly improved as measured by rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. There was a corresponding increase in force production of external rotation at 90 degrees of abduction. Minimal research exists that validates the potential of dry needling on muscle function, as assessed by muscle thickness measured using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. The results of this case report suggest that dry needling contributed to improvement in muscle thickness and strength in a subject with muscle dysfunction following an injury. 4.

  10. Epidermal growth factor induces increased mucosal thickness of the small intestine in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, C; Ihse, I; Axelson

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is known to exert a mitogenic effect in different tissues, including the digestive tract. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether long-term infusion of EGF causes trophic effects in the gastrointestinal tract of female mice. The animals were infused subcutaneously in the neck with human recombinant EGF in a dose of 10 micrograms/kg/h (1.6 nmol/kg/h) using an osmotic minipump for 1, 3 and 7 days, respectively. Tritiated thymidine was continuously infused intraperitoneally during the same period, except in the 7-day group, where it was infused during the last 3 days. The mucosal thickness was measured microscopically. As a measurement of DNA synthesis, the amount of thymidine retained in the mucosa was registered using a scintillation counter. After 1 day of EGF infusion, the mucosal thickness was increased in the antrum and, after 3 days, in the fundus. In the proximal duodenum, an increased depth of the crypts was seen after 1 day, followed by increased villi height after 3 and 7 days; in the distal duodenum, EGF evoked increased villi height after 3 and 7 days. The height of villi was increased after 7 days in the jejunum and ileum in the EGF-treated animals. The tritium incorporation was increased in the fundus of the stomach and the proximal duodenum in the EGF-treated animals after 3 days, whereas no significant increase in tritiated thymidine incorporation could be detected in the EGF-treated animals after 1 and 7 days compared to the controls. In conclusion, continuous infusion of EGF evoked increased mucosal thickness in the small intestine, while the trophic effects were only of a short duration in the stomach and absent in the colon.

  11. Ocean acidification and temperature increase impact mussel shell shape and thickness: problematic for protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Vittert, Liberty; Bowman, Adrian; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Phoenix, Vernon R; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification threatens organisms that produce calcium carbonate shells by potentially generating an under-saturated carbonate environment. Resultant reduced calcification and growth, and subsequent dissolution of exoskeletons, would raise concerns over the ability of the shell to provide protection for the marine organism under ocean acidification and increased temperatures. We examined the impact of combined ocean acidification and temperature increase on shell formation of the economically important edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Shell growth and thickness along with a shell thickness index and shape analysis were determined. The ability of M. edulis to produce a functional protective shell after 9 months of experimental culture under ocean acidification and increasing temperatures (380, 550, 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2, and 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2 + 2°C) was assessed. Mussel shells grown under ocean acidification conditions displayed significant reductions in shell aragonite thickness, shell thickness index, and changes to shell shape (750, 1000 μatm pCO 2) compared to those shells grown under ambient conditions (380 μatm pCO 2). Ocean acidification resulted in rounder, flatter mussel shells with thinner aragonite layers likely to be more vulnerable to fracture under changing environments and predation. The changes in shape presented here could present a compensatory mechanism to enhance protection against predators and changing environments under ocean acidification when mussels are unable to grow thicker shells. Here, we present the first assessment of mussel shell shape to determine implications for functional protection under ocean acidification.

  12. Cellular-foam polypropylene ferroelectrets with increased film thickness and reduced resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sborikas, Martynas; Wegener, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Ferroelectrets are piezoelectric materials suitable for acoustic applications such as airborne ultrasonic transducers. Typical ferroelectrets exhibit resonance frequencies in the high kHz to low MHz range. In order to decrease the transducer resonance frequencies to the low kHz range, processes such as gas-diffusion expansion and electric charging were adjusted to cellular films which are initially twice as thick as in earlier studies. The demonstrated film expansion and electric charging lead to mechanically soft cellular structures which show high piezoelectric activities with coefficients up to 130 pC/N. Due to the simultaneously increased film thicknesses, the resonance frequencies are lowered down to about 233 kHz.

  13. 3D gravity modelling reveals off-axis crustal thickness variations along the western Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita C.; Jokat, Wilfried

    2016-11-01

    Near-orthogonal ultra-slow (13.3 mm yr- 1 to 6.5 mm yr- 1) sea floor spreading in the absence of large transform faults make the Arctic Gakkel Ridge ideally suited for the study of magmatic processes. To enable this, we generated a three-dimensional gravity model of crustal thickness over the ridge and parts of the adjacent Nansen and Amundsen basins west of 65° E. The model shows that oceanic crust accreted prior to chrons C5/C6 is generally very thin (1-3 km). Magnetic anomalies over this thin crust are highly variable both parallel and perpendicular to the ridge axis. This is the result of amagmatic or weakly volcanic spreading that started with the opening of the basins 56 Ma ago. The separation of Greenland from Svalbard at chron C5/C6 led to the inflow of North Atlantic mantle into the western Eurasia Basin leading to a change in the mantle convection system and the establishment of a magmatic dichotomy along the Gakkel Ridge. Robust magmatism was established in the Western Volcanic Zone (6° 30‧ W-3° 30‧ E), leading to creation of a 6.6 km thick igneous crust, characterized by a strong positive axial magnetic anomaly, numerous volcanic cones, and widespread thick mid-ocean ridge basalts. The transition to the neighbouring Sparsely Magmatic (3° 30‧ E-29° E) and Eastern Volcanic (29° E-85° E) zones is sharp. Peridotites cover the central valley and the inner rift flanks, the central magnetic anomaly vanishes and crustal thickness decreases to 1-4 km. Transverse basement ridges, extending for as much as 100 km into the adjacent basins, intersect the central valley. Although partly of tectonic origin, the transverse ridges are also an expression of long-living magmatic centres, as revealed by increased magnetic anomaly intensities and local thickening of the crust to values as great as 5.9 km.

  14. Investigation of exploiting thick coal seams and the possibilities of increasing the vertical concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pera, F.

    1987-01-01

    In underground coal mines the efficiency of exploiting thick coal seams can be increased first of all by increasing the vertical concentration. The most suitable method can be chosen by simple modelling. In cases where both the natural and technical conditions allow the use of the sub-caving method on long-wall faces, and on the basis of comparisons between the technical and economic parameters, the method discussed can be recommended. The shield support system with single scraper and overhead tapping is one of the most adequate ones. The Hungarian made VHP 730 type shields provided good results in the Ajka coal fields.

  15. Thin and thick primary cutaneous melanomas reveal distinct patterns of somatic copy number alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnani, Valentina; Benelli, Matteo; Apollo, Alessandro; Pescucci, Chiara; Licastro, Danilo; Urso, Carmelo; Gerlini, Gianni; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Luzzatto, Lucio; Stecca, Barbara

    2016-05-24

    Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive type of skin tumor. Early stage melanoma can be often cured by surgery; therefore current management guidelines dictate a different approach for thin (thick (>4mm) melanomas. We have carried out whole-exome sequencing in 5 thin and 5 thick fresh-frozen primary cutaneous melanomas. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) identified two groups corresponding to thin and thick melanomas. The most striking difference between them was the much greater abundance of SCNAs in thick melanomas, whereas mutation frequency did not significantly change between the two groups. We found novel mutations and focal SCNAs in genes that are embryonic regulators of axon guidance, predominantly in thick melanomas. Analysis of publicly available microarray datasets provided further support for a potential role of Ephrin receptors in melanoma progression. In addition, we have identified a set of SCNAs, including amplification of BRAF and ofthe epigenetic modifier EZH2, that are specific for the group of thick melanomas that developed metastasis during the follow-up. Our data suggest that mutations occur early during melanoma development, whereas SCNAs might be involved in melanoma progression.

  16. Numerical study of improving aerodynamic performance of low solidity LPT cascade through increasing trailing edge thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Yan, Peigang; Wang, Xiangfeng; Han, Wanjin; Wang, Qingchao

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new idea to reduce the solidity of low-pressure turbine (LPT) blade cascades, while remain the structural integrity of LPT blade. Aerodynamic performance of a low solidity LPT cascade was improved by increasing blade trailing edge thickness (TET). The solidity of the LPT cascade blade can be reduced by about 12.5% through increasing the TET of the blade without a significant drop in energy efficiency. For the low solidity LPT cascade, increasing the TET can decrease energy loss by 23.30% and increase the flow turning angle by 1.86% for Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000 and freestream turbulence intensities (FSTI) of 2.35%. The flow control mechanism governing behavior around the trailing edge of an LPT cascade is also presented. The results show that appropriate TET is important for the optimal design of high-lift load LPT blade cascades.

  17. Increased wall thickness using ultrasonography is associated with inflammation in an animal model of experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lied GA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gülen Arslan Lied,1 Anne Marita Milde,2 Kim Nylund,1,3 Maja Mujic,1 Tore Grimstad,1,4 Trygve Hausken,1,3 Odd Helge Gilja1,31Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway; 2Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Norway; 3National Centre for Ultrasound in Gastroenterology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 4Division of Gastroenterology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: Experimentally induced colitis is used in animals to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease. When following disease course and treatment effects, it should be possible to perform repeated measurements without harming the animals. This pilot study was performed to investigate whether transabdominal ultrasound using a clinical scanner could be used on rats to demonstrate bowel inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced by either 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water for 7 days or a single dose of intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Using ultrasonography, wall thickness of distal colon, cecum, and small bowel was recorded prior to and after DSS, and prior to, 2, and 7 days after TNBS. Blood (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha and fecal samples (HemoFEC occult blood were taken from each group on the same days as sonography. Thereafter, rats were killed and specimens for histology were taken. Wall thickness of distal colon, not of cecum or small bowel, increased significantly after 7 days of DSS, and wall thickness of both distal colon and small bowel increased on day 2 and 7 after TNBS. TNF-alpha increased after 7 days in the latter group only. There was a significant correlation between ultrasonographic measurements and combined histology score of distal colon in the DSS group. HemoFEC was also positive in accordance with sonographic and histological features. Increased intestinal wall thickness in response to both DSS- and TNBS

  18. Increased carotid thickness in subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Napoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a case-control study, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT was measured in 74 subjects with diabetes (diagnosed 0.9 mm was found in 4%, 45.9% and 20% of diabetic subjects at the common, bulb or internal carotid, respectively. Only 25% of patients had an HbA1c9%. The prevalence of diabetic subjects with abnormal levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure was 45%, 16.6%, 15% and 65.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid thickness is increased in subjects with diabetes from a rural area of Cameroon, despite the relatively recent diagnosis. These findings and the high rate of uncontrolled diabetes in this population support the increasing concern of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in African countries and indicate the need for multifaceted health interventions in urban and rural settings.

  19. Increased Carotid Thickness in Subjects with Recently-Diagnosed Diabetes from Rural Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Nicola; Zardi, Enrico; Strollo, Rocky; Arigliani, Michele; Daverio, Andrea; Olearo, Flaminia; Tosi, Daniele; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Scarpa, Filomena; Pedone, Claudio; Tegue Simo, Hervé Hilaire; Mottini, Giovanni; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings In a case-control study, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured in 74 subjects with diabetes (diagnosed 0.9 mm was found in 4%, 45.9% and 20% of diabetic subjects at the common, bulb or internal carotid, respectively. Only 25% of patients had an HbA1c9%). The prevalence of diabetic subjects with abnormal levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure was 45%, 16.6%, 15% and 65.7%, respectively. Conclusions Carotid thickness is increased in subjects with diabetes from a rural area of Cameroon, despite the relatively recent diagnosis. These findings and the high rate of uncontrolled diabetes in this population support the increasing concern of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in African countries and indicate the need for multifaceted health interventions in urban and rural settings. PMID:22916106

  20. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Mateus Beltrame; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Weber, Laura Menezes; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses.

  1. The importance of carotid artery stiffness and increased intima-media thickness in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcetin, Mustafa; Celikyay, Z Ruken Yuksekkaya; Celik, Atac; Yilmaz, Resul; Yerli, Yasemin; Erkorkmaz, Unal

    2012-03-08

    Atherosclerosis that starts in childhood invariably advances during adulthood. Aim. We aimed to study the effect of obesity on main carotid artery intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness. A total of 78 children were studied from October 2010 to February 2011. They were divided into obese (42 - group 1) and normal (36 - group 2). All the children were subjected to physical examination, routine biochemical and haematological analysis, carotid ultrasonography and echocardiographic measurements. A detailed medical history was obtained. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing participants' weight in kilograms by the square of their height in metres. Stiffness index β was calculated using blood pressure and diameter of the systolic and diastolic artery. Intima-media thickness was also measured. The mean age of the obese and normal (control) groups were 10.12±2.12 years and 9.78±1.78 years respectively. Weight, BMI, and systolic and and diastolic blood pressure values were significantly higher in the obese group (all pmedia thickness (CIMT) measurements, all parameters were higher in the obese group than the control (p<0.001). There was a relationship between the degree of obesity and CIMT or stiffness index β. In addition, dilatation and hypertrophy levels in the left ventricle were higher in obese children. Obese children with risk factors for multiple atherosclerosis could have increased CIMT dimensions and consequently should be screened for these risks. Ultrasonographic CIMT and arterial stiffness measurements can detect vascular damage at an early stage of development in children with cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Small-world anatomical networks in the human brain revealed by cortical thickness from MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Chen, Zhang J; Evans, Alan C

    2007-10-01

    An important issue in neuroscience is the characterization for the underlying architectures of complex brain networks. However, little is known about the network of anatomical connections in the human brain. Here, we investigated large-scale anatomical connection patterns of the human cerebral cortex using cortical thickness measurements from magnetic resonance images. Two areas were considered anatomically connected if they showed statistically significant correlations in cortical thickness and we constructed the network of such connections using 124 brains from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping database. Significant short- and long-range connections were found in both intra- and interhemispheric regions, many of which were consistent with known neuroanatomical pathways measured by human diffusion imaging. More importantly, we showed that the human brain anatomical network had robust small-world properties with cohesive neighborhoods and short mean distances between regions that were insensitive to the selection of correlation thresholds. Additionally, we also found that this network and the probability of finding a connection between 2 regions for a given anatomical distance had both exponentially truncated power-law distributions. Our results demonstrated the basic organizational principles for the anatomical network in the human brain compatible with previous functional networks studies, which provides important implications of how functional brain states originate from their structural underpinnings. To our knowledge, this study provides the first report of small-world properties and degree distribution of anatomical networks in the human brain using cortical thickness measurements.

  3. Increasing thickness and fibrosis of the cartilage in acetabular dysplasia: a rabbit model research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tian-you; MA Rui-xue

    2010-01-01

    Background The order and mechanism of pathological changes in acetabular dysplasia are still unclear. This study investigated cartilage changes in rabbit acetabular dysplasia models at different ages.Methods Twenty-seven 1-month-old New Zealand rabbits underwent cast immobilization of the left hind limb in knee extension. Serial acetabular dysplasia models were established by assessment of the acetabular index and Sharp's angle on radiographs. The thickness of the acetabular cartilage was measured under a microscope, and fibrosis was observed. Ultrastructural changes were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The messenger RNA expression of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅱ, β1 integrin, and caspase-9 were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Results In an immature group of rabbits, the acetabular index of the treated hip increased with animal growth. The cartilage on the brim of the left acetabulum was significantly thicker than that on the right side. The collagen fibrils on the surface of the cartilage became gross, and the chondrocytes in the enlargement layer underwent necrosis. In a mature group of rabbits, the left Sharp's angle increased in the rabbits with 6-week casting. The cartilage on the brim of the left acetabulum underwent fibrosis. The chondrocytes were weakly stained, and the number of lysosomes was much larger than normal. The messenger RNA expression of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅱ, β1 integrin, and caspase-9 in the cartilage differed significantly at different ages.Conclusions Increasing thickness followed by fibrosis may be the order of pathological cartilage changes in acetabular dysplasia, with changes in ultrastructure and collagen expression contributing to the process.

  4. Neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus revealed by cortical thickness analysis and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldhafeeri, Faten M. [The University of Liverpool, Department of Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); King Khalid General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Radiology Department, Hafral-batin (Saudi Arabia); Mackenzie, Ian; Kay, Tony [Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Alghamdi, Jamaan [The University of Liverpool, Department of Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); King Abdul Aziz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Sluming, Vanessa [The University of Liverpool, Department of Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Tinnitus is a poorly understood auditory perception of sound in the absence of external stimuli. Convergent evidence proposes that tinnitus perception involves brain structural alterations as part of its pathophysiology. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural brain changes that might be associated with tinnitus-related stress and negative emotions. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated grey matter and white matter (WM) alterations by estimating cortical thickness measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in 14 tinnitus subjects and 14 age- and sex-matched non-tinnitus subjects. Significant cortical thickness reductions were found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), temporal lobe and limbic system in tinnitus subjects compared to non-tinnitus subjects. Tinnitus sufferers were found to have disrupted WM integrity in tracts involving connectivity of the PFC, temporal lobe, thalamus and limbic system. Our results suggest that such neural changes may represent neural origins for tinnitus or consequences of tinnitus and its associations. (orig.)

  5. Does acute primary angle-closure cause an increased choroidal thickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Minwen; Huang, Wenbin; Chen, Shida; Ding, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiulan

    2013-05-01

    We compared the choroidal thickness of the eyes of patients with acute primary angle-closure (APAC) with fellow eyes in the same patients. The analysis included 21 participants with unilateral APAC affected eyes and 21 fellow eyes with a diagnosis of primary angle-closure suspect (PACS). Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) was used to measure the macular and peripapillary retinal and choroidal thickness in both eyes. The average choroidal thickness of the APAC eyes at each location or segment was compared to that of the fellow eyes. At all macular locations, the choroidal thickness was greatest at the subfovea for both groups. Comparison of the choroidal thickness between the groups showed that the thickness in the APAC eyes was significantly greater than in the PACS eyes at all locations except at 1 mm, 3 mm superior, 3 mm inferior, and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P choroidal thickness was 349.0 ± 78.1 μm in the APAC eyes and 308.1 ± 70.5 μm in the PACS eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P choroidal thickness was significantly greater in association with the APAC diagnosis and diastolic blood pressure and thinner in association with older subjects. APAC eyes have a higher level of macular choroidal thickness than PACS eyes when the IOP is reduced. However, the source of this difference is unclear and must be investigated further.

  6. Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness Is Not Increased in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hyi Ku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Measuring the carotid artery intimal-medial thickness (CIMT is a non-invasive technique used to evaluate early atherosclerosis and to predict future cardiovascular diseases. We examined the association between CIMT and cardiovascular risk factors in young Korean women with previous GDM.MethodsOne hundred one women with previous GDM and 19 women who had normal pregnancies (NP were recruited between 1999 and 2002. At one year postpartum, CIMT was measured using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography, and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, insulin levels and lipid profiles were also measured. CIMTs in the GDM and NP groups were compared, and the associations between CIMT and cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in the GDM group.ResultsCIMT results of the GDM group were not significantly different from those of the NP group (GDM, 0.435±0.054 mm; NP, 0.460±0.046 mm; P=0.069. In the GDM group, a higher HbA1c was associated with an increase in CIMT after age adjustment (P=0.011. CIMT results in the group with HbA1c >6.0% were higher than those of the normal HbA1c (HbA1c ≤6.0% (P=0.010. Nine of the patients who are type 2 diabetes mellitus converters within one year postpartum but showed no significant difference in CIMT results compared to NP group.ConclusionHigher HbA1c is associated with an increase in CIMT in women with previous GDM. However, CIMT at one year postpartum was not increased in these women compared to that in NP women.

  7. Multiple bases of human intelligence revealed by cortical thickness and neural activation.

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    Choi, Yu Yong; Shamosh, Noah A; Cho, Sun Hee; DeYoung, Colin G; Lee, Min Joo; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sun I; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Kyungjin; Gray, Jeremy R; Lee, Kun Ho

    2008-10-08

    We hypothesized that individual differences in intelligence (Spearman's g) are supported by multiple brain regions, and in particular that fluid (gF) and crystallized (gC) components of intelligence are related to brain function and structure with a distinct profile of association across brain regions. In 225 healthy young adults scanned with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging sequences, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on the basis of a correlation between g and either brain structure or brain function. In these ROIs, gC was more strongly related to structure (cortical thickness) than function, whereas gF was more strongly related to function (blood oxygenation level-dependent signal during reasoning) than structure. We further validated this finding by generating a neurometric prediction model of intelligence quotient (IQ) that explained 50% of variance in IQ in an independent sample. The data compel a nuanced view of the neurobiology of intelligence, providing the most persuasive evidence to date for theories emphasizing multiple distributed brain regions differing in function.

  8. Association between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Heart Rate Variability in Adults at Increased Cardiovascular Risk

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    Ovidiu C. Baltatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test. Linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction were used to evaluate the association between HRV parameters and carotid IMT.Results: Participants had a mean age of 60.4 ± 13.4 years and an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk score (using the Pooled Cohort Equations of 16.4 ± 17. The mean carotid media thickness was highest (0.90 ± 0.19 mm in the first quartile of the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN (19.7 ± 5.1 ms and progressively declined in each subsequent quartile to 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, 0.81 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.19 in quartiles 2 (36.5 ± 5.9 ms, 3 (57.7 ± 6.2 ms and 4 (100.9 ± 22.2 ms, respectively. In multivariable adjusted models, there was a statistical significant association between SDNN and carotid IMT (OR −0.002; 95%CI −0.003 to −0.001, p = 0.005. The same significant association was found between carotid IMT and other measures of HRV, including coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CV and dispersion of points along the line of identity (SD2.Conclusions: In a cohort of individuals at increased cardiovascular risk, carotid IMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with alterations of HRV indicating an impaired cardiac autonomic control, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. Increased brachial intima-media thickness is associated with circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with COPD

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    Urban, Matthias Helmut; Eickhoff, Philipp; Funk, Georg-Christian; Burghuber, Otto Chris; Wolzt, Michael; Valipour, Arschang

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. However, the mechanisms for this association are yet unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between brachial intima-media thickness (B-IMT), an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk, systemic inflammation, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, in patients with COPD and respective controls. Methods The study sample consisted of 60 patients with stable COPD, free from overt cardiovascular disorders, as well as 20 smoking and 20 nonsmoking controls. Ultrasound assessment of B-IMT, spirometry, venous blood sampling for quantification of inflammatory markers and ADMA levels were carried out, and individual cardiovascular risk was calculated via the Framingham risk score. Results Patients with COPD showed significantly higher B-IMT compared to smoking (P=0.007) and nonsmoking controls (P=0.033). COPD patients with elevated B-IMT had a twofold increased calculated 10-year risk for cardiovascular events compared to those below the recommended cutoff (P=0.002). B-IMT was significantly associated with systemic inflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6]; r=0.365, P=0.006) and ADMA (r=0.331, P=0.013) in COPD. Multivariate linear regression revealed male sex and ADMA as independent predictors of B-IMT in this study sample. Conclusion B-IMT is significantly increased in patients with COPD and is associated with systemic inflammation and ADMA levels.

  10. The Relationship Between Increased Epicardial Fat Thickness and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients With Nonfunctional Adrenal Incidentaloma

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    Imga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Emerging evidences indicate that patients diagnosed with Adrenal Incidentaloma (AI may present cardiovascular complications. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT has recently been described as a new risk factor and an active player in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relationship between EFT and left ventricular hypertrophy and carotid intima-media thickness, which are both strong predictors of cardiovascular morbity and mortality, in patients with nonfunctioning AI. Patients and Methods We evaluated 51 patients (36 females and 15 males diagnosed with AI and 35 (29 females, 6 males age, gender and body mass index (BMI matched healthy controls in terms of cardiovascular risk parameters. Epicardial fat was identified as the echo-free space between the outer wall of the myocardium and the visceral layer of the pericardium. Results Epicardial fat thickness was significantly higher in patients with AI when compared to the control group (0.89 ± 0.32 cm vs. 0.74 ± 0.26 cm; P = 0.023. left ventricular (LV mass index and median carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT were also higher in subjects with AI than in controls (99.8 g/m2 vs. 86.9 g/m2; P = 0.024 and 7.5 mm (5.5 - 11.5 vs. 6.5 mm (4.5 - 9.5; P = 0.017. There was a positive correlation between EFT, LV mass index, EFT and CIMT (r = 0.315, P = 0.004; r = 0.363, P < 0.001; respectively. Conclusions In this study we showed that EFT, measured by echocardiography is higher in subjects with AI when compared to healthy controls. epicardial fat thickness had the best independent correlation with AI in multiple logistic regression analysis. Incidentaloma is also associated with increased left ventricular mass index and CIMT. Adrenal incidentaloma patients may show early cardiac changes, such as increased left ventricular mass and increased CIMT.

  11. WNT10A exonic variant increases the risk of keratoconus by decreasing corneal thickness.

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    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Springelkamp, Henriët; Lucas, Sionne E M; Yazar, Seyhan; Hewitt, Alex W; Iglesias, Adriana I; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Pennell, Craig E; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Ramdas, Wishal D; Wolfs, Roger C W; Vingerling, Johannes R; Brown, Matthew A; Mills, Richard A; Craig, Jamie E; Klaver, Caroline C W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Burdon, Kathryn P; MacGregor, Stuart; Mackey, David A

    2015-09-01

    Keratoconus is a degenerative eye condition which results from thinning of the cornea and causes vision distortion. Treatments such as ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking have proved effective for management of keratoconus when performed in early stages of the disease. The central corneal thickness (CCT) is a highly heritable endophenotype of keratoconus, and it is estimated that up to 95% of its phenotypic variance is due to genetics. Genome-wide association efforts of CCT have identified common variants (i.e. minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%). However, these studies typically ignore the large set of exonic variants whose MAF is usually low. In this study, we performed a CCT exome-wide association analysis in a sample of 1029 individuals from a population-based study in Western Australia. We identified a genome-wide significant exonic variant rs121908120 (P = 6.63 × 10(-10)) in WNT10A. This gene is 437 kb from a gene previously associated with CCT (USP37). We showed in a conditional analysis that the WNT10A variant completely accounts for the signal previously seen at USP37. We replicated our finding in independent samples from the Brisbane Adolescent Twin Study, Twin Eye Study in Tasmania and the Rotterdam Study. Further, we genotyped rs121908120 in 621 keratoconus cases and compared the frequency to a sample of 1680 unscreened controls from the Queensland Twin Registry. We found that rs121908120 increases the risk of keratoconus two times (odds ratio 2.03, P = 5.41 × 10(-5)). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness is Increased in Patients With Mucopolysaccharidoses

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    Wang, Raymond Y.; Covault, Kelly K.; Halcrow, Eileen M.; Gardner, Audrey J.; Cao, Xiaoling; Newcomb, Robert L.; Dauben, Richard D.; Chang, Anthony C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The feasibility of carotid artery intima-media thickness (C-IMT), an established cardiovascular disease marker, as a cardiac risk marker in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) patients was explored. Objectives To determine if C-IMT is abnormal in MPS versus unaffected controls, and if C-IMT correlates with coronary artery diameter in MPS. Material and methods Measurements of C-IMT via neck ultrasound and echocardiographic parameters, including coronary artery diameters, were obtained from MPS and control patients, and compared. Results Sixteen MPS subjects (6 MPS I, 6 MPS II, 2 MPS III, 1 MPS VI, 1 MPS VII) and sixteen age, ethnicity, and gender-matched controls were enrolled. Median MPS and control subject ages were 8.3 ± 4.5 and 8.6 ± 4.3 years, respectively (p = 0.73). Mean MPS and control C-IMTs were 0.54 ± 0.070 and 0.48 ± 0.034 mm (p = 0.0029). No differences in left main, left anterior descending, or right coronary artery diameters were seen between MPS and controls. A significant proportion of MPS subjects had mitral insufficiency (14/16; p=0.0002), aortic insufficiency (10/16; p=0.0021), and left ventricular dilatation (7/16, p=0.037) versus controls. C-IMT did not correlate significantly with age, height, weight, coronary measurements, or duration of treatment. Conclusion C-IMT in MPS patients is increased compared to matched controls, likely reflective of arterial intima-medial glycosaminoglycan accumulation. MPS subjects demonstrated a high percentage of left-sided valvular insufficiency and ventricular dilatation. Additional studies should be performed in MPS patients to determine if C-IMT correlates with arterial elasticity, biomarkers of vascular dysfunction, and higher risk of cardiovascular events. PMID:21963080

  13. Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia in GCK-MODY Patients Does Not Increase Carotid Intima-Media Thickness

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    Stepanka Pruhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. GCK-MODY is an autosomal dominant form of diabetes caused by heterozygous mutations in the glucokinase gene leading to a lifelong mild hyperglycemia. The risk of macrovascular complications is considered low, but studies are limited. We, therefore, investigated the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT as an indicator of macrovascular complications in a group of patients with GCK-MODY. Methods. Twenty-seven GCK mutation carriers and 24 controls recruited among their first-degree relatives were compared, all aging over 35 years. The CIMT was tested using a high-resolution B-mode carotid ultrasonography. Medical history, anthropometry, and biochemical blood workup were obtained. Results. The mean CIMT was 0.707 ± 0.215 mm (mean ± SD in GCK mutation carriers and 0.690 ± 0.180 mm in control individuals. When adjusted for age, gender, and family status, the estimated mean difference in CIMT between the two groups increased to 0.049 mm (P=0.19. No difference was detected for other characteristics, with the exception of fasting blood glucose (GCK-MODY 7.6 mmol/L ± 1.2 (136.4 mg/dL; controls 5.3 mmol/L ± 0.3 (95.4 mg/dL; P<0.0001 and glycated hemoglobin HbA1c (GCK-MODY 6.9% ± 1.0%, 52 mmol/mol ± 10; controls 5.7% ± 0.4%, 39 mmol/mol ± 3; P<0.0001. The frequency of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke did not differ between groups. Conclusion. Our data indicate that the persistent hyperglycemia in GCK-MODY is associated with a low risk of developing diabetic macrovascular complications.

  14. Increased mucosal thickness of the stomach in transabdominal ultrasonogram: Correlation with gastric hemorrhage

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    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Myoung Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of transabdominal ultrasonography in predicting the hemorrhage gastritis by the evaluation of gastric wall. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of gastric wall was performed 42 patients. Layers of gastric wall were preserved in all patients. Twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had diffuse thickening more than 5 mm were classified as hypertrophic group. The other twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had thickness less than 5 mm were classified as control group. In all 42 patients, endoscopic examination was performed and the prevalence of gastric hemorrhage was recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy for predicting the hemorrhage gastritis were calculated based on mucosal thickness. Sixteen patients who had been diagnosed as a hemorrhagic gastritis in the hypertrophic group on endoscopic examination were classified as a hemorrhage group. The thickness of each layers in hemorrhagic and the control group were compared using t-test and Fisher's exact test. Using 5 mm of mucosal thickness as a predictor, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 80.8%, the positive predictive value was 76.2%, and the accuracy was 88.1%. Mean thickness of mucosa in hemorrhagic group and the control group were 9.6 {+-} 1.6 mm, and 1.4 {+-} 0.4 mm, respectively (p<0.01). Mean thickness of submucosa was 1.1 {+-} 0.3 mm in hemorrhagic group and 0.6 {+-} 0.3 mm in control group (p,0.01). The submucosal layer was hyperechoic and well- defined in most control groups (18/21) while it was ill-defined and less echogenic in hemorrhagic group (p<0.01). The diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastritis can be suggested when there is diffuse thickening in the gastric mucosa shile submucosal layer shows decreased echogenicits and indistinct border. This may improve the value of sonographic evaluation.

  15. Positive association between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis: is OA also part of the metabolic syndrome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Geest, Rob J. van der; Lamb, Hildo J.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine if a positive association exists between arterial vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis (OA). Our hypothesis is that generalized OA is another facet of the metabolic syndrome. The medical ethical review board of our institution approved the study. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to the study. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained in 42 patients who had been diagnosed with generalized OA at multiple joint sites. Another 27 MR images of the knee were obtained from a matched normal (non-OA) reference population. Vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was quantitatively measured by dedicated software. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between vessel wall thickness and generalized OA. Adjustments were made for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Confidence intervals (CI) were computed at the 95% level and a significance level of {alpha} = 0.05 was used. Patients in the generalized OA population had a significant higher average vessel wall thickness than persons from the normal reference population (p {<=} {alpha}), even when correction was made for sex, age, and BMI. The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population. The association found between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis suggests that generalized OA might be another facet of the metabolic syndrome. (orig.)

  16. Modeling the increase in aerodynamic efficiency for a thick (37.5% chord) airfoil with slot suction in vortex cells with allowance for the compressibility effect

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    Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Ermakov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Reynolds equations closed using the Menter shear-stress-transfer model modified with allowance for the curvature of flow lines have been numerically solved using multiblock computational technologies. The obtained solution has been used to analyze subsonic flow past a thick (37.5% chord) airfoil with slot suction in circular vortex cells intended for the Ecology and Progress (Ekologiya i Progress, EKIP) aircraft project in comparison to a distributed (from the central body surface) suction at fixed values of the total volume flow rate (0.02121) and Reynolds number (105) in a range of Mach numbers from 0 to 0.4. This analysis revealed a significant (up to tenfold) decrease in the bow drag (determined with allowance for the energy losses) and a large (by an order of magnitude) increase in the aerodynamic efficiency of the thick airfoil containing vortex cells with slot suction, which reached up to 160.

  17. Increased carotid intima media thickness is associated with prolactin levels in subjects with untreated prolactinoma: a pilot study.

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    Jiang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Cui-Ling; He, Dong-Sheng; Mao, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Dong-Hong; Fan, Xiang; Hu, Bin; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2014-06-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherogenic risk factors, but carotid intima media thickness (IMT) has not been studied in hyperprolactinemic patients. To determine whether untreated hyperprolactinemia contributes to increased carotid IMT. Thirty-one prolactinoma patients and 60 healthy controls were respectively studied. Participants underwent hormone evaluation. Anthropometric parameters (body mass index and blood pressure), inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen), serum glucose, insulin, lipid and apolipoprotein profiles were also determined. Endothelial function measured as the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of a brachial artery and carotid IMT were evaluated using high-resolution ultrasonography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was applied to identify independent determinants of FMD and carotid IMT. Triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA-I ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen were significantly higher, while apoA-I was significantly lower in patients with prolactinomas than in the controls. Meanwhile, decreased FMD and increased carotid IMT were observed in hyperprolactinemic group. Serum prolactin was positively correlated with triglycerides, apoB/apoA-I ratio, hypogonadal, hsCRP and fibrinogen (P < 0.05), but inversely associated with apoA-I and HDL-C (P ≤ 0.001). Moreover, prolactin was found negatively correlated with FMD (r = -0.576, P < 0.0001), and positively correlated with mean carotid IMT (r = 0.652, P < 0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that prolactin determined, independent of traditional risk factors, FMD (B = -0.589, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.525 to -0.804, P = 0.001) and mean carotid IMT (B = 0.527, 95% CI 0.027-0.069, P < 0.0001). Hyperprolactinemia may be involved in the preclinical increase in carotid IMT, directly or by promoting atherogenic factors, including

  18. Evaluation of a porcine collagen matrix used to augment keratinized tissue and increase soft tissue thickness around existing dental implants.

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    Schallhorn, Rachel A; McClain, Pamela K; Charles, Allan; Clem, Donald; Newman, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Implant-supported prostheses often present with mucogingival deficiencies that may cause esthetic or hygienic issues. These issues may present as limited or no keratinized tissue, irregular soft tissue contour or concavity, and gray "showthrough" of the implant abutment and root forms. An interpositional soft tissue graft substitute that generates keratinized tissue and increases soft tissue thickness would be beneficial, as it would reduce donor site morbidity and be available in unlimited, off-the-shelf supply. Thirty patients were assessed as part of a multicenter, practice-based evaluation of the material. A xenogeneic collagen matrix was placed as an interpositional graft on the buccal aspect of implant sites; sites were reassessed at 6 months posttreatment. Results indicated that the collagen matrix increased tissue thickness and keratinized tissue around existing dental implants.

  19. Thicker carotid intima-media thickness and increased plasma VEGF levels suffered by post-acute thrombotic stroke patients

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    Yueniwati Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuyun Yueniwati,1 Ni Komang Darmiastini,1 Eko Arisetijono2 1Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia; 2Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia Background and objectives: Atherosclerosis causes reduction of the oxygen supply to structures in the far arterial wall, provoking the release of factors that drive angiogenesis of vasa vasorum, including VEGF. Other studies have revealed the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and the role of platelet factor 4 (PF4 as an anti-angiogenic chemokine through the inhibition of VEGF. This cross-sectional study aims at measuring the effect of atherosclerosis assessed through carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT against plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. Materials and methods: CIMT was assessed sonographically using GE Logiq S6 with 13 MHz frequency linear probe. VEGF-A plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Differences among variables were compared statistically. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results: A total of 25 patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke were identified in days 7 to 90. CIMT thickening was indicated in 88% of patients (1.202 ± 0.312 mm, while an increase in plasma VEGF was identified in all patients (178.28 ± 93.96 ng/mL. There was no significant correlation between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke (p=0.741. A significant correlation was recognized between CIMT and total cholesterol (p=0.029 and low-density lipoprotein (p=0.018. Conclusion: There were no significant correlations between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. However, plasma VEGF increased in patients with thrombotic stroke. CIMT measurement is a promising noninvasive modality to assess the vascular condition of patients with stroke and diabetes, while plasma VEGF

  20. Evaluation of Electrocardiographic T-peak to T-end Interval in Subjects with Increased Epicardial Fat Tissue Thickness

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    Ozgur Kaplan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:The association between periatrial adiposity and atrial arrhythmias has been shown in previous studies. However, there are not enough available data on the association between epicardial fat tissue (EFT thickness and parameters of ventricular repolarization. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association of EFT thickness with indices of ventricular repolarization by using T-peak to T-end (Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio.Methods:The present study included 50 patients whose EFT thickness ≥ 9 mm (group 1 and 40 control subjects with EFT thickness < 9 mm (group 2. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination was performed in all participants. QT parameters, Tp-e intervals and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured from the 12-lead electrocardiogram.Results:QTd (41.1 ± 2.5 vs 38.6 ± 3.2, p < 0.001 and corrected QTd (46.7 ± 4.7 vs 43.7 ± 4, p = 0.002 were significantly higher in group 1 when compared to group 2. The Tp-e interval (76.5 ± 6.3, 70.3 ± 6.8, p < 0.001, cTp-e interval (83.1 ± 4.3 vs. 76±4.9, p < 0.001, Tp-e/QT (0.20 ± 0.02 vs. 0.2 ± 0.02, p < 0.001 and Tp-e/QTc ratios (0.2 ± 0.01 vs. 0.18 ± 0.01, p < 0.001 were increased in group 1 in comparison to group 2. Significant positive correlations were found between EFT thickness and Tp-e interval (r = 0.548, p < 0.001, cTp-e interval (r = 0.259, p = 0.01, and Tp-e/QT (r = 0.662, p < 0.001 and Tp-e/QTc ratios (r = 0.560, p < 0.001.Conclusion:The present study shows that Tp-e and cTp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were increased in subjects with increased EFT, which may suggest an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia.

  1. Mechanical Stretch on Human Skin Equivalents Increases the Epidermal Thickness and Develops the Basement Membrane.

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    Eijiro Tokuyama

    Full Text Available All previous reports concerning the effect of stretch on cultured skin cells dealt with experiments on epidermal keratinocytes or dermal fibroblasts alone. The aim of the present study was to develop a system that allows application of stretch stimuli to human skin equivalents (HSEs, prepared by coculturing of these two types of cells. In addition, this study aimed to analyze the effect of a stretch on keratinization of the epidermis and on the basement membrane. HSEs were prepared in a gutter-like structure created with a porous silicone sheet in a silicone chamber. After 5-day stimulation with stretching, HSEs were analyzed histologically and immunohistologically. Stretch-stimulated HSEs had a thicker epidermal layer and expressed significantly greater levels of laminin 5 and collagen IV/VII in the basal layer compared with HSEs not subjected to stretch stimulation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the structure of the basement membrane was more developed in HSEs subjected to stretching. Our model may be relevant for extrapolating the effect of a stretch on the skin in a state similar to an in vivo system. This experimental system may be useful for analysis of the effects of stretch stimuli on skin properties and wound healing and is also expected to be applicable to an in vitro model of a hypertrophic scar in the future.

  2. Portal venous arterialization resulting in increased portal inflow and portal vein wall thickness in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Gang Li; Yong-Liang Chen; Jing-Xi Chen; Lei Qu; Bin-Dang Xue; Zhi-Hai Peng; Zhi-Qiang Huang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To explore the influence of portal vein hemodynamic changes after portal venous arterialization(PVA) on peribiliary vascular plexus (PVP)morphological structure and hepatic pathology,and to establish a theoretical basis for the clinical application of PVA.METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and PVA groups.After PVA,hemodynamic changes of the portal vein and morphological structure of hepatohilar PVP were observed using Doppler ultrasound,liver function tests,ink perfusion transparency management and three-dimensional reconstruction of computer microvisualization,and pathological examination was performed on tissue from the bile duct wall and the liver.RESULTS:After PVA,the cross-sectional area and blood flow of the portal vein were increased,and the increase became more significant over time,in a certain range.If the measure to limit the flow in PVA was not adopted,the high blood flow would lead to dilatation of intrahepatic portal vein and its branches,increase in collagen and fiber degeneration in tunica intima.Except glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT),other liver function tests were normal.CONCLUSION:Blood with a certain flow and oxygen content is important for filling the PVP and meeting the oxygen requirement of the bile duct wall.After PVA,It is the anatomic basis to maintain normal morphology of hepatohilar bile duct wall that the blood with high oxygen content and high flow in arterialized portal vein may fill PVP by collateral vessel reflux.A adequate measure to limit blood flow is necessary in PVA.

  3. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

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    Zhijun Yao

    Full Text Available In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  4. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

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    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chuanjiang; Zhao, Lina; Jackson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC) twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  5. Retinal layer location of increased retinal thickness in eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema in diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandello, Francesco; Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the retinal layer predominantly affected in eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema in diabetes type 2. METHODS: A cohort of 194 type 2 diabetic eyes/patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (ETDRS levels 20/35) were examined with Cirrus spectral......-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the baseline visit (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145599). Automated segmentation of the retinal layers of the eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema was compared with a sample of 31 eyes from diabetic patients with normal OCT and an age......-matched control group of 58 healthy eyes. RESULTS: From the 194 eyes in the study, 62 had subclinical macular edema and 12 had clinical macular edema. The highest increases in retinal thickness (RT) were found in the inner nuclear layer (INL; 33.6% in subclinical macular edema and 81.8% in clinical macular edema...

  6. Genetic variations in the osteopontin promoters T-443C and G-156GG increase carotid intima–media thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueniwati, Yuyun; Yurina, Valentina; Sobah, Nurus; Rahayu, Endang

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) is a clear predictor of atherosclerosis. The increase of CIMT is affected by mutations in the osteopontin (OPN) promoters. The purpose of this study was to examine genetic variations in OPN promoters T-443C and G-156GG, identified in Javanese children with ischemic stroke parents, and to investigate their relationship with the increase of CIMT. A case–control analytic study was performed on 20 case and 12 control samples. Case samples were Javanese children aged between 10 to 21 years with ischemic stroke parents. Control samples were children with healthy parents. Mutations of T-443C and G-156GG were determined by employing polymerase chain reaction. Results of sequencing were analyzed using CLC Main Workbench 6.0. CIMT was defined using ultrasound. Genetic variations of T-443C were identified in six samples. Likewise, genetic variations of G-156GG were identified in six samples. Genetic variations in the OPN promoters T-443C and G-156GG were not potential risk factors in an increase of CIMT (P=0.654 and P=0.654). This study proves that genetic variations could be identified at the points of T-443C and G-156GG in children with ischemic stroke parents. Although statistically insignificant, the tendency to increase CIMT occurs in children with genetic variations. Children with ischemic stroke parents have thicker CIMT than children of healthy parents. PMID:27274305

  7. Reduced epidermal thickness, nerve degeneration and increased pain-related behavior in rats with diabetes type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boric, Matija; Skopljanac, Ivan; Ferhatovic, Lejla; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Banozic, Adriana; Puljak, Livia

    2013-11-01

    To examine the mechanisms contributing to pain genesis in diabetic neuropathy, we investigated epidermal thickness and number of intraepidermal nerve fibers in rat foot pad of the animal model of diabetes type 1 and type 2 in relation to pain-related behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes type 1 was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and diabetes type 2 was induced with a combination of STZ and high-fat diet. Control group for diabetes type 1 was fed with regular laboratory chow, while control group for diabetes type 2 received high-fat diet. Body weights and blood glucose levels were monitored to confirm induction of diabetes. Pain-related behavior was analyzed using thermal (hot, cold) and mechanical stimuli (von Frey fibers, number of hyperalgesic responses). Two months after induction of diabetes, glabrous skin samples from plantar surface of the both hind paws were collected. Epidermal thickness was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Intraepidermal nerve fibers quantification was performed after staining skin with polyclonal antiserum against protein gene product 9.5. We found that induction of diabetes type 1 and type 2 causes significant epidermal thinning and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in a rat model, and both changes were more pronounced in diabetes type 1 model. Significant increase of pain-related behavior two months after induction of diabetes was observed only in a model of diabetes type 1. In conclusion, animal models of diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2 could be used in pharmacological studies, where cutaneous changes could be used as outcome measures for predegenerative markers of neuropathies.

  8. The optimal slice thickness of CT in revealing lobulation of malignant solitary pulmonary nodules%显示恶性不利肺结节分叶征的正想CT层厚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenjiang Li; Changcheng Li; Xin Wang; Debin Liu; Wenjie Liang; Feng Zhu; Yan Zhu; Xuefeng Cui; Wenjie Bi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine an optimal slice thickness that was efficient in revealing lobula-tion of malignant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) on multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) images preliminarily. Methods: Fifty patients with malignant SPNs (diameter ≤ 3 cm) underwent multidetector-row computed tomography of the chest in a single-breath-hold technique. The raw data were acquired with a collimation of 0.625 mm. Three sets of contiguous images were reconstructed with 1-, 2-, and 5-mm slice thickness, respectively. The lobulation sign of SPNs on the computed tomography (CT) images presented in 1-, 2-, and 5-mm slice thickness was compared. Using the 1-mm sections as the gold standard, an optimal slice thickness in revealing lobulation sign of SPNs was determined. Results: The 1-mm-thick images CT revealed 98 lobulations (25 with chord distance 2 mm) of 45 malignant SPNs. 18 lobulations with chord distance 0.05). 13 lobulations with chord distance 1-2 mm presented in 5-mm-thick sections were as same as that in 1-mm-thick sections. There was statistically significant difference in lobulations number between that revealed in 5-mm-thick sections were as same as that in 1-mm-thick sections. No statistically significant difference in lobulations number was found between that revealed in 2-mm-thick images and that in 1-mm-thick images (P = 0.631 > 0.05). 36 lobulations with chord significant difference in lobulations number between that revealed in 5-mm-thick images and that in 1-mm-thick images (P = 0.264 > 0.05). Conclusion: It is suggested that the use of 1-mm slice thickness is suitable in revealing lobulations with chord distance 2 mm.

  9. cAMP increases surface expression of NKCC2 in rat thick ascending limbs: role of VAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Pablo A

    2006-03-01

    NaCl absorption by the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) is mediated by the apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2. cAMP increases NaCl absorption in the TAL by stimulating NKCC2. In oocytes, cAMP increases NKCC2 activity by regulating its trafficking. However, the mechanism by which cAMP stimulates NKCC2 in TALs is not clear. We hypothesized that cAMP increases surface expression of NKCC2 and NaCl absorption in TALs and that vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) is involved in this mechanism. We used surface biotinylation of rat medullary TALs (mTAL) to examine surface and total NKCC2 levels. When mTAL suspensions were treated with dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) or forskolin plus IBMX for 20 min, surface NKCC2 expression increased by 126 +/- 23 and 92 +/- 17% above basal, respectively (P < 0.03). No changes in total NKCC2 expression were observed, suggesting that cAMP increased translocation of NKCC2. We studied the role of VAMP in NKCC2 translocation and found that incubating mTALs with tetanus toxin (30 nM), which inhibits vesicle trafficking by inactivating VAMP-2 and -3, completely blocked the stimulatory effect of db-cAMP on surface NKCC2 expression (tetanus toxin = 100% vs. tetanus toxin + db-cAMP = 102 +/- 21% of control; not significant). We studied VAMP-2 and -3 expression and localization in isolated perfused TALs by confocal microscopy and found that both of them were located in the subapical space of the TAL. Finally, in isolated perfused mTALs, db-cAMP increased net Cl absorption by 95.0 +/- 34.8% (P < 0.03), and pretreatment of TALs with tetanus toxin blocked the stimulation of Cl absorption (from 110.9 +/- 15.9 to 109.7 +/- 15.6 pmol.min(-1).mm(-1); not significant). We concluded that cAMP increases NKCC2 surface expression by a mechanism involving VAMP and that NKCC2 trafficking to the apical membrane is involved in the stimulation of TAL NaCl absorption by cAMP.

  10. Impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chun-yan; ZHANG Zhi-yi; MEI Yi-fang; WU Chang-jun; SHEN Bao-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation percentage (FMD%) are common parameters used for detecting subclinical atherosclerosis.This study compared subclinical atherosclerosis of the carotid and brachial arteries in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls using high resolution ultrasonography.We also investigated their correlation with clinical factors and the association between FMD% and CIMT.Methods One hundred and two RA patients and 46 age-gender matched healthy controls were included in the study.FMD of the brachial artery and CIMT were measured ultrasonographically.Patients with diabetes mellitus,hypertension,renal failure,history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were excluded.Subjects who were receiving or used high dose steroids were also excluded.Results The CIMT was significantly higher in patients than that in the control group ((0.697±0.053) vs.(0.554±0.051) mm,P <0.001),whereas brachial artery FMD% was lower in patients than that in the controls ((5.454±2.653)% vs.(8.477±2.851)%,P <0.001).CIMT was related to age,disease duration,tender and swollen joint score,C-reactive protein,systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein.However,FMD% was only association with systolic blood pressure.There was no significant correlation between CIMT and FMD%.Conclusions Compared with the healthy control subjects,RA patients without clinically evident cardiovascular disease had subclinical atherosclerosis in terms of impaired FMD% and increased CIMT.FMD% and CIMT may measure a different stage of subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients.

  11. Structural correlates of trait anxiety: reduced thickness in medial orbitofrontal cortex accompanied by volume increase in nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    Structural deficiencies within the medial prefrontal cortex have been shown in anxiety-related psychiatric disorders such as panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. In healthy subjects, trait anxiety as the individual's disposition to experience anxiety-relevant feelings or thoughts has been shown to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. We aimed at exploring the structural correlates of trait anxiety in normal participants. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans from 34 subjects and used FreeSurfer to obtain a measure of cortical thickness. We correlated cortical thickness with self-rated trait anxiety in a whole brain analysis. Automatic subcortical segmentations of the FreeSurfer pipeline were used to relate nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and amygdala volume to trait anxiety. Trait anxiety was negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the right medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and positively correlated with the bilateral volume of NAcc. Cortical thickness measures extracted from mOFC were negatively associated with the volume of left NAcc. Since, like in anxiety-related psychiatric disorders, in the healthy sample studied here, trait anxiety was associated with a reduction of cortical thickness in mOFC we suggest that this thinning is a structural precondition rather than a consequence of psychiatric illnesses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Measurement of orthodontic forces exerted on the upper right central incisor with the increase of the distance of tooth movement and thickness of the aligner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chaochao; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Zheyao; Wang, Hongmei; Bai, Yuxing

    2014-03-01

    To measure the orthodontic forces exerted on the upper right central incisor with the increase of the distance of tooth movement and the thickness of the aligner. The labial movement of upper right central incisor at various distances (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8 mm) was designed and the stereolithography model (2 times bigger than the original model) was created with 3-D scanning and tomography output. These models were used to fabricate the aligners with different thicknesses (0.8, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) of the thermoplastic materials (6 samples for various distances of tooth movement and thicknesses). Orthodontic forces exerted on the upper right central incisor were measured with the micro-stress sensor measurement system. The orthodontic forces increased with the increase of the thickness of the aligner at the same distance of tooth movement (P force was (1.237 ± 0.082), (1.543 ± 0.059), (3.602 ± 0.102), (6.734 ± 0.063) N when the labial movement of upper right central incisor was 0.3 mm with the aligner of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm. The orthodontic forces also increased with the increase of the distance of the tooth movement at the same thickness of the aligner(P force of the aligner of 0.8 mm were (1.354 ± 0.039), (1.288 ± 0.037), (1.479 ± 0.031), (1.799 ± 0.039) N when the upper right central tooth labial movement at 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5 mm. The orthodontic forces increased with the increase of the distance of tooth movement and the thickness of the aligner.

  13. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Guo, Kaifeng; Lu, Junxi; Zhao, Fangya; Yu, Haoyong; Han, Junfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Chen, Haibing; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of incident CVD events both in patients without diabetes and in those with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, no published data are available regarding the association between NAFLD and C-IMT in T1DM. A total of 722 patients (371 men) with T1DM were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measures were detection of NAFLD, C-IMT and classical risk factors. The mean age of the subjects was 46.2 years, and 51.1% were male. The prevalence of NAFLD was 15.9%. NAFLD patients had a markedly greater C-IMT (0.81 ± 0.25 vs. 0.69 ± 0.18 mm; p < 0.001) and frequency of carotid plaque (28.9% vs. 16.9%; p < 0.05) than those without fatty liver. Moreover, the differences in C-IMT remained after adjusting for potential confounders. A stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that age (standardized β, 0.326; p < 0.001), NAFLD (standardized β, 0.151, p < 0.001), and hsCRP (standardized β, 0.115, p = 0.008) were independently associated with C-IMT in all subjects. Our data show NAFLD is associated with elevated C-IMT in T1DM independent of conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27226159

  14. Enhanced energy storage and suppressed dielectric loss in oxide core-shell-polyolefin nanocomposites by moderating internal surface area and increasing shell thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, Lisa A; Li, Zhong; Ratner, Mark A; Lanagan, Michael T; Marks, Tobin J

    2012-11-20

    Dielectric loss in metal oxide core/Al(2)O(3) shell polypropylene nanocomposites scales with the particle surface area. By moderating the interfacial surface area between the phases and using increasing shell thicknesses, dielectric loss is significantly reduced, and thus the energy stored within, and recoverable from, capacitors fabricated from these materials is significantly increased, to as high as 2.05 J/cm(3).

  15. Vegetation recovery in tidal marshes reveals critical slowing down under increased inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belzen, Jim; van de Koppel, Johan; Kirwan, Matthew L.; van der Wal, Daphne; Herman, Peter M. J.; Dakos, Vasilis; Kéfi, Sonia; Scheffer, Marten; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2017-06-01

    A declining rate of recovery following disturbance has been proposed as an important early warning for impending tipping points in complex systems. Despite extensive theoretical and laboratory studies, this `critical slowing down' remains largely untested in the complex settings of real-world ecosystems. Here, we provide both observational and experimental support of critical slowing down along natural stress gradients in tidal marsh ecosystems. Time series of aerial images of European marsh development reveal a consistent lengthening of recovery time as inundation stress increases. We corroborate this finding with transplantation experiments in European and North American tidal marshes. In particular, our results emphasize the power of direct observational or experimental measures of recovery over indirect statistical signatures, such as spatial variance or autocorrelation. Our results indicate that the phenomenon of critical slowing down can provide a powerful tool to probe the resilience of natural ecosystems.

  16. Factors Related to Increased Ulnar Collateral Ligament Thickness on Stress Sonography of the Elbow in Asymptomatic Youth and Adolescent Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanda, Alfred; Averill, Lauren W; Wallace, Maegen; Niiler, Tim A; Nazarian, Levon N; Ciccotti, Michael G

    2016-12-01

    Stress ultrasound (SUS) of the elbow has demonstrated changes in the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) in professional and high school-aged pitchers. However, there have been no large reports correlating pitching history data with SUS changes in youth and adolescent baseball pitchers. Changes of the UCL on SUS will correlate with pitching volume in youth and adolescent baseball pitchers. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. SUS of the elbow was performed in both elbows of 102 youth and adolescent baseball pitchers. UCL thickness and the width of the ulnohumeral joint, at rest and with 150 N of valgus stress, were measured using a standardized, instrumented device. Demographic data, arm measurements, and a pitching history questionnaire were recorded as well. The pitchers were separated into 2 groups based on age: group 1 (12-14 years) and group 2 (15-18 years). SUS findings of the dominant elbows were compared between the 2 groups. Correlation analysis and linear regression were used to identify relationships between SUS findings and pitching history data. In all pitchers, the mean UCL thickness was 4.40 mm in the dominant elbow and 4.11 mm in the nondominant elbow (P =.03). There was no significant difference between elbows in any joint space characteristics. A comparison of group 1 versus group 2 demonstrated significant differences in UCL thickness (4.13 vs 4.96 mm; P stressed joint space width (7.68 vs 4.07 mm; P correlated with UCL thickness. These findings suggest that UCL thickness increases as pitchers get older and heavier and as they increase their pitch volumes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. The effect of 25% Mauli banana stem extract gel to increase the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mauli banana is a special plant of South Borneo that can be used as alternatif medicine for wound healing wound healing. Recent studies showed that Mauli banana stem contained some compound such as flavonoid, saponin, and tannin that had antibacterial and antiinflamation effect, and can accelerate the wound healing. Purpose: This study was aimed to know the effect of 25% Mauli banana extract gel to the epithel thickness of wound healing process in oral mucosa. Method: It was the real experimental with post test only control group design. It used 36 Sprague dawley rats that divided into 3 groups: the negative control group by giving aquadest, the positive control group by giving drug contain Aloe vera, and the treatment group by giving 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. Biopsy was done on day 3, 5, 7 and the preparat was made to measure the thickness of oral mucosa epithel by Image J software. Result: The result showed that 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem can increased the thickness of oral mucosa epithel on third day (51.26 µm, fifth days (108.49 µm, and seventh day (170.66 µm. The top thickness of mucosa epithel was on the seventh day. Two-ways Anova and Post Hoc LSD (p<0.05 showed the significant different between aquadest and 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem. 25% ethanol extract of Mauli banana stem and drug contains Aloe vera are the aqual of meaningfull. Conclusion: 25%ethanol extract of Mauli banana can increase the epithelial thickness of wound healing procces in oral mucosa.

  18. Intramolecular isotope distributions reveal lower than expected increases in photosynthesis over the past 200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Köhler, Iris; Zuidema, Pieter; Robertson, Iain; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The ability of the biosphere to act as CO2 sink through photosynthesis strongly influences future atmospheric CO2 concentrations and crop productivity. However, plant responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 are poorly understood, in particular on time scales of decades that are most relevant for the global carbon cycle. Most plants in the global terrestrial vegetation and most crops use the C3 photosynthetic pathway. Photorespiration is a side reaction of C3 photosynthesis that reduces CO2 assimilation in all C3 plants. By studying intramolecular isotope distributions (isotopomer abundances) in century-long archives of plant material, we reconstruct how the atmospheric CO2 increase since industrialization has changed the ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis. For 12 tree species from five continents, we observe that the CO2 increase has reduced the photorespiration / photosynthesis ratio. However, the observed reduction is on average 50 % smaller than expected from CO2 manipulation experiments. This apparent discrepancy is explained by results from a factorial CO2 / temperature manipulation experiment, which shows that isotopomers reflect the integrated effect of CO2 and temperature on the photorespiration / photosynthesis ratio. Thus, the 50 % smaller suppression of photorespiration in trees is explained by increases in leaf temperature of 2 ° C, due to global warming and a possible contribution of reduced transpirational cooling due to stomatal closure. Previous studies of long-term effects of increasing CO2 on trees have measured 13C fractionation of leaf gas exchange (Δ13C) in tree-ring series. In several studies a discrepancy was observed: strong historic increases in photosynthesis are estimated, but increases in biomass are not observed. The temperature influence revealed by our isotopomer data resolves this discrepancy; the lower estimate of CO2 fertilization has major implications for the future role of forests as CO2 sink and for vegetation

  19. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  20. High vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by human phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Rocío; Martínez, Alba; Albert, Eliseo; Madrid, Silvia; Oltra, Rosa; Giménez, Estela; Soriano, Mario; Vinuesa, Víctor; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, María Luisa; Navarro, David

    2016-05-01

    Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at the upper end of the susceptible range for Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with poor clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections. We tested the hypothesis that high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and suboptimal bacterial internalisation or lysis by human phagocytes. In total, 95 isolates were evaluated. Original vancomycin MICs were determined by Etest. The susceptibility of S. aureus isolates to killing by phagocytes was assessed in a human whole blood assay. Internalisation of bacterial cells by phagocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell wall thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Genotypic analysis of S. aureus isolates was performed using a DNA microarray system. Vancomycin MICs were significantly higher (P=0.006) in isolates that were killed suboptimally (killing index 70%) and tended to correlate inversely (P=0.08) with the killing indices. Isolates in both killing groups were internalised by human neutrophils and monocytes with comparable efficiency. The cell wall was significantly thicker (P=0.03) in isolates in the low killing group. No genotypic differences were found between the isolates in both killing groups. In summary, high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates were associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by phagocytes.

  1. Association between increased arterial-wall thickness and impairment in ABCA1-driven cholesterol efflux : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, MJ; de Groot, E; Clee, SM; Hovingh, GK; Roelants, R; Brooks-Wilson, A; Zwinderman, AH; Smit, AJ; Smelt, A.H.; Groen, AK; Hayden, MR; Kastelein, JJP

    2002-01-01

    Background Decreased concentrations of HDL cholesterol are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. These concentrations are directly related to cholesterol efflux from cells-the first step and a key process in reverse cholesterol transport. Cholesterol efflux is mediated by the ATP-binding ca

  2. Enhanced energy storage and suppressed dielectric loss in oxide core-shell-polyolefin nanocomposites by moderating internal surface area and increasing shell thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredin, Lisa A.; Li, Zhong; Ratner, Mark A.; Marks, Tobin J. [Department of Chemistry Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lanagan, Michael T. [Center for Dielectric Studies, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-4800 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Dielectric loss in metal oxide core/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell polypropylene nanocomposites scales with the particle surface area. By moderating the interfacial surface area between the phases and using increasing shell thicknesses, dielectric loss is significantly reduced, and thus the energy stored within, and recoverable from, capacitors fabricated from these materials is significantly increased, to as high as 2.05 J/cm{sup 3}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Metabolomics reveals increased isoleukotoxin diol (12,13-DHOME) in human plasma after acute Intralipid infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lindsay M.; Lawler, Nathan G.; Nikolic, Sonja B.; Peters, James M.; Horne, James; Wilson, Richard,; Davies, Noel W.; Sharman, James E

    2012-01-01

    Intralipid is a fat emulsion that is regularly infused into humans and animals. Despite its routine use, Intralipid infusion can cause serious adverse reactions, including immunosuppression. Intralipid is a complex mix of proteins, lipids, and other small molecules, and the effect of its infusion on the human plasma metabolome is unknown. We hypothesized that untargeted metabolomics of human plasma after an Intralipid infusion would reveal novel insights into its effects. We infused Intralipi...

  4. Metabolomics reveals increased isoleukotoxin diol (12,13-DHOME) in human plasma after acute Intralipid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Lawler, Nathan G; Nikolic, Sonja B; Peters, James M; Horne, James; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W; Sharman, James E

    2012-09-01

    Intralipid is a fat emulsion that is regularly infused into humans and animals. Despite its routine use, Intralipid infusion can cause serious adverse reactions, including immunosuppression. Intralipid is a complex mix of proteins, lipids, and other small molecules, and the effect of its infusion on the human plasma metabolome is unknown. We hypothesized that untargeted metabolomics of human plasma after an Intralipid infusion would reveal novel insights into its effects. We infused Intralipid and saline into 10 healthy men in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment and used GC/MS, LC/MS, and NMR to profile the small-molecule composition of their plasma before and after infusion. Multivariate statistical analysis of the 40 resulting plasma samples revealed that after Intralipid infusion, a less-well-characterized pathway of linoleic acid metabolism had resulted in the appearance of (9Z)-12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (12,13-DHOME, P plasma 12,13-DHOME. Given that 12,13-DHOME is known to directly affect neutrophil function, we conclude that untargeted metabolomics may have revealed a hitherto-unknown mechanism of intralipid-induced immunosuppression.

  5. Selection for higher body weight in Nelore cattle is effective in achieving an increase of longissimus muscle area without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Roque Pinheiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations between carcass traits measured by ultrasound and other economically important traits generally used as selection criteria in beef cattle and to estimate the genetic changes in the carcass traits as a result of selection for post-yearling weight. Carcass traits measured by ultrasound at two ages (12 and 18 months and the correlation of these traits with weight, hip height and body condition score of males (yearling and females (post-yearling were analyzed. Multi-trait analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood method under an animal model. To demonstrate the effect of selection for growth, phenotypic and expected breeding value means of the carcass traits and weights according to selection line (Nellore control line, selection line and traditional line were estimated using records from animals born in the last 3 years (2006 to 2008. The heritability estimates were high for longissimus muscle area (LMA at 12 and 18 months of age (0.47 and 0.40, respectively. For fat thickness measures, heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.29. Genetic correlations of the same trait between the two ages were high for LMA (0.95. The Nellore breed shows medium to high genetic variability in carcass traits measured by ultrasound at 12 and 18 months of age, and a greater response is expected if selection for backfat thickness is performed at about 12 months of age. Selection for higher body weight will lead to an increase of LMA at the two ages without reducing subcutaneous fat thickness.

  6. Increased infarct wall thickness by a bio-inert material is insufficient to prevent negative left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboli A Rane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several injectable materials have been shown to preserve or improve cardiac function as well as prevent or slow left ventricular (LV remodeling post-myocardial infarction (MI. However, it is unclear as to whether it is the structural support or the bioactivity of these polymers that lead to beneficial effects. Herein, we examine how passive structural enhancement of the LV wall by an increase in wall thickness affects cardiac function post-MI using a bio-inert, non-degradable synthetic polymer in an effort to better understand the mechanisms by which injectable materials affect LV remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG gels of storage modulus G' = 0.5±0.1 kPa were injected and polymerized in situ one week after total occlusion of the left coronary artery in female Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 7±1 day(s post-MI as a baseline and again post-injection 49±4 days after MI. Infarct wall thickness was statistically increased in PEG gel injected vs. control animals (p<0.01. However, animals in the polymer and control groups showed decreases in cardiac function in terms of end diastolic volume, end systolic volume and ejection fraction compared to baseline (p<0.01. The cellular response to injection was also similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that passive structural reinforcement alone was insufficient to prevent post-MI remodeling, suggesting that bioactivity and/or cell infiltration due to degradation of injectable materials are likely playing a key role in the preservation of cardiac function, thus providing a deeper understanding of the influencing properties of biomaterials necessary to prevent post-MI negative remodeling.

  7. Increasing water vapor transport to the Greenland Ice Sheet revealed using self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Ramseyer, Craig A.; Rosen, Joshua J.; Mote, Thomas L.; Muthyala, Rohi

    2016-09-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass in recent decades, with an acceleration in mass loss since 2000. In this study, we apply a self-organizing map classification to integrated vapor transport data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis to determine if these GrIS mass loss trends are linked to increases in moisture transport to Greenland. We find that "moist" days (i.e., days featuring anomalously intense water vapor transport to Greenland) were significantly more common during 2000-2015 compared to 1979-1994. Furthermore, the two most intense GrIS melt seasons during the last 36 years were either preceded by a record percentage of moist winter days (2010) or occurred during a summer with a record frequency of moist days (2012). We hypothesize that moisture transport events alter the GrIS energy budget by increasing downwelling longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent energy.

  8. Global genome splicing analysis reveals an increased number of alternatively spliced genes with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sofía A; Grochová, Diana; McKenna, Tomás; Borate, Bhavesh; Trivedi, Niraj S; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism for the development of different tissues; however, not much is known about changes to alternative splicing during aging. Splicing events may become more frequent and widespread genome-wide as tissues age and the splicing machinery stringency decreases. Using skin, skeletal muscle, bone, thymus, and white adipose tissue from wild-type C57BL6/J male mice (4 and 18 months old), we examined the effect of age on splicing by AS analysis of the differential exon usage of the genome. The results identified a considerable number of AS genes in skeletal muscle, thymus, bone, and white adipose tissue between the different age groups (ranging from 27 to 246 AS genes corresponding to 0.3-3.2% of the total number of genes analyzed). For skin, skeletal muscle, and bone, we included a later age group (28 months old) that showed that the number of alternatively spliced genes increased with age in all three tissues (P aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome was performed. The results show that expression of the mutant protein, progerin, is associated with an impaired developmental splicing. As progerin accumulates, the number of genes with AS increases compared to in wild-type skin. Our results indicate the existence of a mechanism for increased AS during aging in several tissues, emphasizing that AS has a more important role in the aging process than previously known.

  9. Magnetoencephalography Reveals a Widespread Increase in Network Connectivity in Idiopathic/Genetic Generalized Epilepsy.

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    Adham Elshahabi

    Full Text Available Idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy (IGE/GGE is characterized by seizures, which start and rapidly engage widely distributed networks, and result in symptoms such as absences, generalized myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although routine magnetic resonance imaging is apparently normal, many studies have reported structural alterations in IGE/GGE patients using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. Changes have also been reported in functional networks during generalized spike wave discharges. However, network function in the resting-state without epileptiforme discharges has been less well studied. We hypothesize that resting-state networks are more representative of the underlying pathophysiology and abnormal network synchrony. We studied functional network connectivity derived from whole-brain magnetoencephalography recordings in thirteen IGE/GGE and nineteen healthy controls. Using graph theoretical network analysis, we found a widespread increase in connectivity in patients compared to controls. These changes were most pronounced in the motor network, the mesio-frontal and temporal cortex. We did not, however, find any significant difference between the normalized clustering coefficients, indicating preserved gross network architecture. Our findings suggest that increased resting state connectivity could be an important factor for seizure spread and/or generation in IGE/GGE, and could serve as a biomarker for the disease.

  10. Magnetoencephalography Reveals a Widespread Increase in Network Connectivity in Idiopathic/Genetic Generalized Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahabi, Adham; Klamer, Silke; Sahib, Ashish Kaul; Lerche, Holger; Braun, Christoph; Focke, Niels K

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy (IGE/GGE) is characterized by seizures, which start and rapidly engage widely distributed networks, and result in symptoms such as absences, generalized myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although routine magnetic resonance imaging is apparently normal, many studies have reported structural alterations in IGE/GGE patients using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. Changes have also been reported in functional networks during generalized spike wave discharges. However, network function in the resting-state without epileptiforme discharges has been less well studied. We hypothesize that resting-state networks are more representative of the underlying pathophysiology and abnormal network synchrony. We studied functional network connectivity derived from whole-brain magnetoencephalography recordings in thirteen IGE/GGE and nineteen healthy controls. Using graph theoretical network analysis, we found a widespread increase in connectivity in patients compared to controls. These changes were most pronounced in the motor network, the mesio-frontal and temporal cortex. We did not, however, find any significant difference between the normalized clustering coefficients, indicating preserved gross network architecture. Our findings suggest that increased resting state connectivity could be an important factor for seizure spread and/or generation in IGE/GGE, and could serve as a biomarker for the disease.

  11. The transcriptome of Populus in elevated CO2 reveals increased anthocyanin biosynthesis during delayed autumnal senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, M.J.; Rogers, A.; Lin, Y.; Zhang, J.; Street, N. R.; Miglietta, F.; Karnosky, D. F.; Angelis, P. D.; Calfapietra, C.; Taylor, G.

    2010-03-01

    The delay in autumnal senescence that has occurred in recent decades has been linked to rising temperatures. Here, we suggest that increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} may partly account for delayed autumnal senescence and for the first time, through transcriptome analysis, identify gene expression changes associated with this delay. Using a plantation of Populus x euramericana grown in elevated [CO{sub 2}] (e[CO{sub 2}]) with free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) technology, we investigated the molecular and biochemical basis of this response. A Populus cDNA microarray was used to identify genes representing multiple biochemical pathways influenced by e[CO{sub 2}] during senescence. Gene expression changes were confirmed through real-time quantitative PCR, and leaf biochemical assays. Pathways for secondary metabolism and glycolysis were significantly up-regulated by e[CO{sub 2}] during senescence, in particular, those related to anthocyanin biosynthesis. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) representing the two most significantly up-regulated transcripts in e[CO{sub 2}], LDOX (leucoanthocyanidin dioxgenase) and DFR (dihydroflavonol reductase), gave (e[CO{sub 2}]/ambient CO{sub 2} (a[CO{sub 2}])) expression ratios of 39.6 and 19.3, respectively. We showed that in e[CO{sub 2}] there was increased autumnal leaf sugar accumulation and up-regulation of genes determining anthocyanin biosynthesis which, we propose, prolongs leaf longevity during natural autumnal senescence.

  12. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  13. Status epilepticus induces increasing neuronal excitability and hypersynchrony as revealed by optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, M; Buchheim, K; Elsner, M; Matzen, J; Weissinger, F; Meierkord, H

    2011-07-01

    In the wake of acquired brain insults such as status epilepticus (SE), time-dependent neuronal network alterations may occur resulting in cortical hyperexcitability and enhanced synchrony merging into chronic epilepsy. To better understand the underlying processes, we performed electrophysiological and optical imaging studies on combined hippocampal-entorhinal cortex slices. These were prepared from rats 1, 4 and 8 weeks after electrically-induced SE. Non-invasive imaging using intrinsic optical signal changes allowed detailed analysis of onset and spread patterns of seizure-like events (SLE) since coverage of the entire preparation is possible. The latency to occurrence of first SLEs after omission of Mg(2+) from the artificial cerebrospinal fluid was significantly reduced at 4 and 8 weeks after SE compared with all other groups indicating increased brain excitability. Optical imaging displayed multiregional onset and discontiguous propagation of SLEs 8 weeks after SE. Such patterns indicate neuronal hypersynchrony and are not encountered in naïve rodents in which SLEs commonly begin in the entorhinal cortex and display contiguous spread to invade adjacent regions. The electrophysiological and optical findings of the current study indicate evolving fundamental brain plasticity changes after the detrimental event predisposing to chronic epilepsy. The current results should be incorporated in any strategies aiming at prevention of chronic epilepsy.

  14. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  15. The Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Arterial Stiffness of Pediatric Mucopolysaccharidosis Patients Are Increased Compared to Both Pediatric and Adult Controls

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    Raymond Y. Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatments for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs have increased longevity, but cardiovascular disease causes mortality in a significant percentage of survivors. Markers must be developed to predict MPS cardiac risk and monitor efficacy of investigational therapies.MPS patients underwent carotid artery ultrasonography from which carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and three measures of arterial stiffness were calculated: carotid artery distensibility (cCSD, compliance (cCSC, and incremental elastic modulus (cIEM. MPS carotid measurements were compared to corresponding data from pediatric and adult healthy cohorts. 33 MPS patients (17 MPS I, 9 MPS II, 4 MPS IIIA, and 3 MPS VI; mean age 12.5 ± 4.7 years, 560 pediatric controls (age 13.1 ± 4.0 years, and 554 adult controls (age 39.2 ± 2.2 years were studied. Age and sex-adjusted aggregate MPS cIMT (0.56 ± 0.05 mm was significantly greater than both pediatric (+0.12 mm; 95% CI +0.10 to +0.14 mm and adult (+0.10 mm; 95% CI +0.06 to +0.14 mm control cohorts; similar findings were observed for all MPS subtypes. Mean MPS cIMT approximated the 80th percentile of the adult cohort cIMT. MPS patients also demonstrated significantly increased adjusted arterial stiffness measurements, evidenced by reduced cCSD, cCSC, and increased cIEM, compared to pediatric and adult control cohorts. Regardless of treatment, MPS patients demonstrate increased cIMT and arterial stiffness compared to healthy pediatric and adult controls. These data suggest that relatively young MPS patients demonstrate a “structural vascular age” of at least 40 years old.

  16. The Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Arterial Stiffness of Pediatric Mucopolysaccharidosis Patients Are Increased Compared to Both Pediatric and Adult Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond Y.; Rudser, Kyle D.; Dengel, Donald R.; Braunlin, Elizabeth A.; Steinberger, Julia; Jacobs, David R.; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Kelly, Aaron S.

    2017-01-01

    Treatments for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) have increased longevity, but cardiovascular disease causes mortality in a significant percentage of survivors. Markers must be developed to predict MPS cardiac risk and monitor efficacy of investigational therapies.MPS patients underwent carotid artery ultrasonography from which carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and three measures of arterial stiffness were calculated: carotid artery distensibility (cCSD), compliance (cCSC), and incremental elastic modulus (cIEM). MPS carotid measurements were compared to corresponding data from pediatric and adult healthy cohorts. 33 MPS patients (17 MPS I, 9 MPS II, 4 MPS IIIA, and 3 MPS VI; mean age 12.5 ± 4.7 years), 560 pediatric controls (age 13.1 ± 4.0 years), and 554 adult controls (age 39.2 ± 2.2 years) were studied. Age and sex-adjusted aggregate MPS cIMT (0.56 ± 0.05 mm) was significantly greater than both pediatric (+0.12 mm; 95% CI +0.10 to +0.14 mm) and adult (+0.10 mm; 95% CI +0.06 to +0.14 mm) control cohorts; similar findings were observed for all MPS subtypes. Mean MPS cIMT approximated the 80th percentile of the adult cohort cIMT. MPS patients also demonstrated significantly increased adjusted arterial stiffness measurements, evidenced by reduced cCSD, cCSC, and increased cIEM, compared to pediatric and adult control cohorts. Regardless of treatment, MPS patients demonstrate increased cIMT and arterial stiffness compared to healthy pediatric and adult controls. These data suggest that relatively young MPS patients demonstrate a “structural vascular age” of at least 40 years old. PMID:28294991

  17. Increased carotid intima-media thickness associated with high hs-CRP levels is a predictor of unstable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhashi, Sejran Ahmet; Kryeziu, Fadil Uke; Nazreku, Feim Durak

    2013-08-01

    Increased values of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are predictors of acute coronary events. We analysed the link between CIMT and hs-CRP in cases with coronary artery disease (CAD). From 1 January to 30 June 2012, we evaluated 43 patients with acute coronary syndrome (group A), 50 patients with stable coronary artery disease (group B) and 50 healthy volunteers (group C). All were analysed for CIMT and hs-CRP levels. CIMT values were higher in groups A and B (0.94 ± 0.21 mm, 0.89 ± 0.19 mm, respectively) and lower in group C (0.64 ± 0.09 mm), and this was statistically significant (p hs-CRP were higher in group A (1.87 ± 0.36 mg/l) and lower in groups B and C (1.07 ± 0.28 mg/l, 0.97 ± 0.45 mg/l, respectively) and this was also statistically significant (p < 0.0001).

  18. Disparity between dorsal and ventral networks in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence revealed by graph theoretical analysis based on cortical thickness from MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most widely accepted neuroanatomical models on OCD, it has been hypothesized that imbalance between an excitatory direct (ventral pathway and an inhibitory indirect (dorsal pathway in cortico-striato-thalamic circuit underlies the emergence of OCD. Here we examine the structural network in drug-free patients with OCD in terms of graph theoretical measures for the first time. We used a measure called efficiency which quantifies how a node transfers information efficiently. To construct brain networks, cortical thickness was automatically estimated using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the network of the OCD patients was as efficient as that of healthy controls so that the both networks were in the small-world regime. More importantly, however, disparity between the dorsal and the ventral networks in the OCD patients was found, suggesting a positive evidence to the imbalance theory on the underlying pathophysiology of OCD.

  19. Investigation of increased listeriosis revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination in Finland in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakari, U-M; Rantala, L; Pihlajasaari, A; Toikkanen, S; Johansson, T; Hellsten, C; Raulo, S M; Kuusi, M; Siitonen, A; Rimhanen-Finne, R

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, a marked increase in listeriosis incidence was observed in Finland. Listeria monocytogenes PFGE profile 96 was responsible for one-fifth of the reported cases and a cluster of PFGE profile 62 was also detected. Investigations revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination. It appears likely that the plants were at least partly responsible for the increase of listeriosis. Epidemiological investigation revealed that 57% (31/54) of cases with underlying immunosuppressive condition or medication reported eating gravad or cold-smoked fish. Two public notices were issued by THL and Evira informing which groups were most at risk from the effects of listeriosis and should therefore be cautious in consuming certain products. Systematic sampling of foods and adequate epidemiological investigation methods are required to identify the sources of Listeria infections. Continuous control measures at fishery production plants producing risk products are essential.

  20. Drought-induced increase in water-use efficiency reduces secondary tree growth and tracheid wall thickness in a Mediterranean conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, José Miguel; Linares, Juan Carlos; García-Cervigón, Ana I; Arzac, Alberto; Delgado, Antonio; Rozas, Vicente

    2014-09-01

    In order to understand the impact of drought and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) on tree growth, we evaluated the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of water availability on secondary growth and xylem anatomy of Juniperus thurifera, a Mediterranean anisohydric conifer. Dendrochronological techniques, quantitative xylem anatomy, and (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratio were combined to develop standardized chronologies for iWUE, BAI (basal area increment), and anatomical variables on a 40-year-long annually resolved series for 20 trees. We tested the relationship between iWUE and secondary growth at short-term (annual) and long-term (decadal) temporal scales to evaluate whether gains in iWUE may lead to increases in secondary growth. We obtained a positive long-term correlation between iWUE and BAI, simultaneously with a negative short-term correlation between them. Furthermore, BAI and iWUE were correlated with anatomical traits related to carbon sink or storage (tracheid wall thickness and ray parenchyma amount), but no significant correlation with conductive traits (tracheid lumen) was found. Water availability during the growing season significantly modulated tree growth at the xylem level, where growth rates and wood anatomical traits were affected by June precipitation. Our results are consistent with a drought-induced limitation of tree growth response to rising CO2, despite the trend of rising iWUE being maintained. We also remark the usefulness of exploring this relationship at different temporal scales to fully understand the actual links between iWUE and secondary growth dynamics.

  1. Effect of the inoculation site of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) on the skin fold thickness increase in cattle from officially tuberculosis free and tuberculosis-infected herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-09-01

    The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample.

  2. Parental history of premature myocardial infarction is a stronger predictor of increased carotid intima-media thickness than parental history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, S; Gaeta, G; Cuomo, V; Guarini, P; Cuomo, S; Capozzi, G; Tudisca, G; Madrid, A; Trevisan, M

    2011-06-01

    An increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is detectable in young subjects with parental history of premature myocardial infarction (PHPMI) or hypertension (PHH). In this study we evaluated if PHPMI and PHH exert a different influence on carotid IMT and if their conjunction produces additive effects. High-resolution B-mode ultrasonographic evaluation of common carotid artery IMT was acquired from 48 subjects without PHPMI and PHH (22 males, 26 females; mean age 22.1±4.9 years; controls), 24 age- (±1 year) and sex-matched subjects with PHH without PHPMI (PHH-positive/PHPMI-negative subjects), 24 age- and sex-matched subjects with PHPMI without PHH (PHH-negative/PHPMI-positive subjects) and 24 age- and sex-matched subjects with both PHPMI and PHH (PHH/PHPMI-positive subjects). Lipid profile, resting blood pressure, smoking behaviour and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed. Carotid IMT was smaller in controls (0.41±0.07mm) compared to PHH-positive/PHPMI-negative subjects (0.47±0.10, p=0.023), to PHH-negative/PHPMI-positive subjects (0.54±0.11, p<0.001) and to PHH/PHPMI-positive subjects (0.52±0.10mm, p<0.001). Carotid IMT was greater in PHH-negative/PHPMI-positive (p=0.006) and in PHH/PHPMI-positive (p=0.031) than in PHH-positive/PHPMI-negative subjects. No difference in carotid IMT was evident between PHH-negative/PHPMI-positive and PHH/PHPMI-positive subjects (p=0.549). In the comparison among subjects using multiple regression analysis, only PHPMI, age and BMI were independently associated with carotid IMT. In healthy young subjects with PHPMI and/or PHH, carotid IMT is increased. PHPMI is a stronger predictor of increased carotid IMT than PHH. PHH in conjunction with PHPMI does not add any further detrimental effect on carotid IMT.

  3. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have increased intimal media thickness at different vascular levels: comparison with a population matched for similar cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiger, N; Testa, R M; Almoto, B; Ferrari, M; Bilora, F; Petrobelli, F; Pagnan, A; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2006-06-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to analyze intimal media thickness (IMT) in patients with CS and compare them with subjects matched for similar conventional and independent cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty eight patients with CS (mean age: 40.7 +/- 2.5 y) and 28 subjects (mean age: 41.1 +/- 14 y) matched for sex, age, smoking habit, body mass index, blood pressure levels, glucose and lipid metabolism were evaluated. IMT was measured at right and left common carotid (CC), carotid bulb (BC), aorta (Ao) and femoral (F) levels by B-echo-Doppler ultrasonography. Although parameters of cardiovascular risk factors did not differ statistically between patients and controls, IMT was significantly increased (right and left CC-IMT, p < 0.05; right and left BC-IMT, p < 0.01, Ao-IMT p < 0.05) and wall plaques were more common (14.2 % VS. 7.1 %) in patients. In CS patients, CC-IMT and F-IMT correlated positively and significantly with fasting glucose (right CC-IMT: r (2) = 0.37, p = 0.05; left CC-IMT: r (2) = 0.43, p = 0.02; right F-IMT: r (2) = 0.57; p < 0.01; left F-IMT: r (2) = 0.47, p = 0.01) and HOMA index (left CC-IMT: r (2) = 0.64, p < 0.01 and left F-IMT: r (2) = 0.48, p < 0.05). The CS patients' waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was evaluated and correlated positively and significantly with CC-IMT (right: r (2) = 0.53, p = 0.01 and left: r (2) = 0.44, p = 0.05). No correlation was found between IMT and cortisol levels, however. In conclusion, patients with CS have more severe atherosclerotic damage than a population matched for similar cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple events related to long-term cortisol effects on metabolism and at vascular and endothelial sites may increase the risk of cardiovascular damage in patients with CS.

  4. Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Emma; Schaefer, Rebecca S; Bastin, Mark E; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2017-08-01

    Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues. Participants completed 20minutes of training three times per week over four weeks. Diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic neighbourhood tractography identified FA, axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity before and after training. Results revealed that FA increased significantly in the right arcuate fasciculus of the Music group only, as hypothesised, with trends for AD to increase and RD to decrease, a pattern of results consistent with activity-dependent increases in myelination. No significant changes were found in the left ipsilateral arcuate fasciculus of either group. This is the first evidence that adding musical cues to movement learning can induce rapid microstructural change in white matter pathways in adults, with potential implications for therapeutic clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 眼用表面麻醉液对近视眼角膜厚度的影响%Corneal thickness is increased after topical anesthesia in myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊; 王忠浩; 范慧君; 谭丽霞

    2005-01-01

    · AIM: To study the effects of topical anesthesia on corneal thickness in myopic eyes with Orbscan topography system and to assess the application prospect of this device in determining the corneal thickness for refractive surgery.and 5 minutes after administration of one drop of Benoxil (Oxybuprocaine) 4g/L solution (Santen, Japan) to 98 eyes (98 patients). The numeric value of the corneal thinness (THN) and the mean central corneal thickness (CCT) of 2mm in diameter were obtained before and after the instillation. The changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) were also studied.P<0.001) and CCT by 3.10±7.13μm (t=-4.310, P<0.001) were found following the instillation of the topical anesthetic. There were no statistically significant changes in ACD (t=1.288, P=0.201).immediate effects on the corneal thickness in myopic eyes and this have implications for corneal refractive surgery and even for the accuracy of applanation tonometry.%目的:利用0rbscan Ⅱ眼前节分析系统研究眼用表面麻醉液对近视眼角膜厚度的影响,探讨其在屈光手术角膜厚度测量中的作用.方法:在滴4g/L倍诺喜液前后分别对98例近视眼患者(98眼)的角膜最薄点厚度(THN)、中央2mm直径范围内的平均厚度(CT)以及前房深度(ACD)进行测量.结果:滴4g/L倍诺喜液5min后本组近视眼角膜最薄厚度平均增加3.1 7±6.88μm(t=-4.569,P<0.001),角膜中央厚度平均增加3.10±7.13μm(t=-4.310,P<O.001),前房深度无显著变化(t=1.288,P=0.201).结论:眼用表面麻醉液能于短时间内显著影响近视眼的角膜厚度,这有可能对角膜屈光手术的安全性、有效性和可预测性产生一定影响.

  6. Conditional knockout of Fgf13 in murine hearts increases arrhythmia susceptibility and reveals novel ion channel modulatory roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangchong; Tang, He; Wei, Eric Q; Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Jing; Yang, Rong; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Yongjian; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    The intracellular fibroblast growth factors (iFGF/FHFs) bind directly to cardiac voltage gated Na(+) channels, and modulate their function. Mutations that affect iFGF/FHF-Na(+) channel interaction are associated with arrhythmia syndromes. Although suspected to modulate other ionic currents, such as Ca(2+) channels based on acute knockdown experiments in isolated cardiomyocytes, the in vivo consequences of iFGF/FHF gene ablation on cardiac electrical activity are still unknown. We generated inducible, cardiomyocyte-restricted Fgf13 knockout mice to determine the resultant effects of Fgf13 gene ablation. Patch clamp recordings from ventricular myocytes isolated from Fgf13 knockout mice showed a ~25% reduction in peak Na(+) channel current density and a hyperpolarizing shift in steady-state inactivation. Electrocardiograms on Fgf13 knockout mice showed a prolonged QRS duration. The Na(+) channel blocker flecainide further prolonged QRS duration and triggered ventricular tachyarrhythmias only in Fgf13 knockout mice, suggesting that arrhythmia vulnerability resulted, at least in part, from a loss of functioning Na(+) channels. Consistent with these effects on Na(+) channels, action potentials in Fgf13 knockout mice, compared to Cre control mice, exhibited slower upstrokes and reduced amplitude, but unexpectedly had longer durations. We investigated candidate sources of the prolonged action potential durations in myocytes from Fgf13 knockout mice and found a reduction of the transient outward K(+) current (Ito). Fgf13 knockout did not alter whole-cell protein levels of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, the Ito pore-forming subunits, but did decrease Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 at the sarcolemma. No changes were seen in the sustained outward K(+) current or voltage-gated Ca(2+) current, other candidate contributors to the increased action potential duration. These results implicate that FGF13 is a critical cardiac Na(+) channel modulator and Fgf13 knockout mice have increased arrhythmia

  7. Casein phosphopeptides drastically increase the secretion of extracellular proteins in Aspergillus awamori. Proteomics studies reveal changes in the secretory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosalková Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secretion of heterologous animal proteins in filamentous fungi is usually limited by bottlenecks in the vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. Results Using the secretion of bovine chymosin in Aspergillus awamori as a model, we found a drastic increase (40 to 80-fold in cells grown with casein or casein phosphopeptides (CPPs. CPPs are rich in phosphoserine, but phosphoserine itself did not increase the secretion of chymosin. The stimulatory effect is reduced about 50% using partially dephosphorylated casein and is not exerted by casamino acids. The phosphopeptides effect was not exerted at transcriptional level, but instead, it was clearly observed on the secretion of chymosin by immunodetection analysis. Proteomics studies revealed very interesting metabolic changes in response to phosphopeptides supplementation. The oxidative metabolism was reduced, since enzymes involved in fermentative processes were overrepresented. An oxygen-binding hemoglobin-like protein was overrepresented in the proteome following phosphopeptides addition. Most interestingly, the intracellular pre-protein enzymes, including pre-prochymosin, were depleted (most of them are underrepresented in the intracellular proteome after the addition of CPPs, whereas the extracellular mature form of several of these secretable proteins and cell-wall biosynthetic enzymes was greatly overrepresented in the secretome of phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Another important 'moonlighting' protein (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which has been described to have vesicle fusogenic and cytoskeleton formation modulating activities, was clearly overrepresented in phosphopeptides-supplemented cells. Conclusions In summary, CPPs cause the reprogramming of cellular metabolism, which leads to massive secretion of extracellular proteins.

  8. Analysis of Complete Genomes of Propionibacterium acnes Reveals a Novel Plasmid and Increased Pseudogenes in an Acne Associated Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kasimatis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human skin harbors a diverse community of bacteria, including the Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. P. acnes has historically been linked to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, a common skin disease affecting over 80% of all adolescents in the US. To gain insight into potential P. acnes pathogenic mechanisms, we previously sequenced the complete genome of a P. acnes strain HL096PA1 that is highly associated with acne. In this study, we compared its genome to the first published complete genome KPA171202. HL096PA1 harbors a linear plasmid, pIMPLE-HL096PA1. This is the first described P. acnes plasmid. We also observed a five-fold increase of pseudogenes in HL096PA1, several of which encode proteins in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In addition, our analysis revealed a few island-like genomic regions that are unique to HL096PA1 and a large genomic inversion spanning the ribosomal operons. Together, these findings offer a basis for understanding P. acnes virulent properties, host adaptation mechanisms, and its potential role in acne pathogenesis at the strain level. Furthermore, the plasmid identified in HL096PA1 may potentially provide a new opportunity for P. acnes genetic manipulation and targeted therapy against specific disease-associated strains.

  9. Comparative proteomics and glycoproteomics reveal increased N-linked glycosylation and relaxed sequon specificity in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nichollas E; Marzook, N Bishara; Cain, Joel A; Solis, Nestor; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Djordjevic, Steven P; Packer, Nicolle H; Larsen, Martin R; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2014-11-07

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni encodes a protein glycosylation (Pgl) locus responsible for the N-glycosylation of membrane-associated proteins. We examined two variants of the genome sequenced strain NCTC11168: O, a representative of the original clinical isolate, and GS, a laboratory-adapted relative of O. Comparative proteomics by iTRAQ and two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) allowed the confident identification of 1214 proteins (73.9% of the predicted C. jejuni proteome), of which 187 were present at statistically significant altered levels of abundance between variants. Proteins associated with the O variant included adhesins (CadF and FlpA), proteases, capsule biosynthesis, and cell shape determinants as well as six proteins encoded by the Pgl system, including the PglK flippase and PglB oligosaccharyltransferase. Lectin blotting highlighted specific glycoproteins more abundant in NCTC11168 O, whereas others remained unaltered. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and LC-MS/MS identified 30 completely novel glycosites from 15 proteins. A novel glycopeptide from a 14 kDa membrane protein (Cj0455c) was identified that did not contain the C. jejuni N-linked sequon D/E-X-N-X-S/T (X ≠ Pro) but that instead contained a sequon with leucine at the -2 position. Occupied atypical sequons were also observed in Cj0958c (OxaA; Gln at the -2 position) and Cj0152c (Ala at the +2 position). The relative O and GS abundances of 30 glycopeptides were determined by label-free quantitation, which revealed a >100-fold increase in the atypical glycopeptide from Cj0455c in isolate O. Our data provide further evidence for the importance of the Pgl system in C. jejuni.

  10. Increased Intrinsic Activity of Medial-Temporal Lobe Subregions is Associated with Decreased Cortical Thickness of Medial-Parietal Areas in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Scherr, Martin; Tahmasian, Masoud; Myers, Nicholas E; Ortner, Marion; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Grimmer, Timo; Akhrif, Atae; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupted connectivity between medial-parietal cortices and medial-temporal lobes (MTL) is linked with increased MTL local functional connectivity, and parietal atrophy is associated with increased MTL memory activation. We hypothesized that intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal degeneration and impaired memory in AD. To test this hypothesis, resting-state-functional and structural-MRI was assessed in 22 healthy controls, 22 mild cognitive impairment patients, and 21 AD-dementia patients. Intrinsic activity was measured by power-spectrum density of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal, medial-parietal degeneration by cortical thinning. In AD-dementia patients, intrinsic activity was increased for several right MTL subregions. Raised intrinsic activity in dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 was associated with cortical thinning in posterior cingulate cortices, and at-trend with impaired delayed recall. Critically, increased intrinsic activity in the right entorhinal cortex was associated with ipsilateral posterior cingulate degeneration. Our results provide evidence that in AD, intrinsic activity in MTL subregions is increased and associated with medial-parietal atrophy. Results fit a model in which medial-parietal degeneration contributes to MTL dysconnectivity from medial-parietal cortices, potentially underpinning disinhibition-like changes in MTL activity.

  11. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  12. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  13. NMR-based metabonomics reveals that plasma betaine increases upon intake of high-fiber rye buns in hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine S.; Malmendal, Anders; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2009-01-01

    of diet on the plasma metabolite profile, and partial least squares regression discriminant analysis on the spectra revealed that the intensity of the spectral region at 3.29 ppm dominated the differentiation between the two diets, as the rye diet was associated with higher spectral intensity...

  14. Static and dynamic through thickness lamina properties of thick laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, R.P.L.; Van der Meer, F.P.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thick laminates are increasingly present in large composites structures such as wind turbine blades. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of self-heating, the scaling effect, and the manufacturing

  15. Characterization of the MPS I-H knock-in mouse reveals increased femoral biomechanical integrity with compromised material strength and altered bone geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Arin K; Garcia, Mekka R; Yao, Xiaomei; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Nobakhti, Sabah; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Wang, Yong; Brodeur, Amanda C; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the α-L-iduronidase enzyme, resulting in decreased enzymatic activity and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. The disorder phenotypically manifests with increased urine glycosaminoglycan excretion, facial dysmorphology, neuropathology, cardiac manifestations, and bone deformities. While the development of new treatment strategies have shown promise in attenuating many symptoms associated with the disorder, the bone phenotype remains unresponsive. The aim of this study was to investigate and further characterize the skeletal manifestations of the Idua-W392X knock-in mouse model, which carries a nonsense mutation corresponding to the IDUA-W402X mutation found in Hurler syndrome (MPS I-H) patients. μCT analysis of the microarchitecture demonstrated increased cortical thickness, trabecular number, and trabecular connectivity along with decreased trabecular separation in the tibiae of female homozygous Idua-W392X knock-in (IDUA(-/-)) mice, and increased cortical thickness in male IDUA(-/-) tibiae. Cortical density, as determined by μCT, and bone mineral density distribution, as determined by quantitative backscattered microscopy, were equivalent in IDUA(-/-) and wildtype (Wt) bone. However, tibial porosity was increased in IDUA(-/-) cortical bone. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that tibiae from female IDUA(-/-) had decreased phosphate to matrix ratios and increased carbonate to phosphate ratios compared to Wt female tibiae, whereas these ratios remained equivalent in male IDUA(-/-) and Wt tibiae. Femora demonstrated altered geometry and upon torsional loading to failure analysis, female IDUA(-/-) mouse femora exhibited increased torsional ultimate strength, with a decrease in material strength relative to Wt littermates. Taken together, these findings suggest that the IDUA(-/-) mutation results in increased bone torsional strength by altering the

  16. SSU rRNA reveals a sequential increase in shell complexity among the euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lara, Enrique; Heger, Thierry J; Mitchell, Edward A D;

    2007-01-01

    The existing data on the molecular phylogeny of filose testate amoebae from order Euglyphida has revealed contradictions between traditional morphological classification and SSU rRNA phylogeny and, moreover, the position of several important genera remained unknown. We therefore carried out a study...... aiming to fill several important gaps and better understand the relationships among the main euglyphid testate amoebae and the evolutionary steps that led to the present diversity at a higher level. We obtained new SSU rRNA sequences from five genera and seven species. This new phylogeny obtained shows...

  17. Whole-brain analytic measures of network communication reveal increased structure-function correlation in right temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wirsich

    2016-01-01

    In rTLE patients, we found a widespread hypercorrelated functional network. Network communication analysis revealed greater unspecific branching of the shortest path (search information in the structural connectome and a higher global correlation between the structural and functional connectivity for the patient group. We also found evidence for a preserved structural rich-club in the patient group. In sum, global augmentation of structure-function correlation might be linked to a smaller functional repertoire in rTLE patients, while sparing the central core of the brain which may represent a pathway that facilitates the spread of seizures.

  18. Fossil skulls reveal that blood flow rate to the brain increased faster than brain volume during human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S.; Bosiocic, Vanya; Snelling, Edward P.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of human cognition has been inferred from anthropological discoveries and estimates of brain size from fossil skulls. A more direct measure of cognition would be cerebral metabolic rate, which is proportional to cerebral blood flow rate (perfusion). The hominin cerebrum is supplied almost exclusively by the internal carotid arteries. The sizes of the foramina that transmitted these vessels in life can be measured in hominin fossil skulls and used to calculate cerebral perfusion rate. Perfusion in 11 species of hominin ancestors, from Australopithecus to archaic Homo sapiens, increases disproportionately when scaled against brain volume (the allometric exponent is 1.41). The high exponent indicates an increase in the metabolic intensity of cerebral tissue in later Homo species, rather than remaining constant (1.0) as expected by a linear increase in neuron number, or decreasing according to Kleiber's Law (0.75). During 3 Myr of hominin evolution, cerebral tissue perfusion increased 1.7-fold, which, when multiplied by a 3.5-fold increase in brain size, indicates a 6.0-fold increase in total cerebral blood flow rate. This is probably associated with increased interneuron connectivity, synaptic activity and cognitive function, which all ultimately depend on cerebral metabolic rate.

  19. Sea ice thickness and recent Arctic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Yang, Shuting; Kaas, Eigil

    2017-01-01

    The climatic impact of increased Arctic sea ice loss has received growing attention in the last years. However, little focus has been set on the role of sea ice thickness, although it strongly determines surface heat fluxes. Here ensembles of simulations using the EC-Earth atmospheric model (Integrated Forecast System) are performed and analyzed to quantify the atmospheric impacts of Arctic sea ice thickness change since 1982 as revealed by the sea ice model assimilation Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System. Results show that the recent sea ice thinning has significantly affected the Arctic climate, while remote atmospheric responses are less pronounced owing to a high internal atmospheric variability. Locally, the sea ice thinning results in enhancement of near-surface warming of about 1°C per decade in winter, which is most pronounced over marginal sea ice areas with thin ice. This leads to an increase of the Arctic amplification factor by 37%.

  20. Aconitine Challenge Test Reveals a Single Exposure to Air Pollution Causes Increased Cardiac Arrhythmia Risk in Hypertensive Rats - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a significant association between arrhythmias and air pollution exposure. Sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia has been used repeatedly to examine the factors that increase the risk of such cardiac electrical dysfunction. In this study, ...

  1. Museum specimen data reveal emergence of a plant disease may be linked to increases in the insect vector population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Rapacciuolo, Giovanni; Turek, Daniel; Oboyski, Peter T; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Roderick, George K

    2017-09-01

    The emergence rate of new plant diseases is increasing due to novel introductions, climate change, and changes in vector populations, posing risks to agricultural sustainability. Assessing and managing future disease risks depends on understanding the causes of contemporary and historical emergence events. Since the mid-1990s, potato growers in the western United States, Mexico, and Central America have experienced severe yield loss from Zebra Chip disease and have responded by increasing insecticide use to suppress populations of the insect vector, the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Despite the severe nature of Zebra Chip outbreaks, the causes of emergence remain unknown. We tested the hypotheses that (1) B. cockerelli occupancy has increased over the last century in California and (2) such increases are related to climate change, specifically warmer winters. We compiled a data set of 87,000 museum specimen occurrence records across the order Hemiptera collected between 1900 and 2014. We then analyzed changes in B. cockerelli distribution using a hierarchical occupancy model using changes in background species lists to correct for collecting effort. We found evidence that B. cockerelli occupancy has increased over the last century. However, these changes appear to be unrelated to climate changes, at least at the scale of our analysis. To the extent that species occupancy is related to abundance, our analysis provides the first quantitative support for the hypothesis that B. cockerelli population abundance has increased, but further work is needed to link B. cockerelli population dynamics to Zebra Chip epidemics. Finally, we demonstrate how this historical macro-ecological approach provides a general framework for comparative risk assessment of future pest and insect vector outbreaks. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Dobutamine cardiac "stress" test reveals increased arrhythmia risk in conscious rats after a single exposure to acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild-to-moderate exercise is often used to stress the cardiovascular (CV) system of patients while monitoring them for electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities that may indicate underlying CV disease. We previously demonstrated that dobutamine, which increases heart rate (HR) and co...

  3. Dobutamine cardiac "stress" test reveals increased arrhythmia risk in conscious rats after a single exposure to acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild-to-moderate exercise is often used to stress the cardiovascular (CV) system of patients while monitoring them for electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities that may indicate underlying CV disease. We previously demonstrated that dobutamine, which increases heart rate (HR) and co...

  4. Tropical tree rings reveal preferential survival of fast-growing juveniles and increased juvenile growth rates over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Brienen, Roel J W; Soliz-Gamboa, Claudia C; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2010-02-01

    Long-term juvenile growth patterns of tropical trees were studied to test two hypotheses: fast-growing juvenile trees have a higher chance of reaching the canopy ('juvenile selection effect'); and tree growth has increased over time ('historical growth increase'). Tree-ring analysis was applied to test these hypotheses for five tree species from three moist forest sites in Bolivia, using samples from 459 individuals. Basal area increment was calculated from ring widths, for trees rings formed by small juveniles. Thus, extant adult trees in these species have had higher juvenile growth rates than extant juvenile trees. By contrast, rings formed by somewhat larger juveniles in four species showed the opposite pattern: a historical growth increase. For most size classes of > 10 cm diameter none of the patterns was found. Fast juvenile growth may be essential to enable tropical trees to reach the forest canopy, especially for small juvenile trees in the dark forest understorey. The historical growth increase requires cautious interpretation, but may be partially attributable to CO(2) fertilization.

  5. Revealing the atomic structure and strontium distribution in nanometer-thick La0.8Sr0.2CoO3−δ grown on (001)-oriented SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zhenxing

    2014-01-01

    Surface segregation in metal oxides can greatly influence the oxygen transport and surface oxygen exchange kinetics critical to the performance of solid-state devices such as oxygen permeation membranes and solid oxide fuel/electrolytic cell electrodes. Unfortunately detecting elemental distributions at the atomic scale near the surface remains challenging, which hampers the understanding of underpinning mechanisms and control of surface segregation for the design of high-performance materials. Using the coherent Bragg rod analysis (COBRA) method, we report the first direct 3D atomic imaging of a 4 nm-thick "La0.8Sr0.2CoO 3-δ"/SrTiO3 epitaxial film. Of significance, energy differential COBRA revealed pronounced Sr segregation (La 1-xSrxCoO3-δ, x ∼ 0.4) in the four unit cells from the top surface while complete Sr depletion was detected in the five unit cells from the "La0.8Sr0.2CoO 3-δ"/SrTiO3 interface. The drastic strontium compositional changes in the film were associated with large changes in the atomic positions of apical oxygen sites in the perovskite structure. Such Sr segregation tendencies toward the surface were also found in nominal "La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ" thin films, which can greatly enhance the surface oxygen exchange properties of oxides. The results presented here show that COBRA and the differential COBRA methods can be used to investigate a variety of electrochemically active systems providing atomic scale structural and chemical information that can help understand the physical and chemical properties of these systems and serve as a basis for comparison with DFT calculations. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Proteomic analysis of the oil palm fruit mesocarp reveals elevated oxidative phosphorylation activity is critical for increased storage oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loei, Hendrick; Lim, Justin; Tan, Melvin; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qing Song; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chung, Maxey C M

    2013-11-01

    Palm oil is a highly versatile commodity with wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and biofuel industries. Storage oil in the oil palm mesocarp can make up a remarkable 80% of its dry mass, making it the oil crop with the richest oil content in the world. As such, there has been an ongoing interest in understanding the mechanism of oil production in oil palm fruits. To identify the proteome changes during oil palm fruit maturation and factors affecting oil yield in oil palm fruits, we examined the proteomic profiles of oil palm mesocarps at four developing stages--12, 16, 18, and 22 weeks after pollination--by 8-plex iTRAQ labeling coupled to 2D-LC and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. It was found that proteins from several important metabolic processes, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, fatty acid biosynthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation, were differentially expressed in a concerted manner. These increases led to an increase in carbon flux and a diversion of resources such as ATP and NADH that are required for lipid biosynthesis. The temporal proteome profiles between the high-oil-yielding (HY) and low-oil-yielding (LY) fruits also showed significant differences in the levels of proteins involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In particular, the expression level of the β subunit of the ATP synthase complex (complex IV of the electron transport chain) was found to be increased during fruit maturation in HY but decreased in the LY during the fruit maturation. These results suggested that increased energy supply is necessary for augmented oil yield in the HY oil palm trees.

  7. Gene expression profiles of hair and wool sheep reveal importance of Th2 immune mechanisms for increased resistance to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, K M; Bowdridge, S A; Kanevsky-Mullarky, I; Zajac, A M; Notter, D R

    2015-05-01

    Management of gastrointestinal parasites is a critical issue for sheep producers worldwide. Increases in the prevalence of drug-resistant worms have complicated parasite control and increased economic losses. Therefore, other methods of parasite control need to be assessed, including the use of genetically resistant animals in breeding programs. Hair sheep breeds such as the St. Croix have greater parasite resistance than conventional wool breeds. However, the immune mechanisms that control parasite resistance in hair or wool breeds have not yet been fully determined, and information on cytokine expression profiles for both wool sheep selected for increased resistance and hair sheep is limited. Our objective was to investigate gene expression differences in 24 parasite-resistant hair and 24 susceptible wool sheep to identify immune effectors associated with resistance to . One-half of the lambs were infected and sacrificed at 3 or 27 d after infection. Remaining lambs were not infected. Breed differences in expression of genes associated with Th1 and Th2 immune responses in lymph nodes and abomasal tissue were determined. Th2-associated genes included IL-4, IL-13, IL-5, IgE, the α chain of the IL-4 receptor, and the α chain of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI). Th1-associated genes included interferon gamma (IFN-γ), the p35 subunit of IL-12 (IL-12 p35), and the β1 and β2 chains of the IL-12 receptor (IL-12 Rβ1 and IL-12 Rβ2, respectively). In both hair and wool sheep, infection with resulted in greater expression of IgE, IL-13, IL-5, and IL-12 p35 and somewhat reduced expression of IFNγ in lymph nodes. In abomasal tissue, parasite infection resulted in greater IgE, IL-13, FcεRI, and IL-12 p35 expression in infected lambs compared with control lambs. Between breeds, hair sheep had a stronger Th2 response after infection than wool sheep, with increased expression of IgE and IL-13 and decreased expression of IFNγ in lymph nodes and increased expression

  8. Transcriptomic analysis reveals how a lack of potassium ions increases Sulfolobus acidocaldarius sensitivity to pH changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine; Dethlefsen, Olga; Friedman, Ran; Dopson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms (optimum growth pH of ≤3) maintain a near neutral cytoplasmic pH via several homeostatic mechanisms, including an inside positive membrane potential created by potassium ions. Transcriptomic responses to pH stress in the thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were investigated by growing cells without added sodium and/or potassium ions at both optimal and sub-optimal pH. Culturing the cells in the absence of added sodium or potassium ions resulted in a reduced growth rate compared to full-salt conditions as well as 43 and 75 significantly different RNA transcript ratios, respectively. Differentially expressed RNA transcripts during growth in the absence of added sodium ions included genes coding for permeases, a sodium/proline transporter and electron transport proteins. In contrast, culturing without added potassium ions resulted in higher RNA transcripts for similar genes as a lack of sodium ions plus genes related to spermidine that has a general role in response to stress and a decarboxylase that potentially consumes protons. The greatest RNA transcript response occurred when S. acidocaldarius cells were grown in the absence of potassium and/or sodium at a sub-optimal pH. These adaptations included those listed above plus osmoregulated glucans and mechanosensitive channels that have previously been shown to respond to osmotic stress. In addition, data analyses revealed two co-expressed IclR family transcriptional regulator genes with a previously unknown role in the S. acidocaldarius pH stress response. Our study provides additional evidence towards the importance of potassium in acidophile growth at acidic pH.

  9. A bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound model reveals increased mortality of type 1 diabetic mice to biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho Hunt, A M; Gibson, J A; Larrivee, C L; O'Reilly, S; Navitskaya, S; Needle, D B; Abramovitch, R B; Busik, J V; Waters, C M

    2017-07-01

    To examine how bacterial biofilms, as contributing factors in the delayed closure of chronic wounds in patients with diabetes, affect the healing process. We used daily microscopic imaging and the IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system to monitor biofilm infections of bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa and evaluate healing in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Our studies determined that diabetes alone did not affect the rate of healing of full-depth murine back wounds compared with non-diabetic mice. The application of mature biofilms to the wounds significantly decreased the rate of healing compared with non-infected wounds for both non-diabetic as well as diabetic mice. Diabetic mice were also more severely affected by biofilms displaying elevated pus production, higher mortality rates and statistically significant increase in wound depth, granulation/fibrosis and biofilm presence. Introduction of a mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa capable of producing high concentrations of cyclic di-GMP did not result in increased persistence in either diabetic or non-diabetic animals compared with the wild type strain. Understanding the interplay between diabetes and biofilms may lead to novel treatments and better clinical management of chronic wounds.

  10. Increase in platinum group elements in Mexico City as revealed from growth rings of Taxodium mucronatum ten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; Martínez-Reyes, Ángeles; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; González-Hernández, Galia

    2016-02-01

    Tree rings may be used as indicators of contamination events providing information on the chronology and the elemental composition of the contamination. In this framework, we report PGEs enrichment in growth rings of Taxodium mucronatum ten for trees growing in the central area of Mexico City as compared to trees growing in a non-urban environment. Concentrations of PGE were determined by ICP-MS analysis on microwave-digested tree rings. The element found in higher concentrations was Pd (1.13-87.98 μg kg(-1)), followed by Rh (0.28-36.81 μg kg(-1)) and Pt (0.106-7.21 μg kg(-1)). The concentration trends of PGEs in the tree-ring sequences from the urban area presented significant correlation values when comparing between trees (r between 0.618 and 0.98, P < 0.025) and between elements within individual trees (r between 0.76 and 0.994, P < 0.01). Furthermore, a clear increase was observed for rings after 1997, with enrichment of up to 60 times the mean concentration found for the sequence from the non-urban area and up to 40 times the mean concentration for the pre-1991 period in the urban trees. These results also demonstrate the feasibility of applying T. mucronatum ten to be used as a bioindicator of the increase in PGE in urban environments.

  11. Endotoxemia increases the clearance of mPEGylated 5000-MW quantum dots as revealed by multiphoton microvascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Ryon M; Hodgson, Kevin C; Kohli, Kapil; Knight, Darryl; Walley, Keith R

    2007-01-01

    Imaging the microcirculation is becoming increasingly important in assessing life-threatening disease states. To address this issue in a highly light absorbing and light scattering tissue, we use laser scanning multiphoton microscopy and fluorescent 655-nm 5000-MW methoxy-PEGylated quantum dots to image the functional microcirculation deep in mouse hind limb skeletal muscle. Using this approach, we are able to minimize in vivo background tissue autofluorescence and visualize complete 3-D microvascular units, including feeding arterioles, capillary networks, and collecting venules to depths of 150 to 200 microm. In CD1 mice treated with lipopolysaccharide to model an endotoxemic response to bacterial infection, we find that these quantum dots accumulate at microvascular bifurcations and extravasate from the microcirculation in addition to accumulating in organs (liver, spleen, lung, and kidney). The quantum dots are cleared from the circulation with a first-order elimination rate constant seven times greater than under normal conditions, 1.6+/-0.06 compared to 0.23+/-0.05 h(-1), Pimaging time window. In vitro experiments using TNFalpha treated isolated leukocytes suggest that circulating monocytes (phagocytes) increased their nonspecific uptake of quantum dots when activated. In combination with multiphoton microscopy, quantum dots provide excellent in vivo imaging contrast of deep microvascular structures.

  12. Huge thick conglomerate movement induced by full thick longwall mining huge thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Liqiang; Qiu Xiaoxiang; Dong Tao; Zhang Jixiong; Huang Yanli

    2012-01-01

    A discrete elemental method was used to study the thickness of conglomerate layer in a full thick seam mining activities under the influence of the law,pointing out the thickness of the conglomerate at different seam mining,and during the destruction and instability of existing state of laws.At 21141 thick seam mining,the face toward the direction of separation between the thick layer of conglomerate rock and the next bit after reaching its maximum capacity due to pull from the bottom of the plastic zone,formed a stratified and hierarchical down collapse.The shape of caving area is a "triangular block",the length of the plastic zone and face advancement from the linear fit between the height of the plastic zone and the advancing face is a quadratic function of distance,while the top layer of thick gravel layer is the overall bending subsidence trend.Tilting the direction of the face,a thick gob of collapsed conglomerate layer is formed in the coal gob entity on both sides of the thick conglomerate at the top of the overall fracture morphology performance,thus forming a mutual extrusion of articulated block structure.The instability,separation and balance of the thick conglomerate layer in the hinged block stope stress leads to abnormal occurrence of rock burst induced by face as the major factor in the accident.This research reveals the form of stress distribution in the destroyed layer of the thick conglomerate rock,analyzes the stope law of coupling for the pressure burst behavior law for the mining work face,and the choice of preventive measures to provide a theoretical basis and implementation.

  13. Deconvolution analyses with tent functions reveal delayed and long-sustained increases of BOLD signals with acupuncture stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Tomokazu; Umeda, Masahiro; Fukunaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Chuzo; Higuchi, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    We used deconvolution analysis to examine temporal changes in brain activity after acupuncture stimulation and assess brain responses without expected reference functions. We also examined temporal changes in brain activity after sham acupuncture (noninsertive) and scrubbing stimulation. We divided 26 healthy right-handed adults into a group of 13 who received real acupuncture with manual manipulation and a group of 13 who received both tactical stimulations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences consisted of four 15-s stimulation blocks (ON) interspersed between one 30-s and four 45-s rest blocks (OFF) for a total scanning time of 270 s. We analyzed data by using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8), MarsBaR, and Analysis of Functional NeuroImages (AFNI) software. For statistical analysis, we used 3dDeconvolve, part of the AFNI package, to extract the impulse response functions (IRFs) of the fMRI signals on a voxel-wise basis, and we tested the time courses of the extracted IRFs for the stimulations. We found stimulus-specific impulse responses of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in various brain regions. We observed significantly delayed and long-sustained increases of BOLD signals in several brain regions following real acupuncture compared to sham acupuncture and palm scrubbing, which we attribute to peripheral nocireceptors, flare responses, and processing of the central nervous system. Acupuncture stimulation induced continued activity that was stronger than activity after the other stimulations. We used tent function deconvolution to process fMRI data for acupuncture stimulation and found delayed increasing and delayed decreasing changes in BOLD signal in the somatosensory areas and areas related to pain perception. Deconvolution analyses with tent functions are expected to be useful in extracting complicated and associated brain activity that is delayed and sustained for a long period after various stimulations.

  14. Meta-analysis reveals evolution in invasive plant species but little support for Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2013-01-01

    Ecological explanations for the success and persistence of invasive species vastly outnumber evolutionary hypotheses, yet evolution is a fundamental process in the success of any species. The Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis (Blossey and Nötzold 1995) proposes that evolutionary change in response to release from coevolved herbivores is responsible for the success of many invasive plant species. Studies that evaluate this hypothesis have used different approaches to test whether invasive populations allocate fewer resources to defense and more to growth and competitive ability than do source populations, with mixed results. We conducted a meta-analysis of experimental tests of evolutionary change in the context of EICA. In contrast to previous reviews, there was no support across invasive species for EICA's predictions regarding defense or competitive ability, although invasive populations were more productive than conspecific native populations under noncompetitive conditions. We found broad support for genetically based changes in defense and competitive plant traits after introduction into new ranges, but not in the manner suggested by EICA. This review suggests that evolution occurs as a result of plant introduction and population expansion in invasive plant species, and may contribute to the invasiveness and persistence of some introduced species. PMID:23531703

  15. Detection of cancer clones in human colorectal adenoma as revealed by increased DNA instability and other bio-markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Jin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An immunohistochemical differential staining of cancerous cells with anti-cytidine antibody after denaturation of nuclear DNA by acid hydrolysis with 2N HCl at 30°C for 20 min (DNA-instability test has been used as a marker for malignancy. The test was applied to bioptic tissues of human colorectal polyps assessed histopathologically as hyperplastic polyp (11 cases, tubular adenoma of mild (68 cases, moderate (102 cases, and severe (46 cases dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma (30 cases. The serial sections of the same tissues were also subjected to immunohistochemical staining for Ki67, p53, DNA-fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The DNA-instability test was positive in 30 (100% adenocarcinoma cases, 46 (100% severe dysplasia adenoma cases, 36 (35.29% moderate dysplasia adenoma cases, and 8 (11.76% mild dysplasia adenoma cases, indicating malignancy. All hyperplastic polyps were negative to the DNA-instability test. Furthermore, the percentage of glands positive in the DNAinstability test steadily increased in going from mild (10%, to moderate (35%, to severe (100% dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma (100%. All other biological markers tested in the present study showed significantly higher values in those adenoma glands that werepositive to the DNA-instability test, irrespective of the dysplasia grade, as compared to the markers in the adenoma glands that were negative to DNA instability testing. Furthermore, the former values were comparable to those in adenocarcinoma. The results indicate that cancer cell clones are already present at the adenoma stages showing positivity to DNA instability testing, enhanced proliferative activity, p53 mutation and induction of DFF45 and VEGF, at a time when the degree of morphological atypia are not yet large enough for them to be identified as cancer. These factors promote cancer cell proliferation, produce heterogeneous subclones due to DNA instability, enhance their

  16. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  17. The thickness of glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Vokey, Marshall W.

    2015-09-01

    Basic formulae and results of glacier physics appearing in glaciology textbooks can be derived from first principles introduced in algebra-based first year physics courses. We discuss the maximum thickness of alpine glaciers and ice sheets and the relation between maximum thickness and length of an ice sheet. Knowledge of ordinary differential equations allows one to derive also the local ice thickness.

  18. Cortical Thickness Changes Associated with Photoparoxysmal Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanganu, Alexandru; Groppa, Stanislav A; Deuschl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an EEG trait of spike and spike-wave discharges in response to photic stimulation that is closely linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). In our previous studies we showed that PPR is associated with functional alterations in the occipital and frontal co......) and compared these groups with a group of PPR-negative-healthy-controls (HC, n = 17; 15.3 ± 3.6 years; 6 males). Our results revealed an increase of cortical thickness in the occipital, frontal and parietal cortices bilaterally in PPR-positive-subjects in comparison to HC. Moreover PPR......-positive-subjects presented a significant decrease of cortical thickness in the temporal cortex in the same group contrast. IGE patients exhibited lower cortical thickness in the temporal lobe bilaterally and in the right paracentral region in comparison to PPR-positive-subjects. Our study demonstrates structural changes...... in the occipital lobe, frontoparietal regions and temporal lobe, which also show functional changes associated with PPR. Patients with epilepsy present changes in the temporal lobe and supplementary motor area....

  19. Microbiome-metabolome analysis reveals unhealthy alterations in the composition and metabolism of ruminal microbiota with increasing dietary grain in a goat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sheng-Yong; Huo, Wen-Jie; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Currently, knowledge about the impact of high-grain (HG) feeding on rumen microbiota and metabolome is limited. In this study, a combination of the 454 pyrosequencing strategy and the mass spectrometry-based metabolomics technique was applied to investigate the effects of increased dietary grain (0%, 25% and 50% maize grain) on changes in whole ruminal microbiota and their metabolites using goat as a ruminant model. We observed a significant influence of HG feeding in shaping the ruminal bacterial community structure, diversity and composition, with an overall dominance of bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes along with a low abundance of Bacteriodetes in the HG group. High-grain feeding increased the number of ciliate and methanogens, and decreased the density of anaerobic fungi and the richness of the archaeal community. The metabolomics analysis revealed that HG feeding increased the levels of several toxic, inflammatory and unnatural compounds, including endotoxin, tryptamine, tyramine, histamine and phenylacetate. Correlation analysis on the combined datasets revealed some potential relationships between ruminal metabolites and certain microbial species. Information about these relationships may prove useful in either direct (therapeutic) or indirect (dietary) interventions for ruminal disorders due to microbial compositional shifts, such as ruminal acidosis. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewka, Armand; Sieroń, Karolina; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and placental growth factor (PlGF) as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis. PMID:28883908

  1. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and placental growth factor (PlGF as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results. The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  2. Effects of plate thickness on reverse martensitic transformation of prestrained NiTi/NiTi alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhu; CUI Lishan; ZHENG Yanjun

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)was used to study the effects of predeformation and plate thickness on the reverse martensitic transformation of explosively welded NiTi/NiTi alloy.Results showed that there was a constraint between Ni50.4Ti(NiTi-1)and Ni49.8Ti (NiTi-2),which led to that the thickness of NiTi-1 or NiTi-2 strongly affected the reverse martensitic transformation behavior because residual stress variations in thickness wound enable bias force to be built inside the composite.The DSC measurements showed that after deformation,the reverse martensitic transformation temperature of the composite was increased with the increasing thickness of NiTi-2.Also.the XRD results revealed that the microstructure of NiTi/NiTi alloy changed from B2 phase to B19'phase along the thickness direction.

  3. Unbiased cell quantification reveals a continued increase in the number of neocortical neurones during early post-natal development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Krøigård, Thomas; Finsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    was delayed until P16. The number of glia reached its maximum at P16, whereas the number of oligodendroglia, identified using a transgenic marker, increased until P55, the latest time of observation. Neurones continued to accumulate in the developing neocortex during the first 2 weeks of post......-natal development, underscoring fundamental differences in brain development in the mouse compared with human and non-human primates. Further, delayed acquisition of NeuN by neurones in the deepest neocortical layers and continued addition of oligodendroglia to the neocortex suggested that neocortical maturation...... the number of neurones and glia in the neocortex during post-natal development in two separate strains of mice. Cell counting by the optical fractionator revealed that the number of neurones increased 80-100% from the time of birth to post-natal day (P)16, followed by a reduction by approximately 25...

  4. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  5. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  6. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Chinese subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the peripapillary choroidal thickness of a healthy Chinese population, and to determine its influencing factors. Methods A total of 76 healthy volunteers (76 eyes) without ophthalmic or systemic symptoms were enrolled. Choroidal scans (360-degree 3.4 mm diameter peripapillary circle scans) were obtained for all eyes using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroid thickness was measured at the temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal, inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal segments. Results The average peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were 165.03 ± 40.37 μm. Inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal thicknesses (p thicknesses. The average peripapillary choroidal thickness decreased linearly with age (β = −1.33, 95% CI −1.98, -0.68, P choroidal thickness and other factors (gender, refractive error, axial length, average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, intraocular pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure, systolic ocular perfusion pressure, and mean ocular perfusion pressure). Conclusions The inferonasal, inferior, inferotemporal peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, and nasal thicknesses. A thinner peripapillary choroid is associated with increasing age. PMID:23758729

  7. Serum level of LOX-1 ligand containing ApoB is associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness in Japanese community-dwelling men, especially those with hypercholesterolemia LOX-1 ligand and IMT in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Tomonori; Miura, Katsuyuki; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Kadota, Aya; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Takashima, Naoyuki; Miyagawa, Naoko; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    The serum level of LOX-1 ligand containing ApoB (LAB) may reflect atherogenicity better than usual lipid parameters; however, the relationship between LAB and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was not clear even in Asian populations. A total of 992 community-dwelling Japanese men, aged 40 to 79 years, were enrolled in the present study. Serum LAB levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with recombinant LOX-1 and monoclonal anti-apolipoprotein B antibody. Serum LAB levels (median [interquartile range], μg cs/L) were 5341 μg cs/L (4093-7125). The mean average IMT of the common carotid artery was highest in the fourth LAB quartile (842 μm) compared with the first quartile (797 μm) after adjustment for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, smoking, and alcohol drinking. However, this statistically significant difference was lost after further adjustment for total cholesterol (TC). After stratification using the combination of median LAB and hypercholesterolemia (serum TC ≥ 6.21 mmol/L and/or lipid-lowering medication), the adjusted mean average IMT (standard error) in the high LAB/hypercholesterolemia group was 886 μm (12.7), 856 μm (16.7) in the low LAB/hypercholesterolemia group, and 833 μm (8.4) in the low LAB/normal cholesterol group (P = .004). After further adjustment for TC, mean average IMT in the high LAB group was significantly higher than that measured in the low LAB group in hypercholesterolemic participants not taking lipid-lowering medication. Serum LAB was associated with an increased carotid IMT in Japanese men, especially those with hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural Variation of Leaf Thickness and Its Association to Yield Traits in indica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan-guang; ZHOU Xin-qiao; CHEN Da-gang; LI Li-jun; LI Ju-chang; CHEN You-ding

    2014-01-01

    Leaf thickness is an important morphological trait in rice. Its association to the yield potential, as of now has not been documented because of the shortage of the equipment which could conveniently measure the leaf thickness in rice. In this study, the thickness of top three leaves of 208 cultivars had been determined by a nondestructive rice leaf thickness instrument for the research of the natural variation of leaves thickness and its association to yield traits inindica rice. The results showed that the lfag leaf was the thickest, and the 2nd leaf was thicker than the 3rd leaf. Analysis of variance indicated the existence of wide genetic diversity of leaf thickness among the investigatedindica rice genotypes. The tight correlation among the thicknesses of the top three leaves means that the leaf thickness traits share one genetic control system. Leaf thickness had a signiifcant positive correlation with leaf length and a positive correlation with leaf width, indicated that thicker leaf was beneifcial to increasing the single leaf area. The results of correlation analysis revealed that thicker leaf should be proiftable to the leaf erection, higher numbers of grains per panicle and higher grains weight per panicle. However, the signiifcantly negative correlation between leaf thickness and number of panicles per plant counteracted the proiftability from increased grains weight per panicle, so that the correlations of the thicknesses of the top three leaves to yield and biomass were positive but not signiifcantly. It has made great progress in the genetic improvement of leaves thickness in inbredindica rice breeding in Guangdong Province, China, since the 1990s.

  9. A Study on Changes in Thickness of STS304 Material in the Progressive Drawing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C.K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the drawing process, the roundness of corners in the punch and the die are very important factors in determining the thicknesses of the product. The results clearly revealed that the thickness of a flange was increased and the thickness of body parts reduced when the roundness of the die entrance was small. The material thickness of the top part was decreased when the corner roundness of the punch was large. The smooth inflow of materials was found to have a significant effect on the thickness during the post-process. The compressive strength of STS 304 material exhibited a higher value compared with other processing methods. Moreover, we clearly observed the corner roundness of the punch and the die to be a very important factor for STS 304 materials.

  10. Microstructural parameters and optical constants of ZnTe thin films with various thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Essam R.; Kansal, Ishu; Mohamed, S. H.; Ferreira, Joés M. F.

    2009-11-01

    Different thickness of polycrystalline ZnTe films have been deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature by vacuum evaporation technique. The structural characteristics studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the films are polycrystalline and have a zinc blende (cubic) structure. The calculated microstructure parameters revealed that the crystallite size increases and microstrain decreases with increasing film thickness. The transmittance and reflectance have been measured at normal and near normal incidence, respectively, in the spectral range 400-2500 nm. For ZnTe films of different thicknesses, the dependence of absorption coefficient, α on the photon energy showed the occurrence of a direct transition with band gap energy Egopt=2.21±0.01 eV (For ZnTe films of different thicknesses) confirming the independency of deduced energy gap on film thickness. The refractive indices have been evaluated in terms of envelope method, which has been suggested by Swanepoul in the transparent region. The refractive index could be extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range, which extended from 400 to 2500 nm. It was observed that the refractive index, n increased upon increasing the film thickness up to 508 nm, lying within the experimental error for further increases in film thickness.

  11. Assessing Errors Inherent in OCT-Derived Macular Thickness Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Odell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SD-OCT has become an essential tool for evaluating macular pathology; however several aspects of data collection and analysis affect the accuracy of retinal thickness measurements. Here we evaluated sampling density, scan centering, and axial length compensation as factors affecting the accuracy of macular thickness maps. Forty-three patients with various retinal pathologies and 113 normal subjects were imaged using Cirrus HD-OCT. Reduced B-scan density was associated with increased interpolation error in ETDRS macular thickness plots. Correcting for individual differences in axial length revealed modest errors in retinal thickness maps, while more pronounced errors were observed when the ETDRS plot was not positioned at the center of the fovea (which can occur as a result of errant fixation. Cumulative error can exceed hundreds of microns, even under “ideal observer” conditions. This preventable error is particularly relevant when attempting to compare macular thickness maps to normative databases or measuring the area or volume of retinal features.

  12. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  13. Origami of thick panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  14. Genomic landscape of copy number variation and copy neutral loss of heterozygosity events in equine sarcoids reveals increased instability of the sarcoid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina-Tyszko, Klaudia; Gurgul, Artur; Szmatoła, Tomasz; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Semik-Gurgul, Ewelina; Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta; Koch, Christoph; Mählmann, Kathrin; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika

    2017-09-01

    Although they are the most common neoplasms in equids, sarcoids are not fully characterized at the molecular level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the landscape of structural rearrangements, such as copy number variation (CNV) and copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH), in the genomes of sarcoid tumor cells. This information will not only broaden our understanding of the characteristics of this genome but will also improve the general knowledge of this tumor and the mechanisms involved in its generation. To this end, Equine SNP64K Illumina microarrays were applied along with bioinformatics tools dedicated for signal intensity analysis. The analysis revealed increased instability of the genome of sarcoid cells compared with unaltered skin tissue samples, which was manifested by the prevalence of CNV and cnLOH events. Many of the identified CNVs overlapped with the other research results, but the simultaneously observed variability in the number and sizes of detected aberrations indicated a need for further studies and the development of more reliable bioinformatics algorithms. The functional analysis of genes co-localized with the identified aberrations revealed that these genes are engaged in vital cellular processes. In addition, a number of these genes directly contribute to neoplastic transformation. Furthermore, large numbers of cnLOH events identified in the sarcoids suggested that they may play no less significant roles than CNVs in the carcinogenesis of this tumor. Thus, our results indicate the importance of cnLOH and CNV in equine sarcoid oncogenesis and present a direction of future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea Resistance of Arabidopsis Plants Grown in Compost May Be Explained by Increased Expression of Defense-Related Genes, as Revealed by Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses. PMID:23405252

  16. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Guillem; Santpere, Gabriel; Elena, Georgina; Trillas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  17. Enhanced Botrytis cinerea resistance of Arabidopsis plants grown in compost may be explained by increased expression of defense-related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Segarra

    Full Text Available Composts are the products obtained after the aerobic degradation of different types of organic matter waste and can be used as substrates or substrate/soil amendments for plant cultivation. There is a small but increasing number of reports that suggest that foliar diseases may be reduced when using compost, rather than standard substrates, as growing medium. The purpose of this study was to examine the gene expression alteration produced by the compost to gain knowledge of the mechanisms involved in compost-induced systemic resistance. A compost from olive marc and olive tree leaves was able to induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis, unlike the standard substrate, perlite. Microarray analyses revealed that 178 genes were differently expressed, with a fold change cut-off of 1, of which 155 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated in compost-grown, as against perlite-grown plants. A functional enrichment study of up-regulated genes revealed that 38 Gene Ontology terms were significantly enriched. Response to stress, biotic stimulus, other organism, bacterium, fungus, chemical and abiotic stimulus, SA and ABA stimulus, oxidative stress, water, temperature and cold were significantly enriched, as were immune and defense responses, systemic acquired resistance, secondary metabolic process and oxireductase activity. Interestingly, PR1 expression, which was equally enhanced by growing the plants in compost and by B. cinerea inoculation, was further boosted in compost-grown pathogen-inoculated plants. Compost triggered a plant response that shares similarities with both systemic acquired resistance and ABA-dependent/independent abiotic stress responses.

  18. Color Dependence on Thickness in Topaz Crystal from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Bonventi Jr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that crystals of topaz from the Eastern Brazilian Pegmatite Province may turn blue by the irradiation with 60Co gamma rays followed by heat treatment. Also, it is known that the sensation of color changes with the thickness of these crystals. The dependence of the color, given by 1931 CIE chromaticity coordinates, with the thickness of the crystal was analyzed. The absorbance used in the calculation of these coordinates was given by the sum of Gaussian lines. The parameters of these lines were determined through the decomposition of the optical absorption spectra in the ultraviolet and visible regions. The decomposition revealed several lines, whose assignment was made considering studies in spodumene and beryl crystals and highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations. The transmittance becomes very narrow with increasing thickness, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates converge to the borderline of the CIE Chromaticity Diagram at the wavelength of maximum transmittance. Furthermore, the purity of color increases with increasing thickness, and the dominant wavelength reaches the wavelength of maximum transmittance.

  19. Thickness dependence of structural, electrical and optical behaviour of undoped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouderbala, M.; Hamzaoui, S. [Laboratoire de Microscopie Electronique et des Sciences des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, USTO, B.P. 1505, El-Mnaouer, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Amrani, B. [Department of Physics, Centre Universitaire de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria)], E-mail: abouhalouane@yahoo.fr; Reshak, Ali H. [Institute of Physical Biology-South Bohemia University, Institute of System Biology and Ecology-Academy of Sciences, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); Adnane, M.; Sahraoui, T.; Zerdali, M. [Laboratoire de Microscopie Electronique et des Sciences des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, USTO, B.P. 1505, El-Mnaouer, 31000 Oran (Algeria)

    2008-09-01

    Undoped ZnO thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by r.f. sputtering in order to study the thickness effect upon their structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties. The results suggest that the film thickness seems to have no clear effect upon the orientation of the grains growth. Indeed, the analysis with X-ray diffraction show that the grains were always oriented according to the c(0 0 2)-axis perpendicular to substrate surface whatever the thickness is. However, the grain size was influenced enough by this parameter. An increase in the grain size versus the thickness was noted. For the electrical properties, measurements revealed behaviour very dependent upon thickness. The resistivity decreased from 25 to 1.5x10{sup -3} {omega} cm and the mobility increased from 2 to 37 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} when the thickness increased from 70 to 1800 nm while the carrier concentration seems to be less affected by the film thickness and varied slightly remaining around 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. Nevertheless, a tendency to a decrease was noticed. This behaviour in electrical properties was explained by the crystallinity and the grain size evolution. The optical measurements showed that all the samples have a strong transmission higher than 80% in the visible range. A slight shift of the absorption edge towards the large wavelengths was observed as the thickness increased. This result shows that the band gap is slightly decreases from 3.37 to 3.32 eV with the film thickness vary from 0.32 to 0.88 {mu}m.

  20. Pharmacogenetics of OATP Transporters Reveals That SLCO1B1 c.388A>G Variant Is Determinant of Increased Atorvastatin Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario D. C. Hirata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The relationship between variants in SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 genes and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin was investigated. Material and Methods: One-hundred-thirty-six unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected and treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks. They were genotyped with a panel of ancestry informative markers for individual African component of ancestry (ACA estimation by SNaPshot® and SLCO1B1 (c.388A>G, c.463C>A and c.521T>C and SLCO2B1 (−71T>C gene polymorphisms were identified by TaqMan® Real-time PCR. Results: Subjects carrying SLCO1B1 c.388GG genotype exhibited significantly high low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction relative to c.388AA+c.388AG carriers (41 vs. 37%, p = 0.034. Haplotype analysis revealed that homozygous of SLCO1B1*15 (c.521C and c.388G variant had similar response to statin relative to heterozygous and non-carriers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that c.388GG genotype was associated with higher LDL cholesterol reduction in the study population (OR: 3.2, CI95%:1.3–8.0, p < 0.05. Conclusion: SLCO1B1 c.388A>G polymorphism causes significant increase in atorvastatin response and may be an important marker for predicting efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy.

  1. Systematic experimental study of pure shear type dielectric elastomer membranes with different electrode and film thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, M.; Seelecke, S.

    2016-09-01

    An approach to reduce the voltage required for dielectric elastomer actuators is to reduce film thickness. However, if the electrode thickness is not similarly reduced, the electrode’s mechanical behavior can increasingly and negatively impact the overall actuator behavior. This effect is yet to be studied and quantified for pure shear type specimens; a type recommended in a recent DE standardization journal publication. Therefore, in this work, using pure shear specimens, a comparative study of membrane actuators of different film thickness (20, 50 and 100 μm) is performed. Electrodes of different thicknesses are screen printed and tested in a uniaxial test device. The stiffening effect due to the solid-state electrodes is demonstrated by performing force-elongation tests for specimens with and without electrodes. Additionally the importance of thin electrodes (relative to film thickness) was demonstrated through a number of electromechanical tests. Isotonic tests revealed a lower electro-mechanical sensitivity for the 20 μm film when compared with the 50 and 100 μm films. This was attributed to the relatively thick electrodes. Best actuation results were achieved when the total electrode thickness was at least 15x thinner than the dielectric membrane thickness.

  2. The Bulging Behavior of Thick-Walled 6063 Aluminum Alloy Tubes Under Double-Sided Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Song; Yuan, Shi-Jian

    2015-05-01

    To make further exploration on the deformation behavior of tube under double-sided pressures, the thick-walled 6063 aluminum alloy tubes with an outer diameter of 65 mm and an average thickness of 7.86 mm have been used to be bulged under the combined action of internal and external pressures. In the experiment, two ends of the thick-walled tubes were fixed using the tooth and groove match. Three levels of external pressure (0 MPa, 40 MPa, and 80 MPa), in conjunction with the internal pressure, were applied on the tube outside and inside simultaneously. The effect of external pressure on the bulging behavior of the thick-walled tubes, such as the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution, has been investigated. It is shown that the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution in the homogeneous bulging area are all insensitive to the external pressure. However, the external pressure can make the thick-walled tube achieve a thinner wall at the fracture area. It reveals that the external pressure can only improve the fracture limit of the thick-walled 6063 tubes, but it has very little effect on their homogeneous bulging behavior. It might be because the external pressure can only increase the magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure for the tube but has no effect on the Lode parameter.

  3. Temperature dependence of the thickness and morphology of epitaxial graphene grown on SiC (0001) wafers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xin; Li Yan-Rong; Chen Yuan-Fu; Li Ping-Jian; Wang Ze-Gao; Liu Jing-Bo; He Jia-Rui; Fan Rui; Sun Ji-Rong; Zhang Wan-Li

    2012-01-01

    Epitaxial graphene is synthesized by silicon sublimation from the Si-terminated 6H-SiC substrate.The effects of graphitization temperature on the thickness and surface morphology of epitaxial graphene are investigated.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra and atomic force microscopy images reveal that the epitaxial graphene thickness increases and the epitaxial graphene roughness decreases with the increase in graphitization temperature.This means that the thickness and roughness of epitaxial graphene films can be modulated by varying the graphitization temperature.In addition,the electrical properties of epitaxial graphene film are also investigated by Hall effect measurement.

  4. Film Thickness and Flow Properties of Resin-Based Cements at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: For a luting agent to allow complete seating of prosthetic restorations, it must obtain an appropriate flow rate maintaining a minimum film thickness. The performance of recently introduced luting agents in this regard has not been evaluated. Purpose: To measure and compare the film thickness and flow properties of seven resin-containing luting cements at different temperatures (37°C, 25°C and10°C. Material and Methods: Specimens were prepared from five resin luting cements; seT (SDI, Panavia F (Kuraray, Varioloink II (Ivoclar, Maxcem (Kerr, Nexus2 (Kerr and two resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (RM-GICs; GC Fuji Plus (GC Corporation, and RelyX Luting 2 (3 M/ESPE. The film thickness and flow rate of each cement (n=15 was determined using the test described in ISO at three different temperatures. Results: There was a linear correlation between film thickness and flow rate for most of the materials. Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials while the effect of temperature on film thickness was material dependent. At 37°C, all products revealed a film thickness of less than 25µm except for GC Fuji Plus. At 25°C, all cements pro-duced a film thickness of less than 27 µm except for seT. At 10°C, apart from seT and Rely X Luting 2, the remaining cements showed a film thickness smaller than 20 µm.Conclusion: Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials, however. the film thickness did not exceed 35 µm in either condition, in spite of the lowest film thickness being demonstrated at the lowest temperature.

  5. Delaying Shoulder Motion and Strengthening and Increasing Achilles Allograft Thickness for Glenoid Resurfacing Did Not Improve the Outcome for a 30-Year-Old Patient with Postarthroscopic Glenohumeral Chondrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Skedros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although interposition soft-tissue (biologic resurfacing of the glenoid with humeral hemiarthroplasty has been considered an option for end-stage glenohumeral arthritis, the results of this procedure are highly unsatisfactory in patients less than 40 years old. Achilles tendon allograft is popular for glenoid resurfacing because it can be made robust by folding it. But one reason that the procedure might fail in younger patients is that the graft is not initially thick enough for the young active patient. Most authors report folding the graft only once to achieve two-layer thickness. We report the case of a 30-year-old male who had postarthroscopic glenohumeral chondrolysis that was treated with Achilles tendon allograft resurfacing of the glenoid and humeral hemiarthroplasty. An important aspect of our case is that the tendon was folded so that it was 50–100% thicker than most allograft constructs reported previously. We also used additional measures to enhance allograft resiliency and bone incorporation: (1 multiple nonresorbable sutures to attach the adjacent graft layers, (2 additional resorbable suture anchors and nonresorbable sutures in order to more robustly secure the graft to the glenoid, and (3 delaying postoperative motion and strengthening. However, despite these additional measures, our patient did not have an improved outcome.

  6. Influence of slice thickness on the determination of left ventricular wall thickness and dimension by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Shusaku; Fukui, Sugao; Atsumi, Chisato and others

    1989-02-01

    Wall thickness of the ventricular septum and left ventricle, and left ventricular cavity dimension were determined on magnetic resonance (MR) images with slices 5 mm and 10 mm in thickness. Subjects were 3 healthy volunteers and 7 patients with hypertension (4), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (one) or valvular heart disease (2). In visualizing the cardiac structures such as left ventricular papillary muscle and right and left ventricles, 5 mm-thick images were better than 10 mm-thick images. Edges of ventricular septum and left ventricular wall were more clearly visualized on 5 mm-thick images than 10 mm-thick images. Two mm-thick MR images obtained from 2 patients yielded the most excellent visualization in end-systole, but failed to reveal cardiac structures in detail in end-diastole. Phantom studies revealed no significant differences in image quality of 10 mm and 5 mm in thickness in the axial view 80 degree to the long axis. In the axial view 45 degree to the long axis, 10 mm-thick images were inferior to 5 mm-thick images in detecting the edge of the septum and the left ventricular wall. These results indicate that the selection of slice thickness is one of the most important determinant factors in the measurement of left ventricular wall thickness and cavity dimension. (Namekawa, K).

  7. Translucency of dental ceramics with different thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-07-01

    The increased use of esthetic restorations requires an improved understanding of the translucent characteristics of ceramic materials. Ceramic translucency has been considered to be dependent on composition and thickness, but less information is available about the translucent characteristics of these materials, especially at different thicknesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between translucency and the thickness of different dental ceramics. Six disk-shaped specimens of 8 glass ceramics (IPS e.max Press HO, MO, LT, HT, IPS e.max CAD LT, MO, AvanteZ Dentin, and Trans) and 5 specimens of 5 zirconia ceramics (Cercon Base, Zenotec Zr Bridge, Lava Standard, Lava Standard FS3, and Lava Plus High Translucency) were prepared following the manufacturers' instructions and ground to a predetermined thickness with a grinding machine. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the translucency parameters (TP) of the glass ceramics, which ranged from 2.0 to 0.6 mm, and of the zirconia ceramics, which ranged from 1.0 to 0.4 mm. The relationship between the thickness and TP of each material was evaluated using a regression analysis (α=.05). The TP values of the glass ceramics ranged from 2.2 to 25.3 and the zirconia ceramics from 5.5 to 15.1. There was an increase in the TP with a decrease in thickness, but the amount of change was material dependent. An exponential relationship with statistical significance (Pceramics and zirconia ceramics. The translucency of dental ceramics was significantly influenced by both material and thickness. The translucency of all materials increased exponentially as the thickness decreased. All of the zirconia ceramics evaluated in the present study showed some degree of translucency, which was less sensitive to thickness compared to that of the glass ceramics. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Snow thickness retrieval over thick Arctic sea ice using SMOS satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maaß

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The microwave interferometric radiometer of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission measures at a frequency of 1.4 GHz in the L-band. In contrast to other microwave satellites, low frequency measurements in L-band have a large penetration depth in sea ice and thus contain information on the ice thickness. Previous ice thickness retrievals have neglected a snow layer on top of the ice. Here, we implement a snow layer in our emission model and investigate how snow influences L-band brightness temperatures and whether it is possible to retrieve snow thickness over thick Arctic sea ice from SMOS data. We find that the brightness temperatures above snow-covered sea ice are higher than above bare sea ice and that horizontal polarisation is more affected by the snow layer than vertical polarisation. In accordance with our theoretical investigations, the root mean square deviation between simulated and observed horizontally polarised brightness temperatures decreases from 20.9 K to 4.7 K, when we include the snow layer in the simulations. Although dry snow is almost transparent in L-band, we find brightness temperatures to increase with increasing snow thickness under cold Arctic conditions. The brightness temperatures' dependence on snow thickness can be explained by the thermal insulation of snow and its dependence on the snow layer thickness. This temperature effect allows us to retrieve snow thickness over thick sea ice. For the best simulation scenario and snow thicknesses up to 35 cm, the average snow thickness retrieved from horizontally polarised SMOS brightness temperatures agrees within 0.1 cm with the average snow thickness measured during the IceBridge flight campaign in the Arctic in spring 2012. The corresponding root mean square deviation is 5.5 cm, and the coefficient of determination is r2 = 0.58.

  9. Snow thickness retrieval over thick Arctic sea ice using SMOS satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Maaß

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The microwave interferometric radiometer of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission measures at a frequency of 1.4 GHz in the L-band. In contrast to other microwave satellites, low frequency measurements in L-band have a large penetration depth in sea ice and thus contain information on the ice thickness. Previous ice thickness retrievals have neglected a snow layer on top of the ice. Here, we implement a snow layer in our emission model and investigate how snow influences L-band brightness temperatures and whether it is possible to retrieve snow thickness over thick Arctic sea ice from SMOS data. We find that the brightness temperatures above snow-covered sea ice are higher than above bare sea ice and that horizontal polarisation is more affected by the snow layer than vertical polarisation. In accordance with our theoretical investigations, the root mean square deviation between simulated and observed horizontally polarised brightness temperatures decreases from 20.0 K to 4.4 K, when we include the snow layer in the simulations. Under cold Arctic conditions we find brightness temperatures to increase with increasing snow thickness. Because dry snow is almost transparent in L-band, this brightness temperature's dependence on snow thickness origins from the thermal insulation of snow and its dependence on the snow layer thickness. This temperature effect allows us to retrieve snow thickness over thick sea ice. For the best simulation scenario and snow thicknesses up to 35 cm, the average snow thickness retrieved from horizontally polarised SMOS brightness temperatures agrees within 0.7 cm with the average snow thickness measured during the IceBridge flight campaign in the Arctic in spring 2012. The corresponding root mean square deviation is 6.3 cm, and the correlation coefficient is r2 = 0.55.

  10. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC CORRELATION OF PLACENTAL THICKNESS WITH FETAL GESTATIONAL AGE AND GRADING OF PLACENTAL MATURIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Comparative correlation of placental thickness with foetal gestational age, and evaluation of placental maturity by ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study includes 100 normal singleton gestations between 10 to 40 weeks of gestation referred to our centre for routine antenatal ultrasound examination. All the women were evaluated by transabdominal ultrasonography. Foetal gestational age in weeks was determined by crown rump length, biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference and femoral length. Placental thickness was measured in millimeters. All the placentae were graded using ultrasonographic grading system. RESULTS Our observations revealed that the placental thickness gradually increased from 11.8 mm at 12 weeks to 38.5 mm at 39 weeks. Placental thickness almost corresponds to advancing gestational age exhibiting a linear and direct growth. Progressive maturity changes were noted in placenta with advancing gestational age. CONCLUSION Placental thickness measured at cord insertion site can be used as one of the parameter for estimating foetal gestational age. Placental thickness measurement can also be used to differentiate certain abnormal conditions related to thick and thin placenta. Ultrasonographic placental grading helps to rule out certain conditions associated with premature or delayed placental maturation

  11. SiC fibers with controllable thickness of carbon layer prepared directly by preceramic polymer pyrolysis routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Tianjiao, E-mail: tjhu617@gmail.com [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Li Xiaodong; Li Gongyi [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Wang Yingde; Wang Jun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2011-05-25

    Continuous SiC fibers with different thickness of carbon layer were prepared through three preceramic polymer pyrolysis routes. To make the carbon layer thickness controllable, a simple improvement by using a ceramic bushing was adopted to retard the deposition of the pyrolytic carbons. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis reveals that the carbon layer thickness varies from less than 5 nm to 40 nm. The specific resistivity of the fibers increases by 5 orders of magnitude as the carbon layer thickness decreases. All of the fibers exhibit a tensile strength of around 1.8 GPa which is independent of the carbon layer thickness. The formation process of the carbon layer is discussed in three steps: the decomposition, the carbonization and the deposition. The as-received fibers have a potential application as the reinforcement of functional materials.

  12. 颈项透明层增厚胎儿心内心外血流动力学观察%Study of endocardiac and extracardiac haemodynamics changes in fetus with increased nuchal translucency thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱敏; 孟焱; 翟林; 郑蓉; 张岚

    2012-01-01

    explore the characteristics of endocardiac and extracardiac haemodynamics parameters in fetus with thickened nuchal translucency (NT) and analyze the relationship between hemodynamic changes and fetal prognosis.Methods The fetal appearance was observed during the first trimester. And the thickness of NT or soft tissue of neck was quantified. The endocardiac and extracardiac haemodynamic parameters were measured by ultrasound Doppler.The parameters were compared between fetus with thickened NT and normal fetus.Echocardiography was performed individually in both 2nd trimester and newborn stage. Results Eight cases with greater NT thickness were found. Four cases terminated pregnancy during the first or second trimester: one was diagnosed as persistent arterial trunk during a 13-week gestation,one with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation during second trimester.Both were confirmed by autopsy; one with pleural fluid and ascites while another aborted at the expectant mother's will.Four cases were delivered full-term.Among them,one had congenital anal atresia while the other 3 cases were normal.Endocardiac haemodynamic parameters were normal in all cases with thickened NT and no heart malformaiton.Higher pulsatility index ( PI),resistive index (RI) and ratio of velocity of systole and diastole (S/D) in venous duct were observed in 5 cases.The endocardiac and extracardiac haemodynamics parameters of the cases with thickened NT and complicated with heart malformation were different from normal cases.Conclusion Greater NT thickness is closely correlated with chromosomal abnormalities,congenital cardic defects,other structure abnormalities and a poor prognosis. Ultrasound Doppler can evaluate the fetal heart functions accurately. If abnormal endocardiac and extracardiac parameters are found in fetus with thickened NT,the existence of heart malformation should be considered.When abnormal extracardiac Doppler waveshape or greater blood flow resistance is found with normal

  13. How thick is the lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H; Press, F

    1970-04-25

    A rapid decrease in shear velocity in the suboceanic mantle is used to infer the thickness of the lithosphere. It is proposed that new and highly precise group velocity data constrain the solutions and imply a thickness near 70 km.

  14. Multimodal optical measurement in vitro of surface deformations and wall thickness of the pressurized aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Katia; Humphrey, Jay D

    2015-04-01

    Computational modeling of arterial mechanics continues to progress, even to the point of allowing the study of complex regions such as the aortic arch. Nevertheless, most prior studies assign homogeneous and isotropic material properties and constant wall thickness even when implementing patient-specific luminal geometries obtained from medical imaging. These assumptions are not due to computational limitations, but rather to the lack of spatially dense sets of experimental data that describe regional variations in mechanical properties and wall thickness in such complex arterial regions. In this work, we addressed technical challenges associated with in vitro measurement of overall geometry, full-field surface deformations, and regional wall thickness of the porcine aortic arch in its native anatomical configuration. Specifically, we combined two digital image correlation-based approaches, standard and panoramic, to track surface geometry and finite deformations during pressurization, with a 360-deg fringe projection system to contour the outer and inner geometry. The latter provided, for the first time, information on heterogeneous distributions of wall thickness of the arch and associated branches in the unloaded state. Results showed that mechanical responses vary significantly with orientation and location (e.g., less extensible in the circumferential direction and with increasing distance from the heart) and that the arch exhibits a nearly linear increase in pressure-induced strain up to 40%, consistent with other findings on proximal porcine aortas. Thickness measurements revealed strong regional differences, thus emphasizing the need to include nonuniform thicknesses in theoretical and computational studies of complex arterial geometries.

  15. Thick-Big Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    The paper discusses the rewards and challenges of employing commercial audience measurements data – gathered by media industries for profitmaking purposes – in ethnographic research on the Internet in everyday life. It questions claims to the objectivity of big data (Anderson 2008), the assumption...... communication systems, language and behavior appear as texts, outputs, and discourses (data to be ‘found’) – big data then documents things that in earlier research required interviews and observations (data to be ‘made’) (Jensen 2014). However, web-measurement enterprises build audiences according...... to a commercial logic (boyd & Crawford 2011) and is as such directed by motives that call for specific types of sellable user data and specific segmentation strategies. In combining big data and ‘thick descriptions’ (Geertz 1973) scholars need to question how ethnographic fieldwork might map the ‘data not seen...

  16. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  17. Disentangling The Thick Concept Argument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Critics argue that non-cognitivism cannot adequately account for the existence and nature of some thick moral concepts. They use the existence of thick concepts as a lever in an argument against non-cognitivism, here called the Thick Concept Argument (TCA). While TCA is frequently invoked...

  18. One versus five-days of exposure to varying concentrations of B100 soya biodiesel exhaust reveals a threshold concentration for increased sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biodiesel (BD) is rapidly being considered as an alternative to diesel fuel, its health effects have not been thoroughly characterized. We previously used the aconitine challenge test to demonstrate that a single exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) increases the ri...

  19. Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Increased Content of Basement Membrane Proteins in Arteries from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Levels among Metformin Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone; Kristensen, Lars P; Beck, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    analysis was done by iTRAQ-labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis on individual arterial samples. The amounts of the basement membrane (BM) components, alpha-1- and alpha-2- type IV collagen, gamma-1- and beta-2-laminin were significantly increased in patients with diabetes. Moreover, the expressions of basement...

  20. One versus five-days of exposure to varying concentrations of B100 soya biodiesel exhaust reveals a threshold concentration for increased sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biodiesel (BD) is rapidly being considered as an alternative to diesel fuel, its health effects have not been thoroughly characterized. We previously used the aconitine challenge test to demonstrate that a single exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) increases the ri...

  1. Transcriptomic Profiling of Diverse Aedes aegypti Strains Reveals Increased Basal-level Immune Activation in Dengue Virus-refractory Populations and Identifies Novel Virus-vector Molecular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Ramirez, José L.; Kang, Seokyoung; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M.; Mohammed, Hamish; Dimopoulos, George

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector. PMID:23861987

  2. Detoxification of ammonia in mouse cortical GABAergic cell cultures increases neuronal oxidative metabolism and reveals an emerging role for release of glucose-derived alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Anker, Malene

    2011-01-01

    in a mouse neuronal-astrocytic co-culture model of the GABAergic system. We found that 5 mM ammonium chloride affected energy metabolism by increasing the neuronal TCA cycle activity and switching the astrocytic TCA cycle toward synthesis of substrate for glutamine synthesis. Furthermore, ammonia exposure...... enhanced the synthesis and release of alanine. Collectively, our results demonstrate that (1) formation of glutamine is seminal for detoxification of ammonia; (2) neuronal oxidative metabolism is increased in the presence of ammonia; and (3) synthesis and release of alanine is likely to be important......Cerebral hyperammonemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a debilitating condition arising due to acute or chronic liver disease. In the brain, ammonia is thought to be detoxified via the activity of glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme...

  3. Melanogenesis stimulation in B16-F10 melanoma cells induces cell cycle alterations, increased ROS levels and a differential expression of proteins as revealed by proteomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Elizabeth S.; Kawahara, Rebeca [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Kadowaki, Marina K. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Amstalden, Hudson G.; Noleto, Guilhermina R.; Cadena, Silvia Maria S.C.; Winnischofer, Sheila M.B. [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Martinez, Glaucia R., E-mail: grmartinez@ufpr.br [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Parana, P.O. Box 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    Considering that stimulation of melanogenesis may lead to alterations of cellular responses, besides melanin production, our main goal was to study the cellular effects of melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Our results show increased levels of the reactive oxygen species after 15 h of melanogenesis stimulation. Following 48 h of melanogenesis stimulation, proliferation was inhibited (by induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase) and the expression levels of p21 mRNA were increased. In addition, melanogenesis stimulation did not induce cellular senescence. Proteomic analysis demonstrated the involvement of proteins from other pathways besides those related to the cell cycle, including protein disulfide isomerase A3, heat-shock protein 70, and fructose biphosphate aldolase A (all up-regulated), and lactate dehydrogenase (down-regulated). In RT-qPCR experiments, the levels of pyruvate kinase M2 mRNA dropped, whereas the levels of ATP synthase (beta-F1) mRNA increased. These data indicate that melanogenesis stimulation of B16-F10 cells leads to alterations in metabolism and cell cycle progression that may contribute to an induction of cell quiescence, which may provide a mechanism of resistance against cellular injury promoted by melanin synthesis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis stimulation by L-tyrosine+NH{sub 4}Cl in B16-F10 melanoma cells increases ROS levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melanogenesis inhibits cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteomic analysis showed alterations in proteins of the cell cycle and glucose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RT-qPCR analysis confirmed alterations of metabolic targets after melanogenesis stimulation.

  4. Tree-ring stable isotopes reveal twentieth-century increases in water-use efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tognetti

    Full Text Available Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration, iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations.

  5. Tree-ring stable isotopes reveal twentieth-century increases in water-use efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations.

  6. Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Reveal Twentieth-Century Increases in Water-Use Efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  7. Increased tree-ring network density reveals more precise estimations of sub-regional hydroclimate variability and climate dynamics in the Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Justin T.; Harley, Grant L.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the historic variability in the hydroclimate provides important information on possible extreme dry or wet periods that in turn inform water management plans. Tree rings have long provided historical context of hydroclimate variability of the U.S. However, the tree-ring network used to create these countrywide gridded reconstructions is sparse in certain locations, such as the Midwest. Here, we increase (n = 20) the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network in southern Indiana and compare a summer (June-August) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction to existing gridded reconstructions of PDSI for this region. We find both droughts and pluvials that were previously unknown that rival the most intense PDSI values during the instrumental period. Additionally, historical drought occurred in Indiana that eclipsed instrumental conditions with regard to severity and duration. During the period 1962-2004 CE, we find that teleconnections of drought conditions through the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have a strong influence (r = -0.60, p tree growth in this region for the late spring-early summer season. These findings highlight the importance of continuing to increase the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network used to infer past climate dynamics to capture the sub-regional spatial variability. Increasing the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network for a given region can better identify sub-regional variability, improve the accuracy of regional tree-ring PDSI reconstructions, and provide better information for climatic teleconnections.

  8. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  9. Microarray Analysis Reveals Increased Transcriptional Repression and Reduced Metabolic Activity but Not Major Changes in the Core Apoptotic Machinery during Maturation of Sympathetic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raba, Mikk; Palgi, Jaan; Lehtivaara, Maria; Arumäe, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Postnatal maturation of the neurons whose main phenotype and basic synaptic contacts are already established includes neuronal growth, refinement of synaptic contacts, final steps of differentiation, programmed cell death period (PCD) etc. In the sympathetic neurons, postnatal maturation includes permanent end of the PCD that occurs with the same time schedule in vivo and in vitro suggesting that the process could be genetically determined. Also many other changes in the neuronal maturation could be permanent and thus based on stable changes in the genome expression. However, postnatal maturation of the neurons is poorly studied. Here we compared the gene expression profiles of immature and mature sympathetic neurons using Affymetrix microarray assay. We found 1310 significantly up-regulated and 1151 significantly down-regulated genes in the mature neurons. Gene ontology analysis reveals up-regulation of genes related to neuronal differentiation, chromatin and epigenetic changes, extracellular factors and their receptors, and cell adhesion, whereas many down-regulated genes were related to metabolic and biosynthetic processes. We show that termination of PCD is not related to major changes in the expression of classical genes for apoptosis or cell survival. Our dataset is deposited to the ArrayExpress database and is a valuable source to select candidate genes in the studies of neuronal maturation. As an example, we studied the changes in the expression of selected genes Igf2bp3, Coro1A, Zfp57, Dcx, and Apaf1 in the young and mature sympathetic ganglia by quantitative PCR and show that these were strongly downregulated in the mature ganglia.

  10. Microarray analysis reveals increased transcriptional repression and reduced metabolic activity but not major changes in the core apoptotic machinery during maturation of sympathetic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk eRaba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal maturation of the neurons whose main phenotype and basic synaptic contacts are already established includes neuronal growth, refinement of synaptic contacts, final steps of differentiation, programmed cell death period (PCD etc. In the sympathetic neurons, postnatal maturation includes permanent end of the PCD that occurs with the same time schedule in vivo and in vitro suggesting that the process could be genetically determined. Also many other changes in the neuronal maturation could be permanent and thus based on stable changes in the genome expression. However, postnatal maturation of the neurons is poorly studied. Here we compared the gene expression profiles of immature and mature sympathetic neurons using Affymetrix microarray assay. We found 1310 significantly up-regulated and 1151 significantly down-regulated genes in the mature neurons. Gene ontology analysis reveals up-regulation of genes related to neuronal differentiation, chromatin and epigenetic changes, extracellular factors and their receptors, and cell adhesion, whereas many down-regulated genes were related to metabolic and biosynthetic processes. We show that termination of PCD is not related to major changes in the expression of classical genes for apoptosis or cell survival. Our dataset is deposited to the ArrayExpress database and is a valuable source to select candidate genes in the studies of neuronal maturation. As an example, we studied the changes in the expression of selected genes Igf2bp3, Coro1A, Zfp57, Dcx, and Apaf1 in the young and mature sympathetic ganglia by quantitative PCR and show that these were strongly downregulated in the mature ganglia.

  11. EFFECT OF WALL THICKNESS ON THE SOLAR GAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEREKES A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilized passive solar gain covers considerable part of heat losses, especially in well insulated buildings. At the same time the thermal insulation of the wall in such a building, e.g. approaching the “Passivhaus” standard is about 20 cm thick. Unless a light weight building is spoken of further 20-30 cm loadbearing layer and the surface finishing should be added resulting in a total thickness of 45-60 cm. The thick wall narrows the cross section through which the direct solar beam may enter the room thus decreases the solar gain. The movement of the solar beam during the day and season can be followed on the base of the sun path diagram. One could say that on the other hand a massive loadbearing layer - especially if it is on the inner side - increases the heat storage capacity, thus increases the utilized part of the solar gain. Series of thermal simulation proves that the effect of heat storage capacity is less important in comparison with the cross section through which the solar beam enters the room. In other terms a light weight building with thin walls performs better than a massive one with thick wall providing the U-value is the same in both cases. In this paper the results of simulation will be presented. Certainly the wall should fulfill many requirements including load, weather-proofness, thermal insulation, building technology. Solar beam is only one of the many aspects. Nevertheless simple geometric tricks may lead to a good compromise, e.g. bevel edge reveal which is not perpendicular to the façade. No doubt in this case the thermal bridge losses around the window perimeter will be higher however this will be compensated by the solar gain.

  12. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Drew T; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O'Connor, Michael P; Hearn, Gail W

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990's. From October 1997 - September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea's GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko's wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife.

  13. In Vitro Functional Analyses of Infrequent Nucleotide Variants in the Lactase Enhancer Reveal Different Molecular Routes to Increased Lactase Promoter Activity and Lactase Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebert, A.; Jones, B.L.; Danielsen, Erik Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The genetic trait that allows intestinal lactase to persist into adulthood in some 35% of humans worldwide operates at the level of transcription, the effect being caused by cis-acting nucleotide changes upstream of the lactase gene (LCT). A single nucleotide substitution, -13910 C>T, the first...... causal variant to be identified, accounts for lactase persistence over most of Europe. Located in a region shown to have enhancer function in vitro, it causes increased activity of the LCT promoter in Caco-2 cells, and altered transcription factor binding. Three other variants in close proximity, -13907...

  14. Detection of non-papillary, non-invasive transitional cell G1 carcinoma as revealed by increased DNA instability and other cancer markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hirose

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The method to reveal DNA-instability as demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining with anti-cytidine antibody after acid hydrolysis (DNA-instability test was used as a marker of malignancy. The test was applied to paraffin-embedded sections taken from l5 urinary bladders, renal pelvic cavities, and ureters bearing multiple carcinoma in situ (CIS and totally 31 papillary urothelial cancers. The serial sections of the same tissues were also subjected to immunohistochemical staining for PCNA, p53, DFF45, and VEGF. The DNA-instability test was positive in 100% cancer lesions irrespective of the grades, and apparently normal urothelium, and hyperplastic and dysplastic urothelial lesions also showed the areas with clones positively stained with DNA-instability testing, and the percent numbers of positive areas in them were 28.3%, 37.7%, and 6l.5%, respectively. These clones, which were present in apparently normal urothelium and in hyperplastic and dysplastic urothelial lesions, showed higher percent values of PCNA-positivecells, in comparison to the values estimated in the areas with negatively stained DNA-instability testing, and the former values were statistically not different from those in carcinoma lesions. Furthermore, the percent numbers of areas positive for p53, DFF45, and VEGF, with positive DNA-instability testing were also much higher than those with negative DNA-instability testing in apparently normal urothelium, and hyperplastic and dysplastic urothelial lesions, and the former values were again comparable to those in cancer lesions with no statistical differences. These clones were regarded as already being malignant and should be the direct precursors of progressed cancer lesions. They will make progression through two different pathways, one to papillary non-invasive Gl cancers by neovascularization induced by paracrine secretion of VEGF, and another to flat CIS G2 without secretion of VEGF; thus the clones should be regarded as

  15. Establishment of thermophilic anaerobic terephthalic acid degradation system through one-step temperature increase startup strategy - Revealed by Illumina Miseq Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai-Li; Li, Xiang-Kun; Wang, Ke; Meng, Ling-Wei; Liu, Gai-Ge; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Over recent years, thermophilic digestion was constantly focused owing to its various advantage over mesophilic digestion. Notably, the startup approach of thermophilic digester needs to be seriously considered as unsuitable startup ways may result in system inefficiency. In this study, one-step temperature increase startup strategy from 37 °C to 55 °C was applied to establish a thermophilic anaerobic system treating terephthalic acid (TA) contained wastewater, meanwhile, the archaeal and bacterial community compositions at steady periods of 37 °C and 55 °C during the experimental process was also compared using Illumina Miseq Sequencing. The process operation demonstrated that the thermophilic TA degradation system was successfully established at 55 °C with over 95% COD reduction. For archaea community, the elevation of operational temperature from 37 °C to 55 °C accordingly increase the enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens but decrease the abundance of the acetotrophic ones. While for bacterial community, the taxonomic analysis suggested that Syntrophorhabdus (27.40%) was the dominant genus promoting the efficient TA degradation under mesophilic condition, whereas OPB95 (24.99%) and TA06 (14.01%) related populations were largely observed and probably take some crucial role in TA degradation under thermophilic condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detoxification of ammonia in mouse cortical GABAergic cell cultures increases neuronal oxidative metabolism and reveals an emerging role for release of glucose-derived alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse K; Anker, Malene; Melø, Torun M; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Ott, Peter; Portela, Luis V; Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral hyperammonemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a debilitating condition arising due to acute or chronic liver disease. In the brain, ammonia is thought to be detoxified via the activity of glutamine synthetase, an astrocytic enzyme. Moreover, it has been suggested that cerebral tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism is inhibited and glycolysis enhanced during hyperammonemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the ammonia-detoxifying mechanisms as well as the effects of ammonia on energy-generating metabolic pathways in a mouse neuronal-astrocytic co-culture model of the GABAergic system. We found that 5 mM ammonium chloride affected energy metabolism by increasing the neuronal TCA cycle activity and switching the astrocytic TCA cycle toward synthesis of substrate for glutamine synthesis. Furthermore, ammonia exposure enhanced the synthesis and release of alanine. Collectively, our results demonstrate that (1) formation of glutamine is seminal for detoxification of ammonia; (2) neuronal oxidative metabolism is increased in the presence of ammonia; and (3) synthesis and release of alanine is likely to be important for ammonia detoxification as a supplement to formation of glutamine.

  17. Proteomics reveals drastic increase of extracellular matrix proteins collagen and dermatopontin in the aged mdx diaphragm model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Steven; Zweyer, Margit; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal genetic disease of childhood caused by primary abnormalities in the gene coding for the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. The mdx mouse is an established animal model of various aspects of X-linked muscular dystrophy and is widely used for studying fundamental mechanisms of dystrophinopathy and testing novel therapeutic approaches to treat one of the most frequent gender-specific diseases in humans. In order to determine global changes in the muscle proteome with the progressive deterioration of mdx tissue with age, we have characterized diaphragm muscle from mdx mice at three ages (8-weeks, 12-months and 22-months) using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Altered expression levels in diaphragm of 8-week vs. 22-month mice were shown to occur in 11 muscle-associated proteins. Aging in the mdx diaphragm seems to be associated with a drastic increase in the extracellular matrix proteins, collagen and dermatopontin, the molecular chaperone αB-crystallin, and the intermediate filament protein vimentin, suggesting increased accumulation of connective tissue, an enhanced cellular stress response and compensatory stabilization of the weakened membrane cytoskeleton. These proteomic findings establish the aged mdx diaphragm as an excellent model system for studying secondary effects of dystrophin deficiency in skeletal muscle tissue.

  18. STEM tomography for thick biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan)], E-mail: kazuhiro.aoyama@fei.com; Takagi, Tomoko [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Japan Women' s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Hirase, Ai; Miyazawa, Atsuo [Bio-multisome Research Team, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); CREST, JST (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was applied to biological specimens such as yeast cells, HEK293 cells and primary culture neurons. These cells, which were embedded in a resin, were cut into 1-{mu}m-thick sections. STEM tomography offers several important advantages including: (1) it is effective even for thick specimens, (2) 'dynamic focusing', (3) ease of using an annular dark field (ADF) mode and (4) linear contrasts. It has become evident that STEM tomography offers significant advantages for the observation of thick specimens. By employing STEM tomography, even a 1-{mu}m-thick specimen (which is difficult to observe by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) was successfully analyzed in three dimensions. The specimen was tilted up to 73 deg. during data acquisition. At a large tilt angle, the specimen thicknesses increase dramatically. In order to observe such thick specimens, we introduced a special small condenser aperture that reduces the collection angle of the STEM probe. The specimen damage caused by the convergent electron beam was expected to be the most serious problem; however, the damage in STEM was actually smaller than that in TEM. In this study, the irradiation damage caused by TEM- and STEM-tomography in biological specimens was quantitatively compared.

  19. View angle dependence of cloud optical thicknesses retrieved by MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether cloud inhomogeneity influences the view angle dependence of MODIS cloud optical thickness (tau) retrieval results. The degree of cloud inhomogeneity is characterized through the local gradient in 11 microns brightness temperature. The analysis of liquid phase clouds in a one year long global dataset of Collection 4 MODIS data reveals that while optical thickness retrievals give remarkably consistent results for all view directions if clouds are homogeneous, they give much higher tau-values for oblique views than for overhead views if clouds are inhomogeneous and the sun is fairly oblique. For solar zenith angles larger than 55deg, the mean optical thickness retrieved for the most inhomogeneous third of cloudy pixels is more than 30% higher for oblique views than for overhead views. After considering a variety of possible scenarios, the paper concludes that the most likely reason for the increase lies in three-dimensional radiative interactions that are not considered in current, one-dimensional retrieval algorithms. Namely, the radiative effect of cloud sides viewed at oblique angles seems to contribute most to the enhanced tau-values. The results presented here will help understand cloud retrieval uncertainties related to cloud inhomogeneity. They complement the uncertainty estimates that will start accompanying MODIS cloud products in Collection 5 and may eventually help correct for the observed view angle dependent biases.

  20. Non-monophyly of most supraspecific taxa of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) revealed by increased taxon sampling and partitioned Bayesian analysis of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, Martin; Voigt, Oliver; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert

    2006-09-01

    Calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) play an important role for our understanding of early metazoan evolution, since several molecular studies suggested their closer relationship to Eumetazoa than to the other two sponge 'classes,' Demospongiae and Hexactinellida. The division of Calcarea into the subtaxa Calcinea and Calcaronea is well established by now, but their internal relationships remain largely unresolved. Here, we estimate phylogenetic relationships within Calcarea in a Bayesian framework, using full-length 18S and partial 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. Both genes were analyzed separately and in combination and were further partitioned by stem and loop regions, the former being modelled to take non-independence of paired sites into account. By substantially increasing taxon sampling, we show that most of the traditionally recognized supraspecific taxa within Calcinea and Calcaronea are not monophyletic, challenging the existing classification system, while monophyly of Calcinea and Calcaronea is again highly supported.

  1. Mechanisms for the adverse effects of late gestational increases in maternal cortisol on the heart revealed by transcriptomic analyses of the fetal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elaine M; Wood, Charles E; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    We have previously shown in sheep that 10 days of modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol resulting from maternal infusion of cortisol (1 mg/kg/day) caused fetal heart enlargement and Purkinje cell apoptosis. In subsequent studies we extended the cortisol infusion to term, finding a dramatic incidence of stillbirth in the pregnancies with chronically increased cortisol. To investigate effects of maternal cortisol on the heart, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the septa using ovine microarrays and Webgestalt and Cytoscape programs for pathway inference. Analyses of the transcriptomic effects of maternal cortisol infusion for 10 days (130 day cortisol vs 130 day control), or ∼25 days (140 day cortisol vs 140 day control) and of normal maturation (140 day control vs 130 day control) were performed. Gene ontology terms related to immune function and cytokine actions were significantly overrepresented as genes altered by both cortisol and maturation in the septa. After 10 days of cortisol, growth factor and muscle cell apoptosis pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with our previous histologic findings. In the term fetuses (∼25 days of cortisol) nutrient pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with altered metabolism and reduced mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial number by mitochondrial DNA expression confirmed a significant decrease in mitochondria. The metabolic pathways modeled as altered by cortisol treatment to term were different from those modeled during maturation of the heart to term, and thus changes in gene expression in these metabolic pathways may be indicative of the fetal heart pathophysiologies seen in pregnancies complicated by stillbirth, including gestational diabetes, Cushing's disease and chronic stress.

  2. Quantitative profiling of the shedding rate of the three Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotypes reveals that challenge with virulent MDV markedly increases shedding of vaccinal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Aminul; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W

    2007-08-01

    The shedding profile of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1, virulent), serotype 2 (MDV2, vaccinal) and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT, vaccinal) in commercial broiler chickens was determined by measuring the daily rate of production of feather dander from chickens housed in isolators and by quantifying the viral load of each of these serotypes in the dander using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). MDV1 and HVT viruses were detectable in dander filtered from isolator exhaust air from day 7 and MDV2 from day 12 after infection and thereafter until the end of the experiment at 61 days of age of the chickens. There was no difference in shedding rate among the three MDV1 isolates. Daily shedding of MDV1 increased sharply between days 7 and 28 and stabilized thereafter at about 10(9) virus copies per chicken per day, irrespective of vaccination status. Challenge with the three different MDV1 isolates markedly increased shedding of the vaccinal viruses HVT and MDV2 in dander by 38- and 75-fold, respectively. These results demonstrate the utility of qPCR for the differentiation and quantification of different MDV serotypes in feather dander and have significant implications for the routine monitoring of Marek's disease using qPCR assays of dust, for epidemiological modelling of the behaviour and spread of MDVs in chicken populations and for studies into the evolution of virulence in MDV1 in the face of blanket vaccination with imperfect vaccines that ameliorate disease but do not prevent infection and replication of virulent virus.

  3. Thickness dependent phase transformation of magnetron-sputtered Ni-Mn-Sn ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnoi, Ritu; Singhal, Rahul; Kaur, Davinder, E-mail: dkaurfph@iitr.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics and Center of Nanotechnology (India)

    2011-09-15

    In this study, the influence of film thickness on the first-order martensite-austenite phase transformation of Ni-Mn-Sn ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films has been systematically investigated. Different thicknesses of the Ni-Mn-Sn films (from {approx}100 to 2,500 nm) were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on Si (100) substrates at 550 Degree-Sign C. X-ray analysis reveals that all the films exhibit austenitic phase with the L2{sub 1} cubic crystal structure at room temperature. The grain size and crystallization extent increase with the increase in film thickness, but the films with thickness above {approx}1,400 nm show structural deterioration due to the formation of MnSn{sub 2} and Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} precipitates. The improvement in the crystallinity of the film with thickness is attributed to the decrease in film-substrate interfacial strain resulting in preferred oriented growth of the films. Temperature-dependent magnetization measurements as well as electrical measurements demonstrate the complete absence of phase transformation for the film of thickness of {approx}120 nm. For thickness greater than 400 nm, film exhibits the structural transformation, and it occurs at higher temperature with better hysteresis as film thickness is increased up to {approx}1,400 nm, after which degradation of phase transformation phenomenon is observed. This degradation is attributed to the disorders present in the films at higher thicknesses. Film with thickness {approx}1,400 nm possesses the highest magnetization with the smallest thermal hysteresis among all the films and therefore best suited for the actuators based on first-order structural phase transformation. Nanoindentation measurements reveal that the higher values of hardness and elastic modulus of about 5.5 and 215.0 GPa obtained in film of 1,014 nm thickness can considerably improve the ductility of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) and their applicability for MEMS applications. The exchange bias

  4. Effect of Board Thickness on Sn-Ag-Cu Joint Interconnect Mechanical Shock Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Xie, Weidong

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical stability of solder joints with Sn-Ag-Cu alloy joints on various board thicknesses was investigated with a high G level shock environment. A test vehicle with three different board thicknesses was used for board drop shock performance tests. These vehicles have three different strain and shock level condition couples per board, and are used to identify the joint stability and failure modes based on the board responses. The results revealed that joint stability is sensitive to board thickness. The board drop shock test showed that the first failure location shifts from the corner location near the standoff to the center with increased board thickness due to the shock wave response. From analysis of the thickness variation and failure cycle number, the strain rate during the pulse strain cycle is the dominant factor, which defines the life cycle number per board thickness, and not the maximum strain value. The failure location shift and the shock performance differentiation are discussed from the perspective of maximum principal strain, cycle frequency and strain rate per cycle.

  5. Increased incidence of traffic accidents in Toxoplasma-infected military drivers and protective effect RhD molecule revealed by a large-scale prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlíček Jan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latent toxoplasmosis, protozoan parasitosis with prevalence rates from 20 to 60% in most populations, is known to impair reaction times in infected subjects, which results, for example, in a higher risk of traffic accidents in subjects with this life-long infection. Two recent studies have reported that RhD-positive subjects, especially RhD heterozygotes, are protected against latent toxoplasmosis-induced impairment of reaction times. In the present study we searched for increased incidence of traffic accidents and for protective effect of RhD positivity in 3890 military drivers. Methods Male draftees who attended the Central Military Hospital in Prague for regular entrance psychological examinations between 2000 and 2003 were tested for Toxoplasma infection and RhD phenotype at the beginning of their 1 to1.5-year compulsory military service. Subsequently, the data on Toxoplasma infection and RhD phenotype were matched with those on traffic accidents from military police records and the effects of RhD phenotype and Toxoplasma infection on probability of traffic accident was estimated with logistic regression. Results We confirmed, using for the first time a prospective cohort study design, increased risk of traffic accidents in Toxoplasma-infected subjects and demonstrated a strong protective effect of RhD positivity against the risk of traffic accidents posed by latent toxoplasmosis. Our results show that RhD-negative subjects with high titers of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies had a probability of a traffic accident of about 16.7%, i.e. a more than six times higher rate than Toxoplasma-free or RhD-positive subjects. Conclusion Our results showed that a common infection by Toxoplasma gondii could have strong impact on the probability of traffic accident in RhD negative subjects. The observed effects could provide not only a clue to the long-standing evolutionary enigma of the origin of RhD polymorphism in humans (the effect of

  6. Effect of the Platinum Electroplated Layer Thickness on the Coatings' Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana; Gancarczyk, Kamil; Sieniawski, Jan

    2017-03-01

    CMSX 4 and Inconel 625 superalloys were coated by platinum layers (3 and 7 μm thick) in the electroplating process. The heat treatment of platinum layers (at 1,050 ˚C for 2 h) was performed to increase platinum adherence to the superalloys substrate. The diffusion zone obtained on CMSX 4 superalloy (3 and 7 μm platinum thick before heat treatment) consisted of two phases: γ-Ni(Al, Cr) and (Al0.25Pt0.75)Ni3. The diffusion zone obtained on Inconel 625 superalloy (3 μm platinum thick before heat treatment) consisted of the α-Pt(Ni, Cr, Al) phase. Moreover, γ-Ni(Cr, Al) phase was identified. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the presence of platinum in the diffusion zone of the heat-treated coating (7 μm platinum thick) on Inconel 625 superalloy. The surface roughness parameter Ra of heat-treated coatings increased with the increase of platinum layers thickness. This was due to the unequal mass flow of platinum and nickel.

  7. In Vitro Functional Analyses of Infrequent Nucleotide Variants in the Lactase Enhancer Reveal Different Molecular Routes to Increased Lactase Promoter Activity and Lactase Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Anke; Jones, Bryony L.; Danielsen, Erik Thomas; Olsen, Anders Krüger; Troelsen, Jesper T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The genetic trait that allows intestinal lactase to persist into adulthood in some 35% of humans worldwide operates at the level of transcription, the effect being caused by cis‐acting nucleotide changes upstream of the lactase gene (LCT). A single nucleotide substitution, ‐13910 C>T, the first causal variant to be identified, accounts for lactase persistence over most of Europe. Located in a region shown to have enhancer function in vitro, it causes increased activity of the LCT promoter in Caco‐2 cells, and altered transcription factor binding. Three other variants in close proximity, ‐13907 C>G, ‐13915 T>C and ‐14010 G>C, were later shown to behave in a similar manner. Here, we study four further candidate functional variants. Two, ‐14009 T>G and ‐14011 C>T, adjacent to the well‐studied ‐14010 G>C variant, also have a clear effect on promoter activity upregulation as assessed by transfection assays, but notably are involved in different molecular interactions. The results for the two other variants (‐14028 T>C, ‐13779 G>C) were suggestive of function, ‐14028*C showing a clear change in transcription factor binding, but no obvious effect in transfections, while ‐13779*G showed greater effect in transfections but less on transcription factor binding. Each of the four variants arose on independent haplotypic backgrounds with different geographic distribution. PMID:27714771

  8. Bayesian Multi-Trait Analysis Reveals a Useful Tool to Increase Oil Concentration and to Decrease Toxicity in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junqueira, Vinícius; de Azevedo Peixoto, Leonardo; Galvêas Laviola, Bruno; Lopes Bhering, Leonardo; Mendonça, Simone; Agostini Costa, Tania da Silveira; Antoniassi, Rosemar

    2016-01-01

    The biggest challenge for jatropha breeding is to identify superior genotypes that present high seed yield and seed oil content with reduced toxicity levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for three important traits (weight of 100 seed, oil seed content, and phorbol ester concentration), and to select superior genotypes to be used as progenitors in jatropha breeding. Additionally, the genotypic values and the genetic parameters estimated under the Bayesian multi-trait approach were used to evaluate different selection indices scenarios of 179 half-sib families. Three different scenarios and economic weights were considered. It was possible to simultaneously reduce toxicity and increase seed oil content and weight of 100 seed by using index selection based on genotypic value estimated by the Bayesian multi-trait approach. Indeed, we identified two families that present these characteristics by evaluating genetic diversity using the Ward clustering method, which suggested nine homogenous clusters. Future researches must integrate the Bayesian multi-trait methods with realized relationship matrix, aiming to build accurate selection indices models. PMID:27281340

  9. High-Field MRI Reveals a Drastic Increase of Hypoxia-Induced Microhemorrhages upon Tissue Reoxygenation in the Mouse Brain with Strong Predominance in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Angelika; Kunze, Reiner; Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Pham, Mirko; Marti, Hugo H

    2016-01-01

    Human pathophysiology of high altitude hypoxic brain injury is not well understood and research on the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the lack of well-characterized animal models. In this study, we explored the evolution of brain injury by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological methods in mice exposed to normobaric hypoxia at 8% oxygen for 48 hours followed by rapid reoxygenation and incubation for further 24 h under normoxic conditions. T2*-, diffusion-weighted and T2-relaxometry MRI was performed before exposure, immediately after 48 hours of hypoxia and 24 hours after reoxygenation. Cerebral microhemorrhages, previously described in humans suffering from severe high altitude cerebral edema, were also detected in mice upon hypoxia-reoxygenation with a strong region-specific clustering in the olfactory bulb, and to a lesser extent, in the basal ganglia and cerebral white matter. The number of microhemorrhages determined immediately after hypoxia was low, but strongly increased 24 hours upon onset of reoxygenation. Histologically verified microhemorrhages were exclusively located around cerebral microvessels with disrupted interendothelial tight junction protein ZO-1. In contrast, quantitative T2 and apparent-diffusion-coefficient values immediately after hypoxia and after 24 hours of reoxygenation did not show any region-specific alteration, consistent with subtle multifocal but not with regional or global brain edema.

  10. A high-throughput chemical screen reveals that harmine-mediated inhibition of DYRK1A increases human pancreatic beta cell replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Alvarez-Perez, Juan-Carlos; Felsenfeld, Dan P; Liu, Hongtao; Sivendran, Sharmila; Bender, Aaron; Kumar, Anil; Sanchez, Roberto; Scott, Donald K; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Stewart, Andrew F

    2015-04-01

    Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both ultimately result from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with a peak percentage (∼2%) engaged in the cell cycle in the first year of life. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication is barely detectable. Whereas beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts. Hence, there remains an urgent need for antidiabetic therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, using a high-throughput small-molecule screen (HTS), we find that analogs of the small molecule harmine function as a new class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds. We also define dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine and the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation and differentiation. Using three different mouse and human islet in vivo-based models, we show that harmine is able to induce beta cell proliferation, increase islet mass and improve glycemic control. These observations suggest that harmine analogs may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing the potency and beta cell specificity of these compounds are important future challenges.

  11. High-Field MRI Reveals a Drastic Increase of Hypoxia-Induced Microhemorrhages upon Tissue Reoxygenation in the Mouse Brain with Strong Predominance in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Human pathophysiology of high altitude hypoxic brain injury is not well understood and research on the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the lack of well-characterized animal models. In this study, we explored the evolution of brain injury by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological methods in mice exposed to normobaric hypoxia at 8% oxygen for 48 hours followed by rapid reoxygenation and incubation for further 24 h under normoxic conditions. T2*-, diffusion-weighted and T2-relaxometry MRI was performed before exposure, immediately after 48 hours of hypoxia and 24 hours after reoxygenation. Cerebral microhemorrhages, previously described in humans suffering from severe high altitude cerebral edema, were also detected in mice upon hypoxia-reoxygenation with a strong region-specific clustering in the olfactory bulb, and to a lesser extent, in the basal ganglia and cerebral white matter. The number of microhemorrhages determined immediately after hypoxia was low, but strongly increased 24 hours upon onset of reoxygenation. Histologically verified microhemorrhages were exclusively located around cerebral microvessels with disrupted interendothelial tight junction protein ZO-1. In contrast, quantitative T2 and apparent-diffusion-coefficient values immediately after hypoxia and after 24 hours of reoxygenation did not show any region-specific alteration, consistent with subtle multifocal but not with regional or global brain edema.

  12. Concurrent Increases and Decreases in Local Stability and Conformational Heterogeneity in Cu, Zn Superoxide Dismutase Variants Revealed by Temperature-Dependence of Amide Chemical Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colleen M; Rumfeldt, Jessica A; Broom, Helen R; Sekhar, Ashok; Kay, Lewis E; Meiering, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-08

    The chemical shifts of backbone amide protons in proteins are sensitive reporters of local structural stability and conformational heterogeneity, which can be determined from their readily measured linear and nonlinear temperature-dependences, respectively. Here we report analyses of amide proton temperature-dependences for native dimeric Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (holo pWT SOD1) and structurally diverse mutant SOD1s associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Holo pWT SOD1 loses structure with temperature first at its periphery and, while having extremely high global stability, nevertheless exhibits extensive conformational heterogeneity, with ∼1 in 5 residues showing evidence for population of low energy alternative states. The holo G93A and E100G ALS mutants have moderately decreased global stability, whereas V148I is slightly stabilized. Comparison of the holo mutants as well as the marginally stable immature monomeric unmetalated and disulfide-reduced (apo(2SH)) pWT with holo pWT shows that changes in the local structural stability of individual amides vary greatly, with average changes corresponding to differences in global protein stability measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Mutants also exhibit altered conformational heterogeneity compared to pWT. Strikingly, substantial increases as well as decreases in local stability and conformational heterogeneity occur, in particular upon maturation and for G93A. Thus, the temperature-dependence of amide shifts for SOD1 variants is a rich source of information on the location and extent of perturbation of structure upon covalent changes and ligand binding. The implications for potential mechanisms of toxic misfolding of SOD1 in disease and for general aspects of protein energetics, including entropy-enthalpy compensation, are discussed.

  13. Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortiz eArmbruster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytic uptake of glutamate shapes extracellular neurotransmitter dynamics, receptor activation, and synaptogenesis. During development, glutamate transport becomes more robust. How neonatal brain insult affects the functional maturation of glutamate transport remains unanswered. Neonatal brain insult can lead to developmental delays, cognitive losses, and epilepsy; the disruption of glutamate transport is known to cause changes in synaptogenesis, receptor activation, and seizure. Using the neonatal freeze-lesion (FL model, we have investigated how insult affects the maturation of astrocytic glutamate transport. As lesioning occurs on the day of birth, a time when astrocytes are still functionally immature, this model is ideal for identifying changes in astrocyte maturation following insult. Reactive astrocytosis, astrocyte proliferation, and in vitro hyperexcitability are known to occur in this model. To probe astrocyte glutamate transport with better spatial precision we have developed a novel technique, Laser Scanning Astrocyte Mapping (LSAM, which combines glutamate transport current (TC recording from astrocytes with laser scanning glutamate photolysis. LSAM allows us to identify the area from which a single astrocyte can transport glutamate and to quantify spatial heterogeneity in the rate of glutamate clearance kinetics within that domain. Using LSAM, we report that cortical astrocytes have an increased glutamate-responsive area following FL and that TCs have faster decay times in distal, as compared to proximal processes. Furthermore, the developmental shift from GLAST- to GLT-1-dominated clearance is disrupted following FL. These findings introduce a novel method to probe astrocyte glutamate uptake and show that neonatal cortical FL disrupts the functional maturation of cortical astrocytes.

  14. In Vitro and Molecular Surveillance for Antimalarial Drug Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Parasites in Western Kenya Reveals Sustained Artemisinin Sensitivity and Increased Chloroquine Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, Naomi W; Komino, Franklin; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Goldman, Ira; Onyona, Philip; Wiegand, Ryan E; Juma, Elizabeth; Shi, Ya Ping; Barnwell, John W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Kariuki, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Malaria control is hindered by the evolution and spread of resistance to antimalarials, necessitating multiple changes to drug policies over time. A comprehensive antimalarial drug resistance surveillance program is vital for detecting the potential emergence of resistance to antimalarials, including current artemisinin-based combination therapies. An antimalarial drug resistance surveillance study involving 203 Plasmodium falciparum malaria-positive children was conducted in western Kenya between 2010 and 2013. Specimens from enrolled children were analyzed in vitro for sensitivity to chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ), lumefantrine, and artemisinin derivatives (artesunate and dihydroartemisinin) and for drug resistance allele polymorphisms in P. falciparum crt (Pfcrt), Pfmdr-1, and the K13 propeller domain (K13). We observed a significant increase in the proportion of samples with the Pfcrt wild-type (CVMNK) genotype, from 61.2% in 2010 to 93.0% in 2013 (P < 0.0001), and higher proportions of parasites with elevated sensitivity to CQ in vitro. The majority of isolates harbored the wild-type N allele in Pfmdr-1 codon 86 (93.5%), with only 7 (3.50%) samples with the N86Y mutant allele (the mutant nucleotide is underlined). Likewise, most isolates harbored the wild-type Pfmdr-1 D1246 allele (79.8%), with only 12 (6.38%) specimens with the D1246Y mutant allele and 26 (13.8%) with mixed alleles. All the samples had a single copy of the Pfmdr-1 gene (mean of 0.907 ± 0.141 copies). None of the sequenced parasites had mutations in K13. Our results suggest that artemisinin is likely to remain highly efficacious and that CQ sensitivity appears to be on the rise in western Kenya.

  15. Optimum thickness of Mossbauer absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    If recoilless fraction fa is available, the optimum absorber thickness dopt can be calculated by maximizing the signal to noise ratio or Q factor. In this work,an approach presented is to get experimental Qexp as a function of the thickness, and then fitting Qexp by its theoretical expression gives fa value. At last the dopt value is deduced from a maximum on the fitted curve. In such a way, thicknesses of six specimens with quadrupole or magnetic hyperfine splitting were optimized.

  16. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  17. Effect of Polymer Inclusion in Preparation of Thick LZO Buffer Layers for YBCO Coated Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vyshnavi Narayanan; Isabel Van Driessche

    2013-01-01

    In this work,water-based precursor solutions suitable for dip-coating of thick La2Zr2O7 (LZO) buffer layers for coated conductors on Ni-5%W substrates with an inclusion of polymeric polyvinyl pyrrolidone were developed.The effect of varying percentage of the polymer addition on the preparation of the deposited films with maximum crack-free thickness was investigated.This novel water-based chemical solution deposition method involving polymers in two different chelate-chemistry compositions revealed the possibility to grow single,crack-free layers with thicknesses ranging from 140 to 280 nm,with good crystallinity and epitaxial growth.The effect of increasing polymer concentrations on the morphology and the structure of the films was studied.The appropriate buffer layer action of the films in preventing Ni diffusion was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  18. Thickness dependence of electrical properties of PZT films deposited on metal substrates by laser-assisted aerosol deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, S; Tsuda, H; Akedo, J

    2008-05-01

    Dependence of electrical properties-dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties-on film thickness was studied for lead-zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films directly deposited onto stainless-steel (SUS) substrates in actuator devices by using a carbon dioxide (CO(2) ), laser assisted aerosol deposition technique. Optical spectroscopic analysis data and laser irradiation experiments revealed that absorption at a given wavelength by the film increased with increasing film thickness. Dielectric constant epsilon, remanent polarization value P(r), and coercive field strength E(c) of PZT films directly deposited onto a SUS-based piezoelectric actuator substrate annealed by CO(2) laser irradiation at 850 degrees C improved with increasing film thickness, and for films thicker than 25 microm, epsilon 800, P(r) 40 microC/cm(2), and E(c) 45 kV/cm. In contrast, the displacement of the SUS-based actuator with the laser-annealed PZT thick film decreased with increasing film thickness.

  19. Melting heat transfer in the MHD flow of a third-grade fluid over a variable-thickness surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Kiran, Asmara; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ayub, M.

    2017-06-01

    The present study addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a third-grade fluid over a nonlinear stretched surface with variable thickness. The heat transfer phenomenon is discussed through melting. The system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is attained by considering proper transformations. Convergent series solutions of velocity and temperature are developed. Fluid flow, temperature, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are examined through graphs for different parameters. It is noted that velocity and temperature decrease with decreasing the wall thickness parameter. It is also revealed that the temperature distribution enhances for increasing values of the Prandtl number. Here the velocity field reduces for increasing values of the melting parameter.

  20. [Internship-test reveals increased knowledge gaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östgren, Carl-Johan; Krook-Brandt, Margareta; Carlborg, Andreas

    2016-04-08

    We present the results of the medical knowledge test after fulfilled internship for Swedish medical authorization during the years 2009 to the spring of 2015. A total of 7,613 tests were analyzed. Interns graduated from Swedish universities failed in 2.7% to 3.8% of the test moments. Interns who graduated from countries within the European Union (EU) failed in 21.2% and interns graduated from a non-EU country failed in 41.6%. The results from those who graduated from EU and non-EU countries have worsened compared to an earlier study in 2009. Proper measures have now to be implemented for doctors graduated from a non-Swedish university to improve the outcome and introduction to the Swedish health care system.

  1. Residual Stress Analysis in Thick Uranium Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, A M; Foreman, R J; Gallegos, G F

    2004-12-06

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1.0 to 25 {micro}m, depleted Uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0-300V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses.

  2. Thickness diffusivity in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Carsten

    2006-06-01

    Thickness diffusivity ($\\kappa$) according to the Gent and McWilliams parameterisation which accounts for eddy-driven advection in the ocean, is estimated using output from an eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. A physically meaningful definition of rotational eddy fluxes leads almost everywhere to positive $\\kappa$. Zonally averaged near surface values of $\\kappa$ remain smaller than 200 m2/s poleward of the polar front, increases between 60-45°S to about 600 m2/s and peak between 45-35° S at almost 3000 m2/s. $\\kappa$ stays high in the upper 500 m but decreases with depth and is essentially zero below 2500 m. In addition to the thickness diffusion ($\\kappa$) there is eddy-induced eastward (westward) advection of isopycnal thickness at the poleward (equatorward) flank of the ACC pointing toward strong anisotropic lateral mixing.

  3. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  4. Ocular dimensions, corneal thickness, and corneal curvature in quarter horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badial, Peres R; Cisneros-Àlvarez, Luis Emiliano; Brandão, Cláudia Valéria S; Ranzani, José Joaquim T; Tomaz, Mayana A R V; Machado, Vania M; Borges, Alexandre S

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ocular dimensions, corneal curvature, and corneal thickness between horses affected with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) and unaffected horses. Five HERDA-affected quarter horses and five healthy control quarter horses were used. Schirmer's tear test, tonometry, and corneal diameter measurements were performed in both eyes of all horses prior to ophthalmologic examinations. Ultrasonic pachymetry was performed to measure the central, temporal, nasal, dorsal, and ventral corneal thicknesses in all horses. B-mode ultrasound scanning was performed on both eyes of each horse to determine the dimensions of the ocular structures and to calculate the corneal curvature. Each corneal region examined in this study was thinner in the affected group compared with the healthy control group. However, significant differences in corneal thickness were only observed for the central and dorsal regions. HERDA-affected horses exhibited significant increases in corneal curvature and corneal diameter compared with unaffected animals. The ophthalmologic examinations revealed mild corneal opacity in one eye of one affected horse and in both eyes of three affected horses. No significant between-group differences were observed for Schirmer's tear test, intraocular pressure, or ocular dimensions. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia-affected horses exhibit decreased corneal thickness in several regions of the cornea, increased corneal curvature, increased corneal diameter, and mild corneal opacity. Additional research is required to determine whether the increased corneal curvature significantly impacts the visual accuracy of horses with HERDA. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Smoluchowski coagulation models of sea ice thickness distribution dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlovitch, D.; Illner, R.; Monahan, A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea ice thickness distributions display a ubiquitous exponential decrease with thickness. This tail characterizes the range of ice thickness produced by mechanical redistribution of ice through the process of ridging, rafting, and shearing. We investigate how well the thickness distribution can be simulated by representing mechanical redistribution as a generalized stacking process. Such processes are naturally described by a well-studied class of models known as Smoluchowski Coagulation Models (SCMs), which describe the dynamics of a population of fixed-mass "particles" which combine in pairs to form a "particle" with the combined mass of the constituent pair at a rate which depends on the mass of the interacting particles. Like observed sea ice thickness distributions, the mass distribution of the populations generated by SCMs has an exponential or quasi-exponential form. We use SCMs to model sea ice, identifying mass-increasing particle combinations with thickness-increasing ice redistribution processes. Our model couples an SCM component with a thermodynamic component and generates qualitatively accurate thickness distributions with a variety of rate kernels. Our results suggest that the exponential tail of the sea ice thickness distribution arises from the nature of the ridging process, rather than specific physical properties of sea ice or the spatial arrangement of floes, and that the relative strengths of the dynamic and thermodynamic processes are key in accurately simulating the rate at which the sea ice thickness tail drops off with thickness.

  6. The Effect of Thickness of Aluminium Films on Optical Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lugolole

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda and Africa at large, up to 90% of the total energy used for food preparation and water pasteurization is from fossil fuels particularly firewood and kerosene which pollute the environment, yet there is abundant solar energy throughout the year, which could also be used. Uganda is abundantly rich in clay minerals such as ball clay, kaolin, feldspar, and quartz from which ceramic substrates were developed. Aluminium films of different thicknesses were deposited on different substrates in the diffusion pump microprocessor vacuum coater (Edwards AUTO 306. The optical reflectance of the aluminium films was obtained using a spectrophotometer (SolidSpec-3700/DUV-UV-VIS-NIR at various wave lengths. The analysis of the results of the study revealed that the optical reflectance of the aluminium films was above 50% and increased with increasing film thickness and wavelength. Thus, this method can be used to produce reflector systems in the technology of solar cooking and other appliances which use solar energy.

  7. ON THE FORMATION OF GALACTIC THICK DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchev, I.; Streich, D.; Scannapieco, C.; De Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Martig, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Recent spectroscopic observations in the Milky Way suggest that the chemically defined thick disk (stars that have high [α/Fe] ratios and are thus old) has a significantly smaller scale-length than the thin disk. This is in apparent contradiction with observations of external edge-on galaxies, where the thin and thick components have comparable scale-lengths. Moreover, while observed disks do not flare (scale-height does not increase with radius), numerical simulations suggest that disk flaring is unavoidable, resulting from both environmental effects and secular evolution. Here we address these problems by studying two different suites of simulated galactic disks formed in the cosmological context. We show that the scale-heights of coeval populations always increase with radius. However, the total population can be decomposed morphologically into thin and thick disks, which do not flare. We relate this to the disk inside-out formation, where younger populations have increasingly larger scale-lengths and flare at progressively larger radii. In this new picture, thick disks are composed of the imbedded flares of mono-age stellar populations. Assuming that disks form inside out, we predict that morphologically defined thick disks must show a decrease in age (or [α/Fe] ratios) with radius and that coeval populations should always flare. This also explains the observed inversion in the metallicity and [α/Fe] gradients for stars away from the disk midplane in the Milky Way. The results of this work are directly linked to, and can be seen as evidence of, inside-out disk growth.

  8. Foveal thickness after phacoemulsification as measured by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Th Georgopoulos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Gerasimos Th Georgopoulos, Dimitrios Papaconstantinou, Maria Niskopoulou, Marilita Moschos, Ilias Georgalas, Chrysanthi KoutsandreaGlaucoma Department, Medical School, Athens University, Athens, GreeceBackground: Despite a significant body of research, no consistency on postoperative foveal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT, can be recorded. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of uncomplicated cataract surgery in the thickness of the retina in the foveal area during the early postoperative period.Methods: In a prospective study, 79 eyes were assessed by OCT, on day 1, and weeks 2 and 4 after uncomplicated phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in the Athens University Clinic. The outcome measure was the thickness of the retina in the foveal area.Results: The thickness of the retina preoperatively is significantly smaller (150.4 ± 18.8 (p < 0.05 than the thickness of the retina on day 1 (171.8 ± 21 and week 2 (159.7 ± 19 and returned to the initial levels on week 4 (152 ± 17.1. The estimated correlation coefficients between preoperative and postoperative thickness of the retina were significant (p < 0.05. Conversely, no association was found between postoperative visual acuity and thickness of the retina, neither between the phacoemulsification energy and retinal thickness. Operation time, although inversely related with postoperative visual acuity, was not associated with the thickness of the retina.Conclusions: Following phacoemulsification, an increase in the foveal thickness was detected in the early postoperative period, quantified and followed up by OCT. The foveal thickness returned to the preoperative level, 1 month following surgery in our study. No association was shown between intraoperative parameters and increased postoperative retinal thickness.Keywords: optical coherence tomography, phacoemulsification, retinal thickness

  9. Effect of thickness on optical properties of nickel vertical posts deposited by GLAD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potočnik, J.; Nenadović, M.; Bundaleski, N.; Popović, M.; Rakočević, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Nickel (Ni) thin films of different thicknesses (25 nm to 150 nm) were deposited on glass substrates using Glancing Angle Deposition technique. Characterization of obtained Ni films was performed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and by four-point probe method. Variations in optical parameters with thickness correlated with structural, chemical and electrical properties of nanostructured nickel thin films were studied. The results showed that deposit is porous and consists of nano-scaled columns, which grow perpendicular to the substrate. It was found that the size of the columns and the surface roughness change with film thickness. Spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed that the refractive index and extinction coefficient varied with thickness, which can be correlated with changes in microstructure of Ni films. Additionally, the relationship between the film microstructure and its resistivity was also analyzed. It was found that the variations in Ni films resistivity could be attributed to the changes in the width of the columns. The increasing of layer thickness leads to overall decrease of optical resistivity of nickel thin films.

  10. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Scott A; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the thickness of the invivo peripapillary choroid have been documented in a range of ocular conditions in adults; however, choroidal thickness in the peripapillary region of children has not been examined in detail. This study therefore aimed to investigate the thickness of the peripapillary choroid and the overlying retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in a population of normal children with a range of refractive errors. Ninety-three children (37 myopes and 56 non-myopes) aged between 11 and 16 years, had measurements of peripapillary choroidal and RNFL thickness derived from enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images (EDI-OCT, Heidelberg Spectralis). The average thickness was determined in a series of five 0.25 mm width concentric annuli (each divided into 8 equal sized 45° sectors) centred on the optic nerve head boundary, accounting for individual ocular magnification factors and the disc-fovea angle. Significant variations in peripapillary choroidal thickness were found to occur with both annulus location (p choroid (mean 77 ± 16 μm) and the outermost annulus, the thickest choroid (191 ± 52 μm). The choroid was thinnest inferior to the optic nerve head (139 ± 38 μm) and was thickest in the superior temporal sector (157 ± 40 μm). Significant differences in the distribution of choroidal thickness were also associated with myopia, with myopic children having significantly thinner choroids in the inner and outer annuli of the nasal and temporal sectors respectively (p thickness also varied significantly with annulus location and sector (p thickness distribution associated with refractive error. This study establishes the normal variations in the thickness of the peripapillary choroid with radial distance and azimuthal angle from the optic nerve head boundary. A significant thinning of the peripapillary choroid associated with myopia in childhood was also observed in both nasal and temporal regions. The changes in peripapillary RNFL

  11. Antarctic Crustal Thickness from Gravity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation is derived from the gravity inversion and uses no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition location, which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the most recent Bedmap2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south (Fretwell et al., 2013) and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by narrow continental rifts that feature relatively thinner crust. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) is a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. Intermediate crustal thickness with an inferred linear rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica

  12. Effects of Weak Layer Angle and Thickness on the Stability of Rock Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garmondyu Crusoe Jr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches two key factors (angle and thickness of a weak layer in relation to their influencing mechanism on slope stability. It puts forward the sliding surface angle and morphological model criteria for the control of rock slopes and realization of its failure mechanism. By comparing the Failure Modes and Safety Factors (Fs obtained from numerical analysis, the influence pattern for the weak layer angle and thickness on the stability of rock slopes is established. The result shows that the weak layer angle influences the slope by validating the existence of the “interlocking” situation. It also illustrates that as the angle of the weak layer increases, the Fs unceasingly decreases with an Fs transformation angle. The transformation interval of the Fs demonstrates the law of diminishing of a quadratic function. Analysis of the weak layer thickness on the influence pattern of slope stability reveals three decrease stages in the Fs values. The result also shows that the increase in the thickness of the weak layer increases the failure zone and influences the mode of failure. Given the theoretical and numerical analysis of a weak layer effects on the stability of rock slopes, this work provides a guiding role in understanding the influence of a weak layer on the failure modes and safety factors of rock slopes.

  13. Cortical thickness maturation and duration of music training: health-promoting activities shape brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudziak, James J; Albaugh, Matthew D; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif; Spottswood, Margaret; Crehan, Eileen; Evans, Alan C; Botteron, Kelly N

    2014-11-01

    To assess the extent to which playing a musical instrument is associated with cortical thickness development among healthy youths. Participants were part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development. This study followed a longitudinal design such that participants underwent MRI scanning and behavioral testing on up to 3 separate visits, occurring at 2-year intervals. MRI, IQ, and music training data were available for 232 youths (334 scans), ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Cortical thickness was regressed against the number of years that each youth had played a musical instrument. Next, thickness was regressed against an "Age × Years of Playing" interaction term. Age, gender, total brain volume, and scanner were controlled for in analyses. Participant ID was entered as a random effect to account for within-person dependence. False discovery rate correction was applied (p ≤ .05). There was no association between thickness and years playing a musical instrument. The "Age × Years of Playing" interaction was associated with thickness in motor, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices, as well as prefrontal and parietal cortices. Follow-up analysis revealed that music training was associated with an increased rate of thickness maturation. Results were largely unchanged when IQ and handedness were included as covariates. Playing a musical instrument was associated with more rapid cortical thickness maturation within areas implicated in motor planning and coordination, visuospatial ability, and emotion and impulse regulation. However, given the quasi-experimental nature of this study, we cannot rule out the influence of confounding variables. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Research on Ground Movement Laws for Strip Mining Under Thick Alluvium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志祥; 邓喀中; 杨军

    2002-01-01

    With the discrete element method, the simulation and analysis of a series of numerical models were made. This research revealed ground movement laws for strip mining under thick alluvium and gave calculation formulae for the maximum ground subsidence and horizontal movement as a function of basement rock thickness and mining width, thus providing sound evidence for future strip mining under thick alluvium.

  15. The influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick specimens in MeV transmission electron imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Ying; Cao, Meng; Nishi, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of structure depth on image blurring of micrometres-thick films by experiment and simulation with a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM). First, ultra-high-voltage electron microscope (ultra-HVEM) images of nanometer gold particles embedded in thick epoxy-resin films were acquired in the experiment and compared with simulated images. Then, variations of image blurring of gold particles at different depths were evaluated by calculating the particle diameter. The results showed that with a decrease in depth, image blurring increased. This depth-related property was more apparent for thicker specimens. Fortunately, larger particle depth involves less image blurring, even for a 10-μm-thick epoxy-resin film. The quality dependence on depth of a 3D reconstruction of particle structures in thick specimens was revealed by electron tomography. The evolution of image blurring with structure depth is determined mainly by multiple elastic scattering effects. Thick specimens of heavier materials produced more blurring due to a larger lateral spread of electrons after scattering from the structure. Nevertheless, increasing electron energy to 2MeV can reduce blurring and produce an acceptable image quality for thick specimens in the TEM.

  16. An experimental and simulation study on build thickness dependent microstructure for electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xipeng, E-mail: xptan1985@gmail.com [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, HW1-01-05, 2A Nanyang Link, 637372 Singapore (Singapore); Kok, Yihong; Tan, Yu Jun [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, HW1-01-05, 2A Nanyang Link, 637372 Singapore (Singapore); Vastola, Guglielmo, E-mail: vastolag@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*Star, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, 138632 Singapore (Singapore); Pei, Qing Xiang; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*Star, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, 138632 Singapore (Singapore); Tor, Shu Beng; Leong, Kah Fai; Chua, Chee Kai [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, HW1-01-05, 2A Nanyang Link, 637372 Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    Build thickness dependent microstructure of electron beam melted (EBM{sup ®}) Ti–6Al–4V has been investigated from both experiment and simulation using four block samples with thicknesses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mm. We observe a mixed microstructure of alternate α/β with some α′ martensite inside the 1 mm-thick sample. By contrast, only the alternate α/β microstructure with both colony and basket-weave morphologies occurs inside the 5 mm-, 10 mm- and 20 mm-thick samples. It is found that β spacing is constantly increased with the build thickness, leading to an obvious decrease in microhardness. Finite element method (FEM) simulations show that cooling rates and thermal profiles during EBM process are favorable for the formation of martensite. Moreover, full-scale FEM simulations reveal that the average temperature inside the samples is higher as the build thickness increases. It suggests that martensitic decomposition is faster in thicker samples, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations. - Highlights: • Build geometry dependent microstructure and microhardness for EBM-built Ti–6Al–4V. • Phase evolution involved in EBM process. • FEM simulation of EBM process. • α′ martensite formation and its identification.

  17. Elastic thickness compressibilty of the red cell membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, V; Ritchie, K; Mohandas, N; Evans, E.

    2001-01-01

    We have used an ultrasensitive force probe and optical interferometry to examine the thickness compressibility of the red cell membrane in situ. Pushed into the centers of washed-white red cell ghosts lying on a coverglass, the height of the microsphere-probe tip relative to its closest approach on the adjacent glass surface revealed the apparent material thickness, which began at approximately 90 nm per membrane upon detection of contact (force approximately 1-2 pN). With further impingement...

  18. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busi Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards.

  19. The Effect of Nozzle Trailing Edge Thickness on Jet Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Haskin, Henry

    2004-01-01

    The effect of nozzle trailing edge thickness on broadband acoustic radiation and the production of tones is investigated for coannular nozzles. Experiments were performed for a core nozzle trailing edge thickness between 0.38 mm and 3.17 mm. The on-set of discrete tones was found to be predominantly affected by the velocity ratio, the ratio of the fan velocity to the core velocity, although some dependency on trailing edge thickness was also noted. For a core nozzle trailing edge thickness greater than or equal to 0.89 mm, tones were produced for velocity ratios between 0.91 and 1.61. For a constant nozzle trailing edge thickness, the frequency varied almost linearly with the core velocity. The Strouhal number based on the core velocity changed with nozzle trailing edge thickness and varied between 0.16 and 0.2 for the core nozzles used in the experiments. Increases in broadband noise with increasing trailing edge thickness were observed for tone producing and non-tone producing conditions. A variable thickness trailing edge (crenellated) nozzle resulted in no tonal production and a reduction of the broadband trailing edge noise relative to that of the corresponding constant thickness trailing edge.

  20. Estimate of shock thickness based on entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P. A.; Strock, T. W.; Lim, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    The shock thickness is estimated for a stationary shock in an ideal gas by equating the internal entropy production to the entropy increase found from the Rankine-Hugoniot equation. For elementary assumed profiles, the thickness is expressed by a simple formula. For realistic dependence of viscosity on temperature, results are in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  1. Sputtering of Thick Deuterium Films by KeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen;

    1994-01-01

    Sputtering of thick films of solid deuterium up to several μm by keV electrons is reported for the first time. The sputtering yield increases within a narrow range of thicknesses around 1.6 μm by about 2 orders of magnitude for 1.5 keV electrons. A similar behavior has not been observed for ion...

  2. Effects of ITO precursor thickness on transparent conductive Al doped ZnO film for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Won; Kuk, Seung-Hee; Han, Min-Koo [School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Kwang-Sun; Lee, Heon-Min [LG Electronics, 16 Woomyeon-Dong Seocho-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) film was continuously deposited on ITO precursor on glass substrate by d.c. magnetron sputtering. The thickness of ITO was varied from 30 to 120 nm in order to investigate the effect of ITO thickness on crystallinity of AZO film. X-ray diffraction measurement shows that AZO film grown on ITO has an enhanced (0 0 2) preferred orientation as the ITO thickness was increased. The crystalline structure improvement of AZO film with an increase of ITO precursor thickness is due to the near-epitaxial growth of AZO on ITO precursor. As the ITO thickness was increased, mobility of AZO film by the Hall measurement was significantly increased from 5.4 cm{sup 2}/V s (no ITO) to 23.6 cm{sup 2}/V s (ITO 120 nm), and resistivity was about 81.7% improved from 1.99 x 10{sup -3} to 3.63 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm. The AZO films with ITO revealed excellent average transmission of visible (90.0%) and NIR (89.6%) regions, whereas those of AZO film without ITO were 82.1% and 88.1%, respectively. The haze values of AZO film with ITO of 90 and 120 nm are similar or higher than those of AZO film without ITO. The surface textured AZO film with ITO precursor is promising for optoelectronic applications such as the front TCO of thin film solar cells. (author)

  3. Thickness dependence of magnetic properties in (Fe){sub 0.73}(Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.27} nano-granular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Feng [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ge Shihui, E-mail: gesh@lzu.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Zhenkun; Zhou Xueyun; Wang Guowei; Yu Zhenhua; Li Fasheng [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} (Fe){sub 0.73}(Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.27} nano-granular films with thicknesses varying from 46 nm to 220 nm were fabricated by a RF magnetron sputtering method. {yields} There is a critical thickness t{sub c} around 65 nm in the (Fe){sub 0.73}(Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.27} nano-granular films. Below t{sub c}, the films possess an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and lower H{sub c}. {yields} The spectrum of the film can be ascribed to the uniform coherent spin procession. {yields} Above t{sub c}, the films exhibit a small perpendicular anisotropy, higher H{sub c} and stripe domains, and the stripe period increases with increasing film thickness. {yields} The increasing film thickness leads to an monotonously increase of the permeability (imaginary part), and a shift of resonance frequency towards the low frequency and a decrease of resonance linewidth for the films with thickness larger than 120 nm. - Abstract: (Fe){sub 0.73}(Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.27} nano-granular films with thicknesses varying from 46 nm to 220 nm were fabricated by a RF magnetron sputtering method. The static and dynamic magnetic properties of these films on thickness dependence have been investigated in detail. High-resolution transmission electron micrograph shows that the films consist of Fe granules and crystalline Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix. The results reveal that there is a critical thickness t{sub c} around 65 nm in the (Fe){sub 0.73}(Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.27} nano-granular films. Below t{sub c}, the films possess an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy and lower H{sub c}. Above t{sub c}, the films exhibit a small perpendicular anisotropy, higher H{sub c} and stripe domains, and the stripe period increases with increasing film thickness. The dynamic permeability spectra measured over the frequency range of 0.1-7 GHz display one resonance peak for all thicknesses. The spectrum of the film with thickness below t{sub c} can be

  4. Properties of electrodeposited CoFe/Cu multilayers: The effect of Cu layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Turgut, E-mail: stsahin4@hotmail.com [Deparment of Physics, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir University, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey); Kockar, Hakan, E-mail: hkockar@balikesir.edu.tr [Deparment of Physics, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir University, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey); Alper, Mursel, E-mail: malper@uludag.edu.tr [Deparment of Physics, Science and Literature Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    CoFe/Cu multilayers were potentiostatically electrodeposited on Ti substrates as a function of different non-magnetic (Cu) layer thicknesses, and their characterizations were investigated. The compositional analysis performed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy disclosed that the Cu content in the multilayers increased and the Co content decreased as non-magnetic layer was increased. However, the Fe content was almost stable. The scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the surface morphology of the films is strongly affected by the non-magnetic layer thickness, and X-ray diffraction was used to analyse the structural properties of the multilayers and revealed that the multilayers have face-centred cubic (fcc) structure and their preferred orientations change depending on the Cu layer thickness. In the case of magnetoresistance measurements of the multilayers performed at room temperature, the highest giant magnetoresistance (GMR) values exhibited for the films with the Cu layer thickness (6.0 nm) whereas the lowest GMR magnitudes were observed for the films without Cu layer. Therefore, the variations of the Cu layer thicknesses were observed to have a significant effect on the GMR of multilayers. The differences observed in the magnetotransport properties were attributed to the microstructural changes caused by the Cu layer thickness. - Highlights: • CoFe/Cu multilayers were potentiostatically electrodeposited on Ti substrates. • Microstructural and magnetoresistance properties of CoFe/Cu multilayers were investigated. • All films had a face-centred cubic structure irrespective of the multilayer content. • All samples exhibited GMR and the maximum GMR value was 11%.

  5. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  6. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  7. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  8. Longitudinal changes in choroidal thickness and eye growth in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Scott A; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    To examine longitudinal changes in choroidal thickness and axial length in a population of children with a range of refractive errors. One hundred and one children (41 myopes and 60 nonmyopes) aged 10 to 15 years participated in this prospective, observational longitudinal study. For each child, 6-month measures of choroidal thickness (using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography) and axial ocular biometry were collected four times over an 18-month period. Linear mixed-models were used to examine the longitudinal changes in choroidal thickness and the relationship between changes in choroidal thickness and axial eye growth over the study period. A significant group mean increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness was observed over 18 months (mean increase 13 ± 22 μm, P choroids compared with nonmyopic children (P choroidal thickness over time in myopes and nonmyopes. However, a significant association between the change in choroidal thickness and the change in axial length over time was found (P choroidal thickening over time compared with children showing slower axial eye growth. A significant increase in choroidal thickness occurs over an 18-month period in normal 10- to 15-year-old children. Children undergoing faster axial eye growth exhibited less thickening and, in some cases, a thinning of the choroid. These findings support a potential role for the choroid in the mechanisms regulating eye growth in childhood.

  9. Water Absorption and Thickness Swelling behavior of Medium Density Fiberboard Manufactured by Hydrothermally Treated Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Fallah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, water absorption and thickness swelling behavior of hydrothermally modified fiberboard (MDF. Were evaluated Fibers were treated in a stainless steel reactor at temperatures of 120, 150 and 180°C for holding times of 0, 30 and 90 min. Test boards were prepared based on the target density of 0.7g/cm3 at the press temperature of 175°C as well as the pressure of 30 bar and the press time of 5 min. Urea formaldehyde (UF resin was applied at 10% based on the fibers dry weight. Test samples (10×20×20mm were cut from the boards, dried in an oven and soaked in the water. Water absorption, thickness swelling and their rates were measured in the soaked samples. Results revealed that increase of the treatment temperature caused decrease of water absorption and thickness swelling in the treated boards except in samples treated at 120°C. It was also indicated that increase of the holding time did not significantly affect water absorption and thickness swelling.

  10. Thickness Dependence of Magnetic Properties in DyFeCo Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Rui; Liu Hai-lin; Mei Xue-fei; Li Zuo-yi; Yang Xiao-fei; Shi Jing

    2004-01-01

    Films of amorphous DyFeCo were deposited on glass substrates using RF sputtering deposition system. The thickness dependence of the coercivity of DyFeCo films prepared under the same sputtering conditions was investigated. It is found that the composition is nearly thickness independent, while the coercivity is shown to increase with the film thickness increasing at the beginning, then above a certain thickness decrease with the thickness increasing. The thickness dependence of the coercivity is believed to be due to microstructure-induced variations in the short-range order during the film growth.

  11. Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.

  12. Probing and tuning inelastic phonon conductance across finite-thickness interface

    CERN Document Server

    Murakami, Takuru; Shiga, Takuma; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Phonon transmission across an interface between dissimilar crystalline solids is calculated using molecular dynamics simulations with interatomic force constants obtained from first principles. The results reveal that although inelastic phonon-transmission right at the geometrical interface can become far greater than the elastic one, its contribution to thermal boundary conductance (TBC) is severely limited by the transition regions, where local phonon states at the interface recover the bulk state over a finite thickness. This suggests TBC can be increased by enhancing phonon equilibration in the transition region for instance by phonon scattering, which is demonstrated by increasing the lattice anharmonicity.

  13. Measurement of choroidal thickness and macular thickness during and after pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D?ndü; Melek; Ulusoy; Necati; Duru; Mustafa; Atas; Hasan; Altιnkaynak; Zeynep; Duru; G?khan; A?maz

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pregnancy on subfoveal choroidal thickness(SFCT) and macular thickness in both pregnant and not pregnant healthy women.METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy pregnant women in their third trimester and 36 age-matched healthy women were enrolled in a prospective, cross-sectional study.Foveal and parafoveal thickness in the four quadrants and SFCT were measured by optical coherence tomography(OCT) in the healthy pregnant women(i.e.study group) and healthy women(i.e. control group).OCT measurements were again measured 3mo after delivery in the study group.RESULTS: Mean SFCT measurements in the control group, pregnant women of the study group, and after delivery of the study group were 320.86 ±59.18 μm,387.97 ±59.91 μm, and 332.40 ±26.03 μm, respectively.There was a statistically significant difference in the mean SFCT values between pregnant women of the study group and the control group(P =0.000). Foveal and parafoveal thickness values were not statistically significant in either the study or control group.CONCLUSION: SFCT increases during pregnancy and returns to normal range in the three months after delivery. Macular thickness does not show any change during pregnancy.

  14. Thick REBaCuO superconducting films through single-coating of low-fluorine metallorganic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubeche, M.; Cai, C. B.; Jian, H. B.; Li, M. J.; Yang, W. T.; Liu, Z. Y.; Bai, C. Y.

    2016-10-01

    A high critical current Ic is crucial for the application of high temperature superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-δ in energy efficient power devices and wires. In this paper we report the fabrication of thick (YGd)1.3Ba2Cu3O7-x films on a metal substrate using low-fluorine metal organic deposition method. The effects of the film thickness on the microstructure, texture and superconductivity properties of the films were evaluated. In order to increase the film thicknesses by single coating, the influence of withdrawal speed during the dip coating on resulting thickness are investigated with the other processing parameters fixed. It is revealed that there is a maximum thickness for a certain starting solution. Here we used 3 different solutions, Conventional Low Fluorine solutions with 2 M and 2.5 M, and super low-fluorine solution with 2.5 M. The maximum thicknesses of about 710 nm, 1280 nm and 1460 nm were obtained, respectively.

  15. Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.

  16. Choroidal and macular thickness changes induced by cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão MS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Manuel S Falcão,1,2 Nuno M Gonçalves,2 Paulo Freitas-Costa,1,3 João B Beato,2 Amândio Rocha-Sousa,1,2 Ângela Carneiro,1,2 Elisete M Brandão,2 Fernando M Falcão-Reis1,21Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 2Department of Ophthalmology of Hospital de São João, 3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, PortugalBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of uneventful phacoemulsification on the morphology and thickness of the macula, the submacular choroid, and the peripapillary choroid.Methods: In 14 eyes from 14 patients, retinal macular thickness, choroidal submacular thickness, and choroidal peripapillary thickness were measured preoperatively and at one week and one month after phacoemulsification using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Changes in thickness of the different ocular tissues were evaluated.Results: There was a statistically significant increase in mean retinal macular thickness at one month. In horizontal scans, the mean increase was +8.67±6.75 µm (P<0.001, and in vertical scans, the mean increase was +8.80±7.07 µm (P=0.001. However, there were no significant changes in choroidal morphology in the submacular and peripapillary areas one month after surgery. In vertical scans, there was a nonsignificant increase in choroidal thickness (+4.21±20.2 µm; P=0.47 whilst in horizontal scans a nonsignificant decrease was recorded (−9.11±39.59 µm; P=0.41. In peripapillary scans, a nonsignificant increase in mean choroidal thickness was registered (+3.25±11.80 µm; P=0.36.Conclusion: Uncomplicated phacoemulsification induces nonpathologic increases in retinal macular thickness probably due to the inflammatory insult of the surgery; however these changes are not accompanied by significant changes in choroidal thickness. In the posterior segment, the morphologic response to the inflammatory insult of

  17. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  18. Blackbody Radiation in Optically Thick Gases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the claim that optically thick gases can emit as blackbodies is refuted. The belief that such behavior exists results from an improper consideration of heat transfer and reflection. When heat is injected into a gas, the energy is primarily redistributed into translational degrees of freedom and is not used to drive emission. The average kinetic energy of the particles in the system simply increases and the temperature rises. In this respect, it is well-know that the emissivity of a gas can drop with increasing temperature. Once reflection and translation are properly considered, it is simple to understand why gases can never emit as blackbodies.

  19. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  20. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  1. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  2. Testing Predictions of Continental Insulation using Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Mark; Shorttle, Oliver; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The thermal blanketing effect of continental crust has been predicted to lead to elevated temperatures within the upper mantle beneath supercontinents. Initial break-up is associated with increased magmatism and the generation of flood basalts. Continued rifting and sea-floor spreading lead to a steady reduction of this thermal anomaly. Recently, evidence in support of this behaviour has come from the major element geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, which suggest excess rifting temperatures of ˜ 150 °C that decay over ˜ 100 Ma. We have collated a global inventory of ˜ 1000 seismic reflection profiles and ˜ 500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. Data are predominantly located along passive margins, but there are also multiple surveys in the centres of the major oceanic basins. Oceanic crustal thickness has been mapped, taking care to avoid areas of secondary magmatic thickening near seamounts or later thinning such as across transform faults. These crustal thicknesses are a proxy for mantle potential temperature at the time of melt formation beneath a mid-ocean ridge system, allowing us to quantify the amplitude and duration of thermal anomalies generated beneath supercontinents. The Jurassic break-up of the Central Atlantic and the Cretaceous rifting that formed the South Atlantic Ocean are both associated with excess temperatures of ˜ 50 °C that have e-folding times of ˜ 50 Ma. In addition to this background trend, excess temperatures reach > 150 °C around the region of the Rio Grande Rise, associated with the present-day Tristan hotspot. The e-folding time of this more local event is ˜ 10 Ma, which mirrors results obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. In contrast, crustal thicknesses from the Pacific Ocean reveal approximately constant potential temperature through time. This observation is in agreement with predictions, as the western Pacific was formed by rifting of an oceanic plate. In summary

  3. The heterogeneous ice shell thickness of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Massironi, Matteo

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus is the smallest Solar System body that presents an intense geologic activity on its surface. Plumes erupting from Enceladus' South Polar terrain (SPT) provide direct evidence of a reservoir of liquid below the surface. Previous analysis of gravity data determined that the ice shell above the liquid ocean must be 30-40 km thick from the South Pole up to 50° S latitude (Iess et al., 2014), however, understand the global or regional nature of the ocean beneath the ice crust is still challenging. To infer the thickness of the outer ice shell and prove the global extent of the ocean, we used the self-similar clustering method (Bonnet et al., 2001; Bour et al., 2002) to analyze the widespread fractures of the Enceladus's surface. The spatial distribution of fractures has been analyzed in terms of their self-similar clustering and a two-point correlation method was used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractures population (Mazzarini, 2004, 2010). A self-similar clustering of fractures is characterized by a correlation coefficient with a size range defined by a lower and upper cut-off, that represent a mechanical discontinuity and the thickness of the fractured icy crust, thus connected to the liquid reservoir. Hence, this method allowed us to estimate the icy shell thickness values in different regions of Enceladus from SPT up to northern regions.We mapped fractures in ESRI ArcGis environment in different regions of the satellite improving the recently published geological map (Crow-Willard and Pappalardo, 2015). On these regions we have taken into account the fractures, such as wide troughs and narrow troughs, located in well-defined geological units. Firstly, we analyzed the distribution of South Polar Region fracture patterns finding an ice shell thickness of ~ 31 km, in agreement with gravity measurements (Iess et al., 2014). Then, we applied the same approach to other four regions of the satellite inferring an increasing of the ice

  4. Thickness-dependent electrocaloric effect in mixed-phase Pb0.87Ba0.1 La0.02(Zr0.6Sn0.33Ti0.07)O3 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, T M; Zhang, Q

    2016-08-13

    Full-perovskite Pb0.87Ba0.1La0.02(Zr0.6Sn0.33Ti0.07)O3 (PBLZST) thin films were fabricated by a sol-gel method. These revealed both rhombohedral and tetragonal phases, as opposed to the full-tetragonal phase previously reported in ceramics. The fractions of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases are found to be strongly dependent on film thickness. The fraction of tetragonal grains increases with increasing film thickness, as the substrate constraint throughout the film decreases with film thickness. The maximum of the dielectric constant (εm) and the corresponding temperature (Tm) are thickness-dependent and dictated by the fraction of rhombohedral and tetragonal phase, with εm reaching a minimum at 400 nm and Tm shifting to higher temperature with increasing thickness. With the thickness increase, the breakdown field decreases, but field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric (EAFE-FE) and ferroelectric-antiferroelectric (EFE-AFE) switch fields increase. The electrocaloric effect increases with increasing film thickness.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  5. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  6. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP, and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P<0.001. Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P<0.01, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c (P=0.02. The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r=0.513, P=0.001, CRP (r=0.799, P<0.001, TNFα (r=0.642, P=0.001, and IL-6 (r=0.751, P<0.001. In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P<0.001 and anti-CCP levels (P=0.03. Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events.

  7. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Figueroa-Sánchez, Mauricio; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Martín-Márquez, Beatriz Teresita; Martínez-García, Erika Aurora; Macias-Reyes, Héctor; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa Elena; Nuñez-Atahualpa, María Alejandra; Andrade-Garduño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC) were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP), and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P < 0.001). Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P < 0.01), and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 0.02). The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r = 0.513, P = 0.001), CRP (r = 0.799, P < 0.001), TNFα (r = 0.642, P = 0.001), and IL-6 (r = 0.751, P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P < 0.001) and anti-CCP levels (P = 0.03). Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:25821796

  8. Pioneer Venus polarimetry and haze optical thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbe, W. J. J.; Wauben, W. M. F.; Travis, L. D.; Hovenier, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus mission provided us with high-resolution measurements at four wavelengths of the linear polarization of sunlight reflected by the Venus atmosphere. These measurements span the complete phase angle range and cover a period of more than a decade. A first analysis of these data by Kawabata et al. confirmed earlier suggestions of a haze layer above and partially mixed with the cloud layer. They found that the haze exhibits large spatial and temporal variations. The haze optical thickness at a wavelength of 365 nm was about 0.06 at low latitudes, but approximately 0.8 at latitudes from 55 deg poleward. Differences between morning and evening terminator have also been reported by the same authors. Using an existing cloud/haze model of Venus, we study the relationship between the haze optical thickness and the degree of linear polarization. Variations over the visible disk and phase angle dependence are investigated. For that purpose, exact multiple scattering computations are compared with Pioneer Venus measurements. To get an impression of the variations over the visible disk, we have first studied scans of the polarization parallel to the intensity equator. After investigating a small subset of the available data we have the following results. Adopting the haze particle characteristics given by Kawabata et al., we find a thickening of the haze at increasing latitudes. Further, we see a difference in haze optical thickness between the northern and southern hemispheres that is of the same order of magnitude as the longitudinal variation of haze thickness along a scan line. These effects are most pronounced at a wavelength of 935 nm. We must emphasize the tentative nature of the results, because there is still an enormous amount of data to be analyzed. We intend to combine further polarimetric research of Venus with constraints on the haze parameters imposed by physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere.

  9. Origami-Inspired Folding of Thick, Rigid Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Brian P.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Zirbel, Shannon; Howell, Larry; Lang, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To achieve power of 250 kW or greater, a large compression ratio of stowed-to-deployed area is needed. Origami folding patterns were used to inspire the folding of a solar array to achieve synchronous deployment; however, origami models are generally created for near-zero-thickness material. Panel thickness is one of the main challenges of origami-inspired design. Three origami-inspired folding techniques (flasher, square twist, and map fold) were created with rigid panels and hinges. Hinge components are added to the model to enable folding of thick, rigid materials. Origami models are created assuming zero (or near zero) thickness. When a material with finite thickness is used, the panels are required to bend around an increasingly thick fold as they move away from the center of the model. The two approaches for dealing with material thickness are to use membrane hinges to connect the panels, or to add panel hinges, or hinges of the same thickness, at an appropriate width to enable folding.

  10. Star Counts and Nature of the Galactic Thick Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yuzuru

    Modern star counts at high Galactic latitudes played a major role in revealing the existence of a thick disk as the third stellar component of the Milky Way Galaxy in addition to the old thin disk and halo. A number of star count observations and models showed that the thick disk is represented well by a double exponential density law in the vertical and radial directions. The thick-disk structural parameters determined to date from star count analysis are reviewed, and their limitations are described in terms of the correlation among the derived parameters. The recent preference for h Z ˜ 0. 7 kpc for the scale height of the thick disk, associated with f thick ˜ 0. 1 for its normalization relative to the thin disk, is likely a consequence of the recent popularity of the flattened inner halo with an axial ratio of q ˜ 0. 6 prescribed in star-count modeling. This value of h Z for the thick disk is supported by the kinematic constraint of ˜ 40 km s- 1 for the measured vertical velocity dispersion of candidate thick-disk stars more than 1 kpc from the disk plane. Furthermore, star counts in multiple directions and from all-sky near-infrared surveys have arrived at a convergent result, indicating that the thick disk has a scale length h R ˜ 3. 5 kpc and has a greater radial extension compared to the thin disk, with h R ˜ 2. 5 kpc. Other constraints have arisen from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the kinematics, chemical abundances, and ages of candidate thick-disk stars, confirming the rotational lag of ˜ 40 km s- 1 as well as the vertical gradients of the mean rotation and velocity dispersions in three directions, the constant ratio of alpha to the iron abundances [α/Fe] of ˜ +0.4 dex up to [Fe/H] ˜ - 0.4 dex, a large scatter of metallicity around the mean [Fe/H] ˜ - 0.8 dex with little or no spatial gradient, and a fairly old thick-disk age of ˜ 10 Gyr. The star counts and other constraints together indicate dissipational contraction and

  11. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  12. Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radz, Gary M

    2011-04-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.

  13. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  14. Application of nonlocal models to nano beams. Part II: Thickness length scale effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Sik

    2014-10-01

    Applicability of nonlocal models to nano-beams is discussed in terms of the Eringen's nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli (EB) beam model. In literature, most work has taken the axial coordinate derivative in the Laplacian operator presented in nonlocal elasticity. This causes that the non-locality always makes the beam soften as compared to the local counterpart. In this paper, the thickness scale effect is solely considered to investigate if the nonlocal model can simulate stiffening effect. Taking the thickness derivative in the Laplacian operator leads to the presence of a surface stress state. The governing equation derived is compared to that of the EB model with the surface stress. The results obtained reveal that the nonlocality tends to decrease the bending moment stiffness whereas to increase the bending rigidity in the governing equation. This tendency also depends on the surface conditions.

  15. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  16. Velocity Field and Variation of Wall Thickness During Tube Dieless Upsetting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠堂; 栾瑰馥; 张士宏

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical analyses show that the variation of wall thickness is in direct proportion to outer-diameter, inter-diameter, and (√1 + Rs) (Rs is sectional increase ratio of tube), the theoretical calculated results of wall thickness during tube dieless upsetting are very approximate to the experimental one. As the width of deformation field increases, both the variation of wall thickness and the derivative of wall thickness variation to width of deformation field (tf/to) reduce.

  17. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Turkish subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbagci H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hulya Erbagci,1 Burak Oren,2 Seydi Okumus,3 Serhat Kenan,3 Pelin Celemler,3 Ibrahim Erbagci3 1Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Zirve University Emine Bahattin Nakiboglu, Gaziantep, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kilis State Hospital, Kilis, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the normal peripapillary choroidal thickness (CT, measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT, in healthy Turkish volunteers. Materials and methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 57 eyes of 57 healthy Turkish subjects were enrolled. Each participant underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and peripapillary CT measurement using EDI-OCT. Results: The mean age of the 25 female and 32 male patients in the study was 30.9±10.6 years (range, 18–56 years. The mean peripapillary CT at the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sites was 225±57, 183±47, 220±57, and 233±59 µm, respectively. The inferior peripapillary CT value was significantly lower than the peripapillary CT values (P<0.001 for all, whereas no significant differences were found between the superior, nasal, and temporal peripapillary CT values. Conclusion: The findings of the study revealed that Turkish people had significantly lower peripapillary CT values in the inferior quadrant than in the superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants. Keywords: peripapillary choroidal thickness, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, EDI-OCT

  18. Haplotypes of the porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene are associated with backfat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blöcker Helmut

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors. It is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene (PPARD has been assigned to a region on porcine chromosome 7, which harbours a quantitative trait locus for backfat. Thus, PPARD is considered a functional and positional candidate gene for backfat thickness. The purpose of this study was to test this candidate gene hypothesis in a cross of breeds that were highly divergent in lipid deposition characteristics. Results Screening for genetic variation in porcine PPARD revealed only silent mutations. Nevertheless, significant associations between PPARD haplotypes and backfat thickness were observed in the F2 generation of the Mangalitsa × Piétrain cross as well as a commercial German Landrace population. Haplotype 5 is associated with increased backfat in F2 Mangalitsa × Piétrain pigs, whereas haplotype 4 is associated with lower backfat thickness in the German Landrace population. Haplotype 4 and 5 carry the same alleles at all but one SNP. Interestingly, the opposite effects of PPARD haplotypes 4 and 5 on backfat thickness are reflected by opposite effects of these two haplotypes on PPAR-δ mRNA levels. Haplotype 4 significantly increases PPAR-δ mRNA levels, whereas haplotype 5 decreases mRNA levels of PPAR-δ. Conclusion This study provides evidence for an association between PPARD and backfat thickness. The association is substantiated by mRNA quantification. Further studies are required to clarify, whether the observed associations are caused by PPARD or are the result of linkage disequilibrium with a causal variant in a neighbouring gene.

  19. REVEALED ALTRUISM

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, James C; Friedman, Daniel; Sadiraj, Vjollca

    2009-01-01

    This pap er develops a theory of revealed preferences over oneís own and othersímonetary payo§s. We intro duce ìmore altruistic thanî(MAT), a partial ordering over preferences, and interpret it with known parametric mo dels. We also intro duce and illustrate ìmore generous thanî (MGT), a partial ordering over opp ortunity sets. Several recent discussions of altruism fo cus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the Örst mover (FM) cho oses a more or less gen...

  20. THOR: Cloud Thickness from Off beam Lidar Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; McGill, Matthew; Kolasinski, John; Varnai, Tamas; Yetzer, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Conventional wisdom is that lidar pulses do not significantly penetrate clouds having optical thickness exceeding about tau = 2, and that no returns are detectable from more than a shallow skin depth. Yet optically thicker clouds of tau much greater than 2 reflect a larger fraction of visible photons, and account for much of Earth s global average albedo. As cloud layer thickness grows, an increasing fraction of reflected photons are scattered multiple times within the cloud, and return from a diffuse concentric halo that grows around the incident pulse, increasing in horizontal area with layer physical thickness. The reflected halo is largely undetected by narrow field-of-view (FoV) receivers commonly used in lidar applications. THOR - Thickness from Off-beam Returns - is an airborne wide-angle detection system with multiple FoVs, capable of observing the diffuse halo, detecting wide-angle signal from which physical thickness of optically thick clouds can be retrieved. In this paper we describe the THOR system, demonstrate that the halo signal is stronger for thicker clouds, and validate physical thickness retrievals for clouds having z > 20, from NASA P-3B flights over the Department of Energy/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Southern Great Plains site, using the lidar, radar and other ancillary ground-based data.

  1. Pelvic floor muscle thickness measured by perineal ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Juul, N; Grønvall, S;

    1991-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle thickness was assessed in nine healthy female physiotherapists by perineal sonography. All measurements were performed as triple-measurements. The aims were to assess the reliability of the measurements and to establish a reference material. The muscle thickness at rest...... and at contraction was 9.4 +/- 0.8 mm and 11.5 +/- 1.1 mm respectively (mean +/- SD). Contraction increased the thickness by 2.2 +/- 0.8 mm or 23 +/- 8%. The intra- and inter observer standard deviation of the estimate was in the range of 4-6%. In conclusion, we find the reliability of the measurements acceptable....

  2. Characteristics of shell thickness in a slab continuous casting mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di-feng Wu; Shu-sen Cheng; Zi-jian Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The key to reduce shell breakout in the continuous casting process is to control shell thickness in the mold.A numerical simulation on the turbulent flow and heat transfer coupled with solidification in the slab mold using the volume of fluid (VOF) model and the enthalpy-porosity scheme was conducted and the emphasis was put upon the flow effect on the shell thickness profiles in longitudinal and transverse directions.The results show that the jet acts a stronger impingement on the shell of narrow face,which causes a zero-increase of shell thickness in a certain range near the impingement point.The thinnest shell on the slab cross-section locates primarily in the center of the narrow face,and secondly near the comer of the wide face.Nozzle optimization can obviously increase the shell thickness and make it more uniform.

  3. Changes on the corneal thickness and curvature after orthokeratology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Iwane; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the corneal thickness and curvature changes after Orthokeratology contact lens wear, using the ORBSCAN II corneal topography system, corneal thickness and corneal curvature were measured on one hundred and twenty eyes of sixty patients before and after wearing the custom rigid gas permeable contact lenses for Orthokeratology. The contact lenses were specially designed for each eye. The subjects wore the orthokeratology lenses for approximately Four hours with their eyes closed. The corneal thickness of the subjects was increased on fifty-five eyes at not only the peripheral zone but also the center of the cornea. The average increase of central and peripheral corneal thickness was 18 micrometer and 22micrometer, respectively. The mean anterior curvature of corneal surface changed 1.25D. The mean posterior curvature of corneal endothelium side changed 0.75D.

  4. Numerical Controlled Rolling Process of Thick Metal Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Thick metal plate rolling process has become more and more important in building a flat roof of drilling on the bottom at sea. This is because not only the product quality requirement higher and higher but also the marketing competition. To improve the process of thick metal plate rolling and to increase productivity a numerical controlled rolling process is developed, which include the process planning, the mathematical model establishment and the numerical control system development. The process is for ...

  5. The exciton-longitudinal-optical-phonon coupling in InGaN/GaN single quantum wells with various cap layer thicknesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xiao-Long; Zhang Jiang-Yong; Shang Jing-Zhi; Liu Wen-Jie; Zhang Bao-Ping

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the exciton-longitudinal-optical-phonon coupling in InGaN/GaN single quantum wells with various cap layer thicknesses by low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements. With increasing cap layer thickness, the PL peak energy shifts to lower energy and the coupling strength between the exciton and longitudinal-optical (LO) phonon, described by Huang-Rhys factor, increases remarkably due to an enhancement of the internal electric field. With increasing excitation intensity, the zero-phonon peak shows a blueshift and the Huang-Rhys factor decreases. These results reveal that there is a large built-in electric field in the well layer and the exciton-LO-phonon coupling is strongly affected by the thickness of the cap layer.

  6. Significant increase in HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infections among blood donors in West Bengal, Eastern India 2004-2005: Exploratory screening reveals high frequency of occult HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasun Bhattacharya; Partha Kumar Chandra; Sibnarayan Datta; Arup Banerjee; Subhashish Chakraborty; Krishnan Rajendran; Subir Kumar Basu; Sujit Kumar Bhattacharya; Runu Chakravarty

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among blood donors in Kolkata, Eastern India for two consecutive years and to conduct a pilot study to explore the presence of HBV DNA among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative but anti-HBc positive blood donors.METHODS: Seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV was studied among 113051 and 106695 voluntary blood donors screened in 2004 and 2005,respectively. Moreover, a pilot study on 1027 HBsAg negative donors was carried out for evaluating the presence of HBV DNA by PCR on HBsAg negative/antiHBc positive donors.RESJLTS: A statistically significant increase in the prevalence of HBV (1448 vs 1768, P < 0.001), HIV (262vs 374, P < 0.001), HCV (314 vs 372, P = 0.003) and syphilis (772 vs 853, P = 0.001) infections was noted among blood donors of Kolkata West Bengal in 2005 as compared to 2004. Moreover, the exploratory study on 1027 HBsAg negative donors revealed that 188 (18.3%) of them were anti-HBc positive out of which 21% were positive for HBV DNA.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study underscore the significantly increasing endemicity of hepatitis viruses, syphilis and HIV among the voluntary blood donors of our community. The pilot study indicates a high rate of prevalence of HBV DNA among HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive donors and thus emphasizes the need for a more sensitive and stringent screening algorithm for blood donations.

  7. Lipidomics and H218O labeling techniques reveal increased remodeling of DHA-containing membrane phospholipids associated with abnormal locomotor responses in α-tocopherol deficient zebrafish (danio rerio embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Q. McDougall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that vitamin E (α-tocopherol is required by the developing embryonic brain to prevent depletion of highly polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, the loss of which we predicted would underlie abnormal morphological and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we fed adult 5D zebrafish (Danio rerio defined diets without (E− or with added α-tocopherol (E+, 500 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet for a minimum of 80 days, and then spawned them to obtain E− and E+ embryos. The E− compared with E+ embryos were 82% less responsive (p<0.01 to a light/dark stimulus at 96 h post-fertilization (hpf, demonstrating impaired locomotor behavior, even in the absence of gross morphological defects. Evaluation of phospholipid (PL and lysophospholipid (lyso-PL composition using untargeted lipidomics in E− compared with E+ embryos at 24, 48, 72, and 120 hpf showed that four PLs and three lyso-PLs containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC 22:6, required for transport of DHA into the brain, p<0.001, were at lower concentrations in E− at all time-points. Additionally, H218O labeling experiments revealed enhanced turnover of LPC 22:6 (p<0.001 and three other DHA-containing PLs in the E− compared with the E+ embryos, suggesting that increased membrane remodeling is a result of PL depletion. Together, these data indicate that α-tocopherol deficiency in the zebrafish embryo causes the specific depletion and increased turnover of DHA-containing PL and lyso-PLs, which may compromise DHA delivery to the brain and thereby contribute to the functional impairments observed in E− embryos.

  8. Parametric Investigation of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thickness for External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kaynakli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have estimated the optimum thickness of thermal insulation materials used in building walls for different climate conditions. The economic parameters (inflation rate, discount rate, lifetime and energy costs, the heating/cooling loads of the building, the wall structure and the properties of the insulation material all affect the optimum insulation thickness. This study focused on the investigation of these parameters that affect the optimum thermal insulation thickness for building walls. To determine the optimum thickness and payback period, an economic model based on life-cycle cost analysis was used. As a result, the optimum thermal insulation thickness increased with increasing the heating and cooling energy requirements, the lifetime of the building, the inflation rate, energy costs and thermal conductivity of insulation. However, the thickness decreased with increasing the discount rate, the insulation material cost, the total wall resistance, the coefficient of performance (COP of the cooling system and the solar radiation incident on a wall. In addition, the effects of these parameters on the total life-cycle cost, payback periods and energy savings were also investigated.

  9. Formation of thick dielectrophoretic carbon nanotube fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaado, Margo; Mononen, Robert Matias; Lohmus, Ruenno; Kink, Ilmar; Saal, Kristjan, E-mail: saal@fi.tartu.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, and Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, 142 Riia Street, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2011-07-29

    The aim of this work was to study the formation process of dielectrophoretic (DEP) carbon nanotube fibers (CNT-fibers) and characterize the fiber properties relevant to their technological applications. The fiber diameter was shown to increase when applied voltage was increased (up to 350 V{sub pp}) and when retraction speed was decreased (down from 400 {mu}m s{sup -1}) in accordance with theoretical expectations. This paper represents the first demonstration of the formation of thick DEP CNT-fibers (up to {approx} 0.4 mm). This is an intriguing result, as it expands the diversity of possible applications of the fibers and facilitates their characterization by analytical methods that require large quantities of the material. The performance of these thick fibers was as follows: a density of {approx} 0.35 g cm{sup -3}, a tensile strength of {approx} 15 MPa, a Young's modulus of {approx} 1 GPa, and an electrical resistivity of {approx} 70 m{Omega} cm.

  10. Hypobaric Hypoxia: Effects on Intraocular Pressure and Corneal Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Nebbioso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying ocular hydrodynamics and the changes which occur in the eyes of subjects exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH to permit the achievement of more detailed knowledge in glaucomatous disease. Methods. Twenty male subjects, aged 32±5 years, attending the Italian Air Force, were enrolled for this study. The research derived from hypobaric chamber, using helmet and mask supplied to jet pilotes connected to oxygen cylinder and equipped with a preset automatic mixer. Results. The baseline values of intraocular pressure (IOP, recorded at T1, showed a mean of 16±2.23 mmHg, while climbing up to 18,000 feet the mean value was 13.7±4.17 mmHg, recorded at T2. The last assessment was performed returning to sea level (T4 where the mean IOP value was 12.8±2.57 mmHg, with a significant change (P<0.05 compared to T1. Pachymetry values related to corneal thickness in conditions of hypobarism revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05. Conclusions. The data collected in this research seem to confirm the increasing outflow of aqueous humor (AH in the trabecular meshwork (TM under conditions of HH.

  11. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcimen, Muammer; Sakarya, Yasar; Kurtipek, Ercan; Bekci, Taha T; Goktas, Sertan; Sakarya, Rabia; Yener, Halil I; Demir, Lutfi S; Erdogan, Erkan; Ivacik, Ismail S; Alpfidan, Ismail; Bukus, Abdulkadir

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the peripapillary choroidal thickness of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) via enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). A total of 80 patients with COPD (80 eyes) and 50 control subjects (50 eyes) were enrolled. Choroidal scans and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were obtained for all eyes using OCT. The average peripapillary choroidal thickness measurements of the COPD group (147.58 ± 53.53 μm) were lower than the control group (160.84 ± 44.73 μm) (p = 0.068). Inferior segment thicknesses were significantly thinner than the other segments (p choroidal thickness and RNFL thickness measurements of the COPD group were also lower than those of the control group (p = 0.111). Hypoxia in COPD seems to affect the choroidal thickness. Thinning of the choroid may be attributed to increased vascular resistance and reduced blood flow in patients with COPD. The possible effects of the disease to the eye may be clarified through the role of the choroidal vasculature in the blood supply of the anterior optic nerve head.

  12. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  13. Finite element analysis on stresses field of normalized layer thickness within ceramic coating on aluminized steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multilayer ceramic coatings were fabricated on steel substrate using a combined technique of hot dipping aluminum(HDA)and plasma electrolytic oxidation(PEO). A triangle of normalized layer thickness was created for describing thickness ratios of HDA/PEO coatings. Then, the effect of thickness ratio on stresses field of HDA/PEO coatings subjected to uniform normal contact load was investigated by finite element method. Results show that the surface tensile stress is mainly affected by the thickness ratio of Al layer when the total thickness of coating is unchanged. With the increase of Al layer thickness, the surface tensile stress rises quickly. When Al2O3 layer thickness increases, surface tensile stress is diminished. Meanwhile, the maximum shear stress moves rapidly towards internal part of HDA/PEO coatings. Shear stress at the Al2O3/Al interface is minimal when Al2O3 layer and Al layer have the same thickness.

  14. Choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Erkan Ünsal, Kadir Eltutar, Sibel Zirtiloğlu, Nurhan Dinçer, Sezin Özdoğan Erkul, Hülya GüngelDepartment of Ophthalmology, Istanbul Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: The aim of the study reported here was to assess choroidal thickness (CT and central macular thickness (CMT in patients with diabetic retinopathy.Materials and methods: A total of 151 eyes from 80 patients from the retina department of Istanbul Training and Research Hospital who had type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy were studied retrospectively in this cross-sectional research. Patients were divided into three groups: mild–moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy without macular edema (NPDR, mild–moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy with macular edema (DME, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR. In addition, 40 eyes of 20 healthy individuals comprised a control group. Choroidal thickness was measured from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-µm intervals up to 1,500 µm temporal and nasal to the fovea. The CMT measurement was obtained for each eye. Serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels were measured.Results: The study included 191 eyes, comprising 151 eyes of 80 patients and 40 eyes of 20 healthy individuals. Of the 151 patient eyes, 61 had NPDR, 62 had PDR, and 28 eyes had DME. There was no statistically significant difference in age between the groups (P>0.05. In both the PDR and DME groups, the CT was statistically significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.001, P<0.001 for the PDR and DME groups, respectively. The mean CMT in the DME group was increased significantly compared with both the NPDR and PDR groups (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively. In all three groups, serum HbA1c levels were found to be increased significantly compared with the control group (P=0.000. We found a statistically weak–moderate negative correlation between

  15. Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding single layers achieving enhanced thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongfu; Cheng, Hao; Gao, Shan; Liu, Qinghua; Sun, Zhihu; Xiao, Chong; Wu, Changzheng; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2012-12-19

    Thermoelectric materials can realize significant energy savings by generating electricity from untapped waste heat. However, the coupling of the thermoelectric parameters unfortunately limits their efficiency and practical applications. Here, a single-layer-based (SLB) composite fabricated from atomically thick single layers was proposed to optimize the thermoelectric parameters fully. Freestanding five-atom-thick Bi(2)Se(3) single layers were first synthesized via a scalable interaction/exfoliation strategy. As revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and first-principles calculations, surface distortion gives them excellent structural stability and a much increased density of states, resulting in a 2-fold higher electrical conductivity relative to the bulk material. Also, the surface disorder and numerous interfaces in the Bi(2)Se(3) SLB composite allow for effective phonon scattering and decreased thermal conductivity, while the 2D electron gas and energy filtering effect increase the Seebeck coefficient, resulting in an 8-fold higher figure of merit (ZT) relative to the bulk material. This work develops a facile strategy for synthesizing atomically thick single layers and demonstrates their superior ability to optimize the thermoelectric energy harvesting.

  16. Thick CoFeB with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Naik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of an ultra-thin Ta insertion in the CoFeB (CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB free layer (FL on magnetic and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR properties of a CoFeB-MgO system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA. It is found that the critical thickness (tc to sustain PMA is doubled (tc = 2.6 nm in Ta-inserted CoFeB FL as compared to single CoFeB layer (tc = 1.3 nm. While the effective magnetic anisotropy is found to increase with Ta insertion, the saturation magnetization showed a slight reduction. As the CoFeB thickness increasing, the thermal stability of Ta inserted structure is significantly increased by a factor of 2.5 for total CoFeB thickness less than 2 nm. We have observed a reasonable value of TMR for a much thicker CoFeB FL (thickness = 2-2.6 nm with Ta insertion, and without significant increment in resistance-area product. Our results reveal that an ultra-thin Ta insertion in CoFeB might pay the way towards developing the high-density memory devices with enhanced thermal stability.

  17. Investigation on the stress field characteristic of top coal at FMTC faces under the influence of caving thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; CHANG Ju-cai; YANG Ke

    2007-01-01

    In the background of the technology condition and the geological condition of the 1151(3) fully mechanized top-coal caving face (FMTC face), and by means of taking nonlinear 3D numerical simulation, the stress redistribution rules of top coal with different thick coal seam were obtained by investigation on the numerical simulation of the redistributions of the stress with different coal seam's thickness. The research showes that there exists a certain difference on the stress distributions of the top coal at face, the maximum principal stress is located near to the tailentry's corner. The vertical stress's peak of the top coal decreases and the distance ahead of face position increases as the once mining thickness of the coal seam increases. At the same coal seam, the vertical stresses' peak of top coal gradually decreases from the top to the bottom, the peak's position is basically the same and its changes are gradually obvious with the thickness of coal seam increasing. The vertical stress of top coal places in a low stress state at a certain range ahead of face and over the face, which reveals the essence that the support loads are generally low under the condition of FMTC. The study supplies the theoretical foundation for the support design and selection, the theory of top coal's fragmentation, the movement rules of top coal and improving the recovery of top coal.

  18. Myosin light chain phosphorylation enhances contraction of heart muscle via structural changes in both thick and thin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2016-05-24

    Contraction of heart muscle is triggered by calcium binding to the actin-containing thin filaments but modulated by structural changes in the myosin-containing thick filaments. We used phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (cRLC) by the cardiac isoform of its specific kinase to elucidate mechanisms of thick filament-mediated contractile regulation in demembranated trabeculae from the rat right ventricle. cRLC phosphorylation enhanced active force and its calcium sensitivity and altered thick filament structure as reported by bifunctional rhodamine probes on the cRLC: the myosin head domains became more perpendicular to the filament axis. The effects of cRLC phosphorylation on thick filament structure and its calcium sensitivity were mimicked by increasing sarcomere length or by deleting the N terminus of the cRLC. Changes in thick filament structure were highly cooperative with respect to either calcium concentration or extent of cRLC phosphorylation. Probes on unphosphorylated myosin heads reported similar structural changes when neighboring heads were phosphorylated, directly demonstrating signaling between myosin heads. Moreover probes on troponin showed that calcium sensitization by cRLC phosphorylation is mediated by the thin filament, revealing a signaling pathway between thick and thin filaments that is still present when active force is blocked by Blebbistatin. These results show that coordinated and cooperative structural changes in the thick and thin filaments are fundamental to the physiological regulation of contractility in the heart. This integrated dual-filament concept of contractile regulation may aid understanding of functional effects of mutations in the protein components of both filaments associated with heart disease.

  19. Optimal hurricane overwash thickness for maximizing marsh resilience to sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David C; Kirwan, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between storms and sea level rise, and between ecology and sediment transport governs the behavior of rapidly evolving coastal ecosystems such as marshes and barrier islands. Sediment deposition during hurricanes is thought to increase the resilience of salt marshes to sea level rise by increasing soil elevation and vegetation productivity. We use mesocosms to simulate burial of Spartina alterniflora during hurricane-induced overwash events of various thickness (0-60 cm), and find that adventitious root growth within the overwash sediment layer increases total biomass by up to 120%. In contrast to most previous work illustrating a simple positive relationship between burial depth and vegetation productivity, our work reveals an optimum burial depth (5-10 cm) beyond which burial leads to plant mortality. The optimum burial depth increases with flooding frequency, indicating that storm deposition ameliorates flooding stress, and that its impact on productivity will become more important under accelerated sea level rise. Our results suggest that frequent, low magnitude storm events associated with naturally migrating islands may increase the resilience of marshes to sea level rise, and in turn, slow island migration rates. We find that burial deeper than the optimum results in reduced growth or mortality of marsh vegetation, which suggests that future increases in overwash thickness associated with more intense storms and artificial heightening of dunes could lead to less resilient marshes.

  20. Residual stress in quenched 7075 aluminum alloy thick plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林高用; 张辉; 朱伟; 彭大暑; 梁轩; 周鸿章

    2003-01-01

    The influence of quenching water temperature, pre-stretching amount and aging temperature and times on residual stress in 7075 aluminum thick plate was studied by the measurement of residual stress using drilling hole method. The results indicate that residual stress decreases by 30% with increasing quenching water temperature from 40 ℃ to 80 ℃, 20% with increasing aging temperature from 100 ℃ to 180 ℃,and 20% with increasing aging times from 5 h to 25 h. Also, residual stress decreases to zero with increasing pre-stretching amount to approximately 2%. Hence, residual stress in 7075 aluminum thick plate is reduced by the control of quenching water temperature at 80 ℃ and with pre-stretching amount of about 2%. An optimal aging temperature and time should be systemically investigated to obtain combination of high mechanical performances and lower residual stress for manufacturing of 7075 aluminum alloy thick plates.

  1. As thick as three in a bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    During the evolution of the lichen symbiosis, shifts from one main type of photobiont to another were infrequent (Miadlikowska et al. ) but some remarkable transitions from green algal to diazotrophic cyanobacterial photobionts are known from unrelated fungal clades within the ascomycetes. Cyanobacterial, including tripartite, associations (green algal and cyanobacterial photobionts in one lichen individual) facilitate these holobionts to live as C- and N-autotrophs. Tripartite lichens are among the most productive lichens, which provide N-fertilization to forest ecosystems under oceanic climates (Peltigerales) or deliver low, but ecologically significant N-input into subarctic and alpine soil communities (Lecanorales, Agyriales). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Schneider et al. (2016) mapped morphometric data against an eight-locus fungal phylogeny across a transition of photobiont interactions from green algal to a tripartite association and used a phylogenetic comparative framework to explore the role of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in size differences in the Trapelia-Placopsis clade (Agyriales). Within the group of tripartite species, the volume of cyanobacteria-containing structures (cephalodia) correlates with thallus thickness in both phylogenetic generalized least squares and phylogenetic generalized linear mixed-effects analyses, and the fruiting body core volume increased ninefold. The authors conclude that cyanobacterial symbiosis appears to have enabled lichens to overcome size constraints in oligotrophic environments such as rock surfaces. The Trapelia-Placopsis clade analyzed by Schneider et al. (2016) is an exciting example of interactions between ecology, phylogeny and lichen biology including development - from thin crustose green algal microlichens to thick placodioid, tripartite macrolichens: as thick as three in a bed (Scott ).

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sonographic gallbladder wall thickness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gallbladder wall thickness and the subjects' age, sex, height and weight .... sex distributions and mean height and weights were calculated. Results were expressed .... establishing of a population-based US gallbladder wall thickness so that.

  3. Thickness-dependent phase boundary in Sm-doped BiFeO3 piezoelectric thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Jing-Feng; Zhu, Fangyuan; Yu, Qi; Cheng, Li-Qian; Zhou, Zhen

    2015-08-14

    Sm-doped BiFeO3 thin films were fabricated on platinized silicon substrates via a sol-gel method. Sm contents and thicknesses were varied in a wide range to investigate their effects on the phase structure and piezoelectricity. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy experiments revealed a rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase transition and the co-existence of both phases in a certain compositional vicinity. It is found that the proportion of a rhombohedral phase increased with film thickness at the compositions corresponding to the phase transition boundary, indicating the influence of the film thickness on the phase structure. The phase transition phenomenon and film thickness effect on the boundary were also studied by piezoresponse force microscopy. Based on the structure analysis and piezoelectric characterization results, a phase diagram of thickness versus composition was proposed, in which the morphotropic phase boundary was located at 9% to 11% in thinner Sm-doped films and shifted towards the Sm-rich side with increasing thickness.

  4. Effect of thickness on physical properties of electron beam vacuum evaporated CdZnTe thin films for tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Subhash; Dhaka, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    The thickness and physical properties of electron beam vacuum evaporated CdZnTe thin films have been optimized in the present work. The films of thickness 300 nm and 400 nm were deposited on ITO coated glass substrates and subjected to different characterization tools like X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer, source meter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the structural, optical, electrical and surface morphological properties respectively. The XRD results show that the as-deposited CdZnTe thin films have zinc blende cubic structure and polycrystalline in nature with preferred orientation (111). Different structural parameters are also evaluated and discussed. The optical study reveals that the optical transition is found to be direct and energy band gap is decreased for higher thickness. The transmittance is found to increase with thickness and red shift observed which is suitable for CdZnTe films as an absorber layer in tandem solar cells. The current-voltage characteristics of deposited films show linear behavior in both forward and reverse directions as well as the conductivity is increased for higher film thickness. The SEM studies show that the as-deposited CdZnTe thin films are found to be homogeneous, uniform, small circle-shaped grains and free from crystal defects. The experimental results confirm that the film thickness plays an important role to optimize the physical properties of CdZnTe thin films for tandem solar cell applications as an absorber layer.

  5. PERIPAPILLARY CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY: Is Choroid Outside the Macula Also Thick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Cheolmin; Oh, Jaeryung; Han, Ji Yun; Hwang, Soon-Young; Moon, Sang Woong; Huh, Kuhl

    2015-09-01

    To investigate peripapillary choroidal thickness (CT) outside the macula in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). We reviewed the medical records of 34 patients with unilaterally symptomatic idiopathic CSC and 34 age-matched controls. Subfoveal and peripapillary CT were measured from images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The nasal peripapillary CT of the choroid outside the macula was determined. The subfoveal CT of CSC (369.74 ± 54.17 μm) and fellow eyes (316.18 ± 54.68 μm) of the patient group were thicker than those of the normal controls (281.90 ± 40.97 μm, all P thick choroids both within and outside the macula, especially when subfoveal CT is increased.

  6. Charge Distribution Dependency on Gap Thickness of CMS Endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung K; Lee, Kyongsei

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness. Prototypes of double-gap RPCs with six different gap thickness ranging from from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2-mm steps have been built with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps are measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric fields of the gap is decreased as the gap thickness is increased. The distributions of charges in six gaps are measured. The space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at the higher voltages. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data. Smaller charges can be produced within smaller gas gap. But the digitization threshold should be also lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  7. Thick Presentism and Newtonian Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevsky, Ihor

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper I argue that the formalism of Newtonian mechanics stems directly from the general principle to be called the principle of microlevel reducibility which physical systems obey in the realm of classical physics. This principle assumes, first, that all the properties of physical systems must be determined by their states at the current moment of time, in a slogan form it is "only the present matters to physics." Second, it postulates that any physical system is nothing but an ensemble of structureless particles arranged in some whose interaction obeys the superposition principle. I substantiate this statement and demonstrate directly how the formalism of differential equations, the notion of forces in Newtonian mechanics, the concept of phase space and initial conditions, the principle of least actions, etc. result from the principle of microlevel reducibility. The philosophical concept of thick presentism and the introduction of two dimensional time---physical time and meta-time that are mut...

  8. Creating universes with thick walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a “thick wall”, which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the “Farhi-Guth-Guven” (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

  9. Creating universes with thick walls

    CERN Document Server

    Ulvestad, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a "thick wall", which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the "Farhi-Guth-Guven" (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The ADM mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

  10. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Azusa; Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda; Wouters, Bradly G; DaCosta, Ralph S

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Neutron Skin Thickness in Peripheral Nuclear Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG De-Qing; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; TIAN Wen-Dong; WANG Hong-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA) model. The reaction cross section, neutron (proton) removal cross section, one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied. It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness. Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.%Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA ) model.The reaction cross section,neutron (proton) removal cross section,one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied.It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei.The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness.Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.Determining the size and shape of a nucleus is one of the most important subjects since the discovery of atomic nuclei.The rms radii of the neutron (rn) and proton (rp) density distributions are among the most prominent observables for this purpose.Studies for stable nuclei have shown that the nuclear radii are proportional to A1/3,with A being the nuclear mass number.Meanwhile,the density distributions of neutrons and protons in stable nuclei are very similar.

  12. Spreading of oil and the concept of average oil thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, R. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada); Quintero-Marmol, A.M. [Pemex E and P, Campeche (Mexico); Bannerman, K. [Radarsat International, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Stevenson, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The area of on oil slick on water can be readily measured using simple techniques ranging from visual observations to satellite-based radar systems. However, it is necessary to know the volume of spilled oil in order to determine the environmental impacts and best response strategy. The volume of oil must be known to determine spill quantity, response effectiveness and weathering rates. The relationship between volume and area is the average thickness of the oil over the spill area. This paper presents the results of several experiments conducted in the Gulf of Mexico that determined if average thickness of the oil is a characteristic of a specific crude oil, independent of spill size. In order to calculate the amount of oil on water from the area of slick requires information on the oil thickness, the inhomogeneity of the oil thickness and the oil-to-water ratio in the slick if it is emulsified. Experimental data revealed that an oil slick stops spreading very quickly after the application of oil. After the equilibrium thickness has been established, the slick is very sensitive to disturbances on the water surface, such as wave action, which causes the oil circle to dissipate into several small irregular shapes. It was noted that the spill source and oceanographic conditions are both critical to the final shape of the spill. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Dynamic tensile stress–strain characteristics of carbon/epoxy laminated composites in through-thickness direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakai Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of strain rate up to approximately ε̇ = 102/s on the tensile stress–strain properties of unidirectional and cross-ply carbon/epoxy laminated composites in the through-thickness direction is investigated. Waisted cylindrical specimens machined out of the laminated composites in the through-thickness direction are used in both static and dynamic tests. The dynamic tensile stress–strain curves up to fracture are determined using the split Hopkinson bar (SHB. The low and intermediate strain-rate tensile stress–strain relations up to fracture are measured on an Instron 5500R testing machine. It is demonstrated that the ultimate tensile strength and absorbed energy up to fracture increase significantly, while the fracture strain decreases slightly with increasing strain rate. Macro- and micro-scopic examinations reveal a marked difference in the fracture surfaces between the static and dynamic tension specimens.

  14. Significance of sample thickness and surface segregation on the electrical conductivity of Wesgo AL995 alumina under ITER environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlader, M.M.R.; Kinoshita, Chiken E-mail: c.k.tne@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shiiyama, K.; Kutsuwada, M.; Higuchi, T

    2000-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of 158, 295 and 610 {mu}m thick Wesgo AL995 alumina was measured under 1 MeV electron irradiation with an electric field of 300 kV/m at temperatures up to 723 K. A significant increase in the conductivity with increasing the sample thickness is confirmed, but no substantial bulk degradation is found under irradiation up to a dose of 7.0x10{sup 22} e/m{sup 2} (7.97x10{sup -5} dpa) at 723 K. However, surface breakdown is found only in 295 and 610 {mu}m thick specimens. The non-existence of the surface breakdown in 158 {mu}m thick specimen is thought to be due to the sinks effect of point defects at the surface. The X-ray analysis of the virgin and degraded specimens through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the segregation of impurities along the grain boundaries on the degraded surface. The segregation of impurities assists leaking of surface current along the grain boundaries.

  15. Thickness-dependent structure and properties of SnS2 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wondeok; Shin, Seokyoon; Ham, Giyul; Lee, Juhyun; Lee, Seungjin; Choi, Hyeongsu; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2017-03-01

    Tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films were deposited by a thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) method at low temperatures. The physical, chemical, and electrical characteristics of SnS2 were investigated as a function of the film thickness. SnS2 exhibited a (001) hexagonal plane peak at 14.9° in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results and an A1g peak at 311 cm‑1 in the Raman spectra. These results demonstrate that SnS2 thin films grown at 150 °C showed a crystalline phase at film thicknesses above 11.2 nm. The crystallinity of the SnS2 thin films was evaluated by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that SnS2 consisted of Sn4+ and S2‑ valence states. Both the optical band gap and the transmittance of SnS2 decreased as the film thickness increased. The band gap of SnS2 decreased from 3.0 to 2.4 eV and the transmittance decreased from 85 to 32% at a wavelength of 400 nm. In addition, the resistivity of the thin film SnS2 decreased from 1011 to 106 Ω·cm as the film thickness increased.

  16. Incremental ECAP of thick continuous plates - machine and initial trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosochowski, A.; Olejnik, L.

    2014-08-01

    Incremental ECAP (I-ECAP) can be used for SPD of continuous bars, plates and sheets. This paper describes design, construction and preliminary trials of a prototype machine capable of processing thick continuous plates. To increase productivity, a two-turn I-ECAP is used, which is equivalent to route C in conventional one-turn ECAP. The machine has a reciprocating punch inclined at 45°, a clamp holding the plate in the die during deformation and a feeder incrementally feeding the plate when it is not deformed; all these devices are driven by hydraulic actuators controlled by a PLC. The machine is capable of deforming materials at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures. The die is heated with electric heaters. The machine has also an integrated cooling system and a lubrication system. The material used for the initial trials was Al 1050 plate (10×50×1000) conversion coated with calcium aluminate and lubricated with dry soap. The process was carried out at room temperature using 1.6 mm feeding stroke and a low cycle frequency of approximately 0.2 Hz. The UFG structure after the first pass of the process revealed by STEM confirms process feasibility.

  17. Toward Efficient Thick Active PTB7 Photovoltaic Layers Using Diphenyl Ether as a Solvent Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yifan; Goh, Tenghooi; Fan, Pu; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng; Taylor, André D

    2016-06-22

    The development of thick organic photovoltaics (OPV) could increase absorption in the active layer and ease manufacturing constraints in large-scale solar panel production. However, the efficiencies of most low-bandgap OPVs decrease substantially when the active layers exceed ∼100 nm in thickness (because of low crystallinity and a short exciton diffusion length). Herein, we report the use of solvent additive diphenyl ether (DPE) that facilitates the fabrication of thick (180 nm) active layers and triples the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of conventional thienothiophene-co-benzodithiophene polymer (PTB7)-based OPVs from 1.75 to 6.19%. These results demonstrate a PCE 20% higher than those of conventional (PTB7)-based OPV devices using 1,8-diiodooctane. Morphology studies reveal that DPE promotes the formation of nanofibrillar networks and ordered packing of PTB7 in the active layer that facilitate charge transport over longer distances. We further demonstrate that DPE improves the fill factor and photocurrent collection by enhancing the overall optical absorption, reducing the series resistance, and suppressing bimolecular recombination.

  18. Terahertz ultrathin film thickness sensor below λ/90 based on metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Fan, Fei; Shen, Si; Wang, Xianghui; Chang, Shengjiang

    2016-08-10

    The film thickness sensing based on metamaterial is investigated in the terahertz (THz) region. We fabricated the metamaterial sensor, and demonstrated its resonance by using the THz time-domain spectroscopy system. The results show that the resonant dip redshifts as the film thickness increases, which achieves reliable film sensing in the THz band. Its sensitivity is larger than 9.4 GHz/μm with a film thinner than λ/90. Meanwhile, the sensing mechanism is revealed by the simulation of near-field resonance distribution, which shows that the resonant intensity is stronger when the field is closer to the interface between the metamaterial surface and polyvinyl alcohol film. Therefore, the nonlinear type of the sensing sensitivity in our experiment can be well explained, and a higher sensitive sensing can be obtained when the film thickness is smaller. This simple and flexible method can realize the ultrathin film sensing in the THz region, and has application potential in the real-time monitoring of sample quality.

  19. Thickness monitor for floated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, J.; Grecu, G.M.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes apparatus for determining the thickness of a layer of aerated sludge floating on a layer of a heavier liquid in a tank. It comprises: a frame means which can be positioned to extend vertically into the tank; horizontally-extending indicator means supported by and moveable vertically with respect to a portion of the frame means extending vertically into the tank. The indicator means being selectively positionable at the highest level of sludge in the tank; horizontally-extending lower base means attached to the frame means at or near the bottom thereof; horizontally-extending upper base means attached to the frame means at or near the top thereof; and a line carrying a float means. The line being movable secured at the upper base means and the lower base means. The float means being floatable on the liquid and including a horizontally-extending portion presenting an upwardly directed generally planar surface, which surface will be parallel to the interface of the sludge and liquid.

  20. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  1. Effect of thickness on the electrical and optical properties of epitaxial (La0.07Ba0.93)SnO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinzhuang; Jin, Feng; Dai, Jianming; Li, Bing; Geng, Lei; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-08-01

    Transparent conductive oxide (La0.07Ba0.93)SnO3 (LBSO) thin films with thickness ranged from 220 nm to 11 nm were epitaxially grown on MgO substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of thickness on the structural, transport, and optical properties of LBSO thin films was investigated in detail. With the film thickness decreasing, x-ray diffraction characterizations show that the LBSO (002) diffraction peak has no obvious shift, but the values of the full width at half maximum increase gradually from 0.608° to 1.136° due to the deterioration of crystalline quality of LBSO films. Atomic force microcopy reveals that the root-mean-square surface roughness of LBSO films decreases from 3.93 to 0.268 nm with film thickness decreasing. The lowest resistivity value of 1.181 × 10-4 Ωcm at room temperature was observed in 220 nm thick films, with the highest carrier mobility of 41.06 cm2 V-1 s-1 and carrier concentration of 8.377 × 1020 cm-3. Furthermore, the resistivity increases gradually with the decrease of LBSO film thickness. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements indicate that the metal-semiconductor transition temperature of LBSO thin film changes regularly with the film thickness. The optical band gap of LBSO thin film decreases from 4.58 to 3.55 eV with decreasing the thickness, which was explained by the Burstein-Moss effect.

  2. Preliminary Studies on Thickness of Nondestructive Rice(Oryza sativa L.)Leaf Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN You-ding; ZHANG Xu; ZHOU Xin-qiao; CHEN Guan-hua

    2007-01-01

    Two varieties, Yuexinzhan and Guangchao 3, were used to study leaf thickness in rice in this experiment. The thickness of the leaf blade was measured by the nondestructive leaf thickness instrument, which was modified from the thickness instrument for steel objects (John Bull, England). The contacting area between the leaf and the probe of the instrument was 0.5 cm2. There was no significant difference between the thickness of steel materials measured by the nondestructive rice leaf thickness instrument and the micrometer. The correlation between the thickness of the rice leaf blade measured by the nondestructive rice leaf thickness instrument and the specific leaf weight (SLW) was significant (P < 0.05 or P <0.01). The results also showed that the rice leaf thickness was uneven and asymmetric. The thickness and SLW of flag leaf tended to increase from the base to the tip of the leaf blade. The middle part of the second and third top leaf was the thickest, but no significant difference in thickness between the basal part and the fore part was found. Drawing a line on the main vein in the top three leaves, the left part was thinner than the right part. The thickness of the lower leaves (6/0-9/0) on the main culm tended to increase with increasing positions of the leaves in the early and middle stages, but the tendency was not the same for the higher leaves (10/0 upwards), although the higher leaves (10/0 upward) were thicker than the lower leaves (9/0 or downward). Furthermore, different CO2 concentrations (550 ± 30, 460 ± 30 μmol mol-1) in the growth boxes had no effect on the thickness of rice leaf blades. It can be concluded that the measurement of rice leaf thickness using the nondestructive rice leaf thickness instrument is simple, precise, and nondestructive.

  3. Thickness Optimization for Petroleum Coke in Microwave Dehydrating Based on the Analysis of Dynamic Absorption Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaobiao; Chen, Junruo; Peng, Jinhui; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Weifeng; Guo, Shenghui; Chen, Guo

    2015-07-01

    An analytical approach is proposed to optimize the thickness of petroleum coke for achieving maximum microwave power absorption in microwave heating based on analysis of reflection loss (RL). The microwave RL of the petroleum coke layer was studied over the moisture content range of 1%-5% at 20 °C and the petroleum coke (10% moisture content) in the temperature range of 20 to 100 °C at 2.45 GHz. The results show that RL depends sensitively on the thickness of the petroleum coke and the absorption peak shifts towards a larger thickness as the moisture content of the petroleum coke increases. There exists a matching thickness corresponding to the maximum microwave absorption, the maximum absorbing peak decreases when the thickness of petroleum coke exceeds the matching thickness. We also show that the absorption peak is found to move towards a smaller thickness region with increasing petroleum coke temperature.

  4. Enface Thickness Mapping and Reflectance Imaging of Retinal Layers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Francis

    Full Text Available To present a method for image segmentation and generation of enface thickness maps and reflectance images of retinal layers in healthy and diabetic retinopathy (DR subjects.High density spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images were acquired in 10 healthy and 4 DR subjects. Customized image analysis software identified 5 retinal cell layer interfaces and generated thickness maps and reflectance images of the total retina (TR, inner retina (IR, outer retina (OR, and the inner segment ellipsoid (ISe band. Thickness maps in DR subjects were compared to those of healthy subjects by generating deviation maps which displayed retinal locations with thickness below, within, and above the normal 95% confidence interval.In healthy subjects, TR and IR thickness maps displayed the foveal depression and increased thickness in the parafoveal region. OR and ISe thickness maps showed increased thickness at the fovea, consistent with normal retinal anatomy. In DR subjects, thickening and thinning in localized regions were demonstrated on TR, IR, OR, and ISe thickness maps, corresponding to retinal edema and atrophy, respectively. TR and OR reflectance images showed reduced reflectivity in regions of increased thickness. Hard exudates appeared as hyper-reflective spots in IR reflectance images and casted shadows on the deeper OR and ISe reflectance images. The ISe reflectance image clearly showed the presence of focal laser scars.Enface thickness mapping and reflectance imaging of retinal layers is a potentially useful method for quantifying the spatial and axial extent of pathologies due to DR.

  5. Temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric behaviors of insulator/semiconductor (Al2O3/ZnO) nanolaminates with various ZnO thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Bi, Xiaofang

    2016-07-01

    Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates (NLs) with various ZnO sublayer thicknesses were prepared by atomic layer deposition. The Al2O3 sublayers are characterized as amorphous and the ZnO sublayers have an oriented polycrystalline structure. As the ZnO thickness decreases to a certain value, each NL exhibits a critical temperature at which its dielectric constant starts to rise quickly. Moreover, this temperature increases as the ZnO thickness is decreased further. On the other hand, the permittivity demonstrates a large value of several hundred at a frequency  ⩽1000 Hz, followed by a steplike decrease at a higher frequency. The change in the cut-off frequency with ZnO thickness is characterized by a hook function. It is revealed that the Coulomb confinement effect becomes predominant in the dielectric behaviors of the NLs with very thin ZnO. As the ZnO thickness decreases to about the same as or even smaller than the Bohr radius of ZnO, a great change in the carrier concentration and effective mass of ZnO is induced, which is shown to be responsible for the peculiar dielectric behaviors of Al2O3/ZnO with very thin ZnO. These findings provide insight into the prevailing mechanisms to optimize the dielectric properties of semiconductor/insulator laminates with nanoscale sublayer thickness.

  6. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, F Xavier; Quinn, Brian T; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the "reading network." Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same "double hit" of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  7. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT, surface area (SA, gray matter volume (GMV, and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1 persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2 remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores, and (3 remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores; and a control group of (4 typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  8. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779

  9. Thickness-dependent dielectric breakdown and nanopore creation on sub-10-nm-thick SiN membranes in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Fujisaki, Koji; Hamamura, Hirotaka; Takeda, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Recently, dielectric breakdown of solid-state membranes in solution has come to be known as a powerful method for fabricating nanopore sensors. This method has enabled a stable fabrication of nanopores down to sub-2 nm in diameter, which can be used to detect the sizes and structures of small molecules. Until now, the behavior of dielectric breakdown for nanopore creation in SiN membranes with thicknesses of less than 10 nm has not been studied, while the thinner nanopore membranes are preferable for nanopore sensors in terms of spatial resolution. In the present study, the thickness dependence of the dielectric breakdown of sub-10-nm-thick SiN membranes in solution was investigated using gradually increased voltage pulses. The increment in leakage current through the membrane at the breakdown was found to become smaller with a decrease in the thickness of the membrane, which resulted in the creation of smaller nanopores. In addition, the electric field for dielectric breakdown drastically decreased when the thickness of the membrane was less than 5 nm. These breakdown behaviors are quite similar to those observed in gate insulators of metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. Finally, stable ionic-current blockades were observed when single-stranded DNA passed through the nanopores created on the membranes with thicknesses of 3-7 nm.

  10. Porosity of porcine bladder acellular matrix: impact of ACM thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Walid; Chen, Jun; Erdeljan, Petar; Shemtov, Oren; Courtman, David; Khoury, Antoine; Yeger, Herman

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the porosity of bladder acellular matrix (ACM) using deionized (DI) water as the model fluid and dextran as the indicator macromolecule, and to correlate the porosity to the ACM thickness. Porcine urinary bladders from pigs weighing 20-50 kg were sequentially extracted in detergent containing solutions, and to modify the ACM thickness, stretched bladders were acellularized in the same manner. Luminal and abluminal ACM specimens were subjected to fixed static DI water pressure (10 cm); and water passing through the specimens was collected at specific time interval. While for the macromolecule porosity testing, the diffusion rate and direction of 10,000 MW fluoroescein-labeled dextrans across the ACM specimens mounted in Ussing's chambers were measured. Both experiments were repeated on the thin stretched ACM. In both ACM types, the fluid porosity in both directions did not decrease with increased test duration (3 h); in addition, the abluminal surface was more porous to fluid than the luminal surface. On the other hand, when comparing thin to thick ACM, the porosity in either direction was higher in the thick ACM. Macromolecule porosity, as measured by absorbance, was higher for the abluminal thick ACM than the luminal side, but this characteristic was reversed in the thin ACM. Comparing thin to thick ACM, the luminal side in the thin ACM was more porous to dextran than in the thick ACM, but this characteristic was reversed for the abluminal side. The porcine bladder ACM possesses directional porosity and acellularizing stretched urinary bladders may increase structural density and alter fluid and macromolecule porosity.

  11. Electrophoretic deposition and constrained sintering of strontium titanate thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Luís; Vilarinho, Paula M., E-mail: paula.vilarinho@ua.pt; Senos, Ana M.R.

    2015-01-15

    Thick films of functional oxides are currently substituting counterparts bulk ceramics, as in the case of low loss dielectrics. For SrTiO{sub 3} (ST) based compositions it is demonstrated that electrophoretic deposition (EPD), using acetone as a suspension media with iodine addition, is a suitable technology to fabricate 12 μm thick films. The microstructural analysis of the films sintered at 1500 °C shows that highly densified microstructures can be obtained and, by slightly varying the Sr/Ti stoichiometry in the powder composition, increased densification and grain size and enlargement of the distribution with decreasing Sr/Ti ratio can be observed. In spite of the high densification of the films, it is also demonstrated that due to the constraint imposed by the substrate a smaller grain size is observed in thick films as compared to equivalent bulk ceramics. In addition, a preferential vertical pore orientation is observed in ST thick films. These results may have broad implications if one considers that the dielectric losses and dielectric tunability is affected by pore orientation, since it affects the electric field distribution. - Highlights: • Nonstoichiometry effect on microstructure of constrained sintered thick films and bulk is similar. • Increased densification and grain size and enlargement of distribution with decreasing Sr/Ti ratio. • Independent of Sr/Ti ratio smaller grain size for thick films compared to ceramics. • Preferential vertical pore orientation for constrained sintering of thick films. • Anisotropic porosity as tailoring factor to engineer permittivity and tunability.

  12. Buccal cortical bone thickness on CBCT for mini-implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jong Gook; Lim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Byoung Jin; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cortical bone thickness is one of the important factor in mini-implant stability. This study was performed to investigate the buccal cortical bone thickness at every interdental area as an aid in planning mini-implant placement. Two-dimensional slices at every interdental area were selected from the cone-beam computed tomography scans of 20 patients in third decade. Buccal cortical bone thickness was measured at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the alveolar crest in the interdental bones of posterior regions of both jaws using the plot profile function of Ez3D2009TM (Vatech, Yongin, Korea). The results were analyzed using by Mann-Whitney test. Buccal cortical bone was thicker in the mandible than in the maxilla. The thickness increased with further distance from the alveolar crest in the maxilla and with coming from the posterior to anterior region in the mandible (p?0.01). The maximum CT value showed an increasing tendency with further distance from the alveolar crest and with coming from posterior to anterior region in both jaws. Interdental buccal cortical bone thickness varied in both jaws, however our study showed a distinct tendency. We expect that these results could be helpful for the selection and preparation of mini-implant sites.

  13. Influence of CdTe thickness on structural and electrical properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salavei, A.; Rimmaudo, I. [Laboratory for Applied Physics, Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Piccinelli, F. [Laboratorio di Chimica dello Stato Solido, DB, Univ. Verona, and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Romeo, A., E-mail: alessandro.romeo@univr.it [Laboratory for Applied Physics, Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    Due to its high scalability and low production cost, CdTe solar cells have shown a very strong potential for large scale energy production. Although the number of modules produced could be limited by tellurium scarcity, it has been reported that reducing CdTe thickness down to 1.5 μm would solve this issue. There are, however, issues to be considered when reducing thickness, such as formation of pinholes, lower crystallization, and different possible effects on material diffusion within the interfaces. In this work, we present the study of CdTe solar cells fabricated by vacuum evaporation with different CdTe thicknesses. Several cells with a CdTe thickness ranging from 0.7 to 6 μm have been fabricated. The deposition process has been optimized accordingly and their physical and electrical properties have been studied. Thin cells show a different electrical behavior in terms of open circuit voltage and fill factor. Efficiencies range from 7% for thin CdTe cells to 13.5% for the standard thickness. - Highlights: ► Ultra thin CdTe absorbers have been prepared and studied. ► Grain size is depending on the CdTe thickness but spread in the grains increases. ► Lattice parameter is reduced only for ultra thin CdTe. ► The band gap reveals an intermixed CdTe absorber. ► The reason for lower efficiency of ultra thin CdTe is explained.

  14. Investigating thickness and physical properties of forest soil along headwater hillslopes by hole drilling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaole; Liu, Jintao

    2015-04-01

    Mountain torrents along headwater hillslopes usually occur during heavy rainfall and bring damage to people's lives and properties. Thus, the mechanism for flood generation process in mountain areas must be well studied. Soil acts as an important factor controlling this process. However, systematic studies the spatial distribution of soil properties, including soil thickness, bulky density, texture and infiltration rate along headwater hillslopes are rarely obtained. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the variation trend of these soil properties in a 3-D perspective. To do this, a total of 39 probe measurements were made by using a 70-mm-diameter gasoline vibrating drill in a small catchment (0.42 hectare). Measurements were made by push the gasoline drill into the soil until the bedrock was encounted. Then, the drill was pushed out from the soil and the undisturbed soil was obtained. The main results of the experiment show that: (a) soil thickness decreased significantly from the valley to the ridge (e.g., the maximum soil thickness in the valley and ridge are 164cm and 81 cm, respectively). (b)Vertically, taking borehole #1 as an example (148cm deep), the saturated hydraulic conductivity decreased significantly from 1.5 mm/min (0cm deep) to 0.01 mm/min (140cm deep). Spatially, the saturated hydraulic conductivity at same depth increased with the elevation increasing. (c) Particle size analysis indicated that the soil clay content increased with increasing sampling depth. To conclude, our study reveals the spatial distribution of soil properties which can help us to explore flowpaths and store in three-dimensional at hillslope scale and develop a parsimonious 3-D physics-based model to simulate hillslope hydrological response.

  15. Coating thickness control in continuously fabricating metallic glass-coated composite wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-yu; Chen, Xiao-hua; Lu, Zhao-ping; Hui, Xi-dong

    2013-05-01

    A continuous production process was developed for coating bulk metallic glasses on the metallic wire surface. The effects of processing parameters, including the drawing velocity and coating temperature, on the coating thickness were investigated. It is found that the coating thickness increases with the increase in drawing velocity but decreases with the increase in coating temperature. A fluid mechanical model was developed to quantify the coating thickness under various processing conditions. By using this theoretical model, the coating thickness was calculated, and the calculated values are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Ice thickness measurements by Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pershin, Sergey M; Klinkov, Vladimir K; Yulmetov, Renat N; Bunkin, Alexey F

    2014-01-01

    A compact Raman LIDAR system with a spectrograph was used for express ice thickness measurements. The difference between the Raman spectra of ice and liquid water is employed to locate the ice-water interface while elastic scattering was used for air-ice surface detection. This approach yields an error of only 2 mm for an 80-mm-thick ice sample, indicating that it is promising express noncontact thickness measurements technique in field experiments.

  17. A study of microclad thickness variation (1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted to investigate the thickness variation of microclad material used in fabricating 1E38 bridges. For the role sampled (nine reels), standard deviations within reels ranged from 6.11 to 12.07 {mu}in. Thickness variations within reels ranged from 16.2 to 40.9 {mu}in., with the average thickness between 142.90 and 161.28 {mu}in.

  18. GRADING SCALE OF VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE THICKNESS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuino de Oliveira ANDRADE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The mesenteric fat is drained by the portal system, being related to the metabolic syndrome which is an impor­tant risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Objectives Graduate of visceral fat thickness and correlate with the NAFLD degree through ultrasonography method. Methods We studied 352 subjects for age, gender, measures of subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness as well as the presence and degree of liver fatty. Was analyzed the independent relationship between visceral fat thickness and NAFLD, and linear regression analysis was used in order to predict the visceral fat thickness from subcutaneous fat thickness. Results The mean age of 225 women (63.9% and 127 men (36.1% was 47.5 ± 14.0 (18-77 years, 255 subjects had normal examinations, 97 had NAFLD thus distributed, 37 grade 1, 32 grade 2, and 28 grade 3. The subcutaneous fat thickness ranged from 0.26 to 3.50 cm with a mean of 1.3 ± 0.6 cm and visceral fat thickness ranged from 0.83 to 8.86 cm with a mean of 3.6 ± 1.7 cm. Linear regression showed that for every increase of 1 cm in subcutaneous fat thickness the visceral fat thickness will increase 0.9 cm. Conclusions The visceral fat thickness measured by ultrasonography is a useful and seems to be able to help estimate the risk of NAFLD.

  19. Thickness effect on the microstructure, morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathap, P.; Revathi, N.; Venkata Subbaiah, Y. P.; Ramakrishna Reddy, K. T.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 600 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by close spaced thermal evaporation. All the films were grown at the same deposition conditions except the deposition time. The effect of thickness on the physical properties of ZnS films has been studied. The experimental results indicated that the thickness affects the structure, lattice strain, surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films significantly. The films deposited at a thickness of 100 nm showed hexagonal structure whereas films of thickness 300 nm or more showed cubic structure. However, coexistence of both cubic and hexagonal structures was observed in the films of 200 nm thickness. The surface roughness of the films showed an increasing trend at higher thicknesses of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap along with an intense UV emission band was observed with the decrease of film thickness, which are ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. The behaviour of optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient were analysed. The variation of refractive index and extinction coefficient with thickness was explained on the basis of the contribution from the packing density of the layers. The electrical resistivity as well as the activation energy were evaluated and found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The thickness had a significant influence on the optical band gap as well as the luminescence intensity.

  20. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume) in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD) controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both) morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and complex

  1. Regional brain differences in cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwath A Meda

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by increased non-social anxiety, sensitivity to sounds and hypersociability. Previous studies have reported contradictory findings with regard to regional brain variation in WS, relying on only one type of morphological measure (usually volume in each study. The present study aims to contribute to this body of literature and perhaps elucidate some of these discrepancies by examining concurrent measures of cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volume between WS subjects and typically-developing (TD controls. High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50 typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus. Additional cortical regions showed between-group differences in one (but not both morphological measures. Subcortical volume was lower in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus in WS versus TD controls. Exploratory correlations revealed that anxiety scores were negatively correlated with gray matter surface area in insula, OFC, rostral middle frontal, superior temporal and lingual gyrus. Our results were consistent with previous reports showing structural alterations in regions supporting the socio-affective and visuospatial impairments in WS. However, we also were able to effectively capture novel and

  2. Evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid arterial stiffness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftel, Murat; Demir, Berrin; Kozan, Günay; Yılmaz, Osman; Kahveci, Hasan; Kılıç, Ömer

    2016-02-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy can produce cardiopulmonary disease in children. However, it is unclear whether adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes atherosclerosis. This study evaluated carotid intimamedia thickness and carotid arterial stiffness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The study included 40 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (age: 5-10 years) and 36 healthy children with similar age and body mass index. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure were measured in all subjects. Carotid intima-media thickness, carotid arterial systolic diameter, and carotid arterial diastolic diameter were measured using a high-resolution ultrasound device. Based on these measurements, carotid arterial strain, carotid artery distensibility, beta stiffness index, and elasticity modulus were calculated. Carotid intima-media thickness was greater in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (0.36±0.05 mm vs. 0.34±0.04 mm, P=0.02) compared to healthy controls. Beta stiffness index (3.01±1.22 vs. 2.98±0.98, P=0.85), elasticity modulus (231.39±99.23 vs. 226.46±83.20, P=0.88), carotid arterial strain (0.17±0.06 vs. 0.17±0.04, P=0.95), and carotid artery distensibility (13.14±3.88 vs. 12.92±3.84, P=0.75) were similar between children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the healthy controls. The present study revealed increased carotid intima-media thickness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The risk of subclinical atherosclerosis may be higher in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.

  3. Experimental analysis of current conduction through thermally grown SiO2 on thick epitaxial 4H-SiC employing Poole–Frenkel mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjeev K Gupta; A Azam; J Akhtar

    2010-02-01

    Electrical properties of SiO2 grown on the Si-face of the epitaxial 4H-SiC substrate by wet thermal oxidation technique have been experimentally investigated in metal oxide–silicon carbide (MOSiC) structure with varying oxide thicknesses employing Poole–Frenkel (P–F) conduction mechanism. The quality of SiO2 with increasing thickness in MOSiC structure has been analysed on the basis of variation in multiple oxide traps due to effective P–F conduction range. Validity of Poole–Frenkel conduction is established quantitatively employing electric field and the oxide thickness using forward – characteristics across MOSiC structures. From P–F conduction plot (ln(/) vs. 1/2), it is revealed that Poole–Frenkel conduction retains its validation after a fixed electric field range. The experimental methodology adopted is useful for the characterization of oxide films grown on 4H-SiC substrate.

  4. Cross-sectional nanoindentation (CSN) studies on the effect of thickness on adhesion strength of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanghias, A.; Khatibi, G.; Pelzer, R.; Steinbrenner, J.; Bernardi, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the cross-sectional nanoindentation (CSN) technique has been employed to investigate the adhesion behavior of Titanium-Tungsten (TiW) thin films in various thicknesses on silicon substrate. Furthermore, the nanoindentation-induced blister (NIB) technique has been implemented on the same samples to evaluate the adhesion energy of the films with a different approach. The adhesion energy release rate of these thin films, derived by these two techniques, revealed a good agreement. Accordingly, the results show that as the thickness of the TiW layer increases, the adhesion toughness of the film decreases. It was suggested that three factors might be responsible for the superior adhesion strength of thin films with lower thicknesses: higher surface energy due to the smaller mean grain size; higher constraint from the substrate, which causes inferior fracture toughness of the coating and facilitates crack deflection from interface to surface; and, energy dissipation due to decohesion. The thickness dependency of the transition between delamination and decohesion mechanism in thin films has also been discussed and modelled.

  5. Clinical Importance of Epicardial Fat Thickness Defining in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Chumakova, PhD, ScD¹´³

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic characteristic of the 21st century; therefore, studying the subclinical markers of coronary atherosclerosis in overweight patients is current and relevant. With weight increase, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes occur not only in the abdominal area, but also in the ectopic local fat depots, including the epicardial ones. As the myocardium and coronary arteries are anatomically related, hormonally active epicardial fat seems to be a pathologic link between obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD. The objective of this research is to study the relationship between epicardial adiposity and abdominal obesity with metabolic risk factors and visceral fat adipokines. The influence of epicardial fat thickness (EFT and waist circumference (WC on the risk of development of significant coronary atherosclerosis in obese patients with CHD was studied (138 men, 55.47±9.07 years and BMI 35.2±5.2 kg/m². The ROC analysis reveals that EFT is more informative in diagnosing significant stenoses (≥70 %: sensitivity of the given marker constituted 80.4 %, specificity – 67.6 % (cut-off value=6 mm. On comparison of the epicardial and abdominal adiposity as predictors of coronary atherosclerosis, EFT was found to be more significant than WC. In patients with CHD, the increase in EFT is associated with the more serious involvement of the coronary arteries, whereas the WC analysis did not establish similar regularities. Evaluation of EFT in obese patients can be used as a noninvasive marker indicative of the presence of subclinical stenoses of the coronary arteries.

  6. Effect of suction on macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness during LASIK used femtosecond laser and Moria M2 microkeratome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Zhang; Yue-Hua; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To compare the effect of suction on the macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness during laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK) used Ziemer FEMTO LDV femtosecond laser(Ziemer group) and Moria M2 automated microkeratome(Moria group) for flap creation.· METHODS: Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography(FD-OCT) was used to measure macular thickness, ganglion cell complex thickness and RNFL thickness of 204 eyes of 102 patients with the Ziemer femtosecond laser(102 eyes) and the Moria M2microkeratome(102 eyes) before surgery and 30min; 1,3d; 1wk; 1, 3mo; 1y after surgery.· RESULTS: The average foveal thickness and parafoveal retinal thickness 30 min after the surgery were statistically more than that before surgery(Ziemer P <0.001,P =0.003 and Moria P=0.001, P=0.006) and the effect was less in the Ziemer group than that in the Moria group(P all <0.05). The ganglion cell complex thickness was not significantly changed in both groups(P all >0.05). The RNFL thickness was statistically less 30 min after surgery in both groups(P=0.014, P <0.001), but the influence was less in Ziemer group than that in Moria group(P =0.038).However, the RNFL thickness had recovered to the preoperative level only 1d after surgery.·CONCLUSION: The suction of femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome led to the increase in macular central fovea thickness and the decrease in RNFL thickness values at the early stage after LASIK. The effect of suction on macular and the RNFL thicknesses in Ziemer group is smaller than that in Moria group.

  7. Self-assembled film thickness determination by focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejeu, J. [Institut UTINAM, UMR 6213 CNRS-UFC - equipe Materiaux et Surfaces Structures, Universite de Franche-Comte, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 16 route de Gray - 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)], E-mail: jerome.dejeu@univ-fcomte.fr; Salut, R. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-UFC-UTBM-ENSMM, Centrale MIMENTO, Universite de Franche-Comte, 32 avenue de l' Observatoire - 25044 Besancon Cedex (France); Spajer, M. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-UFC-UTBM-ENSMM, Centrale MIMENTO, Universite de Franche-Comte, 32 avenue de l' Observatoire - 25044 Besancon Cedex (France); Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-UFC-UTBM-ENSMM, Departement d' Optique, Universite de Franche-Comte, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 16 route de Gray - 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Membrey, F.; Foissy, A. [Institut UTINAM, UMR 6213 CNRS-UFC - equipe Materiaux et Surfaces Structures, Universite de Franche-Comte, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 16 route de Gray - 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Charraut, D. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-UFC-UTBM-ENSMM, Departement d' Optique, Universite de Franche-Comte, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 16 route de Gray - 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2008-06-30

    The thickness evolution of multilayer film is investigated by focused ion beam (FIB) in the domain of polymer multilayers. This method, currently used in the modification and the characterization of integrated circuits, proves it is possible to determine the polymer film thickness. Sample cutting and its observation of the cross-section are performed in the FIB without leaving the vacuum chamber. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (1) the roughness of the film increases with the number of layer deposit, (2) the film growth changes from nonlinear (called exponential) to linear beyond 300 nm (70 layers)

  8. The relationship between refractive index-energy gap and the film thickness effect on the characteristic parameters of CdSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaltun, Yunus; Yıldırım, M. Ali; Ateş, Aytunç; Yıldırım, Muhammet

    2011-05-01

    CdSe thin films were deposited on glass substrates using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The relationship between refractive index and energy bandgap was investigated. The film thickness effect on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CdSe thin films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all the films exhibit polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure and are covered well with glass substrates. The crystalline and surface properties of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The optical absorption studies revealed that the films are found to be a direct allowed transition. The energy bandgap values were changed from 1.93 to 1.87 eV depending on the film thickness. The electron effective mass (m e*/m o), refractive index ( n), optical static and high frequency dielectric constant (ɛ o, ɛ ∞) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the film thickness. The resistivity of the films changed between 10 6 and 10 2 Ω-cm with increasing film thickness at room temperature.

  9. High-frequency ultrasonic imaging of thickly sliced specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Chiaki; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Chandraratna, Premindra A. N.

    2003-07-01

    It has been reported that a mechanical scanning reflection acoustic microscope (hereinafter called simply "SAM"), using high frequency ultrasonic tone-burst waves, can form a horizontal cross-sectional image (i.e., c-scan image) showing a highly resolved cellular structure of biological tissue. However, the tissue prepared for the SAM has been mostly a thinly sectioned specimen. In this study, the SAM images of specimens thickly sectioned from the tissue were analyzed. Optical and scanning acoustic microscopies were used to evaluate tissues of human small intestine and esophagus. For preparing thin specimens, the tissue was embedded in paraffin, and substantially sectioned at 5-10μm by the microtome. For optical microscopy, the tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and affixed onto glass substrates. For scanning acoustic microscopy, two types of specimens were prepared: thinly sectioned specimens affixed on the glass substrate, wherein the specimens were deparaffinized in xylene, but not stained, and thickely sectioned specimens. Images of the thick specimens obtained with frequency at 200 MHz revealed cellular structures. The morphology was very similar to that seen in the thinly sectioned specimens with optical and scanning acoustic microscopy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the images of biological tissue. An acoustic lens with frequency at 200 MHz permitted the imaging of surface and/or subsurface of microstructures in the thick sections of small intestine and esophagus.

  10. Effects of PCB thickness on adjustable fountain wave soldering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Abdul Aziz; M Z Abdullah; C Y Khor; A Jalar; M A Bakar; W Y W Yusoff; F Che Ani; Nobe Yan; M Zhou; C Cheok

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of printed circuit board (PCB) thickness on adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering. The pin-through-hole (PTH) vertical fill is examined with three PCBs of different thicknesses (i.e., 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm) soldered through adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering at conveyor angles of 0° and 6°. The vertical fill of each PCB is the focus. The PTH solder profile is inspected with a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography scanning machine. The percentages of the PTH vertical fill of both soldering processes are also estimated and compared. The aspect ratio of the PCB is also investigated. Experimental results reveal that adjustable fountain wave soldering yields better vertical fill than conventional wave soldering. The vertical fill level of adjustable fountain wave soldering is 100%, 90%, and 50% for the 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm PCB thickness, respectively. FLUENT simulation is conducted for the vertical fill of the solder profile. Simulation and experimental results show that the PTH solder profiles of the two soldering processes are almost identical. The effect of PCB thickness on PTH voiding is also discussed.

  11. Choroidal thickness changes after dynamic exercise as measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the choroidal thickness (CT after dynamic exercise by using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT. Materials and Methods: A total of 19 healthy participants performed 10 min of low-impact, moderate-intensity exercise (i.e., riding a bicycle ergometer and were examined with EDI-OCT. Each participant was scanned before exercise and afterward at 5 min and 15 min. CT measurement was taken at the fovea and 1000 μ away from the fovea in the nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior regions. Retinal thickness, intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion pressure (OPP, heart rate, and mean blood pressure (mBP were also measured. Results: A significant increase occurred in OPP and mBP at 5 min and 15 min following exercise (P ˂ 0.05. The mean subfoveal CT at baseline was 344.00 ± 64.71 μm compared to 370.63 ± 66.87 μm at 5 min and 345.31 ± 63.58 μm at 15 min after exercise. CT measurements at all locations significantly increased at 5 min following exercise compared to the baseline (P ˂ 0.001, while measurements at 15 min following exercise did not significant differ compared to the baseline (P ˃ 0.05. There was no significant difference in retinal thickness at any location before and at 5 min and 15 min following exercise (P ˃ 0.05. Conclusion: Findings revealed that dynamic exercise causes a significant increase in CT for at least 5 min following exercise.

  12. Path radiance technique for retrieving aerosol optical thickness over land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Guoyong [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Catonsville (United States); Tsay, Si-Chee [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Cahalan, Robert F. [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Catonsville (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Oreopoulos, Lazaros [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Catonsville (United States)

    1999-12-27

    The key issue in retrieving aerosol optical thickness over land from shortwave satellite radiances is to identify and separate the signal due to scattering by a largely transparent aerosol layer from the noise due to reflection by the background surface, where the signal is relatively uniform compared to the highly inhomogeneous surface contribution. Sensitivity studies in aerosol optical thickness retrievals reveal that the apparent reflectance at the top of the atmosphere is very susceptible to the surface reflectance, especially when aerosol optical thickness is small. Uncertainties associated with surface reflectance estimation can greatly amplify the error of the aerosol optical thickness retrieval. To reduce these uncertainties, we have developed a ''path radiance'' method to retrieve aerosol optical thickness over land by extending the traditional technique that uses the ''dark object'' approach to extract the aerosol signal. This method uses the signature of the correlation of visible and middle-IR reflectance at the surface and couples the correlation with the atmospheric effect. We have applied this method to a Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) image acquired over the Oklahoma southern Great Plains site of the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program on September 27, 1997, a very clear day (aerosol optical thickness of 0.07 at 0.5 {mu}m) during the first Landsat Intensive Observation Period. The retrieved mean aerosol optical thickness for TM band 1 at 0.49 {mu}m and band 3 at 0.66 {mu}m agree very well with the ground-based Sun photometer measurements at the ARM site. The ability to retrieve small aerosol optical thickness makes this path radiance technique promising. More importantly, the path radiance is relatively insensitive to surface inhomogeneity. The retrieved mean path radiances in reflectance units have very small standard deviations for both TM blue and red bands. This small

  13. Choroidal thickness profile in healthy Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhablani, Jay Kumar; Deshpande, Riddhima; Sachdeva, Virender; Vidya, Sagar; Rao, P Srinivasa; Panigati, Anand; Mahat, Birendra; Pappuru, Rajeev Reddy; Pehere, Niranjan; Pathengay, Avinash

    2015-06-01

    The purpose was to study choroidal thickness and its profile based on location in healthy Indian children using enhanced depth spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In this cross-sectional observational study 255 eyes of 136 children with no retinal or choroidal disease were consecutively scanned using enhanced depth SD-OCT. Eyes with any ocular disease or axial length (AXL) >25 mm or choroidal thickness from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-microns intervals up to 2500 microns temporal and nasal to the fovea. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the correlation between choroidal thickness at various locations and age, AXL, gender and spherical equivalent (SEq). Mean age of the subjects was 11.9 ± 3.4 years (range: 5-18 years). There were 62 Females and 74 males. The mean AXL was 23.55 ± 0.74 mm. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 312.1 ± 45.40 μm. Choroid was found to be thickest subfoveally, then temporally. Age, AXL and SEq showed a significant correlation with choroidal thickness, whereas gender did not affect choroidal thickness. Our study provides a valid normative database of choroidal thickness in healthy Indian children. This database could be useful for further studies evaluating choroidal changes in various chorioretinal disorders. Age and AXL are critical factors, which negatively correlated with choroidal thickness.

  14. Genome sequence analysis of five Canadian isolates of strawberry mottle virus reveals extensive intra-species diversity and a longer RNA2 with increased coding capacity compared to a previously characterized European isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas.

  15. Study on thickness distribution of thermoformed medical PVC blister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum forming has many advantages over other plastic forming processes due to its cost effectiveness, time efficiency, higher product precision, and more design flexibility. Nevertheless, when pressures greater than the atmospheric value are required to force the thermo-plastic into more intimate contact with the mold surface, pressure forming is a better choice. This paper studies the process of air-pressure thermoforming of plastic sheet, and focuses on medical blister PVC products. ANSYS POLYFLOW tool is used to simulate the process and analyze the wall thickness distribution of the blister. The influence of mold parameters on the wall thickness distribution of thermoformed part is thus obtained through simulation. Increasing radius between mold and side wall at the bottom of blister and draft prove to improve the wall thickness distribution.

  16. Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Cristina Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking patients show reduction of inflammatory clinical signs that might be associated with local vasoconstriction and an increased gingival epithelial thickness. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the thickness of the marginal gingival oral epithelium in smokers and non-smokers, with clinically healthy gingivae or with gingivitis. Twenty biopsies were obtained from four different groups. Group I: non-smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group II: non-smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. Group III: smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group IV: smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. These biopsies were histologically processed, serially sectioned at 5 mm, stained with H. E., and examined by image analysis software (KS400, which was used to perform the morphometric evaluation and the quantification of the major epithelial thickness, the epithelial base thickness and the external and internal epithelial perimeters. Differences between the four groups were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey's test. The criteria for statistical significance were accepted at the probability level p < 0.05. A greater epithelial thickness was observed in smokers independent of the gingival health situation.

  17. Aqueous Solution Processed Photoconductive Cathode Interlayer for High Performance Polymer Solar Cells with Thick Interlayer and Thick Active Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Li; Chen, Zhenhui; Herbst, Stefanie; Li, Qingyuan; Yu, Chengzhuo; Jiang, Xiaofang; Dong, Huanli; Li, Fenghong; Liu, Linlin; Würthner, Frank; Chen, Junwu; Xie, Zengqi; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-09-01

    An aqueous-solution-processed photoconductive cathode interlayer is developed, in which the photoinduced charge transfer brings multiple advantages such as increased conductivity and electron mobility, as well as reduced work function. Average power conversion efficiency over 10% is achieved even when the thickness of the cathode interlayer and active layer is up to 100 and 300 nm, respectively.

  18. Harvesting split thickness costal cartilage graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Gaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There are few complications associated with harvesting of full thickness coastal cartilage grafts i.e., pneumothorax (0.9%, contour deformities and prolonged post-operative pain. To address these issues, authors devised special scalpel to harvest split-thickness costal cartilage grafts. Materials and Methods: Standard inframammary incision was used for harvesting rib. Incision was made directly over the desired rib. Specially designed scalpel was used to cut through the rib cartilage to the half of the thickness. The study was conducted in two parts – cadaveric and clinical. Results: There was significantly less pain and no pneumothorax in the patients in whom the split thickness graft was harvested. Wounds healed without any complication. Discussion: Thus, newly devised angulated scalpel used in the current study, showed the potential to supply the reconstructive surgeon with split thickness rib graft without risk of complications such as pneumothorax or warping contour deformities and post-operative pain.

  19. The thickness of amalgamations of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The thickness $\\theta(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the minimum number of planar spanning subgraphs into which the graph $G$ can be decomposed. As a topological invariant of a graph, it is a measurement of the closeness to planarity of a graph, and it also has important applications to VLSI design. In this paper, the thickness of graphs that are obtained by vertex-amalgamation and bar-amalgamation of any two graphs whose thicknesses are known are obtained, respectively. And the lower and upper bounds for the thickness of graphs that are obtained by edge-amalgamation and 2-vertex-amalgamation of any two graphs whose thicknesses are known are also derived, respectively.

  20. Micro-droplets lubrication film thickness dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerre, Axel; Theodoly, Olivier; Cantat, Isabelle; Leshansky, Alexander; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Jullien, Marie-Caroline; MMN Team; LAI Team; IPR Team; Department of Chemical Engineering Team

    2014-11-01

    The motion of droplets or bubbles in confined geometries has been extensively studied; showing an intrinsic relationship between the lubrication film thickness and the droplet velocity. When capillary forces dominate, the lubrication film thickness evolves non linearly with the capillary number due to viscous dissipation between meniscus and wall. However, this film may become thin enough that intermolecular forces come into play and affect classical scalings. We report here the first experimental evidence of the disjoining pressure effect on confined droplets by measuring droplet lubrication film thicknesses in a microfluidic Hele-Shaw cell. We find and characterize two distinct dynamical regimes, dominated respectively by capillary and intermolecular forces. In the former case rolling boundary conditions at the interface are evidenced through film thickness dynamics, interface velocity measurement and film thickness profile.

  1. Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhappilly, Tijo; Kilin, Dmitri S; Micha, David A

    2015-04-10

    The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

  2. The effect of laser pan-retinal photocoagulation with or without intravitreal bevacizumab injections on the OCT-measured macular choroidal thickness of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Rony C; Mutti, Anibal; Ferraz, Daniel A; Zacharias, Leandro C; Nakashima, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Walter Y; Monteiro, Mario L R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of laser pan-retinal photocoagulation with or without intravitreal bevacizumab injections on macular choroidal thickness parameters in eyes with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: High-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients undergoing laser treatment were prospectively enrolled in this study. One eye was randomly selected for laser treatment combined with bevacizumab injections, study group, whereas the corresponding eye was subjected to laser treatment alone, control group. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging was used to measure the macular choroidal thickness prior to and 1 month after treatment. Measurements in both groups were compared. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01389505. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (38 eyes) with a mean±standard deviation age of 53.4±9.3 years were evaluated, and choroidal thickness measurements for 15 patients were used for comparison. The greatest measurement before treatment was the subfoveal choroidal thickness (341.68±67.66 μm and 345.79±83.66 μm for the study and control groups, respectively). No significant difference between groups was found in terms of macular choroidal thickness measurements at baseline or after treatment. However, within-group comparisons revealed a significant increase in choroidal thickness parameters in 10 measurements in the study group and in only 5 temporal measurements in the control group when 1-month follow-up measurements were compared to baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: The macular choroidal thickness does not appear to be significantly influenced by laser treatment alone but increases significantly when associated with bevacizumab injections in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Because bevacizumab injections reduce short-term laser pan-retinal photocoagulation-induced macular edema, our findings suggest that the choroid participates in its pathogenesis. PMID:28273240

  3. Formability of Friction Stir-Welded Blanks with Different Thickness Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahgar, Sina; Ghaffarpour, Morteza; Habibi, Niloufar; Kokabi, Amir Hossein; Akbarzadeh, Abbas

    2016-05-01

    Welded sheets with different thicknesses are one of the interesting types of tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) that are widely used in metal-forming industries. In the present work, the formability behavior of different 1100-aluminum TWBs was studied. In this regard, the TWBs were made with different thickness ratios by using friction stir welding (FSW) at different welding rotational speeds ( ω). The thickness ratios of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.7 were investigated where the thinner sheets had 1.5 mm thick for all conditions; i.e., the volume of welded material increased when the thickness ratio increased. Macrostructural observations, mechanical investigations, and sheet-forming limit tests were conducted. The results indicate that increasing ω leads to increasing the weld nugget size up to a maximum level and welding became impossible at higher ω. Furthermore, increasing heat input during FSW, the ultimate tensile strength of welds reduced in comparison with the initial cold-worked base metal. However, the ductility improved by increasing the heat input, which produced the sound welds. Formability studies of the friction stir-welded blanks with equal thicknesses have shown that the forming ratio improves up to 2.8 times the base metal. Forming limit curves also illustrate that increasing the thickness ratio of TWB causes the formability ratio to decrease steadily. Thus, when the thickness ratio becomes 1.7, the formability of TWB decreases approximately to the thinnest base metal.

  4. Central Corneal Thickness in Adult Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The central corneal thickness (CCT) in age 48 years or less of Chinese was characterized and its relationship with gender, age, refraction and intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated.Right eyes of 1669 participants were included in this study (880 men, 52.7 % and 789 women,47.3 %). Mean age of the samples was 23.8±5.9 years. After the examination of corneal topography and refraction, Goldman applanation tonometry was carried out by one physician. Tonometric values were the mean of three consecutive readings. Subsequently, another physician carried out ultrasonic pachymetry with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter. Six measuremen ts were made at the center of the cornea of each eye. The mean value was used for analysis. The results showed that mean CCT of male participants was 551.33± 34. 62 μm, 5.79 μm more than that of female participants. Linear regression analyses revealed that CCT was negatively related with age only in female and no association was found between refractive status and CCT. IOP was positively related to CCT, and there was a difference in IOP of 1.5 mmHg (1 mmHg=0. 133 kPa) per 100 μm difference in CCT. Ocular hypertension group was prone to have thicker cornea than average. The results indicated that in adult Chinese CCT tended to decrease with aging in female only. IOP measured by Goldmann tonometry was positively related with CCT so that CCT should be measured along with IOP.

  5. Wetlands sediment record from the upper Yarlung Tsangpo valley, southwest Tibetan Plateau, reveals mid-Holocene Epipaleolithic human occupation coincident with increased early and mid-Holocene wetness driven by enhanced Indian Monsoon rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, A. M.; Olsen, J. W.; Quade, J.; Lei, G.; Huth, T.; Zhang, H.; Perreault, C.

    2016-12-01

    The headwaters of the Yarlung Tsangpo river valley, located in the southwestern Tibetan Plateau, are characterized by a cold and dry climate, but contain abundant river-marginal wetlands environments, which fluctuate in extent in response to changes in local water table elevation. This region receives 80% of precipitation from the Indian Monsoon, which forms the dominant control on moisture availability, and hence wetlands extent. Our paleowetlands record, based on 14C dating of organic-rich paleowetlands deposits, provides a novel record of Holocene monsoon intensity. The wetlands deposits consist of four sedimentary units that indicate decreasing wetlands extent and monsoon intensity since 10.4 ka BP. Wet conditions occurred at ˜10.4 ka BP, ˜9.6 ka BP and ˜7.9-4.8 ka BP, with similar-to-modern conditions from ˜4.6-2.0 ka BP, and drier-than-modern conditions from ˜2.0 ka BP to present. Wetland changes correlate with monsoon intensity changes identified in nearby records, with weak monsoon intervals corresponding to desiccation and erosion of wetlands deposits. Dating of in situ ceramic and microlithic artifacts in wetlands sediments at multiple sites indicates Epipaleolithic human occupation of the YT valley after 6.6 ka BP. Artifact typology study reveals a similar microlithic technology was employed across the high plateau interior, but XRF obsidian provenance reveals separate northeast and southwest lithic conveyance zones. This indicates widespread colonization of the high, arid Tibetan Plateau interior by one or more highly mobile human populations during the early and mid-Holocene, coincident with favorable warm, wet climate conditions.

  6. Deformation behavior of A6063 tube with initial thickness deviation in free hydraulic bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lian-fa; GUO Cheng; DENG Yang

    2006-01-01

    Experiment on seamless tubes of aluminum alloy A6063 with initial thickness deviation of 0-20% was conducted through a free hydraulic bulging with tube ends free. The influence of initial thickness deviation on the cross-section profile, thickness distribution, maximum internal pressure and maximum radial expansion was investigated. FEM simulation was also performed in order to examine and help explaining the experimental results. The results indicate that the internal pressure and maximum internal pressure appear to be little influenced by the initial thickness deviation, and that the cross-section profile of the bulged tube changes diversely and can not be a perfect circle. The results also suggest that the increase in initial thickness deviation may lead to a remarkable decrease in maximum radial expansion, and a rapid increase in thickness deviation and the center eccentricity of the inner and outer profiles.

  7. Study of the effect of membrane thickness on microcapsule strength, permeability, and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yu; Wang, Qiuyan; Tan, Mingqian; Liu, Yang; Chen, Li; Li, Na; Yu, Weiting; Ma, Xiaojun

    2013-04-01

    Cell microencapsulation is one of the promising strategies for in vitro production of proteins or in vivo delivery of therapeutic products. Membrane thickness controls microcapsule strength and permeability, which may in return affect cell growth and metabolism. In this study, the strength, permeability, and encapsulated Chinese hamster ovary cell proliferation and metabolism of four groups of microcapsules with different membrane thicknesses were investigated. It was found that increasing membrane thickness increases microcapsule strength, whereas decreases membrane permeability. During the first 6 days, cells within microcapsules with 10 μm thickness membrane proliferated fast and could reach a cell density of 1.9 × 10(7) cells/mL microcapsule with 92% cell density. A cell density of 5.5 × 10(7) cells/mL microcapsule with >85% cell density was achieved within microcapsules with 15 μm membrane thickness and these microcapsules kept over 88% integrity ratio after 11 days, which was much higher than that of microcapsules with 10 μm membrane thickness. Membrane with more than 20 μm thickness was not suited for encapsulated cell culture owing to low-protein diffusion rate. These results indicated that cells survived shortly within the thinnest membrane thickness. There was a specific membrane thickness more suitable for cell growth for a long-time culture. These findings will be useful for preparing microcapsules with the desired membrane thickness for microencapsulated cell culture dependent on various purposes.

  8. Thickness-dependent structural arrangement in nano-confined imidazolium-based ionic liquid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouha, Michael; Cummings, Peter T

    2015-02-14

    A fundamental understanding of interfacial processes in nano-confined ionic liquids is crucial to increase the performance of modern energy storage devices. It is well-known that interfaces between electrodes and ionic liquids exhibit structures distinct from that of the bulk liquid. Following the recent interest in these systems, we studied the structure of thin ionic liquid films confined in flexible uncharged carbon nano-pores by using fully-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the interfacial ions self-assemble into a closely-packed chequerboard-like pattern, formed by both cations and anions in direct contact with the pore wall, and that within this structure we find changes dependent on the thickness of the confined films. At low coverages a dense layer is formed in which both the imidazolium-ring and its alkyl-tail lie parallel to the pore wall. With increasing coverage the alkyl-chains reorient perpendicular to the surface, making space for additional ions until a densified highly ordered layer is formed. This wall-induced self-patterning into interfacial layers with significantly higher than bulk density is consistent with recent experimental and theoretical studies of similar systems. This work reveals additional molecular-level details on the effect of the film-thickness on the structure and density of the ionic liquid.

  9. Thickness of the Meniscal Lamellar Layer: Correlation with Indentation Stiffness and Comparison of Normal and Abnormally Thick Layers by Using Multiparametric Ultrashort Echo Time MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja-Young; Biswas, Reni; Bae, Won C; Healey, Robert; Im, Michael; Statum, Sheronda; Chang, Eric Y; Du, Jiang; Bydder, Graeme M; D'Lima, Darryl; Chung, Christine B

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between lamellar layer thickness on ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance (MR) images and indentation stiffness of human menisci and to compare quantitative MR imaging values between two groups with normal and abnormally thick lamellar layers. Materials and Methods This was a HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study. Nine meniscal pieces were obtained from seven donors without gross meniscal pathologic results (mean age, 57.4 years ± 14.5 [standard deviation]). UTE MR imaging and T2, UTE T2*, and UTE T1ρ mapping were performed. The presence of abnormal lamellar layer thickening was determined and thicknesses were measured. Indentation testing was performed. Correlation between the thickness and indentation stiffness was assessed, and mean quantitative MR imaging values were compared between the groups. Results Thirteen normal lamellar layers had mean thickness of 232 μm ± 85 and indentation peak force of 1.37 g ± 0.87. Four abnormally thick lamellar layers showed mean thickness of 353.14 μm ± 98.36 and peak force 0.72 g ± 0.31. In most cases, normal thicknesses showed highly positive correlation with the indentation peak force (r = 0.493-0.912; P thickness in two abnormal lamellar layers showed highly negative correlation (r = -0.90, P thick lamellar layers were increased compared with values in normal lamellar layers, although only the UTE T2* value showed significant difference (P = .010). Conclusion Variation of lamellar layer thickness in normal human menisci was evident on two-dimensional UTE images. In normal lamellar layers, thickness is highly and positively correlated with surface indentation stiffness. UTE T2* values may be used to differentiate between normal and abnormally thickened lamellar layers. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions.

  11. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R. [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  12. Manufacture of ultrasonic thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Toshihiro; Yanagihara, Takao; Katoh, Chiaki; Hamada, Shozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The demonstration test for evaluating reliability of the acid recovery evaporator at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been carried out at JAERI. For the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of heat transfer tubes in the acid recovery evaporator and short tubes used in corrosion test, we have developed ultra sonic thickness measuring apparatus using immersion method with high resolution. This apparatus can measure and record tube thickness automatically with a personal computer. The results obtained by this apparatus are coincident with the results obtained by a destructive method using an optical microscope. (author)

  13. Refining thick brane models via electroweak data

    CERN Document Server

    Chumbes, A E R; Hott, M B

    2015-01-01

    After discussing the localization of Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields and Higgs fields on a thick brane, we introduce a procedure of dimensional reduction and its consequences to the rescaled parameters of the boson sector of the Standard Model. The parameters encodes some power dependence on the extra dimension, usually narrow, warp factor and hence it also depend on the position related with the extra dimension inside the thick brane. In this vein, the observable parameters may be used to refine the braneworld models via the brane thickness.

  14. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  15. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  16. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  17. Association between PAPP-A and placental thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Mesdaghi-nia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A in first trimester can be a way for early detection of adverse prenatal outcome due to faulty placenta. Objective: The aim was to Determination of association between placental thickness in second trimester with low level of PAPP-A in first trimester. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, serum PAPP-A of 187 pregnant women was measured in the first trimester of pregnancy. Patients who had PAPP-A ≤0.8 MOM were in exposed and others who had PAPP-A >0.8 defined as unexposed group. The criteria of placental thickness in ultrasound study was thickness of 4 cm or more than 50% of placental length. Results: Of 187 patients, 87 patients had PAPP-A >0.8 and 93 patients had PAPP-A ≤0.8. Women with low levels of PAPP-A in the first trimester, had an increased incidence placental thickness of 34.4%, whereas another group had about 15% (p=0.002. Also, PAPP-A levels had acceptable sensitivity and specificity for placental thickness detection (71.1% and 54.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed that serum level of PAPP-A generally was low (≤0.8 in women with a thick placenta (>4 cm or >50% of placental length. The first trimester of pregnancy measurement of PAPP-A will be more predictable for healthy placenta.

  18. Influence of Thickness on Ethanol Sensing Characteristics of Doctor-bladed Thick Film from Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukon Phanichphant

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP using zincnaphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%. The particleproperties were analyzed by XRD, BET, and HR-TEM. The sensing films were produced bymixing the particles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as avehicle binder and were fabricated by doctor-blade technique with various thicknesses (5,10, 15 μm. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by SEM and EDS analyses.The gas sensing characteristics to ethanol (25-250 ppm were evaluated as a function of filmthickness at 400°C in dry air. The relationship between thickness and ethanol sensingcharacteristics of ZnO thick film on Al2O3 substrate interdigitated with Au electrodes wereinvestigated. The effects of film thickness, as well as the cracking phenomenon, though,many cracks were observed for thicker sensing films. Crack widths increased withincreasing film thickness. The film thickness, cracking and ethanol concentration havesignificant effect on the sensing characteristics. The sensing characteristics with variousthicknesses were compared, showing the tendency of the sensitivity to ethanol decreasedwith increasing film thickness and response time. The relationship between gas sensingproperties and film thickness was discussed on the basis of diffusively and reactivity of thegases inside the oxide films. The thinnest sensing film (5 μm showed the highest sensitivityand the fastest response time (within seconds.

  19. Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based thin-film systems with different absorber thicknesses: spatially resolved photoluminescence and AFM measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Oliver; Heise, Stephan J.; Brueggemann, Rudolf; Meessen, Max; Bauer, Gottfried H. [Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg (Germany); Witte, Wolfram; Hariskos, Dimitrios [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Chalcopyrite absorbers exhibit spatial inhomogeneities in structural, optical and optoelectronic properties. We study the absorber thickness dependent behavior of the local properties such as the splitting of the quasi-Fermi levels, optical threshold energies and surface roughness of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}-based (CIGSe) thin-film systems with different absorber thicknesses, which are realized by etching traditionally prepared absorbers with nominal thicknesses of about 2 {mu}m with bromine-methanol followed by a cadmium sulfide (CdS) passivation. AFM measurements reveal a decrease in the surface roughness with decreasing absorber thickness, i.e., increasing etching time. Photoluminescence experiments with high lateral resolution allow the extraction of the optical threshold energies and the splitting of the quasi-Fermi levels. Furthermore we verify a depth gradient of the gallium concentration and a variation of quasi-Fermi level splitting depending on the absorber thickness. Additionally, we show that the CdS/CIGSe junction formation of an unetched absorber in comparison to an etched absorber leads to higher quasi-Fermi level splitting.

  20. Direct observation of a central bare zone in a native thick filament isolated from the anterior byssus retractor muscle of Mytilus edulis using fluorescent ATP analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiwa, K; Yamaga, T; Yamada, A

    1998-04-01

    To investigate the existence of a central bare zone in native thick filaments isolated from the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), the filaments were observed by fluorescence and dark-field microscopy after being incubated in the presence of Ca2+ with the fluorescent ATP analogue, Cy3-EDA-ATP. Filaments appeared under dark-field illumination as thin rods with tapered ends of length 5-30 microm. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that Cy3-EDA-ATP was bound to these filaments, except near their center. Although the boundary between this central non-fluorescent zone and fluorescent regions was not clearly defined, there was a trend for the width of the central non-fluorescent zone to increase with thick filament length (correlation coefficient = 0.45; n = 142). When Cy3-EDA-nucleotides bound to thick filaments were displaced by excess ATP, fluorescent images disappeared with a rate constant of 0. 024 s-1, close to the turnover rate of Cy3-EDA-ATP by myosin on the native thick filaments. These results indicate that each native thick filament isolated from the ABRM has a central bare zone, but its boundary was not sharply resolved.

  1. APPLIED ORIGAMI. Origami of thick panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-24

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  2. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  3. Wilcox Group Apparent Thickness, Gulf Coast (wlcxthkg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Apparent Wilcox Group thickness maps are contoured from location and top information derived from the Petroleum Information (PI) Wells database. The Wilcox...

  4. Saturated thickness, High Plains aquifer, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer of the United States, 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  5. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.;

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in glacier research is to assess the total ice volume and its global distribution. Over the past few decades the compilation of a world glacier inventory has been well-advanced both in institutional set-up and in spatial coverage. The inventory is restricted to glacier...... surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature...... review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from...

  6. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  7. Investigation of thickness effects on the dielectric constant barium strontium titanate thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Grattan, L J

    2002-01-01

    The collapse in dielectric constant at small thickness commonly observed in ferroelectric thin films was measured and investigated in barium strontium titanate (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 TiO sub 3). The possible mechanisms responsible for this effect are reviewed. Functional measurements were performed on BST thin films, of 7.5 to 950 nm, by incorporating them into capacitor structures with bottom electrodes of strontium ruthenate (SRO) and thermally- evaporated Au top electrodes. A discussion on thin film growth considerations, optimal PLD conditions and the measurement techniques employed in the project is presented. The experimentally determined dielectric constant - thickness profile was fitted using the series capacitor model assuming low dielectric constant interfacial layers in series with the bulk. Consideration of the case where the combined 'dead layer' thickness was close to the total BST thickness revealed that, for this system, the total 'dead layer' thickness had to be less than ...

  8. Thickness dependent enhancement of the polar magneto-optic Kerr effect in Co magnetoplasmonic nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Melander, Emil; Caballero, Blanca; García-Martín, Antonio; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the influence of the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer on the surface plasmon polariton assisted enhancement of the polar magneto-optic Kerr effect. The optical and magneto-optical response is strongly altered by the thickness of the magnetic layer as shown in specular reflectivity and polar magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. That the main spectral feature of the magneto-optical enhancement does not only depend on the in-plane structuring of the sample but also on the out-of-plane geometrical parameters, such as the thickness. For the specific thickness of 100 nm for the Co layer an sixfold enhancement of the polar magneto-optical effect is observed, as compared to a continuous Co film of the same thickness.

  9. Effect of thickness on structural, corrosion and mechanical properties of a thin ZrN film deposited by medium frequency (MF) reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, Ayyalu; Kannan, Raman [Anna Univ., Dindigul (India). Dept. of Physics; Loganathan, Subramani [Titan Industries, Hosur, Tamilnadu (India). Ion Plating Dept.

    2016-07-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films were prepared on stainless steel (SS) substrates by medium frequency (MF) reactive sputtering with gas ion source (GIS) by varying the deposition time and obtained thickness (t{sub ZrN}) in the range of 1.25 to 3.24 μm. The effect of thickness on the structural and microstructural properties was studied using XRD and AFM. XRD characterization revealed that the texture of the ZrN thin films changes as a function of thickness. Both, the (111) and (200) peak, appear initially and (111) becomes more intense with increasing t{sub ZrN}. AFM imaging revealed that the ZrN thin film coated with t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm shows larger grains that are uniformly distributed over the surface. An average hardness value of 19.79 GPa was observed for ZrN thin films having t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm. The ZrN thin films having t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm exhibits better adhesion strength up to 20 N. The electrochemical polarization studies indicated that the ZrN thin film having larger thickness shows improved corrosion resistance compared to SS in 3.5 % NaCl solution.

  10. Performance Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on TiO₂ Thick Mesoporous Photoanodes by Morphological Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Reza; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2015-10-27

    This study is an attempt to give an account of the preparation of mesoporous TiO2 thick templated films of nonsimilar pore architecture and their use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Highly crystallized mesoporous titania thick templated films with four different morphologies including hexagonal, wormlike, cubic, and gridlike mesostructure, have been successfully synthesized through an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) route followed by layer-by-layer deposition. Stabilization, followed by each coating, and calcinations, carried out after every five layers, were used to produce crack-free thick films. These mesoporous templated titanium dioxide samples were characterized by TEM, XRD, SEM, BET, and UV-vis measurements and used as a photoelectrode material in DSSCs. The mesostructured films with a thickness of about 7 μm demonstrated better performance in comparison to nanocrystalline TiO2 films (NC-TiO2) at a film thickness of 13 μm as the most typical films utilized in DSSCs. The findings reveal that a surfactant/Ti ratio change undergone for developing cubic mesostructures can enhance the crystallinity and roughness factor and therefore increase the energy conversion efficiency of DSSC. The cell performances derived from these mesofilms were enhanced compared to the efficiencies reported thus far. The best photovoltaic performance of 8.73% came from DSSC using the cubic mesoporous TiO2 photoelectrode with the following properties: open circuit voltage of 743 mV, short circuit photocurrent density of 16.35 mA/cm(2), and fill factor of 0.72.

  11. Numerical study of the influence of ZnTe thickness on CdS/ZnTe solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skhouni, Othmane; El Manouni, Ahmed; Mari, Bernabe; Ullah, Hanif

    2016-05-01

    At present most of II-VI semiconductor based solar cells use the CdTe material as an absorber film. The simulation of its performance is realized by means of various numerical modelling programs. We have modelled a solar cell based on zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin film as absorber in substitution to the CdTe material, which contains the cadmium element known by its toxicity. The performance of such photovoltaic device has been numerically simulated and the thickness of the absorber layer has been optimized to give the optimal conversion efficiency. A photovoltaic device consisting of a ZnTe layer as absorber, CdS as the buffer layer and ZnO as a window layer was modelled through Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator Software. Dark and illuminated I-V characteristics and the results for different output parameters of ZnO/CdS/ZnTe solar cell were analyzed. The effect of ZnTe absorber thickness on different main working parameters such as: open-circuit voltage Voc, short-circuit current density Jsc, fill factor FF, photovoltaic conversion efficiency η was intensely studied in order to optimize ZnTe film thickness. This study reveals that increasing the thickness of ZnTe absorber layer results in higher efficiency until a maximum value and then decreases slightly. This maximum was found to be 10% at ZnTe optimum thickness close to 2 µm. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  12. Crustal Thickness and Lower Crustal Velocity Structure Beneath the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Soule, D. C.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Toomey, D. R.; Hooft, E. E. E.; Weekly, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    In 2009, a multi-scale seismic tomography experiment was conducted on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge aboard the R/V Marcus G. Langseth. Ocean bottom seismometers were deployed at 64 sites and recorded 5567 shots of a 36-element, 6600 in.3 airgun array. The experiment extended 100 km along-axis and 60 km cross-axis. Two crustal tomographic analyses have previously been completed using data from the experiment. First, 93,000 manually picked crustal refraction arrivals (Pg) were used to develop a three-dimensional model of crustal velocity and thickness in the upper crust (Weekly et al. 2014). Second, this model was used as the starting model in an analysis that incorporated ~19,000 Moho reflection arrivals (PmP) for non-ridge crossing paths to image lower crustal velocity structure and crustal thickness off-axis. A key feature of this model is a ~0.5-1 km increase in crustal thickness beneath a bathymetric plateau that extends to either side of the central portion of the Endeavour segment. We present a tomographic inversions that incorporates ridge-crossing paths to examine spatial variations in lower crustal velocity and crustal thickness beneath the ridge axis. The preliminary results from an inversion that incorporates ~8700 manually picked ridge-crossing PmP arrival times reveals a ~10-km-wide low velocity zone extending throughout the lower crust with a velocity anomaly of -0.3 to -0.5 km/s at ≥4 km depth. This low velocity zone extends both to the north and south of the axial magma chamber reflector imaged previously beneath the central Endeavour. The inversion also shows significant variations in apparent crustal thickness along axis but additional analysis is required to understand whether these variations are well resolved.

  13. Microarray Analysis Reveals Increased Expression of Matrix Metalloproteases and Cytokines of Interleukin-20 Subfamily in the Kidneys of Neonate Rats Underwent Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction: A Potential Role of IL-24 in the Regulation of Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Domonkos; Sziksz, Erna; Kiss, Zoltán; Rokonay, Réka; Veres-Székely, Apor; Lippai, Rita; Takács, István Márton; Kis, Éva; Fekete, Andrea; Reusz, György; Vannay, Adam; Szabó, Attila J

    2017-01-01

    Congenital obstructive nephropathy (CON) is the main cause of pediatric chronic kidney diseases leading to renal fibrosis. High morbidity and limited treatment opportunities of CON urge the better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. To identify the differentially expressed genes, microarray analysis was performed on the kidney samples of neonatal rats underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Microarray results were then validated by real-time RT-PCR and bioinformatics analysis was carried out to identify the relevant genes, functional groups and pathways involved in the pathomechanism of CON. Renal expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 and interleukin (IL)-24 were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunohistochemical analysis. Effect of the main profibrotic factors on the expression of MMP-12 and IL-24 was investigated on HK-2 and HEK-293 cell lines. Finally, the effect of IL-24 treatment on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs were tested in vitro. Microarray analysis revealed 880 transcripts showing >2.0-fold change following UUO, enriched mainly in immune response related processes. The most up-regulated genes were MMPs and members of IL-20 cytokine subfamily, including MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-12, IL-19 and IL-24. We found that while TGF-β treatment inhibits the expression of MMP-12 and IL-24, H2O2 or PDGF-B treatment induce the epithelial expression of MMP-12. We demonstrated that IL-24 treatment decreases the expression of IL-6 and MMP-3 in the renal epithelial cells. This study provides an extensive view of UUO induced changes in the gene expression profile of the developing kidney and describes novel molecules, which may play significant role in the pathomechanism of CON. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Definitions of radioisotope thick target yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otuka, Naohiko [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wien (Austria). Nuclear Data Section; Takacs, Sandor [Hungarian Academy of Science, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research

    2015-05-01

    Definitions of thick target yields are reviewed in relation to their documentation for the experimental nuclear reaction data library (database). Researchers reporting experimental thick target yields are urged to define their yields clearly with an appropriate unit in order to compile them in the experimental data library (EXFOR) in a consistent manner, and also to properly utilise them for comparison with other experimental and evaluated yields.

  15. Choroidal thickness profile in healthy Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Kumar Chhablani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to study choroidal thickness and its profile based on location in healthy Indian children using enhanced depth spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study 255 eyes of 136 children with no retinal or choroidal disease were consecutively scanned using enhanced depth SD-OCT. Eyes with any ocular disease or axial length (AXL >25 mm or < 20 mm were excluded. A single observer measured choroidal thickness from the posterior edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid/sclera junction at 500-microns intervals up to 2500 microns temporal and nasal to the fovea. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the correlation between choroidal thickness at various locations and age, AXL, gender and spherical equivalent (SEq. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 11.9 ± 3.4 years (range: 5-18 years. There were 62 Females and 74 males. The mean AXL was 23.55 ± 0.74 mm. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 312.1 ± 45.40 μm. Choroid was found to be thickest subfoveally, then temporally. Age, AXL and SEq showed a significant correlation with choroidal thickness, whereas gender did not affect choroidal thickness. Conclusion: Our study provides a valid normative database of choroidal thickness in healthy Indian children. This database could be useful for further studies evaluating choroidal changes in various chorioretinal disorders. Age and AXL are critical factors, which negatively correlated with choroidal thickness.

  16. Choroidal thickness profiles in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Lauren N; Guymer, Robyn H; Luu, Chi D

    2013-01-01

    Little quantitative information exists regarding the effect that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has on the choroid. The aim of this study was to determine choroidal thickness profiles in patients with RP. Prospective. Forty-two RP and 22 control subjects participated in the study. RP patients had mild to severe disease, with a visual acuity range of logMAR 0.1 to no light perception. Images of the retina and choroid were obtained using the enhanced depth-imaging method and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Choroidal thickness measures were determined via manual segmentation of the OCT image. The thickness profiles of the normal and RP groups were compared. The associations between choroidal thickness, visual acuity and duration of RP were determined. The choroid was thickest in the control eyes at the subfoveal location (336.60 ± 70.42 μm), and the thickness gradually decreased towards the peripheral retina (temporal 8° = 295.55 ± 60.52 μm; nasal 8° = 251.68 ± 49.93 μm). In RP, the mean thickness was also greater at the fovea (215.60 ± 94.91 μm) than the temporal (191.66 ± 72.42 μm) and nasal (149.91 ± 57.42 μm) retina, but all values were significantly lower than those of the controls (P ≤ 0.001). Subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly correlated with visual acuity (r = -0.46, P choroid than controls. Patients with poorer visual acuity or longer duration of symptoms tended to have thinner choroids. Knowledge of choroidal thickness profile in RP is important for the field of restorative vision research and the development of suprachoroidal retinal prostheses. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Rapid Measurement of Nanoparticle Thickness Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz-Boon, Hadas, E-mail: hadas.katz@monash.edu [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Rossouw, Chris J. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Dwyer, Christian; Etheridge, Joanne [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    A method to measure the thickness of a single-crystal nanoparticle in the direction parallel to the incident beam from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF-STEM) images is reported, providing a map of thickness versus position across the nanoparticle-a 'thickness profile' image. The method is rapid and hence suitable for surveying large numbers of nanoparticles. The method measures the intensity scattered to a characterised ADF detector and compares this to the incident beam intensity, to obtain a normalized ADF image. The normalised intensity is then converted to thickness via dynamical ADF image simulations. The method is accurate within 10% and the precision is dominated primarily by 'shot noise'. Merits and limitations of this method are discussed. A method to calibrate the response function of the ADF detector without external equipment is also described, which is applicable to the entire range of gain and background settings. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method is developed to convert ADF-STEM images to 'thickness profile' images. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is applicable in particles survey, facets determination and discrete tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to calibrate the response of the ADF detector is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The response in analysed across a range of conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamical ADF image simulations are presented, demonstrating intensity vs. thickness dependence.

  18. Temperature- and thickness-dependent electrical conductivity of few-layer graphene and graphene nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiao-Yong, E-mail: fang@ysu.edu.cn [School of Science, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yu, Xiao-Xia; Zheng, Hong-Mei [School of Science, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Jin, Hai-Bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Li [School of Science, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Cao, Mao-Sheng, E-mail: caomaosheng@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-02

    We established a calculation model of the conductivity of multilayer graphene based on Boltzmann transport equation and 2D electron gas theory. Numerical simulations show that the conductivities of few-layer graphene and graphene nanosheets are reduced when thickness is increased. The reduction rate decreases for micron-range thicknesses and remains constant thereafter. Moreover, the conductivity increases with the increase in temperature, in which the increase rate declines as temperature increases. Higher thickness exhibits a more obvious temperature effect on conductivity. Such effect also increases with the increase in temperature. - Highlights: • Two types of carrier transport channels, surface channel and interlayer channel, were advised. • Electron scattering mechanism in the surface channel and interlayer channel were investigated. • The calculation model of the conductivity of multilayer graphene was established. • Temperature- and thickness-dependent conductivity of FLG and GNs was simulated. • Numerical simulation results are consistent with the published experimental results.

  19. Influence of internal temperature development during manufacturing on thick laminates compression fatigue properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, RPL

    2016-07-01

    Thick laminates (above 6 mm) are increasingly present in large composite structures such as wind turbine blades. Blade designs are based on static and fatigue coupon tests on 14mm thick laminates. However, a thickness effect has been observed, showing significantly shorter fatigue life in thick laminates. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of selfheating during fatigue testing, scaling effects, and the influence of residual stresses due to temperature gradients during manufacturing. This work studies the influence of the temperature gradients during resin infusion on the through-thickness fatigue properties in thick laminates. Coupons from thick laminates cured at different curing rates have been tested in fatigue. The work reports the compression fatigue properties of a thick laminate and relates the results with the curing rate. Safety factors between 1.23 and 1.60 regarding the influence of the curing cycles in thick laminates are reported.

  20. Effect of 12-Day Spaceflight on Brain of Thick-Toed Geckos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshchina, A. E.; Karlamova, A. S.; Barabanovet, V. M.; Godovalova, O. S.; Guilimova, V. I.; Krivova, Y. S.; Makarov, A. N.; Nikitin, V. B.; Savelieva, E. S.; Saveliev, S. V.

    2008-06-01

    In the frames of Russian-American joint space experiment onboard Foton-M3 satellite there was undertaken a study of spaceflight influence on brain of the thick-toed gecko (Pachydactylus turneri Gray, 1864). Serial brain sections were stained according to Nissl and also the immunohistochemical method with antibodies to NGF-receptor (p75NGFR), CD95 (also known as Fas and APO-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and transferrin-receptor (CD71). Detailed examination of the sections of rhombencephalon revealed cytological changes in the neuron bodies of vestibular nuclei inside the flight group. Immunohistochemicaly we found the increase density of CD95 and p75NGFR and decrease of GFAP expression in medial cortex and epithalamus in flight group compared both control.

  1. Annealing temperature and thickness dependencies of structural and magnetic properties of Co2FeAl thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Zighem, F.; Roussigné, Y.; Faurie, D.; Tiusan, C.

    2016-09-01

    Co2FeAl (CFA) thin films, of various thicknesses (3 nm≤t ≤50 nm ), have been grown by sputtering on (001) MgO single-crystal substrates and annealed at different temperatures (RT≤Ta≤600 ∘C , where RT is the room temperature). The influence of the CFA thickness (t ), as well as ex situ annealing temperature (Ta), on the magnetic and structural properties has been investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry, and broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR). The XRD revealed an epitaxial growth of the films with the cubic [001] CFA axis normal to the substrate plane and that the chemical order varies from the B 2 phase to the A 2 phase when decreasing t or Ta. The deduced lattice parameters showed an in-plane tetragonal distortion and in-plane and out-plane strains that increase with Ta and 1 /t . For all Ta values, the variation of the effective magnetization, deduced from the fit of MS-FMR measurements, shows two different regimes separated by a critical thickness, which is Ta dependent. It decreases (increases) linearly with the inverse thickness (1 /t ) in the first (second) regime due to the contribution of the magnetoelastic anisotropy to surface (to volume) anisotropy. The observed behavior has been analyzed through a model allowing for the separation of the magnetocrystalline, magnetoelastic, and Néel-type interface anisotropy constants to the surface and the volume anisotropies. Similar behavior has been observed for the effective fourfold anisotropy field which governs the in-plane anisotropy present in all the samples. Finally, the MS-FMR data also allow one to conclude that the gyromagnetic factor remains constant and that the exchange stiffness constant increases with Ta.

  2. Expression pattern of transcription factors and intracellular cytokines reveals that clinically cured tuberculosis is accompanied by an increase in Mycobacterium-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos V; Massaro Junior, Vladimir J; Machado, Juliana R; Silva, Djalma A A; Castellano, Lúcio R; Alexandre, Patricia B D; Rodrigues, Denise B R; Rodrigues, Virmondes

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem and is the second biggest cause of death by infectious disease worldwide. Here, we investigate in vitro the Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cytokines and transcriptional factors produced after Mycobacterium-specific antigen stimulation in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, clinically cured pulmonary tuberculosis, and healthy donors with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST+). Together, our data indicate that clinical cure after treatment increases the percentages of Mycobacterium-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells compared with those found in active-TB and TST+ healthy donors. These results show that the host-parasite equilibrium in latent TB breaks in favor of the microorganism and that the subsequent clinical recovery posttreatment does not return the percentage levels of such cells to those observed in latent tuberculosis. Additionally, our results indicate that rather than showing an increase in the percentage of Mycobacterium-specific Tregs, active-TB patients display lower Th1 : Treg and Th17 : Treg ratios. These data, together with lower Th1 : Th2 and Th17 : Th2 ratios, may indicate a mechanism by which the breakdown of the host-parasite equilibrium leads to active-TB and changes in the repertoire of Mycobacterium-specific Th cells that are associated with clinical cure after treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  3. Expression Pattern of Transcription Factors and Intracellular Cytokines Reveals That Clinically Cured Tuberculosis Is Accompanied by an Increase in Mycobacterium-Specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos V. da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a major global health problem and is the second biggest cause of death by infectious disease worldwide. Here, we investigate in vitro the Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cytokines and transcriptional factors produced after Mycobacterium-specific antigen stimulation in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, clinically cured pulmonary tuberculosis, and healthy donors with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST+. Together, our data indicate that clinical cure after treatment increases the percentages of Mycobacterium-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells compared with those found in active-TB and TST+ healthy donors. These results show that the host-parasite equilibrium in latent TB breaks in favor of the microorganism and that the subsequent clinical recovery posttreatment does not return the percentage levels of such cells to those observed in latent tuberculosis. Additionally, our results indicate that rather than showing an increase in the percentage of Mycobacterium-specific Tregs, active-TB patients display lower Th1 : Treg and Th17 : Treg ratios. These data, together with lower Th1 : Th2 and Th17 : Th2 ratios, may indicate a mechanism by which the breakdown of the host-parasite equilibrium leads to active-TB and changes in the repertoire of Mycobacterium-specific Th cells that are associated with clinical cure after treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  4. Time-resolved photoresponse of nanometer-thick Nb/NiCu bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlato, L.; Pepe, G. P.; Latempa, R.; De Lisio, C.; Altucci, C.; D'Acunto, P.; Peluso, G.; Barone, A.; Taneda, T.; Sobolewski, R.

    2005-07-01

    We present femtosecond optical time-resolved pump-probe investigations of superconducting hybrids structures consisting of Nb/NiCu bilayers with various thickness. Measurements performed on pure Nb and NiCu films are also given. The photoresponse experiments provide the quasiparticle relaxation times in bilayers of different thickness ratios. The study of the photoresponse as a function of the temperature reveals the spatial evolution of the superconductor order parameter across the bilayers.

  5. Novel Ballistic Processing of Sn-0.7Cu Thick Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, D.; Stewart, K.; Morsi, K.

    2016-11-01

    The present paper discusses a novel process (Ballistic Processing) for the ultra-rapid processing of textured and un-textured thick and potentially thin films. The effect of processing velocity (14.6 to 36.1 m/s) on the developed external structure and internal microstructure of Sn-0.7Cu thick film is discussed. Film thicknesses ranging from 6.08 to 12.79 μm were produced and characterized by two-dimensional hypoeutectic microstructures. Both film thickness and dendrite arm spacing decreased with an increase in processing velocity.

  6. Dielectrophoretic capture of low abundance cell population using thick electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalot, Julien; Chateaux, Jean-François; Faivre, Magalie; Mertani, Hichem C.; Ferrigno, Rosaria; Deman, Anne-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment of rare cell populations such as Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) is a critical step before performing analysis. This paper presents a polymeric microfluidic device with integrated thick Carbon-PolyDimethylSiloxane composite (C-PDMS) electrodes designed to carry out dielectrophoretic (DEP) trapping of low abundance biological cells. Such conductive composite material presents advantages over metallic structures. Indeed, as it combines properties of both the matrix and doping particles, C-PDMS allows the easy and fast integration of conductive microstructures using a soft-lithography approach while preserving O2 plasma bonding properties of PDMS substrate and avoiding a cumbersome alignment procedure. Here, we first performed numerical simulations to demonstrate the advantage of such thick C-PDMS electrodes over a coplanar electrode configuration. It is well established that dielectrophoretic force (FDEP) decreases quickly as the distance from the electrode surface increases resulting in coplanar configuration to a low trapping efficiency at high flow rate. Here, we showed quantitatively that by using electrodes as thick as a microchannel height, it is possible to extend the DEP force influence in the whole volume of the channel compared to coplanar electrode configuration and maintaining high trapping efficiency while increasing the throughput. This model was then used to numerically optimize a thick C-PDMS electrode configuration in terms of trapping efficiency. Then, optimized microfluidic configurations were fabricated and tested at various flow rates for the trapping of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. We reached trapping efficiencies of 97% at 20 μl/h and 78.7% at 80 μl/h, for 100 μm thick electrodes. Finally, we applied our device to the separation and localized trapping of CTCs (MDA-MB-231) from a red blood cells sample (concentration ratio of 1:10). PMID:26392836

  7. Layer thickness evaluation for transuranic transmutation in a fusion–fission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E., E-mail: carlosvelcab@eng-nucl.mest.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, 31.270-90, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rede Nacional de Fusão (FINEP/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, 31.270-90, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rede Nacional de Fusão (FINEP/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F., E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, 31.270-90, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rede Nacional de Fusão (FINEP/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Antonella L., E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, 31.270-90, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rede Nacional de Fusão (FINEP/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Layer thickness for transmutation in a fusion–fission system was evaluated. • The calculations were performed using MONTEBURNS code. • The results indicate the best thickness and volume ratio to induce transmutation. - Abstract: Layer thickness for transuranic transmutation in a fusion–fission system was evaluated using two different ways. In the first one, transmutation layer thicknesses were designed maintaining the fuel rod radius constant; in the second part, while the transmutation layer thickness increases, the fuel rod radius decreases maintaining k{sub s} (source-multiplication factor) ≈0.95. Spent fuel reprocessed by UREX+ method and then spiked with thorium and uranium composes the transmutation layer. The calculations were performed using MONTEBURNS code (MCNP5 and ORIGEN 2.1). The results indicate the best thickness and the volume ratio between the coolant and the fuel composition to induce transmutation.

  8. Investigation of high thickness holographic gratings in acrylamide-based photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Xu, Shifeng; Ma, Jia; Wang, Zhaoyang; Hou, Enzhu

    2016-11-01

    We studied the holographic characteristics of acrylamide-based photopolymer layers ranging in thickness from 300 μm to 1000 μm. Scattering patterns of various materials were presented, and both transmittance and scattering ratio were measured. Then, theoretical and experimental Bragg selectivity curves of two samples with thicknesses of 300 μm and 510 μm were analyzed, demonstrating the effective optical thickness inside photopolymer, which was responsible for the width of Bragg selectivity curve. Through the simulation for the spatial dynamics of refractive index distribution inside materials with different thicknesses, the attenuation of grating along the direction of thickness inside photopolymer was presented. Moreover, the photo-induced polymer chain length was evaluated, and a growing tendency of polymer chain length as increasing depth of material thickness was presented for the first time, in other words, there were polymers with longer chain length in deeper layer of material.

  9. Thick antiwear films in elastohydrodynamic contacts. I. Film growth in rolling/sliding EHD contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, I.N.; Kelsall, G.H.; Spikes, H.A.; Macpherson, P.B.

    1986-07-01

    The formation and characteristics of thick films in elastohydrodynamic (EHD) contacts using pure phosphonate additives are described. Several alkyl and aryl group, pure phosphonate additives were added to rolling/sliding EHD contacts; the performance of the phosphonate additives is evaluated. It is observed that all phosphonates formed thick films from base oil solutions in rolling EHD contacts; the films have a thickness greater than a half a micron, withstand up to 10 percent sliding, and are formed in the presence of other additives. The effects of phosphonate group and temperature on the rate of film formation are investigated. The chemical properties of the viscous reaction product and the thick films formed by the phosphonates are analyzed. The reaction product and films consist of an iron-phosphate-monoester polymer with the phosphate acting as a bridge between iron(III) species. The use of the thick antiwear films to increase specific film thickness in EHD lubrication is discussed. 31 references.

  10. Effect of Ru thickness on spin pumping in Ru/Py bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Nilamani; Singh, M. Sanjoy; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K., E-mail: dkpandya@physics.iitd.ac.in; Muduli, P. K. [Department of Physics, Thin Film Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-05-07

    We report the effect of Ru thickness (t{sub Ru}) on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line-width of Ru(t{sub Ru})/Py(23 nm) bilayer samples grown on Si(100)/SiO{sub 2} substrates at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. The FMR line-width is found to vary linearly with frequency for all thicknesses of Ru, indicating intrinsic origin of damping. For Ru thicknesses below 15 nm, Gilbert-damping parameter, α is almost constant. We ascribe this behavior to spin back flow that is operative for Ru thicknesses lower than the spin diffusion length in Ru, λ{sub sd}. For thicknesses >15 nm (>λ{sub sd}), the damping constant increases with Ru thickness, indicating spin pumping from Py into Ru.

  11. Optical properties and structures of silver thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering with different thicknesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xilian Sun; Ruijin Hong; Haihong Hou; Zhengxiu Fan; Jianda Shao

    2006-01-01

    A series of thin Ag films with different thicknesses grown under identical conditions are analyzed by means of spectrophotometer. From these measurements the values of refractive index and extinction coefficient are calculated. The films are deposited onto BK7 glass substrates by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. It is found that the optical properties of the Ag films can be affected by films thickness.Below critical thickness of 17 nm, which is the thickness at which Ag films form continuous films, the optical properties and constants vary significantly with thickness increasing and then tend to a stable value up to about 40 nm. At the same time, X-ray diffraction measurement is carried out to examine the microstructure evolution of Ag films as a function of films thickness. The relation between optical properties and microstructure is discussed.

  12. Immune-correlates analysis of an HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial reveals an association of nonspecific interferon-γ secretion with increased HIV-1 infection risk: a cohort-based modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunda Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated risk of HIV-1 infection among recipients of an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5-vectored HIV-1 vaccine was previously reported in the Step HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial. We assessed pre-infection cellular immune responses measured at 4 weeks after the second vaccination to determine their roles in HIV-1 infection susceptibility among Step study male participants. METHODS: We examined ex vivo interferon-γ (IFN-γ secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using an ELISpot assay in 112 HIV-infected and 962 uninfected participants. In addition, we performed flow cytometric assays to examine T-cell activation, and ex vivo IFN-γ and interleukin-2 secretion from CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. We accounted for the sub-sampling design in Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs of HIV-1 infection per 1-log(e increase of the immune responses. FINDINGS: We found that HIV-specific immune responses were not associated with risk of HIV-1 infection. However, each 1-log(e increase of mock responses measured by the ELISpot assay (i.e., IFN-γ secretion in the absence of antigen-specific stimulation was associated with a 62% increase of HIV-1 infection risk among vaccine recipients (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: (1.28, 2.04, p<0.001. This association remains after accounting for CD4(+ or CD8(+ T-cell activation. We observed a moderate correlation between ELISpot mock responses and CD4(+ T-cells secreting IFN-γ (ρ = 0.33, p = 0.007. In addition, the effect of the Step vaccine on infection risk appeared to vary with ELISpot mock response levels, especially among participants who had pre-existing anti-Ad5 antibodies (interaction p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of cells, likely CD4(+ T-cells, producing IFN-γ without stimulation by exogenous antigen appears to carry information beyond T-cell activation and baseline characteristics that predict risk of HIV-1 infection. These results motivate additional investigation to

  13. Microstructure and texture analysis of YBCO thick film with peritectic growth on unoriented silver substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jue; MALOUFI Nabila; FAN Zhanguo; XUE Xiangxin; ESLING Claude

    2009-01-01

    YBCO textured thick film was prepared by direct periteetic growth method. Microstructure of the film was characterized. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique was applied to the film for quantitative texture analysis. The main difficulty in resolving the ori-entation of YBCO pseudo-cubic structure was investigated. Automated orientation mapping was performed on YBCO thick film. Local tex-ture was presented in the form of orientation maps. Misorientation distribution and crystal growth characterization in the YBCO thick film were revealed. Large domains with well-aligned YBCO grains were formed. Each domain presented clear in-plane and out-plane textures.

  14. Multimodal imaging of subventricular zone neural stem/progenitor cells in the cuprizone mouse model reveals increased neurogenic potential for the olfactory bulb pathway, but no contribution to remyelination of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Caroline; Praet, Jelle; Rangarajan, Janaki Raman; Vreys, Ruth; De Vocht, Nathalie; Maes, Frederik; Verhoye, Marleen; Ponsaerts, Peter; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2014-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a devastating demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which endogenous remyelination, and thus recovery, often fails. Although the cuprizone mouse model allowed elucidation of many molecular factors governing remyelination, currently very little is known about the spatial origin of the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that initiate remyelination in this model. Therefore, we here investigated in this model whether subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to remyelination of the splenium following cuprizone-induced demyelination. Experimentally, from the day of in situ NSPC labeling, C57BL/6J mice were fed a 0.2% cuprizone diet during a 4-week period and then left to recover on a normal diet for 8weeks. Two in situ labeling strategies were employed: (i) NSPCs were labeled by intraventricular injection of micron-sized iron oxide particles and then followed up longitudinally by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (ii) SVZ NSPCs were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding the eGFP and Luciferase reporter proteins for longitudinal monitoring by means of in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI). In contrast to preceding suggestions, no migration of SVZ NSPC towards the demyelinated splenium was observed using both MRI and BLI, and further validated by histological analysis, thereby demonstrating that SVZ NSPCs are unable to contribute directly to remyelination of the splenium in the cuprizone model. Interestingly, using longitudinal BLI analysis and confirmed by histological analysis, an increased migration of SVZ NSPC-derived neuroblasts towards the olfactory bulb was observed following cuprizone treatment, indicative for a potential link between CNS inflammation and increased neurogenesis. © 2013.

  15. Technical Note: Cortical thickness and density estimation from clinical CT using a prior thickness-density relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, Ludovic, E-mail: ludohumberto@gmail.com [Galgo Medical, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Hazrati Marangalou, Javad; Rietbergen, Bert van [Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Río Barquero, Luis Miguel del [CETIR Centre Medic, Barcelona 08029 (Spain); Lenthe, G. Harry van [Biomechanics Section, KU Leuven–University of Leuven, Leuven 3001 (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    cortical thickness and density estimation errors to increase with voxel size was observed and was more pronounced for thin cortices. Using clinical CT data for 19 of the 23 samples, mean errors of 0.18 ± 0.24 mm for the cortical thickness and 15 ± 106 mg/cm{sup 3} for the density were found. The case-control study showed that osteoporotic patients had a thinner cortex and a lower cortical density, with average differences of −0.8 mm and −58.6 mg/cm{sup 3} at the proximal femur in comparison with age-matched controls (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: This method might be a promising approach for the quantification of cortical bone thickness and density using clinical routine imaging techniques. Future work will concentrate on investigating how this approach can improve the estimation of mechanical strength of bony structures, the prevention of fracture, and the management of osteoporosis.

  16. Three dimensional base isolation system on laminated thick rubber bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Kenji; Matsuda, Akihiro; Hirata, Kazuta [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.

    1997-08-01

    In order to reduce horizontal and vertical earthquake response of internal equipments in the nuclear power plants, we evaluated the performance of three dimensional base isolation system using laminated thick rubber bearings. From the loading test of scaled model of laminated thick rubber bearing, it was found that the natural rubber bearing was able to be extended to thick rubber bearings, and the difference of mechanical characteristics was only the dependency of the vertical stiffness on the horizontal displacement. Second, we carried out shaking table test for scaled model of base isolated structure. The results showed that horizontal characteristics of thick rubber bearing was almost the same as the thin one, and the vertical stiffness was able to be determined according to the resonance period of internal equipments. After the test, we carried out the numerical analysis on the shaking table test. Numerical results showed that the response of the model for earthquake input motion and its response spectra were in good agreement with the experiment, and the resonance peak of the floor response spectra can be reduced when the damping coefficient of the vertical damper increases. (author)

  17. Thickness-Dependent Surfactant Behavior in Trilayer Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Wang, Jin

    2010-03-01

    The ability for thin liquid films to wet and remain thermodynamically stable on top of one another is a fundamental challenge in developing high quality paints, coatings, adhesives, and other industrial products. Since intermolecular interactions and interfacial energies dominate in the film thickness regime from tens to hundreds of nanometers, it is desirable to tune these long-range and short-range forces in a simple, controllable manner. Starting from an unstable model homopolymer bilayer (poly(styrene)/poly(4-vinylpyridine)), we demonstrate that sandwiching an additional homopolymer layer (poly(4-bromostyrene)) between the two layers can provide needed surfactancy. As the thickness of this center layer is increased, the full trilayer transitions from unstable (thin) to stable (moderate) to unstable (thick). We experimentally show using x-ray standing waves generated via total external reflection (TER-XSW), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) that this behavior can be directly attributed to the autophobic dewetting phenomenon, in which the surfactant layer is thin enough to remain stable but thick enough to shield the neighboring layers, highlighting a general approach to stabilizing multilayer systems.

  18. Changes of macular thickness in HIV positive patients using OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the changes of macular thickness of acquire immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDSpatients. METHODS: The study based on the data analysis of 38 human immunodeficiency virus(HIVpositive patients(64 eyes. According to CD4 count and whether cytomegalovirus retinitis(CMVRhappened, the patients were divided into 3 groups. Group A included 16 patients(32 eyes, in which CD4 count was 50cells/μL and CMVR did not happen. Group C included 12 patients(12 eyes, in which CD4 count was RESULTS: The mean foveal thicknesses in groups A, B, C and D were 254.03±15.63μm, 263.11±17.12μm, 304.50±50.62μm and 257.64±8.54μm in order. Compared with foveal thickness in each group, there were significant differences in general(F=12.933, P=0.000. The mean foveal thickness in groups CMVR increased, which was of significant difference(P=0.000, compared with other groups.CONCLUSION: CMVR can impair the structure and function of macular, which then seriously affects the visual function of patients. It's helpful to understand the progress and prognosis of CMVR disease by observing macular structure with OCT in early time.

  19. Determination of hydration film thickness using atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Changsheng; SONG Shaoxian; GU Qingbao

    2005-01-01

    Dispersion of a solid particle in water may lead to the formation of hydration film on the particle surface, which can strongly increase the repulsive force between the particles and thus strongly affect the stability of dispersions. The hydration film thickness, which varies with the variation of property of suspension particles, is one of the most important parameters of hydration film, and is also one of the most difficult parameters that can be measured accurately. In this paper, a method, based on force-distance curve of atomic force microscopy, for determining the hydration film thickness of particles is developed. The method utilizes the difference of cantilever deflection before, between and after penetrating the hydration films between tip and sample, which reflect the difference of slope on the force-distance curve. 3 samples, mica, glass and stainless steel, were used for hydration thickness determination, and the results show that the hydration film thickness between silicon tip and mica, glass and stainless steel are 30.0(2.0, 29.0(1.0 and 32.5(2.5 nm, respectively.

  20. Thickness of Heliospheric Current and Plasma Sheets: Dependence on Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Smith, E. J.; Winterhalter, D.; McComas, D. J.; Skoug, R. M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Smith, C. W.

    2005-05-01

    Heliospheric current sheets (HCS) are well defined structures that separate the interplanetary magnetic fields with inverse polarities. Surrounded by heliospheric plasma sheets (HPS), the current sheets stretch throughout the heliosphere. Interesting questions that still remain unanswered include how the thickness of these structures will change along the distance? And what determines the thickness of these structures? To answer these fundamental questions, we have carried out a study of the HCS and HPS using recent Ulysses data near 5 AU. When the results were compared with earlier studies at 1 AU using ISEE-3 data, they were surprising and unexplained. Although the plasma sheet grew thicker, the embedded current sheet grew thinner! Using data under the same (or very similar) circumstances, we have extended the analysis in two ways. First, the same current-plasma sheets studied at 5 AU have been identified at 1 AU using ACE data. Second, data obtained while Ulysses was en-route to Jupiter near 3 AU have been analyzed. This three-point investigation reveals the thickness variation along the distance and enables the examination of the controller of this variation.

  1. Anisotropic resistivity in plasma-sprayed silicon thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharas, Boris Dave; Sampath, Sanjay; Gambino, Richard J.

    2005-05-01

    Silicon thick films deposited by thermal plasma spray are of interest as inexpensive electronic materials for conformal meso-scale electronics applications. In addition they also serve as a model system for the investigation of electrical properties of coatings with layered anisotropy. In this study impedance spectroscopy was used to measure the complex resistivity of free-standing 64μm-thick polycrystalline silicon films deposited by thermal plasma spraying in an atmospheric ambient. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were taken in the through-thickness (across-splat) and edge-to-edge (in-splat) directions and revealed a resistivity difference of approximately 7.5±0.23 between the two directions. The complex resistivity results are explained on the basis of a brick-layer type model, associated with the layered splat microstructure obtained from cross-sectional transmission electron microscope imaging of the films. In addition a circuit-based model made up of parallel, resistor-capacitor elements in series, and Cole-Cole and Davidson-Cole impedance functions were used to fit the impedance data to extract material parameters and contributions from the grains and splat boundaries. Furthermore, thermal processing and phosphorus doping is shown to lead to higher and lower resistivity, respectively, in the films.

  2. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  3. A pilot study on bladder wall thickness at different filling stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Guopeng; Liang, Zhengrong; Lu, Hongbing

    2015-03-01

    The ever-growing death rate and the high recurrence of bladder cancer make the early detection and appropriate followup procedure of bladder cancer attract more attention. Compare to optical cystoscopy, image-based studies have revealed its potentials in non-invasive observations of the abnormities of bladder recently, in which MR imaging turns out to be a better choice for bladder evaluation due to its non-ionizing and high contrast between urine and wall tissue. Recent studies indicate that bladder wall thickness tends to be a good indicator for detecting bladder wall abnormalities. However, it is difficult to quantitatively compare wall thickness of the same subject at different filling stages or among different subjects. In order to explore thickness variations at different bladder filling stages, in this study, we preliminarily investigate the relationship between bladder wall thickness and bladder volume based on a MRI database composed of 40 datasets acquired from 10 subjects at different filling stages, using a pipeline for thickness measurement and analysis proposed in our previous work. The Student's t-test indicated that there was no significant different on wall thickness between the male group and the female group. The Pearson correlation analysis result indicated that negative correlation with a correlation coefficient of -0.8517 existed between the wall thickness and bladder volume, and the correlation was significant(p score of wall thickness would be more appropriate to reflect the thickness variations. For possible abnormality detection of a bladder based on wall thickness, the intra-subject and inter-subject thickness variation should be considered.

  4. Influence of shell thickness on thermal stability of bimetallic Al-Pd nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John Z.; Nguyen, Ngoc Ha; Rawlins, John; Petre, Catalin F.; Ringuette, Sophie

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum-based bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles have shown promising applications in civil and defense industries. This study addresses the thermal stability of aluminum-palladium (Al-Pd) core/shell nanoparticles with a varying shell thickness of 5, 6, and 7 Å, respectively. The classic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in order to investigate the effects of the shell thickness on the ignition mechanism and subsequent energetic processes of these nanoparticles. The histograms of temperature change and structural evolution clearly show the inhibition role of the Pd shell during ignition. While the nanoparticle with a thicker shell is more thermally stable and hence requires more excess energy, stored as the potential energy of the nanoparticle and provided through numerically heating, to initiate the thermite reaction, a higher adiabatic temperature can be produced from this nanoparticle, thanks to its greater content of Pd. The two-stage thermite reactions are discussed with their activation energy based on the energy balance processes during MD heating and production. Analyses of the simulation results reveal that the inner pressure of the core-shell nanoparticle increases with both temperature and the absorbed thermal energy during heating, which may result in a breakup of the Pd shell.

  5. Ageing behavior of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy pre-stretched thick plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihui Li; Baiqing Xiong; Yongan Zhang; Baohong Zhu; Feng Wang; Hongwei Liu

    2007-01-01

    The ageing behavior of a pre-stretched thick plate of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was systemically studied including one-step ageing,two-step ageing, and retrogression and reageing treatment (RRA). One-step ageing of the alloy resulted in peak ultimate tensile strengths of 595 and 575 MPa after 22 and 6 h at 120 and 135℃, respectively. The strengthening phase in peak aged (T6 temper) alloy contained GP zones and the η' phase predominantly. After two-step ageing, the electrical conductivity was increased markedly, but the pre-stretched thick plate sacrificed a great loss of strength. RRA treatment provided a method for maintaining the strength close to that obtained by T6 temper and for obtaining the high electrical conductivity close to that obtained by T7 temper; the ultimate tensile strength and electrical conductivity were 583 MPa and 21.0 MS/m, respectively. TEM analysis of T7 and RRA specimens revealed two types of precipitates that contributed to age strengthening i.e. the η' and η phases.

  6. Red fluorescent biofilm: the thick, the old, and the cariogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M.C. Volgenant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some dental plaque fluoresces red. The factors involved in this fluorescence are yet unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess systematically the effect of age, thickness, and cariogenicity on the extent of red fluorescence produced by in vitro microcosm biofilms. Design: The effects of biofilm age and thickness on red fluorescence were tested in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF by growing biofilms of variable thicknesses that received a constant supply of defined mucin medium (DMM and eight pulses of sucrose/day. The influence of cariogenicity on red fluorescence was tested by growing biofilm on dentin disks receiving DMM, supplemented with three or eight pulses of sucrose/day. The biofilms were analyzed at different time points after inoculation, up to 24 days. Emission spectra were measured using a fluorescence spectrophotometer (λexc405 nm and the biofilms were photographed with a fluorescence camera. The composition of the biofilms was assessed using 454-pyrosequecing of the 16S rDNA gene. Results: From day 7 onward, the biofilms emitted increasing intensities of red fluorescence as evidenced by the combined red fluorescence peaks. The red fluorescence intensity correlated with biofilm thickness but not in a linear way. Biofilm fluorescence also correlated with the imposed cariogenicity, evidenced by the induced dentin mineral loss. Increasing the biofilm age or increasing the sucrose pulsing frequency led to a shift in the microbial composition. These shifts in composition were accompanied by an increase in red fluorescence. Conclusions: The current study shows that a thicker, older, or more cariogenic biofilm results in a higher intensity of red fluorescence.

  7. Red fluorescent biofilm: the thick, the old, and the cariogenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M.C.; Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Buijs, Mark J.; Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob (Bob) M.; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Some dental plaque fluoresces red. The factors involved in this fluorescence are yet unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to assess systematically the effect of age, thickness, and cariogenicity on the extent of red fluorescence produced by in vitro microcosm biofilms. Design The effects of biofilm age and thickness on red fluorescence were tested in a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) by growing biofilms of variable thicknesses that received a constant supply of defined mucin medium (DMM) and eight pulses of sucrose/day. The influence of cariogenicity on red fluorescence was tested by growing biofilm on dentin disks receiving DMM, supplemented with three or eight pulses of sucrose/day. The biofilms were analyzed at different time points after inoculation, up to 24 days. Emission spectra were measured using a fluorescence spectrophotometer (λexc405 nm) and the biofilms were photographed with a fluorescence camera. The composition of the biofilms was assessed using 454-pyrosequecing of the 16S rDNA gene. Results From day 7 onward, the biofilms emitted increasing intensities of red fluorescence as evidenced by the combined red fluorescence peaks. The red fluorescence intensity correlated with biofilm thickness but not in a linear way. Biofilm fluorescence also correlated with the imposed cariogenicity, evidenced by the induced dentin mineral loss. Increasing the biofilm age or increasing the sucrose pulsing frequency led to a shift in the microbial composition. These shifts in composition were accompanied by an increase in red fluorescence. Conclusions The current study shows that a thicker, older, or more cariogenic biofilm results in a higher intensity of red fluorescence. PMID:27060056

  8. Determination of body composition from skinfold thickness: a validation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, J J; Wilson, J.; Durnin, J V

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of body composition is proving increasingly important in clinical nutrition and research. Skinfold thickness is a simple means of estimating body composition which is widely used in children, but there is little information on its validity. There has been a proliferation of equations for estimation of body composition from skinfolds, but some doubt as to their general applicability. The aim of the present study was to validate five currently used equations for this purpose in a sa...

  9. Influence of target thickness on the release of radioactive atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Julien; Roussière, Brigitte; Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Barré-Boscher, Nicole; Borg, Elie; Martin, Julien

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, intense exotic beams are needed in order to study nuclei with very short half-life. To increase the release efficiency of the fission products, all the target characteristics involved must be improved (e.g. chemical composition, dimensions, physicochemical properties such as grain size, porosity, density…). In this article, we study the impact of the target thickness. Released fractions measured from graphite and uranium carbide pellets are presented as well as Monte-Carlo simulations of the Brownian motion.

  10. A sensitive magnetic field sensor using BPSCCO thick film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vijay Srinivas; Abhijit Ray; T K Dey

    2001-08-01

    A highly sensitive magnetic sensor operating at liquid nitrogen temperature and based on BPSCCO screen-printed thick film, is reported. The sensor resistance for an applied magnetic field of 100 × 10–4T(100 gauss) exhibits an increase by 360% of its value in zero field at 77.4 K. The performance of the sensor in presence of magnetic field, the hysteretic features and the effect of thermal cycling, has been discussed.

  11. Springback of thick sheet AHSS subject to bending under tension

    OpenAIRE

    Chalal, Hocine; RACZ, Sever-Gabriel; BALAN, Tudor

    2012-01-01

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020740312000677; International audience; The springback behavior of four advanced high-strength sheet steels (Dual-Phase, TRIP, ferrite-bainite) with thicknesses ranging from 1.2 to 4 mm was investigated by means of the bending-under-tension (BUT) test. The applicability of several guidelines from the literature was investigated experimentally and numerically. The monotonic decrease of springback as back force increased was confirmed for this...

  12. Numerical simulation study on hard-thick roof inducing rock burst in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何江; 窦林名; 牟宗龙; 曹安业; 巩思园

    2016-01-01

    In order to reveal the dynamic process of hard-thick roof inducing rock burst, one of the most common and strongest dynamic disasters in coal mine, the numerical simulation is conducted to study the dynamic loading effect of roof vibration on roadway surrounding rocks as well as the impact on stability. The results show that, on one hand, hard-thick roof will result in high stress concentration on mining surrounding rocks; on the other hand, the breaking of hard-thick roof will lead to mining seismicity, causing dynamic loading effect on coal and rock mass. High stress concentration and dynamic loading combination reaches to the mechanical conditions for the occurrence of rock burst, which will induce rock burst. The mining induced seismic events occurring in the roof breaking act on the mining surrounding rocks in the form of stress wave. The stress wave then has a reflection on the free surface of roadway and the tensile stress will be generated around the free surface. Horizontal vibration of roadway surrounding particles will cause instant changes of horizontal stress of roadway surrounding rocks; the horizontal displacement is directly related to the horizontal stress but is not significantly correlated with the vertical stress; the increase of horizontal stress of roadway near surface surrounding rocks and the release of elastic deformation energy of deep surrounding coal and rock mass are immanent causes that lead to the impact instability of roadway surrounding rocks. The most significant measures for rock burst prevention are controlling of horizontal stress and vibration strength.

  13. Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fretwell

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present Bedmap2, a new suite of gridded products describing surface elevation, ice-thickness and the seafloor and subglacial bed elevation of the Antarctic south of 60° S. We derived these products using data from a variety of sources, including many substantial surveys completed since the original Bedmap compilation (Bedmap1 in 2001. In particular, the Bedmap2 ice thickness grid is made from 25 million measurements, over two orders of magnitude more than were used in Bedmap1. In most parts of Antarctica the subglacial landscape is visible in much greater detail than was previously available and the improved data-coverage has in many areas revealed the full scale of mountain ranges, valleys, basins and troughs, only fragments of which were previously indicated in local surveys. The derived statistics for Bedmap2 show that the volume of ice contained in the Antarctic ice sheet (27 million km3 and its potential contribution to sea-level rise (58 m are similar to those of Bedmap1, but the mean thickness of the ice sheet is 4.6% greater, the mean depth of the bed beneath the grounded ice sheet is 72 m lower and the area of ice sheet grounded on bed below sea level is increased by 10%. The Bedmap2 compilation highlights several areas beneath the ice sheet where the bed elevation is substantially lower than the deepest bed indicated by Bedmap1. These products, along with grids of data coverage and uncertainty, provide new opportunities for detailed modelling of the past and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheets.

  14. Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fretwell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present Bedmap2, a new suite of gridded products describing surface elevation, ice-thickness and the seafloor and subglacial bed elevation of the Antarctic south of 60° S. We derived these products using data from a variety of sources, including many substantial surveys completed since the original Bedmap compilation (Bedmap1 in 2001. In particular, the Bedmap2 ice thickness grid is made from 25 million measurements, over two orders of magnitude more than were used in Bedmap1. In most parts of Antarctica the subglacial landscape is visible in much greater detail than was previously available and the improved coverage of data has in many areas revealed the full scale of mountain ranges, valleys, basins and troughs, only fragments of which were previously indicated in local surveys. The derived statistics for Bedmap2 show that the volume of ice contained in the Antarctic ice sheet (27 million km3 and its potential contribution to sea-level rise (58 m are similar to those of Bedmap1, but the mean thickness of the ice sheet is 4.6 % greater, the mean depth of the bed beneath the grounded ice sheet is 72 m lower and the area of ice sheet grounded on bed below sea level is increased by 10 %. The Bedmap2 compilation highlights several areas beneath the ice sheet where the bed elevation is substantially lower than the deepest bed indicated by Bedmap1. These products, along with grids of data coverage and uncertainty, provide new opportunities for detailed modelling of the past and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheets.

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in a Colombian Population With Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argote, A; Mora-Hernández, O; Milena Aponte, L; Barrera-Chaparro, D I; Muñoz-Ruiz, L M; Giraldo-Mordecay, L; Camargo, D

    2017-06-27

    Psoriasis is now known to have a clear association with metabolic syndrome and its components. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and increased carotid intima-media thickness in psoriasis patients seen in the dermatology department of a quaternary hospital. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of psoriasis patients aged over 18 years seen in the dermatology department of Hospital de San José in Bogota, Colombia, between March and August, 2015. Directed medical history and physical examination were performed to detect CVRFs, laboratory studies to exclude metabolic syndrome, and ultrasound examination to measure carotid intima-media thickness. Forty patients with psoriasis were included in the study. The prevalence of the distinct CVRFs was 35% for systemic hypertension, 17.5% for dyslipidemia, 17.5% for smoking, and 10% for type 2 diabetes mellitus. A history of acute myocardial infarction was detected in 12.5% of patients. Metabolic syndrome was found in 20 patients (50%), and blood biochemistry revealed dyslipidemia in 32 patients (80%). Based on the Framingham score, the cardiovascular risk was low in 11 patients (31.4%), intermediate in 22 (62.8%), and high in 2 (5.7%). Mean (SD) carotid intima-media thickness was 0.7 (0.12) mm, with thickening observed in 6 patients (15%). This study provides evidence of the high prevalence of CVRFs in psoriasis patients and indicates the need for strict clinical control to monitor cardiovascular risk in this population. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Entrapped Solvent on the Evolution of Lateral Order in Self-Assembled P(S-r-MMA)/PS-b-PMMA Systems with Different Thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammaria, Tommaso Jacopo; Ferrarese Lupi, Federico; Seguini, Gabriele; Sparnacci, Katia; Antonioli, Diego; Gianotti, Valentina; Laus, Michele; Perego, Michele

    2017-02-14

    Block copolymers (BCPs) are emerging as a cost-effective nanofabrication tool to complement conventional optical lithography because they self-assemble in highly ordered polymeric templates with well-defined sub-20-nm periodic features. In this context, cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) BCPs are revealed as an interesting material of choice because the orientation of the nanostructures with respect to the underlying substrate can be effectively controlled by a poly(styrene-random-methyl methacrylate) random copolymer (RCP) brush layer grafted to the substrate prior to BCP deposition. In this work, we investigate the self-assembly process and lateral order evolution in RCP + BCP systems consisting of cylinder-forming PS-b-PMMA (67 kg mol(-1), PS fraction of ∼70%) films with thicknesses of 30, 70, 100, and 130 nm deposited on RCP brush layers having thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The self-assembly process is promoted by a rapid thermal processing machine operating at 250 °C for 300 s. The level of lateral order is determined by measuring the correlation length (ξ) in the self-assembled BCP films. Moreover, the amount of solvent (Φ) retained in the RCP + BCP systems is measured as a function of the thicknesses of the RCP and BCP layers, respectively. In the 30-nm-thick BCP films, an increase in Φ as a function of the thickness of the RCP brush layer significantly affects the self-assembly kinetics and the final extent of the lateral order in the BCP films. Conversely, no significant variations of ξ are observed in the 70-, 100-, and 130-nm-thick BCP films with increasing Φ.

  17. The effect of nicotine on choroidal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Mehmet Ozgur; Cinar, Esat; Kucukerdonmez, Cem

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effect of nicotine on choroidal thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Prospective, case-control study. Sixteen young, healthy subjects and 16 age and gender matched control cases were included in this study; 4 mg nicotine gum was given to the study group and placebo gum to the control group. All participants underwent OCT scanning with a high-speed and resolution spectral-domain OCT device (3D OCT 2000, Topcon, Japan) at baseline, and 1 h following nicotine or placebo administration. The measurements were taken in the morning (10:00-12:00 hours) to avoid diurnal fluctuation. The median foveal choroidal thickness at baseline was 337.00 μm (IQR 84.50), which decreased to 311.00 μm (IQR 78.00) at 1 h following oral nicotine intake (p=0.001). The median choroidal thickness was also significantly decreased at five other extrafoveal points (pchoroidal thickness at the fovea was 330.50 μm (IQR 104.25), and was 332.00 μm (IQR 103.75) at 1 h (p=0.271). Nicotine causes a significant decrease in choroidal thickness following oral intake. This acute decrease might be a result of reduced ocular blood flow due to the vasoconstrictive effect of nicotine.

  18. Prospective trial of thick vs standard split-thickness skin grafts in burns of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R; Gibran, N S; Engrav, L H; Foster, K N; Meyer, N A; Honari, S; Costa, B A; Heimbach, D M

    2001-01-01

    For best function and appearance, thick skin grafts for hands are generally preferred to thinner grafts. But how thick is thick enough? This prospective randomized trial was designed to compare 0.015-inch skin grafts for burned hands to hand grafts that are 0.025 inches thick. Consecutive patients receiving skin grafts to hands were randomized to have sheet grafts using donor sites of 0.015-inch or 0.025-inch thickness. To prevent delayed healing and potential hypertrophic scarring, the thick graft donor sites were grafted with 0.008-inch grafts. There were no significant differences in range of motion, final appearance, or patient satisfaction between the two groups at 1 year. There were problems with donor site healing in both groups. We recommend that hand grafts for adults be at least 0.015 inches thick but do not see an advantage to the use of very thick (0.025-inch) grafts, even with thin split-thickness skin grafts to the donor site.

  19. Study on Folds of Equal Thickness Multi-layer Sandwiched in Different Thickness Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical model and non-homogeneous differential equation of equal thickness multi-layer folds sandwiched in different thickness and same character media are established by elastic and plastic mechanics. The special answer of the non-homogeneous differential equation and the common answer of the homogeneous differential equation are deduced by applying logistic equation and special function, and the dominant wavelength theory of equal thickness multi-layer folds sandwiched in different thickness and same character media. In addition, the experimental folding in both elastic and sticky materials proves the dominant wavelength theory.

  20. Hydroxycholesterol Levels in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica Revealed by LC-Ag+CIS/MS/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS with Picolinic Derivatization: Increased Levels and Association with Disability during Acute Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Duk; Park, Kyung Seok; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Hydroxycholesterols (OHCs), metabolites of CNS cholesterol, are involved in diverse cellular responses to inflammation and demyelination, and may also be involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. We aimed to develop a sensitive and reliable method for the quantitative analysis of three major OHCs (24S-, 25-, and 27-OHCs), and to evaluate their concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with NMO. The levels of the three OHCs in the serum and CSF were measured using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with picolinyl ester derivatization, respectively. The linear range was 5–250 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.5–25 ng/mL for 25-OHC in serum, and was 0.1–5 ng/mL for 24S- and 27-OHC, and 0.03–1 ng/mL for 25-OHC in CSF. Precision and accuracy were 0.5%–14.7% and 92.5%–109.7%, respectively, in serum, and were 0.8%–7.7% and 94.5%–119.2%, respectively, in CSF. Extraction recovery was 82.7%–90.7% in serum and 68.4%–105.0% in CSF. When analyzed in 26 NMO patients and 23 control patients, the 25-OHC (0.54 ± 0.96 ng/mL vs. 0.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL, p = 0.032) and 27-OHC (2.68 ± 3.18 ng/mL vs. 0.68 ± 0.25 ng/mL, p = 0.005) were increased in the CSF from NMO patients. When we measured the OHCCSF index that controls the effects of blood–brain barrier disruption on the level of OHC in the CSF, the 27-OHCCSF index was associated with disability (0.723; 95% confidence interval (CI)– 0.181, 0.620; p = 0.002), while the 24-OHCCSF index (0.518; 95% CI– 1.070, 38.121; p = 0.040) and 25-OHCCSF index (0.677; 95% CI– 4.313, 18.532; p = 0.004) were associated with the number of white blood cells in the CSF of NMO patients. Our results imply that OHCs in the CNS could play a role in the pathogenesis of NMO. PMID:27942009

  1. The determination of subcutaneous body fat percentage by measuring skinfold thickness in teenagers in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Vatan

    2006-06-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the body fat percentage of teenagers in Diyarbakir, a city in southeast Turkey. The study included 1118 children between the ages of 10 to 15. Basic anthropometric measurements including body-mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness were taken. The skinfold thickness were measured with a Lange skinfold caliper. Fat mass percentage (FM %) was predicted by using skinfold thickness equations. Differences between boys and girls across age groups for weight, height, and BMI were found to be statistically significant (P skinfold thickness in the 10-y-old group, the thickness at triceps and subscapular sites in girls was higher than those of boys. In the 12-y-old group, the thickness was found to be higher in girls than boys at the triceps, biceps, and subscapular sites. We found that an increase in skinfold thickness in the 13, 14, and 15-y-old groups was significantly higher among girls than boys and tended to increase with age. However, such a tendency was not shown in boys. This tendency was found only at the triceps site in 10, 12, and 13-y-old boys. In addition, the skinfold thickness at the biceps site was found to be greater in the 14-y-old boys. The body fat mass percent in girls, especially those older than age 13, was also increased.

  2. EDI-OCT evaluation of choroidal thickness in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, Andrea; Lenzetti, Chiara; Murro, Vittoria; Caporossi, Orsola; Mucciolo, Dario P; Bacherini, Daniela; Cipollini, Francesca; Passerini, Ilaria; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2017-06-09

    To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT). A retrospective analysis of a group of patients with RP who underwent EDI-OCT was performed. Choroidal thickness measurements were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. In the RP group, the possible association between subfoveal CT and some clinical parameters (visual acuity, age, age at disease onset, duration of the disease, macular thickness, visual field loss, electroretinography [ERG]) was evaluated. The study recruited 39 patients with RP with an average age of 43.3 ± 11.3 years while the control group consisted of 73 healthy subjects with an average age of 42.9 ± 12.10 years. On average, CT was significantly thinner in the RP group compared to the controls (p<0.0001). In the RP group, we could not find any significant association between CT and the considered clinical parameters even if there was a trend for decreasing CT with increasing age (r = -0.23, p = 0.096). In the control group, subfoveal CT showed a slightly significant correlation with age (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) but not with macular thickness and visual acuity. In our series, CT was significantly lower in the RP group in comparison with the controls, as measured by EDI-OCT, but did not correlate with age, age at onset, duration of the disease, macular thickness, visual acuity, visual field loss, or ERG responses. Although the clinical implications of choroidal changes in RP have not yet been clearly determined, the evaluation of choroidal features may provide information that could be useful to clarify the pathophysiology of the disease.

  3. Novel markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in Behçet's disease patients with ocular involvement: epicardial fat thickness, carotid intima media thickness, serum ADMA level, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Murat; Yildiz, Abdulkadir; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Ekinci, Aysun; Elbey, Bilal; Tekbas, Ebru; Alan, Sait

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of Behçet's disease (BD) has not been fully elucidated. However, immunological and environmental factors, endothelial dysfunction (ED), and genetic susceptibility have been proposed to play a role. In this study, we aimed to evaluate epicardial fat thickness (EFT) together with serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in BD patients with ocular involvement. Thirty-six ocular BD patients (17 active and 19 inactive ocular involvement), and 35 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent examinations with transthoracic echocardiography and carotid Doppler ultrasound. Serum ADMA levels, CIMT, EFT, and NLR were compared between groups, and their association with disease activity was evaluated. Behçet's disease patients had higher WBC counts, neutrophil counts, NLR, CIMT, EFT values, and serum ADMA levels than do healthy controls. The other biochemical, hematological, and echocardiographic parameters were comparable between the two groups. Behçet's disease duration was positively correlated with EFT and CIMT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased serum ADMA concentration and CIMT are independently associated with BD. Neutrophil counts, NLR, and serum ADMA level were higher, and lymphocyte count was lower in patients with active ocular BD compared to those of inactive ocular BD group. Carotid intima media thickness, serum ADMA level, EFT, and NLR were increased in ocular BD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, both serum ADMA level and NLR were associated with disease activity of ocular involvement. Increase in disease duration was associated with increase in CIMT and EFT which suggests that anatomical changes occur in time during the disease course. Increased CIMT, serum ADMA level, EFT, and NLR may provide new clues about the role of ED and inflammation in the

  4. Dark-field image contrast in transmission scanning electron microscopy: Effects of substrate thickness and detector collection angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehl, Taylor; Keller, Robert

    2016-12-01

    An annular dark field (ADF) detector was placed beneath a specimen in a field emission scanning electron microscope operated at 30kV to calibrate detector response to incident beam current, and to create transmission images of gold nanoparticles on silicon nitride (SiN) substrates of various thicknesses. Based on the linear response of the ADF detector diodes to beam current, we developed a method that allowed for direct determination of the percentage of that beam current forward scattered to the ADF detector from the sample, i.e. the transmitted electron (TE) yield. Collection angles for the ADF detector region were defined using a masking aperture above the detector and were systematically varied by changing the sample to detector distance. We found the contrast of the nanoparticles, relative to the SiN substrate, decreased monotonically with decreasing inner exclusion angle and increasing substrate thickness. We also performed Monte Carlo electron scattering simulations, which showed quantitative agreement with experimental contrast associated with the nanoparticles. Together, the experiments and Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the decrease in contrast with decreasing inner exclusion angle was due to a rapid increase in the TE yield of the low atomic number substrate. Nanoparticles imaged at low inner exclusion angles (50nm) showed low image contrast in their centers surrounded by a bright high-contrast halo on their edges. This complex image contrast was predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, which we interpreted in terms of mixing of the nominally bright field (BF) and ADF electron signals. Our systematic investigation of inner exclusion angle and substrate thickness effects on ADF t-SEM imaging provides fundamental understanding of the contrast mechanisms for image formation, which in turn suggest practical limitations and optimal imaging conditions for different substrate thicknesses.

  5. Theory of the sea ice thickness distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth

    2015-01-01

    We use concepts from statistical physics to transform the original evolution equation for the sea ice thickness distribution $g(h)$ due to Thorndike et al., (1975) into a Fokker-Planck like conservation law. The steady solution is $g(h) = {\\cal N}(q) h^q \\mathrm{e}^{-~ h/H}$, where $q$ and $H$ are expressible in terms of moments over the transition probabilities between thickness categories. The solution exhibits the functional form used in observational fits and shows that for $h \\ll 1$, $g(h)$ is controlled by both thermodynamics and mechanics, whereas for $h \\gg 1$ only mechanics controls $g(h)$. Finally, we derive the underlying Langevin equation governing the dynamics of the ice thickness $h$, from which we predict the observed $g(h)$. The genericity of our approach provides a framework for studying the geophysical scale structure of the ice pack using methods of broad relevance in statistical mechanics.

  6. Black hole feedback from thick accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A; Narayan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    We study energy flows in geometrically thick accretion discs, both optically thick and thin, using general relativistic, three-dimensional simulations of black hole accretion flows. We find that for non-rotating black holes the efficiency of the total feedback from thick accretion discs is $3\\%$ - roughly half of the thin disc efficiency. This amount of energy is ultimately distributed between outflow and radiation, the latter scaling weakly with the accretion rate for super-critical accretion rates, and returned to the interstellar medium. Accretion on to rotating black holes is more efficient because of the additional extraction of rotational energy. However, the jet component is collimated and likely to interact only weakly with the environment, whereas the outflow and radiation components cover a wide solid angle.

  7. Structure and Properties of Thick-Walled Joints of Alloy 1570s Prepared by Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, O. V.; Ivanov, S. Yu.; Karkhin, V. A.; Lopota, V. A.; Makhin, I. D.

    2016-09-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of thick-walled joints of Al - Mg - Sc alloy 1570S, prepared by friction stir welding are studied. Joint microstructural and mechanical inhomogeneity are revealed.

  8. Microstructure parameters and optical properties of cadmium ferrite thin films of variable thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, E. R.

    2014-06-01

    CdFe2O4 thin films of different thicknesses were deposited onto glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique. Their structural characteristics were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure parameters, crystallite size, and microstrain were calculated. It is observed that both the crystallite size increases and microstrain increase with increasing with the film thickness. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient and optical band gap are calculated in the strong absorption region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The refractive indices have been evaluated in terms of the envelope method, which has been suggested by Swanepoel in the transparent region. The refractive index can be extrapolated by the Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range, which extended from 400 to 2500 nm. The refractive index, n, increases on increasing the film thickness up to 733 nm and the variation of n with higher thickness lies within the experimental errors.

  9. Thickness optimization of Mo films for Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cell applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Zhao Yan-Min; Liu Xing-Jiang; Ao Jian-Ping; Sun Yun

    2011-01-01

    Mo thin films are deposited on soda lime glass (SLG) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. The Mo film thicknesses are varied from 0.08 μm to 1.5 μm to gain a better understanding of the growth process of the film. The residual stresses and the structural properties of these films are investigated, with attention paid particularly to the film thickness dependence of these properties. Residual stress decreases and yields a typical tensile-to-compressive stress transition with the increase of film thickness at the first stages of film growth. The stress tends to be stable with the further increase of film thickness. Using the Mo film with an optimum thickness of 1 μm as the back contact, the Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cell can reach a conversion efficiency of 13.15%.

  10. Ultrasound settings significantly alter arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT, measured by ultrasound, are widely used to test the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions. Although assessment methods vary, automated edge-detecting image analysis software is routinely used to measure changes in FMD and CIMT. We aimed to quantify the effect that commonly adjusted ultrasound settings have on arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements made with CIMT measurement software. Methods We constructed phantom arteries from a tissue-mimicking agar compound and scanned them in a water bath with a 10 MHz multi-frequency linear-array probe attached to a high-resolution ultrasound machine. B-mode images of the phantoms were recorded with dynamic range (DR and gain set at five decibel (dB increments from 40 dB to 60 dB and -10 dB to +10 dB respectively. Lumen diameter and wall-thickness were measured off-line using CIMT measurement software. Results Lumen measurements: there was a strong linear relationship between DR and gain and measured lumen diameter. For a given gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR reduced the measured lumen diameter by 0.02 ± 0.004 mm (p CIMT measurements: For a fixed gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR increased measured wall thickness by 0.003 ± 0.002 mm (p Conclusion DR, gain and probe distance significantly alter lumen diameter and CIMT measurements made using image analysis software. When CIMT and FMD are used to test the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions, the DR, gain and probe position used to record baseline scans should be documented and replicated in post-treatment scans in individual trial subjects. If more than one sonographer or imaging centre is used to collect data, the study protocol should document specific DR and gain settings to be used in all subjects.

  11. Influence of ceramic thickness and ceramic materials on fracture resistance of posterior partial coverage restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakeman, E M; Rego, N; Chaiyabutr, Y; Kois, J C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ceramic thickness and ceramic materials on fracture resistance of posterior partial coverage ceramic restorations. Forty extracted molars were allocated into four groups (n=10) to test for two variables: 1) the thickness of ceramic (1 mm or 2 mm) and 2) the ceramic materials (a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max] or leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [IPS Empress]). All ceramic restorations were luted with resin cement (Variolink II) on the prepared teeth. These luted specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine, in the compression mode, with a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey Honestly Significantly Different multiple comparison test (α =0.05). The fracture resistance revealed a significant effect for materials (pceramic was not significant (p=0.074), and the interaction between the thickness of ceramic and the materials was not significant (p=0.406). Mean (standard deviation) fracture resistance values were as follows: a 2-mm thickness of a lithium disilicate bonded to tooth structure (2505 [401] N) revealed a significantly higher fracture resistance than did a 1-mm thickness of leucite-reinforced (1569 [452] N) and a 2-mm thickness of leucite-reinforced ceramic bonded to tooth structure (1716 [436] N) (pceramic at 1-mm thickness (2105 [567] N) and at 2-mm thickness. Using a lithium disilicate glass ceramic for partial coverage restoration significantly improved fracture resistance compared to using a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. The thickness of ceramic had no significant effect on fracture resistance when the ceramics were bonded to the underlying tooth structure.

  12. HST Spectral Mapping of L/T Transition Brown Dwarfs Reveals Cloud Thickness Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Apai, Daniel; Buenzli, Esther; Burrows, Adam; Reid, Iain N; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Most directly imaged giant exoplanets are fainter than brown dwarfs with similar spectra. To explain their relative underluminosity unusually cloudy atmospheres have been proposed. However, with multiple parameters varying between any two objects, it remained difficult to observationally test this idea. We present a new method, sensitive time-resolved Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy, to study two rotating L/T transition brown dwarfs (2M2139 and SIMP0136). The observations provide spatially and spectrally resolved mapping of the cloud decks of the brown dwarfs. The data allow the study of cloud structure variations while other parameters are unchanged. We find that both brown dwarfs display variations of identical nature: J- and H-band brightness variations with minimal color and spectral changes. Our light curve models show that even the simplest surface brightness distributions require at least three elliptical spots. We show that for each source the spectral changes can be reproduced with ...

  13. Effect of thickness on the microstructure of GaN films on Al203 (0001) by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ying-Ying; Zhu Jun; Luo Wen-Bo; Hao Lan-Zhong; Zhang Ying; Li Yan-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Heteroepitaxia1l GaN films are grown on sapphire (0001) substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy.The growth processes are in-situ monitored by reflection high energy electron diffraction.It is revealed that the growth mode of GaN transformed from three-dimensional (3D) island mode to two-dimensional (2D) layer-by-layer mode with the increase of thickness.This paper investigates the interfacial strain relaxation of GaN films by analysing their diffraction patterns.Calculation shows that the strain is completely relaxed when the thickness reaches 15 nm.The surface morphology evolution indicates that island merging and reduction of the island-edge barrier provide an effective way to make GaN films follow a 2D layer-by-layer growth mode.The 110-nm GaN films with a 2D growth mode have smooth regular hexagonal shapes.The X-ray diffraction indicates that thickness has a significant effect on the crystallized quality of GaN thin films.

  14. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  15. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  16. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...... (lithosphere) recycling. The processes of crust–mantle interaction have created very dissimilar crustal styles in Europe, as seen by its seismic structure, crustal thickness, and average seismic velocities in the basement. Our special focus is on processes responsible for the formation of the thin crust...

  17. Compressive strength of thick composite panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used in the structu......The aim of this study is to investigate how much the compressive strength of thick composite panels is reduced due to delaminations and to investigate under which conditions a delamination will grow. Understanding of this is essential in order to move forward the design limits used...

  18. Nuclear symmetry energy and neutron skin thickness

    CERN Document Server

    Warda, M; Viñas, X; Roca-Maza, X

    2012-01-01

    The relation between the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density and the neutron skin thickness is investigated. Constraints on the slope of the symmetry energy are deduced from the neutron skin data obtained in experiments with antiprotonic atoms. Two types of neutron skin are distinguished: the "surface" and the "bulk". A combination of both types forms neutron skin in most of nuclei. A prescription to calculate neutron skin thickness and the slope of symmetry energy parameter $L$ from the parity violating asymmetry measured in the PREX experiment is proposed.

  19. Effect of geometry on hydrodynamic film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, D. E.; Hamrock, B. J.; Taylor, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of geometry on the isothermal hydrodynamic film separating two rigid solids was investigated. Pressure-viscosity effects were not considered. The minimum film thickness is derived for fully flooded conjunctions by using the Reynolds boundary conditions. It was found that the minimum film thickness had the same speed, viscosity, and load dependence as Kapitza's classical solution. However, the incorporation of Reynolds boundary conditions resulted in an additional geometry effect. Solutions using the parabolic film approximation are compared with those using the exact expression for the film in the analysis. Contour plots are shown that indicate in detail the pressure developed between the solids.

  20. The effect of food consumption on the thickness of abdominal muscles, employing ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Rostami, Mohsen; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2011-08-01

    Recently, the roles of transabdominal muscles particularly TrA (transverse abdominis) muscle in spinal stability leading to treatment of low back pain have been suggested. Both in clinical setting and follow up studies, abdominal muscle thickness measurements need to be repeated at a later point in time to demonstrate efficacy of a therapeutic intervention. Different issues have been suggested as source of error in the repeated measurements of abdominal muscle thickness in different days such as patient position and stability of probe location. The level of stomach fullness has not been investigated as a source of error in ultrasonic measurements of transabdominal muscles thickness. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of food consumption on thickness of lateral abdominal muscles. Lateral abdominal muscles thicknesses of 63 healthy volunteer men were measured before and after food consumption. All the measurements were performed in two transducer positions and both sides. Waist circumference and body weight of participants were also measured before and post-food consumption. The thickness measures of all three muscles layers of lateral abdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) in both sides and measured positions were significantly reduced after food consumption. We found no correlation between the increase of waist circumference and reduction of muscle layer thicknesses after food consumption. In case of comparison between the values of transabdominal muscle thicknesses over the time, the effect of food consumption on muscle thickness might be assumed as a potential source of error.

  1. Effect of film thickness on microstructure parameters and optical constants of CdTe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaaban, E.R., E-mail: esam_ramadan2008@yahoo.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassim University, Buridah 51452 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, P.O. 71452 (Egypt); Afify, N. [Physics Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); El-Taher, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassim University, Buridah 51452 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, P.O. 71452 (Egypt)

    2009-08-12

    Different thickness of cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films was deposited onto glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique. Their structural characteristics were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD experiments showed that the films are polycrystalline and have a zinc-blende (cubic) structure. The microstructure parameters, crystallite size and microstrain were calculated. It is observed that the crystallite size increases and microstrain decreases with the increase in the film thickness. The fundamental optical parameters like band gap and extinction coefficient are calculated in the strong absorption region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The possible optical transition in these films is found to be allowed direct transition with energy gap increase from 1.481 to 1.533 eV with the increase in the film thickness. It was found that the optical band gap increases with the increase in thickness. The refractive indices have been evaluated in transparent region in terms of envelope method, which has been suggested by Swanepoul in the transparent region. The refractive index can be extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectral range, which extended from 400 to 2500 nm. It is observed that the refractive index, n increases on increasing the film thickness up to 671 nm and then the variation of n with higher thickness lie within the experimental errors.

  2. Validation of SMOS sea ice thickness retrieval in the northern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Maaß

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission observes brightness temperatures at a low microwave frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band with a daily coverage of the polar regions. L-band radiometry has been shown to provide information on the thickness of thin sea ice. Here, we apply a new emission model that has previously been used to investigate the impact of snow on thick Arctic sea ice. The model has not yet been used to retrieve ice thickness. In contrast to previous SMOS ice thickness retrievals, the new model allows us to include a snow layer in the brightness temperature simulations. Using ice thickness estimations from satellite thermal imagery, we simulate brightness temperatures during the ice growth season 2011 in the northern Baltic Sea. In both the simulations and the SMOS observations, brightness temperatures increase by more than 20 K, most likely due to an increase of ice thickness. Only if we include the snow in the model, the absolute values of the simulations and the observations agree well (mean deviations below 3.5 K. In a second comparison, we use high-resolution measurements of total ice thickness (sum of ice and snow thickness from an electromagnetic (EM sounding system to simulate brightness temperatures for 12 circular areas. While the SMOS observations and the simulations that use the EM modal ice thickness are highly correlated (r 2=0.95, the simulated brightness temperatures are on average 12 K higher than observed by SMOS. This would correspond to an 8-cm overestimation of the modal ice thickness by the SMOS retrieval. In contrast, if the simulations take into account the shape of the EM ice thickness distributions (r 2=0.87, the mean deviation between simulated and observed brightness temperatures is below 0.1 K.

  3. The critical oxide thickness for Pb-free reflow soldering on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, C. Key [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Assembly Test Global Materials, Intel Microelectronics Asia Ltd, B1, No. 205, Tun-Hwa North Road, 10595 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.J.; Li, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.R., E-mail: crkao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Oxidation is an undesirable effect of reflow soldering. Non-wetting occurs when the oxide layer grows above the critical thickness. Characterizing the critical oxide thickness for soldering is challenging due to oxide's nano-scale thickness and irregular topographic surface. In this paper, the critical copper oxide thickness was characterized by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Copper substrates were coated with an Organic-Solderable-Preservative (OSP) layer and baked at 150 Degree-Sign C and 85% Relative Humidity for different amounts of time. The onset of the non-wetting phenomenon occurred when the oxide thickness reached 18 {+-} 5 nm. As the oxide grew beyond this critical thickness, the percentage of non-wetting solder joint increased exponentially. The growth of the oxide thickness followed a parabolic rate law. The rate constant of oxidation was 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1}. Oxidation resulted from interdiffusion of copper and oxygen atoms through the OSP and oxide layers. The oxidation mechanism will be presented and discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical oxide thickness for Pb free solder on Cu substrate is 18 {+-} 5 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above the critical oxide, non-wet solder joint increases exponentially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum 13-nm oxide thickness is suggested for good solder joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial growth of oxide thickness is logarithmic and then parabolic after 12 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick oxide (360-560 nm) is formed as pores shorten the oxidation path.

  4. Through-thickness inhomogeneity of localized corrosion in 7050-T7451 Al alloy thick plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰雷; 潘清林; 韦莉莉; 黄志其; 刘志铭

    2015-01-01

    The through-thickness corrosion inhomogeneity of 7050-T7451 Al alloy thick plate was studied using immersion tests, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique combined with optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the through-thickness corrosion resistance is ranked in the order of T/2>surface>T/4. And the 75 mm-thick 7050 alloy plate presents better corrosion resistance than the 35 mm-thick plate. The results are discussed in terms of the combined effect of recrystallization and cooling rate in quenching. Alloy with lower volume fraction of recrystallization and smaller grain aspect ratio displays better corrosion resistance. The lower corrosion resistance caused by the slower cooling rate results from the higher coverage rate of grain boundary precipitates and larger width of precipitate free zone.

  5. Tensile test of dumbbell-shaped specimen in thickness direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Sheet metal forming is widely used in manufacturing shops, and evaluation of forming limit for sheet metal is important. However, specimen shape influences on the fracture of the sheet metal. As one of methods to decrease these effects, an uniaxial tensile test using specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction had been examined using FEM analysis. In this study, actually specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction was fabricated using a new incremental sheet forging method, and uniaxial tensile test was conducted. Load-stroke diagram, fracture morphologies, stress-strain curves and shape after fracture were investigated, and effects of specimen shape were considered. Elongation was larger as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. Stress-strain curves until necking occurred were less influenced by specimen shape. However, yield stress decreased and local elongation increased as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. The reasons why these tendencies showed were considered in the view of specimen shapes.

  6. Reflectance dependence of polytetrafluoroethylene on thickness for xenon scintillation light

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Jonathan; Arthurs, Maris; Batista, Elizabeth; Morton, Daniel; Okunawo, Matt; Pushkin, Kirill; Sander, Aaron;