WorldWideScience

Sample records for reusable liquid rocket

  1. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  2. 14 CFR 437.67 - Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket. 437... a reusable suborbital rocket. A permittee must— (a) During permitted flight, measure in real time the position and velocity of its reusable suborbital rocket; and (b) Provide position and velocity...

  3. Reusable Rocket Engine Turbopump Health Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surko, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    A health monitoring expert system software architecture has been developed to support condition-based health monitoring of rocket engines. Its first application is in the diagnosis decisions relating to the health of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The post test diagnostic system runs off-line, using as input the data recorded from hundreds of sensors, each running typically at rates of 25, 50, or .1 Hz. The system is invoked after a test has been completed, and produces an analysis and an organized graphical presentation of the data with important effects highlighted. The overall expert system architecture has been developed and documented so that expert modules analyzing other line replaceable units may easily be added. The architecture emphasizes modularity, reusability, and open system interfaces so that it may be used to analyze other engines as well.

  4. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  5. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  6. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  7. 14 CFR 437.95 - Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... suborbital rockets. 437.95 Section 437.95 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL... of an Experimental Permit § 437.95 Inspection of additional reusable suborbital rockets. A permittee may launch or reenter additional reusable suborbital rockets of the same design under the permit after...

  8. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Objectives and motivation for testing. Technology, Research and Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E), evolutionary. Representative Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE) test compaigns. Apollo, shuttle, Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV) propulsion. Overview of test facilities for liquid rocket engines. Boost, upper stage (sea-level and altitude). Statistics (historical) of Liquid Rocket Engine Testing. LOX/LH, LOX/RP, other development. Test project enablers: engineering tools, operations, processes, infrastructure.

  9. Subscale Winged Rocket Development and Application to Future Reusable Space Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi YONEMOTO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kyushu Institute of Technology has been studying unmanned suborbital winged rocket called WIRES (WInged REusable Sounding rocket and its research subjects concerning aerodynamics, NGC (Navigation, Guidance and Control, cryogenic composite tanks etc., and conducting flight demonstration of small winged rocket since 2005. WIRES employs the original aerodynamic shape of HIMES (HIghly Maneuverable Experimental Sounding rocket studied by ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 1980s. This paper presents the preliminary design of subscale non-winged and winged rockets called WIRES#013 and WIRES#015, respectively, that are developed in collaboration with JAXA, USC (University of Southern California, UTEP (University of Texas at El Paso and Japanese industries. WIRES#013 is a conventional pre-test rocket propelled by two IPA-LOX (Isopropyl Alcohol and Liquid Oxygen engines under development by USC. It has the total length of 4.6m, and the weight of 1000kg to reach the altitude of about 6km. The flight objective is validation of the telemetry and ground communication system, recovery parachute system, and launch operation of liquid engine. WIRES#015, which has the same length of WIRES#013 and the weight of 1000kg, is a NGC technology demonstrator propelled by a fully expander-cycle LOX-Methane engine designed and developed by JAXA to reach the altitude more than 6km. The flight tests of both WIRES#013 and WIRES#015 will be conducted at the launch facility of FAR (Friends of Amateur Rocketry, Inc., which is located at Mojave Desert of California in United States of America, in May 2018 and March 2019 respectively. After completion of WIRES#015 flight tests, the suborbital demonstrator called WIRES-X will be developed and its first flight test well be performed in 2020. Its application to future fully reusable space transportation systems, such as suborbital space tour vehicles and two

  10. Reusable rocket engine preventive maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Jiawen; Jin, Ping; Cai, Guobiao

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the preventive maintenance (PM) scheduling problem of reusable rocket engine (RRE), which is different from the ordinary repairable systems, by genetic algorithm. Three types of PM activities for RRE are considered and modeled by introducing the concept of effective age. The impacts of PM on all subsystems' aging processes are evaluated based on improvement factor model. Then the reliability of engine is formulated by considering the accumulated time effect. After that, optimization model subjected to reliability constraint is developed for RRE PM scheduling at fixed interval. The optimal PM combination is obtained by minimizing the total cost in the whole life cycle for a supposed engine. Numerical investigations indicate that the subsystem's intrinsic reliability characteristic and the improvement factor of maintain operations are the most important parameters in RRE's PM scheduling management

  11. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishments, Lessons, and a Culture of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dennis R.; Phelps, Willie J.

    2011-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor represents the largest solid rocket motor ever flown and the only human rated solid motor. Each Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) provides approximately 3-million lb of thrust to lift the integrated Space Shuttle vehicle from the launch pad. The motors burn out approximately 2 minutes later, separate from the vehicle and are recovered and refurbished. The size of the motor and the need for high reliability were challenges. Thrust shaping, via shaping of the propellant grain, was needed to limit structural loads during ascent. The motor design evolved through several block upgrades to increase performance and to increase safety and reliability. A major redesign occurred after STS-51L with the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor. Significant improvements in the joint sealing systems were added. Design improvements continued throughout the Program via block changes with a number of innovations including development of low temperature o-ring materials and incorporation of a unique carbon fiber rope thermal barrier material. Recovery of the motors and post flight inspection improved understanding of hardware performance, and led to key design improvements. Because of the multidecade program duration material obsolescence was addressed, and requalification of materials and vendors was sometimes needed. Thermal protection systems and ablatives were used to protect the motor cases and nozzle structures. Significant understanding of design and manufacturing features of the ablatives was developed during the program resulting in optimization of design features and processing parameters. The project advanced technology in eliminating ozone-depleting materials in manufacturing processes and the development of an asbestos-free case insulation. Manufacturing processes for the large motor components were unique and safety in the manufacturing environment was a special concern. Transportation and handling approaches were also needed for the large

  12. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishment, Lessons, and a Culture of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. R.; Phelps, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) represents the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) ever flown and the only human-rated solid motor. High reliability of the RSRM has been the result of challenges addressed and lessons learned. Advancements have resulted by applying attention to process control, testing, and postflight through timely and thorough communication in dealing with all issues. A structured and disciplined approach was taken to identify and disposition all concerns. Careful consideration and application of alternate opinions was embraced. Focus was placed on process control, ground test programs, and postflight assessment. Process control is mandatory for an SRM, because an acceptance test of the delivered product is not feasible. The RSRM maintained both full-scale and subscale test articles, which enabled continuous improvement of design and evaluation of process control and material behavior. Additionally RSRM reliability was achieved through attention to detail in post flight assessment to observe any shift in performance. The postflight analysis and inspections provided invaluable reliability data as it enables observation of actual flight performance, most of which would not be available if the motors were not recovered. RSRM reusability offered unique opportunities to learn about the hardware. NASA is moving forward with the Space Launch System that incorporates propulsion systems that takes advantage of the heritage Shuttle and Ares solid motor programs. These unique challenges, features of the RSRM, materials and manufacturing issues, and design improvements will be discussed in the paper.

  13. Large Liquid Rocket Testing: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Hebert, Bartt J.

    2005-01-01

    Rocket propulsion development is enabled by rigorous ground testing in order to mitigate the propulsion systems risks that are inherent in space flight. This is true for virtually all propulsive devices of a space vehicle including liquid and solid rocket propulsion, chemical and non-chemical propulsion, boost stage and in-space propulsion and so forth. In particular, large liquid rocket propulsion development and testing over the past five decades of human and robotic space flight has involved a combination of component-level testing and engine-level testing to first demonstrate that the propulsion devices were designed to meet the specified requirements for the Earth to Orbit launchers that they powered. This was followed by a vigorous test campaign to demonstrate the designed propulsion articles over the required operational envelope, and over robust margins, such that a sufficiently reliable propulsion system is delivered prior to first flight. It is possible that hundreds of tests, and on the order of a hundred thousand test seconds, are needed to achieve a high-reliability, flight-ready, liquid rocket engine system. This paper overviews aspects of earlier and recent experience of liquid rocket propulsion testing at NASA Stennis Space Center, where full scale flight engines and flight stages, as well as a significant amount of development testing has taken place in the past decade. The liquid rocket testing experience discussed includes testing of engine components (gas generators, preburners, thrust chambers, pumps, powerheads), as well as engine systems and complete stages. The number of tests, accumulated test seconds, and years of test stand occupancy needed to meet varying test objectives, will be selectively discussed and compared for the wide variety of ground test work that has been conducted at Stennis for subscale and full scale liquid rocket devices. Since rocket propulsion is a crucial long-lead element of any space system acquisition or

  14. Development and flight test of metal-lined CFRP cryogenic tank for reusable rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Ken; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Sato, Eiichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Namiki, Fumiharu; Tanaka, Kohtaro; Watabe, Yoko

    2005-07-01

    A cryogenic tank made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) shell with aluminum thin liner has been designed as a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank for an ISAS reusable launch vehicle, and the function of it has been proven by repeated flights onboard the test vehicle called reusable vehicle testing (RVT) in October 2003. The liquid hydrogen tank has to be a pressure vessel, because the fuel of the engine of the test vehicle is supplied by fuel pressure. The pressure vessel of a combination of the outer shell of CFRP for strength element at a cryogenic temperature and the inner liner of aluminum for gas barrier has shown excellent weight merit for this purpose. Interfaces such as tank outline shape, bulk capacity, maximum expected operating pressure (MEOP), thermal insulation, pipe arrangement, and measurement of data are also designed to be ready onboard. This research has many aims, not only development of reusable cryogenic composite tank but also the demonstration of repeated operation including thermal cycle and stress cycle, familiarization with test techniques of operation of cryogenic composite tanks, and the accumulation of data for future design of tanks, vehicle structures, safety evaluation, and total operation systems.

  15. An Object-Oriented Graphical User Interface for a Reusable Rocket Engine Intelligent Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Musgrave, Jeffrey L.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Paxson, Daniel E.; Wong, Edmond; Saus, Joseph R.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines under development at NASA Lewis Research Center requires a graphical user interface to allow observation of the closed-loop system in operation. The simulation testbed consists of a real-time engine simulation computer, a controls computer, and several auxiliary computers for diagnostics and coordination. The system is set up so that the simulation computer could be replaced by the real engine and the change would be transparent to the control system. Because of the hard real-time requirement of the control computer, putting a graphical user interface on it was not an option. Thus, a separate computer used strictly for the graphical user interface was warranted. An object-oriented LISP-based graphical user interface has been developed on a Texas Instruments Explorer 2+ to indicate the condition of the engine to the observer through plots, animation, interactive graphics, and text.

  16. Real-Time Inhibitor Recession Measurements in Two Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, B. B.; Ewing, M. E.; Bolton, D. E.; Albrechtsen, K. U.; Earnest, T. E.; Noble, T. C.; Longaker, M.

    2003-01-01

    Real-time internal motor insulation char line recession measurements have been evaluated for two full-scale static tests of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). These char line recession measurements were recorded on the forward facing propellant grain inhibitors to better understand the thermal performance of these inhibitors. The RSRM propellant grain inhibitors are designed to erode away during motor operation, thus making it difficult to use post-fire observations to determine inhibitor thermal performance. Therefore, this new internal motor instrumentation is invaluable in establishing an accurate understanding of inhibitor recession versus motor operation time. The data for the first test was presented at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (AIAA 2001-3280) in July 2001. Since that time, a second full scale static test has delivered additional real-time data on inhibitor thermal performance. The evaluation of this data is presented in this paper. The second static test, in contrast to the first test, used a slightly different arrangement of instrumentation in the inhibitors. This instrumentation has yielded a better understanding of the inhibitor time dependent inboard tip recession. Graphs of inhibitor recession profiles with time are presented. Inhibitor thermal ablation models have been created from theoretical principals. The model predictions compare favorably with data from both tests. This verified modeling effort is important to support new inhibitor designs for a five segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor. The internal instrumentation project on RSRM static tests is providing unique opportunities for other real-time internal motor measurements that could not otherwise be directly quantified.

  17. Real-Time Inhibitor Recession Measurements in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Bruce B.; Ewing, Mark E.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Real-time char line recession measurements were made on propellant inhibitors of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The RSRM FSM-8 static test motor propellant inhibitors (composed of a rubber insulation material) were successfully instrumented with eroding potentiometers and thermocouples. The data was used to establish inhibitor recession versus time relationships. Normally, pre-fire and post-fire insulation thickness measurements establish the thermal performance of an ablating insulation material. However, post-fire inhibitor decomposition and recession measurements are complicated by the fact that most of the inhibitor is back during motor operation. It is therefore a difficult task to evaluate the thermal protection offered by the inhibitor material. Real-time measurements would help this task. The instrumentation program for this static test motor marks the first time that real-time inhibitors. This report presents that data for the center and aft field joint forward facing inhibitors. The data was primarily used to measure char line recession of the forward face of the inhibitors which provides inhibitor thickness reduction versus time data. The data was also used to estimate the inhibitor height versus time relationship during motor operation.

  18. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - V(RSRMV)Nozzle Forward Nose Ring Thermo-Structural Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J. Louie

    2012-01-01

    During the developmental static fire program for NASAs Reusable Solid Rocket Motor-V (RSRMV), an anomalous erosion condition appeared on the nozzle Carbon Cloth Phenolic nose ring that had not been observed in the space shuttle RSRM program. There were regions of augmented erosion located on the bottom of the forward nose ring (FNR) that measured nine tenths of an inch deeper than the surrounding material. Estimates of heating conditions for the RSRMV nozzle based on limited char and erosion data indicate that the total heat loading into the FNR, for the new five segment motor, is about 40-50% higher than the baseline shuttle RSRM nozzle FNR. Fault tree analysis of the augmented erosion condition has lead to a focus on a thermomechanical response of the material that is outside the existing experience base of shuttle CCP materials for this application. This paper provides a sensitivity study of the CCP material thermo-structural response subject to the design constraints and heating conditions unique to the RSRMV Forward Nose Ring application. Modeling techniques are based on 1-D thermal and porous media calculations where in-depth interlaminar loading conditions are calculated and compared to known capabilities at elevated temperatures. Parameters such as heat rate, in-depth pressures and temperature, degree of char, associated with initiation of the mechanical removal process are quantified and compared to a baseline thermo-chemical material removal mode. Conclusions regarding postulated material loss mechanisms are offered.

  19. Laser Shearography Inspection of TPS (Thermal Protection System) Cork on RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingbloom, Mike; Plaia, Jim; Newman, John

    2006-01-01

    Laser Shearography is a viable inspection method for detection of de-bonds and voids within the external TPS (thermal protection system) on to the Space Shuttle RSRM (reusable solid rocket motors). Cork samples with thicknesses up to 1 inch were tested at the LTI (Laser Technology Incorporated) laboratory using vacuum-applied stress in a vacuum chamber. The testing proved that the technology could detect cork to steel un-bonds using vacuum stress techniques in the laboratory environment. The next logical step was to inspect the TPS on a RSRM. Although detailed post flight inspection has confirmed that ATK Thiokol's cork bonding technique provides a reliable cork to case bond, due to the Space Shuttle Columbia incident there is a great interest in verifying bond-lines on the external TPS. This interest provided and opportunity to inspect a RSRM motor with Laser Shearography. This paper will describe the laboratory testing and RSRM testing that has been performed to date. Descriptions of the test equipment setup and techniques for data collection and detailed results will be given. The data from the test show that Laser Shearography is an effective technology and readily adaptable to inspect a RSRM.

  20. Unsupervised Anomaly Detection for Liquid-Fueled Rocket Prop...

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Title: Unsupervised Anomaly Detection for Liquid-Fueled Rocket Propulsion Health Monitoring. Abstract: This article describes the results of applying four...

  1. Simple and reusable picoinjector for liquid delivery via nanofluidics approach

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Shunbo; Cao, Wenbin; Hui, Yu Sanna; Wen, Weijia

    2014-01-01

    Precise control of sample volume is one of the most important functions in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems, especially for chemical and biological reactions. The common approach used for liquid delivery involves the employment of capillaries and microstructures for generating a droplet which has a volume in the nanoliter or picoliter range. Here, we report a novel approach for constructing a picoinjector which is based on well-controlled electroosmotic (EO) flow to electrokinetically drive sample solutions. This picoinjector comprises an array of interconnected nanochannels for liquid delivery. Such technique for liquid delivery has the advantages of well-controlled sample volume and reusable nanofluidic chip, and it was reported for the first time. In the study of the pumping process for this picoinjector, the EO flow rate was determined by the intensity of the fluorescent probe. The influence of ion concentration in electrolyte solutions over the EO flow rate was also investigated and discussed. The application of this EO-driven picoinjector for chemical reactions was demonstrated by the reaction between Fluo-4 and calcium chloride with the reaction cycle controlled by the applied square waves of different duty cycles. The precision of our device can reach down to picoliter per second, which is much smaller than that of most existing technologies. This new approach, thus, opens further possibilities of adopting nanofluidics for well-controlled chemical reactions with particular applications in nanoparticle synthesis, bimolecular synthesis, drug delivery, and diagnostic testing.

  2. Simple and reusable picoinjector for liquid delivery via nanofluidics approach

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Shunbo

    2014-03-25

    Precise control of sample volume is one of the most important functions in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems, especially for chemical and biological reactions. The common approach used for liquid delivery involves the employment of capillaries and microstructures for generating a droplet which has a volume in the nanoliter or picoliter range. Here, we report a novel approach for constructing a picoinjector which is based on well-controlled electroosmotic (EO) flow to electrokinetically drive sample solutions. This picoinjector comprises an array of interconnected nanochannels for liquid delivery. Such technique for liquid delivery has the advantages of well-controlled sample volume and reusable nanofluidic chip, and it was reported for the first time. In the study of the pumping process for this picoinjector, the EO flow rate was determined by the intensity of the fluorescent probe. The influence of ion concentration in electrolyte solutions over the EO flow rate was also investigated and discussed. The application of this EO-driven picoinjector for chemical reactions was demonstrated by the reaction between Fluo-4 and calcium chloride with the reaction cycle controlled by the applied square waves of different duty cycles. The precision of our device can reach down to picoliter per second, which is much smaller than that of most existing technologies. This new approach, thus, opens further possibilities of adopting nanofluidics for well-controlled chemical reactions with particular applications in nanoparticle synthesis, bimolecular synthesis, drug delivery, and diagnostic testing.

  3. Additive Manufacturing a Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carl P.; Robertson, Elizabeth H.; Koelbl, Mary Beth; Singer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Space Propulsion is a 5 day event being held from 2nd May to the 6th May 2016 at the Rome Marriott Park Hotel in Rome, Italy. This event showcases products like Propulsion sub-systems and components, Production and manufacturing issues, Liquid, Solid, Hybrid and Air-breathing Propulsion Systems for Launcher and Upper Stages, Overview of current programmes, AIV issues and tools, Flight testing and experience, Technology building blocks for Future Space Transportation Propulsion Systems : Launchers, Exploration platforms & Space Tourism, Green Propulsion for Space Transportation, New propellants, Rocket propulsion & global environment, Cost related aspects of Space Transportation propulsion, Modelling, Pressure-Thrust oscillations issues, Impact of new requirements and regulations on design etc. in the Automotive, Manufacturing, Fabrication, Repair & Maintenance industries.

  4. Optical measurements in rocket engine liquid sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikema, Douglas A.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of liquid propellant rocket engines is dependent upon many elements of the entire system. One of the most fundamental and most critical is the performance of the injector elements. Their characterization is an important part of the development of combustion devices. Optical measurements within these environments have proven to be invaluable tools in quantifying the physical environment of two phase flows. The effort reported herein involves the measurement of drop velocity, drop size, and most importantly mass flux using Phase-Doppler Particle Anemometry within a spray generated by a single swirl injector element operating in atmospheric pressure conditions. The mass flux has been determined and validated by mechanical patternation methods and by profile integration of the mass flux.

  5. A Reusable, Oxidizer-Cooled, Hybrid Aerospike Rocket Motor for Flight Test, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use the refrigerant capabilities of nitrous oxide (N2O) to provide the cooling required for reusable operation of an aerospike nozzle...

  6. Evaluation of the Effect of Exhausts from Liquid and Solid Rockets on Ozone Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Ishimaki, Tetsuya

    This paper reports the analytical results of the influences of solid rocket and liquid rocket exhausts on ozone layer. It is worried about that the exhausts from solid propellant rockets cause the ozone depletion in the ozone layer. Some researchers try to develop the analytical model of ozone depletion by rocket exhausts to understand its physical phenomena and to find the effective design of rocket to minimize its effect. However, these models do not include the exhausts from liquid rocket although there are many cases to use solid rocket boosters with a liquid rocket at the same time in practical situations. We constructed combined analytical model include the solid rocket exhausts and liquid rocket exhausts to analyze their effects. From the analytical results, we find that the exhausts from liquid rocket suppress the ozone depletion by solid rocket exhausts.

  7. Review on film cooling of liquid rocket engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Shine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Film cooling in combination with regenerative cooling is presently considered as an efficient method to guarantee safe operation of liquid rocket engines having higher heat flux densities for long duration. This paper aims to bring all the research carried out in the field of liquid rocket engine film cooling since 1950. The analytical and numerical procedure followed, experimental facilities and measurements made and major inferences drawn are reviewed in detail, and compared where ever possible. Review has been made through a discussion of the analyses methodologies and the factors that influence film cooling performance. An effort has also been made to determine the status of the research, pointing out critical gaps, which are still to be explained and addressed by future generations. Keywords: Heat transfer, Liquid rocket thrust chamber, Film cooling, Cooling effectiveness

  8. Potential Demand for Orbital Space Tourism Opportunities Made Available via Reusable Rocket and Hypersonic Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Corporation has conducted several comparative studies for SSTO and TSTO system options using Rockets and Airbreather cycles, for both Horizontal...compared as they have less impact on size due to generic uncertainties and tend to be more robust compared to SSTO options. As called for by and in

  9. Review on pressure swirl injector in liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Wang, Zhen-guo; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    The pressure swirl injector with tangential inlet ports is widely used in liquid rocket engine. Commonly, this type of pressure swirl injector consists of tangential inlet ports, a swirl chamber, a converging spin chamber, and a discharge orifice. The atomization of the liquid propellants includes the formation of liquid film, primary breakup and secondary atomization. And the back pressure and temperature in the combustion chamber could have great influence on the atomization of the injector. What's more, when the combustion instability occurs, the pressure oscillation could further affects the atomization process. This paper reviewed the primary atomization and the performance of the pressure swirl injector, which include the formation of the conical liquid film, the breakup and atomization characteristics of the conical liquid film, the effects of the rocket engine environment, and the response of the injector and atomization on the pressure oscillation.

  10. Assessment of CFD Estimation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Basic Reusable Rocket Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Keiichiro; Fujii, Kozo

    Flow-fields around the basic SSTO-rocket configurations are numerically simulated by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations. Simulations of the Apollo-like configuration is first carried out, where the results are compared with NASA experiments and the prediction ability of the RANS simulation is discussed. The angle of attack of the freestream ranges from 0° to 180° and the freestream Mach number ranges from 0.7 to 2.0. Computed aerodynamic coefficients for the Apollo-like configuration agree well with the experiments under a wide range of flow conditions. The flow simulations around the slender Apollo-type configuration are carried out next and the results are compared with the experiments. Computed aerodynamic coefficients also agree well with the experiments. Flow-fields are dominated by the three-dimensional massively separated flow, which should be captured for accurate aerodynamic prediction. Grid refinement effects on the computed aerodynamic coefficients are investigated comprehensively.

  11. Qualification Status of Non-Asbestos Internal Insulation in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Louie

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the qualification efforts associated with NASA's RSRMV non-asbestos internal insulation program. For many years, NASA has been actively engaged in removal of asbestos from the shuttle RSRM motors due to occupation health concerns where technicians are working with an EPA banned material. Careful laboratory and subscale testing has lead to the downselect of a organic fiber known as Polybenzimidazol to replace the asbestos fiber filler in the existing synthetic rubber copolymer Nitrile Butadiene - now named PBI/NBR. Manufacturing, processing, and layup of the new material has been a challenge due to the differences in the baseline shuttle RSRM internal insulator properties and PBI/NBR material properties. For this study, data gathering and reduction procedures for thermal and chemical property characterization for the new candidate material are discussed. Difficulties with test procedures, implementation of properties into the Charring Material Ablator (CMA) codes, and results correlation with static motor fire data are provided. After two successful five segment motor firings using the PBI/NBR insulator, performance results for the new material look good and the material should eventually be qualified for man rated use in large solid rocket motor applications.

  12. Data Mining for ISHM of Liquid Rocket Propulsion Status Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok; Schwabacher, Mark; Oza, Nijunj; Martin, Rodney; Watson, Richard; Matthews, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    This document consists of presentation slides that review the current status of data mining to support the work with the Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) for the systems associated with Liquid Rocket Propulsion. The aim of this project is to have test stand data from Rocketdyne to design algorithms that will aid in the early detection of impending failures during operation. These methods will be extended and improved for future platforms (i.e., CEV/CLV).

  13. Analytical concepts for health management systems of liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Tulpule, Sharayu; Hawman, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Substantial improvement in health management systems performance can be realized by implementing advanced analytical methods of processing existing liquid rocket engine sensor data. In this paper, such techniques ranging from time series analysis to multisensor pattern recognition to expert systems to fault isolation models are examined and contrasted. The performance of several of these methods is evaluated using data from test firings of the Space Shuttle main engines.

  14. A Historical Systems Study of Liquid Rocket Engine Throttling Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Erin M.; Frederick, Robert A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive systems study to examine and evaluate throttling capabilities of liquid rocket engines. The focus of this study is on engine components, and how the interactions of these components are considered for throttling applications. First, an assessment of space mission requirements is performed to determine what applications require engine throttling. A background on liquid rocket engine throttling is provided, along with the basic equations that are used to predict performance. Three engines are discussed that have successfully demonstrated throttling. Next, the engine system is broken down into components to discuss special considerations that need to be made for engine throttling. This study focuses on liquid rocket engines that have demonstrated operational capability on American space launch vehicles, starting with the Apollo vehicle engines and ending with current technology demonstrations. Both deep throttling and shallow throttling engines are discussed. Boost and sustainer engines have demonstrated throttling from 17% to 100% thrust, while upper stage and lunar lander engines have demonstrated throttling in excess of 10% to 100% thrust. The key difficulty in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injector, which is necessary to provide propellant atomization and mixing. For the combustion chamber, cooling can be an issue at low thrust levels. For turbomachinery, the primary considerations are to avoid cavitation, stall, surge, and to consider bearing leakage flows, rotordynamics, and structural dynamics. For valves, it is necessary to design valves and actuators that can achieve accurate flow control at all thrust levels. It is also important to assess the amount of nozzle flow separation that can be tolerated at low thrust levels for ground testing.

  15. Worldwide Space Launch Vehicles and Their Mainstage Liquid Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.

    2010-01-01

    Space launch vehicle begins with a basic propulsion stage, and serves as a missile or small launch vehicle; many are traceable to the 1945 German A-4. Increasing stage size, and increasingly energetic propulsion allows for heavier payloads and greater. Earth to Orbit lift capability. Liquid rocket propulsion began with use of storable (UDMH/N2O4) and evolved to high performing cryogenics (LOX/RP, and LOX/LH). Growth versions of SLV's rely on strap-on propulsive stages of either solid propellants or liquid propellants.

  16. Multivariable optimization of liquid rocket engines using particle swarm algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel Ray

    Liquid rocket engines are highly reliable, controllable, and efficient compared to other conventional forms of rocket propulsion. As such, they have seen wide use in the space industry and have become the standard propulsion system for launch vehicles, orbit insertion, and orbital maneuvering. Though these systems are well understood, historical optimization techniques are often inadequate due to the highly non-linear nature of the engine performance problem. In this thesis, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) variant was applied to maximize the specific impulse of a finite-area combustion chamber (FAC) equilibrium flow rocket performance model by controlling the engine's oxidizer-to-fuel ratio and de Laval nozzle expansion and contraction ratios. In addition to the PSO-controlled parameters, engine performance was calculated based on propellant chemistry, combustion chamber pressure, and ambient pressure, which are provided as inputs to the program. The performance code was validated by comparison with NASA's Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA) and the commercially available Rocket Propulsion Analysis (RPA) tool. Similarly, the PSO algorithm was validated by comparison with brute-force optimization, which calculates all possible solutions and subsequently determines which is the optimum. Particle Swarm Optimization was shown to be an effective optimizer capable of quick and reliable convergence for complex functions of multiple non-linear variables.

  17. Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) for the Space Transportation System (STS) Systems Study; Volume 1 - Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ware, Larry

    1989-01-01

    ...) solid rocket boosters (SRBs) with liquid rocket boosters (LRBs), Figure 1.0-1. The main objectives of a LRB substitution for the SRB were increased STS safety and reliability and increased payload performance...

  18. Investigation of the cooling film distribution in liquid rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antonio Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the investigation of a cooling method widely used in the combustion chambers, which is called cooling film, and it is applied to a liquid rocket engine that uses as propellants liquid oxygen and kerosene. Starting from an engine cooling, whose film is formed through the fuel spray guns positioned on the periphery of the injection system, the film was experimentally examined, it is formed by liquid that seeped through the inner wall of the combustion chamber. The parameter used for validation and refinement of the theoretical penetration of the film was cooling, as this parameter is of paramount importance to obtain an efficient thermal protection inside the combustion chamber. Cold tests confirmed a penetrating cold enough cooling of the film for the length of the combustion chamber of the studied engine.

  19. Yes--This is Rocket Science: MMCs for Liquid Rocket Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelley, J

    2001-01-01

    The Air Force's Integrated High-Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technologies (IHPRPT) Program has established aggressive goals for both improved performance and reduced cost of rocket engines and components...

  20. On Nonlinear Combustion Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.

    2004-01-01

    All liquid propellant rocket instability calculations in current use have limited value in the predictive sense and serve mainly as a correlating framework for the available data sets. The well-known n-t model first introduced by Crocco and Cheng in 1956 is still used as the primary analytical tool of this type. A multitude of attempts to establish practical analytical methods have achieved only limited success. These methods usually produce only stability boundary maps that are of little use in making critical design decisions in new motor development programs. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of combustion instability in solid propellant rockets"' provides a firm foundation for a new approach to prediction, diagnosis, and correction of the closely related problems in liquid motor instability. For predictive tools to be useful in the motor design process, they must have the capability to accurately determine: 1) time evolution of the pressure oscillations and limit amplitude, 2) critical triggering pulse amplitude, and 3) unsteady heat transfer rates at injector surfaces and chamber walls. The method described in this paper relates these critical motor characteristics directly to system design parameters. Inclusion of mechanisms such as wave steepening, vorticity production and transport, and unsteady detonation wave phenomena greatly enhance the representation of key features of motor chamber oscillatory behavior. The basic theoretical model is described and preliminary computations are compared to experimental data. A plan to develop the new predictive method into a comprehensive analysis tool is also described.

  1. Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; Ellis, David L.; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. Fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of shrinking budgets. Three technologies have been combined to produce an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Copper alloy NARloy-Z was replaced with a new high performance Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. Functional gradient technology, developed building composite cartridges for space furnaces was incorporated to add oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. NiCrAlY, utilized to produce durable protective coating for the space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (BPFTP) turbine blades, was used as the functional gradient material coating (FGM). The FGM not only serves as a protection from oxidation or blanching, the main cause of engine failure, but also serves as a thermal barrier because of its lower thermal conductivity, reducing the temperature of the combustion liner 200 F, from 1000 F to 800 F producing longer life. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost VPS process. VPS formed combustion chamber test articles have been formed with the FGM hot wall built in and hot fire tested, demonstrating for the first time a coating that will remain intact through the hot firing test, and with

  2. Failure characteristics analysis and fault diagnosis for liquid rocket engines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This book concentrates on the subject of health monitoring technology of Liquid Rocket Engine (LRE), including its failure analysis, fault diagnosis and fault prediction. Since no similar issue has been published, the failure pattern and mechanism analysis of the LRE from the system stage are of particular interest to the readers. Furthermore, application cases used to validate the efficacy of the fault diagnosis and prediction methods of the LRE are different from the others. The readers can learn the system stage modeling, analyzing and testing methods of the LRE system as well as corresponding fault diagnosis and prediction methods. This book will benefit researchers and students who are pursuing aerospace technology, fault detection, diagnostics and corresponding applications.

  3. Design of a 500 lbf liquid oxygen and liquid methane rocket engine for suborbital flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo, Jesus Eduardo

    Liquid methane (LCH4)is the most promising rocket fuel for our journey to Mars and other space entities. Compared to liquid hydrogen, the most common cryogenic fuel used today, methane is denser and can be stored at a more manageable temperature; leading to more affordable tanks and a lighter system. The most important advantage is it can be produced from local sources using in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology. This will allow the production of the fuel needed to come back to earth on the surface of Mars, or the space entity being explored, making the overall mission more cost effective by enabling larger usable mass. The major disadvantage methane has over hydrogen is it provides a lower specific impulse, or lower rocket performance. The UTEP Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research (cSETR) in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been the leading research center for the advancement of Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Methane (LCH4) propulsion technologies. Through this partnership, the CROME engine, a throattable 500 lbf LOX/LCH4 rocket engine, was designed and developed. The engine will serve as the main propulsion system for Daedalus, a suborbital demonstration vehicle being developed by the cSETR. The purpose of Daedalus mission and the engine is to fire in space under microgravity conditions to demonstrate its restartability. This thesis details the design process, decisions, and characteristics of the engine to serve as a complete design guide.

  4. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  5. Numerical simulation of a liquid propellant rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Nicolas M. C.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Migueis, Carlos E. S. S.; Bastos-Netto, Demétrio

    2001-03-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation of the flow field in a liquid propellant rocket engine chamber and exit nozzle using techniques to allow the results to be taken as starting points for designing those propulsive systems. This was done using a Finite Volume method simulating the different flow regimes which usually take place in those systems. As the flow field has regions ranging from the low subsonic to the supersonic regimes, the numerical code used, initially developed for compressible flows only, was modified to work proficiently in the whole velocity range. It is well known that codes have been developed in CFD, for either compressible or incompressible flows, the joint treatment of both together being complex even today, given the small number of references available in this area. Here an existing code for compressible flow was used and primitive variables, the pressure, the Cartesian components of the velocity and the temperature instead of the conserved variables were introduced in the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. This was done to permit the treatment at any Mach number. Unstructured meshes with adaptive refinements were employed here. The convective terms were treated with upwind first and second order methods. The numerical stability was kept with artificial dissipation and in the spatial coverage one used a five stage Runge-Kutta scheme for the Fluid Mechanics and the VODE (Value of Ordinary Differential Equations) scheme along with the Chemkin II in the chemical reacting solution. During the development of this code simulating the flow in a rocket engine, comparison tests were made with several different types of internal and external flows, at different velocities, seeking to establish the confidence level of the techniques being used. These comparisons were done with existing theoretical results and with other codes already validated and well accepted by the CFD community.

  6. Study of Liquid Breakup Process in Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Laboratory, Edwards, CA Abstract In a solid rocket motor (SRM), when the aluminum based propellant combusts, the fuel is oxidized into alumina (Al2O3...34Chemical Erosion of Refractory-Metal Nozzle Inserts in Solid - Propellant Rocket Motors," J. Propulsion and Power, Vol. 25, no.1,, 2009. [4] E. Y. Wong...34 Solid Rocket Nozzle Design Summary," in 4th AIAA Propulsion Joint Specialist Conference, Cleveland, OH, 1968. [5] Nayfeh, A. H.; Saric, W. S

  7. Combustion response to acoustic perturbation in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafourian, Akbar

    An experimental study of the effect of acoustic perturbations on combustion behavior of a model liquid propellant rocket engine has been carried out. A pair of compression drivers were used to excite transverse and longitudinal acoustic fields at strengths of up to 156.6 dB and 159.5 dB respectively in the combustion chamber of the experimental rocket engine. Propellant simulants were injected into the combustion chamber through a single element shear coaxial injector. Water and air were used in cold flow studies and ethanol and oxygen-enriched air were used as fuel and oxidizer in reacting hot flow studies. In cold flow studies an imposed transverse acoustic field had a more pronounced effect on the spray pattern than a longitudinal acoustic fields. A transverse acoustic field widened the spray by as much as 33 percent and the plane of impingement of the spray with chamber walls moved up closer to the injection plane. The behavior was strongly influenced by the gas phase velocity but was less sensitive to changes in the liquid phase velocity. In reacting hot flow studies the effects of changes in equivalence ratio, excitation amplitude, excitation frequency, liquid and gas phase velocity and chamber pressure on the response of the injector to imposed high frequency transverse acoustic excitation were measured. Reducing the equivalence ratio from 7.4 to 3.8 increased the chamber pressure response to the imposed excitation at 3000 Hz. Increasing the excitation amplitude from 147 dB to 155.6 dB at 3000 Hz increased the chamber pressure response to the excitation. In the frequency range of 1240 Hz to 3220 Hz, an excitation frequency of 3000 Hz resulted in the largest response of the chamber pressure indicating the importance of fluid dynamic coupling. Increasing the liquid phase velocity from 9.2 m/sec to 22.7 m/sec, did not change the amplitude of the chamber pressure response to excitation. This implied the importance of local equivalence ratio and not the overall

  8. Code Validation of CFD Heat Transfer Models for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coy, E. B

    2007-01-01

    .... The design of the rig and its capabilities are described. A second objective of the test rig is to provide CFD validation data under conditions relevant to liquid rocket engine thrust chambers...

  9. Nonlinear Longitudinal Mode Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine Preburners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear pressure oscillations have been observed in liquid propellant rocket instability preburner devices. Unlike the familiar transverse mode instabilities that characterize primary combustion chambers, these oscillations appear as longitudinal gas motions with frequencies that are typical of the chamber axial acoustic modes. In several respects, the phenomenon is similar to longitudinal mode combustion instability appearing in low-smoke solid propellant motors. An important feature is evidence of steep-fronted wave motions with very high amplitude. Clearly, gas motions of this type threaten the mechanical integrity of associated engine components and create unacceptably high vibration levels. This paper focuses on development of the analytical tools needed to predict, diagnose, and correct instabilities of this type. For this purpose, mechanisms that lead to steep-fronted, high-amplitude pressure waves are described in detail. It is shown that such gas motions are the outcome of the natural steepening process in which initially low amplitude standing acoustic waves grow into shock-like disturbances. The energy source that promotes this behavior is a combination of unsteady combustion energy release and interactions with the quasi-steady mean chamber flow. Since shock waves characterize the gas motions, detonation-like mechanisms may well control the unsteady combustion processes. When the energy gains exceed the losses (represented mainly by nozzle and viscous damping), the waves can rapidly grow to a finite amplitude limit cycle. Analytical tools are described that allow the prediction of the limit cycle amplitude and show the dependence of this wave amplitude on the system geometry and other design parameters. This information can be used to guide corrective procedures that mitigate or eliminate the oscillations.

  10. Computational and Experimental Investigation of Liquid Propellant Rocket Combustion Instability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combustion instability has been a problem faced by rocket engine developers since the 1940s. The complicated phenomena has been highly unpredictable, causing engine...

  11. Dynamical Model of Rocket Propellant Loading with Liquid Hydrogen

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A dynamical model describing the multi-stage process of rocket propellant loading has been developed. It accounts for both the nominal and faulty regimes of...

  12. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Virginia P.; Bowles, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  13. Catalytic asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins using a recoverable and reusable OsO(4)2- in ionic liquid [bmim][PF6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luís C; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2002-12-21

    The use of the solvent systems water/ionic liquid or water/ionic liquid/tert-butanol provides a recoverable, reusable, robust and simple system for the asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins, based on the immobilization of the osmium-ligand catalyst in the ionic liquid phase.

  14. [Integral evaluation of immune homeostasis in rockets liquidators and role of this evaluation for prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Long-standing clinical and immunologic monitoring and integral evaluation of immune homeostasis (through generalized parameter) in personnel of Center for liquid-fuel rockets liquidation demonstrated diagnostically reliable immunity parameters that enable to forecast changes in the workers' health state. The authors defined boundary values of the generalized parameter to form risk groups for specific entities formation.

  15. Recent Experimental Efforts on High-Pressure Supercritical Injection for Liquid Rockets and Their Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Chehroudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure and temperature of the liquid rocket thrust chambers into which propellants are injected have been in an ascending trajectory to gain higher specific impulse. It is quite possible then that the thermodynamic condition into which liquid propellants are injected reaches or surpasses the critical point of one or more of the injected fluids. For example, in cryogenic hydrogen/oxygen liquid rocket engines, such as Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME or Vulcain (Ariane 5, the injected liquid oxygen finds itself in a supercritical condition. Very little detailed information was available on the behavior of liquid jets under such a harsh environment nearly two decades ago. The author had the opportunity to be intimately involved in the evolutionary understanding of injection processes at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, spanning sub- to supercritical conditions during this period. The information included here attempts to present a coherent summary of experimental achievements pertinent to liquid rockets, focusing only on the injection of nonreacting cryogenic liquids into a high-pressure environment surpassing the critical point of at least one of the propellants. Moreover, some implications of the results acquired under such an environment are offered in the context of the liquid rocket combustion instability problem.

  16. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  17. JANNAF "Test and Evaluation Guidelines for Liquid Rocket Engines": Status and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Douglas; VanLerberghe, Wayne M.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2017-01-01

    For many decades, the U.S. rocket propulsion industrial base has performed remarkably in developing complex liquid rocket engines that can propel critical payloads into service for the nation, as well as transport people and hardware for missions that open the frontiers of space exploration for humanity. This has been possible only at considerable expense given the lack of detailed guidance that captures the essence of successful practices and knowledge accumulated over five decades of liquid rocket engine development. In an effort to provide benchmarks and guidance for the next generation of rocket engineers, the Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force (JANNAF) Interagency Propulsion Committee published a liquid rocket engine (LRE) test and evaluation (T&E) guideline document in 2012 focusing on the development challenges and test verification considerations for liquid rocket engine systems. This document has been well received and applied by many current LRE developers as a benchmark and guidance tool, both for government-driven applications as well as for fully commercial ventures. The USAF Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) has taken an additional near-term step and is directing activity to adapt and augment the content from the JANNAF LRE T&E guideline into a standard for potential application to future USAF requests for proposals for LRE development initiatives and launch vehicles for national security missions. A draft of this standard was already sent out for review and comment, and is intended to be formally approved and released towards the end of 2017. The acceptance and use of the LRE T&E guideline is possible through broad government and industry participation in the JANNAF liquid propulsion committee and associated panels. The sponsoring JANNAF community is expanding upon this initial baseline version and delving into further critical development aspects of liquid rocket propulsion testing at the integrated stage level as well as engine component level, in

  18. Reusable Military Launch Systems (RMLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    shown in Figure 11. The second configuration is an axisymmetric, rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) powered, SSTO vehicle, similar to the GTX...McCormick, D., and Sorensen, K., “Hyperion: An SSTO Vision Vehicle Concept Utilizing Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Propulsion”, AIAA paper 99-4944...there have been several failedattempts at the development of reusable rocket or air-breathing launch vehicle systems. Single-stage-to-orbit ( SSTO

  19. Cooling Duct Analysis for Transpiration/Film Cooled Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklow, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a low cost space transportation system requires that the propulsion system be reusable, have long life, with good performance and use low cost propellants. Improved performance can be achieved by operating the engine at higher pressure and temperature levels than previous designs. Increasing the chamber pressure and temperature, however, will increase wall heating rates. This necessitates the need for active cooling methods such as film cooling or transpiration cooling. But active cooling can reduce the net thrust of the engine and add considerably to the design complexity. Recently, a metal drawing process has been patented where it is possible to fabricate plates with very small holes with high uniformity with a closely specified porosity. Such a metal plate could be used for an inexpensive transpiration/film cooled liner to meet the demands of advanced reusable rocket engines, if coolant mass flow rates could be controlled to satisfy wall cooling requirements and performance. The present study investigates the possibility of controlling the coolant mass flow rate through the porous material by simple non-active fluid dynamic means. The coolant will be supplied to the porous material by series of constant geometry slots machined on the exterior of the engine.

  20. Numerical and experimental study of liquid breakup process in solid rocket motor nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Hsin

    Rocket propulsion is an important travel method for space exploration and national defense, rockets needs to be able to withstand wide range of operation environment and also stable and precise enough to carry sophisticated payload into orbit, those engineering requirement makes rocket becomes one of the state of the art industry. The rocket family have been classified into two major group of liquid and solid rocket based on the fuel phase of liquid or solid state. The solid rocket has the advantages of simple working mechanism, less maintenance and preparing procedure and higher storage safety, those characters of solid rocket make it becomes popular in aerospace industry. Aluminum based propellant is widely used in solid rocket motor (SRM) industry due to its avalibility, combusion performance and economical fuel option, however after aluminum react with oxidant of amonimum perchrate (AP), it will generate liquid phase alumina (Al2O3) as product in high temperature (2,700˜3,000 K) combustion chamber enviornment. The liquid phase alumina particles aggromorate inside combustion chamber into larger particle which becomes major erosion calprit on inner nozzle wall while alumina aggromorates impinge on the nozzle wall surface. The erosion mechanism result nozzle throat material removal, increase the performance optimized throat diameter and reduce nozzle exit to throat area ratio which leads to the reduction of exhaust gas velocity, Mach number and lower the propulsion thrust force. The approach to avoid particle erosion phenomenon taking place in SRM's nozzle is to reduce the alumina particle size inside combustion chamber which could be done by further breakup of the alumina droplet size in SRM's combustion chamber. The study of liquid breakup mechanism is an important means to smaller combustion chamber alumina droplet size and mitigate the erosion tack place on rocket nozzle region. In this study, a straight two phase air-water flow channel experiment is set up

  1. Synthesis of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine oxalate from rejected liquid rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaogang; Yang, Jingjing; Zhang, Youzhi

    2018-02-01

    The rejected liquid propellant unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) was converted to UDMH oxalate, which has commercial value. The UDMH oxalate structure and stability were investigated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric analysis. The results indicate that UDMH oxalate has good thermal and aqueous solution stability, a melting point of 144 °C, an initial decomposition temperature of 180 °C, and a peak wavelength of UV in aqueous solution at λ = 204 nm. This disposal method of rejected UDMH is highly efficient and environmentally safe.

  2. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  3. Transient Mathematical Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Systems: Methods, Capabilities, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, David C.; Martin, Michael A.; Nguyen, Huy H.; Greene, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The subject of mathematical modeling of the transient operation of liquid rocket engines is presented in overview form from the perspective of engineers working at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The necessity of creating and utilizing accurate mathematical models as part of liquid rocket engine development process has become well established and is likely to increase in importance in the future. The issues of design considerations for transient operation, development testing, and failure scenario simulation are discussed. An overview of the derivation of the basic governing equations is presented along with a discussion of computational and numerical issues associated with the implementation of these equations in computer codes. Also, work in the field of generating usable fluid property tables is presented along with an overview of efforts to be undertaken in the future to improve the tools use for the mathematical modeling process.

  4. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing for Low-Cost, High-Performance Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Silicided niobium alloy (C103) combustion chambers have been used extensively in both NASA and DoD liquid rocket propulsion systems. Niobium alloys offer a good...

  5. Injection and swirl driven flowfields in solid and liquid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Anand B.

    In this work, we seek approximate analytical solutions to describe the bulk flow motion in certain types of solid and liquid rocket motors. In the case of an idealized solid rocket motor, a cylindrical double base propellant grain with steady regression rate is considered. The well known inviscid profile determined by Culick is extended here to include the effects of viscosity and steady grain regression. The approximate analytical solution for the cold flow is obtained from similarity principles, perturbation methods and the method of variation of parameters. The velocity, vorticity, pressure gradient and the shear stress distributions are determined and interpreted for different rates of wall regression and injection Reynolds number. The liquid propellant rocket engine considered here is based on a novel design that gives rise to a cyclonic flow. The resulting bidirectional motion is triggered by the tangential injection of an oxidizer just upstream of the chamber nozzle. Velocity, vorticity and pressure gradient distributions are determined for the bulk gas dynamics using a non-reactive inviscid model. Viscous corrections are then incorporated to explain the formation of a forced vortex near the core. Our results compare favorably with numerical simulations and experimental measurements obtained by other researchers. They also indicate that the bidirectional vortex in a cylindrical chamber is a physical solution of the Euler equations. In closing, we investigate the possibility of multi-directional flow behavior as predicted by Euler's equation and as reported recently in laboratory experiments.

  6. Coupled Lagrangian impingement spray model for doublet impinging injectors under liquid rocket engine operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang WEI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To predict the effect of the liquid rocket engine combustion chamber conditions on the impingement spray, the conventional uncoupled spray model for impinging injectors is extended by considering the coupling of the jet impingement process and the ambient gas field. The new coupled model consists of the plain-orifice sub-model, the jet-jet impingement sub-model and the droplet collision sub-model. The parameters of the child droplet are determined with the jet-jet impingement sub-model using correlations about the liquid jet parameters and the chamber conditions. The overall model is benchmarked under various impingement angles, jet momentum and off-center ratios. Agreement with the published experimental data validates the ability of the model to predict the key spray characteristics, such as the mass flux and mixture ratio distributions in quiescent air. Besides, impinging sprays under changing ambient pressure and non-uniform gas flow are investigated to explore the effect of liquid rocket engine chamber conditions. First, a transient impingement spray during engine start-up phase is simulated with prescribed pressure profile. The minimum average droplet diameter is achieved when the orifices work in cavitation state, and is about 30% smaller than the steady single phase state. Second, the effect of non-uniform gas flow produces off-center impingement and the rotated spray fan by 38°. The proposed model suggests more reasonable impingement spray characteristics than the uncoupled one and can be used as the first step in the complex simulation of coupling impingement spray and combustion in liquid rocket engines.

  7. Coupled Lagrangian impingement spray model for doublet impinging injectors under liquid rocket engine operating conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang WEI; Guozhu LIANG

    2017-01-01

    To predict the effect of the liquid rocket engine combustion chamber conditions on the impingement spray,the conventional uncoupled spray model for impinging injectors is extended by considering the couplingof the jet impingement process and the ambient gas field.The new coupled model consists of the plain-orifice sub-model,the jet-jet impingement sub-model and the droplet collision sub-model.The parameters of the child droplet are determined with the jet-jet impingement sub-model using correlations about the liquid jet parameters and the chamber conditions.The overall model is benchmarked under various impingement angles,jet momentum and offcenter ratios.Agreement with the published experimental data validates the ability of the model to predict the key spray characteristics,such as the mass flux and mixture ratio distributions in quiescent air.Besides,impinging sprays under changing ambient pressure and non-uniform gas flow are investigated to explore the effect of liquid rocket engine chamber conditions.First,a transient impingement spray during engine start-up phase is simulated with prescribed pressure profile.The minimum average droplet diameter is achieved when the orifices work in cavitation state,and is about 30% smaller than the steady single phase state.Second,the effect of non-uniform gas flow produces off-center impingement and the rotated spray fan by 38°.The proposed model suggests more reasonable impingement spray characteristics than the uncoupled one and can be used as the first step in the complex simulation of coupling impingement spray and combustion in liquid rocket engines.

  8. Theoretical Rocket Performance of Liquid Methane with Several Fluorine-Oxygen Mixtures Assuming Frozen Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sanford; Kastner, Michael E

    1958-01-01

    Theoretical rocket performance for frozen composition during expansion was calculated for liquid methane with several fluorine-oxygen mixtures for a range of pressure ratios and oxidant-fuel ratios. The parameters included are specific impulse, combustion-chamber temperature, nozzle-exit temperature molecular weight, characteristic velocity, coefficient of thrust, ratio of nozzle-exit area to throat area, specific heat at constant pressure, isentropic exponent, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The maximum calculated value of specific impulse for a chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute (40.827atm) and an exit pressure of 1 atmosphere is 315.3 for 79.67 percent fluorine in the oxidant.

  9. Techniques for Liquid Rocket Combustion Spontaneous Stability and Rough Combustion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. J.; Giacomoni, C.; Casiano, M. J.; Fischbach, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents techniques for liquid rocket engine combustion stability assessments with respect to spontaneous stability and rough combustion. Techniques covering empirical parameter extraction, which were established in prior works, are applied for three additional programs: the F-1 Gas Generator (F1GG) component test program, the RS-84 preburner component test program, and the Marshall Integrated Test Rig (MITR) program. Stability assessment parameters from these programs are compared against prior established spontaneous stability metrics and updates are identified. Also, a procedure for comparing measured with predicted mode shapes is presented, based on an extension of the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC).

  10. Focused RBCC Experiments: Two-Rocket Configuration Experiments and Hydrocarbon/Oxygen Rocket Ejector Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2003-01-01

    This addendum report documents the results of two additional efforts for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) rocket-ejector mode research work carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA s technology development efforts for enabling 3 d generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The tasks reported here build on an earlier NASA MSFC funded research program on rocket ejector investigations. The first task investigated the improvements of a gaseous hydrogen/oxygen twin thruster RBCC rocket ejector system over a single rocket system. The second task investigated the performance of a hydrocarbon (liquid JP-7)/gaseous oxygen single thruster rocket-ejector system. To gain a systematic understanding of the rocket-ejector s internal fluid mechanic/combustion phenomena, experiments were conducted with both direct-connect and sea-level static diffusion and afterburning (DAB) configurations for a range of rocket operating conditions. For all experimental conditions, overall system performance was obtained through global measurements of wall static pressure profiles, heat flux profiles and engine thrust. Detailed mixing and combustion information was obtained through Raman spectroscopy measurements of major species (gaseous oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and water vapor) for the gaseous hydrogen/oxygen rocket ejector experiments.

  11. Palladium Nanoparticles Suspended in an Ionic Liquid as Reusable Catalyst for Alkyne Semihydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Dae Won; Cheong, Min Serk; Kim, Hoon Sik; Mukherjee, DebKumar; Lee, Hyun Joo; Cho, Byung Won

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of PdCl 2 dispersed in tetra-n-butylammonium bromide with tributyl amine at 120 .deg. C under argon leads to stable isolable nanometric particles. X-ray diffraction analysis of the material indicated that it is constituted of Pd(0). Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the particles dispersed in acetone shows the mean particle size distribution (4 ± 1 nm). The isolated palladium nanoparticles can be dispersed in an ionic liquid or in methanol or used in solventless condition for selective hydrogenation of 2-hexyne under mild reaction conditions(0.2 MPa and 20 .deg. C). The commercial variety of the Lindlar catalyst was also studied for comparative investigations

  12. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Unit Ground Tested With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Tank for the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    Propellant densification has been identified as a critical technology in the development of single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles. Technology to create supercooled high-density liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a key means to lowering launch vehicle costs. The densification of cryogenic propellants through subcooling allows 8 to 10 percent more propellant mass to be stored in a given unit volume, thereby improving the launch vehicle's overall performance. This allows for higher propellant mass fractions than would be possible with conventional normal boiling point cryogenic propellants, considering the normal boiling point of LO2 and LH2.

  13. Robust Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon Using Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion and Lunar Liquid Oxygen Derived from FeO-Rich Pyroclasitc Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Ryan, Stephen W.; Burke, Laura M.; McCurdy, David R.; Fittje, James E.; Joyner, Claude R.

    2018-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been identified as a key space asset required for the human exploration of Mars. This proven technology can also provide the affordable access through cislunar space necessary for commercial development and sustained human presence on the Moon. It is a demonstrated technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (I(sub sp) approx. 900 s) twice that of today's best chemical rockets. Nuclear lunar transfer vehicles-consisting of a propulsion stage using three approx. 16.5-klb(sub f) small nuclear rocket engines (SNREs), an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload-are reusable, enabling a variety of lunar missions. These include cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. Even weeklong ''tourism'' missions carrying passengers into lunar orbit for a day of sightseeing and picture taking are possible. The NTR can play an important role in the next phase of lunar exploration and development by providing a robust in-space lunar transportation system (LTS) that can allow initial outposts to evolve into settlements supported by a variety of commercial activities such as in-situ propellant production used to supply strategically located propellant depots and transportation nodes. The use of lunar liquid oxygen (LLO2) derived from iron oxide (FeO)-rich volcanic glass beads, found in numerous pyroclastic deposits on the Moon, can significantly reduce the launch mass requirements from Earth by enabling reusable, surface-based lunar landing vehicles (LLVs)that use liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LO2/LH2) chemical rocket engines. Afterwards, a LO2/LH2 propellant depot can be established in lunar equatorial orbit to supply the LTS. At this point a modified version of the conventional NTR-called the LO2-augmented NTR, or LANTR-is introduced into the LTS allowing bipropellant operation and leveraging the mission benefits of refueling with lunar-derived propellants for Earth return. The bipropellant LANTR

  14. Simulation methods of rocket fuel refrigerating with liquid nitrogen and intermediate heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Denisov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature preparation of liquid propellant components (LPC before fueling the tanks of rocket and space technology is the one of the operations performed by ground technological complexes on cosmodromes. Refrigeration of high-boiling LPC is needed to increase its density and to create cold reserve for compensation of heat flows existing during fueling and prelaunch operations of space rockets.The method and results of simulation of LPC refrigeration in the recuperative heat exchangers with heat carrier which is refrigerated by-turn with liquid nitrogen sparging. The refrigerating system consists of two tanks (for the chilled coolant and LPC, LPC and heat carrier circulation loops with heat exchanger and system of heat carrier refrigeration in its tank with bubbler. Application of intermediate heat carrier between LPC and liquid nitrogen allows to avoid LPC crystallization on cold surfaces of the heat exchanger.Simulation of such systems performance is necessary to determine its basic design and functional parameters ensuring effective refrigerating of liquid propellant components, time and the amount of liquid nitrogen spent on refrigeration operation. Creating a simulator is quite complicated because of the need to take into consideration many different heat exchange processes occurring in the system. Also, to determine the influence of various parameters on occurring processes it is necessary to take into consideration the dependence of all heat exchange parameters on each other: heat emission coefficients, heat transfer coefficients, heat flow amounts, etc.The paper offers an overview of 10 references to foreign and Russian publications on separate issues and processes occurring in liquids refrigerating, including LPC refrigeration with liquid nitrogen. Concluded the need to define the LPC refrigerating conditions to minimize cost of liquid nitrogen. The experimental data presented in these publications is conformed with the application of

  15. A reliability as an independent variable (RAIV) methodology for optimizing test planning for liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Richard; Herrmann, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-01

    The hot fire test strategy for liquid rocket engines has always been a concern of space industry and agency alike because no recognized standard exists. Previous hot fire test plans focused on the verification of performance requirements but did not explicitly include reliability as a dimensioning variable. The stakeholders are, however, concerned about a hot fire test strategy that balances reliability, schedule, and affordability. A multiple criteria test planning model is presented that provides a framework to optimize the hot fire test strategy with respect to stakeholder concerns. The Staged Combustion Rocket Engine Demonstrator, a program of the European Space Agency, is used as example to provide the quantitative answer to the claim that a reduced thrust scale demonstrator is cost beneficial for a subsequent flight engine development. Scalability aspects of major subsystems are considered in the prior information definition inside the Bayesian framework. The model is also applied to assess the impact of an increase of the demonstrated reliability level on schedule and affordability.

  16. Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

  17. Liquid Rocket Propulsion for Atmospheric Flight in the Proposed ARES Mars Scout Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Wright, Henry S.; Hunter, Craig A.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Flying above the Mars Southern Highlands, an airplane will traverse over the terrain of Mars while conducting unique science measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and interior. This paper describes an overview of the ARES (Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey) mission with an emphasis on airplane propulsion needs. The process for selecting a propulsion system for the ARES airplane is also included. Details of the propulsion system, including system schematics, hardware and performance are provided. The airplane has a 6.25 m wingspan with a total mass of 149 kg and is propelled by a bi-propellant liquid rocket system capable of carrying roughly 48 kg of MMH/MON3 propellant.

  18. Cooling process of liquid propellant rocket by means of kerosene-alumina nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoodi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer augmentation of kerosene-alumina nanofluid is studied for the possible use in the regenerative cooling channel of semi cryogenic engine. The basic partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations which are solved using differential transformation method. Velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are determined. The influence of pertinent parameters such as nanofluid volume fraction, viscosity parameter and Eckert number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is discussed. The results indicate that adding alumina into the fuel of liquid rocket engine (kerosene can be considered as the way of enhancing cooling process of chamber and nozzle walls. Nusselt number is an increasing function of viscosity parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction while it is a decreasing function of Eckert number.

  19. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  20. Verification on spray simulation of a pintle injector for liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Yu, Kijeong; Radhakrishnan, Kanmaniraja; Shin, Bongchul; Koo, Jaye

    2016-02-01

    The pintle injector used for a liquid rocket engine is a newly re-attracted injection system famous for its wide throttle ability with high efficiency. The pintle injector has many variations with complex inner structures due to its moving parts. In order to study the rotating flow near the injector tip, which was observed from the cold flow experiment using water and air, a numerical simulation was adopted and a verification of the numerical model was later conducted. For the verification process, three types of experimental data including velocity distributions of gas flows, spray angles and liquid distribution were all compared using simulated results. The numerical simulation was performed using a commercial simulation program with the Eulerian multiphase model and axisymmetric two dimensional grids. The maximum and minimum velocities of gas were within the acceptable range of agreement, however, the spray angles experienced up to 25% error when the momentum ratios were increased. The spray density distributions were quantitatively measured and had good agreement. As a result of this study, it was concluded that the simulation method was properly constructed to study specific flow characteristics of the pintle injector despite having the limitations of two dimensional and coarse grids.

  1. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  2. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  3. Acoustic streaming in simplified liquid rocket engines with transverse mode oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean R.; Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    This study considers a simplified model of a liquid rocket engine in which uniform injection is imposed at the faceplate. The corresponding cylindrical chamber has a small length-to-diameter ratio with respect to solid and hybrid rockets. Given their low chamber aspect ratios, liquid thrust engines are known to experience severe tangential and radial oscillation modes more often than longitudinal ones. In order to model this behavior, tangential and radial waves are superimposed onto a basic mean-flow model that consists of a steady, uniform axial velocity throughout the chamber. Using perturbation tools, both potential and viscous flow equations are then linearized in the pressure wave amplitude and solved to the second order. The effects of the headwall Mach number are leveraged as well. While the potential flow analysis does not predict any acoustic streaming effects, the viscous solution carried out to the second order gives rise to steady secondary flow patterns near the headwall. These axisymmetric, steady contributions to the tangential and radial traveling waves are induced by the convective flow motion through interactions with inertial and viscous forces. We find that suppressing either the convective terms or viscosity at the headwall leads to spurious solutions that are free from streaming. In our problem, streaming is initiated at the headwall, within the boundary layer, and then extends throughout the chamber. We find that nonlinear streaming effects of tangential and radial waves act to alter the outer solution inside a cylinder with headwall injection. As a result of streaming, the radial wave velocities are intensified in one-half of the domain and reduced in the opposite half at any instant of time. Similarly, the tangential waves are either enhanced or weakened in two opposing sectors that are at 90° angle to the radial velocity counterparts. The second-order viscous solution that we obtain clearly displays both an oscillating and a steady flow

  4. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. H.; Yi, A. C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize 'waverider' aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight.

  5. Genetic algorithm to optimize the design of main combustor and gas generator in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Ko, Sangho; Koo, Jaye

    2014-06-01

    A genetic algorithm was used to develop optimal design methods for the regenerative cooled combustor and fuel-rich gas generator of a liquid rocket engine. For the combustor design, a chemical equilibrium analysis was applied, and the profile was calculated using Rao's method. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed along the profile, and cooling channels were designed. For the gas-generator design, non-equilibrium properties were derived from a counterflow analysis, and a vaporization model for the fuel droplet was adopted to calculate residence time. Finally, a genetic algorithm was adopted to optimize the designs. The combustor and gas generator were optimally designed for 30-tonf, 75-tonf, and 150-tonf engines. The optimized combustors demonstrated superior design characteristics when compared with previous non-optimized results. Wall temperatures at the nozzle throat were optimized to satisfy the requirement of 800 K, and specific impulses were maximized. In addition, the target turbine power and a burned-gas temperature of 1000 K were obtained from the optimized gas-generator design.

  6. Derating design for optimizing reliability and cost with an application to liquid rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungmee O.; Roh, Taeseong; Lee, Jae-Woo; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    Derating is the operation of an item at a stress that is lower than its rated design value. Previous research has indicated that reliability can be increased from operational derating. In order to derate an item in field operation, however, an engineer must rate the design of the item at a stress level higher than the operational stress level, which increases the item's nominal failure rate and development costs. At present, there is no model available to quantify the cost and reliability that considers the design uprating as well as the operational derating. In this paper, we establish the reliability expression in terms of the derating level assuming that the nominal failure rate is constant with time for a fixed rated design value. The total development cost is expressed in terms of the rated design value and the number of tests necessary to demonstrate the reliability requirement. The properties of the optimal derating level are explained for maximizing the reliability or for minimizing the cost. As an example, the proposed model is applied to the design of liquid rocket engines. - Highlights: • Modeled the effect of derating design on the reliability and the development cost. • Discovered that derating design may reduce the cost of reliability demonstration test. • Optimized the derating design parameter for reliability maximization or cost minimization.

  7. Coil-On-Plug Ignition for LOX/Methane Liquid Rocket Engines in Thermal Vacuum Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Morehead, Robert L.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Bugarin, Luz; Chaidez, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed and tested for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane rocket engines operating in thermal vacuum conditions. The igniters were developed and tested as part of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), previously tested as part of the Project Morpheus test vehicle. The ICPTA uses an integrated, pressure-fed, cryogenic LOX/methane propulsion system including a reaction control system (RCS) and a main engine. The ICPTA was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under vacuum and thermal vacuum conditions. In order to successfully demonstrate ignition reliability in the vacuum conditions and eliminate corona discharge issues, a coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed. The ICPTA uses spark-plug ignition for both the main engine igniter and the RCS. The coil-on-plug configuration eliminates the conventional high-voltage spark plug cable by combining the coil and the spark-plug into a single component. Prior to ICPTA testing at Plum Brook, component-level reaction control engine (RCE) and main engine igniter testing was conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), which demonstrated successful hot-fire ignition using the coil-on-plug from sea-level ambient conditions down to 10(exp.-2) torr. Integrated vehicle hot-fire testing at JSC demonstrated electrical and command/data system performance. Lastly, Plum Brook testing demonstrated successful ignitions at simulated altitude conditions at 30 torr and cold thermal-vacuum conditions at 6 torr. The test campaign successfully proved that coil-on-plug technology will enable integrated LOX/methane propulsion systems in future spacecraft.

  8. Development and Hotfire Testing of Additively Manufactured Copper Combustion Chambers for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandy; Protz, Chris

    2017-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM), commonly referred to as additive manufacturing (AM). The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for GRCop-84 (a NASA Glenn Research Center-developed copper, chrome, niobium alloy) commensurate with powder bed AM, evaluate bimetallic deposition, and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. To advance the processes further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic AM chambers. In addition to the LCUSP program, NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has completed a series of development programs and hot-fire tests to demonstrate SLM GRCop-84 and other AM techniques. MSFC’s efforts include a 4,000 pounds-force thrust liquid oxygen/methane (LOX/CH4) combustion chamber. Small thrust chambers for 1,200 pounds-force LOX/hydrogen (H2) applications have also been designed and fabricated with SLM GRCop-84. Similar chambers have also completed development with an Inconel 625 jacket bonded to the GRCop-84 material, evaluating direct metal deposition (DMD) laser- and arc-based techniques. The same technologies for these lower thrust applications are being applied to 25,000-35,000 pounds-force main combustion chamber (MCC) designs. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these numerous combustion chambers, and the associated lessons learned throughout their design and development processes.

  9. Techniques to assess acoustic-structure interaction in liquid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. Benjamin

    Acoustoelasticity is the study of the dynamic interaction between elastic structures and acoustic enclosures. In this dissertation, acoustoelasticity is considered in the context of liquid rocket engine design. The techniques presented here can be used to determine which forcing frequencies are important in acoustoelastic systems. With a knowledge of these frequencies, an analyst can either find ways to attenuate the excitation at these frequencies or alter the system in such a way that the prescribed excitations do result in a resonant condition. The end result is a structural component that is less susceptible to failure. The research scope is divided into three parts. In the first part, the dynamics of cylindrical shells submerged in liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are considered. The shells are bounded by rigid outer cylinders. This configuration gives rise to two fluid-filled cavities---an inner cylindrical cavity and an outer annular cavity. Such geometries are common in rocket engine design. The natural frequencies and modes of the fluid-structure system are computed by combining the rigid wall acoustic cavity modes and the in vacuo structural modes into a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. Eigenvalue veering is observed near the intersections of the curves representing natural frequencies of the rigid wall acoustic and the in vacuo structural modes. In the case of a shell submerged in LH2, system frequencies near these intersections are as much as 30% lower than the corresponding in vacuo structural frequencies. Due to its high density, the frequency reductions in the presence of LOX are even more dramatic. The forced responses of a shell submerged in LH2 and LOX while subject to a harmonic point excitation are also presented. The responses in the presence of fluid are found to be quite distinct from those of the structure in vacuo. In the second part, coupled mode theory is used to explore the fundamental features of

  10. Project of Ariane 5 LV family advancement by use of reusable fly-back boosters (named “Bargouzine”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumin, Yu.; Bonnal, Ch.; Kostromin, S.; Panichkin, N.

    2007-12-01

    The paper concerns possible concept variants of a partially reusable Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle derived from the advanced basic launcher (Ariane-2010) by means of substitution of the EAP Solid Rocket Boosters for a Reusable Starting Stage consisting two Liquid-propellant Reusable Fly-Back Boosters called "Bargouzin". This paper describes the status of the presently studied RFBB concepts during its three phases. The first project phase was dedicated to feasibility expertise of liquid-rocket reusable fly-back boosters ("Baikal" type) utilization for heavy-lift space launch vehicle. The design features and main conclusions are presented. The second phase has been performed with the purpose of selection of preferable concept among the alternative ones for the future Ariane LV modernization by using RFBB instead of EAP Boosters. The main requirements, logic of work, possible configuration and conclusion are presented. Initial aerodynamic, ballistic, thermoloading, dynamic loading, trade-off and comparison analysis have been performed on these concepts. The third phase consists in performing a more detailed expertise of the chosen LV concept. This part summarizes some of the more detailed results related to flight performance, system mass, thermoprotection system, aspects of technologies, ground complex modification, comparison analyses and conclusion.

  11. Improving of technical characteristics of launch vehicles with liquid rocket engines using active onboard de-orbiting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the analysis of technical requirements (TR) for the development of modern space launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid rocket engines (LRE) is fulfilled in relation to the anthropogenic impact decreasing. Factual technical characteristics on the example of a promising type of rocket ;Soyuz-2.1.v.; are analyzed. Meeting the TR in relation to anthropogenic impact decrease based on the conventional design approach and the content of the onboard system does not prove to be efficient and leads to depreciation of the initial technical characteristics obtained at the first design stage if these requirements are not included. In this concern, it is shown that the implementation of additional active onboard de-orbiting system (AODS) of worked-off stages (WS) into the onboard LV stages systems allows to meet the TR related to the LV environmental characteristics, including fire-explosion safety. In some cases, the orbital payload mass increases.

  12. Rockets two classic papers

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Rockets, in the primitive form of fireworks, have existed since the Chinese invented them around the thirteenth century. But it was the work of American Robert Hutchings Goddard (1882-1945) and his development of liquid-fueled rockets that first produced a controlled rocket flight. Fascinated by rocketry since boyhood, Goddard designed, built, and launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket in 1926. Ridiculed by the press for suggesting that rockets could be flown to the moon, he continued his experiments, supported partly by the Smithsonian Institution and defended by Charles Lindbergh. T

  13. Rocket Science: The Shuttle's Main Engines, though Old, Are not Forgotten in the New Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), developed 30 years ago, remains a strong candidate for use in the new Exploration Initiative as part of a shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable booster. This is because the Boeing-Rocket- dyne man-rated SSME remains the most highly efficient liquid rocket engine ever developed. There are only enough parts for 12-15 existing SSMEs, however, so one NASA option is to reinitiate SSME production to use it as a throw-away, as opposed to a reusable, powerplant for NASA s new heavy-lift booster.

  14. Design, fabrication and test of a liquid hydrogen titanium honeycomb cryogenic test tank for use as a reusable launch vehicle main propellant tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Patrick B.; Keller, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's) utilizing LOX\\LH2 as the propellant require lightweight durable structural systems to meet mass fraction goals and to reduce overall systems operating costs. Titanium honeycomb sandwich with flexible blanket TPS on the windward surface is potentially the lightest-weight and most operable option. Light weight is achieved in part because the honeycomb sandwich tank provides insulation to its liquid hydrogen contents, with no need for separate cryogenic insulation, and in part because the high use temperature of titanium honeycomb reduces the required surface area of re-entry thermal protection systems. System operability is increased because TPS needs to be applied only to surfaces where temperatures exceed approximately 650 K. In order to demonstrate the viability of a titanium sandwich constructed propellant tank, a technology demonstration program was conducted including the design, fabrication and testing of a propellant tank-TPS system. The tank was tested in controlled as well as ambient environments representing ground hold conditions for a RLV main propellant tank. Data collected during each test run was used to validate predictions for air liquefaction, outside wall temperature, boil-off rates, frost buildup and its insulation effects, and the effects of placing a thermal protection system blanket on the external surface. Test results indicated that titanium honeycomb, when used as a RLV propellant tank material, has great promise as a light-weight structural system.

  15. High speed cryogenic self-acting, shaft seals for liquid rocket turbopumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Three self acting lift pad liquid oxygen face seals and two self acting gaseous helium circumferential seals for high speed liquid oxygen turbopump were evaluated. The development of a technology for reliable, 10 hour life, multiple start seals for use in high speed liquid oxygen turbopumps is discussed.

  16. Ultra-fast catalytic reduction of dyes by ionic liquid recoverable and reusable mefenamic acid derived gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Syeda Sara [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Sirajuddin, E-mail: drsiraj03@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Solangi, Amber Rehana [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Agheem, Mohammad Hassan [Center for Pure and Applied Geology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Junejo, Yasmeen; Kalwar, Nazar Hussain; Tagar, Zulfiqar Ali [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been fabricated by a simple chemical method. {yields} AuNps were capped successfully in one step by mefenamic acid (MA). {yields} MA capped AuNps catalytically reduced the mixture of 3 dyes in just 15 s. {yields} AuNps were recovered by ionic liquid and reused for dye(s) reduction effectively. - Abstract: We synthesized mefenamic acid (MA) derived gold nanoparticles (MA-AuNps) in aqueous solution (MA-Au sol). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of the sol at 1, 5, 15 and 60 min showed changes in size and shape of formed AuNps. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy revealed the interaction between AuNps and MA. Each Au sol exhibited exceptional catalytic activity for the reduction of Methylene Blue (MB), Rose Bengal (RB) and Eosin B (EB) dye individually as well as collectively. However, complete reduction of dye(s) was accomplished by Au sol of 5 min in just 15 s. The catalytic performance of Ma-Au sol was far superior to that adsorbed on glass. AuNps were recovered with the help of water insoluble room temperature ionic liquid and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. This finding is a novel, rapid and highly economical alternative for environmental safety against pollution by dyes and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  17. Ultra-fast catalytic reduction of dyes by ionic liquid recoverable and reusable mefenamic acid derived gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Syeda Sara; Sirajuddin; Solangi, Amber Rehana; Agheem, Mohammad Hassan; Junejo, Yasmeen; Kalwar, Nazar Hussain; Tagar, Zulfiqar Ali

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been fabricated by a simple chemical method. → AuNps were capped successfully in one step by mefenamic acid (MA). → MA capped AuNps catalytically reduced the mixture of 3 dyes in just 15 s. → AuNps were recovered by ionic liquid and reused for dye(s) reduction effectively. - Abstract: We synthesized mefenamic acid (MA) derived gold nanoparticles (MA-AuNps) in aqueous solution (MA-Au sol). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of the sol at 1, 5, 15 and 60 min showed changes in size and shape of formed AuNps. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy revealed the interaction between AuNps and MA. Each Au sol exhibited exceptional catalytic activity for the reduction of Methylene Blue (MB), Rose Bengal (RB) and Eosin B (EB) dye individually as well as collectively. However, complete reduction of dye(s) was accomplished by Au sol of 5 min in just 15 s. The catalytic performance of Ma-Au sol was far superior to that adsorbed on glass. AuNps were recovered with the help of water insoluble room temperature ionic liquid and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. This finding is a novel, rapid and highly economical alternative for environmental safety against pollution by dyes and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  18. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING LASER-ULTRASOUND TO MONITOR THE QUALITY SOLDERED CONNECTIONS CHAMBERS OF LIQUID ROCKET ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Astredinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing process to the design of modern liquid rocket engines are presented important requirements, such as minimum weight, maximum stiffness and strength of nodes, maximum service life in operation, high reliability and quality of soldered and welded seams. Due to the high quality requirements soldered connections and the specific design of the nozzle, it became necessary in the development and testing of a new non-conventional non-destructive testing method – laser-ultrasound diagnosis. In accordance with regulatory guidelines, quality control soldered connections is allowed to use an acoustic kind of control methods of the reflected light, transmitted light, resonant, free vibration and acoustic emission. Attempts to use traditional methods of non-destructive testing did not lead to positive results. This is due primarily to the size of typical solder joint defects, as well as the structural features of the rocket engine, the data structure is not controllable. In connection with this, a new method that provides quality control soldered connections cameras LRE based on the thermo generation of ultrasound. Methods of ultrasonic flaw detection of photoacoustic effect, in most cases, have a number of advantages over methods that use standard (traditional piezo transducers. In the course of studies have found that the sensitivity of the laser-ultrasonic method and flaw detector UDL-2M can detect lack of adhesion in the solder joints on the upper edges of the nozzle in the sub-header area of the site.

  19. REIMR - A Process for Utilizing Liquid Rocket Propulsion-Oriented 'Lessons Learned' to Mitigate Development Risk in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a summary overview of a study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) during the initial phases of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program to evaluate a large number of technical problems associated with the design, development, test, evaluation and operation of several major liquid propellant rocket engine systems (i.e., SSME, Fastrac, J-2, F-1). One of the primary results of this study was the identification of the 'Fundamental Root Causes' that enabled the technical problems to manifest, and practices that can be implemented to prevent them from recurring in future propulsion system development efforts, such as that which is currently envisioned in the field of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). This paper will discus the Fundamental Root Causes, cite some examples of how the technical problems arose from them, and provide a discussion of how they can be mitigated or avoided in the development of an NTP system

  20. REIMR - A Process for Utilizing Liquid Rocket Propulsion-Oriented 'Lessons Learned' to Mitigate Development Risk in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, RIchard O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a summary overview of a study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA MSFC) during the initial phases of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) program to evaluate a large number of technical problems associated with the design, development, test, evaluation and operation of several major liquid propellant rocket engine systems (i.e., SSME, Fastrac, J-2, F-1). One of the primary results of this study was the identification of the Fundamental Root Causes that enabled the technical problems to manifest, and practices that can be implemented to prevent them from recurring in future propulsion system development efforts, such as that which is currently envisioned in the field of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTF). This paper will discuss the Fundamental Root Causes, cite some examples of how the technical problems arose from them, and provide a discussion of how they can be mitigated or avoided in the development of an NTP system

  1. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  2. Ultra-fast catalytic reduction of dyes by ionic liquid recoverable and reusable mefenamic acid derived gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syeda Sara; Sirajuddin; Solangi, Amber Rehana; Agheem, Mohammad Hassan; Junejo, Yasmeen; Kalwar, Nazar Hussain; Tagar, Zulfiqar Ali

    2011-06-15

    We synthesized mefenamic acid (MA) derived gold nanoparticles (MA-AuNps) in aqueous solution (MA-Au sol). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of the sol at 1, 5, 15 and 60 min showed changes in size and shape of formed AuNps. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy revealed the interaction between AuNps and MA. Each Au sol exhibited exceptional catalytic activity for the reduction of Methylene Blue (MB), Rose Bengal (RB) and Eosin B (EB) dye individually as well as collectively. However, complete reduction of dye(s) was accomplished by Au sol of 5 min in just 15s. The catalytic performance of Ma-Au sol was far superior to that adsorbed on glass. AuNps were recovered with the help of water insoluble room temperature ionic liquid and reused with enhanced catalytic potential. This finding is a novel, rapid and highly economical alternative for environmental safety against pollution by dyes and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and Performance of a Liquid Hydrocarbon-Fueled Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damphousse, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The first time use of a new electro-hydraulic liquid fuel injector was demonstrated to produce consistent atomization properties while allowing for varying fuel injection durations at frequencies up to 50 Hz...

  4. Modeling of Uneven Flow and Electromagnetic Field Parameters in the Combustion Chamber of Liquid Rocket Engine with a Near-wall Layer Available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudinskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns modeling of an uneven flow and electromagnetic field parameters in the combustion chamber of the liquid rocket engine with a near-wall layer available.The research objective was to evaluate quantitatively influence of changing model chamber mode of the liquid rocket engine on the electro-physical characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel combustion by-products.The main method of research was based on development of a final element model of the flowing path of the rocket engine chamber and its adaptation to the boundary conditions.The paper presents a developed two-dimensional non-stationary mathematical model of electro-physical processes in the liquid rocket engine chamber using hydrocarbon fuel. The model takes into consideration the features of a gas-dynamic contour of the engine chamber and property of thermo-gas-dynamic characteristics of the ionized products of combustion of hydrocarbonic fuel. Distributions of magnetic field intensity and electric conductivity received and analyzed taking into account a low-temperature near-wall layer. Special attention is paid to comparison of obtained calculation values of the electric current, which is taken out from intrachamber space of the engine with earlier published data of other authors.

  5. A new interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC of capacitive liquid level sensor in the rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Qin, Yao; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2017-11-01

    A new capacitive liquid level sensing interface weak-capacitance detection ASIC has been designed. This ASIC realized the detection of the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor, which converts the output capacitance of the capacitive liquid level sensor to voltage. The chip is fabricated in a standard 0.5μm CMOS process. The test results show that the linearity of capacitance detection of the ASIC is 0.05%, output noise is 3.7aF/Hz (when the capacitance which will be detected is 40 pF), the stability of capacitance detection is 7.4 × 10-5pF (1σ, 1h), the output zero position temperature coefficient is 4.5 uV/∘C. The test results prove that this interface ASIC can meet the requirement of high accuracy capacitance detection. Therefore, this interface ASIC can be applied in capacitive liquid level sensing and capacitive humidity sensing field.

  6. Rocket propulsion elements - An introduction to the engineering of rockets (6th revised and enlarged edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, George P.

    The subject of rocket propulsion is treated with emphasis on the basic technology, performance, and design rationale. Attention is given to definitions and fundamentals, nozzle theory and thermodynamic relations, heat transfer, flight performance, chemical rocket propellant performance analysis, and liquid propellant rocket engine fundamentals. The discussion also covers solid propellant rocket fundamentals, hybrid propellant rockets, thrust vector control, selection of rocket propulsion systems, electric propulsion, and rocket testing.

  7. The reusable launch vehicle technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today's launch systems have major shortcomings that will increase in significance in the future, and thus are principal drivers for seeking major improvements in space transportation. They are too costly; insufficiently reliable, safe, and operable; and increasingly losing market share to international competition. For the United States to continue its leadership in the human exploration and wide ranging utilization of space, the first order of business must be to achieve low cost, reliable transportatin to Earth orbit. NASA's Access to Space Study, in 1993, recommended the development of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle as an Agency goal. The goal of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is to mature the technologies essential for a next-generation reusable launch system capable of reliably serving National space transportation needs at substantially reduced costs. The primary objectives of the RLV technology program are to (1) mature the technologies required for the next-generation system, (2) demonstrate the capability to achieve low development and operational cost, and rapid launch turnaround times and (3) reduce business and technical risks to encourage significant private investment in the commercial development and operation of the next-generation system. Developing and demonstrating the technologies required for a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) rocket is a focus of the program becuase past studies indicate that it has the best potential for achieving the lowest space access cost while acting as an RLV technology driver (since it also encompasses the technology requirements of reusable rocket vehicles in general).

  8. The reusable launch vehicle technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.

    Today's launch systems have major shortcomings that will increase in significance in the future, and thus are principal drivers for seeking major improvements in space transportation. They are too costly; insufficiently reliable, safe, and operable; and increasingly losing market share to international competition. For the United States to continue its leadership in the human exploration and wide ranging utilization of space, the first order of business must be to achieve low cost, reliable transportatin to Earth orbit. NASA's Access to Space Study, in 1993, recommended the development of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle as an Agency goal. The goal of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is to mature the technologies essential for a next-generation reusable launch system capable of reliably serving National space transportation needs at substantially reduced costs. The primary objectives of the RLV technology program are to (1) mature the technologies required for the next-generation system, (2) demonstrate the capability to achieve low development and operational cost, and rapid launch turnaround times and (3) reduce business and technical risks to encourage significant private investment in the commercial development and operation of the next-generation system. Developing and demonstrating the technologies required for a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) rocket is a focus of the program becuase past studies indicate that it has the best potential for achieving the lowest space access cost while acting as an RLV technology driver (since it also encompasses the technology requirements of reusable rocket vehicles in general).

  9. Nitrato-Functionalized Task-Specific Ionic Liquids as Attractive Hypergolic Rocket Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Shi; Zhang, Wenquan; Liu, Tianlin; Qi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-09-12

    Hypergolic ionic liquids (HILs) as potential replacements for hydrazine derivatives have attracted increasing interest over the last decade. Previous studies on HILs have mostly concentrated on the anionic innovations of ionic liquids to shorten the ignition delay (ID) time, but little attention has been paid to cationic modifications and their structure-property relationships. In this work, we present a new strategy of cationic functionalization by introducing the energetic nitrato group into the cationic units of HILs. Interestingly, the introduction of oxygen-rich nitrato groups into the cationic structure significantly improved the combustion performance of HILs with larger flame diameters and duration times. The density-specific impulse (ρI sp ) of these novel HILs are all above 279.0 s g cm -3 , much higher than that of UDMH (215.7 s g cm -3 ). In addition, the densities of these HILs are in the range of 1.22-1.39 g cm -3 , which is much higher than that of UDMH (0.79 g cm -3 ), showing their higher loading capacity than hydrazine-derived fuels in a propellant tank. This promising strategy of introducing nitrato groups into the cationic structures has provided a new platform for developing high-performing HILs with improved combustion properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Development and Hot-fire Testing of Additively Manufactured Copper Combustion Chambers for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandy Elam; Protz, Christopher S.; Ellis, David L.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2017-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM), commonly referred to as additive manufacturing (AM). The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for GRCop-84 (a NASA Glenn Research Center-developed copper, chrome, niobium alloy) commensurate with powder-bed AM, evaluate bimetallic deposition, and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. To advance the processes further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic AM chambers. In addition to the LCUSP program, NASA has completed a series of development programs and hot-fire tests to demonstrate SLM GRCop-84 and other AM techniques. NASA's efforts include a 4K lbf thrust liquid oxygen/methane (LOX/CH4) combustion chamber and subscale thrust chambers for 1.2K lbf LOX/hydrogen (H2) applications that have been designed and fabricated with SLM GRCop-84. The same technologies for these lower thrust applications are being applied to 25-35K lbf main combustion chamber (MCC) designs. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these numerous combustion chambers, and the associated lessons learned throughout their design and development processes.

  11. Coil-On-Plug Ignition for Oxygen/Methane Liquid Rocket Engines in Thermal-Vacuum Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Morehead, Robert L.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Bugarin, Luz; Chaidez, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed and tested for Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/liquid methane (LCH4) rocket engines operating in thermal vacuum conditions. The igniters were developed and tested as part of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), previously tested as part of the Project Morpheus test vehicle. The ICPTA uses an integrated, pressure-fed, cryogenic LOX/LCH4 propulsion system including a reaction control system (RCS) and a main engine. The ICPTA was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under vacuum and thermal vacuum conditions. A coil-on-plug ignition system has been developed to successfully demonstrate ignition reliability at these conditions while preventing corona discharge issues. The ICPTA uses spark plug ignition for both the main engine igniter and the RCS. The coil-on-plug configuration eliminates the conventional high-voltage spark plug cable by combining the coil and the spark plug into a single component. Prior to ICPTA testing at Plum Brook, component-level reaction control engine (RCE) and main engine igniter testing was conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), which demonstrated successful hot-fire ignition using the coil-on-plug from sea-level ambient conditions down to 10(exp -2) torr. Integrated vehicle hot-fire testing at JSC demonstrated electrical and command/data system performance. Lastly, hot-fire testing at Plum Brook demonstrated successful ignitions at simulated altitude conditions at 30 torr and cold thermal-vacuum conditions at 6 torr. The test campaign successfully proved that coil-on-plug technology will enable integrated LOX/LCH4 propulsion systems in future spacecraft.

  12. Investigation into a Novel Propellant Delivery System for 1000lbf Class Low-Cost reusable Cube-Sat Boost Liquid Rocket Engines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continued from fy17... Launch services for cube-satellites is a new and rapidly growing market with dozens of commercial players and millions of dollars in...

  13. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  14. Rocket Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Evera, Bill; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an activity for designing, building, and launching rockets that provides students with an intrinsically motivating and real-life application of what could have been classroom-only concepts. Includes rocket design guidelines and a sample grading rubric. (KHR)

  15. A peroxotungstate-ionic liquid brush assembly: an efficient and reusable catalyst for selectively oxidizing sulfides with aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution in neat water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xianying; Ma, Wenjuan; Ou, Hui; Han, Xiaoyan; Lu, Congmin; Chen, Yan; Wei, Junfa, E-mail: shixy@snnu.edu.cn, E-mail: weijf@snnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University and Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Xian (China)

    2012-08-15

    An efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalytic assembly of peroxotungstate held in a ionic liquid (IL) brush was synthesized and an environmentally-friendly procedure was developed for selective oxidation of sulfides at room temperature using 30 wt.% hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant and water as a sole solvent. No organic co-solvent or other additive was needed. A 1.5-2.0 mol% (based on W atom) loading catalyst was found to be sufficient for a smooth and clean reaction. Both aliphatic and aromatic sulfides were efficiently and selectively transformed into their respective sulfoxides or sulfones by simply controlling of equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. In addition to the high catalytic activity, the catalyst exhibits excellent chemoselectivity. Sensitive functional groups, such as double bond and hydroxyl, remained under the oxidation conditions the reaction even with an excess hydrogen peroxide. The catalyst was easily recovered (via simple filtration) and reused at least eight times without a noticeable loss of activity. (author)

  16. Rocket science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upson Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Expanding across the Solar System will require more than a simple blast off, a range of promising new propulsion technologies are being investigated by ex- NASA shuttle astronaut Chang Diaz. He is developing an alternative to chemical rockets, called VASIMR -Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasm Rocket. In 2012 Ad Astra plans to test a prototype, using solar power rather than nuclear, on the International Space Station. Development of this rocket for human space travel is discussed. The nuclear reactor's heat would be converted into electricity in an electric rocket such as VASIMR, and at the peak of nuclear rocket research thrust levels of almost one million newtons were reached.

  17. Reusability of coordination programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad); C.L. Blom (Kees); F.J. Burger (Freek); C.T.H. Everaars (Kees)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIsolating computation and communication concerns into separate pure computation and pure coordination modules enhances modularity, understandability, and reusability of parallel and/or distributed software. This can be achieved by moving communication primitives (such as SendMessage and

  18. Economics of reusable facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper some of the different economic development strategies that can be used for reusable facilities in the UK, Norway, Netherlands and in some production sharing contracts are outlined. These strategies focus on an integrated decision analysis approach which considers development phasing, reservoir management, tax planning and where appropriate facility purchase, leasing, or sale and leaseback decisions

  19. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  20. High-Temperature Polymer Composites Tested for Hypersonic Rocket Combustor Backup Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, James K.; Shin, E. Eugene; Thesken, John C.; Fink, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Significant component weight reductions are required to achieve the aggressive thrust-toweight goals for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) third-generation, reusable liquid propellant rocket engine, which is one possible engine for a future single-stage-toorbit vehicle. A collaboration between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Rocketdyne was formed under the Higher Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) program and, currently, the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project to develop carbon-fiber-reinforced high-temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMCs). This program focused primarily on the combustor backup structure to replace all metallic support components with a much lighter polymer-matrixcomposite- (PMC-) titanium honeycomb sandwich structure.

  1. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Propulsion system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) Propulsion System Trade Study described in this summary report was to investigate various propulsion options available for incorporation on the RRS and to select the option best suited for RRS application. The design requirements for the RRS propulsion system were driven by the total impulse requirements necessary to operate within the performance envelope specified in the RRS System Requirements Documents. These requirements were incorporated within the Design Reference Missions (DRM's) identified for use in this and other subsystem trade studies. This study investigated the following propulsion systems: solid rocket, monopropellant, bipropellant (monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide or MMH/NTO), dual-mode bipropellant (hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide or N2H4/NTO), liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen (LO2/LH2), and an advanced design propulsion system using SDI-developed components. A liquid monopropellant blowdown propulsion system was found to be best suited for meeting the RRS requirements and is recommended as the baseline system. This system was chosen because it is the simplest of all investigated, has the fewest components, and is the most cost effective. The monopropellant system meets all RRS performance requirements and has the capability to provide a very accurate deorbit burn which minimizes reentry dispersions. In addition, no new hardware qualification is required for a monopropellant system. Although the bipropellant systems offered some weight savings capability for missions requiring large deorbit velocities, the advantage of a lower mass system only applies if the total vehicle design can be reduced to allow a cheaper launch vehicle to be used. At the time of this trade study, the overall RRS weight budget and launch vehicle selection were not being driven by the propulsion system selection. Thus, the added cost and complexity of more advanced systems did not warrant application.

  2. Reusable platform concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Sparby, B.K.; Stead, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    There is an increasing need to reduce costs of offshore production facilities in order to make development of offshore fields profitable. For small fields with short production time there is in particular a need to investigate ways to reduce costs. The idea of platform reuse is for such fields particularly attractive. This paper will review reusable platform concepts and will discuss their range of application. Particular emphasis will be placed on technical limitations. Traditional concepts as jackups and floating production facilities will be discussed by major attention will be given to newly developed ideas for reuse of steel jackets and concrete structures. It will be shown how the operator for several fields can obtain considerable savings by applying such reusable platform concepts

  3. Reusable radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanselow, D.L.; Ersfeld, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    An integrating, reusable device for monitoring exposure to actinic radiation is disclosed. The device comprises a substrate having deposited thereon at least one photochromic aziridine compound which is sealed in an oxygen barrier to stabilize the color developed by the aziridine compound in response to actinic radiation. The device includes a spectral response shaping filter to transmit only actinic radiation of the type being monitored. A color standard is also provided with which to compare the color developed by the aziridine compound

  4. OsO(4) in ionic liquid [Bmim]PF(6): a recyclable and reusable catalyst system for olefin dihydroxylation. remarkable effect of DMAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qingwei

    2002-06-27

    [reaction: see text] The combination of the ionic liquid [bmim]PF(6) and DMAP provides a most simple and practical approach to the immobilization of OsO(4) as catalyst for olefin dihydroxylation. Both the catalyst and the ionic liquid can be repeatedly recycled and reused in the dihydroxylation of a variety of olefins with only a very slight drop in catalyst activity.

  5. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy near 5 μm for carbon monoxide sensing in a high-pressure kerosene-fueled liquid rocket combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel D.; Bendana, Fabio A.; Schumaker, S. Alexander; Spearrin, R. Mitchell

    2018-05-01

    A laser absorption sensor was developed for carbon monoxide (CO) sensing in high-pressure, fuel-rich combustion gases associated with the internal conditions of hydrocarbon-fueled liquid bipropellant rockets. An absorption feature near 4.98 μm, comprised primarily of two rovibrational lines from the P-branch of the fundamental band, was selected to minimize temperature sensitivity and spectral interference with other combustion gas species at the extreme temperatures (> 3000 K) and pressures (> 50 atm) in the combustion chamber environment. A scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy technique (1 f-normalized 2 f detection) is utilized to infer species concentration from CO absorption, and mitigate the influence of non-absorption transmission losses and noise associated with the harsh sooting combustor environment. To implement the sensing strategy, a continuous-wave distributed-feedback (DFB) quantum cascade laser (QCL) was coupled to a hollow-core optical fiber for remote mid-infrared light delivery to the test article, with high-bandwidth light detection by a direct-mounted photovoltaic detector. The method was demonstrated to measure time-resolved CO mole fraction over a range of oxidizer-to-fuel ratios and pressures (20-70 atm) in a single-element-injector RP-2-GOx rocket combustor.

  6. Liquid rocket propulsion dynamic flow modeling using the ROCETS engineering modules in the EASY5x environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Randolph F.; Taylor, Robert P.; Nunez, Stephen C.

    1993-01-01

    A report on the progress of porting the ROCETS (ROCket Engine Transient Simulator) into the EASY5x simulation environment is presented. Brief descriptions of each of the software systems, information regarding the actual port process, and examples comparing the results of the two systems are given. It is shown that EASY5x is a suitable environment for utilization of the ROCETS engineering modules, and that, for the example systems shown, EASY5x actually seems to give more accurate solutions than the straight ROCETS code.

  7. Droplet behaviour in an acoustic field: application to high frequency instability in liquid propellant rocket engines; Comportement de gouttes dans un champ acoustique: applications aux instabilites hautes-frequences dans les moteurs de fusees a ergols liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisneau, O.; Lecourt, R.; Grisch, F.; Orain, M.

    2002-07-01

    A setup has been developed at ONERA in the scope of studying interaction between calibrated droplets and a transversal acoustic wave in the scope of high frequency instabilities in liquid rocket engines. First, the setup has been checked acoustically by hot-wire anemometer and microphone. We present an analytical solution of the Stokes' droplet motion equation in an acoustic field. The trajectory equation can be split into three different parts: a sinusoidal part (negligible in liquid rocket engines), a transient part and a final mean position (only function of the loudspeaker characteristics but never reached). Some kind of vibrational breakup at low Weber's number has been observed using line-of-sight visualization of acoustic/droplet interactions. However, preponderant phenomena observed were jet oscillations and droplet coalescence. For ambient temperature, PLIF visualization has shown a coupling between the created vapor cylinder and the acoustic induced jet position. For hot temperature, some unsteady phenomena seem to appear but further processing are needed. (authors)

  8. High-Pressure Hot-Gas Self-Acting Floating Ring Shaft Seal for Liquid Rocket Turbopumps. [tapered bore seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, R. E.; Diamond, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Design analysis, detail design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation was performed on two self acting floating ring shaft seals for a rocket engine turbopump high pressure 24132500 n/sq m (3500 psig) hot gas 533 K 9500 F) high speed 3142 rad/sec (30000 rmp) turbine. The initial design used Rayleigh step hydrodynamic lift pads to assist in centering the seal ring with minimum rubbing contact. The final design used a convergent tapered bore to provide hydrostatic centering force. The Rayleigh step design was tested for 107 starts and 4.52 hours total. The leakage was satisfactory; however, the design was not acceptable due to excessive wear caused by inadequate centering force and failure of the sealing dam caused by erosion damage. The tapered bore design was tested for 370 starts and 15.93 hours total. Satisfactory performance for the required life of 7.5 hours per seal was successfully demonstrated.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Characteristics of a Double-Base Swirl Injector in a Liquid Rocket Propellant Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathollah OMMI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the fundamentals of swirl injector calculation is investigated and new design procedure is proposed. The design method for double-base liquid-liquid injectors is presented based on this theory and experimental results. Then special conditions related to double-based liquid-liquid injectors are studied and the corresponding results are applied in design manipulation. The behaviour of injector in various performing conditions is studied, and the design procedure is presented based on obtained results. A computer code for designing the injector is proposed. Based on this code, four injectors are manufactured. A specialized laboratory was setup for the measurement of macroscopic spray characteristics under different pressure such as homogeneous droplet distribution, spray angle, swirl effect. Finally, through PDA cold test, the microscopic characteristics of injectors spray are also obtained and measured. The results, which will be explained in detail, are satisfactory.

  10. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  11. Infrared Imagery of Solid Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Houston, Janice D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test program consisted of a series of 18 solid rocket motor static firings, simulating the liftoff conditions of the Ares I five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Vehicle. Primary test objectives included acquiring acoustic and pressure data which will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of Ares 1 liftoff acoustics and ignition overpressure environments. The test article consisted of a 5% scale Ares I vehicle and launch tower mounted on the Mobile Launch Pad. The testing also incorporated several Water Sound Suppression Systems. Infrared imagery was employed during the solid rocket testing to support the validation or improvement of analytical models, and identify corollaries between rocket plume size or shape and the accompanying measured level of noise suppression obtained by water sound suppression systems.

  12. Reusable Surface Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation, developed by Ames Research Center, protects the Space Shuttle from the searing heat that engulfs it on reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. Initially integrated into the Space Shuttle by Rockwell International, production was transferred to Hi-Temp Insulation Inc. in 1974. Over the years, Hi-Temp has created many new technologies to meet the requirements of the Space Shuttle program. This expertise is also used commercially, including insulation blankets to cover aircrafts parts, fire barrier material to protect aircraft engine cowlings and aircraft rescue fire fighter suits. A Fire Protection Division has also been established, offering the first suit designed exclusively by and for aircraft rescue fire fighters. Hi-Temp is a supplier to the Los Angeles City Fire Department as well as other major U.S. civil and military fire departments.

  13. Integration of reusable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Software reuse and integration has been described as the process of creating software systems from existing software rather than building software systems from scratch. Whereas reuse solely deals with the artifacts creation, integration focuses on how reusable artifacts interact with the already existing parts of the specified transformation. Currently, most reuse research focuses on creating and integrating adaptable components at development or at compile time. However, with the emergence of ubiquitous computing, reuse technologies that can support adaptation and reconfiguration of architectures and components at runtime are in demand. This edited book includes 15 high quality research papers written by experts in information reuse and integration to cover the most recent advances in the field. These papers are extended versions of the best papers which were presented at IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration and IEEE International Workshop on Formal Methods Integration, which wa...

  14. Rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

  15. Bantam: A Systematic Approach to Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Carolyn; Lyles, Garry

    1999-01-01

    capability to expand the capability of a reusable first stage, including ground launch, powered return to the launch site, and a fully reusable rocket propulsion system. A Bantam technology goal is to demonstrate twenty-five flights with no unplanned rocket engine maintenance and only minor planned maintenance or inspections. The design goal of the propulsion system is a mission life of one hundred.

  16. Reliable, Reusable Cryotank, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcracking issues have significantly limited the reusability of state-of-the-art (SOA) composite cryotanks. While developers have made some progress addressing...

  17. Air-Powered Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Charley; Raynovic, Jim

    This document describes methods for designing and building two types of rockets--rockets from paper and rockets from bottles. Devices used for measuring the heights that the rockets obtain are also discussed. (KHR)

  18. Reusability Framework for Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukhpal; Singh, Rishideep

    2012-01-01

    Cloud based development is a challenging task for several software engineering projects, especially for those which needs development with reusability. Present time of cloud computing is allowing new professional models for using the software development. The expected upcoming trend of computing is assumed to be this cloud computing because of speed of application deployment, shorter time to market, and lower cost of operation. Until Cloud Co mputing Reusability Model is considered a fundamen...

  19. High-speed schlieren imaging of rocket exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coultas-McKenney, Caralyn; Winter, Kyle; Hargather, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Experiments are conducted to examine the exhaust of a variety of rocket engines. The rocket engines are mounted in a schlieren system to allow high-speed imaging of the engine exhaust during startup, steady state, and shutdown. A variety of rocket engines are explored including a research-scale liquid rocket engine, consumer/amateur solid rocket motors, and water bottle rockets. Comparisons of the exhaust characteristics, thrust and cost for this range of rockets is presented. The variety of nozzle designs, target functions, and propellant type provides unique variations in the schlieren imaging.

  20. Tribo-characteristics of self-lubricating ball bearings for the LE-7 liquid hydrogen rocket-turbopump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, Masataka; Oike, Mamoru; Kikuchi, Masataka; Kamijo, Kenjiro; Tajiri, Masanori

    1993-07-01

    The tribo characteristics of self-lubricating 40-mm-bore ball bearings with a retainer of glass cloth-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) laminate, which has elliptical pockets with a large pocket clearance, were tested under thrust loads at speeds up to 50,000 rpm, 2 million DN, in liquid hydrogen (LH2) and in liquid nitrogen (LN2). During testing, the bearing torque, outer-race temperature, and electric resistance between the inner and outer races were monitored to verify the formation and rupture of a PTFE transfer film. Testing showed that the bearings having the elliptical retainer pockets were superior to the conventional bearings with circular pockets. It was determined that, at the maximum inner race spinning velocity of about 5 m/s, a PTFE transfer film could sustain the maximum Hertz stress, up to about 2000 N/sq mm, in LH2, without severe film rupture resulting in bearing seizure. In LN2, the critical load capacity of PTFE transfer film with bearing seizure was about 2700 N/sq mm.

  1. Improvements to the Whoosh Bottle Rocket Car Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Staiger, Felicia A.; Jujjavarapu, Chaitanya N.

    2015-01-01

    The whoosh bottle rocket car has been redesigned to be more reusable and more robust, making it even easier to use as a demonstration. Enhancements of this demonstration, including the use of heat sensitive ink and electronic temperature probes, enable users to find warmer and cooler regions on the surface of the whoosh bottle.

  2. Rocketing into the future the history and technology of rocket planes

    CERN Document Server

    van Pelt, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Rocketing into the Future journeys into the exciting world of rocket planes, examining the exotic concepts and actual flying vehicles that have been devised over the last one hundred years. Lavishly illustrated with over 150 photographs, it recounts the history of rocket planes from the early pioneers who attached simple rockets on to their wooden glider airplanes to the modern world of high-tech research vehicles. The book then looks at the possibilities for the future. The technological and economic challenges of the Space Shuttle proved insurmountable, and thus the program was unable to fulfill its promise of low-cost access to space. However, the burgeoning market of suborbital space tourism may yet give the necessary boost to the development of a truly reusable spaceplane.

  3. Natural Frequency Testing and Model Correlation of Rocket Engine Structures in Liquid Hydrogen - Phase I, Cantilever Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; DeLessio, Jennifer L.; Jacobs, Preston W.

    2018-01-01

    Many structures in the launch vehicle industry operate in liquid hydrogen (LH2), from the hydrogen fuel tanks through the ducts and valves and into the pump sides of the turbopumps. Calculating the structural dynamic response of these structures is critical for successful qualification of this hardware, but accurate knowledge of the natural frequencies is based entirely on numerical or analytical predictions of frequency reduction due to the added-fluid-mass effect because testing in LH2 has always been considered too difficult and dangerous. This fluid effect is predicted to be approximately 4-5% using analytical formulations for simple cantilever beams. As part of a comprehensive test/analysis program to more accurately assess pump inducers operating in LH2, a series of frequency tests in LH2 were performed at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's unique cryogenic test facility. These frequency tests are coupled with modal tests in air and water to provide critical information not only on the mass effect of LH2, but also the cryogenic temperature effect on Young's Modulus for which the data is not extensive. The authors are unaware of any other reported natural frequency testing in this media. In addition to the inducer, a simple cantilever beam was also tested in the tank to provide a more easily modeled geometry as well as one that has an analytical solution for the mass effect. This data will prove critical for accurate structural dynamic analysis of these structures, which operate in a highly-dynamic environment.

  4. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-11-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main

  5. Rocket Tablet,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-12

    not accustomed to Chinese food, he ran off directly to the home of the Mayor of Beijing and requested two Western cuisine cooks from a hotel. At the...played out by our Chinese sons and daughters of ancient times. The famous Han dynasty general Li Guang was quickly cured of disease and led an army...Union) of China. This place was about to become the birthplace of the Chinese people’s first rocket baby. Section One In this eternal wasteland called

  6. Analysis of Liquid Rocket Tankage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    pitting and essencially no attack of’ the base metal. The internal surfacees showed some shallow pitting and discoloration which 28 were less severe than...301 STAINLESS STEEL. spoIclus Cur FROM PARENT KETAL AND W=O JOINTS Oil A2IDE CRYOPORMNT OLTIATZ 0’ .% OFFSET TOS ILE YI AID 5 LOCATION"UNDOU S?1C1M N

  7. The Cost-Optimal Size of Future Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, D. E.

    2000-07-01

    The paper answers the question, what is the optimum vehicle size — in terms of LEO payload capability — for a future reusable launch vehicle ? It is shown that there exists an optimum vehicle size that results in minimum specific transportation cost. The optimum vehicle size depends on the total annual cargo mass (LEO equivalent) enviseaged, which defines at the same time the optimum number of launches per year (LpA). Based on the TRANSCOST-Model algorithms a wide range of vehicle sizes — from 20 to 100 Mg payload in LEO, as well as launch rates — from 2 to 100 per year — have been investigated. It is shown in a design chart how much the vehicle size as well as the launch rate are influencing the specific transportation cost (in MYr/Mg and USS/kg). The comparison with actual ELVs (Expendable Launch Vehicles) and Semi-Reusable Vehicles (a combination of a reusable first stage with an expendable second stage) shows that there exists only one economic solution for an essential reduction of space transportation cost: the Fully Reusable Vehicle Concept, with rocket propulsion and vertical take-off. The Single-stage Configuration (SSTO) has the best economic potential; its feasibility is not only a matter of technology level but also of the vehicle size as such. Increasing the vehicle size (launch mass) reduces the technology requirements because the law of scale provides a better mass fraction and payload fraction — practically at no cost. The optimum vehicle design (after specification of the payload capability) requires a trade-off between lightweight (and more expensive) technology vs. more conventional (and cheaper) technology. It is shown that the the use of more conventional technology and accepting a somewhat larger vehicle is the more cost-effective and less risky approach.

  8. SSTO rockets. A practical possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1994-07-01

    Most experts agree that single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rockets would become feasible if more advanced technologies were available to reduce the vehicle dry weight, increase propulsion system performance, or both. However, these technologies are usually judged to be very ambitious and very far off. This notion persists despite major advances in technology and vehicle design in the past decade. There appears to be four major misperceptions about SSTOs, regarding their mass fraction, their presumed inadequate performance margin, their supposedly small payloads, and their extreme sensitivity to unanticipated vehicle weight growth. These misperceptions can be dispelled for SSTO rockets using advanced technologies that could be matured and demonstrated in the near term. These include a graphite-composite primary structure, graphite-composite and Al-Li propellant tanks with integral reusable thermal protection, long-life tripropellant or LOX-hydrogen engines, and several technologies related to operational effectiveness, including vehicle health monitoring, autonomous avionics/flight control, and operable launch and ground handling systems.

  9. SSTO RLVs: More Global Reach? A Study of the Use of Single Stage to Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicles as Airlift Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Orbit ( SSTO ) Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) are currently under cooperative development by NASA, the Air Force, and the aerospace industry in the pursuit...exploit these rapid transit technologies to advance ’Global Reach for America.’ The SSTO RLV is a single stage rocket that will be completely reusable...investigated to assess the projected capabilities and costs of the SSTO system. This paper reviews the proposed capabilities of the SSTO system, discusses

  10. Measuring the Internal Environment of Solid Rocket Motors During Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Brent; Smith, Doug; Speas, Kyle; Corliss, Adam

    2003-01-01

    A new instrumentation system has been developed to measure the internal environment of solid rocket test motors during motor ignition. The system leverages conventional, analog gages with custom designed, electronics modules to provide safe, accurate, high speed data acquisition capability. To date, the instrumentation system has been demonstrated in a laboratory environment and on subscale static fire test motors ranging in size from 5-inches to 24-inches in diameter. Ultimately, this system is intended to be installed on a full-scale Reusable Solid Rocket Motor. This paper explains the need for the data, the components and capabilities of the system, and the test results.

  11. Reusable launch vehicle development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA has generated a program approach for a SSTO reusable launch vehicle technology (RLV) development which includes a follow-on to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) successful DC-X program, the DC-XA (Advanced). Also, a separate sub-scale flight demonstrator, designated the X-33, will be built and flight tested along with numerous ground based technologies programs. For this to be a successful effort, a balance between technical, schedule, and budgetary risks must be attained. The adoption of BMDO's 'fast track' management practices will be a key element in the eventual success of NASA's effort.

  12. Impact and mitigation of stratospheric ozone depletion by chemical rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, A.J.

    1992-03-01

    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) conducted a workshop in conjunction with the 1991 AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference in Sacramento, California, to assess the impact of chemical rocket propulsion on the environment. The workshop included recognized experts from the fields of atmospheric physics and chemistry, solid rocket propulsion, liquid rocket propulsion, government, and environmental agencies, and representatives from several responsible environmental organizations. The conclusion from this workshop relative to stratospheric ozone depletion was that neither solid nor liquid rocket launchers have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion, and that there is no real significant difference between the two

  13. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  14. Pressure-Equalizing Cradle for Booster Rocket Mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A launch system and method improve the launch efficiency of a booster rocket and payload. A launch aircraft atop which the booster rocket is mounted in a cradle, is flown or towed to an elevation at which the booster rocket is released. The cradle provides for reduced structural requirements for the booster rocket by including a compressible layer, that may be provided by a plurality of gas or liquid-filled flexible chambers. The compressible layer contacts the booster rocket along most of the length of the booster rocket to distribute applied pressure, nearly eliminating bending loads. Distributing the pressure eliminates point loading conditions and bending moments that would otherwise be generated in the booster rocket structure during carrying. The chambers may be balloons distributed in rows and columns within the cradle or cylindrical chambers extending along a length of the cradle. The cradle may include a manifold communicating gas between chambers.

  15. Formaldehyde in reusable protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, Ann

    2006-05-01

    Due to the clinical findings in a single patient's case, formaldehyde was suspected to be present in clinically relevant levels in reusable protective gloves. Therefore, 9 types of gloves were investigated with the semi-quantitative chromotropic acid method. It was found that 6/9 gloves emitted some formaldehyde and that 4/9 gloves emitted > or =40 microg of formaldehyde. Most of the formaldehyde was found on the inside of the gloves. To get an indication of the clinical relevance, a comparison with a protective cream declared to contain the formaldehyde-releasing agent diazolidinyl urea was performed by comparing areas of gloves with areas of cream layers with thickness 1-2 mg/cm(2). It was found that the amounts of formaldehyde emitted from the gloves might be in the same range as emitted from a layer of cream.

  16. History of Solid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  17. Developments in REDES: The Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) was developed at NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP; a nozzle design program named RAO; a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE; and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES was built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  18. Lockheed Martin approach to a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvin, John D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses Lockheed Martin's perspective on the development of a cost effective Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Critical to a successful Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) program are; an economic development plan sensitive to fiscal constraints; a vehicle concept satisfying present and future US launch needs; and an operations concept commensurate with a market driven program. Participation in the economic plan by government, industry, and the commercial sector is a key element of integrating our development plan and funding profile. The RLV baseline concept design, development evolution and several critical trade studies illustrate the superior performance achieved by our innovative approach to the problem of SSTO. Findings from initial aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic wind tunnel tests and trajectory analyses on this concept confirm the superior characteristics of the lifting body shape combined with the Linear Aerospike rocket engine. This Aero Ballistic Rocket (ABR) concept captures the essence of The Skunk Works approach to SSTO RLV technology integration and system engineering. These programmatic and concept development topics chronicle the key elements to implementing an innovative market driven next generation RLV.

  19. Reusable Orbit Transfer Vehicle Propulsion Technology Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perkins, Dave

    1998-01-01

    .... ROTV propulsion technologies to consider chemical rockets have limited mission capture, solar thermal rockets capture most missions but LH2 issues, and electric has highest PL without volume constraint...

  20. The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket: a stable LTD platform 30 seconds after rocket motor burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.S.; Almy, R.; Apodaca, E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.; McCammon, D.; Stahle, C.K.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Sanders, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket experiment is designed to provide a stable thermal environment for an LTD detector system within 30 s of the burnout of its second stage rocket motor. The detector system used for this instrument is a 36-pixel microcalorimeter array operated at 60 mK with a single-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR is mounted on a space-pumped liquid helium tank with vapor cooled shields which is vibration isolated from the rocket structure. We present here some of the design and performance details of this mature LTD instrument, which has just completed its third suborbital flight

  1. The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket: a stable LTD platform 30 seconds after rocket motor burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, F.S. E-mail: frederick.s.porter@gsfc.nasa.gov; Almy, R.; Apodaca, E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Kelley, R.; McCammon, D.; Stahle, C.K.; Szymkowiak, A.E.; Sanders, W.T

    2000-04-07

    The XQC microcalorimeter sounding rocket experiment is designed to provide a stable thermal environment for an LTD detector system within 30 s of the burnout of its second stage rocket motor. The detector system used for this instrument is a 36-pixel microcalorimeter array operated at 60 mK with a single-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR is mounted on a space-pumped liquid helium tank with vapor cooled shields which is vibration isolated from the rocket structure. We present here some of the design and performance details of this mature LTD instrument, which has just completed its third suborbital flight.

  2. Reusable tamper-indicating security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A reusable tamper-indicating mechanical security seal for use in safeguarding nuclear material has been developed. The high-security seal displays an unpredictable, randomly selected, five-digit code each time it is used. This five digit code serves the same purpose that the serial number does for conventional non-reusable seals - a unique identifier for each use or application. The newly developed reusable seal is completely enclosed within a seamless, tamper-indicating, plastic jacket. The jacket is designed to reveal any attempts to penetrate, section or to chemically remove and replace with a counterfeit for surreptitious purposes

  3. On use of hybrid rocket propulsion for suborbital vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okninski, Adam

    2018-04-01

    While the majority of operating suborbital rockets use solid rocket propulsion, recent advancements in the field of hybrid rocket motors lead to renewed interest in their use in sounding rockets. This paper presents results of optimisation of sounding rockets using hybrid propulsion. An overview of vehicles under development during the last decade, as well as heritage systems is provided. Different propellant combinations are discussed and their performance assessment is given. While Liquid Oxygen, Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Acid have been widely tested with various solid fuels in flight, Hydrogen Peroxide remains an oxidiser with very limited sounding rocket applications. The benefits of hybrid propulsion for sounding rockets are given. In case of hybrid rocket motors the thrust curve can be optimised for each flight, using a flow regulator, depending on the payload and mission. Results of studies concerning the optimal burn duration and nozzle selection are given. Specific considerations are provided for the Polish ILR-33 "Amber" sounding rocket. Low regression rates, which up to date were viewed as a drawback of hybrid propulsion may be used to the benefit of maximising rocket performance if small solid rocket boosters are used during the initial flight period. While increased interest in hybrid propulsion is present, no up-to-date reference concerning use of hybrid rocket propulsion for sounding rockets is available. The ultimate goal of the paper is to provide insight into the sensitivity of different design parameters on performance of hybrid sounding rockets and delve into the potential and challenges of using hybrid rocket technology for expendable suborbital applications.

  4. Functionalized dicationic ionic liquids: Green and efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have the advantages of liquid and solid phase together.11. Task-specific ionic liquids ... more attention as alternative reaction media in green chemistry than conventional ..... The reaction mixture was divided into two. Figure 3. Reusability of ...

  5. Development of nuclear rocket engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission, the USAF, and NASA (later on) in the area of nuclear rocket propulsion is discussed. It was found that a graphite reactor, loaded with highly concentrated Uranium 235, can be used to heat high pressure liquid hydrogen to temperatures of about 4500 R, and to expand the hydrogen through a high expansion ratio rocket nozzle assembly. The results of 20 reactor tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site between July 1959 and June 1969 are analyzed. On the basis of these results, the feasibility of solid graphite reactor/nuclear rocket engines is revealed. It is maintained that this technology will support future space propulsion requirements, using liquid hydrogen as the propellant, for thrust requirements ranging from 25,000 lbs to 250,000 lbs, with vacuum specific impulses of at least 850 sec and with full engine throttle capability. 12 refs

  6. A Concept of Two-Stage-To-Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Xiaojun; Tang, Yihua

    2002-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) has a capability of delivering a wide rang of payload to earth orbit with greater reliability, lower cost, more flexibility and operability than any of today's launch vehicles. It is the goal of future space transportation systems. Past experience on single stage to orbit (SSTO) RLVs, such as NASA's NASP project, which aims at developing an rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) airplane and X-33, which aims at developing a rocket RLV, indicates that SSTO RLV can not be realized in the next few years based on the state-of-the-art technologies. This paper presents a concept of all rocket two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) reusable launch vehicle. The TSTO RLV comprises an orbiter and a booster stage. The orbiter is mounted on the top of the booster stage. The TSTO RLV takes off vertically. At the altitude about 50km the booster stage is separated from the orbiter, returns and lands by parachutes and airbags, or lands horizontally by means of its own propulsion system. The orbiter continues its ascent flight and delivers the payload into LEO orbit. After completing orbit mission, the orbiter will reenter into the atmosphere, automatically fly to the ground base and finally horizontally land on the runway. TSTO RLV has less technology difficulties and risk than SSTO, and maybe the practical approach to the RLV in the near future.

  7. Reusable coordinator modules for massively concurrent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arbab (Farhad); C.L. Blom (Kees); F.J. Burger (Freek); C.T.H. Everaars (Kees)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractIsolating computation and communication concerns into separate pure computation and pure coordination modules enhances modularity, understandability and reusability of parallel and/or distributed software. MANIFOLD is a pure coordination language that encourages this separation. We use

  8. Eddie Rocket's Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Vahter, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Eddie Rocket's Franchise - Setting up a franchise restaurant in Helsinki. TIIVISTELMÄ: Eddie Rocket's on menestynyt amerikkalaistyylinen 1950-luvun ”diner” franchiseravintolaketju Irlannista. Ravintoloita on perustettu viimeisen 18 vuoden aikana 28 kappaletta Irlantiin ja Isoon Britanniaan sekä yksi Espanjaan. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus on tutkia onko Eddie Rocket'silla potentiaalia menestyä Helsingissä, Suomessa. Tutkimuskysymystä on lähestytty toimiala-analyysin, markkinatutkimuksen j...

  9. A new facility for advanced rocket propulsion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeckler, Joseph G.; Green, James M.; Raitano, Paul

    1993-06-01

    A new test facility was constructed at the NASA Lewis Research Center Rocket Laboratory for the purpose of conducting rocket propulsion research at up to 8.9 kN (2000 lbf) thrust, using liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A laser room adjacent to the test cell provides access to the rocket engine for advanced laser diagnostic systems. The size and location of the test cell provide the ability to conduct large amounts of testing in short time periods, with rapid turnover between programs. These capabilities make the new test facility an important asset for basic and applied rocket propulsion research.

  10. Manufacturing Advanced Channel Wall Rocket Liners, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR will adapt and demonstrate a low cost flexible method of manufacturing channel wall liquid rocket nozzles and combustors, while providing developers a...

  11. LOX/Methane Regeneratively-Cooled Rocket Engine Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to advance the technologies required to build a subcritical regeneratively cooled liquid oxygen/methane rocket combustion chamber for...

  12. Reusable, tamper-indicating seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A reusable, tamper-indicating seal is comprised of a drum confined within a fixed body and rotatable in one direction therewithin, the top of the drum constituting a tray carrying a large number of small balls of several different colors. The fixed body contains parallel holes for looping a seal wire therethrough. The base of the drums carries cams adapted to coact with cam followers to lock the wire within the seal at one angular position of the drum. A channel in the fixed body, visible from outside the seal, adjacent the tray constitutes a segregated location for a small plurality of the colored balls. A spring in the tray forces colored balls into the segregated location at one angular position of the drum, further rotation securing the balls in position and the wires in the seal. A wedge-shaped plough removes the balls from the segregated location, at a different angular position of the drum, the wire being unlocked at the same postion. A new pattern of colored balls will appear in the segregated location when the seal is relocked

  13. The flight of uncontrolled rockets

    CERN Document Server

    Gantmakher, F R; Dryden, H L

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Aeronautics and Astronautics, Division VII, Volume 5: The Flight of Uncontrolled Rockets focuses on external ballistics of uncontrolled rockets. The book first discusses the equations of motion of rockets. The rocket as a system of changing composition; application of solidification principle to rockets; rotational motion of rockets; and equations of motion of the center of mass of rockets are described. The text looks at the calculation of trajectory of rockets and the fundamentals of rocket dispersion. The selection further focuses on the dispersion of f

  14. Not just rocket science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAdam, S.; Anderson, R. [Celan Energy Systems, Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The paper explains a different take on oxyfuel combustion. Clean Energy Systems (CES) has integrated aerospace technology into conventional power systems, creating a zero-emission power generation technology that has some advantages over other similar approaches. When using coal as a feedstock, the CES process burns syngas rather than raw coal. The process uses recycled water and steam to moderate the temperature, instead of recycled CO{sub 2}. With no air ingress, the CES process produces very pure CO{sub 2}. This makes it possible to capture over 99% of the CO{sub 2} resulting from combustion. CES uses the combustion products to drive the turbines, rather than indirectly raising steam for steam turbines, as in the oxyfuel process used by companies such as Vattenfall. The core of the process is a high-pressure oxy-combustor adapted from rocket engine technology. This combustor burns gaseous or liquid fuels with gaseous oxygen in the presence of water. Fuels include natural gas, coal or coke-derived synthesis gas, landfill and biodigester gases, glycerine solutions and oil/water emulsion. 2 figs.

  15. Operational Issues in the Development of a Cost-Effective Reusable LOX/LH2 Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI) was initiated in early 2001 to conduct technology development and to reduce the business and technical risk associated with developing the next-generation reusable launch system. In the field of main propulsion, two LOXLH2 rocket engine systems, the Pratt & Whitney / Aerojet Joint Venture (JV) COBRA and the Rocketdyne RS-83, were funded to develop a safe, economical, and reusable propulsion system. Given that a large-thrust reusable rocket engine program had not been started in the U.S. since 1971, with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), this provided an opportunity to build on the experience developed on the SSME system, while exploiting advances in technology that had occurred in the intervening 30 years. One facet of engine development that was identified as being especially vital in order to produce an optimal system was in the areas of operability and maintainability. In order to achieve the high levels of performance required by the Space Shuttle, the SSME system is highly complex with very tight tolerances and detailed requirements. Over the lifetime of the SSME program, the engine has required a high level of manpower to support the performance of inspections, maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) and operations (prelaunch and post-flight). As a consequence, the labor- intensive needs of the SSME provide a significant impact to the overall cost efficiency of the Space Transportation System (STS). One of the strategic goals of the SLI is to reduce cost by requiring the engine(s) to be easier (Le. less expensive) to operate and maintain. The most effective means of accomplishing this goal is to infuse the operability and maintainability features into the engine design from the start. This paper discusses some of the operational issues relevant to a reusable LOx/LH2 main engine, and the means by which their impact is mitigated in the design phase.

  16. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  17. Performance and technical feasibility comparison of reusable launch systems: A synthesis of the ESA winged launcher studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W.; Grallert, H.

    1996-02-01

    The paper presents a synthesis of the performance and technical feasibility assessment of 7 reusable launcher types, comprising 13 different vehicles, studied by European Industry for ESA in the ESA Winged Launcher Study in the period January 1988 to May 1994. The vehicles comprised single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) and two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicles, propelled by either air-breathing/rocket propulsion or entirely by rocket propulsion. The results showed that an SSTO vehicle of the HOTOL-type, propelled by subsonic combustion air-breathing/rocket engines could barely deliver the specified payload mass and was aerodynamically unstable; that a TSTO vehicle of the Saenger type, employing subsonic combustion airbreathing propulsion in its first stage and rocket propulsion in its second stage, could readily deliver the specified payload mass and was found to be technically feasible and versatile; that an SSTO vehicle of the NASP type, propelled by supersonic combustion airbreathing/rocket propulsion was able to deliver a reduced payload mass, was very complex and required very advanced technologies; that an air-launched rocket propelled vehicle of the Interim HOTOL type, although technically feasible, could deliver only a reduced payload mass, being constrained by the lifting capability of the carrier airplane; that three different, entirely rocket-propelled vehicles could deliver the specified payload mass, were technically feasible but required relatively advanced technologies.

  18. A Comparison of Propulsion Concepts for SSTO Reusable Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvill, R.; Bond, A.

    This paper discusses the relevant selection criteria for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion system and then reviews the characteristics of the typical engine types proposed for this role against these criteria. The engine types considered include Hydrogen/Oxygen (H2/O2) rockets, Scramjets, Turbojets, Turborockets and Liquid Air Cycle Engines. In the authors opinion none of the above engines are able to meet all the necessary criteria for an SSTO propulsion system simultaneously. However by selecting appropriate features from each it is possible to synthesise a new class of engines which are specifically optimised for the SSTO role. The resulting engines employ precooling of the airstream and a high internal pressure ratio to enable a relatively conventional high pressure rocket combustion chamber to be utilised in both airbreathing and rocket modes. This results in a significant mass saving with installation advantages which by careful design of the cycle thermodynamics enables the full potential of airbreathing to be realised. The SABRE engine which powers the SKYLON launch vehicle is an example of one of these so called `Precooled hybrid airbreathing rocket engines' and the concep- tual reasoning which leads to its main design parameters are described in the paper.

  19. South Pole rockets, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Iwane

    1977-01-01

    Wave-particle interaction was observed, using three rockets, S-210 JA-20, -21 and S-310 JA-2, launched from the South Pole into aurora. Electron density and temperature were measured with these rockets. Simultaneous observations of waves were also made from a satellite (ISIS-II) and at two ground bases (Showa base and Mizuho base). Observed data are presented in this paper. These include electron density and temperature in relation to altitude; variation of electron (60 - 80 keV) count rate with altitude; VLF spectra measured by the PWL of S-210 JA-20 and -21 rockets and the corresponding VLF spectra at the ground bases; low-energy (<10 keV) electron flux measured by S-310 JA-2 rocket; and VLF spectrum measured with S-310 JA-2 rocket. Scheduled measurements for the next project are also briefly described. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Design considerations for a pressure-driven multi-stage rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Steven Craig

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using propellant tank pressurization to eliminate the use of high-pressure turbopumps in multi-stage liquid-fueled satellite launchers. Several new technologies were examined to reduce the mass of such a rocket. Composite materials have a greater strength-to-weight ratio than metals and can be used to reduce the weight of rocket propellant tanks and structure. Catalytically combined hydrogen and oxygen can be used to heat pressurization gas, greatly reducing the amount of gas required. Ablatively cooled rocket engines can reduce the complexity and cost of the rocket. Methods were derived to estimate the mass of the various rocket components. These included a method to calculate the amount of gas needed to pressurize a propellant tank by modeling the behavior of the pressurization gas as the liquid propellant flows out of the tank. A way to estimate the mass and size of a ablatively cooled composite cased rocket engine. And a method to model the flight of such a rocket through the atmosphere in conjunction with optimization of the rockets trajectory. The results show that while a liquid propellant rocket using tank pressurization are larger than solid propellant rockets and turbopump driven liquid propellant rockets, they are not impractically large.

  1. Delayed reactions to reusable protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, Ann; Dubnika, Inese

    2009-04-01

    The materials in plastic protective gloves are thought to cause less contact allergy than rubber gloves. Our aim was to estimate the frequency of delayed reactions to different types of reusable protective gloves among dermatitis patients. 2 x 2 cm pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves, nitrile gloves, and natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves were tested as is in consecutive dermatitis patients tested with the baseline series. Among 658 patients, 6 patients reacted to PVC gloves and 6 patients to the NRL gloves. None reacted to both these types of gloves. Five of six patients with reactions to rubber gloves reacted to thiuram mix in the baseline series. Delayed reactions to reusable PVC gloves may be as common as to reusable NRL gloves. In contrast to most reactions to the NRL glove, the reactions to the PVC glove had no obvious association with reactions to any allergen(s) in the baseline series.

  2. Preparation, characterization and first application of aerosil silica supported acidic ionic liquid as a reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroquinazoline-4(1H)-ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassaghi, Ghazaleh; Davodnia, Abolghasem; Allameh, Sadegh; Zarebidaki, Atefeh; Tavakolihoseini, Niloofar [Islamic Azad Univ., Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    A new heterogeneous acidic catalyst was successfully prepared by impregnation of silica (Aerosil 300) by an acidic ionic liquid, named 1-(4-sulfonic acid)butyl pyridinium hydrogen sulfate [PYC{sub 4}SO{sub 3}H][HSO{sub 4}], and characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, the N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption analysis (BET), thermal analysis (TG/DTG), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The amount of loaded acidic ionic liquid on Aerosil 300 support was determined by acid-base titration. This new solid acidic supported heterogeneous catalyst exhibits excellent activity in the synthesis of 2-aryl-2,3-dihydroquinazoline-4(1H)-ones by cyclo condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzamide with aromatic aldehydes under solvent-free conditions and the desired products were obtained in very short reaction times with high yields. This catalyst has the advantages of an easy catalyst separation from the reaction medium and lower problems of corrosion. Recycling of the catalyst and avoidance of using harmful organic solvent are other advantages of this simple procedure.

  3. Reusable Agena study. Volume 2: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. K.; Piper, J. E.; Douglass, D. A.; Waller, E. W.; Hopkins, C. V.; Fitzgerald, E. T.; Sagawa, S. S.; Carter, S. A.; Jensen, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    The application of the existing Agena vehicle as a reusable upper stage for the space shuttle is discussed. The primary objective of the study is to define those changes to the Agena required for it to function in the reusable mode in the 100 percent capture of the NASA-DOD mission model. This 100 percent capture is achieved without use of kick motors or stages by simply increasing the Agena propellant load by using optional strap-on-tanks. The required shuttle support equipment, launch and flight operations techniques, development program, and cost package are also defined.

  4. DEPONTO: A Reusable Dependability Domain Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Sanislav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dependability reusable ontology for knowledge representation. The fundamental knowledge related to dependability follows its taxonomy. Thus, this paper gives an analysis of what is the dependability domain ontology andof its components.The dependability domain ontology plays an important role in ensuring the dependability of information systems by providing support for their diagnosis in case of faults, errors and failures.The proposed ontology is used as a dependability framework in two case study Cyber-Physical Systemswhich demonstrate its reusability within this category of systems.

  5. Russian aluminum-lithium alloys for advanced reusable spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, Ray O.; Leonard, Bruce G.; Bozich, William F.; Deamer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Cryotanks that are cost-affordable, robust, fuel-compatible, and lighter weight than current aluminum design are needed to support next-generation launch system performance and operability goals. The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-MDA) and NASA's Delta Clipper-Experimental Program (DC-XA) flight demonstrator test bed vehicle provided the opportunity for technology transfer of Russia's extensive experience base with weight-efficient, highly weldable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys for cryogenic tank usage. As part of NASA's overall reusable launch vehicle (RLV) program to help provide technology and operations data for use in advanced RLVs, MDA contracted with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS/IMASH) for design, test, and delivery of 1460 Al-Li alloy liquid oxygen (LO 2 ) cryotanks: one for development, one for ground tests, and one for DC-XA flight tests. This paper describes the development of Al-Li 1460 alloy for reusable LO 2 tanks, including alloy composition tailoring, mechanical properties database, forming, welding, chemical milling, dissimilar metal joining, corrosion protection, completed tanks proof, and qualification testing. Mechanical properties of the parent and welded materials exceeded expectations, particularly the fracture toughness, which promise excellent reuse potential. The LO 2 cryotank was successfully demonstrated in DC-XA flight tests

  6. Liquid Oxygen Rotating Friction Ignition Testing of Aluminum and Titanium with Monel and Inconel for Rocket Engine Propulsion System Contamination Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, S.; Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    Metallic contaminant was found in the liquid oxygen (LOX) pre-valve screen of the shuttle main engine propulsion system on two orbiter vehicles. To investigate the potential for an ignition, NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility performed (modified) rotating friction ignition testing in LOX. This testing simulated a contaminant particle in the low-pressure oxygen turbo pump (LPOTP) and the high-pressure oxygen turbo pump (HPOTP) of the shuttle main propulsion system. Monel(R) K-500 and Inconel(R) 718 samples represented the LPOTP and HPOTP materials. Aluminum foil tape and titanium foil represented the contaminant particles. In both the Monel(R) and Inconel(R) material configurations, the aluminum foil tape samples did not ignite after 30 s of rubbing. In contrast, all of the titanium foil samples ignited regardless of the rubbing duration or material configuration. However, the titanium foil ignitions did not propagate to the Monel and Inconel materials.

  7. Another Look at Rocket Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Brooke; Burris, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Rocket propulsion is often introduced as an example of Newton's third law. The rocket exerts a force on the exhaust gas being ejected; the gas exerts an equal and opposite force--the thrust--on the rocket. Equivalently, in the absence of a net external force, the total momentum of the system, rocket plus ejected gas, remains constant. The law of…

  8. The History of Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the origins and development of rockets mainly from the perspective of warfare. Includes some early enthusiasts, such as Congreve, Tsiolkovosky, Goddard, and Oberth. Describes developments from World War II, and during satellite development. (YP)

  9. Global atmospheric response to emissions from a proposed reusable space launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik J. L.; Portmann, Robert W.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; Ross, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    Modern reusable launch vehicle technology may allow high flight rate space transportation at low cost. Emissions associated with a hydrogen fueled reusable rocket system are modeled based on the launch requirements of developing a space-based solar power system that generates present-day global electric energy demand. Flight rates from 104 to 106 per year are simulated and sustained to a quasisteady state. For the assumed rocket engine, H2O and NOX are the primary emission products; this also includes NOX produced during reentry heating. For a base case of 105 flights per year, global stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor increase by approximately 10 and 100%, respectively. As a result, high-latitude cloudiness increases in the lower stratosphere and near the mesopause by as much as 20%. Increased water vapor also results in global effective radiative forcing of about 0.03 W/m2. NOX produced during reentry exceeds meteoritic production by more than an order of magnitude, and along with in situ stratospheric emissions, results in a 0.5% loss of the globally averaged ozone column, with column losses in the polar regions exceeding 2%.

  10. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-01

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented

  11. Learning Objects, Repositories, Sharing and Reusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppi, Tony; Bogle, Lisa; Bogle, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The online Learning Resource Catalogue (LRC) Project has been part of an international consortium for several years and currently includes 25 institutions worldwide. The LRC Project has evolved for several pragmatic reasons into an academic network whereby members can identify and share reusable learning objects as well as collaborate in a number…

  12. Transforming existing content into reusable Learning Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorten, Monique; Giesbers, Bas; Janssen, José; Daniels, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Please cite as: Doorten, M., Giesbers, B., Janssen, J., Daniëls, J, & Koper, E.J.R., (2004). Transforming existing content into reusable learning objects. In R. McGreal, Online Education using Learning Objects (pp. 116-127). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

  13. Feasibility and Performance of the Microwave Thermal Rocket Launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Kevin L. G.; Culick, Fred E. C.

    2004-03-01

    Beamed-energy launch concepts employing a microwave thermal thruster are feasible in principle, and microwave sources of sufficient power to launch tons into LEO already exist. Microwave thermal thrusters operate on an analogous principle to nuclear thermal thrusters, which have experimentally demonstrated specific impulses exceeding 850 seconds. Assuming such performance, simple application of the rocket equation suggests that payload fractions of 10% are possible for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) microwave thermal rocket. We present an SSTO concept employing a scaled X-33 aeroshell. The flat aeroshell underside is covered by a thin-layer microwave absorbent heat-exchanger that forms part of the thruster. During ascent, the heat-exchanger faces the microwave beam. A simple ascent trajectory analysis incorporating X-33 aerodynamic data predicts a 10% payload fraction for a 1 ton craft of this type. In contrast, the Saturn V had 3 non-reusable stages and achieved a payload fraction of 4%.

  14. How Does Rocket Propulsion Work? The most common answer to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    internal combustion engines. The fuel or propellant is stored in the fuel tank. Here we will consider liquid hydrogen as the fuel. For the combustion to take place in outer space or in the absence of atmospheric oxygen the rocket carries along an oxidizer; here we will consider liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. The oxidizer or in.

  15. US Rocket Propulsion Industrial Base Health Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    The number of active liquid rocket engine and solid rocket motor development programs has severely declined since the "space race" of the 1950s and 1960s center dot This downward trend has been exacerbated by the retirement of the Space Shuttle, transition from the Constellation Program to the Space launch System (SLS) and similar activity in DoD programs center dot In addition with consolidation in the industry, the rocket propulsion industrial base is under stress. To Improve the "health" of the RPIB, we need to understand - The current condition of the RPIB - How this compares to past history - The trend of RPIB health center dot This drives the need for a concise set of "metrics" - Analogous to the basic data a physician uses to determine the state of health of his patients - Easy to measure and collect - The trend is often more useful than the actual data point - Can be used to focus on problem areas and develop preventative measures The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs. center dot The RPIB encompasses US government, academic, and commercial (including industry primes and their supplier base) research, development, test, evaluation, and manufacturing capabilities and facilities. center dot The RPIB includes the skilled workforce, related intellectual property, engineering and support services, and supply chain operations and management. This definition touches the five main segments of the U.S. RPIB as categorized by the USG: defense, intelligence community, civil government, academia, and commercial sector. The nation's capability to conceive, design, develop, manufacture, test, and support missions using liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors that are critical to its national security, economic health and growth, and future scientific needs

  16. Air Force Reusable Booster System: A Quick-look, Design Focused Modeling and Cost Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method and an initial analysis of the costs of a reusable booster system (RBS) as envisioned by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and numerous initiatives that form the concept of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS). This paper leverages the knowledge gained from decades of experience with the semi-reusable NASA Space Shuttle to understand how the costs of a military next generation semi-reusable space transport might behave in the real world - and how it might be made as affordable as desired. The NASA Space Shuttle had a semi-expendable booster, that being the reusable Solid Rocket MotorslBoosters (SRMlSRB) and the expendable cryogenic External Tank (ET), with a reusable cargo and crew capable orbiter. This paper will explore DoD concepts that invert this architectural arrangement, using a reusable booster plane that flies back to base soon after launch, with the in-space elements of the launch system being the expendable portions. Cost estimating in the earliest stages of any potential, large scale program has limited usefulness. As a result, the emphasis here is on developing an approach, a structure, and the basic concepts that could continue to be matured as the program gains knowledge. Where cost estimates are provided, these results by necessity carry many caveats and assumptions, and this analysis becomes more about ways in which drivers of costs for diverse scenarios can be better understood. The paper is informed throughout with a design-for-cost philosophy whereby the design and technology features of the proposed RBS (who and what, the "architecture") are taken as linked at the hip to a desire to perform a certain mission (where and when), and together these inform the cost, responsiveness, performance and sustainability (how) of the system. Concepts for developing, acquiring, producing or operating the system will be shown for their inextricable relationship to the "architecture" of the system, and how these too relate to costs

  17. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  18. Authoring Systems Delivering Reusable Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nicola Sammour

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A three layer e-learning course development model has been defined based on a conceptual model of learning content object. It starts by decomposing the learning content into small chunks which are initially placed in a hierarchic structure of units and blocks. The raw content components, being the atomic learning objects (ALO, were linked to the blocks and are structured in the database. We set forward a dynamic generation of LO's using re-usable e-learning raw materials or ALO’s In that view we need a LO authoring/ assembling system fitting the requirements of interoperability and reusability and starting from selecting the raw learning content from the learning materials content database. In practice authoring systems are used to develop e-learning courses. The company EDUWEST has developed an authoring system that is database based and will be SCORM compliant in the near future.

  19. Cryogenic rocket engine development at Delft aerospace rocket engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, J; Hermsen, R.; Huijsman, R; Akkermans, C.; Denies, L.; Barreiro, F.; Schutte, A.; Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current developments regarding cryogenic rocket engine technology at Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering (DARE). DARE is a student society based at Delft University of Technology with the goal of being the first student group in the world to launch a rocket into space. After

  20. Reusable fuel test assembly for the FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.; Dittmer, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    A fuel test assembly that provides re-irradiation capability after interim discharge and reconstitution of the test pin bundle has been developed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This test vehicle permits irradiation test data to be obtained at multiple exposures on a few select test pins without the substantial expense of fabricating individual test assemblies as would otherwise be required. A variety of test pin types can be loaded in the reusable test assembly. A reusable test vehicle for irradiation testing in the FFTF has long been desired, but a number of obstacles previously prevented the implementation of such an experimental rig. The MFF-8A test assembly employs a 169-pin bundle using HT-9 alloy for duct and cladding material. The standard driver pins in the fuel bundle are sodium-bonded metal fuel (U-10 wt% Zr). Thirty-seven positions in the bundle are replaceable pin positions. Standard MFF-8A driver pins can be loaded in any test pin location to fill the bundle if necessary. Application of the MFF-8A reusable test assembly in the FFTF constitutes a considerable cost-saving measure with regard to irradiation testing. Only a few well-characterized test pins need be fabricated to conduct a test program rather than constructing entire test assemblies

  1. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

  2. Scaled Rocket Testing in Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Carr, Zakary; Parker, Ron; Holden, Michael; Mehta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was strongly based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Detailed base heating results are outside of the scope of the current work, rather test methodology and techniques are presented along with broader applicability toward scaled rocket testing in supersonic and hypersonic flow.

  3. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  4. This Is Rocket Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical than that offered by Estes Industries, but more basic than the analysis of Nelson et al. In particular, drag is neglected until the very end of the exercise, which allows the concept of conservation of energy to be shown when predicting the rocket's flight. Also, the variable mass of the rocket motor is assumed to decrease linearly during the flight (while the propulsion charge and recovery delay charge are burning) and handled simplistically by using an average mass value. These changes greatly simplify the equations needed to predict the times and heights at various stages of flight, making it more useful as a review of basic physics. Details about model rocket motors, range safety, and other supplemental information may be found online at Apogee Components4 and the National Association of Rocketry.5

  5. The Relativistic Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antippa, Adel F.

    2009-01-01

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…

  6. This "Is" Rocket Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Wayne; Martin, Cynthia; Veltkamp, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Using model rockets to teach physics can be an effective way to engage students in learning. In this paper, we present a curriculum developed in response to an expressed need for helping high school students review physics equations in preparation for a state-mandated exam. This required a mode of teaching that was more advanced and analytical…

  7. ROCKETS: Soar to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Christine E. W.; O'Merle, Mary Jane; White, Gene

    2017-01-01

    This article describes ROCKETS, an after-school program for at-risk youth, and how the university students became involved in this service-learning project. The article discusses the steps that were taken to start the program, what is being done to continue the program, and the challenges that faculty have faced. This program is an authentic…

  8. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  9. Combustion Stability Innovations for Liquid Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-31

    properties. You can do this by doubte-clctung the left mouse button. If you wish to edit al the species, then click on the Do Al button. Note that the...34Experiments on the Instabilities of a Swirling Jet," Physics of Fluids, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan. 1994, pp 263-276. Cerecedo, L. M., Aisa , L., Garcia, J. A., and

  10. Hybrid rocket motor testing at Nammo Raufoss A/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønningen, Jan-Erik; Kubberud, Nils

    2005-08-01

    Hybrid rocket motor technology and the use of hybrid rockets have gained increased interest in recent years in many countries. A typical hybrid rocket consists of a tank containing the oxidizer in either liquid or gaseous state connected to the combustion chamber containing an injector, inert solid fuel grain and nozzle. Nammo Raufoss A/S has for almost 40 years designed and produced high-performance solid propellant rocket motors for many military missile systems as well as solid propellant rocket motors for civil space use. In 2003 an in-house technology program was initiated to investigate and study hybrid rocket technology. On 23 September 2004 the first in-house designed hybrid test rocket motor was static test fired at Nammo Raufoss Test Center. The oxidizer was gaseous oxygen contained in a tank pressurized to 10MPa, flow controlled through a sonic orifice into the combustion chamber containing a multi port radial injector and six bore cartridge-loaded fuel grain containing a modified HTPB fuel composition. The motor was ignited using a non-explosive heated wire. This paper will present what has been achieved at Nammo Raufoss since the start of the program.

  11. Propulsion requirements for reusable single-stage-to-orbit rocket vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Engelund, Walter C.; Lepsch, Roger

    1994-05-01

    The conceptual design of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle using a wide variety of evolutionary technologies has recently been completed as a part of NASA's Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study. The employment of new propulsion system technologies is critical to the design of a reasonably sized, operationally efficient SSTO vehicle. This paper presents the propulsion system requirements identified for this near-term AMLS SSTO vehicle. Sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in specific impulse and sea-level thrust-to-weight ratio are examined. The results of a variety of vehicle/propulsion system trades performed on the near-term AMLS SSTO vehicle are also presented.

  12. The relativistic rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.

  13. Reusable launch vehicle facts and fantasies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marshall H.

    2002-01-01

    Many people refuse to address many of the realities of reusable launch vehicle systems, technologies, operations and economics. Basic principles of physics, space flight operations, and business limitations are applied to the creation of a practical vision of future expectations. While reusable launcher concepts have been proposed for several decades, serious review of potential designs began in the mid-1990s, when NASA decided that a Space Shuttle replacement had to be pursued. A great deal of excitement and interest was quickly generated by the prospect of ``orders-of-magnitude'' reduction in launch costs. The potential for a vastly expanded space program motivated the entire space community. By the late-1990s, and after over one billion dollars were spent on the technology development and privately-funded concepts, it had become clear that there would be no new, near-term operational reusable vehicle. Many factors contributed to a very expensive and disappointing effort to create a new generation of launch vehicles. It began with overly optimistic projections of technology advancements and the belief that a greatly increased demand for satellite launches would be realized early in the 21st century. Contractors contributed to the perception of quickly reachable technology and business goals, thus, accelerating the enthusiasm and helping to create a ``gold rush'' euphoria. Cost, schedule and performance margins were all highly optimistic. Several entrepreneurs launched start up companies to take advantage of the excitement and the availability of investor capital. Millions were raised from private investors and venture capitalists, based on little more than flashy presentations and animations. Well over $500 million were raised by little-known start up groups to create reusable systems, which might complete for the coming market in launch services. By 1999, it was clear that market projections, made just two years earlier, were not going to be realized. Investors

  14. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket

  15. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  16. MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.

  17. A design for a reusable water-based spacecraft known as the spacecoach

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Brian

    2016-01-01

     Based on components already in existence, this manual details a reference design for an interplanetary spacecraft that is simple, durable, fully reusable and comprised mostly of water. Using such an accessible material leads to a spacecraft architecture that is radically simpler, safer and cheaper than conventional capsule based designs. If developed, the potential affordability of the design will substantially open all of the inner solar system to human exploration. A spacecraft that is comprised mostly of water will be much more like a living cell or a terrarium than a conventional rocket and capsule design. It will use water for many purposes before it is superheated in electric engines for propulsion, purposes which include radiation shielding, heat management, basic life support, crew consumption and comfort. The authors coined the term "spacecoaches" to describe them, as an allusion to the Prairie Schooners of the Old West, which were simple, rugged, and could live off the land.

  18. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    1998-01-01

    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  19. Methodology for Evaluating Quality and Reusability of Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Bireniene, Virginija; Serikoviene, Silvija

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the scientific model and several methods for the expert evaluation of quality of learning objects (LOs) paying especial attention to LOs reusability level. The activities of eQNet Quality Network for a European Learning Resource Exchange (LRE) aimed to improve reusability of LOs of European Schoolnet's LRE…

  20. Soil remediation in the areas affected by space-rocket industry activities in the Central Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study has been carried out to demonstrate that the modified carbon-mineral sorbents based on the schungite material can be effectively used for decontamination of soil polluted by liquid rocket fuel components and its decomposition products.

  1. Analysis of supercritical methane in rocket engine cooling channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denies, L.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.; Natale, P.; Ricci, D.; Invigorito, M.

    2016-01-01

    Methane is a promising propellant for liquid rocket engines. As a regenerative coolant, it would be close to its critical point, complicating cooling analysis. This study encompasses the development and validation of a new, open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for analysis of

  2. Rocket + Science = Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris,Bruce; Sullivan, Greg; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    It's a cliche that rocket engineers and space scientists don t see eye-to-eye. That goes double for rocket engineers working on human spaceflight and scientists working on space telescopes and planetary probes. They work fundamentally different problems but often feel that they are competing for the same pot of money. Put the two groups together for a weekend, and the results could be unscientific or perhaps combustible. Fortunately, that wasn't the case when NASA put heavy lift launch vehicle designers together with astronomers and planetary scientists for two weekend workshops in 2008. The goal was to bring the top people from both groups together to see how the mass and volume capabilities of NASA's Ares V heavy lift launch vehicle could benefit the science community. Ares V is part of NASA's Constellation Program for resuming human exploration beyond low Earth orbit, starting with missions to the Moon. In the current mission scenario, Ares V launches a lunar lander into Earth orbit. A smaller Ares I rocket launches the Orion crew vehicle with up to four astronauts. Orion docks with the lander, attached to the Ares V Earth departure stage. The stage fires its engine to send the mated spacecraft to the Moon. Standing 360 feet high and weighing 7.4 million pounds, NASA's new heavy lifter will be bigger than the 1960s-era Saturn V. It can launch almost 60 percent more payload to translunar insertion together with the Ares I and 35 percent more mass to low Earth orbit than the Saturn V. This super-sized capability is, in short, designed to send more people to more places to do more things than the six Apollo missions.

  3. Rocket Assembly and Checkout Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Integrates, tests, and calibrates scientific instruments flown on sounding rocket payloads. The scientific instruments are assembled on an optical bench;...

  4. X-ray Radiography Measurements of Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    Shear coaxial jets can be found in a number of combustion devices – Turbofan engine exhaust , air blast furnaces, and liquid rocket engines ...water and gaseous nitro-gen as propellant simulants at atmospheric backpressure , the effect of momentum flux ratio and mass flux ratio, are...the effect of momentum flux ratio, mass flux ratio and post thickness on the liquid mass distribution – Use quantitative centerline profiles to

  5. Nuclear rocket propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Miller, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has initiated planning for a technology development project for nuclear rocket propulsion systems for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) human and robotic missions to the Moon and to Mars. An Interagency project is underway that includes the Department of Energy National Laboratories for nuclear technology development. This paper summarizes the activities of the project planning team in FY 1990 and FY 1991, discusses the progress to date, and reviews the project plan. Critical technology issues have been identified and include: nuclear fuel temperature, life, and reliability; nuclear system ground test; safety; autonomous system operation and health monitoring; minimum mass and high specific impulse

  6. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  7. The rationale/benefits of nuclear thermal rocket propulsion for NASA's lunar space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-09-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  8. Rhenium Rocket Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's On-Board Propulsion Branch has a research and technology program to develop high-temperature (2200 C), iridium-coated rhenium rocket chamber materials for radiation-cooled rockets in satellite propulsion systems. Although successful material demonstrations have gained much industry interest, acceptance of the technology has been hindered by a lack of demonstrated joining technologies and a sparse materials property data base. To alleviate these concerns, we fabricated rhenium to C-103 alloy joints by three methods: explosive bonding, diffusion bonding, and brazing. The joints were tested by simulating their incorporation into a structure by welding and by simulating high-temperature operation. Test results show that the shear strength of the joints degrades with welding and elevated temperature operation but that it is adequate for the application. Rhenium is known to form brittle intermetallics with a number of elements, and this phenomena is suspected to cause the strength degradation. Further bonding tests with a tantalum diffusion barrier between the rhenium and C-103 is planned to prevent the formation of brittle intermetallics.

  9. Liquid Nitrogen Removal of Critical Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Donald E.; Merrick, Jason; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of innovative solutions to unique materials problems is an every-day quest for members of the aerospace community. Finding a technique that will minimize costs, maximize throughput, and generate quality results is always the target. United Space Alliance Materials Engineers recently conducted such a search in their drive to return the Space Shuttle fleet to operational status. The removal of high performance thermal coatings from solid rocket motors represents a formidable task during post flight disassembly on reusable expended hardware. The removal of these coatings from unfired motors increases the complexity and safety requirements while reducing the available facilities and approved processes. A temporary solution to this problem was identified, tested and approved during the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) return to flight activities. Utilization of ultra high-pressure liquid nitrogen (LN2) to strip the protective coating from assembled space shuttle hardware marked the first such use of the technology in the aerospace industry. This process provides a configurable stream of liquid nitrogen (LN2) at pressures of up to 55,000 psig. The performance of a one-time certification for the removal of thermal ablatives from SRB hardware involved extensive testing to ensure adequate material removal without causing undesirable damage to the residual materials or aluminum substrates. Testing to establish appropriate process parameters such as flow, temperature and pressures of the liquid nitrogen stream provided an initial benchmark for process testing. Equipped with these initial parameters engineers were then able to establish more detailed test criteria that set the process limits. Quantifying the potential for aluminum hardware damage represented the greatest hurdle for satisfying engineers as to the safety of this process. Extensive testing for aluminum erosion, surface profiling, and substrate weight loss was performed. This successful project clearly

  10. Micro-Rockets for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Jay S.; Fletcher, Alice S.; Cato, Julia A.; Barrett, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Compares micro-rockets to commercial models and water rockets. Finds that micro-rockets are more advantageous because they are constructed with inexpensive and readily available materials and can be safely launched indoors. (CCM)

  11. Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Daniel; Ou, Runqing; Karcz, Adam; Skandan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Composite cryotanks, or composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), offer advantages over currently used aluminum-lithium cryotanks, particularly with respect to weight savings. Future NASA missions are expected to use COPVs in spaceflight propellant tanks to store fuels, oxidizers, and other liquids for launch and space exploration vehicles. However, reliability, reparability, and reusability of the COPVs are still being addressed, especially in cryogenic temperature applications; this has limited the adoption of COPVs in reusable vehicle designs. The major problem with composites is the inherent brittleness of the epoxy matrix, which is prone to microcrack formation, either from exposure to cryogenic conditions or from impact from different sources. If not prevented, the microcracks increase gas permeation and leakage. Accordingly, materials innovations are needed to mitigate microcrack damage, and prevent damage in the first place, in composite cryotanks. The self-healing technology being developed is capable of healing the microcracks through the use of a novel engineered nanocomposite, where a uniquely designed nanoparticle additive is incorporated into the epoxy matrix. In particular, this results in an enhancement in the burst pressure after cryogenic cycling of the nanocomposite COPVs, relative to the control COPVs. Incorporating a novel, self-healing, epoxy-based resin into the manufacture of COPVs allows repeatable self-healing of microcracks to be performed through the simple application of a low-temperature heat source. This permits COPVs to be reparable and reusable with a high degree of reliability, as microcracks will be remediated. The unique phase-separated morphology that was imparted during COPV manufacture allows for multiple self-healing cycles. Unlike single-target approaches where one material property is often improved at the expense of another, robustness has been introduced to a COPV by a combination of a modified resin and

  12. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, F.; Chassay, R.

    1976-12-01

    The experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of nine scientific experiments conducted during the first Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight are summarized. The nine individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic, feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams, characterization of rocket vibration environment by measurement of mixing of two liquids, uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, direct observation of solidification as a function of gravity levels, casting thoria dispersion-strengthened interfaces, contained polycrystalline solidification, and preparation of a special alloy for manufacturing of magnetic hard superconductor under zero-g environment

  13. Experimental investigation of solid rocket motors for small sounding rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksila, Thada

    2018-01-01

    Experimentation and research of solid rocket motors are important subjects for aerospace engineering students. However, many institutes in Thailand rarely include experiments on solid rocket motors in research projects of aerospace engineering students, mainly because of the complexity of mixing the explosive propellants. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a solid rocket motor for total impulse in the class I-J that can be utilised as a small sounding rocket by researchers in the near future. Initially, the test stands intended for measuring the pressure in the combustion chamber and the thrust of the solid rocket motor were designed and constructed. The basic design of the propellant configuration was evaluated. Several formulas and ratios of solid propellants were compared for achieving the maximum thrust. The convenience of manufacturing and casting of the fabricated solid rocket motors were a critical consideration. The motor structural analysis such as the combustion chamber wall thickness was also discussed. Several types of nozzles were compared and evaluated for ensuring the maximum thrust of the solid rocket motors during the experiments. The theory of heat transfer analysis in the combustion chamber was discussed and compared with the experimental data.

  14. Modal Survey of ETM-3, A 5-Segment Derivative of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, D.; Townsend, J.; Kappus, K.; Driskill, T.; Torres, I.; Parks, R.

    2005-01-01

    The complex interactions between internal motor generated pressure oscillations and motor structural vibration modes associated with the static test configuration of a Reusable Solid Rocket Motor have potential to generate significant dynamic thrust loads in the 5-segment configuration (Engineering Test Motor 3). Finite element model load predictions for worst-case conditions were generated based on extrapolation of a previously correlated 4-segment motor model. A modal survey was performed on the largest rocket motor to date, Engineering Test Motor #3 (ETM-3), to provide data for finite element model correlation and validation of model generated design loads. The modal survey preparation included pretest analyses to determine an efficient analysis set selection using the Effective Independence Method and test simulations to assure critical test stand component loads did not exceed design limits. Historical Reusable Solid Rocket Motor modal testing, ETM-3 test analysis model development and pre-test loads analyses, as well as test execution, and a comparison of results to pre-test predictions are discussed.

  15. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  16. Conceptual Design of an APT Reusable Spaceplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpino, S.; Viola, N.

    This paper concerns the conceptual design of an Aerial Propellant Transfer reusable spaceplane carried out during our PhD course under the supervision of prof. Chiesa. The new conceptual design methodology employed in order to develop the APT concept and the main characteristics of the spaceplane itself will be presented and discussed. The methodology for conceptual design has been worked out during the last three years. It was originally thought for atmospheric vehicle design but, thanks to its modular structure which makes it very flexible, it has been possible to convert it to space transportation systems design by adding and/or modifying a few modules. One of the major improvements has been for example the conception and development of the mission simulation and trajectory optimisation module. The methodology includes as main characteristics and innovations the latest techniques of geometric modelling and logistic, operational and cost aspects since the first stages of the project. Computer aided design techniques are used to obtain a better definition of the product at the end of the conceptual design phase and virtual reality concepts are employed to visualise three-dimensional installation and operational aspects, at least in part replacing full-scale mock- ups. The introduction of parametric three-dimensional CAD software integrated into the conceptual design methodology represents a great improvement because it allows to carry out different layouts and to assess them immediately. It is also possible to link the CAD system to a digital prototyping software which combines 3D visualisation and assembly analysis, useful to define the so-called Digital Mock-Up at Conceptual Level (DMUCL) which studies the integration between the on board systems, sized with simulation algorithms, and the airframe. DMUCL represents a very good means to integrate the conceptual design with a methodology turned towards dealing with Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and

  17. Theoretical Acoustic Absorber Design Approach for LOX/LCH4 Pintle Injector Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Jonathan

    Liquid rocket engines, or LREs, have served a key role in space exploration efforts. One current effort involves the utilization of liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (LCH4) LREs to explore Mars with in-situ resource utilization for propellant production. This on-site production of propellant will allow for greater payload allocation instead of fuel to travel to the Mars surface, and refueling of propellants to travel back to Earth. More useable mass yields a greater benefit to cost ratio. The University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP) Center for Space Exploration and Technology Research Center (cSETR) aims to further advance these methane propulsion systems with the development of two liquid methane - liquid oxygen propellant combination rocket engines. The design of rocket engines, specifically liquid rocket engines, is complex in that many variables are present that must be taken into consideration in the design. A problem that occurs in almost every rocket engine development program is combustion instability, or oscillatory combustion. It can result in the destruction of the rocket, subsequent destruction of the vehicle and compromise the mission. These combustion oscillations can vary in frequency from 100 to 20,000 Hz or more, with varying effects, and occur from different coupling phenomena. It is important to understand the effects of combustion instability, its physical manifestations, how to identify the instabilities, and how to mitigate or dampen them. Linear theory methods have been developed to provide a mathematical understanding of the low- to mid-range instabilities. Nonlinear theory is more complex and difficult to analyze mathematically, therefore no general analytical method that yields a solution exists. With limited resources, time, and the advice of our NASA mentors, a data driven experimental approach utilizing quarter wave acoustic dampener cavities was designed. This thesis outlines the methodology behind the design of an acoustic

  18. Two-Rockets Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    Let n>=2 be identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1, v2, ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. Let's focus on two arbitrary rockets Ri and Rjfrom the previous n rockets. Let's suppose, without loss of generality, that their speeds verify virocket Rj is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Lj =Lj' C(vj -vi) .(2) But in the reference frame of the astronaut in Rjit is like rocket Rjis stationary andRi moves with the speed vj -vi in opposite direction. Therefore, similarly, the non-proper time interval as measured by the astronaut inRj with respect to the event inRi is dilated with the same factor D(vj -vi) , i.e. Δtj . i = Δt' D(vj -vi) , and rocketRi is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Li =Li' C(vj -vi) .But it is a contradiction to have time dilations in both rockets. (3) Varying i, j in {1, 2, ..., n} in this Thought Experiment we get again other multiple contradictions about time dilations. Similarly about length contractions, because we get for a rocket Rj, n-2 different length contraction factors: C(vj -v1) , C(vj -v2) , ..., C(vj -vj - 1) , C(vj -vj + 1) , ..., C(vj -vn) simultaneously! Which is abnormal.

  19. Water Impact Prediction Tool for Recoverable Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooker, William; Glaese, John; Clayton, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Reusing components from a rocket launch can be cost saving. NASA's space shuttle system has reusable components that return to the Earth and impact the ocean. A primary example is the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) that descends on parachutes to the Earth after separation and impacts the ocean. Water impact generates significant structural loads that can damage the booster, so it is important to study this event in detail in the design of the recovery system. Some recent examples of damage due to water impact include the Ares I-X First Stage deformation as seen in Figure 1 and the loss of the SpaceX Falcon 9 First Stage.To ensure that a component can be recovered or that the design of the recovery system is adequate, an adequate set of structural loads is necessary for use in failure assessments. However, this task is difficult since there are many conditions that affect how a component impacts the water and the resulting structural loading that a component sees. These conditions include the angle of impact with respect to the water, the horizontal and vertical velocities, the rotation rate, the wave height and speed, and many others. There have been attempts to simulate water impact. One approach is to analyze water impact using explicit finite element techniques such as those employed by the LS-Dyna tool [1]. Though very detailed, this approach is time consuming and would not be suitable for running Monte Carlo or optimization analyses. The purpose of this paper is to describe a multi-body simulation tool that runs quickly and that captures the environments a component might see. The simulation incorporates the air and water interaction with the component, the component dynamics (i.e. modes and mode shapes), any applicable parachutes and lines, the interaction of winds and gusts, and the wave height and speed. It is capable of quickly conducting Monte Carlo studies to better capture the environments and genetic algorithm optimizations to reproduce a

  20. Silica sulfuric acid: a versatile and reusable heterogeneous catalyst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of N-acyl carbamates and ... All the reactions were done at room temperature and the N-acyl carbamates ... This method is attractive and is in a close agreement with green chemistry.

  1. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  2. Utilizing Provenance in Reusable Research Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Science is conducted collaboratively, often requiring the sharing of knowledge about computational experiments. When experiments include only datasets, they can be shared using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs or Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs. An experiment, however, seldom includes only datasets, but more often includes software, its past execution, provenance, and associated documentation. The Research Object has recently emerged as a comprehensive and systematic method for aggregation and identification of diverse elements of computational experiments. While a necessary method, mere aggregation is not sufficient for the sharing of computational experiments. Other users must be able to easily recompute on these shared research objects. Computational provenance is often the key to enable such reuse. In this paper, we show how reusable research objects can utilize provenance to correctly repeat a previous reference execution, to construct a subset of a research object for partial reuse, and to reuse existing contents of a research object for modified reuse. We describe two methods to summarize provenance that aid in understanding the contents and past executions of a research object. The first method obtains a process-view by collapsing low-level system information, and the second method obtains a summary graph by grouping related nodes and edges with the goal to obtain a graph view similar to application workflow. Through detailed experiments, we show the efficacy and efficiency of our algorithms.

  3. Reusable launch vehicle model uncertainties impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaye; Mu, Rongjun; Zhang, Xin; Deng, Yanpeng

    2018-03-01

    Reusable launch vehicle(RLV) has the typical characteristics of complex aerodynamic shape and propulsion system coupling, and the flight environment is highly complicated and intensely changeable. So its model has large uncertainty, which makes the nominal system quite different from the real system. Therefore, studying the influences caused by the uncertainties on the stability of the control system is of great significance for the controller design. In order to improve the performance of RLV, this paper proposes the approach of analyzing the influence of the model uncertainties. According to the typical RLV, the coupling dynamic and kinematics models are built. Then different factors that cause uncertainties during building the model are analyzed and summed up. After that, the model uncertainties are expressed according to the additive uncertainty model. Choosing the uncertainties matrix's maximum singular values as the boundary model, and selecting the uncertainties matrix's norm to show t how much the uncertainty factors influence is on the stability of the control system . The simulation results illustrate that the inertial factors have the largest influence on the stability of the system, and it is necessary and important to take the model uncertainties into consideration before the designing the controller of this kind of aircraft( like RLV, etc).

  4. Viability of a Reusable In-Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Nufer, Brian M.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Merrill, Raymond G.; North, David D.; Martin, John G.; Komar, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing options for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) that expands human presence from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) into the solar system and to the surface of Mars. The Hybrid in-space transportation architecture is one option being investigated within the EMC. The architecture enables return of the entire in-space propulsion stage and habitat to cis-lunar space after a round trip to Mars. This concept of operations opens the door for a fully reusable Mars transportation system from cis-lunar space to a Mars parking orbit and back. This paper explores the reuse of in-space transportation systems, with a focus on the propulsion systems. It begins by examining why reusability should be pursued and defines reusability in space-flight context. A range of functions and enablers associated with preparing a system for reuse are identified and a vision for reusability is proposed that can be advanced and implemented as new capabilities are developed. Following this, past reusable spacecraft and servicing capabilities, as well as those currently in development are discussed. Using the Hybrid transportation architecture as an example, an assessment of the degree of reusability that can be incorporated into the architecture with current capabilities is provided and areas for development are identified that will enable greater levels of reuse in the future. Implications and implementation challenges specific to the architecture are also presented.

  5. Theodore von Karman - Rocket Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    seminal contributions to several areas of fluid and solid mechanics, as the first head of ... nent position in Aeronautics research, as a pioneer of rocket science in America ... toral work, however, was on the theory of buckling of large structures.

  6. Sounding rockets explore the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that small, expendable, solid-fuel rockets used to explore ionospheric plasma can offer insight into all the processes and complexities common to space plasma. NASA's sounding rocket program for ionospheric research focuses on the flight of instruments to measure parameters governing the natural state of the ionosphere. Parameters include input functions, such as photons, particles, and composition of the neutral atmosphere; resultant structures, such as electron and ion densities, temperatures and drifts; and emerging signals such as photons and electric and magnetic fields. Systematic study of the aurora is also conducted by these rockets, allowing sampling at relatively high spatial and temporal rates as well as investigation of parameters, such as energetic particle fluxes, not accessible to ground based systems. Recent active experiments in the ionosphere are discussed, and future sounding rocket missions are cited

  7. Combustion of metal agglomerates in a solid rocket core flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Filippo; Dossi, Stefano; DeLuca, Luigi T.

    2013-12-01

    The need for access to space may require the use of solid propellants. High thrust and density are appealing features for different applications, spanning from boosting phase to other service applications (separation, de-orbiting, orbit insertion). Aluminum is widely used as a fuel in composite solid rocket motors because metal oxidation increases enthalpy release in combustion chamber and grants higher specific impulse. Combustion process of metal particles is complex and involves aggregation, agglomeration and evolution of reacting particulate inside the core flow of the rocket. It is always stated that residence time should be enough in order to grant complete metal oxidation but agglomerate initial size, rocket grain geometry, burning rate, and other factors have to be reconsidered. New space missions may not require large rocket systems and metal combustion efficiency becomes potentially a key issue to understand whether solid propulsion embodies a viable solution or liquid/hybrid systems are better. A simple model for metal combustion is set up in this paper. Metal particles are represented as single drops trailed by the core flow and reacted according to Beckstead's model. The fluid dynamics is inviscid, incompressible, 1D. The paper presents parametric computations on ideal single-size particles as well as on experimental agglomerate populations as a function of operating rocket conditions and geometries.

  8. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  9. Nuclear rocket engine reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Covers a new technology of nuclear reactors and the related materials aspects. Integrates physics, materials science and engineering Serves as a basic book for nuclear engineers and nuclear physicists. The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  10. Guided Rocket Weapon,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-11

    nyn;tei% (fuel/propellant ir, extruded trent the tanks by *C Cc:’ njie d g a. Work liquid-propellant engines on the same principle, as on the ~c~A t...82052705 PAGE 44-- Fig. 26. Starting/launcing of the guided winged missile * Snack ". Page 49.1 Ballistic short-range missiles. The most widely used short

  11. Support to X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Primary activities of Lee & Associates for the referenced Purchase Order has been in direct support of the X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program. An independent review to evaluate the X-33 liquid hydrogen fuel tank failure, which recently occurred after-test of the starboard tank has been provided. The purpose of the Investigation team was to assess the tank design modifications, provide an assessment of the testing approach used by MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in determining the flight worthiness of the tank, assessing the structural integrity, and determining the cause of the failure of the tank. The approach taken to satisfy the objectives has been for Lee & Associates to provide the expertise of Mr. Frank Key and Mr. Wayne Burton who have relevant experience from past programs and a strong background of experience in the fields critical to the success of the program. Mr. Key and Mr. Burton participated in the NASA established Failure Investigation Review Team to review the development and process data and to identify any design, testing or manufacturing weaknesses and potential problem areas. This approach worked well in satisfying the objectives and providing the Review Team with valuable information including the development of a Fault Tree. The detailed inputs were made orally in real time in the Review Team daily meetings. The results of the investigation were presented to the MSFC Center Director by the team on February 15, 2000. Attached are four charts taken from that presentation which includes 1) An executive summary, 2) The most probable cause, 3) Technology assessment, and 4) Technology Recommendations for Cryogenic tanks.

  12. Easier Analysis With Rocket Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing rocket engines is one of Marshall Space Flight Center's specialties. When Marshall engineers lacked a software program flexible enough to meet their needs for analyzing rocket engine fluid flow, they overcame the challenge by inventing the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which was named the co-winner of the NASA Software of the Year award in 2001. This paper describes the GFSSP in a wide variety of applications

  13. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  14. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  15. Is It Worth It? - the Economics of Reusable Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades billions of dollars have been invested by governments and private companies in the pursuit of lower cost access to space through earth-to-orbit (ETO) space transportation systems. Much of that investment has been focused on the development and operation of various forms of reusable transportation systems. From the Space Shuttle to current efforts by private commercial companies, the overarching belief of those making such investments has been that reusing system elements will be cheaper than utilizing expendable systems that involve throwing away costly engines, avionics, and other hardware with each flight. However, the view that reusable systems are ultimately a "better" approach to providing ETO transportation is not held universally by major stakeholders within the space transportation industry. While the technical feasibility of at least some degree of reusability has been demonstrated, there continues to be a sometimes lively debate over the merits and drawbacks of reusable versus expendable systems from an economic perspective. In summary, is it worth it? Based on our many years of direct involvement with the business aspects of several expendable and reusable transportation systems, it appears to us that much of the discussion surrounding reusability is hindered by a failure to clearly define and understand the financial and other metrics by which the financial "goodness" of a reusable or expandable approach is measured. As stakeholders, the different users and suppliers of space transportation have a varied set of criteria for determining the relative economic viability of alternative strategies, including reusability. Many different metrics have been used to measure the affordability of space transportation, such as dollars per payload pound (kilogram) to orbit, cost per flight, life cycle cost, net present value/internal rate of return, and many others. This paper will examine the key considerations that influence

  16. Metallic hydrogen: The most powerful rocket fuel yet to exist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvera, Isaac F [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Cole, John W, E-mail: silvera@physics.harvard.ed [NASA MSFC, Huntsville, AL 35801 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Wigner and Huntington first predicted that pressures of order 25 GPa were required for the transition of solid molecular hydrogen to the atomic metallic phase. Later it was predicted that metallic hydrogen might be a metastable material so that it remains metallic when pressure is released. Experimental pressures achieved on hydrogen have been more than an order of magnitude higher than the predicted transition pressure and yet it remains an insulator. We discuss the applications of metastable metallic hydrogen to rocketry. Metastable metallic hydrogen would be a very light-weight, low volume, powerful rocket propellant. One of the characteristics of a propellant is its specific impulse, I{sub sp}. Liquid (molecular) hydrogen-oxygen used in modern rockets has an Isp of {approx}460s; metallic hydrogen has a theoretical I{sub sp} of 1700s. Detailed analysis shows that such a fuel would allow single-stage rockets to enter into orbit or carry economical payloads to the moon. If pure metallic hydrogen is used as a propellant, the reaction chamber temperature is calculated to be greater than 6000 K, too high for currently known rocket engine materials. By diluting metallic hydrogen with liquid hydrogen or water, the reaction temperature can be reduced, yet there is still a significant performance improvement for the diluted mixture.

  17. Dynamic Reusable Workflows for Ocean Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Signell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital catalogs of ocean data have been available for decades, but advances in standardized services and software for catalog searches and data access now make it possible to create catalog-driven workflows that automate—end-to-end—data search, analysis, and visualization of data from multiple distributed sources. Further, these workflows may be shared, reused, and adapted with ease. Here we describe a workflow developed within the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS which automates the skill assessment of water temperature forecasts from multiple ocean forecast models, allowing improved forecast products to be delivered for an open water swim event. A series of Jupyter Notebooks are used to capture and document the end-to-end workflow using a collection of Python tools that facilitate working with standardized catalog and data services. The workflow first searches a catalog of metadata using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW, then accesses data service endpoints found in the metadata records using the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS for in situ sensor data and OPeNDAP services for remotely-sensed and model data. Skill metrics are computed and time series comparisons of forecast model and observed data are displayed interactively, leveraging the capabilities of modern web browsers. The resulting workflow not only solves a challenging specific problem, but highlights the benefits of dynamic, reusable workflows in general. These workflows adapt as new data enter the data system, facilitate reproducible science, provide templates from which new scientific workflows can be developed, and encourage data providers to use standardized services. As applied to the ocean swim event, the workflow exposed problems with two of the ocean forecast products which led to improved regional forecasts once errors were corrected. While the example is specific, the approach is general, and we hope to see increased

  18. Dynamic reusable workflows for ocean science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard; Fernandez, Filipe; Wilcox, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Digital catalogs of ocean data have been available for decades, but advances in standardized services and software for catalog search and data access make it now possible to create catalog-driven workflows that automate — end-to-end — data search, analysis and visualization of data from multiple distributed sources. Further, these workflows may be shared, reused and adapted with ease. Here we describe a workflow developed within the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) which automates the skill-assessment of water temperature forecasts from multiple ocean forecast models, allowing improved forecast products to be delivered for an open water swim event. A series of Jupyter Notebooks are used to capture and document the end-to-end workflow using a collection of Python tools that facilitate working with standardized catalog and data services. The workflow first searches a catalog of metadata using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalog Service for the Web (CSW), then accesses data service endpoints found in the metadata records using the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for in situ sensor data and OPeNDAP services for remotely-sensed and model data. Skill metrics are computed and time series comparisons of forecast model and observed data are displayed interactively, leveraging the capabilities of modern web browsers. The resulting workflow not only solves a challenging specific problem, but highlights the benefits of dynamic, reusable workflows in general. These workflows adapt as new data enters the data system, facilitate reproducible science, provide templates from which new scientific workflows can be developed, and encourage data providers to use standardized services. As applied to the ocean swim event, the workflow exposed problems with two of the ocean forecast products which led to improved regional forecasts once errors were corrected. While the example is specific, the approach is general, and we hope to see increased use of dynamic

  19. Schlieren image velocimetry measurements in a rocket engine exhaust plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rudy; Peguero, Julio; Hargather, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) measures velocity fields by tracking the motion of naturally-occurring turbulent flow features in a compressible flow. Here the technique is applied to measuring the exhaust velocity profile of a liquid rocket engine. The SIV measurements presented include discussion of visibility of structures, image pre-processing for structure visibility, and ability to process resulting images using commercial particle image velocimetry (PIV) codes. The small-scale liquid bipropellant rocket engine operates on nitrous oxide and ethanol as propellants. Predictions of the exhaust velocity are obtained through NASA CEA calculations and simple compressible flow relationships, which are compared against the measured SIV profiles. Analysis of shear layer turbulence along the exhaust plume edge is also presented.

  20. Future Launch Vehicle Structures - Expendable and Reusable Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersteiner, M. H.; Borriello, G.

    2002-01-01

    Further evolution of existing expendable launch vehicles will be an obvious element influencing the future of space transportation. Besides this reusability might be the change with highest potential for essential improvement. The expected cost reduction and finally contributing to this, the improvement of reliability including safe mission abort capability are driving this idea. Although there are ideas of semi-reusable launch vehicles, typically two stages vehicles - reusable first stage or booster(s) and expendable second or upper stage - it should be kept in mind that the benefit of reusability will only overwhelm if there is a big enough share influencing the cost calculation. Today there is the understanding that additional technology preparation and verification will be necessary to master reusability and get enough benefits compared with existing launch vehicles. This understanding is based on several technology and system concepts preparation and verification programmes mainly done in the US but partially also in Europe and Japan. The major areas of necessary further activities are: - System concepts including business plan considerations - Sub-system or component technologies refinement - System design and operation know-how and capabilities - Verification and demonstration oriented towards future mission mastering: One of the most important aspects for the creation of those coming programmes and activities will be the iterative process of requirements definition derived from concepts analyses including economical considerations and the results achieved and verified within technology and verification programmes. It is the intention of this paper to provide major trends for those requirements focused on future launch vehicles structures. This will include the aspects of requirements only valid for reusable launch vehicles and those common for expendable, semi-reusable and reusable launch vehicles. Structures and materials is and will be one of the

  1. Water Rockets. Get Funny With Newton's Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Roca Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement of the rocket has been used for decades to encourage students in the study of physics. This system has an undeniable interest to introduce concepts such as properties of gases, laws of Newton,  exchange  between  different  types  of  energy  and  its  conservation  or fluid  mechanics.  Our  works has  been  to  build  and  launch  these  rockets  in  different  educational  levels  and  in  each  of  these  ones  have introduced  the  part  of  Physics  more  suited  to  the  knowledge  of  our  students.  The  aim  of  the  learning experience  is  to  launch  the  rocket  as  far  as  possible  and  learn  to  predict  the  travelled  distance,  using Newton's  laws  and fluid  mechanics.  After  experimentation  we  demonstrated  to  be  able  to  control  the parameters that improve the performance of our rocket, such as the  fill factor, the volume and mass of the empty  bottle,  liquid  density,  launch  angle,  pressure  prior  air  release.  In addition, it is a fun experience can be attached to all levels of education in primary and high school.

  2. Rocket Engine Innovations Advance Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    During launch countdown, at approximately T-7 seconds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) roar to life. When the controllers indicate normal operation, the solid rocket boosters ignite and the shuttle blasts off. Initially, the SSMEs throttle down to reduce stress during the period of maximum dynamic pressure, but soon after, they throttle up to propel the orbiter to 17,500 miles per hour. In just under 9 minutes, the three SSMEs burn over 1.6 million pounds of propellant, and temperatures inside the main combustion chamber reach 6,000 F. To cool the engines, liquid hydrogen circulates through miles of tubing at -423 F. From 1981to 2011, the Space Shuttle fleet carried crew and cargo into orbit to perform a myriad of unprecedented tasks. After 30 years and 135 missions, the feat of engineering known as the SSME boasted a 100-percent flight success rate.

  3. Putting Reusability First: A Paradigm Switch in Remote Laboratories Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Vérot

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new devices brought online thanks to our Collaborative Remote Laboratories framework. Whereas previous devices integrated in our remote laboratory belongs to the domain of electronics, such as Vector Network Analyzers, the devices at the concern in this paper are, on one hand, an antenna workbench, and on the other, an homemade switching device, which embeds several electronic components. Because the middleware and framework for our environment were designed to be reusable, we wanted to put it to the test by integrating new and different devices in our Online Engineering catalog. After presenting the devices to be put online, we will expose the software development efforts required in regards to the reusability of the solution. As a consequence, the expose work and results tend to make the Online Engineering software architects to think reusability first, breaking with the current trends to implement Remote Labs one after the other, without much reusability, apart the capitalized experience. In this, we defend a paradigm switch in our current engineering approaches for Remote Laboratories implementations: Reusability should be thought first.

  4. On the Concepts of Usability and Reusability of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Sicilia

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available “Reusable learning objects” oriented towards increasing their potential reusability are required to satisfy concerns about their granularity and their independence of concrete contexts of use. Such requirements also entail that the definition of learning object “usability,” and the techniques required to carry out their “usability evaluation” must be substantially different from those commonly used to characterize and evaluate the usability of conventional educational applications. In this article, a specific characterization of the concept of learning object usability is discussed, which places emphasis on “reusability,” the key property of learning objects residing in repositories. The concept of learning object reusability is described as the possibility and adequacy for the object to be usable in prospective educational settings, so that usability and reusability are considered two interrelated – and in many cases conflicting – properties of learning objects. Following the proposed characterization of two characteristics or properties of learning objects, a method to evaluate usability of specific learning objects will be presented.

  5. Wake effect in rocket observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Akira; Hayashi, Tomomasa

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of the wake phenomena due to a probe and in rocket observation is discussed on the basis of experimental data. In the low energy electron measurement performed with the L-3H-5 rocket, the electron count rate changed synchronously with the rocket spin. This seems to be a wake effect. It is also conceivable that the probe itself generates the wake of ion beam. The latter problem is considered in the first part. Experiment was performed with laboratory plasma, in which a portion of the electron component of the probe current was counted with a CEM (a channel type multiplier). The change of probe voltage-count rate charactersitics due to the change of relative position of the ion source was observed. From the measured angular distributions of electron density and electron temperature around the probe, it is concluded that anisotropy exists around the probe, which seems to be a kinds of wake structure. In the second part, the wake effect due to a rocket is discussed on the basis of the measurement of leaking electrons with L-3H-5 rocket. Comparison between the theory of wake formation and the measured results is also shortly made in the final part. (Aoki, K.)

  6. Multi-Rocket Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    We consider n>=2 identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1 ,v2 , ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. (1) If we consider the observer on earth and the first rocket R1, then the non-proper time Δt of the observer on earth is dilated with the factor D(v1) : or Δt = Δt' D(v1) (1) But if we consider the observer on earth and the second rocket R2 , then the non-proper time Δt of the observer on earth is dilated with a different factor D(v2) : or Δt = Δt' D(v2) And so on. Therefore simultaneously Δt is dilated with different factors D(v1) , D(v2), ..., D(vn) , which is a multiple contradiction.

  7. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  8. Rocket Science 101 Interactive Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Dennis; Funkhouse, Deborah; DiMarzio, Donald

    2007-01-01

    To better educate the public on the basic design of NASA s current mission rockets, Rocket Science 101 software has been developed as an interactive program designed to retain a user s attention and to teach about basic rocket parts. This program also has helped to expand NASA's presence on the Web regarding educating the public about the Agency s goals and accomplishments. The software was designed using Macromedia s Flash 8. It allows the user to select which type of rocket they want to learn about, interact with the basic parts, assemble the parts to create the whole rocket, and then review the basic flight profile of the rocket they have built.

  9. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale.

  10. Design, Fabrication, and Initial Operation of a Reusable Irradiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatherly, D.W.; Thoms, K.R.; Siman-Tov, I.I.; Hurst, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    A Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program project, funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop reusable materials irradiation facilities in which metallurgical specimens of reactor pressure vessel steels could be irradiated. As a consequence, two new, identical, reusable materials irradiation facilities have been designed, fabricated, installed, and are now operating at the Ford Nuclear Reactor at the University of Michigan. The facilities are referred to as the HSSI-IAR facilities with the individual facilities being designated as IAR-1 and IAR-2. This new and unique facility design requires no cutting or grinding operations to retrieve irradiated specimens, all capsule hardware is totally reusable, and materials transported from site to site are limited to specimens only. At the time of this letter report, the facilities have operated successfully for approximately 2500 effective full-power hours

  11. Benefits of Government Incentives for Reusable Launch Vehicle Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph W.; Prince, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Many exciting new opportunities in space, both government missions and business ventures, could be realized by a reduction in launch prices. Reusable launch vehicle (RLV) designs have the potential to lower launch costs dramatically from those of today's expendable and partially-expendable vehicles. Unfortunately, governments must budget to support existing launch capability, and so lack the resources necessary to completely fund development of new reusable systems. In addition, the new commercial space markets are too immature and uncertain to motivate the launch industry to undertake a project of this magnitude and risk. Low-cost launch vehicles will not be developed without a mature market to service; however, launch prices must be reduced in order for a commercial launch market to mature. This paper estimates and discusses the various benefits that may be reaped from government incentives for a commercial reusable launch vehicle program.

  12. Risk Perception and Communication in Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    2005-12-01

    A number of inventors and entrepreneurs are currently attempting to develop and commercially operate reusable launch vehicles to carry voluntary participants into space. The operation of these launch vehicles, however, produces safety risks to the crew, to the space flight participants, and to the uninvolved public. Risk communication therefore becomes increasingly important to assure that those involved in the flight understand the risk and that those who are not directly involved understand the personal impact of RLV operations on their lives. Those involved in the launch vehicle flight may perceive risk differently from those non-participants, and these differences in perception must be understood to effectively communicate this risk. This paper summarizes existing research in risk perception and communication and applies that research to commercial reusable launch vehicle operations. Risk communication is discussed in the context of requirements of United States law for informed consent from any space flight participants on reusable suborbital launch vehicles.

  13. Numerical and experimental analysis of heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guobiao; Li, Chengen; Tian, Hui

    2016-11-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze heat transfer in injector plate of hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor by two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations and full-scale firing tests. Long-time working, which is an advantage of hybrid rocket motor over conventional solid rocket motor, puts forward new challenges for thermal protection. Thermal environments of full-scale hybrid rocket motors designed for long-time firing tests are studied through steady-state coupled numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer in chamber head. The motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide (98HP) oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) based fuel as the propellants. Simulation results reveal that flowing liquid 98HP in head oxidizer chamber could cool the injector plate of the motor. The cooling of 98HP is similar to the regenerative cooling in liquid rocket engines. However, the temperature of the 98HP in periphery portion of the head oxidizer chamber is higher than its boiling point. In order to prevent the liquid 98HP from unexpected decomposition, a thermal protection method for chamber head utilizing silica-phenolics annular insulating board is proposed. The simulation results show that the annular insulating board could effectively decrease the temperature of the 98HP in head oxidizer chamber. Besides, the thermal protection method for long-time working hydrogen peroxide hybrid rocket motor is verified through full-scale firing tests. The ablation of the insulating board in oxygen-rich environment is also analyzed.

  14. On the Chemical Stabilities of Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Ho Chu; Ming-Chung Tseng; Venkatesan Srinivasadesikan; Subbiah Sowmiah

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids are novel solvents of interest as greener alternatives to conventional organic solvents aimed at facilitating sustainable chemistry. As a consequence of their unusual physical properties, reusability, and eco-friendly nature, ionic liquids have attracted the attention of organic chemists. Numerous reports have revealed that many catalysts and reagents were supported in the ionic liquid phase, resulting in enhanced reactivity and selectivity in various important reaction transfor...

  15. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology (OAST) has established three major goals, referred to as, "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies Under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Core Technologies Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. One of the main activities over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. This year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies will be awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion.

  16. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  17. Consort 1 sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a payload of six experiments developed for a 7-min microgravity flight aboard a sounding rocket Consort 1, in order to investigate the effects of low gravity on certain material processes. The experiments in question were designed to test the effect of microgravity on the demixing of aqueous polymer two-phase systems, the electrodeposition process, the production of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, the foam formation process and the characteristics of foam, the material dispersion, and metal sintering. The apparatuses designed for these experiments are examined, and the rocket-payload integration and operations are discussed.

  18. Pegasus Rocket Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A small, desk-top model of Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus winged rocket booster. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California; Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, Virginia, is the manufacturer of the Pegasus vehicle, while Vandenberg Air Force Base served as a pre-launch assembly facility for the launch that included the PHYSX experiment. NASA used data from Pegasus launches to obtain considerable

  19. Design, Analysis and Qualification of Elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. B.; Suresh, R.; Krishnadasan, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator is configured as a winged body vehicle, designed to fly in hypersonic, supersonic and subsonic regimes. The vehicle will be boosted to hypersonic speeds after which the winged body separates and descends using aerodynamic control. The aerodynamic control is achieved using the control surfaces mainly the rudder and the elevon. Elevons are deflected for pitch and roll control of the vehicle at various flight conditions. Elevons are subjected to aerodynamic, thermal and inertial loads during the flight. This paper gives details about the configuration, design, qualification and flight validation of elevon for Reusable Launch Vehicle.

  20. Wound dressing with reusable electronics for wireless monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2016-10-20

    A wound dressing device with reusable electronics for wireless monitoring and a method of making the same are provided. The device can be a smart device. In an embodiment, the device has a disposable portion including one or more sensors and a reusable portion including wireless electronics. The one or more sensors can be secured to a flexible substrate and can be printed by non-contact printing on the substrate. The disposable portion can be removably coupled to the one or more sensors. The device can include one or more sensors for wireless monitoring of a wound, a wound dressing, a body fluid exuded by the wound and/or wearer health.

  1. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  2. Ricardo Dyrgalla (1910-1970), pioneer of rocket development in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Pablo

    2009-12-01

    One of the most important developers of liquid propellant rocket engines in Argentina was Polish-born Ricardo Dyrgalla. Dyrgalla immigrated to Argentina from the United Kingdom in 1946, where he had been studying German weapons development at the end of the Second World War. A trained pilot and aeronautical engineer, he understood the intricacies of rocket propulsion and was eager to find practical applications to his recently gained knowledge. Dyrgalla arrived in Argentina during Juan Perón's first presidency, a time when technicians from all over Europe were being recruited to work in various projects for the recently created Argentine Air Force. Shortly after immigrating, Dyrgalla proposed to develop an advanced air-launched weapon, the Tábano, based on a rocket engine of his design, the AN-1. After a successful development program, the Tábano was tested between 1949 and 1951; however, the project was canceled by the government shortly after. Today, the AN-1 rocket engine is recognized as the first liquid propellant rocket to be developed in South America. Besides the AN-1, Dyrgalla also developed several other rockets systems in Argentina, including the PROSON, a solid-propellant rocket launcher developed by the Argentine Institute of Science and Technology for the Armed Forces (CITEFA). In the late 1960s, Dyrgalla and his family relocated to Brazil due mostly to the lack of continuation of rocket development in Argentina. There, he worked for the Institute of Aerospace Technology (ITA) until his untimely death in 1970. Ricardo Dyrgalla deserves to be recognized among the world's rocket pioneers and his contribution to the science and engineering of rocketry deserves a special place in the history of South America's rocketry and space flight advocacy programs.

  3. Design study of laser fusion rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Shoyama, Hidetoshi; Kanda, Yukinori

    1991-01-01

    A design study was made on a rocket powered by laser fusion. Dependence of its flight performance on target gain, driver repetition rate and fuel composition was analyzed to obtain optimal design parameters of the laser fusion rocket. The results indicate that the laser fusion rocket fueled with DT or D 3 He has the potential advantages over other propulsion systems such as fission rocket for interplanetary travel. (author)

  4. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  5. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  6. Bacterial contamination of re-usable laryngoscope blades during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed to assess the level of microbial contamination of re-usable laryngoscope blades at a public hospital in South Africa. Setting. The theatre complex of a secondary-level public hospital in Johannesburg. Methods. Blades from two different theatres were sampled twice daily, using a standardised technique, over a ...

  7. A reusable multi-agent architecture for active intelligent websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Lam, R.A.; Treur, J.

    In this paper a reusable multi-agent architecture for intelligent Websites is presented and illustrated for an electronic department store. The architecture has been designed and implemented using the compositional design method for multi-agent systems DESIRE. The agents within this architecture are

  8. Research Data Reusability: Conceptual Foundations, Barriers and Enabling Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput scientific instruments are generating massive amounts of data. Today, one of the main challenges faced by researchers is to make the best use of the world’s growing wealth of data. Data (reusability is becoming a distinct characteristic of modern scientific practice. By data (reusability, we mean the ease of using data for legitimate scientific research by one or more communities of research (consumer communities that is produced by other communities of research (producer communities. Data (reusability allows the reanalysis of evidence, reproduction and verification of results, minimizing duplication of effort, and building on the work of others. It has four main dimensions: policy, legal, economic and technological. The paper addresses the technological dimension of data reusability. The conceptual foundations of data reuse as well as the barriers that hamper data reuse are presented and discussed. The data publication process is proposed as a bridge between the data author and user and the relevant technologies enabling this process are presented.

  9. Wound dressing with reusable electronics for wireless monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2016-01-01

    A wound dressing device with reusable electronics for wireless monitoring and a method of making the same are provided. The device can be a smart device. In an embodiment, the device has a disposable portion including one or more sensors and a

  10. Hospital information system: reusability, designing, modelling, recommendations for implementing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, B

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to precise some essential conditions for building reuse models for hospital information systems (HIS) and to present an application for hospital clinical laboratories. Reusability is a general trend in software, however reuse can involve a more or less part of design, classes, programs; consequently, a project involving reusability must be precisely defined. In the introduction it is seen trends in software, the stakes of reuse models for HIS and the special use case constituted with a HIS. The main three parts of this paper are: 1) Designing a reuse model (which objects are common to several information systems?) 2) A reuse model for hospital clinical laboratories (a genspec object model is presented for all laboratories: biochemistry, bacteriology, parasitology, pharmacology, ...) 3) Recommendations for generating plug-compatible software components (a reuse model can be implemented as a framework, concrete factors that increase reusability are presented). In conclusion reusability is a subtle exercise of which project must be previously and carefully defined.

  11. Towards a reusable architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Moraes, J.L.; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; do Prado, Antonio Francisco; Hammoudi, S.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Cordeiro, J.; Dietz, J.L.G.

    The main objective of this paper is to present a reusable architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare environments meant to be generally applicable to different applications in the healthcare domain. This architecture has been designed by integrating different concepts and technologies

  12. Booster Main Engine Selection Criteria for the Liquid Fly-Back Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Rothschild, William J.; Christensen, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Fly-Back Booster (LFBB) Program seeks to enhance the Space Shuttle system safety performance and economy of operations through the use of an advanced, liquid propellant Booster Main Engine (BME). There are several viable BME candidates that could be suitable for this application. The objective of this study was to identify the key criteria to be applied in selecting among these BME candidates. This study involved an assessment of influences on the overall LFBB utility due to variations in the candidate rocket engines' characteristics. This includes BME impacts on vehicle system weight, perfortnance,design approaches, abort modes, margins of safety, engine-out operations, and maintenance and support concepts. Systems engineering analyses and trade studies were performed to identify the LFBB system level sensitivities to a wide variety of BME related parameters. This presentation summarizes these trade studies and the resulting findings of the LFBB design teams regarding the BME characteristics that most significantly affect the LFBB system. The resulting BME choice should offer the best combination of reliability, performance, reusability, robustness, cost, and risk for the LFBB program.

  13. Nuclear-powered rocket of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunqiao, B

    1979-06-01

    A possible manned mission to Mars with a crew of 7 in an 80-meter-long nuclear-powered rocket will take 180 days to reach its destination, will spend 10 to 14 days on the surface, and will take 200 days to return. A nuclear-powered engine (using U-235 or U-239) is the most likely means of propulsion. Four designs are described. The superheated exhaust engine will use a reactor to heat liquid hydrogen to over 4000/sup 0/C, after which it will be ejected from the exhaust. A plasma compression engine will use electric current produced by a reactor to heat hydrogen to plasma temperature (70,000/sup 0/C), after which it will be ejected through the exhaust by a magnetic field. In a gaseous-core reactor engine, gaseous fuel will heat liquid hydrogen to over 9,000/sup 0/C and use it as the propellant. The boldest solution is a proposal to use small nuclear explosions as the propulsive force. The first alternative will probably not produce enough thrust, while there will be a difficulty producing sufficient electricity in the second alternative. The other two alternatives seem promising.

  14. Turbopump options for nuclear thermal rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissell, W.R.; Gunn, S.V.

    1992-07-01

    Several turbopump options for delivering liquid nitrogen to nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines were evaluated and compared. Axial and centrifugal flow pumps were optimized, with and without boost pumps, utilizing current design criteria within the latest turbopump technology limits. Two possible NTR design points were used, a modest pump pressure rise of 1,743 psia and a relatively higher pump pressure rise of 4,480 psia. Both engines utilized the expander cycle to maximize engine performance for the long duration mission. Pump suction performance was evaluated. Turbopumps with conventional cavitating inducers were compared with zero NPSH (saturated liquid in the tanks) pumps over a range of tank saturation pressures, with and without boost pumps. Results indicate that zero NSPH pumps at high tank vapor pressures, 60 psia, are very similar to those with the finite NPSHs. At low vapor pressures efficiencies fall and turbine pressure ratios increase leading to decreased engine chamber pressures and or increased pump pressure discharges and attendant high-pressure component weights. It may be concluded that zero tank NSPH capabilities can be obtained with little penalty to the engine systems but boost pumps are needed if tank vapor pressure drops below 30 psia. Axial pumps have slight advantages in weight and chamber pressure capability while centrifugal pumps have a greater operating range. 10 refs

  15. Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Small Business Innovation Research Topic and Its Commercial Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1997-01-01

    Under its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (and with NASA Headquarters support), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated a topic entitled "Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles." The aim of this project would be to assist in demonstrating and then commercializing new rocket propellants that are safer and more environmentally sound and that make space operations easier. Soon it will be possible to commercialize many new propellants and their related component technologies because of the large investments being made throughout the Government in rocket propellants and the technologies for using them. This article discusses the commercial vision for these fuels and propellants, the potential for these propellants to reduce space access costs, the options for commercial development, and the benefits to nonaerospace industries. This SBIR topic is designed to foster the development of propellants that provide improved safety, less environmental impact, higher density, higher I(sub sp), and simpler vehicle operations. In the development of aeronautics and space technology, there have been limits to vehicle performance imposed by traditionally used propellants and fuels. Increases in performance are possible with either increased propellant specific impulse, increased density, or both. Flight system safety will also be increased by the use of denser, more viscous propellants and fuels.

  16. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When operating...

  17. Ignition and Flame Stabilization of a Strut-Jet RBCC Combustor with Small Rocket Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Rocket Based Combined Cycle combustor model is tested at a ground direct connected rig to investigate the flame holding characteristics with a small rocket exhaust using liquid kerosene. The total temperature and the Mach number of the vitiated air flow, at exit of the nozzle are 1505 K and 2.6, respectively. The rocket base is embedded in a fuel injecting strut and mounted in the center of the combustor. The wall of the combustor is flush, without any reward step or cavity, so the strut-jet is used to make sure of the flame stabilization of the second combustion. Mass flow rate of the kerosene and oxygen injected into the rocket is set to be a small value, below 10% of the total fuel when the equivalence ratio of the second combustion is 1. The experiment has generated two different kinds of rocket exhaust: fuel rich and pure oxygen. Experiment result has shown that, with a relative small total mass flow rate of the rocket, the fuel rich rocket plume is not suitable for ignition and flame stabilization, while an oxygen plume condition is suitable. Then the paper conducts a series of experiments to investigate the combustion characteristics under this oxygen pilot method and found that the flame stabilization characteristics are different at different combustion modes.

  18. Current and Future Critical Issues in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaz, Homayun K.; Dix, Jeff C.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to tackle several problems that are currently of great importance to NASA. In a liquid rocket engine several complex processes take place that are not thoroughly understood. Droplet evaporation, turbulence, finite rate chemistry, instability, and injection/atomization phenomena are some of the critical issues being encountered in a liquid rocket engine environment. Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE) performance, combustion chamber instability analysis, 60K motor flowfield pattern from hydrocarbon fuel combustion, and 3D flowfield analysis for the Combined Cycle engine were of special interest to NASA. During the summer of 1997, we made an attempt to generate computational results for all of the above problems and shed some light on understanding some of the complex physical phenomena. For this purpose, the Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance (LTCP) code, mainly designed for liquid rocket engine applications, was utilized. The following test cases were considered: (1) Characterization of a detonation wave in a Pulse Detonation Tube; (2) 60K Motor wall temperature studies; (3) Propagation of a pressure pulse in a combustion chamber (under single and two-phase flow conditions); (4) Transonic region flowfield analysis affected by viscous effects; (5) Exploring the viscous differences between a smooth and a corrugated wall; and (6) 3D thrust chamber flowfield analysis of the Combined Cycle engine. It was shown that the LTCP-2D and LTCP-3D codes are capable of solving complex and stiff conservation equations for gaseous and droplet phases in a very robust and efficient manner. These codes can be run on a workstation and personal computers (PC's).

  19. Convection and dendrite crystallization. [during coasting phase of sounding rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Johnston, M. H.; Griner, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    The convection and thermal conditions in aqueous and metallic liquid systems under conditions of the Dendrite Remelting Rocket Experiment were assessed to help establish the relevance of the rocket experiment to the metals casting phenomena. The results of the study indicate that aqueous or metallic convection velocities in the cell are of insignificant magnitudes at the 0.0001 to 0.00001 g levels of the experiment. The crystallization phenomena observed in the rocket experiment, therefore, may be indicative of how metals will solidify in low-g. The influence of possibly differing thermal fields, however, remains to be assessed. The rocket experiment may also be relevant to how metals solidify on the ground at temperature differences and in cell configurations such that the flow velocities are not high enough to break or bend delicate dendrite arms. Again, however, the influence of the thermal fields must be assessed.

  20. Assessment of the Feasibility of Innovative Reusable Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, S.; Corpino, S.; Viola, N.

    The demand for getting access to space, in particular to Low Earth Orbit, is increasing and fully reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) are likely to play a key role in the development of future space activities. Up until now this kind of space systems has not been successfully carried out: in fact today only the Space Shuttle, which belongs to the old generation of launchers, is operative and furthermore it is not a fully reusable system. In the nineties many studies regarding advanced transatmospheric planes were started, but no one was accomplished because of the technological problems encountered and the high financial resources required with the corresponding industrial risk. One of the most promising project was the Lockheed Venture Star, which seemed to have serious chances to be carried out. Anyway, if this ever happens, it will take quite a long time thus the operative life of Space Shuttle will have to be extended for the International Space Station support. The purpose of the present work is to assess the feasibility of different kinds of advanced reusable launch vehicles to gain access to space and to meet the requirements of today space flight needs, which are mainly safety and affordability. Single stage to orbit (SSTO), two stage to orbit (TSTO) and the so called "one and a half" stage to orbit vehicles are here taken into account to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The "one and a half" stage to orbit vehicle takes off and climbs to meet a tanker aircraft to be aerially refuelled and then, after disconnecting from the tanker, it flies to reach the orbit. In this case, apart from the space vehicle, also the tanker aircraft needs a dedicated study to examine the problems related to the refuelling at high subsonic speeds and at a height near the tropopause. Only winged vehicles which take off and land horizontally are considered but different architectural layouts and propulsive configurations are hypothesised. Unlike the Venture Star, which

  1. Unique nuclear thermal rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, D.W.; Rochow, R.

    1993-06-01

    In January, 1992, a new, advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine (NTRE) concept intended for manned missions to the moon and to Mars was introduced (Culver, 1992). This NTRE promises to be both shorter and lighter in weight than conventionally designed engines, because its forward flowing reactor is located within an expansion-deflection rocket nozzle. The concept has matured during the year, and this paper discusses a nearer term version that resolves four open issues identified in the initial concept: (1) the reactor design and cooling scheme simplification while retaining a high pressure power balance option; (2) elimination need for a new, uncooled nozzle throat material suitable for long life application; (3) a practical provision for reactor power control; and (4) use of near-term, long-life turbopumps

  2. Some Problems of Rocket-Space Vehicles' Characteristics co- ordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    of the XX century suffered a reverse. The designers of the United States' firms and enterprises of aviation and rocket-space industry (Boeing, Rocketdyne, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, etc.) and NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center and Lewis Research Center and others) could not correctly co-ordinate the characteristics of a propulsion system and a space vehicle for elaboration of the "Single-Stage-To-Orbit" reusable vehicle (SSTO) as an integral whole system, which is would able to inject a payload into an orbit and to return back on the Earth. jet nozzle design as well as the choice of propulsion system characteristics, ensuring the high ballistic efficiency, are considered in the present report. The efficiency criterions for the engine and launch system parameters optimization are discussed. The new methods of the nozzle block optimal parameters' choice for the satisfaction of the object task of flight are suggested. The family of SSTO with a payload mass from 5 to 20 ton and initial weight under 800 ton is considered.

  3. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    In this document I discuss paraffin fuel combustion and investigate the effects of additives on paraffin entrainment and regression. In general, hybrid rockets offer an economical and safe alternative to standard liquid and solid rockets. However, slow polymeric fuel regression and low combustion efficiency have limited the commercial use of hybrid rockets. Paraffin is a fast burning fuel that has received significant attention in the 2000's and 2010's as a replacement for standard fuels. Paraffin regresses three to four times faster than polymeric fuels due to the entrainment of a surface melt layer. However, further regression rate enhancement over the base paraffin fuel is necessary for widespread hybrid rocket adoption. I use a small scale opposed flow burner to investigate the effect of additives on the combustion of paraffin. Standard additives such as aluminum combust above the flame zone where sufficient oxidizer levels are present. As a result no heat is generated below the flame itself. In small scale opposed burner experiments the effect of limited heat feedback is apparent. Aluminum in particular does not improve the regression of paraffin in the opposed burner. The lack of heat feedback from additive combustion limits the applicability of the opposed burner. In turn, the results obtained in the opposed burner with metal additive loaded hybrid fuels do not match results from hybrid rocket experiments. In addition, nano-scale aluminum increases melt layer viscosity and greatly slows the regression of paraffin in the opposed flow burner. However, the reactive additives improve the regression rate of paraffin in the opposed burner where standard metals do not. At 5 wt.% mechanically activated titanium and carbon (Ti-C) improves the regression rate of paraffin by 47% in the opposed burner. The mechanically activated Ti C likely reacts in or near the melt layer and provides heat feedback below the flame region that results in faster opposed burner regression

  4. On the economics of staging for reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael D.; Claybaugh, William R.

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent discussion concerning possible replacement systems for the current U.S. fleet of launch vehicles, including both the shuttle and expendable vehicles. Attention has been focused upon the feasibility and potential benefits of reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch systems for future access to low Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we assume the technical feasibility of such vehicles, as well as the benefits to be derived from system reusability. We then consider the benefits of launch vehicle staging from the perspective of economic advantage rather than performance necessity. Conditions are derived under which two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch systems, utilizing SSTO-class vehicle technology, offer a relative economic advantage for access to LEO.

  5. Reusable Xerogel Containing Quantum Dots with High Fluorescence Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yong Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although various analytical methods have been established based on quantum dots (QDs, most were conducted in solution, which is inadequate for storage/transportation and rapid analysis. Moreover, the potential environmental problems caused by abandoned QDs cannot be ignored. In this paper, a reusable xerogel containing CdTe with strong emission is established by introducing host–guest interactions between QDs and polymer matrix. This xerogel shows high QDs loading capacity without decrease or redshift in fluorescence (the maximum of loading is 50 wt % of the final xerogel, which benefits from the steric hindrance of β-cyclodextrin (βCD molecules. Host–guest interactions immobilize QDs firmly, resulting in the excellent fluorescence retention of the xerogel. The good detecting performance and reusability mean this xerogel could be employed as a versatile analysis platform (for quantitative and qualitative analyses. In addition, the xerogel can be self-healed by the aid of water.

  6. Airframe Integration Trade Studies for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, Chauncey; Rivers, Kevin; Martin, Carl; Smith, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Future launch vehicles must be lightweight, fully reusable and easily maintained if low-cost access to space is to be achieved. The goal of achieving an economically viable Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is not easily achieved and success will depend to a large extent on having an integrated and optimized total system. A series of trade studies were performed to meet three objectives. First, to provide structural weights and parametric weight equations as inputs to configuration-level trade studies. Second, to identify, assess and quantify major weight drivers for the RLV airframe. Third, using information on major weight drivers, and considering the RLV as an integrated thermal structure (composed of thrust structures, tanks, thermal protection system, insulation and control surfaces), identify and assess new and innovative approaches or concepts that have the potential for either reducing airframe weight, improving operability, and/or reducing cost.

  7. Decomposition of business process models into reusable sub-diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewski Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach to automatic decomposition of business process models is proposed. According to our method, an existing BPMN diagram is disassembled into reusable parts containing the desired number of elements. Such elements and structure can work as design patterns and be validated by a user in terms of correctness. In the next step, these component models are categorised considering their parameters such as resources used, as well as input and output data. The classified components may be considered a repository of reusable parts, that can be further applied in the design of new models. The proposed technique may play a significant role in facilitating the business process redesign procedure, which is of a great importance regarding engineering and industrial applications.

  8. Reusable Boosters in a European-Russian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneu, François; Ramiandrasoa, Fabienne

    2002-01-01

    In 2001, EADS and Khrunichev SRPSC have initiated and carried out a working group devoted to the analysis of potential common studies and developments in the field of space activities. This working group came up with several propositions of interest, among which, the use of reusable boosters issued from Khrunichev previous design appeared to be promising when applied to heavy type launchers. Although the results required to be confirmed by detailed studies prior to final conclusions, preliminary studies have shown the interest of Ariane 5 configurations using such reusable booster in view of reducing the specific and launch cost as well as potentially increasing the performance. In November 2001, EADS and KHRUNICHEV SRPSC have started a study on an Ariane 5 plus reusable boosters configuration. This study aims at obtaining a better understanding of the advantages and drawbacks attached to such a use. Technical feasibility is more in depth analysed, with all recurring and not recurring aspects (including launch infrastructure modifications). Programmatic aspects are also addressed in order to better assess potential economic advantages and unavoidable drawbacks. Beyond that the identification of what could be, for western Europe and Russian players, an efficient and pay- off industrial organisation, is also a study theme of importance. This papers intends to present the main results achieved within this study and the propositions for the future which are likely to provide western Europe and Russia with stronger positions in the competitive field of launch business.

  9. New reusable elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M-V; Chaset, L; Bittner, P A; Barthod, C; Passard, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of telemedicine requires finding solutions of reusable electrodes for use in patients' homes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relevance of reusable elastomer electrodes for measuring body composition. We measured a population of healthy Caucasian (n = 17). A measurement was made with a reference device, the Xitron®, associated with AgCl Gel electrodes (Gel) and another measurement with a multifrequency impedancemeter Z-Metrix® associated with reusable elastomer electrodes (Elast). We obtained a low variability with an average error of repeatability of 0.39% for Re and 0.32% for Rinf. There is a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 200 ml between extracellular water Ve measured with Gel and Elast in supine and in standing position. For total body water Vt, we note a non significantly difference (P T-test > 0.1) about 100 ml and 2.2 1 respectively in supine and standing position. The results give low dispersion, with R 2 superior to 0.90, with a 1.5% maximal error between Gel and Elast on Ve in standing position. It looks possible, taking a few precautions, using elastomer electrodes for assessing body composition.

  10. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  11. High Frequency Combustion Instabilities of LOx/CH4 Spray Flames in Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliphorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the early stages of space transportation in the 1940’s, and the related liquid propellant rocket engine development, combustion instability has been a major issue. High frequency combustion instability (HFCI) is the interaction between combustion and the acoustic field in the combustion

  12. The Role of CFD Simulation in Rocket Propulsion Support Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Outline of the presentation: CFD at NASA/MSFC (1) Flight Projects are the Customer -- No Science Experiments (2) Customer Support (3) Guiding Philosophy and Resource Allocation (4) Where is CFD at NASA/MSFC? Examples of the expanding Role of CFD at NASA/MSFC (1) Liquid Rocket Engine Applications : Evolution from Symmetric and Steady to 3D Unsteady (2)Launch Pad Debris Transport-> Launch Pad Induced Environments (a) STS and Launch Pad Geometry-steady (b) Moving Body Shuttle Launch Simulations (c) IOP and Acoustics Simulations (3)General Purpose CFD Applications (4) Turbomachinery Applications

  13. Space Processing Applications rocket project SPAR III. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presents the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarizes the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies

  14. On the hydrodynamics of rocket propellant engine inducers and turbopumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, L

    2013-01-01

    The lecture presents an overview of some recent results of the work carried out at Alta on the hydrodynamic design and rotordynamic fluid forces of cavitating turbopumps for liquid propellant feed systems of modern rocket engines. The reduced order models recently developed for preliminary geometric definition and noncavitating performance prediction of tapered-hub axial inducers and centrifugal turbopumps are illustrated. The experimental characterization of the rotordynamic forces acting on a whirling four-bladed, tapered-hub, variable-pitch high-head inducer, under different load and cavitation conditions is presented. Future perspectives of the work to be carried out at Alta in this area of research are briefly illustrated

  15. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor will utilize improved design features and automated manufacturing methods to produce an inherently safer propulsive system for the Space Shuttle and future launch systems. This second-generation motor will also provide an additional 12,000 pounds of payload to orbit, enhancing the utility and efficiency of the Shuttle system. The new plant will feature strip-wound, asbestos-free insulation; propellant continuous mixing and casting; and extensive robotic systems. Following a series of static tests at the Stennis Space Center, MS flights are targeted to begin in early 1997.

  16. An example of successful international cooperation in rocket motor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Russell A.; Berdoyes, Michel

    2002-07-01

    The history of over 25 years of cooperation between Pratt & Whitney, San Jose, CA, USA and Snecma Moteurs, Le Haillan, France in solid rocket motor and, in one case, liquid rocket engine technology is presented. Cooperative efforts resulted in achievements that likely would not have been realized individually. The combination of resources and technologies resulted in synergistic benefits and advancement of the state of the art in rocket motors and components. Discussions begun between the two companies in the early 1970's led to the first cooperative project, demonstration of an advanced apogee motor nozzle, during the mid 1970's. Shortly thereafter advanced carboncarbon (CC) throat materials from Snecma were comparatively tested with other materials in a P&W program funded by the USAF. Use of Snecma throat materials in CSD Tomahawk boosters followed. Advanced space motors were jointly demonstrated in company-funded joint programs in the late 1970's and early 1980's: an advanced space motor with an extendible exit cone and an all-composite advanced space motor that included a composite chamber polar adapter. Eight integral-throat entrances (ITEs) of 4D and 6D construction were tested by P&W for Snecma in 1982. Other joint programs in the 1980's included test firing of a "membrane" CC exit cone, and integral throat and exit cone (ITEC) nozzle incorporating NOVOLTEX® SEPCARB® material. A variation of this same material was demonstrated as a chamber aft polar boss in motor firings that included demonstration of composite material hot gas valve thrust vector control (TVC). In the 1990's a supersonic splitline flexseal nozzle was successfully demonstrated by the two companies as part of a US Integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology (IHPRPT) program effort. Also in the mid-1990s the NOVOLTEX® SEPCARB® material, so successful in solid rocket motor application, was successfully applied to a liquid engine nozzle extension. The first cooperative

  17. Commercial suborbital reusable launch vehicles: ushering in a new era for turbopause exploration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. T.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple companies are in the process of developing commercial suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's). While these companies originally targeted space tourism as the primary customer base, it is rapidly becoming apparent that this dramatic increase in low cost access to space could provide revolutionary opportunities for scientific research, engineering/instrument development and STEM education. These burgeoning capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities regarding access to space with frequent low-cost access to the region of space from the ground to the boundary of near-Earth space at ~100 km. In situ research of this region is difficult because it is too high for aircraft and balloons and yet too low for orbital satellites and spacecraft. However, this region is very significant because it represents the tenuous boundary of Earth's Atmosphere and Space. It contains a critical portion of the atmosphere where the regime transitions from collisional to non-collisional physics and includes complex charged and neutral particle interactions. These new launch vehicles are currently designed for manned and unmanned flights that reach altitudes up to 110 km for 5K-500K per flight with payload capacity exceeding 600 kg. Considering the much higher cost per flight for a sounding rocket with similar capabilities, high flight cadence, and guaranteed return of payload, commercial spacecraft has the potential to revolutionize access to near space. This unprecedented access to space allows participation at all levels of research, engineering, education and the public at large. For example, one can envision a model where students can conduct complete end to end projects where they design, build, fly and analyze data from individual research projects for thousands of dollars instead of hundreds of thousands. Our community is only beginning to grasp the opportunities and impactions of these new capabilities but with operational flights anticipated in 2014, it is

  18. Optimized Dual Expander Aerospike Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    SSME Space Shuttle Main Engine SSTO Single-stage-to-orbit T/W Thrust-to-Weight Ratio TDE Two-Dimensional Equilibrium xix TDF...stage-to-orbit ( SSTO ) launch vehicle and Lockheed Martin’s proposed VentureStar. The liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen linear aerospike operated at a

  19. Experimental Performance Evaluation of a Supersonic Turbine for Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellgrove, Lauren M.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Sieja, James P.; Huber, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    In order to mitigate the risk of rocket propulsion development, efficient, accurate, detailed fluid dynamics analysis and testing of the turbomachinery is necessary. To support this requirement, a task was developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to improve turbine aerodynamic performance through the application of advanced design and analysis tools. These tools were applied to optimize a supersonic turbine design suitable for a reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The hot gas path and blading were redesigned-to obtain an increased efficiency. The goal of the demonstration was to increase the total-to- static efficiency of the turbine by eight points over the baseline design. A sub-scale, cold flow test article modeling the final optimized turbine was designed, manufactured, and tested in air at MSFC s Turbine Airflow Facility. Extensive on- and off- design point performance data, steady-state data, and unsteady blade loading data were collected during testing.

  20. Aero-Thermo-Structural Analysis of Inlet for Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Challa, Preeti; Sree, Dave; Reddy, Dhanireddy R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA has been developing advanced space transportation concepts and technologies to make access to space less costly. One such concept is the reusable vehicles with short turn-around times. The NASA Glenn Research Center's concept vehicle is the Trailblazer powered by a rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine. Inlet is one of the most important components of the RBCC engine. This paper presents fluid flow, thermal, and structural analysis of the inlet for Mach 6 free stream velocity for fully supersonic and supercritical with backpressure conditions. The results concluded that the fully supersonic condition was the most severe case and the largest stresses occur in the ceramic matrix composite layer of the inlet cowl. The maximum tensile and the compressive stresses were at least 3.8 and 3.4, respectively, times less than the associated material strength.

  1. Analysis of startup strategies for a particle bed reactor nuclear rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D. E.

    1993-06-01

    This paper develops and analyzes engine system startup strategies for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear rocket engine. The strategies are designed to maintain stable flow through the PBR fuel element while reaching the design conditions as quickly as possible. The analyses are conducted using a computer model of a representative particle bed reactor and engine system. Elements of the startup strategy considered include: the coordinated control of reactor power and coolant flow; turbine inlet temperature and flow control; and use of an external starter system. The simulation results indicate that the use of an external starter system enables the engine to reach design conditions very quickly while maintaining the flow well away from the unstable regime. If a bootstrap start is used instead, the transient does not progress as fast and approaches closer to the unstable flow regime, but allows for greater engine reusability. These results can provide important information for engine designers and mission planners.

  2. Maneuver of Spinning Rocket in Flight

    OpenAIRE

    HAYAKAWA, Satio; ITO, Koji; MATSUI, Yutaka; NOGUCHI, Kunio; UESUGI, Kuninori; YAMASHITA, Kojun

    1980-01-01

    A Yo-despin device successfully functioned to change in flight the precession axis of a sounding rocket for astronomical observation. The rocket attitudes before and after yodespin were measured with a UV star sensor, an infrared horizon sensor and an infrared telescope. Instrumentation and performance of these devices as well as the attitude data during flight are described.

  3. Ionospheric shock waves triggered by rockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional structure of the shock wave signatures in ionospheric electron density resulting from a rocket transit using the rate of change of the total electron content (TEC derived from ground-based GPS receivers around Japan and Taiwan for the first time. From the TEC maps constructed for the 2009 North Korea (NK Taepodong-2 and 2013 South Korea (SK Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II (KSLV-II rocket launches, features of the V-shaped shock wave fronts in TEC perturbations are prominently seen. These fronts, with periods of 100–600 s, produced by the propulsive blasts of the rockets appear immediately and then propagate perpendicularly outward from the rocket trajectory with supersonic velocities between 800–1200 m s−1 for both events. Additionally, clear rocket exhaust depletions of TECs are seen along the trajectory and are deflected by the background thermospheric neutral wind. Twenty minutes after the rocket transits, delayed electron density perturbation waves propagating along the bow wave direction appear with phase velocities of 800–1200 m s−1. According to their propagation character, these delayed waves may be generated by rocket exhaust plumes at earlier rocket locations at lower altitudes.

  4. Aerodynamics and flow characterisation of multistage rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Prakash, M. V. S.

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to conduct a systematic flow analysis on single, double and multistage rockets using ANSYS software. Today non-air breathing propulsion is increasing dramatically for the enhancement of space exploration. The rocket propulsion is playing vital role in carrying the payload to the destination. Day to day rocket aerodynamic performance and flow characterization analysis has becoming challenging task to the researchers. Taking this task as motivation a systematic literature is conducted to achieve better aerodynamic and flow characterization on various rocket models. The analyses on rocket models are very little especially in numerical side and experimental area. Each rocket stage analysis conducted for different Mach numbers and having different flow varying angle of attacks for finding the critical efficiency performance parameters like pressure, density and velocity. After successful completion of the analysis the research reveals that flow around the rocket body for Mach number 4 and 5 best suitable for designed payload. Another major objective of this paper is to bring best aerodynamics flow characterizations in both aero and mechanical features. This paper also brings feature prospectus of rocket stage technology in the field of aerodynamic design.

  5. Design methods in solid rocket motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    A compilation of lectures summarizing the current state-of-the-art in designing solid rocket motors and and their components is presented. The experience of several countries in the use of new technologies and methods is represented. Specific sessions address propellant grains, cases, nozzles, internal thermal insulation, and the general optimization of solid rocket motor designs.

  6. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a magneto-plasma rocket for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft. One advantageous feature of this rocket concept is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode which maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode which maximizes thrust. This presentation will describe a proposed flight experiment in which a simple version of the rocket will be tested in space. In addition to the plasma rocket, the flight experiment will also demonstrate the use of a superconducting electromagnet, extensive use of heat pipes, and possibly the transfer of cryogenic propellant in space.

  7. Subsonic Glideback Rocket Demonstrator Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTurris, Dianne J.; Foster, Trevor J.; Barthel, Paul E.; Macy, Daniel J.; Droney, Christopher K.; Talay, Theodore A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the past two years, Cal Poly's rocket program has been aggressively exploring the concept of remotely controlled, fixed wing, flyable rocket boosters. This program, embodied by a group of student engineers known as Cal Poly Space Systems, has successfully demonstrated the idea of a rocket design that incorporates a vertical launch pattern followed by a horizontal return flight and landing. Though the design is meant for supersonic flight, CPSS demonstrators are deployed at a subsonic speed. Many steps have been taken by the club that allowed the evolution of the StarBooster prototype to reach its current size: a ten-foot tall, one-foot diameter, composite material rocket. Progress is currently being made that involves multiple boosters along with a second stage, third rocket.

  8. Performances Study of a Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Nicolae BUTURACHE

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study which analyses the functioning and performances optimization of a hybrid rocket engine based on gaseous oxygen and polybutadiene polymer (HTPB. Calculations were performed with NASA CEA software in order to obtain the parameters resulted following the combustion process. Using these parameters, the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine were optimized. Using the calculus previously stated, an experimental rocket engine producing 100 N of thrust was pre-dimensioned, followed by an optimization of the rocket engine as a function of several parameters. Having the geometry and the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine combustion process, numerical simulations were performed in the CFX – ANSYS commercial software, which allowed visualizing the flow field and the jet expansion. Finally, the analytical calculus was validated through numerical simulations.

  9. Towards a DNA Nanoprocessor: Reusable Tile-Integrated DNA Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2016-08-22

    Modern electronic microprocessors use semiconductor logic gates organized on a silicon chip to enable efficient inter-gate communication. Here, arrays of communicating DNA logic gates integrated on a single DNA tile were designed and used to process nucleic acid inputs in a reusable format. Our results lay the foundation for the development of a DNA nanoprocessor, a small and biocompatible device capable of performing complex analyses of DNA and RNA inputs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Making the Case for Reusable Booster Systems: The Operations Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to the Aeronautics Space Engineering Board National Research Council Reusable Booster System: Review and Assessment Committee. Addresses: the criteria and assumptions used in the formulation of current RBS plans; the methodologies used in the current cost estimates for RBS; the modeling methodology used to frame the business case for an RBS capability including: the data used in the analysis, the models' robustness if new data become available, and the impact of unclassified government data that was previously unavailable and which will be supplied by the USAF; the technical maturity of key elements critical to RBS implementation and the ability of current technology development plans to meet technical readiness milestones.

  11. CLARAty: Challenges and Steps Toward Reusable Robotic Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Madison

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present in detail some of the challenges in developing reusable robotic software. We base that on our experience in developing the CLARAty robotics software, which is a generic object-oriented framework used for the integration of new algorithms in the areas of motion control, vision, manipulation, locomotion, navigation, localization, planning and execution. CLARAty was adapted to a number of heterogeneous robots with different mechanisms and hardware control architectures. In this paper, we also describe how we addressed some of these challenges in the development of the CLARAty software.

  12. CLARAty: Challenges and Steps toward Reusable Robotic Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa A.D. Nesnas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We present in detail some of the challenges in developing reusable robotic software. We base that on our experience in developing the CLARAty robotics software, which is a generic object-oriented framework used for the integration of new algorithms in the areas of motion control, vision, manipulation, locomotion, navigation, localization, planning and execution. CLARAty was adapted to a number of heterogeneous robots with different mechanisms and hardware control architectures. In this paper, we also describe how we addressed some of these challenges in the development of the CLARAty software.

  13. A reusable suture anchor for arthroscopy psychomotor skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Edward D; Rogers, Rainie; Nyland, John

    2003-03-01

    For residents to adequately develop the early arthroscopy psychomotor skills required to better learn how to manage the improvisational situations they will encounter during actual patient cases, they need to experience sufficient practice repetitions within a contextually relevant environment. Unfortunately, the cost of suture anchors can be a practice repetition-limiting factor in learning arthroscopic knot-tying techniques. We describe a technique for creating inexpensive reusable suture anchors and provide an example of their application to repair the anterior glenoid labrum during an arthroscopy psychomotor skills laboratory training session.

  14. Unsteady response of flow system around balance piston in a rocket pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, S.; Shimura, T.; Uchiumi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Matsui, J.

    2013-03-01

    In the rocket engine turbopump, a self-balancing type of axial thrust balancing system using a balance piston is often applied. In this study, the balancing system in liquid-hydrogen (LH2) rocket pump was modeled combining the mechanical structure and the flow system, and the unsteady response of the balance piston was investigated. The axial vibration characteristics of the balance piston with a large amplitude were determined, sweeping the frequency of the pressure fluctuation on the inlet of the balance piston. This vibration was significantly affected by the compressibility of LH2.

  15. Hybrid rocket engine research program at Ryerson University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpynczyk, J.; Greatrix, D.R. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Hybrid rocket engines (HREs) are a combination of solid and liquid propellant rocket engine designs. A solid fuel grain is located in the main combustion chamber and nozzle aft, while a stored liquid or gaseous oxidizer source supplies the required oxygen content through a throttle valve, for combustion downstream in the main chamber. HREs have drawn significant interest in certain flight applications, as they can be advantageous in terms of cost, ease and safety in storage, controllability in flight, and availability of propellant constituents. Key factors that will lead to further practical usage of HREs for flight applications are their predictability and reproducibility of operational performance. This paper presented information on studies being conducted at Ryerson University aimed at analyzing and testing the performance of HREs. It discussed and illustrated the conventional HRE and analyzed engine performance considerations such as the fuel regression rate, mass flux about the fuel surface, burning rate, and zero transformation parameter. Other factors relating to HRE performance that were presented included induced forward and aft oxidizer flow swirl effects as a means for augmenting the fuel regression rate, stoichiometric grain length issues, and feed system stability. Last, the paper presented a simplified schematic diagram of a proposed thrust/test stand for HRE test firings. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  17. Reusable LH2 tank technology demonstration through ground test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, C.; Greenberg, H. S.; Johnson, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the project plan to demonstrate, by March 1997, the reusability of an integrated composite LH2 tank structure, cryogenic insulation, and thermal protection system (TPS). The plan includes establishment of design requirements and a comprehensive trade study to select the most suitable Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank system (RHCTS) within the most suitable of 4 candidate structural configurations. The 4 vehicles are winged body with the capability to deliver 25,000 lbs of payload to a circular 220 nm, 51.6 degree inclined orbit (also 40,000 lbs to a 28.5 inclined 150 nm orbit). A prototype design of the selected RHCTS is established to identify the construction, fabrication, and stress simulation and test requirements necessary in an 8 foot diameter tank structure/insulation/TPS test article. A comprehensive development test program supports the 8 foot test article development and involves the composite tank itself, cryogenic insulation, and integrated tank/insulation/TPS designs. The 8 foot diameter tank will contain the integrated cryogenic insulation and TPS designs resulting from this development and that of the concurrent lightweight durable TPS program. Tank ground testing will include 330 cycles of LH2 filling, pressurization, body loading, depressurization, draining, and entry heating.

  18. Reusable Software Usability Specifications for mHealth Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Zapata, Belén; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali

    2018-01-25

    One of the key factors for the adoption of mobile technologies, and in particular of mobile health applications, is usability. A usable application will be easier to use and understand by users, and will improve user's interaction with it. This paper proposes a software requirements catalog for usable mobile health applications, which can be used for the development of new applications, or the evaluation of existing ones. The catalog is based on the main identified sources in literature on usability and mobile health applications. Our catalog was organized according to the ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148:2011 standard and follows the SIREN methodology to create reusable catalogs. The applicability of the catalog was verified by the creation of an audit method, which was used to perform the evaluation of a real app, S Health, application created by Samsung Electronics Co. The usability requirements catalog, along with the audit method, identified several usability flaws on the evaluated app, which scored 83%. Some flaws were detected in the app related to the navigation pattern. Some more issues related to the startup experience, empty screens or writing style were also found. The way a user navigates through an application improves or deteriorates user's experience with the application. We proposed a reusable usability catalog and an audit method. This proposal was used to evaluate a mobile health application. An audit report was created with the usability issues identified on the evaluated application.

  19. An Additively Manufactured Torch Igniter for Liquid Propellants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Consistent and reliable rocket engine ignition has yet to be proven through an additively manufactured torch igniter for liquid propellants. The coupling of additive...

  20. Rocket Ozone Data Recovery for Digital Archival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. H.; Krueger, A. J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ozone distributions in the photochemically-controlled upper stratosphere and mesosphere were first measured using spectrometers on V-2 rockets after WWII. The IGY(1957-1958) spurred development of new optical and chemical instruments for flight on meteorological and sounding rockets. In the early 1960's, the US Navy developed an Arcas rocket-borne optical ozonesonde and NASA GSFC developed chemiluminescent ozonesonde onboard Nike_Cajun and Arcas rocket. The Navy optical ozone program was moved in 1969 to GSFC where rocket ozone research was expanded and continued until 1994 using Super Loki-Dart rocket at 11 sites in the range of 0-65N and 35W-160W. Over 300 optical ozone soundings and 40 chemiluminescent soundings were made. The data have been used to produce the US Standard Ozone Atmosphere, determine seasonal and diurnal variations, and validate early photochemical models. The current effort includes soundings conducted by Australia, Japan, and Korea using optical techniques. New satellite ozone sounding techniques were initially calibrated and later validated using the rocket ozone data. As satellite techniques superseded the rocket methods, the sponsoring agencies lost interest in the data and many of those records have been discarded. The current task intends to recover as much of the data as possible from the private records of the experimenters and their publications, and to archive those records in the WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre). The original data records are handwritten tabulations, computer printouts that are scanned with OCR techniques, and plots digitized from publications. This newly recovered digital rocket ozone profile data from 1965 to 2002 could make significant contributions to the Earth science community in atmospheric research including long-term trend analysis.

  1. Project SQUID. Liquid Propellant Rockets. Volume 2, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-06-30

    but it is felt that a better and lighter motor could gram is tinder way. be built if the contract can be revised to cover this. e. Methyl amine as a... relationship between ertic, geometrical :pray ;attcrno, and .u forth. Drup- Reynolds’s, Prandtl’s, and KNusselt’s numbers and tie let size distribution

  2. Lightweight Exit Cone for Liquid Rocket Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) J-2X engine will power the upper stage of the Ares I and the earth departure stage (EDS) of the Ares V, which will enable...

  3. Technology Maturation and Flight Validation for Air Launched Liquid Rockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Generation Orbit is partnering with NASA-AFRC to conduct a flight test campaign for GOLauncher 1 (GO1) Inert Test Article (ITA), to include aircraft integration...

  4. Liquid Rocket Engine Turbopump Rotating-shaft Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, R. E.; Keller, R. B., Jr. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A monograph is organized and presents, for effective use in design, the significant experience and knowledge accumulated in development and operational programs to date. It reviews and assesses current practices, and from them establishes firm guidance for achieving greater consistency in design, increased reliability in the end product, and greater efficiency in the design effort. The monograph is divided into two major sections: state of the art and design criteria.

  5. Study of Cavitation/Vaporization in Liquid Rocket Thruster Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    Particles, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2000, pp. 309-317. [6] Ciucci, A., Iaccarino, G., Amato, M., Numerical Investigation of 3D ...axis lying in A-A plane. A Druck pressure transducer with a response frequency of 2.5 kHz is used to measure the pressure. Sampling rate for pressure

  6. SMC Standard: Evaluation and Test Requirements for Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-26

    manufacturing of qualification or flight hardware. Activities during this phase will provide confidence that the new design and concepts will...failure (S-N) design curve to determine the fatigue life. Flight Design : Final production design intended for the “as‐flown” hardware. Flight...Prototype: First example build of a preliminary design under consideration for production . Intended to be as representative of the definitive article

  7. RAGE Reusable Game Software Components and Their Integration into Serious Game Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim; Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Westera, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents and validates a methodology for integrating reusable software components in diverse game engines. While conforming to the RAGE com-ponent-based architecture described elsewhere, the paper explains how the interac-tions and data exchange processes between a reusable software

  8. The Spanish national programme of balloons and sounding rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.; Pueyo, L.

    1978-01-01

    The main points of the Spanish scientific programme are briefly described: CONIE/NASA cooperative project on meteorological sounding rocket launchings; ozonospheric programme; CONIE/NASA/CNES cooperative ionospheric sounding rocket project; D-layer research; rocket infrared dayglow measurements; ultraviolet astronomy research; cosmic ray research. The schedule of sounding rocket launchings at El Arenosillo station during 1977 is given

  9. RX LAPAN Rocket data Program With Dbase III Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauman

    2001-01-01

    The components data rocket RX LAPAN are taken from workshop product and assembling rocket RX. In this application software, the test data are organized into two data files, i.e. test file and rocket file. Besides [providing facilities to add, edit and delete data, this software provides also data manipulation facility to support analysis and identification of rocket RX failures and success

  10. 16 CFR 1507.10 - Rockets with sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rockets with sticks. 1507.10 Section 1507.10... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.10 Rockets with sticks. Rockets with sticks (including skyrockets and bottle rockets) shall utilize a straight and rigid stick to provide a direct and stable flight. Such sticks shall...

  11. A Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    A capability to couple NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the installed coupling software to demonstrate/investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between pressure wave and flexible inhibitor inside reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM). First a unified governing equation for both fluid and structure is presented, then an Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is described to satisfy the interfacial continuity requirements. The features of fluid solver, Loci/CHEM and structural solver, CoBi, are discussed before the coupling methodology of the solvers is described. The simulation uses production level CFD LES turbulence model with a grid resolution of 80 million cells. The flexible inhibitor is modeled with full 3D shell elements. Verifications against analytical solutions of structural model under steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic condition of modal analysis show excellent agreements in terms of displacement distribution and eigen modal frequencies. The preliminary coupled result shows that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor.

  12. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  13. The electromagnetic rocket gun impact fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    A macroparticle accelerator to be used as an impact fusion driver is discussed and which can accelerate a small projectile to --200 km/sec over a distance of a few 100 meters. The driver which we have named electromagnetic rocket gun, accelerates a small rocket-like projectile by a travelling magnetic wave. The rocket propellant not only serves as a sink to absorb the heat produced in the projectile by resistive energy losses, but at the same time is also the source of additional thrust through the heating of the propellant to high temperatures by the travelling magnetic wave. The total thrust on the projectile is the sum of the magnetic and recoil forces. In comparison to a rocket, the efficiency is here much larger, with the momentum transferred to the gun barrel of the gun rather than to a tenuous jet. (author)

  14. Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.12 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Norris Gray waves to the audience. Gray was part of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. Also attending the ceremony were other members of the original Bumper 8 team. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

  15. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  16. Space Power Experiments Aboard Rockets SPEAR-3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raitt, W. J

    1997-01-01

    The SPEAR-3 program was a sounding rocket payload designed to study the interaction of a charged body with the Earth's upper atmosphere with particular reference to the discharging ability of selected...

  17. National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems 2012 Annual Report: A Year of Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma Kiele

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) maintains and advances U.S. leadership in all aspects of rocket propulsion for defense, civil, and commercial uses. The Institute's creation is in response to widely acknowledged concerns about the U.S. rocket propulsion base dating back more than a decade. U.S. leadership in rocket and missile propulsion is threatened by long-term industry downsizing, a shortage of new solid and liquid propulsion programs, limited ability to attract and retain fresh talent, and discretionary federal budget pressures. Numerous trade and independent studies cite erosion of this capability as a threat to national security and the U.S. economy resulting in a loss of global competitiveness for the U.S. propulsion industry. This report covers the period between May 2011 and December 2012, which includes the creation and transition to operations of NIRPS. All subsequent reports will be annual. The year 2012 has been an eventful one for NIRPS. In its first full year, the new team overcame many obstacles and explored opportunities to ensure the institute has a firm foundation for the future. NIRPS is now an active organization making contributions to the development, sustainment, and strategy of the rocket propulsion industry in the United States. This report describes the actions taken by the NIRPS team to determine the strategy, organizational structure, and goals of the Institute. It also highlights key accomplishments, collaborations with other organizations, and the strategic framework for the Institute.

  18. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  19. Two stage turbine for rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and rig test evaluation of a small counter-rotating turbine system is described. The advanced turbine airfoils were designed and tested by Pratt & Whitney. The technology represented by this turbine is being developed for a turbopump to be used in an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The advanced engine will use a hydrogen expander cycle and achieve high performance through efficient combustion of hydrogen/oxygen propellants, high combustion pressure, and high area ratio exhaust nozzle expansion. Engine performance goals require that the turbopump drive turbines achieve high efficiency at low gas flow rates. The low mass flow rates and high operating pressures result in very small airfoil heights and diameters. The high efficiency and small size requirements present a challenging turbine design problem. The shrouded axial turbine blades are 50 percent reaction with a maximum thickness to chord ratio near 1. At 6 deg from the tangential direction, the nozzle and blade exit flow angles are well below the traditional design minimum limits. The blade turning angle of 160 deg also exceeds the maximum limits used in traditional turbine designs.

  20. Solid rocket motor cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, A. G.; Raphael, L.; Warren, S.; Yakura, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic and standardized procedure for estimating life cycle costs of solid rocket motor booster configurations. The model consists of clearly defined cost categories and appropriate cost equations in which cost is related to program and hardware parameters. Cost estimating relationships are generally based on analogous experience. In this model the experience drawn on is from estimates prepared by the study contractors. Contractors' estimates are derived by means of engineering estimates for some predetermined level of detail of the SRM hardware and program functions of the system life cycle. This method is frequently referred to as bottom-up. A parametric cost analysis is a useful technique when rapid estimates are required. This is particularly true during the planning stages of a system when hardware designs and program definition are conceptual and constantly changing as the selection process, which includes cost comparisons or trade-offs, is performed. The use of cost estimating relationships also facilitates the performance of cost sensitivity studies in which relative and comparable cost comparisons are significant.

  1. Design and fabrication of a magnetically actuated non-invasive reusable drug delivery device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsa, Joyline; Goswami, Manish; Singh, B R; Bhatt, Nidhi; Sharma, Pankaj; Chauhan, Meenakshi K

    2018-07-01

    We present a novel approach of designing and fabricating a noninvasive drug delivery device which is capable of delivering the drug to the target site in a controlled manner. The device utilizes a reservoir which can be reused once the drug has completely diffused from it. This micro-reservoir based fabricated device has been successfully tested using niosomes of insulin drug filled in, which was then sealed with a magnetic membrane of 20 µm thick and was actuated by applying magnetic field. The deflection of the membrane on application of magnetic field results in the drug release from the reservoir. The discharge of the drug solution and the release rates was controlled by external magnetic field. The simulation of the membrane deflection using COMSOL software was carried out to optimize the concentration of the ferrous nanopowder in PDMS matrix. The characterization of the devices was implemented in-vitro on water and in-vivo on Wistar rats. It was also validated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by observing characteristic peak of insulin. The blood samples showed the retention time of 2.79 min at λ max of 280 nm which further authenticated the effectiveness of the proposed work. This noninvasive fabricated device provides reusability, precise control and can enable the patient or a physician to actively administrate the drug when required.

  2. The UK sounding rocket and balloon programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delury, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The UK civil science balloon and rocket programmes for 1979/80/81 are summarised and the areas of scientific interest for the period 1981/85 mentioned. In the main the facilities available are 10 in number balloons up to 40 m cu ft launched from USA or Australia and up to 10 in number 7 1/2'' diameter Petrel rockets. This paper outlines the 1979 and 1980 programmes and explains the longer term plans covering the next 5 years. (Auth.)

  3. Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Snyder, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide/paraffin (N2OP) hybrid rocket engines have been invented as alternatives to other rocket engines especially those that burn granular, rubbery solid fuels consisting largely of hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Originally intended for use in launching spacecraft, these engines would also be suitable for terrestrial use in rocket-assisted takeoff of small airplanes. The main novel features of these engines are (1) the use of reinforced paraffin as the fuel and (2) the use of nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Hybrid (solid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket engines offer advantages of safety and simplicity over fluid-bipropellant (fluid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket en - gines, but the thrusts of HTPB-based hybrid rocket engines are limited by the low regression rates of the fuel grains. Paraffin used as a solid fuel has a regression rate about 4 times that of HTPB, but pure paraffin fuel grains soften when heated; hence, paraffin fuel grains can, potentially, slump during firing. In a hybrid engine of the present type, the paraffin is molded into a 3-volume-percent graphite sponge or similar carbon matrix, which supports the paraffin against slumping during firing. In addition, because the carbon matrix material burns along with the paraffin, engine performance is not appreciably degraded by use of the matrix.

  4. What If Annotations Were Reusable: A Preliminary Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Vuorikari, Riina

    This paper discusses the rationale for the representation of user feedback in a structured and reusable format so that it can be reused by different recommender systems. We emphasize how information about the context can be included in such a representation. This work-in-progress takes place in the context of two large European initiatives that set up collections of digital educational resources in distributed repositories to serve the needs of different user communities, and to collect user feedback such as ratings, bookmarks and tags related to the resources. The overall aim is to facilitate the exchange and reuse of their data sets in order to support recommendation of appropriate resources to the end users.

  5. Casting metal microstructures from a flexible and reusable mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Andrew H; King, William P

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes casting-based microfabrication of metal microstructures and nanostructures. The metal was cast into flexible silicone molds which were themselves cast from microfabricated silicon templates. Microcasting is demonstrated in two metal alloys of melting temperature 70 °C or 138 °C. Many structures were successfully cast into the metal with excellent replication fidelity, including ridges with periodicity 400 nm and holes or pillars with diameter in the range 10–100 µm and aspect ratio up to 2:1. The flexibility of the silicone mold permits casting of curved surfaces, which we demonstrate by fabricating a cylindrical metal roller of diameter 8 mm covered with microstructures. The metal microstructures can be in turn used as a reusable molding tool

  6. A reusable OSL-film for 2D radiotherapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouter, Crijns; Dirk, Vandenbroucke; Paul, Leblans; Tom, Depuydt

    2017-11-01

    Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) combines reusability, sub-mm resolution, and a linear dose response in a single radiation detection technology. Such a combination is currently lacking in radiotherapy dosimetry. But OSL-films have a strong energy dependent response to keV photons due to a relative high effective atomic number (Z eff). The current work studied the applicability of a 2D OSL-film with a reduced Z eff as (IMRT/VMAT) dosimeter. Based on their commercial OSL-film experience, Agfa Healthcare N.V. produced a new experimental OSL-film for RT dosimetry. This film had a lower effective atomic number compared to the films used in radiology. Typical 2D dosimeter requirements such as uniformity, dose response, signal stability with time, and angular dependence were evaluated. Additionally, the impact of a possible residual energy dependence was assessed for the infield as well as the out-of-field region of both static beams and standard intensity modulated patterns (chair and pyramid). The OSL-film’s reusable nature allowed for a film specific absolute and linear calibration including a flood-field uniformity correction. The OSL-film was scanned with a CR-15X engine based reader using a strict timing (i.e. 4 min after ‘beam on’ or as soon as possible) to account for spontaneous recombination. The OSL-film had good basic response properties: non-uniformities  ⩽2.6%, a linear dose response (0-32 Gy), a linear signal decay (0.5% min-1) over the 20 min measured, and limited angular dependence  ⩽2.6%. Due to variations of the energy spectrum, larger dose differences were noted outside the central region of the homogenous phantom and outside both static and IMRT fields. However, the OSL-film’s measured dose differences of the IMRT patterns were lower than those of Gafchromic EBT measurements ([-1.6%, 2.1%] versus [-2.9%, 3.6%]). The current OSL-film could be used as a reusable high resolution dosimeter with read-out immediately after

  7. A Reusable Software Architecture for Small Satellite AOCS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Laursen, Karl Kaas

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the software architecture called Sophy, which is an abbreviation for Simulation, Observation, and Planning in HYbrid systems. We present a framework that allows execution of hybrid dynamical systems in an on-line distributed computing environment, which includes interaction...... with both hardware and on-board software. Some of the key issues addressed by the framework are automatic translation of mathematical specifications of hybrid systems into executable software entities, management of execution of coupled models in a parallel distributed environment, as well as interaction...... with external components, hardware and/or software, through generic interfaces. Sophy is primarily intended as a tool for development of model based reusable software for the control and autonomous functions of satellites and/or satellite clusters....

  8. Commercial aspects of semi-reusable launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersteiner, M. H.; Müller, H.; Spies, H.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a business planning model for a commercial space launch system. The financing model is based on market analyses and projections combined with market capture models. An operations model is used to derive the annual cash income. Parametric cost modeling, development and production schedules are used for quantifying the annual expenditures, the internal rate of return, break even point of positive cash flow and the respective prices per launch. Alternative consortia structures, cash flow methods, capture rates and launch prices are used to examine the sensitivity of the model. Then the model is applied for a promising semi-reusable launcher concept, showing the general achievability of the commercial approach and the necessary pre-conditions.

  9. NASA's Hydrogen Outpost: The Rocket Systems Area at Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    "There was pretty much a general knowledge about hydrogen and its capabilities," recalled former researcher Robert Graham. "The question was, could you use it in a rocket engine? Do we have the technology to handle it? How will it cool? Will it produce so much heat release that we can't cool the engine? These were the questions that we had to address." The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center, referred to historically as the Lewis Research Center, made a concerted effort to answer these and related questions in the 1950s and 1960s. The center played a critical role transforming hydrogen's theoretical potential into a flight-ready propellant. Since then NASA has utilized liquid hydrogen to send humans and robots to the Moon, propel dozens of spacecraft across the universe, orbit scores of satellite systems, and power 135 space shuttle flights. Rocket pioneers had recognized hydrogen's potential early on, but its extremely low boiling temperature and low density made it impracticable as a fuel. The Lewis laboratory first demonstrated that liquid hydrogen could be safely utilized in rocket and aircraft propulsion systems, then perfected techniques to store, pump, and cleanly burn the fuel, as well as use it to cool the engine. The Rocket Systems Area at Lewis's remote testing area, Plum Brook Station, played a little known, but important role in the center's hydrogen research efforts. This publication focuses on the activities at the Rocket Systems Area, but it also discusses hydrogen's role in NASA's space program and Lewis's overall hydrogen work. The Rocket Systems Area included nine physically modest test sites and three test stands dedicated to liquid-hydrogen-related research. In 1962 Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter Karl Abram claimed, "The rocket facility looks more like a petroleum refinery. Its test rigs sprout pipes, valves and tanks. During the night test runs, excess hydrogen is burned from special stacks in the best

  10. Reusable locking tube in a reconstitutable fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallenberger, J.M.; Ferlan, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a reconstitutable fuel assembly including a top nozzle with an adapter plate having an interior wall forming at least one passageway, at least one guide thimble with an upper end portion, and an attaching structure having an outer socket formed by a circumferential groove defined in the adapter plate passageway wall and opening into the passageway and an inner socket formed by a circumferential bulge and at least one longitudinal slot defined in the upper end portion of the guide thimble. The circumferential bulge is capable of seating within the circumferential groove, an improved reusable tube for releasably locking the inner socket of the guide thimble upper end portion in locking engagement within the outer socket of the adapter plate passageway when the circumferential bulge is seated within the circumferential groove. The reusable tube comprises: (a) an elongated hollow tubular body capable of insertion within the adapter plate passageway and guide thimble upper end portion to a locking position therein such that the circumferential bulge of the inner socket is maintained seated in the locking engagement with the circumferential groove of the outer socket; and (b) at least a pair of dimples performed on the exterior of the tubular body prior to insertion of the body in the guide thimble upper end portion and to the locking position, the dimples being performed and configured to increase the thickness of the tubular body in relation to the remainder of the tubular body. The dimples are substantially resisting resilient yielding in relation to the remainder of the tubular body

  11. Macroeconomic Benefits of Low-Cost Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Greenberg, Joel

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated its Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program to provide information on the technical and commercial feasibility of single-stage to orbit (SSTO), fully-reusable launchers. Because RLVs would not depend on expendable hardware to achieve orbit, they could take better advantage of economies of scale than expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) that discard costly hardware on ascent. The X-33 experimental vehicle, a sub-orbital, 60%-scale prototype of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar SSTO RLV concept, is being built by Skunk Works for a 1999 first flight. If RLVs achieve prices to low-earth orbit of less than $1000 US per pound, they could hold promise for eliciting an elastic response from the launch services market. As opposed to the capture of existing market, this elastic market would represent new space-based industry businesses. These new opportunities would be created from the next tier of business concepts, such as space manufacturing and satellite servicing, that cannot earn a profit at today's launch prices but could when enabled by lower launch costs. New business creation contributes benefits to the US Government (USG) and the US economy through increases in tax revenues and employment. Assumptions about the costs and revenues of these new ventures, based on existing space-based and aeronautics sector businesses, can be used to estimate the macroeconomic benefits provided by new businesses. This paper examines these benefits and the flight prices and rates that may be required to enable these new space industries.

  12. Improving learning of anatomy with reusable learning objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of modern educational technologies is useful for learning, durability, sociability, and upgrading professionalism. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of reusable learning objects on improving learning of anatomy. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Fourteen (reusable learning objects RLO from different parts of anatomy of human body including thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were prepared for medical student in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The length of the time for RLO was between 11-22 min. Because their capacities were low, so they were easy to use with cell phone or MP4. These materials were available to the students before the classes. The mean scores of students in anatomy of human body group were compared to the medical students who were not used this method and entered the university in 2008. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher to evaluate the effect of RLO and on, content, interest and motivation, participation, preparation and attitude. Result: The mean scores of anatomy of human body of medical student who were entered the university in 2009 have been increased compare to the students in 2008, but this difference was not significant. Based on the questionnaire data, it was shown that the RLO had a positive effect on improving learning anatomy of human body (75.5% and the effective relationship (60.6%. The students were interested in using RLO (74.6%, some students (54.2% believed that this method should be replaced by lecture. Conclusion: The use of RLO could promote interests and effective communication among the students and led to increasing self-learning motivation.

  13. Chemicals - potential substances for WMD creation, explosives and rocket fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsova, M.D.; Khakimova, N.U.; Barotov, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    fluoropolymer (teflon) production, in metallurgy, during glass reprocessing and others. Chlorine trifluoride - ClF_3 - has wide range. It is applied for nuclear materials conversion, rocket fuel additive as well as for semiconductors production in military field. ClF_3 is colorless gas and has sweetish smell, toxic and strong oxidizer. In this article just some chemicals of CHW production are presented. Chemicals are also potential components of strong explosives. Explosives are known as: cyclonite, octogen, triamino trinitrobenzol, solid oxidant (for example, ammonium perchlorate) and others. Chemicals are widely used in rocket fuel production: combustible chemicals; solid and liquid oxidants; binding polymers; other additives. Solid fuel - admixture of many chemicals and connecting components and usually consist from oxidant and de oxidizer. Liquid fuel - also admixture of different liquid chemicals. Usually for rocket fuel NH_4ClO_4 is widely used, hydrazine, hydrides monomethyl, aluminium powder, AlH_3, nitrogen oxide, nitric acids. Some words about heavy water - D_2O, which is moderator in nuclear reactors, ensures continuous nuclear chain reaction with use of natural uranium. D_2O - colorless liquid, external view doesn't differ from H_2O and not radioactive. Its density is 10% more than H_2O. Thus, in this article the chemical substances are presented which are used for WMD, explosives and rocket fuel production. That's why control and exact identification of these substances is guarantee of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) non-proliferation.

  14. Development of Displacement Gages Exposed to Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D. E.; Cook, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) has three non-vented segment-to-segment case field joints. These joints use an interference fit J-joint that is bonded at assembly with a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) inboard of redundant O-ring seals. Full-scale motor and sub-scale test article experience has shown that the ability to preclude gas leakage past the J-joint is a function of PSA type, joint moisture from pre-assembly humidity exposure, and the magnitude of joint displacement during motor operation. To more accurately determine the axial displacements at the J-joints, two thermally durable displacement gages (one mechanical and one electrical) were designed and developed. The mechanical displacement gage concept was generated first as a non-electrical, self-contained gage to capture the maximum magnitude of the J-joint motion. When it became feasible, the electrical displacement gage concept was generated second as a real-time linear displacement gage. Both of these gages were refined in development testing that included hot internal solid rocket motor environments and simulated vibration environments. As a result of this gage development effort, joint motions have been measured in static fired RSRM J-joints where intentional venting was produced (Flight Support Motor #8, FSM-8) and nominal non-vented behavior occurred (FSM-9 and FSM-10). This data gives new insight into the nominal characteristics of the three case J-joint positions (forward, center and aft) and characteristics of some case J-joints that became vented during motor operation. The data supports previous structural model predictions. These gages will also be useful in evaluating J-joint motion differences in a five-segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor.

  15. Coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Solid Rocket Motor with Flexible Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff; Harris, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible inhibitors are generally used in solid rocket motors (SRMs) as a means to control the burning of propellant. Vortices generated by the flow of propellant around the flexible inhibitors have been identified as a driving source of instabilities that can lead to thrust oscillations in launch vehicles. Potential coupling between the SRM thrust oscillations and structural vibration modes is an important risk factor in launch vehicle design. As a means to predict and better understand these phenomena, a multidisciplinary simulation capability that couples the NASA production CFD code, Loci/CHEM, with CFDRC's structural finite element code, CoBi, has been developed. This capability is crucial to the development of NASA's new space launch system (SLS). This paper summarizes the efforts in applying the coupled software to demonstrate and investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena between pressure waves and flexible inhibitors inside reusable solid rocket motors (RSRMs). The features of the fluid and structural solvers are described in detail, and the coupling methodology and interfacial continuity requirements are then presented in a general Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. The simulations presented herein utilize production level CFD with hybrid RANS/LES turbulence modeling and grid resolution in excess of 80 million cells. The fluid domain in the SRM is discretized using a general mixed polyhedral unstructured mesh, while full 3D shell elements are utilized in the structural domain for the flexible inhibitors. Verifications against analytical solutions for a structural model under a steady uniform pressure condition and under dynamic modal analysis show excellent agreement in terms of displacement distribution and eigenmode frequencies. The preliminary coupled results indicate that due to acoustic coupling, the dynamics of one of the more flexible inhibitors shift from its first modal frequency to the first acoustic frequency of the solid rocket motor

  16. Internal Flow Analysis of Large L/D Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubacher, Brian A.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) internal ballistic performance has been analyzed and predicted with either zero-dimensional (volume filling) codes or one-dimensional ballistics codes. One dimensional simulation of SRM performance is only necessary for ignition modeling, or for motors that have large length to port diameter ratios which exhibit an axial "pressure drop" during the early burn times. This type of prediction works quite well for many types of motors, however, when motor aspect ratios get large, and port to throat ratios get closer to one, two dimensional effects can become significant. The initial propellant grain configuration for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) was analyzed with 2-D, steady, axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results of the CFD analysis show that the steady-state performance prediction at the initial burn geometry, in general, agrees well with 1-D transient prediction results at an early time, however, significant features of the 2-D flow are captured with the CFD results that would otherwise go unnoticed. Capturing these subtle differences gives a greater confidence to modeling accuracy, and additional insight with which to model secondary internal flow effects like erosive burning. Detailed analysis of the 2-D flowfield has led to the discovery of its hidden 1-D isentropic behavior, and provided the means for a thorough and simplified understanding of internal solid rocket motor flow. Performance parameters such as nozzle stagnation pressure, static pressure drop, characteristic velocity, thrust and specific impulse are discussed in detail and compared for different modeling and prediction methods. The predicted performance using both the 1-D codes and the CFD results are compared with measured data obtained from static tests of the RSRM. The differences and limitations of predictions using ID and 2-D flow fields are discussed and some suggestions for the design of large L/D motors and

  17. Evaluation of Geopolymer Concrete for Rocket Test Facility Flame Deflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Montes, Carlos; Islam, Rashedul; Allouche, Erez

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents results from a combined research effort by Louisiana Tech University (LTU) and NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a new alumina-silicate based cementitious binder capable of acting as a high performance refractory material with low heat ablation rate and high early mechanical strength. Such a binder would represent a significant contribution to NASA's efforts to develop a new generation of refractory 'hot face' liners for liquid or solid rocket plume environments. This project was developed as a continuation of on-going collaborations between LTU and SSC, where test sections of a formulation of high temperature geopolymer binder were cast in the floor and walls of Test Stand E-1 Cell 3, an active rocket engine test stand flame trench. Additionally, geopolymer concrete panels were tested using the NASA-SSC Diagnostic Test Facility (DTF) thruster, where supersonic plume environments were generated on a 1ft wide x 2ft long x 6 inch deep refractory panel. The DTF operates on LOX/GH2 propellants producing a nominal thrust of 1,200 lbf and the combustion chamber conditions are Pc=625psig, O/F=6.0. Data collected included high speed video of plume/panel area and surface profiles (depth) of the test panels measured on a 1-inch by 1-inch giving localized erosion rates during the test. Louisiana Tech conducted a microstructure analysis of the geopolymer binder after the testing program to identify phase changes in the material.

  18. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  19. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an

  20. A laser based reusable microjet injector for transdermal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-hee; Yoh, Jack J.

    2010-05-01

    A laser based needle-free liquid drug injection device has been developed. A laser beam is focused inside the liquid contained in the rubber chamber of microscale. The focused laser beam causes explosive bubble growth, and the sudden volume increase in a sealed chamber drives a microjet of liquid drug through the micronozzle. The exit diameter of a nozzle is 125 μm and the injected microjet reaches an average velocity of 264 m/s. This device adds the time-varying feature of microjet to the current state of liquid injection for drug delivery.

  1. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  2. Interpretation of Core Length in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    interrogating the near field of a number of dense sprays including diesel injectors , aerated liquid jets, solid-cone sprays, impinging-jet sprays and gas...Measurements of Mass Distributions in the Near- Nozzle Region of Sprays form Standard Multi-hole Common-rail Diesel Injection Systems,” 11th Triennial...Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  3. Boiler and Pressure Balls Monopropellant Thermal Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed technology is a rocket engine cycle utilizing as the propulsive fluid a low molecular weight, cryogenic fluid, typically liquid hydrogen, pressure driven, heated, and expelled through a nozzle to generate high velocity and high specific impulse discharge gas. The proposed technology feeds the propellant through the engine cycle without the use of a separate pressurization fluid and without the use of turbomachinery. Advantages of the proposed technology are found in those elements of state-of-the-art systems that it avoids. It does not require a separate pressurization fluid or a thick-walled primary propellant tank as is typically required for a classical pressure-fed system. Further, it does not require the acceptance of intrinsic reliability risks associated with the use of turbomachinery

  4. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  5. Critical Performance of Turbopump Mechanical Elements for Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Masataka; Sudou, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Fumiya; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Makoto

    It is generally acknowledged that bearings and axial seals have a tendency to go wrong compared with other rocket engine elements. And when those components have malfunction, missions scarcely succeed. However, fundamental performance (maximum rotational speed, minimum flow rate, power loss, durability, etc.) of those components has not been grasped yet. Purpose of this study is to grasp a critical performance of mechanical seal and hybrid ball bearing of turbopump. In this result, it was found that bearing outer race temperature and bearing coolant outlet temperature changed along saturation line of liquid hydrogen when flow rate was decreased under critical pressure. And normal operation of bearing was possible under conditions of more than 70,000 rpm of rotational speed and more than 0.2 liter/s of coolant flow rate. Though friction coefficient of seal surface increased several times of original value after testing, the seal showed a good performance same as before.

  6. Plasma waves observed by sounding rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of plasma wave phenomena have been conducted with several rockets launched at Kagoshima Space Center, Kyushu, Japan, and at Showa Base, Antarctica. This report presents some results of the observations in anticipation of having valuable comments from other plasma physicists, especially from those who are concerned with laboratory plasma. In the K-9M-41 rocket experiment, VLF plasma waves were observed. In this experiment, the electron beam of several tens of uA was emitted from a hot cathode when a positive dc bias changing from 0 to 10V at 1V interval each second was applied to a receiving dipole antenna. The discrete emissions with 'U' shaped frequency spectrum were observed for the dc bias over 3 volts. The U emissions appeared twice per spin period of the rocket. Similar rocket experiment was performed at Showa Base using a loop and dipole antenna and without hot cathode. Emissions were observed with varying conditions. At present, the authors postulate that such emissions may be produced just in the vicinity of a rocket due to a kind of wake effect. (Aoki, K.)

  7. A Reusable Framework for Regional Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A. F.; Goodale, C. E.; Mattmann, C. A.; Lean, P.; Kim, J.; Zimdars, P.; Waliser, D. E.; Crichton, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    utilizing large volumes of observational data for model evaluation research. We feel that the RCMES is particularly appealing in that it represents a principled, reusable architectural approach rather than a one-off technological implementation. In fact, early RCMES prototypes have already utilized a variety of implementation technologies in an effort to address different performance and scalability concerns. This has been greatly facilitated by the fact that, at the architectural level, the RCMES is fundamentally domain agnostic. Strictly separating the data model from the implementation has enabled us to create a reusable architecture that we believe can be modified and configured to suit the demands of researchers in other domains.

  8. Investigation of Reusable Crucibles on Uranium Casting by Injection Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2014-01-01

    Slurry applied coatings must be recoated after every batch. Thermal plasma-sprayed coatings of refractory materials can be applied to develop a re-usable crucible coating for metallic fuel. Plasma-sprayed coating can provide a crucible with a denser, more durable, coating layer, compared with the more friable coating layer formed by slurry-coating. Plasma-sprayed coatings are consolidated by mechanical interlocking of the molten particles impacting on the substrate and are dense from the heat applied by the plasma. Although the protective layer is more difficult in a dense coating than in a porous coating, the increased coating density is advantageous because it should not require frequent recoating or U-Zr melt penetration. In this study, we used a Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) method, which is suitable to prevent oxidization and has a number of advantages such as low defect density and excellent adhesion of the coating layer, to investigate permanent coatings for re-usable crucibles for melting and casting of metallic fuel. After coatings, interaction studies between molten U-Zr alloys and the plasma sprayed coatings were also carried out. We summarized the results of the coating methods. All coated samples maintained good coating integrity in a U-Zr melt, but most of the coating method samples did not maintain integrity in the U-Zr-RE melt because of the cracks or microcracks of the coating layer, presumably formed from the thermal expansion difference. Only the TaC(100)-Y 2 O 3 (100) DL VPS coated rod survived the 2 cycles dipping test of U-Zr-RE melt. This is likely caused by good adhesion of the TaC coating onto the niobium rod and the chemical inertness of Y 2 O 3 coating material in the U-Zr-RE melt. Based on the results from the interactions with U-10Zr and U-10Zr-5RE melt, TaC(100)-Y 2 O 3 (100) plasma-sprayed coating methods have been applied to real graphite crucibles

  9. Origin of how steam rockets can reduce space transport cost by orders of magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Larson, T.K.; Schnitzler, B.G.; Rice, J.W.; Hill, T.J.; Richins, W.D.; Parlier, L.; Werner, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    A brief sketch shows the origin of why and how thermal rocket propulsion has the unique potential to dramatically reduce the cost of space transportation for most inner solar system missions of interest. Orders of magnitude reduction in cost are apparently possible when compared to all processes requiring electrolysis for the production of rocket fuels or propellants and to all electric propulsion systems. An order of magnitude advantage can be attributed to rocket propellant tank factors associated with storing water propellant, compared to cryogenic liquids. An order of magnitude can also be attributed to the simplicity of the extraction and processing of ice on the lunar surface, into an easily stored, non-cryogenic rocket propellant (water). A nuclear heated thermal rocket can deliver thousands of times its mass to Low Earth Orbit from the Lunar surface, providing the equivalent to orders of magnitude drop in launch cost for mass in Earth orbit. Mass includes water ice. These cost reductions depend (exponentially) on the mission delta-v requirements being less than about 6 km/s, or about 3 times the specific velocity of steam rockets (2 km/s, from Isp 200 sec). Such missions include: from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit, (LLO), from LLO to lunar escape, from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), from LEO to Earth Escape, from LEO to Mars Transfer Orbit, from LLO to GEO, missions returning payloads from about 10% of the periodic comets using propulsive capture to orbits around Earth itself, and fast, 100 day missions from Lunar Escape to Mars. All the assertions depend entirely and completely on the existence of abundant, nearly pure ice at the permanently dark North and South Poles of the Moon. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm -1 , which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs

  11. Metallic Hydrogen: A Game Changing Rocket Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Isaac F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to produce metallic hydrogen in the laboratory using an innovative approach, and to study its metastability properties. Current theoretical and experimental considerations expect that extremely high pressures of order 4-6 megabar are required to transform molecular hydrogen to the metallic phase. When metallic hydrogen is produced in the laboratory it will be extremely important to determine if it is metastable at modest temperatures, i.e. remains metallic when the pressure is released. Then it could be used as the most powerful chemical rocket fuel that exists and revolutionize rocketry, allowing single-stage rockets to enter orbit and chemically fueled rockets to explore our solar system.

  12. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, C.

    1971-01-01

    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  13. The Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program and the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is formulated, and the primary objectives of RLV are listed. RLV technology program implementation phases are outlined. X-33 advanced technology demonstrator is described. Program management is addressed.

  14. Educational Modelling Language and Learning Design: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Published: Hummel, H. G. K., Manderveld, J. M., Tattersall, C.,& Koper, E. J. R. (2004). Educational Modelling Language: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1, 1, 110-111.

  15. Weight Analysis of Two-Stage-To-Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicles for Military Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    In response to Department of Defense (DoD) requirements for responsive and low-cost space access, this design study provides an objective empty weight analysis of potential reusable launch vehicle (RLV) configurations...

  16. Intelligent, reusable software for plug and play space avionics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build upon our existing space processing and hardening technologies and products e.g (Proton 200K), to research and develop reusable software...

  17. REUSABILITY OF BOND ELUT CERTIFY COLUMNS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF DRUGS FROM PLASMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEN, XH; FRANKE, JP; WIJSBEEK, J; DEZEEUW, RA

    1993-01-01

    The reusability of Bond Elut Certify columns for the extraction of toxicologically relevant drugs from plasma has been evaluated. Pentobarbital, hexobarbital, mepivacaine, trimipramine and clonazepam were selected as test drugs to represent various classes of drugs. The columns were regenerated

  18. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observ...

  19. Reusable Nanocomposite Membranes for the Selective Recovery of Nutrients in Space, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Through the STTR program, NanoSonic and Virginia Tech will create low-cost, reusable membranes that selectively capture and recycle nutrients (e.g., N, P, K) from...

  20. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Mobile Authoring of Open Educational Resources as Reusable Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Kinshuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available E-learning technologies have allowed authoring and playback of standardized reusable learning objects (RLO for several years. Effective mobile learning requires similar functionality at both design time and runtime. Mobile devices can play RLO using applications like SMILE, mobile access to a learning management system (LMS, or other systems which deploy content to mobile learners (Castillo & Ayala, 2008; Chu, Hwang, & Tseng, 2010; Hsu & Chen, 2010; Nakabayashi, 2009; Zualkernan, Nikkhah, & Al-Sabah, 2009. However, implementations which author content in a mobile context do not typically permit reuse across multiple contexts due to a lack of standardization. Standards based (IMS and SCORM authoring implementations exist for non-mobile platforms (Gonzalez-Barbone & Anido-Rifon, 2008; Griffiths, Beauvoir, Liber, & Barrett-Baxendale, 2009; Téllez, 2010; Yang, Chiu, Tsai, & Wu, 2004. However, this paradigm precludes capturing learning where and when it occurs. Consequently, RLO authored for e-learning lack learner generated content, especially with timely, relevant, and location aware examples.

  2. Orbiting Depot and Reusable Lander for Lunar Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A document describes a conceptual transportation system that would support exploratory visits by humans to locations dispersed across the surface of the Moon and provide transport of humans and cargo to sustain one or more permanent Lunar outpost. The system architecture reflects requirements to (1) minimize the amount of vehicle hardware that must be expended while maintaining high performance margins and (2) take advantage of emerging capabilities to produce propellants on the Moon while also enabling efficient operation using propellants transported from Earth. The system would include reusable single- stage lander spacecraft and a depot in a low orbit around the Moon. Each lander would have descent, landing, and ascent capabilities. A crew-taxi version of the lander would carry a pressurized crew module; a cargo version could carry a variety of cargo containers. The depot would serve as a facility for storage and for refueling with propellants delivered from Earth or propellants produced on the Moon. The depot could receive propellants and cargo sent from Earth on a variety of spacecraft. The depot could provide power and orbit maintenance for crew vehicles from Earth and could serve as a safe haven for lunar crews pending transport back to Earth.

  3. RAGE Architecture for Reusable Serious Gaming Technology Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim van der Vegt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For seizing the potential of serious games, the RAGE project—funded by the Horizon-2020 Programme of the European Commission—will make available an interoperable set of advanced technology components (software assets that support game studios at serious game development. This paper describes the overall software architecture and design conditions that are needed for the easy integration and reuse of such software assets in existing game platforms. Based on the component-based software engineering paradigm the RAGE architecture takes into account the portability of assets to different operating systems, different programming languages, and different game engines. It avoids dependencies on external software frameworks and minimises code that may hinder integration with game engine code. Furthermore it relies on a limited set of standard software patterns and well-established coding practices. The RAGE architecture has been successfully validated by implementing and testing basic software assets in four major programming languages (C#, C++, Java, and TypeScript/JavaScript, resp.. Demonstrator implementation of asset integration with an existing game engine was created and validated. The presented RAGE architecture paves the way for large scale development and application of cross-engine reusable software assets for enhancing the quality and diversity of serious gaming.

  4. Note: reliable and reusable ultrahigh vacuum optical viewports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, P; Sen Gupta, A

    2012-04-01

    We report a simple technique for the realization of ultrahigh vacuum optical viewports. The technique relies on using specially designed thin copper knife-edges and using a thin layer of Vacseal(®) on tip of the knife-edges between the optical flat and the ConFlat(®) (CF) flange. The design of the windows is such that it gives uniform pressure on the flat without breaking it. The assembled window is a complete unit, which can be mounted directly onto a CF flange of the vacuum chamber. It can be removed and reused without breaking the window seal. The design is reliable as more than a dozen such windows have survived several bake out and cooling cycles and have been leak tested up to 10(-11) Torr l/s level with a commercial Helium leak detector. The advantages of this technique are ease of assembly and leak proof sealing that survives multiple temperature cycling making the windows reliable and reusable. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  5. A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chary, Sathya; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Geckos utilize a robust reversible adhesive to repeatedly attach and detach from a variety of vertical and inverted surfaces, using structurally anisotropic micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures. These fibers, when suitably articulated, are able to control the real area of contact and thereby generate high-to-low van der Waals forces. Key characteristics of the natural system include highly anisotropic adhesion and shear forces for controllable attachment, a high adhesion to initial preload force ratio (μ′) of 8–16, lack of inter-fiber self-adhesion, and operation over more than 30 000 cycles without loss of adhesion performance. A highly reusable synthetic adhesive has been developed using tilted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) half-cylinder micron-scale fibers, retaining up to 77% of the initial value over 10 000 repeated test cycles against a flat glass puck. In comparison with other gecko-inspired adhesives tested over 10 000 cycles or more thus far, this paper reports the highest value of μ′, along with a large shear force of ∼78 kPa, approaching the 88–226 kPa range of gecko toes. The anisotropic adhesion forces are close to theoretical estimates from the Kendall peel model, quantitatively showing how lateral shearing articulation in a manner similar to the gecko may be used to obtain adhesion anisotropy with synthetic fibers using a combination of tilt angle and anisotropic fiber geometry. (paper)

  6. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Reusable thrust chamber and injector concepts were evaluated for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine (OME). Parametric engine calculations were carried out by computer program for N2O4/amine, LOX/amine and LOX/hydrocarbon propellant combinations for engines incorporating regenerative cooled and insulated columbium thrust chambers. The calculation methods are described including the fuel vortex film cooling method of combustion gas temperature control, and performance prediction. A method of acceptance of a regeneratively cooled heat rejection reduction using a silicone oil additive was also demonstrated by heated tube heat transfer testing. Regeneratively cooled thrust chamber operation was also demonstrated where the injector was characterized for the OME application with a channel wall regenerative thrust chamber. Bomb stability testing of the demonstration chambers/injectors demonstrated recovery for the nominal design of acoustic cavities. Cavity geometry changes were also evaluated to assess their damping margin. Performance and combustion stability was demonstrated of the originally developed 10 inch diameter combustion pattern operating in an 8 inch diameter thrust chamber.

  7. Reusable self-healing hydrogels realized via in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Balachandran; Prasad, Edamana

    2015-04-09

    In this work, a self-healing hydrogel has been prepared using in situ polymerization of acrylic acid and acrylamide in the presence of glycogen. The hydrogel was characterized using NMR, SEM, FT-IR, rheology, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies. The developed hydrogel exhibits self-healing properties at neutral pH, high swelling ability, high elasticity, and excellent mechanical strength. The hydrogel exhibits modulus values (G', G″) as high as 10(6) Pa and shows an exceptionally high degree of swelling ratio (∼3.5 × 10(3)). Further, the polymer based hydrogel adsorbs toxic metal ions (Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Hg(2+)) and organic dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) from contaminated water with remarkable efficiency (90-98%). The mechanistic analysis indicated the presence of pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. The reusability of the hydrogel has been demonstrated by repeating the adsorption-desorption process over five cycles with identical results in the adsorption efficiency.

  8. Reusable High Aspect Ratio 3-D Nickel Shadow Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandhi, M.M.H.; Leber, M.; Hogan, A.; Warren, D.J.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Shadow Mask technology has been used over the years for resistless patterning and to pattern on unconventional surfaces, fragile substrate and biomaterial. In this work, we are presenting a novel method to fabricate high aspect ratio (15:1) three-dimensional (3D) Nickel (Ni) shadow mask with vertical pattern length and width of 1.2 mm and 40 μm respectively. The Ni shadow mask is 1.5 mm tall and 100 μm wide at the base. The aspect ratio of the shadow mask is 15. Ni shadow mask is mechanically robust and hence easy to handle. It is also reusable and used to pattern the sidewalls of unconventional and complex 3D geometries such as microneedles or neural electrodes (such as the Utah array). The standard Utah array has 100 active sites at the tip of the shaft. Using the proposed high aspect ratio Ni shadow mask, the Utah array can accommodate 300 active sites, 200 of which will be along and around the shaft. The robust Ni shadow mask is fabricated using laser patterning and electroplating techniques. The use of Ni 3D shadow mask will lower the fabrication cost, complexity and time for patterning out-of-plane structures. PMID:29056835

  9. A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Sathya; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly

    2013-02-01

    Geckos utilize a robust reversible adhesive to repeatedly attach and detach from a variety of vertical and inverted surfaces, using structurally anisotropic micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures. These fibers, when suitably articulated, are able to control the real area of contact and thereby generate high-to-low van der Waals forces. Key characteristics of the natural system include highly anisotropic adhesion and shear forces for controllable attachment, a high adhesion to initial preload force ratio (μ‧) of 8-16, lack of inter-fiber self-adhesion, and operation over more than 30 000 cycles without loss of adhesion performance. A highly reusable synthetic adhesive has been developed using tilted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) half-cylinder micron-scale fibers, retaining up to 77% of the initial value over 10 000 repeated test cycles against a flat glass puck. In comparison with other gecko-inspired adhesives tested over 10 000 cycles or more thus far, this paper reports the highest value of μ‧, along with a large shear force of ˜78 kPa, approaching the 88-226 kPa range of gecko toes. The anisotropic adhesion forces are close to theoretical estimates from the Kendall peel model, quantitatively showing how lateral shearing articulation in a manner similar to the gecko may be used to obtain adhesion anisotropy with synthetic fibers using a combination of tilt angle and anisotropic fiber geometry.

  10. Robust Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon Using LANTR Propulsion and Lunar Liquid Oxygen Derived from FeO-Rich Pyroclastic Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Ryan, Stephen W.; Burke, Laura M.; McCurdy, David R.; Fittje, James E.; Joyner, Claude R.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been identified as a key space asset required for the human exploration of Mars. This proven technology can also provide the affordable access through cislunar space necessary for commercial development and sustained human presence on the Moon. It is a demonstrated technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx.900 s) twice that of todays best chemical rockets. Nuclear lunar transfer vehicles consisting of a propulsion stage using three approx.16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engines (SNREs), an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload can enable a variety of reusable lunar missions. These include cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. Even weeklong tourism missions carrying passengers into lunar orbit for a day of sightseeing and picture taking are possible. The NTR can play an important role in the next phase of lunar exploration and development by providing a robust in-space lunar transportation system (LTS) that can allow initial outposts to evolve into settlements supported by a variety of commercial activities such as in-situ propellant production used to supply strategically located propellant depots and transportation nodes. The use of lunar liquid oxygen (LLO2) derived from iron oxide (FeO)-rich volcanic glass beads, found in numerous pyroclastic deposits on the Moon, can significantly reduce the launch mass requirements from Earth by enabling reusable, surface-based lunar landing vehicles (LLVs) using liquid oxygen/hydrogen (LO2/H2) chemical rocket engines. Afterwards, a LO2/H2 propellant depot can be established in lunar equatorial orbit to supply the LTS. At this point a modified version of the conventional NTR called the LOX-augmented NTR, or LANTR is introduced into the LTS allowing bipropellant operation and leveraging the mission benefits of refueling with lunar-derived propellants for Earth return. The bipropellant LANTR engine utilizes the large

  11. Flow-Structural Interaction in Solid Rocket Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murdock, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The static test failure of the Titan solid rocket motor upgrade (SRMU) that occurred on 1 April, 1991, demonstrated the importance of flow-structural modeling in the design of large, solid rocket motors...

  12. Cis-Lunar Reusable In-Space Transportation Architecture for the Evolvable Mars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Eric S.; Jones, Christopher A.; Merrill, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration missions to Mars or other destinations in the solar system require large quantities of propellant to enable the transportation of required elements from Earth's sphere of influence to Mars. Current and proposed launch vehicles are incapable of launching all of the requisite mass on a single vehicle; hence, multiple launches and in-space aggregation are required to perform a Mars mission. This study examines the potential of reusable chemical propulsion stages based in cis-lunar space to meet the transportation objectives of the Evolvable Mars Campaign and identifies cis-lunar propellant supply requirements. These stages could be supplied with fuel and oxidizer delivered to cis-lunar space, either launched from Earth or other inner solar system sources such as the Moon or near Earth asteroids. The effects of uncertainty in the model parameters are evaluated through sensitivity analysis of key parameters including the liquid propellant combination, inert mass fraction of the vehicle, change in velocity margin, and change in payload masses. The outcomes of this research include a description of the transportation elements, the architecture that they enable, and an option for a campaign that meets the objectives of the Evolvable Mars Campaign. This provides a more complete understanding of the propellant requirements, as a function of time, that must be delivered to cis-lunar space. Over the selected sensitivity ranges for the current payload and schedule requirements of the 2016 point of departure of the Evolvable Mars Campaign destination systems, the resulting propellant delivery quantities are between 34 and 61 tonnes per year of hydrogen and oxygen propellant, or between 53 and 76 tonnes per year of methane and oxygen propellant, or between 74 and 92 tonnes per year of hypergolic propellant. These estimates can guide future propellant manufacture and/or delivery architectural analysis.

  13. Synthesis of Reusable Silica Nanosphere-Supported Pt(IV Complex for Formation of Disulfide Bonds in Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some peptide-based drugs, including oxytocin, vasopressin, ziconotide, pramlintide, nesiritide, and octreotide, contain one intramolecular disulfide bond. A novel and reusable monodispersed silica nanosphere-supported Pt(IV complex (SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV; TPEA: N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine was synthesized via a four-step procedure and was used for the formation of intramolecular disulfide bonds in peptides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and chemical mapping results for the Pt(II intermediates and for SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV show that the silica nanospheres possess a monodisperse spherical structure and contain uniformly-distributed Si, O, C, N, Cl, and Pt. The valence state of Pt on the silica nanospheres was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The Pt(IV loaded on SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV was 0.15 mmol/g, as determined by UV-VIS spectrometry. The formation of intramolecular disulfides in six dithiol-containing peptides of variable lengths by the use of SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV was investigated, and the relative oxidation yields were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In addition, peptide 1 (Ac-CPFC-NH2 was utilized to study the reusability of SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV. No significant decrease in the relative oxidation yield was observed after ten reaction cycles. Moreover, the structure of SiO2@TPEA@Pt(IV after being used for ten cycles was determined to be similar to its initial one, demonstrating the cycling stability of the complex.

  14. Multi-Stage Hybrid Rocket Conceptual Design for Micro-Satellites Launch using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yosuke; Kitagawa, Koki; Nakamiya, Masaki; Kanazaki, Masahiro; Shimada, Toru

    The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is applied to the multi-disciplinary conceptual design problem for a three-stage launch vehicle (LV) with a hybrid rocket engine (HRE). MOGA is an optimization tool used for multi-objective problems. The parallel coordinate plot (PCP), which is a data mining method, is employed in the post-process in MOGA for design knowledge discovery. A rocket that can deliver observing micro-satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is designed. It consists of an oxidizer tank containing liquid oxidizer, a combustion chamber containing solid fuel, a pressurizing tank and a nozzle. The objective functions considered in this study are to minimize the total mass of the rocket and to maximize the ratio of the payload mass to the total mass. To calculate the thrust and the engine size, the regression rate is estimated based on an empirical model for a paraffin (FT-0070) propellant. Several non-dominated solutions are obtained using MOGA, and design knowledge is discovered for the present hybrid rocket design problem using a PCP analysis. As a result, substantial knowledge on the design of an LV with an HRE is obtained for use in space transportation.

  15. NASA rocket launches student project into space

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    A project that began in 2002 will culminate at sunrise on Tuesday, March 15, when a team of Virginia Tech engineering students watch a payload section they designed lift off aboard a sounding rocket from a launch pad at NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility and travel 59 miles into space.

  16. Straw Rockets Are out of This World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    To capture students' excitement and engage their interest in rocketships and visiting planets in the solar system, the author designed lessons that give students the opportunity to experience the joys and challenges of developing straw rockets, and then observing which design can travel the longest distance. The lessons are appropriate for…

  17. Government Relations: It's Not Rocket Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radway, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Many people in the early childhood education field are afraid of government relations work, intimidated by politicians, and believe the whole process is unseemly. The author asserts that they should not be afraid nor be intimidated because government relations is not rocket science and fundamentally officeholders are no different from the rest of…

  18. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is a component of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine. This engine was designed to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsion systems and ultimately a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  19. Microcomputers, Model Rockets, and Race Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Edward A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The industrial education orientation program at Wisconsin School for the Deaf (WSD) presents problem-solving situations to all seventh- and eighth-grade hearing-impaired students. WSD developed user-friendly microcomputer software to guide students individually through complex computations involving model race cars and rockets while freeing…

  20. NASA Sounding Rocket Program Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanova, G.

    2013-01-01

    Educational and public outreach is a major focus area for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) shares in the belief that NASA plays a unique and vital role in inspiring future generations to pursue careers in science, mathematics, and technology. To fulfill this vision, the NSRP engages in a variety of educator training workshops and student flight projects that provide unique and exciting hands-on rocketry and space flight experiences. Specifically, the Wallops Rocket Academy for Teachers and Students (WRATS) is a one-week tutorial laboratory experience for high school teachers to learn the basics of rocketry, as well as build an instrumented model rocket for launch and data processing. The teachers are thus armed with the knowledge and experience to subsequently inspire the students at their home institution. Additionally, the NSRP has partnered with the Colorado Space Grant Consortium (COSGC) to provide a "pipeline" of space flight opportunities to university students and professors. Participants begin by enrolling in the RockOn! Workshop, which guides fledgling rocketeers through the construction and functional testing of an instrumentation kit. This is then integrated into a sealed canister and flown on a sounding rocket payload, which is recovered for the students to retrieve and process their data post flight. The next step in the "pipeline" involves unique, user-defined RockSat-C experiments in a sealed canister that allow participants more independence in developing, constructing, and testing spaceflight hardware. These experiments are flown and recovered on the same payload as the RockOn! Workshop kits. Ultimately, the "pipeline" culminates in the development of an advanced, user-defined RockSat-X experiment that is flown on a payload which provides full exposure to the space environment (not in a sealed canister), and includes telemetry and attitude control capability. The RockOn! and Rock

  1. The Alabama Space and Rocket Center: The Second Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckbee, Edward O.

    1983-01-01

    The Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, the world's largest rocket and space museum, includes displays illustrating American rocket history, exhibits and demonstrations on rocketry principles and experiences, and simulations of space travel. A new project includes an integrated recreational-educational complex, described in the three…

  2. Conformal cryogenic tank trade study for reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Future reusable launch vehicles may be lifting bodies with non-circular cross section like the proposed Lockheed-Martin VentureStar™. Current designs for the cryogenic tanks of these vehicles are dual-lobed and quad-lobed tanks which are packaged more efficiently than circular tanks, but still have low packaging efficiencies with large gaps existing between the vehicle outer mold line and the outer surfaces of the tanks. In this study, tanks that conform to the outer mold line of a non-circular vehicle were investigated. Four structural concepts for conformal cryogenic tanks and a quad-lobed tank concept were optimized for minimum weight designs. The conformal tank concepts included a sandwich tank stiffened with axial tension webs, a sandwich tank stiffened with transverse tension webs, a sandwich tank stiffened with rings and tension ties, and a sandwich tank stiffened with orthogrid stiffeners and tension ties. For each concept, geometric parameters (such as ring frame spacing, the number and spacing of tension ties or webs, and tank corner radius) and internal pressure loads were varied and the structure was optimized using a finite-element-based optimization procedure. Theoretical volumetric weights were calculated by dividing the weight of the barrel section of the tank concept and its associated frames, webs and tension ties by the volume it circumscribes. This paper describes the four conformal tank concepts and the design assumptions utilized in their optimization. The conformal tank optimization results included theoretical weights, trends and comparisons between the concepts, are also presented, along with results from the optimization of a quad-lobed tank. Also, the effects of minimum gauge values and non-optimum weights on the weight of the optimized structure are described in this paper.

  3. Mars Conjunction Crewed Missions With a Reusable Hybrid Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Strange, Nathan J.; Qu, Min; Hatten, Noble

    2015-01-01

    A new crew Mars architecture has been developed that provides many potential benefits for NASA-led human Mars moons and surface missions beginning in the 2030s or 2040s. By using both chemical and electric propulsion systems where they are most beneficial and maintaining as much orbital energy as possible, the Hybrid spaceship that carries crew round trip to Mars is pre-integrated before launch and can be delivered to orbit by a single launch. After check-out on the way to cis-lunar space, it is refueled and can travel round trip to Mars in less than 1100 days, with a minimum of 300 days in Mars vicinity (opportunity dependent). The entire spaceship is recaptured into cis-lunar space and can be reused. The spaceship consists of a habitat for 4 crew attached to the Hybrid propulsion stage which uses long duration electric and chemical in-space propulsion technologies that are in use today. The hybrid architecture's con-ops has no in-space assembly of the crew transfer vehicle and requires only rendezvous of crew in a highly elliptical Earth orbit for arrival at and departure from the spaceship. The crew transfer vehicle does not travel to Mars so it only needs be able to last in space for weeks and re-enter at lunar velocities. The spaceship can be refueled and resupplied for multiple trips to Mars (every other opportunity). The hybrid propulsion stage for crewed transits can also be utilized for cargo delivery to Mars every other opportunity in a reusable manner to pre-deploy infrastructure required for Mars vicinity operations. Finally, the Hybrid architecture provides evolution options for mitigating key long-duration space exploration risks, including crew microgravity and radiation exposure.

  4. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalomba Mboyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the emitting material with the radioisotope decay heat and by powering the different valves of the plasma rocket engine with the same radioisotope decay heat using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This rocket engine is then benchmarked against a 1 N hydrazine thruster configuration operated on one of the Pleiades-HR-1 constellation spacecraft. A maximal specific impulse and power saving of respectively 529 s and 32% are achieved with helium as propellant. Its advantages are its power saving capability, high specific impulses and simultaneous ease of storage and restart. It can however be extremely voluminous and potentially hazardous. The Kabila rocket is found to bring great benefits to the existing spacecraft and further research should optimize its geometric characteristics and investigate the physical principals of its operation.

  5. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (rights reserved.

  6. Development of an advanced rocket propellant handler's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, DonaldF.

    2001-08-01

    Most launch vehicles and satellites in the US inventory rely upon the use of hypergolic rocket propellants, many of which are toxic to humans. These fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide have threshold limit values as low as 0.01 PPM. It is essential to provide space workers handling these agents whole body protection as they are universally hazardous not only to the respiratory system, but the skin as well. This paper describes a new method for powering a whole body protective garment to assure the safety of ground servicing crews. A new technology has been developed through the small business innovative research program at the Kennedy Space Center. Currently, liquid air is used in the environmental control unit (ECU) that powers the propellant handlers suit (PHE). However, liquid air exhibits problems with attitude dependence, oxygen enrichment, and difficulty with reliable quantity measurement. The new technology employs the storage of the supply air as a supercritical gas. This method of air storage overcomes all of three problems above while maintaining high density storage at relatively low vessel pressures (protective ensemble marked an advancement in the state-of-the-art in personal protective equipment. Not only was long duration environmental control provided, but it was done without a high pressure vessel. The unit met human performance needs for attitude independence, oxygen stability, and relief of heat stress. This supercritical air (and oxygen) technology is suggested for microgravity applications in life support such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit.

  7. Differences in alarm events between disposable and reusable electrocardiography lead wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nancy M; Murray, Terri; Bena, James F; Slifcak, Ellen; Roach, Joel D; Spence, Jackie; Burkle, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Disposable electrocardiographic lead wires (ECG-LWs) may not be as durable as reusable ones. To examine differences in alarm events between disposable and reusable ECG-LWs. Two cardiac telemetry units were randomized to reusable ECG-LWs, and 2 units alternated between disposable and reusable ECG-LWs for 4 months. A remote monitoring team, blinded to ECG-LW type, assessed frequency and type of alarm events by using total counts and rates per 100 patient days. Event rates were compared by using generalized linear mixed-effect models for differences and noninferiority between wire types. In 1611 patients and 9385.5 patient days of ECG monitoring, patient characteristics were similar between groups. Rates of alarms for no telemetry, leads fail, or leads off were lower in disposable ECG-LWs (adjusted relative risk [95% CI], 0.71 [0.53-0.96]; noninferiority P < .001; superiority P = .03) and monitoring (artifact) alarms were significantly noninferior (adjusted relative risk [95% CI]: 0.88, [0.62-1.24], P = .02; superiority P = .44). No between-group differences existed in false or true crisis alarms. Disposable ECG-LWs were noninferior to reusable ECG-LWs for all false-alarm events (N [rate per 100 patient days], disposable 2029 [79.1] vs reusable 6673 [97.9]; adjusted relative risk [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.63-1.06], P = .002; superiority P = .12.) Disposable ECG-LWs with patented push-button design had superior performance in reducing alarms created by no telemetry, leads fail, or leads off and significant noninferiority in all false-alarm rates compared with reusable ECG-LWs. Fewer ECG alarms may save nurses time, decrease alarm fatigue, and improve patient safety. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. Development and Performance of the 10 kN Hybrid Rocket Motor for the Stratos II Sounding Rocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, R.M.; Knop, T.R.; Wink, J; Ehlen, J; Huijsman, R; Powell, S; Florea, R.; Wieling, W; Cervone, A.; Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development work of the 10 kN hybrid rocket motor DHX-200 Aurora. The DHX-200 Aurora was developed by Delft Aerospace Rocket Engineering (DARE) to power the Stratos II and Stratos II+ sounding rocket, with the later one being launched in October 2015. Stratos II and Stratos

  9. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  10. Development Testing of 1-Newton ADN-Based Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anflo, K.; Gronland, T.-A.; Bergman, G.; Nedar, R.; Thormählen, P.

    2004-10-01

    With the objective to reduce operational hazards and improve specific and density impulse as compared with hydrazine, the Research and Development (R&D) of a new monopropellant for space applications based on AmmoniumDiNitramide (ADN), was first proposed in 1997. This pioneering work has been described in previous papers1,2,3,4 . From the discussion above, it is clear that cost savings as well as risk reduction are the main drivers to develop a new generation of reduced hazard propellants. However, this alone is not enough to convince a spacecraft builder to choose a new technology. Cost, risk and schedule reduction are good incentives, but a spacecraft supplier will ask for evidence that this new propulsion system meets a number of requirements within the following areas: This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop a storable liquid monopropellant blend, based on AND, and its specific rocket engines. After building and testing more than 20 experimental rocket engines, the first Engineering Model (EM-1) has now accumulated more than 1 hour of firing-time. The results from test firings have validated the design. Specific impulse, combustion stability, blow-down capability and short pulse capability are amongst the requirements that have been demonstrated. The LMP-103x propellant candidate has been stored for more than 1 year and initial material compatibility screening and testing has started. 1. Performance &life 2. Impact on spacecraft design &operation 3. Flight heritage Hereafter, the essential requirements for some of these areas are outlined. These issues are discussed in detail in a previous paper1 . The use of "Commercial Of The Shelf" (COTS) propulsion system components as much as possible is essential to minimize the overall cost, risk and schedule. This leads to the conclusion that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5 has been reached for the thruster and propellant. Furthermore, that the concept of ADN-based propulsion is feasible.

  11. Probable Rotation States of Rocket Bodies in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakangas, Gregory W.; Anz-Meador, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2012-01-01

    In order for Active Debris Removal to be accomplished, it is critically important to understand the probable rotation states of orbiting, spent rocket bodies. As compared to the question of characterizing small unresolved debris, in this problem there are several advantages: (1) objects are of known size, mass, shape and color, (2) they have typically been in orbit for a known period of time, (3) they are large enough that resolved images may be obtainable for verification of predicted orientation, and (4) the dynamical problem is simplified to first order by largely cylindrical symmetry. It is also nearly certain for realistic rocket bodies that internal friction is appreciable in the case where residual liquid or, to a lesser degree, unconsolidated solid fuels exist. Equations of motion have been developed for this problem in which internal friction as well as torques due to solar radiation, magnetic induction, and gravitational gradient are included. In the case of pure cylindrical symmetry, the results are compared to analytical predictions patterned after the standard approach for analysis of symmetrical tops. This is possible because solar radiation and gravitational torques may be treated as conservative. Agreement between results of both methods ensures their mutual validity. For monotone symmetric cylinders, solar radiation torque vanishes if the center of mass resides at the geometric center of the object. Results indicate that in the absence of solar radiation effects, rotation states tend toward an equilibrium configuration in which rotation is about the axis of maximum inertia, with the axis of minimum inertia directed toward the center of the earth. Solar radiation torque introduces a modification to this orientation. The equilibrium state is asymptotically approached within a characteristic timescale given by a simple ratio of relevant characterizing parameters for the body in question. Light curves are simulated for the expected asymptotic final

  12. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment of disposable and reusable laryngeal mask airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew; Mosher, Margo; Gonzalez, Andres; Sherman, Jodi

    2012-05-01

    Growing awareness of the negative impacts from the practice of health care on the environment and public health calls for the routine inclusion of life cycle criteria into the decision-making process of device selection. Here we present a life cycle assessment of 2 laryngeal mask airways (LMAs), a one-time-use disposable Unique™ LMA and a 40-time-use reusable Classic™ LMA. In life cycle assessment, the basis of comparison is called the "functional unit." For this report, the functional unit of the disposable and reusable LMAs was taken to be maintenance of airway patency by 40 disposable LMAs or 40 uses of 1 reusable LMA. This was a cradle-to-grave study that included inputs and outputs for the manufacture, transport, use, and waste phases of the LMAs. The environmental impacts of the 2 LMAs were estimated using SimaPro life cycle assessment software and the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability impact assessment method. Sensitivity and simple life cycle cost analyses were conducted to aid in interpretation of the results. The reusable LMA was found to have a more favorable environmental profile than the disposable LMA as used at Yale New Haven Hospital. The most important sources of impacts for the disposable LMA were the production of polymers, packaging, and waste management, whereas for the reusable LMA, washing and sterilization dominated for most impact categories. The differences in environmental impacts between these devices strongly favor reusable devices. These benefits must be weighed against concerns regarding transmission of infection. Health care facilities can decrease their environmental impacts by using reusable LMAs, to a lesser extent by selecting disposable LMA models that are not made of certain plastics, and by ordering in bulk from local distributors. Certain practices would further reduce the environmental impacts of reusable LMAs, such as increasing the number of devices autoclaved in a single cycle to 10 (-25% GHG

  14. Analysis of rocket flight stability based on optical image measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuhua; Liu, Junhu; Shen, Si; Wang, Min; Liu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Based on the abundant optical image measurement data from the optical measurement information, this paper puts forward the method of evaluating the rocket flight stability performance by using the measurement data of the characteristics of the carrier rocket in imaging. On the basis of the method of measuring the characteristics of the carrier rocket, the attitude parameters of the rocket body in the coordinate system are calculated by using the measurements data of multiple high-speed television sets, and then the parameters are transferred to the rocket body attack angle and it is assessed whether the rocket has a good flight stability flying with a small attack angle. The measurement method and the mathematical algorithm steps through the data processing test, where you can intuitively observe the rocket flight stability state, and also can visually identify the guidance system or failure analysis.

  15. Internal Flow Simulation of Enhanced Performance Solid Rocket Booster for the Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rashid A.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An enhanced performance solid rocket booster concept for the space shuttle system has been proposed. The concept booster will have strong commonality with the existing, proven, reliable four-segment Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) with individual component design (nozzle, insulator, etc.) optimized for a five-segment configuration. Increased performance is desirable to further enhance safety/reliability and/or increase payload capability. Performance increase will be achieved by adding a fifth propellant segment to the current four-segment booster and opening the throat to accommodate the increased mass flow while maintaining current pressure levels. One development concept under consideration is the static test of a "standard" RSRM with a fifth propellant segment inserted and appropriate minimum motor modifications. Feasibility studies are being conducted to assess the potential for any significant departure in component performance/loading from the well-characterized RSRM. An area of concern is the aft motor (submerged nozzle inlet, aft dome, etc.) where the altered internal flow resulting from the performance enhancing features (25% increase in mass flow rate, higher Mach numbers, modified subsonic nozzle contour) may result in increased component erosion and char. To assess this issue and to define the minimum design changes required to successfully static test a fifth segment RSRM engineering test motor, internal flow studies have been initiated. Internal aero-thermal environments were quantified in terms of conventional convective heating and discrete phase alumina particle impact/concentration and accretion calculations via Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Two sets of comparative CFD simulations of the RSRM and the five-segment (IBM) concept motor were conducted with CFD commercial code FLUENT. The first simulation involved a two-dimensional axi-symmetric model of the full motor, initial grain RSRM. The second set of analyses

  16. Lessons from half a century experience of Japanese solid rocketry since Pencil rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matogawa, Yasunori

    2007-12-01

    50 years have passed since a tiny rocket "Pencil" was launched horizontally at Kokubunji near Tokyo in 1955. Though there existed high level of rocket technology in Japan before the end of the second World War, it was not succeeded by the country after the War. Pencil therefore was the substantial start of Japanese rocketry that opened the way to the present stage. In the meantime, a rocket group of the University of Tokyo contributed to the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958 by developing bigger rockets, and in 1970, the group succeeded in injecting first Japanese satellite OHSUMI into earth orbit. It was just before the launch of OHSUMI that Japan had built up the double feature system of science and applications in space efforts. The former has been pursued by ISAS (the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) of the University of Tokyo, and the latter by NASDA (National Space Development Agency). This unique system worked quite efficiently because space activities in scientific and applicational areas could develop rather independently without affecting each other. Thus Japan's space science ran up rapidly to the international stage under the support of solid propellant rocket technology, and, after a 20 year technological introduction period from the US, a big liquid propellant launch vehicle, H-II, at last was developed on the basis of Japan's own technology in the early 1990's. On October 1, 2003, as a part of Governmental Reform, three Japanese space agencies were consolidated into a single agency, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), and Japan's space efforts began to walk toward the future in a globally coordinated fashion, including aeronautics, astronautics, space science, satellite technology, etc., at the same time. This paper surveys the history of Japanese rocketry briefly, and draws out the lessons from it to make a new history of Japan's space efforts more meaningful.

  17. Computer Design Technology of the Small Thrust Rocket Engines Using CAE / CAD Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, V.; Lapshin, E.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm for designing liquid small thrust rocket engine, the process of which consists of five aggregated stages with feedback. Three stages of the algorithm provide engineering support for design, and two stages - the actual engine design. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach is a deep study of the main technical solutions at the stage of engineering analysis and interaction with the created knowledge (data) base, which accelerates the process and provides enhanced design quality. The using multifunctional graphic package Siemens NX allows to obtain the final product -rocket engine and a set of design documentation in a fairly short time; the engine design does not require a long experimental development.

  18. Development of small solid rocket boosters for the ILR-33 sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Pawel; Okninski, Adam; Pakosz, Michal; Cieslinski, Dawid; Bartkowiak, Bartosz; Wolanski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development of a 6000 Newton-class solid rocket motor for suborbital applications. The design configuration and results of interior ballistics calculations are given. The initial use of the motor as the main propulsion system of the H1 experimental in-flight test platform, within the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program, is presented. Comparisons of theoretical and experimental performance are shown. Both on-ground and in-flight tests are discussed. A novel composite-case manufacturing technology, which enabled to reach high propellant mass fractions, was validated and significant cost-reductions were achieved. This paper focuses on the process of adapting the design for use as the booster stage of the ILR-33 sounding rocket, under development at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, Poland. Parallel use of two of the flight-proven rocket motors along with the main stage is planned. The process of adapting the rocket motor for booster application consists of stage integration, aerothermodynamics and reliability analyses. The separation mechanism and environmental impact are also discussed within this paper. Detailed performance analysis with focus on propellant grain geometry is provided. The evolution of the design since the first flights of the H1 rocket is covered and modifications of the manufacturing process are described. Issues of simultaneous ignition of two motors and their non-identical performance are discussed. Further applications and potential for future development are outlined. The presented results are based on the initial work done by the Rocketry Group of the Warsaw University of Technology Students' Space Association. The continuation of the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program on a larger scale at the Institute of Aviation proves the value of the outcomes of the initial educational project.

  19. Microservices in Web Objects Enabled IoT Environment for Enhancing Reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarwar, Muhammad Aslam; Kibria, Muhammad Golam; Ali, Sajjad; Chong, Ilyoung

    2018-01-26

    In the ubiquitous Internet of Things (IoT) environment, reusing objects instead of creating new one has become important in academics and industries. The situation becomes complex due to the availability of a huge number of connected IoT objects, and each individual service creates a new object instead of reusing the existing one to fulfill a requirement. A well-standard mechanism not only improves the reusability of objects but also improves service modularity and extensibility, and reduces cost. Web Objects enabled IoT environment applies the principle of reusability of objects in multiple IoT application domains through central objects repository and microservices. To reuse objects with microservices and to maintain a relationship with them, this study presents an architecture of Web of Objects platform. In the case of a similar request for an object, the already instantiated object that exists in the same or from other domain can be reused. Reuse of objects through microservices avoids duplications, and reduces time to search and instantiate them from their registries. Further, this article presents an algorithm for microservices and related objects discovery that considers the reusability of objects through the central objects repository. To support the reusability of objects, the necessary algorithm for objects matching is also presented. To realize the reusability of objects in Web Objects enabled IoT environment, a prototype has been designed and implemented based on a use case scenario. Finally, the results of the prototype have been analyzed and discussed to validate the proposed approach.

  20. Current status of rocket developments in universities -development of a small hybrid rocket with a swirling oxidizer flow type engine

    OpenAIRE

    Yuasa, Saburo; Kitagawa, Koki

    2005-01-01

    To develop an experimental small hybrid rocket with a swirling gaseous oxygen flow type engine, we made a flight model engine. Burning tests of the engine showed that a maximum thrust of 692 N and a specific impulse of 263 s (at sea level) were achieved. We designed a small hybrid rocket with this engine. The rocket measured 1.8 m in length and 15.4 kg in mass. To confirm the flight stability of the rocket, wind tunnel tests using a 112-scale model of the rocket and simulations of the flight ...

  1. Rocket center Peenemünde — Personal memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Konrad; Stuhlinger, Ernst

    Von Braun built his first rockets as a young teenager. At 14, he started making plans for rockets for human travel to the Moon and Mars. The German Army began a rocket program in 1929. Two years later, Colonel (later General) Becker contacted von Braun who experimented with rockets in Berlin, gave him a contract in 1932, and, jointly with the Air Force, in 1936 built the rocket center Peenemünde where von Braun and his team developed the A-4 (V-2) rocket under Army auspices, while the Air Force developed the V-1 (buzz bomb), wire-guided bombs, and rocket planes. Albert Speer, impressed by the work of the rocketeers, allowed a modest growth of the Peenemünde project; this brought Dannenberg to the von Braun team in 1940. Hitler did not believe in rockets; he ignored the A-4 project until 1942 when he began to support it, expecting that it could turn the fortunes of war for him. He drastically increased the Peenemünde work force and allowed the transfer of soldiers from the front to Peenemünde; that was when Stuhlinger, in 1943, came to Peenemünde as a Pfc.-Ph.D. Later that year, Himmler wrenched the authority over A-4 production out of the Army's hands, put it under his command, and forced production of the immature rocket at Mittelwerk, and its military deployment against targets in France, Belgium, and England. Throughout the development of the A-4 rocket, von Braun was the undisputed leader of the project. Although still immature by the end of the war, the A-4 had proceeded to a status which made it the first successful long-range precision rocket, the prototype for a large number of military rockets built by numerous nations after the war, and for space rockets that launched satellites and traveled to the Moon and the planets.

  2. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  3. On the Chemical Stabilities of Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ho Chu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are novel solvents of interest as greener alternatives to conventional organic solvents aimed at facilitating sustainable chemistry. As a consequence of their unusual physical properties, reusability, and eco-friendly nature, ionic liquids have attracted the attention of organic chemists. Numerous reports have revealed that many catalysts and reagents were supported in the ionic liquid phase, resulting in enhanced reactivity and selectivity in various important reaction transformations. However, synthetic chemists cannot ignore the stability data and intermolecular interactions, or even reactions that are directly applicable to organic reactions in ionic liquids. It is becoming evident from the increasing number of reports on use of ionic liquids as solvents, catalysts, and reagents in organic synthesis that they are not totally inert under many reaction conditions. While in some cases, their unexpected reactivity has proven fortuitous and in others, it is imperative that when selecting an ionic liquid for a particular synthetic application, attention must be paid to its compatibility with the reaction conditions. Even though, more than 200 room temperature ionic liquids are known, only a few reports have commented their effects on reaction mechanisms or rate/stability. Therefore, rather than attempting to give a comprehensive overview of ionic liquid chemistry, this review focuses on the non-innocent nature of ionic liquids, with a decided emphasis to clearly illuminate the ability of ionic liquids to affect the mechanistic aspects of some organic reactions thereby affecting and promoting the yield and selectivity.

  4. On the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmiah, Subbiah; Srinivasadesikan, Venkatesan; Tseng, Ming-Chung; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2009-09-25

    Ionic liquids are novel solvents of interest as greener alternatives to conventional organic solvents aimed at facilitating sustainable chemistry. As a consequence of their unusual physical properties, reusability, and eco-friendly nature, ionic liquids have attracted the attention of organic chemists. Numerous reports have revealed that many catalysts and reagents were supported in the ionic liquid phase, resulting in enhanced reactivity and selectivity in various important reaction transformations. However, synthetic chemists cannot ignore the stability data and intermolecular interactions, or even reactions that are directly applicable to organic reactions in ionic liquids. It is becoming evident from the increasing number of reports on use of ionic liquids as solvents, catalysts, and reagents in organic synthesis that they are not totally inert under many reaction conditions. While in some cases, their unexpected reactivity has proven fortuitously advantageous in others is has been a problem, it is imperative that when selecting an ionic liquid for a particular synthetic application, attention be paid to its compatibility with the reaction conditions. Even though, more than 200 room temperature ionic liquids are known, only a few reports have commented their effects on reaction mechanisms or rate/stability. Therefore, rather than attempting to give a comprehensive overview of ionic liquid chemistry, this review focuses on the non-innocent nature of ionic liquids, with a decided emphasis to clearly illuminate the ability of ionic liquids to affect the mechanistic aspects of some organic reactions thereby affecting and promoting the yield and selectivity.

  5. AJ26 rocket engine testing news briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman (center) stands in front of a 'pathfinder' rocket engine with Orbital Sciences Corp. President and Chief Operating Officer J.R. Thompson (left) and Aerojet President Scott Seymour during a Feb. 24 news briefing at the south Mississippi facility. The leaders appeared together to announce a partnership for testing Aerojet AJ26 rocket engines at Stennis. The engines will be used to power Orbital's Taurus II space vehicles to provide commercial cargo transportation missions to the International Space Station for NASA. During the event, the Stennis partnership with Orbital was cited as an example of the new direction of NASA to work with commercial interests for space travel and transport.

  6. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  7. Water Flow Performance of a Superscale Model of the Fastrac Liquid Oxygen Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen; Zoladz, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's ongoing effort to lower the cost of access to space, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a rocket engine with 60,000 pounds of thrust for use on the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology demonstrator slated for launch in 2000. This gas generator cycle engine, known as the Fastrac engine, uses liquid oxygen and RP-1 for propellants and includes single stage liquid oxygen and RP-1 pumps and a single stage supersonic turbine on a common shaft. The turbopump design effort included the first use and application of new suction capability prediction codes and three-dimensional blade generation codes in an attempt to reduce the turbomachinery design and certification costs typically associated with rocket engine development. To verify the pump's predicted cavitation performance, a water flow test of a superscale model of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump was conducted to experimentally evaluate the liquid oxygen pump's performance at and around the design point. The water flow test article replicated the flow path of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump in a 1.582x scale model, including scaled seal clearances for correct leakage flow at a model operating speed of 5000 revolutions per minute. Flow entered the 3-blade axial-flow inducer, transitioned to a shrouded, 6- blade radial impeller, and discharged into a vaneless radial diffuser and collection volute. The test article included approximately 50 total and static pressure measurement locations as well as flush-mounted, high frequency pressure transducers for complete mapping of the pressure environment. The primary objectives of the water flow test were to measure the steady-state and dynamic pressure environment of the liquid oxygen pump versus flow coefficient, suction specific speed, and back face leakage flow rate. Initial results showed acceptable correlation between the predicted and experimentally measured pump head rise at low suction specific speeds

  8. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch. The RBCC's overall objective is to provide a technology test bed to investigate critical technologies associated with opperational usage of these engines. The program will focus on near term technologies that can be leveraged to ultimately serve as the near term basis for Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) air breathing propulsions systems and ultimately a Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) air breathing propulsion system.

  9. Effect of Rocket (Eruca sativa Extract on MRSA Growth and Proteome: Metabolic Adjustments in Plant-Based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapi I. Doulgeraki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in food has provoked a great concern about the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. Although MRSA is often detected in various retailed meat products, it seems that food handlers are more strongly associated with this type of food contamination. Thus, it can be easily postulated that any food could be contaminated with this pathogen in an industrial environment or in household and cause food poisoning. To this direction, the effect of rocket (Eruca sativa extract on MRSA growth and proteome was examined in the present study. This goal was achieved with the comparative study of the MRSA strain COL proteome, cultivated in rocket extract versus the standard Luria-Bertani growth medium. The obtained results showed that MRSA was able to grow in rocket extract. In addition, proteome analysis using 2-DE method showed that MRSA strain COL is taking advantage of the sugar-, lipid-, and vitamin-rich substrate in the liquid rocket extract, although its growth was delayed in rocket extract compared to Luria–Bertani medium. This work could initiate further research about bacterial metabolism in plant-based media and defense mechanisms against plant-derived antibacterials.

  10. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, William J. Jr.

    2008-01-01

    To support a potential future development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components could be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts

  11. Sounding rocket study of auroral electron precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of energetic electrons in the auroral zone have proved to be one of the most useful tools in investigating the phenomena of auroral arc formation. This dissertation presents a detailed analysis of the electron data from two sounding rocket campaigns and interprets the measurements in terms of existing auroral models. The Polar Cusp campaign consisted of a single rocket launched from Cape Parry, Canada into the afternoon auroral zone at 1:31:13 UT on January 21, 1982. The results include the measurement of a narrow, magnetic field aligned electron flux at the edge of an arc. This electron precipitation was found to have a remarkably constant 1.2 eV temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field over a 200 to 900 eV energy range. The payload also made simultaneous measurements of both energetic electrons and 3-MHz plasma waves in an auroral arc. Analysis has shown that the waves are propagating in the upper hybrid band and should be generated by a positive slope in the parallel electron distribution. A correlation was found between the 3-MHz waves and small positive slopes in the parallel electron distribution but experimental uncertainties in the electron measurement were large enough to influence the analysis. The BIDARCA campaign consisted of two sounding rockets launched from Poker Flat and Fort Yukon, Alaska at 9:09:00 UT and 9:10:40 UT on February 7, 1984

  12. A New Solid/Liquid Hypergolic System: 3-amino 1,2,4-triazine and Nitric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    materials. These mixtures are useful in a variety of aviation applications such as space travel , where they are used to ignite rocket motors, or used as...motor, rocket , HAN 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 26 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...adducts as additives of liquid/gel hypergols and solid hybrid rocket motor fuels: property and performance predictions. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army

  13. Magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structures for reusable nano-biosensor chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Haneul; Cho, Dong-guk; Park, Juhun; Nam, Ki Wan; Cho, Young Tak; Chen, Xing; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Dong Jun; Park, Jae Yeol

    2016-01-01

    We developed a magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structure which can be integrated with quite versatile nano-biosensor structures to build reusable nano-biosensor chips. This structure allows one to easily remove used receptor molecules from a biosensor surface and reuse the biosensor for repeated sensing operations. Using this structure, we demonstrated reusable immunofluorescence biosensors. Significantly, since our method allows one to place receptor molecules very close to a nano-biosensor surface, it can be utilized to build reusable carbon nanotube transistor-based biosensors which require receptor molecules within a Debye length from the sensor surface. Furthermore, we also show that a single sensor chip can be utilized to detect two different target molecules simply by replacing receptor molecules using our method. Since this method does not rely on any chemical reaction to refresh sensor chips, it can be utilized for versatile biosensor structures and virtually-general receptor molecular species. (paper)

  14. An Automatic Indicator of the Reusability of Learning Objects Based on Metadata That Satisfies Completeness Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Rodríguez, Javier; Margaritopoulos, Merkourios; Margaritopoulos, Thomas; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Sánchez-Alonso, Salvador; Manitsaris, Athanasios

    The search for learning objects in open repositories is currently a tedious task, owing to the vast amount of resources available and the fact that most of them do not have associated ratings to help users make a choice. In order to tackle this problem, we propose a reusability indicator, which can be calculated automatically using the metadata that describes the objects, allowing us to select those materials most likely to be reused. In order for this reusability indicator to be applied, metadata records must reach a certain amount of completeness, guaranteeing that the material is adequately described. This reusability indicator is tested in two studies on the Merlot and eLera repositories, and results obtained offer evidence to support their effectiveness.

  15. Reusable single-port access device shortens operative time and reduces operative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shussman, Noam; Kedar, Asaf; Elazary, Ram; Abu Gazala, Mahmoud; Rivkind, Avraham I; Mintz, Yoav

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, single-port laparoscopy (SPL) has become an attractive approach for performing surgical procedures. The pitfalls of this approach are technical and financial. Financial concerns are due to the increased cost of dedicated devices and prolonged operating room time. Our aim was to calculate the cost of SPL using a reusable port and instruments in order to evaluate the cost difference between this approach to SPL using the available disposable ports and standard laparoscopy. We performed 22 laparoscopic procedures via the SPL approach using a reusable single-port access system and reusable laparoscopic instruments. These included 17 cholecystectomies and five other procedures. Operative time, postoperative length of stay (LOS) and complications were prospectively recorded and were compared with similar data from our SPL database. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. SPL was successfully performed in all cases. Mean operative time for cholecystectomy was 72 min (range 40-116). Postoperative LOS was not changed from our standard protocols and was 1.1 days for cholecystectomy. The postoperative course was within normal limits for all patients and perioperative morbidity was recorded. Both operative time and length of hospital stay were shorter for the 17 patients who underwent cholecystectomy using a reusable port than for the matched previous 17 SPL cholecystectomies we performed (p cost difference. Operating with a reusable port ended up with an average cost savings of US$388 compared with using disposable ports, and US$240 compared with standard laparoscopy. Single-port laparoscopic surgery is a technically challenging and expensive surgical approach. Financial concerns among others have been advocated against this approach; however, we demonstrate herein that using a reusable port and instruments reduces operative time and overall operative costs, even beyond the cost of standard laparoscopy.

  16. Acoustically Forced Coaxial Hydrogen / Liquid Oxygen Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Conference Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Mar 2016 – 15 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acoustically Forced Coaxial Hydrogen / Liquid Oxygen Jet...perform, display, or disclose the work. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES For presentation at 28th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems...serious problems in the development of liquid rocket engines. In order to understand and predict them, it is necessary to understand how representative

  17. Developing a Toolset Supporting the Construction of Reusable Components for Embedded Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Sierszecki, Krzysztof; Angelov, Christo K.

    2010-01-01

    Reusing software components for embedded control applications enhances product quality and reduces time to market when appropriate (formal) methodologies and supporting toolsets are available. That is why industrial companies are interested in developing trusted, in-house reusable components for ...... on open-source technology, in accordance with industrial requirements, as well as the approach used to engineer a toolset supporting component development for embedded control applications.......Reusing software components for embedded control applications enhances product quality and reduces time to market when appropriate (formal) methodologies and supporting toolsets are available. That is why industrial companies are interested in developing trusted, in-house reusable components...

  18. Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

  19. Design criteria of launching rockets for burst aerial shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, T.; Takishita, Y.; Onda, T.; Shibamoto, H.; Hosaya, F. [Hosaya Kako Co. Ltd (Japan); Kubota, N. [Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Rocket motors attached to large-sized aerial shells are proposed to compensate for the increase in the lifting charge in the mortar and the thickness of the shell wall. The proposal is the result of an evaluation of the performance of solid propellants to provide information useful in designing launch rockets for large-size shells. The propellants composed of ammonium perchlorate and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene were used to evaluate the ballistic characteristics such as the relationship between propellant mass and trajectories of shells and launch rockets. In order to obtain an optimum rocket design, the evaluation also included a study of the velocity and height of the rocket motor and shell separation. A launch rocket with a large-sized shell (84.5 cm in diameter) was designed to verify the effectiveness of this class of launch system. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Introduction to the Special Issue on Sounding Rockets and Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Christe, Steven; Zeiger, Ben; Pfaff, Rob; Garcia, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rocket technology, originally developed for military applications, has provided a low-cost observing platform to carry critical and rapid-response scientific investigations for over 70 years. Even with the development of launch vehicles that could put satellites into orbit, high altitude sounding rockets have remained relevant. In addition to science observations, sounding rockets provide a unique technology test platform and a valuable training ground for scientists and engineers. Most impor...

  1. The Norwegian sounding rocket programme 1978-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmark, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Norwegian sounding rocket programme is reasonably well defined up to and including the winter of 1981/82. All the projects have been planned and will be carried out in international cooperation. Norwegian scientists so far plan to participate in a number of 24 rocket payloads over the period. Out of these 18 will be launched from the Andoya rocket range, 3 from Esrange and 3 from the siple station in the antarctic. (author)

  2. Experimental determination of plume properties in full-scale hydrogen-oxygen rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. G.; Limbaugh, C. C.; Zaccardi, V. A.; Eskridge, R.

    1989-01-01

    An IR emission/absorption technique for determining radial profiles of static temperature and species partial pressure for cylindrically symmetric combustion gases typical of the effluent of turbine engines and liquid-propellant rockets is described. In the technique, the IR plume radiance and absorption is measured using a 1 x 256-element platinum silicide detector array which is filtered to obtain plume emission measurements in the H2O band near 3.0 microns. A minicomputer is employed to control data acquisition and reduction.

  3. Comparison of the Effects of using Tygon Tubing in Rocket Propulsion Ground Test Pressure Transducer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rebecca A.; Wiley, John T.; Vitarius, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents acoustics environments data collected during liquid oxygen- ethanol hot-fire rocket testing at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in November- December 2003. The test program was conducted during development testing of the RS-88 development engine thrust chamber assembly in support of the Orbital Space Plane Crew Escape System Propulsion Program Pad Abort Demonstrator. In addition to induced environments analysis support, coincident data collected using other sensors and methods has allowed benchmarking of specific acoustics test measurement methodologies during propulsion tests. Qualitative effects on data characteristics caused by using tygon sense lines of various lengths in pressure transducer measurements is discussed here.

  4. System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

  5. Reusable bi-directional 3ω sensor to measure thermal conductivity of 100-μm thick biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubner, Sean D.; Choi, Jeunghwan; Wehmeyer, Geoff; Waag, Bastian; Mishra, Vivek; Natesan, Harishankar; Bischof, John C.; Dames, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the thermal conductivity (k) of biological tissues is important for cryopreservation, thermal ablation, and cryosurgery. Here, we adapt the 3ω method—widely used for rigid, inorganic solids—as a reusable sensor to measure k of soft biological samples two orders of magnitude thinner than conventional tissue characterization methods. Analytical and numerical studies quantify the error of the commonly used "boundary mismatch approximation" of the bi-directional 3ω geometry, confirm that the generalized slope method is exact in the low-frequency limit, and bound its error for finite frequencies. The bi-directional 3ω measurement device is validated using control experiments to within ±2% (liquid water, standard deviation) and ±5% (ice). Measurements of mouse liver cover a temperature ranging from -69 °C to +33 °C. The liver results are independent of sample thicknesses from 3 mm down to 100 μm and agree with available literature for non-mouse liver to within the measurement scatter.

  6. Wave-particle interaction phenomena observed by antarctic rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, I.; Hirasawa, T.

    1979-01-01

    Rocket measurements of wave and particles activities made at Syowa Station in Antarctica during IMS period are reviewed. Nine rockets were used for such observations, out of which 6 rockets were launched in the auroral sky. In the VLF frequency range, 0 - 10 KHz, wideband spectra of wave electric and magnetic fields, Poynting flux and the direction of propagation vector were measured for chorus, ELF and VLF hiss, and for electrostatic noises. In the MF and HF range, the dynamic frequency spectra of 0.1 - 10 MHz were measured. The relationship of these wave phenomena with energetic particle activities measured by the same rockets are discussed. (author)

  7. Ablative Material Testing at Lewis Rocket Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The increasing demand for a low-cost, reliable way to launch commercial payloads to low- Earth orbit has led to the need for inexpensive, expendable propulsion systems for new launch vehicles. This, in turn, has renewed interest in less complex, uncooled rocket engines that have combustion chambers and exhaust nozzles fabricated from ablative materials. A number of aerospace propulsion system manufacturers have utilized NASA Lewis Research Center's test facilities with a high degree of success to evaluate candidate materials for application to new propulsion devices.

  8. Solid Rocket Testing at AFRL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 2 Agenda • Solid Rocket Motors • History of Sea Level Testing • Small Component Testing • Full-scale Testing • Altitude...Facility • History of Testing • Questions -Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA#16492 3 RQ-West • AFRL/RQ...INTEGRATION FACILITY NATIONAL HOVER TEST FACILITY TITAN SRM TEST FACILITY TS-1C1-125 LARGE ENGINE/COMPONENT TEST FACILITY TS-1A 1-120 1-115 X-33 LAUNCH

  9. Numerical investigations of hybrid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betelin, V. B.; Kushnirenko, A. G.; Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Tyurenkova, V. V.; Stamov, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents the results of numerical studies of hybrid rocket engines operating cycle including unsteady-state transition stage. A mathematical model is developed accounting for the peculiarities of diffusion combustion of fuel in the flow of oxidant, which is composed of oxygen-nitrogen mixture. Three dimensional unsteady-state simulations of chemically reacting gas mixture above thermochemically destructing surface are performed. The results show that the diffusion combustion brings to strongly non-uniform fuel mass regression rate in the flow direction. Diffusive deceleration of chemical reaction brings to the decrease of fuel regression rate in the longitudinal direction.

  10. Contamination-free sounding rocket Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, W. E.; Schuck, P. W.; Walker, D. N.; Kintner, P. M.; Powell, S.; Holback, B.; Leonhardt, D.

    2001-04-01

    A technique for removing surface contaminants from a sounding rocket spherical Langmuir probe is presented. Contamination layers present on probe surfaces can skew the collected data, resulting in the incorrect determination of plasma parameters. Despite following the usual probe cleaning techniques that are used prior to a launch, the probe surface can become coated with layers of adsorbed neutral gas in less than a second when exposed to atmosphere. The laboratory tests reported here show that by heating the probe from the interior using a small halogen lamp, adsorbed neutral particles can be removed from the probe surface, allowing accurate plasma parameter measurements to be made.

  11. Rocket-Powered Parachutes Rescue Entire Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Langley Research Center helped BRS Aerospace, of Saint Paul, Minnesota, to develop technology that has saved 246 lives to date. The company s whole aircraft parachute systems deploy in less than 1 second thanks to solid rocket motors and are capable of arresting the descent of a small aircraft, lowering it safely to the ground. BRS has sold more than 30,000 systems worldwide, and the technology is now standard equipment on many of the world s top-selling aircraft. Parachutes for larger airplanes are in the works.

  12. Nuclear thermal rocket engine operation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.V.; Savoie, M.T.; Hundal, R.

    1993-06-01

    The operation of a typical Rover/Nerva-derived nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is characterized and the control requirements of the NTR are defined. A rationale for the selection of a candidate diverse redundant NTR engine control system is presented and the projected component operating requirements are related to the state of the art of candidate components and subsystems. The projected operational capabilities of the candidate system are delineated for the startup, full-thrust, shutdown, and decay heat removal phases of the engine operation. 9 refs

  13. Numerical simulations of a sounding rocket in ionospheric plasma: Effects of magnetic field on the wake formation and rocket potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian, D.; Marholm, S.; Paulsson, J. J. P.; Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.; Mortensen, M.; Miloch, W. J.

    2017-09-01

    The charging of a sounding rocket in subsonic and supersonic plasma flows with external magnetic field is studied with numerical particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A weakly magnetized plasma regime is considered that corresponds to the ionospheric F2 layer, with electrons being strongly magnetized, while the magnetization of ions is weak. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field orientation influences the floating potential of the rocket and that with increasing angle between the rocket axis and the magnetic field direction the rocket potential becomes less negative. External magnetic field gives rise to asymmetric wake downstream of the rocket. The simulated wake in the potential and density may extend as far as 30 electron Debye lengths; thus, it is important to account for these plasma perturbations when analyzing in situ measurements. A qualitative agreement between simulation results and the actual measurements with a sounding rocket is also shown.

  14. Facility arrangements and the environmental performance of disposable and reusable cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, José; Harst-Wintraecken, van der Eugenie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper integrates two complementary life cycle assessment (LCA) studies with the aim to advice facility managers on the sustainable use of cups, either disposable or reusable. Study 1 compares three disposable cups, i.e., made from fossil-based polystyrene (PS), biobased and

  15. Sound absorption of low-temperature reusable surface insulation candidate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sound absorption data from tests of four candidate low-temperature reusable surface insulation materials are presented. Limitations on the use of the data are discussed, conclusions concerning the effective absorption of the materials are drawn, and the relative significance to Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility test planning of the absorption of each material is assessed.

  16. Characterization of cement-based materials using a reusable piezoelectric impedance-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawie, R.; Lee, H. K.

    2011-08-01

    This paper proposes a reusable sensor, which employs a piezoceramic (PZT) plate as an active sensing transducer, for non-destructive monitoring of cement-based materials based on the electromechanical impedance (EMI) sensing technique. The advantage of the sensor design is that the PZT can be easily removed from the set-up and re-used for repetitive tests. The applicability of the sensor was demonstrated for monitoring of the setting of cement mortar. EMI measurements were performed using an impedance analyzer and the transformation of the specimen from the plastic to solid state was monitored by automatically measuring the changes in the PZT conductance spectra with respect to curing time using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) algorithm. In another experiment, drying-induced moisture loss of a hardened mortar specimen at saturated surface dry (SSD) condition was measured, and monitored using the reusable sensor to establish a correlation between the RMSD values and moisture loss rate. The reusable sensor was also demonstrated for detecting progressive damages imparted on a mortar specimen attached with the sensor under several loading levels before allowing it to load to failure. Overall, the reusable sensor is an effective and efficient monitoring device that could possibly be used for field application in characterization of cement-based materials.

  17. Characterization of cement-based materials using a reusable piezoelectric impedance-based sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawie, R; Lee, H K

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a reusable sensor, which employs a piezoceramic (PZT) plate as an active sensing transducer, for non-destructive monitoring of cement-based materials based on the electromechanical impedance (EMI) sensing technique. The advantage of the sensor design is that the PZT can be easily removed from the set-up and re-used for repetitive tests. The applicability of the sensor was demonstrated for monitoring of the setting of cement mortar. EMI measurements were performed using an impedance analyzer and the transformation of the specimen from the plastic to solid state was monitored by automatically measuring the changes in the PZT conductance spectra with respect to curing time using the root mean square deviation (RMSD) algorithm. In another experiment, drying-induced moisture loss of a hardened mortar specimen at saturated surface dry (SSD) condition was measured, and monitored using the reusable sensor to establish a correlation between the RMSD values and moisture loss rate. The reusable sensor was also demonstrated for detecting progressive damages imparted on a mortar specimen attached with the sensor under several loading levels before allowing it to load to failure. Overall, the reusable sensor is an effective and efficient monitoring device that could possibly be used for field application in characterization of cement-based materials

  18. Nano-Fe 3 O 4 /O 2 : Green, Magnetic and Reusable Catalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , efficient, heterogeneous and reusable catalytic system for the synthesis of benzimidazoles via the reactions of o-phenylenediamine (1 eq) with aryl aldehydes (1 eq) in excellentyields (85–97 %) and short reaction times (30–100 min) with a ...

  19. A literature review on business process modelling: new frontiers of reusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldin, Laden; de Cesare, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    Business process modelling (BPM) has become fundamental for modern enterprises due to the increasing rate of organisational change. As a consequence, business processes need to be continuously (re-)designed as well as subsequently aligned with the corresponding enterprise information systems. One major problem associated with the design of business processes is reusability. Reuse of business process models has the potential of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of BPM. This article critically surveys the existing literature on the problem of BPM reusability and more specifically on that State-of-the-Art research that can provide or suggest the 'elements' required for the development of a methodology aimed at discovering reusable conceptual artefacts in the form of patterns. The article initially clarifies the definitions of business process and business process model; then, it sets out to explore the previous research conducted in areas that have an impact on reusability in BPM. The article concludes by distilling directions for future research towards the development of apatterns-based approach to BPM; an approach that brings together the contributions made by the research community in the areas of process mining and discovery, declarative approaches and ontologies.

  20. A Diagnostic Approach to Increase Reusable Dinnerware Selection in a Cafeteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Jennifer C.; Sunseri, Mary Anne; Olson, Ryan; Scolari, Miranda

    2007-01-01

    The current project tested a diagnostic approach to selecting interventions to increase patron selection of reusable dinnerware in a cafeteria. An assessment survey, completed by a sample of 43 patrons, suggested that the primary causes of wasteful behavior were (a) environmental arrangement of dinnerware options and (b) competing motivational…

  1. Simple and reusable fibre-to-chip interconnect with adjustable coupling eficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Parriaux, Olivier M.; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    A simple, efficient and reusable fiber-to-chip interconnect is presented. The interconnect is based on a V-groove (wet- chemically etched) in silicon, combined with a loose-mode Si3N4-channel waveguide. The loose-mode waveguide is adiabatically tapered to the integrated optical (sensor) circuitry.

  2. Technology development for metallic hot structures in aerodynamic control surfaces of reusable launchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudmeijer, K.J.; Wentzel, C.; Lefeber, B.M.; Kloosterman, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a summary is presented of the technology development in the Netherlands focussed on the design and development of a metallic aerodynamic control surface for the future European reusable launcher. The applied materials are mainly Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys produced by

  3. Examining the Use of Web-Based Reusable Learning Objects by Animal and Veterinary Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman-Waterhouse, Emily; Silva-Fletcher, Ayona; Whittlestone, Kim David

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the interaction of animal and veterinary nursing students with reusable learning objects (RLO) in the context of preparing for summative assessment. Data was collected from 199 undergraduates using quantitative and qualitative methods. Students accessed RLO via personal devices in order to reinforce taught…

  4. Silica Sulfuric Acid: An Eco-Friendly and Reusable Catalyst for Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica sulfuric acid (SiO2-OSO3H as an eco-friendly, readily available, and reusable catalyst is applied to benzimidazole derivatives synthesis under reflux in ethanol. The procedure is very simple and the products are isolated with an easy workup in good-to-excellent yields.

  5. Experiences with Reusable E-Learning Objects: From Theory to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Jeanette A.; Heins, Tanya; Mundell, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Explains reusable electronic learning objects (ELOs) that are stored in a database and discusses the practical application of creating and reusing ELOs at Royal Roads University (Canada). Highlights include ELOs and the instructional design of online courses; and examples of using templates to develop interactive ELOs. (Author/LRW)

  6. Comment on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2005-01-01

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve employs a special strategy to attack

  7. Numerical investigation on the regression rate of hybrid rocket motor with star swirl fuel grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Hu, Fan; Zhang, Weihua

    2016-10-01

    Although hybrid rocket motor is prospected to have distinct advantages over liquid and solid rocket motor, low regression rate and insufficient efficiency are two major disadvantages which have prevented it from being commercially viable. In recent years, complex fuel grain configurations are attractive in overcoming the disadvantages with the help of Rapid Prototyping technology. In this work, an attempt has been made to numerically investigate the flow field characteristics and local regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor with complex star swirl grain. A propellant combination with GOX and HTPB has been chosen. The numerical model is established based on the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with turbulence, combustion, and coupled gas/solid phase formulations. The calculated fuel regression rate is compared with the experimental data to validate the accuracy of numerical model. The results indicate that, comparing the star swirl grain with the tube grain under the conditions of the same port area and the same grain length, the burning surface area rises about 200%, the spatially averaged regression rate rises as high as about 60%, and the oxidizer can combust sufficiently due to the big vortex around the axis in the aft-mixing chamber. The combustion efficiency of star swirl grain is better and more stable than that of tube grain.

  8. Clinical outcomes and costs of reusable and single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, R; Kurosch, M; Höfner, T; Frees, S; Haferkamp, A; Neisius, A

    2018-01-22

    The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical outcomes and costs of single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes in comparison with reusable flexible ureterorenoscopes in a tertiary referral center. Prospectively, 68 flexible ureterorenoscopies utilizing reusable (Flex-X2S, Flex-X C , Karl Storz) and 68 applying single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes (LithoVue, Boston Scientific) were collected. Clinical outcome parameters such as overall success rate, complication rates according to Clavien-Dindo, operation time and radiation exposure time were measured. Cost analysis was based on purchase costs and recurrent costs for repair and reprocessing divided by number of procedures. In each group 68 procedures were available for evaluation. In 91% of reusable and 88% of single-use ureterorenoscopies stone disease was treated with a mean stone burden of 101 ± 226 and 90 ± 244 mm 2 and lower pole involvement in 47 and 41%, respectively (p > 0.05). Comparing clinical outcomes of reusable vs. single-use instruments revealed no significant difference for overall success rates (81 vs. 87%), stone-free rates (82 vs. 85%), operation time (76.2 ± 46.8 vs. 76.8 ± 40.2 min), radiation exposure time (3.83 ± 3.15 vs. 3.93 ± 4.43 min) and complication rates (7 vs. 17%) (p > 0.05). A wide range of repair and purchase costs resulted in total to $1212-$1743 per procedure for reusable ureterorenoscopy whereas price of single-use ureterorenoscopy was $1300-$3180 per procedure. The current work provided evidence for equal clinical effectiveness of reusable and single-use flexible ureterorenoscopes. Partially overlapping ranges of costs for single-use and reusable scopes stress the importance to precisely know the expenses and caseload when negotiating purchase prices, repair prices and warranty conditions.

  9. Liquid phase oxidation via heterogeneous catalysis organic synthesis and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clerici, Mario G

    2013-01-01

    Sets the stage for environmentally friendly industrial organic syntheses From basic principles to new and emerging industrial applications, this book offers comprehensive coverage of heterogeneous liquid-phase selective oxidation catalysis. It fully examines the synthesis, characterization, and application of catalytic materials for environmentally friendly organic syntheses. Readers will find coverage of all the important classes of catalysts, with an emphasis on their stability and reusability. Liquid Phase Oxidation via Heterogeneous Catalysis features contributions from an internation

  10. Microservices in Web Objects Enabled IoT Environment for Enhancing Reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Jarwar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ubiquitous Internet of Things (IoT environment, reusing objects instead of creating new one has become important in academics and industries. The situation becomes complex due to the availability of a huge number of connected IoT objects, and each individual service creates a new object instead of reusing the existing one to fulfill a requirement. A well-standard mechanism not only improves the reusability of objects but also improves service modularity and extensibility, and reduces cost. Web Objects enabled IoT environment applies the principle of reusability of objects in multiple IoT application domains through central objects repository and microservices. To reuse objects with microservices and to maintain a relationship with them, this study presents an architecture of Web of Objects platform. In the case of a similar request for an object, the already instantiated object that exists in the same or from other domain can be reused. Reuse of objects through microservices avoids duplications, and reduces time to search and instantiate them from their registries. Further, this article presents an algorithm for microservices and related objects discovery that considers the reusability of objects through the central objects repository. To support the reusability of objects, the necessary algorithm for objects matching is also presented. To realize the reusability of objects in Web Objects enabled IoT environment, a prototype has been designed and implemented based on a use case scenario. Finally, the results of the prototype have been analyzed and discussed to validate the proposed approach.

  11. Software for Collaborative Engineering of Launch Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy

    2003-01-01

    The Rocket Evaluation and Cost Integration for Propulsion and Engineering software enables collaborative computing with automated exchange of information in the design and analysis of launch rockets and other complex systems. RECIPE can interact with and incorporate a variety of programs, including legacy codes, that model aspects of a system from the perspectives of different technological disciplines (e.g., aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, trajectory, aeroheating, controls, and operations) and that are used by different engineers on different computers running different operating systems. RECIPE consists mainly of (1) ISCRM a file-transfer subprogram that makes it possible for legacy codes executed in their original operating systems on their original computers to exchange data and (2) CONES an easy-to-use filewrapper subprogram that enables the integration of legacy codes. RECIPE provides a tightly integrated conceptual framework that emphasizes connectivity among the programs used by the collaborators, linking these programs in a manner that provides some configuration control while facilitating collaborative engineering tradeoff studies, including design to cost studies. In comparison with prior collaborative-engineering schemes, one based on the use of RECIPE enables fewer engineers to do more in less time.

  12. A Flight Demonstration of Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schwenterly, WIlliam; Hitt, Michael; Lepore, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been engaged in the development of a variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (V ASIMR) for several years. This type of rocket could be used in the future to propel interplanetary spacecraft and has the potential to open the entire solar system to human exploration. One feature of this propulsion technology is the ability to vary its specific impulse so that it can be operated in a mode that maximizes propellant efficiency or a mode that maximizes thrust. Variation of specific impulse and thrust enhances the ability to optimize interplanetary trajectories and results in shorter trip times and lower propellant requirements than with a fixed specific impulse. In its ultimate application for interplanetary travel, the VASIMR would be a multi-megawatt device. A much lower power system is being designed for demonstration in the 2004 timeframe. This first space demonstration would employ a lO-kilowatt thruster aboard a solar powered spacecraft in Earth orbit. The 1O-kilowatt V ASIMR demonstration unit would operate for a period of several months with hydrogen or deuterium propellant with a specific impulse of 10,000 seconds.

  13. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The next generation of X-ray spectrometers necessitate significant increases in both resolution and effective area to achieve the science goals set forth in the 2010 Decadal Survey and the 2013 Astrophysics Roadmap. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE), an X-ray spectroscopy suborbital rocket payload currently scheduled for launch in Q3 2020, will serve as a testbed for several key technologies which can help achieve the desired performance increases of future spectrometers. OGRE will be the first instrument to fly mono-crystalline silicon X-ray mirrors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The payload will also utilize an array of off-plane gratings manufactured at The Pennsylvania State University. Additionally, the focal plane will be populated with an array of four electron-multiplying CCDs developed by the Open University and XCAM Ltd. With these key technologies, OGRE hopes to achieve the highest resolution on-sky soft X-ray spectrum to date. We discuss the optical design, expected performance, and the current status of the payload.

  14. Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology (SMART) Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime; Flatley, Thomas P.; Bull, James B.; Buckley, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office are exercising a multi-year collaborative agreement focused on a redefinition of the way space missions are designed and implemented. A much faster, leaner and effective approach to space flight requires the concerted effort of a multi-agency team tasked with developing the building blocks, both programmatically and technologically, to ultimately achieve flights within 7-days from mission call-up. For NASA, rapid mission implementations represent an opportunity to find creative ways for reducing mission life-cycle times with the resulting savings in cost. This in tum enables a class of missions catering to a broader audience of science participants, from universities to private and national laboratory researchers. To that end, the SMART (Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology) micro-spacecraft prototype demonstrates an advanced avionics system with integrated GPS capability, high-speed plug-and-playable interfaces, legacy interfaces, inertial navigation, a modular reconfigurable structure, tunable thermal technology, and a number of instruments for environmental and optical sensing. Although SMART was first launched inside a sounding rocket, it is designed as a free-flyer.

  15. Gas core nuclear rocket feasibility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1997-09-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The gas core concept relies on the use of fluid dynamic forces to create and maintain a vortex. The vortex is composed of a fissile material which will achieve criticality and produce high power levels. By radiatively coupling to the surrounding fluids, extremely high temperatures in the propellant and, thus, high specific impulses can be generated. The ship velocities enabled by such performance may allow a 9 month round trip, manned Mars mission to be considered. Alternatively, one might consider slightly longer missions in ships that are heavily shielded against the intense Galactic Cosmic Ray flux to further reduce the radiation dose to the crew. The current status of the research program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory into the gas core nuclear rocket feasibility will be discussed

  16. The Chameleon Solid Rocket Propulsion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2010-01-01

    The Khoury and Weltman (2004a and 2004b) Chameleon Model presents an addition to the gravitation force and was shown by the author (Robertson, 2009a and 2009b) to present a new means by which one can view other forces in the Universe. The Chameleon Model is basically a density-dependent model and while the idea is not new, this model is novel in that densities in the Universe to include the vacuum of space are viewed as scalar fields. Such an analogy gives the Chameleon scalar field, dark energy/dark matter like characteristics; fitting well within cosmological expansion theories. In respect to this forum, in this paper, it is shown how the Chameleon Model can be used to derive the thrust of a solid rocket motor. This presents a first step toward the development of new propulsion models using density variations verse mass ejection as the mechanism for thrust. Further, through the Chameleon Model connection, these new propulsion models can be tied to dark energy/dark matter toward new space propulsion systems utilizing the vacuum scalar field in a way understandable by engineers, the key toward the development of such systems. This paper provides corrections to the Chameleon rocket model in Robertson (2009b).

  17. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Simulation in NPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, Michael L.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Four nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) models have been created in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. The models are divided into two categories. One set is based upon the ZrC-graphite composite fuel element and tie tube-style reactor developed during the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) project in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The other reactor set is based upon a W-UO2 ceramic-metallic (CERMET) fuel element. Within each category, a small and a large thrust engine are modeled. The small engine models utilize RL-10 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 33.4 kN (7,500 lbf ). The large engine models utilize scaled RL-60 turbomachinery performance maps and have a thrust of approximately 111.2 kN (25,000 lbf ). Power deposition profiles for each reactor were obtained from a detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) model of the reactor cores. Performance factors such as thermodynamic state points, thrust, specific impulse, reactor power level, and maximum fuel temperature are analyzed for each engine design.

  18. SCORE - Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Moses, Dan; Romoli, Marco

    The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a coronagraph for multi-wavelength imaging of the coronal Lyman-alpha lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and for the broad.band visible-light emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009 acquiring the first images of the HeII line-emission from the extended corona. The simultaneous observation of the coronal Lyman-alpha HI 121.6 nm, has allowed the first determination of the absolute helium abundance in the extended corona. This presentation will describe the lesson learned from the first flight and will illustrate the preparations and the science perspectives for the second re-flight approved by NASA and scheduled for 2016. The SCORE optical design is flexible enough to be able to accommodate different experimental configurations with minor modifications. This presentation will describe one of such configurations that could include a polarimeter for the observation the expected Hanle effect in the coronal Lyman-alpha HI line. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV) can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Thus, space-based UV spectro-polarimetry would provide an additional new tool for the diagnostics of coronal magnetism.

  19. Assessment of exposure-response functions for rocket-emission toxicants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subcommittee on Rocket-Emission Toxicants, National Research Council

    ... aborted launch that results in a rocket being destroyed near the ground. Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emmission Toxicants evaluates the model and the data used for three rocket emission toxicants...

  20. Cost analysis of single-use (Ambu® aScope™) and reusable bronchoscopes in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbet, S; Blanquet, M; Mourgues, C; Delmas, J; Bertran, S; Longère, B; Boïko-Alaux, V; Chennell, P; Bazin, J-E; Constantin, J-M

    2017-12-01

    Flexible optical bronchoscopes are essential for management of airways in ICU, but the conventional reusable flexible scopes have three major drawbacks: high cost of repairs, need for decontamination, and possible transmission of infectious agents. The main objective of this study was to measure the cost of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) using reusable bronchoscopes and single-use bronchoscopes in an ICU of an university hospital. The secondary objective was to compare the satisfaction of healthcare professionals with reusable and single-use bronchoscopes. The study was performed between August 2009 and July 2014 in a 16-bed ICU. All BAL and PT procedures were performed by experienced healthcare professionals. Cost analysis was performed considering ICU and hospital organization. Healthcare professional satisfaction with single-use and reusable scopes was determined based on eight factors. Sensitivity analysis was performed by applying discount rates (0, 3, and 5%) and by simulation of six situations based on different assumptions. At a discount rate of 3%, the costs per BAL for the two reusable scopes were 188.86€ (scope 1) and 185.94€ (scope 2), and the costs per PT for the reusable scope 1 and scope 2 and single-use scopes were 1613.84€, 410.24€, and 204.49€, respectively. The cost per procedure for the reusable scopes depended on the number of procedures performed, maintenance costs, and decontamination costs. Healthcare professionals were more satisfied with the third-generation single-use Ambu ® aScope™. The cost per procedure for the single-use scope was not superior to that for reusable scopes. The choice of single-use or reusable bronchoscopes in an ICU should consider the frequency of procedures and the number of bronchoscopes needed.