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Sample records for retrogradely labeled neurons

  1. Selective retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons with [3H]choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.; Beaudet, A.; Stella, M.; Cuenod, M.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented which is consistent with a specific retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons following [ 3 H]choline application in their zone of termination. [ 3 H]Choline injection in the rat hippocampus leads to perikaryal retrograde labeling in the ipsilateral medial septal nuclease and nucleus of the diagonal band, thus delineating an established cholinergic pathway, while only diffuse presumably anterograde labeling was observed in the lateral septum, the entorhinal cortex, and the opposite hippocampus. After [ 3 H]choline injection in the pigeon visual Wulst, only the ipsilateral thalamic relay, of all inputs, showed similar perikaryal retrograde labeling, an observation supporting the suggestion that at least some thalamo-Wulst neurons are cholinergic

  2. D-[3H]aspartate retrograde labelling of callosal and association neurons of somatosensory areas I and II of cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaresi, P.; Fabri, M.; Conti, F.; Manzoni, T.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on cats to ascertain whether corticocortical neurons of somatosensory areas I (SI) and II (SII) could be labelled by retrograde axonal transport of D-[ 3 H]aspartate (D-[ 3 H]Asp). This tritiated enantiomer of the amino acid aspartate is (1) taken up selectively by axon terminals of neurons releasing aspartate and/or glutamate as excitatory neurotransmitter, (2) retrogradely transported and accumulated in perikarya, (3) not metabolized, and (4) visualized by autoradiography. A solution of D-[ 3 H]Asp was injected in eight cats in the trunk and forelimb zones of SI (two cats) or in the forelimb zone of SII (six cats). In order to compare the labelling patterns obtained with D-[ 3 H]Asp with those resulting after injection of a nonselective neuronal tracer, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was delivered mixed with the radioactive tracer in seven of the eight cats. Furthermore, six additional animals received HRP injections in SI (three cats; trunk and forelimb zones) or SII (three cats; forelimb zone). D-[ 3 H]Asp retrograde labelling of perikarya was absent from the ipsilateral thalamus of all cats injected with the radioactive tracer but a dense terminal plexus of anterogradely labelled corticothalamic fibers from SI and SII was observed, overlapping the distribution area of thalamocortical neurons retrogradely labelled with HRP from the same areas. D-[ 3 H]Asp-labelled neurones were present in ipsilateral SII (SII-SI association neurones) in cats injected in SI. In these animals a bundle of radioactive fibres was observed in the rostral portion of the corpus callosum entering the contralateral hemisphere. There, neurones retrogradely labelled with silver grains were present in SI (SI-SI callosal neurons)

  3. Retrograde transport of [3H]-D-aspartate label by cochlear and vestibular efferent neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.W.; Schwarz, I.E.

    1988-01-01

    [ 3 H]-D-aspartic acid was injected into the inner ear of rats. After a six hour survival time, labeled cells were found at all locations known to contain efferent cochlear or vestibular neurons. Most labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO), although both ventral nuclei of the trapezoid body (VTB), group E, and the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (CPR) just adjacent to the ascending limb of the facial nerve also contained labeled cells. Because not all efferent neurons in the rat could be previously shown to be cholinergic, aspartate and glutamate are efferent transmitter candidates

  4. Selective retrograde labeling of lateral olivocochlear neurons in the brainstem based on preferential uptake of 3H-D-aspartic acid in the cochlea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, A.F.; Schwartz, I.R.; Helfert, R.H.; Keithley, E.; Wang, Z.X.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously shown that perfusion of the gerbil cochlea with probe concentrations of 3 H-D-aspartic acid (D-ASP) results in immediate, selective labeling of 50-60% of the efferent terminals under the inner hair cells, presumably by high-affinity uptake. The present study was undertaken to determine the origin of these endings. Twenty-four hours after cochlear perfusion with D-ASP, labeled neurons were observed in the ipsilateral, and to a much lesser extent in the contralateral, lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO). The cells were small, primarily fusiform, and showed fewer synaptic contacts than other LSO cells. Combined transport of D-ASP and horseradish peroxidase indicated that all olivocochlear neurons within the LSO that projected to the injected cochlea were labeled by D-ASP. Labeled fibers coursed dorsally from the LSO, joined contralateral fibers that had passed under the floor of the fourth ventricle, and entered the VIIIth nerve root at its ventromedial edge. Adjacent to the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), densely labeled collateral fibers crossed the nerve root to enter the VCN. Labeled fibers and terminals were prominent in the central VCN. Neither retrograde transport of D-ASP by medial olivocochlear and vestibular efferents nor anterograde transport by VIIIth nerve afferents was observed. The D-ASP-labeled cells and fibers are clearly lateral olivocochlear efferents. Retrograde transport of D-ASP thus allows the cells, axons, and collaterals of the lateral olivocochlear system to be studied, morphologically, in isolation from other cells that project to the cochlea. Since the olivocochlear neurons are almost certainly cholinergic, retrograde amino acid transport does not necessarily identify the primary neurotransmitter of a neuron. Rather, it indicates the presence of selective uptake by the processes of that neuron at the site of amino acid injection

  5. Transneuronal retrograde dual viral labelling of central autonomic circuitry : possibilities and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Viral retrograde transneuronal labelling has become an important neuroanatomical tract-tracing tool for characterization of Limbic neuronal networks. Recently, dual viral retrograde transneuronal labelling has been introduced; a method employing differential transgene expression of two genetically

  6. Origin and characterization of retrograde labeled neurons supplying the rat urethra using fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy in vivo and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keon-Cheol; Sharma, Seema; Tuttle, Jeremy B; Steers, William D

    2010-10-01

    Autonomic innervation of urethral smooth muscle may influence urinary continence after prostatectomy. It is unclear whether the cavernous nerves carry fibers that influence continence. Using a retrograde axonal tracer combined with real-time in vivo imaging and ex vivo immunohistochemistry we determined the course and type of neurons supplying urethral smooth muscle distal to the prostate in the rat. We injected the retrograde axonal tracers cholera toxin B fragment-Alexa Fluor 488 and Fast Blue in the distal urethral smooth muscle in 10 rats each. Five days later the cavernous nerves and pelvic ganglion were imaged using fiberoptic confocal fluorescence microscopy (cholera toxin B fragment-Alexa Fluor 488) or harvested for immunohistochemistry (Fast Blue). Dual immunofluorescence of Fast Blue neurons with tyrosine hydroxylase or neuronal nitric oxide synthase was done to characterize neurons as noradrenergic or nitrergic. To ascertain whether the cavernous nerves contain fibers to the urethra that originate in the pelvic ganglia we cut the cavernous nerves with their ancillary branches in 3 rats and imaged them for Fast Blue. Fluorescent neurons and axons were detected in cavernous nerves and the pelvic ganglion. Few neurons were seen in rats with cavernous nerve section. Of urethral neurons 53.1% showed neuronal nitric oxide synthase positivity while 40.6% were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase. About 6.2% of urethral neurons failed to show tyrosine hydroxylase or neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. Most of the autonomic innervation to the urethra beyond the prostatic apex travels in the cavernous nerves. Many nerves may be parasympathetic based on neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. Nerves supplying the urethra outside the cavernous nerves may course posterior to the prostate. Along with afferent fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity expressing neuron fibers, ie noradrenergic nerves, traveling in the cavernous nerves may

  7. Retrograde Neuroanatomical Tracing of Phrenic Motor Neurons in Mice.

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    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Hontoir, Fanny; De Knoop, Alexis; De Swert, Kathleen; Nicaise, Charles

    2018-02-22

    Phrenic motor neurons are cervical motor neurons originating from C3 to C6 levels in most mammalian species. Axonal projections converge into phrenic nerves innervating the respiratory diaphragm. In spinal cord slices, phrenic motor neurons cannot be identified from other motor neurons on morphological or biochemical criteria. We provide the description of procedures for visualizing phrenic motor neuron cell bodies in mice, following intrapleural injections of cholera toxin subunit beta (CTB) conjugated to a fluorophore. This fluorescent neuroanatomical tracer has the ability to be caught up at the diaphragm neuromuscular junction, be carried retrogradely along the phrenic axons and reach the phrenic cell bodies. Two methodological approaches of intrapleural CTB delivery are compared: transdiaphragmatic versus transthoracic injections. Both approaches are successful and result in similar number of CTB-labeled phrenic motor neurons. In conclusion, these techniques can be applied to visualize or quantify the phrenic motor neurons in various experimental studies such as those focused on the diaphragm-phrenic circuitry.

  8. A Viral Receptor Complementation Strategy to Overcome CAV-2 Tropism for Efficient Retrograde Targeting of Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Jing; Vaughan, Alexander; Sturgill, James Fitzhugh; Kepecs, Adam

    2018-06-06

    Retrogradely transported neurotropic viruses enable genetic access to neurons based on their long-range projections and have become indispensable tools for linking neural connectivity with function. A major limitation of viral techniques is that they rely on cell-type-specific molecules for uptake and transport. Consequently, viruses fail to infect variable subsets of neurons depending on the complement of surface receptors expressed (viral tropism). We report a receptor complementation strategy to overcome this by potentiating neurons for the infection of the virus of interest-in this case, canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2). We designed AAV vectors for expressing the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) throughout candidate projection neurons. CAR expression greatly increased retrograde-labeling rates, which we demonstrate for several long-range projections, including some resistant to other retrograde-labeling techniques. Our results demonstrate a receptor complementation strategy to abrogate endogenous viral tropism and thereby facilitate efficient retrograde targeting for functional analysis of neural circuits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective retrograde transport of D-aspartate in spinal interneurons anc cortical neurons of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustioni, A.; Cuenod, M.

    1982-01-01

    Retrograde labeling of neuronal elements in the brain and spinal cord has been investigated by autoradiographic techniques following injections of D-[ 3 H]aspartate (asp), [ 3 H]γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the medulla and spinal cord of rats. Twenty-four hours after D-[ 3 H]asp injections focused upon the cuneate nucleus, autoradiographic labeling is present over fibers in the pyramidal tract, internal capsule and over layer V pyramids in the forelimb representation of the sensorimotor cortex. After [ 3 H]GABA injections in the same nucleus no labeling attributable to retrograde translocation can be detected in spinal segments, brain stem or cortex. Conversely, injections of 30% HRP in the cuneate nucleus label neurons in several brain stem nuclei, in spinal gray and in layer V of the sensorimotor cortex. D-[ 3 H]Asp injections focused on the dorsal horn at cervical segments label a fraction of perikarya of the substantia gelatinosa and a sparser population of larger neurons in laminae IV to VI for a distance of 3-5 segments above and below the injection point. No brain stem neuronal perikarya appear labeled following spinal injections of D-[ 3 H]asp although autoradiographic grains overlie pyramidal tract fibers on the side contralateral to the injection. (Auth.)

  10. Vasculo-Neuronal Coupling: Retrograde Vascular Communication to Brain Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Ramiro Diaz, Juan; Iddings, Jennifer A; Filosa, Jessica A

    2016-12-14

    Continuous cerebral blood flow is essential for neuronal survival, but whether vascular tone influences resting neuronal function is not known. Using a multidisciplinary approach in both rat and mice brain slices, we determined whether flow/pressure-evoked increases or decreases in parenchymal arteriole vascular tone, which result in arteriole constriction and dilation, respectively, altered resting cortical pyramidal neuron activity. We present evidence for intercellular communication in the brain involving a flow of information from vessel to astrocyte to neuron, a direction opposite to that of classic neurovascular coupling and referred to here as vasculo-neuronal coupling (VNC). Flow/pressure increases within parenchymal arterioles increased vascular tone and simultaneously decreased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. On the other hand, flow/pressure decreases evoke parenchymal arteriole dilation and increased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. In GLAST-CreERT2; R26-lsl-GCaMP3 mice, we demonstrate that increased parenchymal arteriole tone significantly increased intracellular calcium in perivascular astrocyte processes, the onset of astrocyte calcium changes preceded the inhibition of cortical pyramidal neuronal firing activity. During increases in parenchymal arteriole tone, the pyramidal neuron response was unaffected by blockers of nitric oxide, GABA A , glutamate, or ecto-ATPase. However, VNC was abrogated by TRPV4 channel, GABA B , as well as an adenosine A 1 receptor blocker. Differently to pyramidal neuron responses, increases in flow/pressure within parenchymal arterioles increased the firing activity of a subtype of interneuron. Together, these data suggest that VNC is a complex constitutive active process that enables neurons to efficiently adjust their resting activity according to brain perfusion levels, thus safeguarding cellular homeostasis by preventing mismatches between energy supply and demand. We present evidence for vessel-to-neuron

  11. The localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus – a retrograde tracing study

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    Paweł Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system is a sophisticated and independent structure composed of two antagonistic (opposing divisions (sympathetic and parasympathetic that control many vital functions including: homeostasis maintenance, heart rate, blood circulation, secretion, etc. Thymus is one of the most important primary lymphoid organs playing a role in the developing of a juvenile’s immune system mainly by maturation, development, and migration of T-cells (T lymphocytes. In the last decades, several studies identifying sources of the thymic autonomic supply have been undertaken in humans and several laboratory rodents but not in higher mammals such as the pig. Therefore, in the present work, retrograde tracing technique of Fast Blue and DiI was used to investigate the sources of sympathetic efferent supply to the porcine thymus. After Fast Blue injection into the right lobe of the thymus, the presence of Fast Blue-positive neurons was found in the unilateral cranial cervical ganglion (82.8 ± 3.0% of total Fast Blue-positive neurons as well as in the middle cervical ganglion (17.2 ± 3.0%. Injection of DiI resulted in the presence of retrograde tracer in neurons of the cranial cervical ganglion (80.4 ± 2.3% of total amount of DiI-labelled neurons, the middle cervical ganglion (18.4 ± 1.9%, and the cervicothoracic ganglion (1.2 ± 0.8%. The present report provides the first data describing in details the localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus.

  12. Investigation of retinal ganglion cells and axons of normal rats using fluorogold retrograde labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiaolei; Ye Jian; Chen Chunlin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by means of fluorogold retrograde labeling, RGCs were labeled by injecting the fluorogold bilaterally into the superficial superior colliculus and lateral genicutate nucleus in six adult SD rats. One and two weeks (3 rats in each group) after injecting the fluorogold, RGCs FG-labeled were observed and the number of them were counted. The results showed that after a week mean density of fluorogold-labeled RGCs was 2210 ± 128/mm 2 , and it was 2164 ± 117/mm 2 after two weeks. Our conclusion is fluorogold retrograde labeling could be very useful in the research of RGCs. (authors)

  13. Retrograde tracing of zinc-enriched (ZEN) neuronal somata in rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Danscher, G.; Jo, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    neurons have relatively short axons or boutons en passage close to the neuronal origin. Ultrastructurally, the retrogradely transported zinc selenide clusters were found in the lysosomes of ZEN somata and proximal dendrites. Electron microscopic studies also revealed two different kinds of ZEN terminals...

  14. Highly efficient retrograde gene transfer into motor neurons by a lentiviral vector pseudotyped with fusion glycoprotein.

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    Miyabi Hirano

    Full Text Available The development of gene therapy techniques to introduce transgenes that promote neuronal survival and protection provides effective therapeutic approaches for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Intramuscular injection of adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors, as well as lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G, permits gene delivery into motor neurons in animal models for motor neuron diseases. Recently, we developed a vector with highly efficient retrograde gene transfer (HiRet by pseudotyping a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-based vector with fusion glycoprotein B type (FuG-B or a variant of FuG-B (FuG-B2, in which the cytoplasmic domain of RV-G was replaced by the corresponding part of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G. We have also developed another vector showing neuron-specific retrograde gene transfer (NeuRet with fusion glycoprotein C type, in which the short C-terminal segment of the extracellular domain and transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains of RV-G was substituted with the corresponding regions of VSV-G. These two vectors afford the high efficiency of retrograde gene transfer into different neuronal populations in the brain. Here we investigated the efficiency of the HiRet (with FuG-B2 and NeuRet vectors for retrograde gene transfer into motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain in mice after intramuscular injection and compared it with the efficiency of the RV-G pseudotype of the HIV-1-based vector. The main highlight of our results is that the HiRet vector shows the most efficient retrograde gene transfer into both spinal cord and hindbrain motor neurons, offering its promising use as a gene therapeutic approach for the treatment of motor neuron diseases.

  15. Fast neuronal labeling in live tissue using a biocytin conjugated fluorescent probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, Mads; Müller, Christoph Felix; Rohrberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    of local synapses within 10min. TMR biocytin is fixable, stable during methyl salicylate clearing, and can be visualized deep in nervous tissue. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: Retrograde labeling with TMR biocytin enables long-range neuronal visualization and concurrent calcium imaging after only a few...

  16. Retrograde axoplasmic flow of serotonin in central mono-aminergic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, Lucienne; Pujol, J.-F.; Bobillier, Pierre; Jouvet, Michel

    1977-01-01

    Following an injection of 3 H-5 HT in the neostriatum of the Rat, the tracer is transported by axoplasmic retrograde flow to the cell groups containing mono-aminergic neurons which are known or thought to have afferences to this structure: substantia nigra, dopaminergic group A8 and n. raphe dorsalis [fr

  17. Self-repair in a Bidirectionally Coupled Astrocyte-Neuron (AN System based on Retrograde Signaling

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    John eWade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate that retrograde signaling via astrocytes may underpin self-repair in the brain. Faults manifest themselves in silent or near silent neurons caused by low transmission probability synapses; the enhancement of the transmission probability of a healthy neighbouring synapse by retrograde signaling can enhance the transmission probability of the faulty synapse (repair. Our model of self-repair is based on recent research showing that retrograde signaling via astrocytes can increase the probability of neurotransmitter release at damaged or low transmission probability synapses. The model demonstrates that astrocytes are capable of bidirectional communication with neurons which leads to modulation of synaptic activity, and that indirect signaling through retrograde messengers such as endocannabinoids leads to modulation of synaptic transmission probability. Although our model operates at the level of cells, it provides a new research direction on brain-like self-repair which can be extended to networks of astrocytes and neurons. It also provides a biologically inspired basis for developing highly adaptive, distributed computing systems that can, at fine levels of granularity, fault detect, diagnose and self-repair autonomously, without the traditional constraint of a central fault detect/repair unit.

  18. Retrograde influences of SCG axotomy on uninjured preganglionic neurons.

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    Gannon, Sean M; Hawk, Kiel; Walsh, Brian F; Coulibaly, Aminata; Isaacson, Lori G

    2018-04-18

    There is evidence that neuronal injury can affect uninjured neurons in the same neural circuit. The overall goal of this study was to understand the effects of peripheral nerve injury on uninjured neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS). As a model, we examined whether axotomy (transection of postganglionic axons) of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) affected the uninjured, preganglionic neurons that innervate the SCG. At 7 days post-injury a reduction in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the SCG, both markers for preganglionic axons, was observed, and this reduction persisted at 8 and 12 weeks post-injury. No changes were observed in the number or size of the parent cell bodies in the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of the spinal cord, yet synaptic input to the IML neurons was decreased at both 8 and 12 weeks post-injury. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes, protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) were examined and reductions were observed at 7 days post-injury in both the SCG and spinal cord. Taken together these results suggest that axotomy of the SCG led to reduced BDNF in the SCG and spinal cord, which in turn influenced ChAT and synaptophysin expression in the SCG and also contributed to the altered synaptic input to the IML neurons. More generally these findings provide evidence that the effects of peripheral injury can cascade into the CNS and affect uninjured neurons. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Distal axotomy enhances retrograde presynaptic excitability onto injured pyramidal neurons via trans-synaptic signaling.

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    Nagendran, Tharkika; Larsen, Rylan S; Bigler, Rebecca L; Frost, Shawn B; Philpot, Benjamin D; Nudo, Randolph J; Taylor, Anne Marion

    2017-09-20

    Injury of CNS nerve tracts remodels circuitry through dendritic spine loss and hyper-excitability, thus influencing recovery. Due to the complexity of the CNS, a mechanistic understanding of injury-induced synaptic remodeling remains unclear. Using microfluidic chambers to separate and injure distal axons, we show that axotomy causes retrograde dendritic spine loss at directly injured pyramidal neurons followed by retrograde presynaptic hyper-excitability. These remodeling events require activity at the site of injury, axon-to-soma signaling, and transcription. Similarly, directly injured corticospinal neurons in vivo also exhibit a specific increase in spiking following axon injury. Axotomy-induced hyper-excitability of cultured neurons coincides with elimination of inhibitory inputs onto injured neurons, including those formed onto dendritic spines. Netrin-1 downregulation occurs following axon injury and exogenous netrin-1 applied after injury normalizes spine density, presynaptic excitability, and inhibitory inputs at injured neurons. Our findings show that intrinsic signaling within damaged neurons regulates synaptic remodeling and involves netrin-1 signaling.Spinal cord injury can induce synaptic reorganization and remodeling in the brain. Here the authors study how severed distal axons signal back to the cell body to induce hyperexcitability, loss of inhibition and enhanced presynaptic release through netrin-1.

  20. Retrogradely Transported TrkA Endosomes Signal Locally within Dendrites to Maintain Sympathetic Neuron Synapses

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    Kathryn M. Lehigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons require NGF from their target fields for survival, axonal target innervation, dendritic growth and formation, and maintenance of synaptic inputs from preganglionic neurons. Target-derived NGF signals are propagated retrogradely, from distal axons to somata of sympathetic neurons via TrkA signaling endosomes. We report that a subset of TrkA endosomes that are transported from distal axons to cell bodies translocate into dendrites, where they are signaling competent and move bidirectionally, in close proximity to synaptic protein clusters. Using a strategy for spatially confined inhibition of TrkA kinase activity, we found that distal-axon-derived TrkA signaling endosomes are necessary within sympathetic neuron dendrites for maintenance of synapses. Thus, TrkA signaling endosomes have unique functions in different cellular compartments. Moreover, target-derived NGF mediates circuit formation and synapse maintenance through TrkA endosome signaling within dendrites to promote aggregation of postsynaptic protein complexes.

  1. Dync1h1 Mutation Causes Proprioceptive Sensory Neuron Loss and Impaired Retrograde Axonal Transport of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yi; Xu, Huan; Fu, Yuan; Qian, Ting; Bo, Deng; Lu, Yan-Xin; Xiong, Yi; Wan, Jun; Zhang, Xiang; Dong, Qiang; Chen, Xiang-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Sprawling (Swl) is a radiation-induced mutation which has been identified to have a nine base pair deletion in dynein heavy chain 1 (DYNC1H1: encoded by a single gene Dync1h1). This study is to investigate the phenotype and the underlying mechanism of the Dync1h1 mutant. To display the phenotype of Swl mutant mice, we examined the embryos of homozygous (Swl/Swl) and heterozygous (Swl/+) mice and their postnatal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of surviving Swl/+ mice. The Swl/+ mice could survive for a normal life span, while Swl/Swl could only survive till embryonic (E) 8.5 days. Excessive apoptosis of Swl/+ DRG neurons was revealed during E11.5-E15.5 days, and the peak rate was at E13.5 days. In vitro study of mutated DRG neurons showed impaired retrograde transport of dynein-driven nerve growth factor (NGF). Mitochondria, another dynein-driven cargo, demonstrated much slower retrograde transport velocity in Swl/+ neurons than in wild-type (WT) neurons. Nevertheless, the Swl, Loa, and Cra mutations did not affect homodimerization of DYNC1H1. The Swl/Swl mutation of Dync1h1 gene led to embryonic mal-development and lethality, whereas the Swl/+ DRG neurons demonstrated deficient retrograde transport in dynein-driven cargos and excessive apoptosis during mid- to late-developmental stages. The underlying mechanism of the mutation may not be due to impaired homodimerization of DYNC1H1. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. VPS35 regulates developing mouse hippocampal neuronal morphogenesis by promoting retrograde trafficking of BACE1

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    Chun-Lei Wang

    2012-10-01

    VPS35, a major component of the retromer, plays an important role in the selective endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but its function in developing mouse brain remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence for VPS35 promoting dendritic growth and maturation, and axonal protein transport in developing mouse hippocampal neurons. Embryonic hippocampal CA1 neurons suppressing Vps35 expression by in utero electroporation of its micro RNAs displayed shortened apical dendrites, reduced dendritic spines, and swollen commissural axons in the neonatal stage, those deficits reflecting a defective protein transport/trafficking in developing mouse neurons. Further mechanistic studies showed that Vps35 depletion in neurons resulted in an impaired retrograde trafficking of BACE1 (β1-secretase and altered BACE1 distribution. Suppression of BACE1 expression in CA1 neurons partially rescued both dendritic and axonal deficits induced by Vps35-deficiency. These results thus demonstrate that BACE1 acts as a critical cargo of retromer in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that VPS35 plays an essential role in regulating apical dendritic maturation and in preventing axonal spheroid formation in developing hippocampal neurons.

  3. Botulinum neurotoxins A and E undergo retrograde axonal transport in primary motor neurons.

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    Laura Restani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The striking differences between the clinical symptoms of tetanus and botulism have been ascribed to the different fate of the parental neurotoxins once internalised in motor neurons. Tetanus toxin (TeNT is known to undergo transcytosis into inhibitory interneurons and block the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the spinal cord, causing a spastic paralysis. In contrast, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs block acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction, therefore inducing a flaccid paralysis. Whilst overt experimental evidence supports the sorting of TeNT to the axonal retrograde transport pathway, recent findings challenge the established view that BoNT trafficking is restricted to the neuromuscular junction by highlighting central effects caused by these neurotoxins. These results suggest a more complex scenario whereby BoNTs also engage long-range trafficking mechanisms. However, the intracellular pathways underlying this process remain unclear. We sought to fill this gap by using primary motor neurons either in mass culture or differentiated in microfluidic devices to directly monitor the endocytosis and axonal transport of full length BoNT/A and BoNT/E and their recombinant binding fragments. We show that BoNT/A and BoNT/E are internalised by spinal cord motor neurons and undergo fast axonal retrograde transport. BoNT/A and BoNT/E are internalised in non-acidic axonal carriers that partially overlap with those containing TeNT, following a process that is largely independent of stimulated synaptic vesicle endo-exocytosis. Following intramuscular injection in vivo, BoNT/A and TeNT displayed central effects with a similar time course. Central actions paralleled the peripheral spastic paralysis for TeNT, but lagged behind the onset of flaccid paralysis for BoNT/A. These results suggest that the fast axonal retrograde transport compartment is composed of multifunctional trafficking organelles orchestrating the simultaneous transfer

  4. Impairment of retrograde neuronal transport in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy demonstrated by molecular imaging.

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    Dawid Schellingerhout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to utilize a molecular imaging technology based on the retrograde axonal transport mechanism (neurography, to determine if oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity affects retrograde axonal transport in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice (n = 8/group were injected with a cumulative dose of 30 mg/kg oxaliplatin (sufficient to induce neurotoxicity or dextrose control injections. Intramuscular injections of Tetanus Toxin C-fragment (TTc labeled with Alexa 790 fluorescent dye were done (15 ug/20 uL in the left calf muscles, and in vivo fluorescent imaging performed (0-60 min at baseline, and then weekly for 5 weeks, followed by 2-weekly imaging out to 9 weeks. Tissues were harvested for immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: With sham treatment, TTc transport causes fluorescent signal intensity over the thoracic spine to increase from 0 to 60 minutes after injection. On average, fluorescence signal increased 722%+/-117% (Mean+/-SD from 0 to 60 minutes. Oxaliplatin treated animals had comparable transport at baseline (787%+/-140%, but transport rapidly decreased through the course of the study, falling to 363%+/-88%, 269%+/-96%, 191%+/-58%, 121%+/-39%, 75%+/-21% with each successive week and stabilizing around 57% (+/-15% at 7 weeks. Statistically significant divergence occurred at approximately 3 weeks (p≤0.05, linear mixed-effects regression model. Quantitative immuno-fluorescence histology with a constant cutoff threshold showed reduced TTc in the spinal cord at 7 weeks for treated animals versus controls (5.2 Arbitrary Units +/-0.52 vs 7.1 AU +/-1.38, p0.56, T-test. CONCLUSION: We show-for the first time to our knowledge-that neurographic in vivo molecular imaging can demonstrate imaging changes in a model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Impaired retrograde neural transport is suggested to be an important part of the pathophysiology of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.

  5. A Simple Picaxe Microcontroller Pulse Source for Juxtacellular Neuronal Labelling.

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    Verberne, Anthony J M

    2016-10-19

    Juxtacellular neuronal labelling is a method which allows neurophysiologists to fill physiologically-identified neurons with small positively-charged marker molecules. Labelled neurons are identified by histochemical processing of brain sections along with immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter transporters or biosynthetic enzymes. A microcontroller-based pulser circuit and associated BASIC software script is described for incorporation into the design of a commercially-available intracellular electrometer for use in juxtacellular neuronal labelling. Printed circuit board construction has been used for reliability and reproducibility. The current design obviates the need for a separate digital pulse source and simplifies the juxtacellular neuronal labelling procedure.

  6. Resolving the detailed structure of cortical and thalamic neurons in the adult rat brain with refined biotinylated dextran amine labeling.

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    Ling, Changying; Hendrickson, Michael L; Kalil, Ronald E

    2012-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) has been used frequently for both anterograde and retrograde pathway tracing in the central nervous system. Typically, BDA labels axons and cell somas in sufficient detail to identify their topographical location accurately. However, BDA labeling often has proved to be inadequate to resolve the fine structural details of axon arbors or the dendrites of neurons at a distance from the site of BDA injection. To overcome this limitation, we varied several experimental parameters associated with the BDA labeling of neurons in the adult rat brain in order to improve the sensitivity of the method. Specifically, we compared the effect on labeling sensitivity of: (a) using 3,000 or 10,000 MW BDA; (b) injecting different volumes of BDA; (c) co-injecting BDA with NMDA; and (d) employing various post-injection survival times. Following the extracellular injection of BDA into the visual cortex, labeled cells and axons were observed in both cortical and thalamic areas of all animals studied. However, the detailed morphology of axon arbors and distal dendrites was evident only under optimal conditions for BDA labeling that take into account the: molecular weight of the BDA used, concentration and volume of BDA injected, post-injection survival time, and toning of the resolved BDA with gold and silver. In these instances, anterogradely labeled axons and retrogradely labeled dendrites were resolved in fine detail, approximating that which can be achieved with intracellularly injected compounds such as biocytin or fluorescent dyes.

  7. Nutritional State-Dependent Ghrelin Activation of Vasopressin Neurons via Retrograde Trans-Neuronal–Glial Stimulation of Excitatory GABA Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Juhee; Halmos, Katalin C.; Di, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological coupling between energy balance and fluid homeostasis is critical for survival. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin has been shown to stimulate the secretion of the osmoregulatory hormone vasopressin (VP), linking nutritional status to the control of blood osmolality, although the mechanism of this systemic crosstalk is unknown. Here, we show using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in rat brain slices that ghrelin stimulates VP neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in a nutritional state-dependent manner by activating an excitatory GABAergic synaptic input via a retrograde neuronal–glial circuit. In slices from fasted rats, ghrelin activation of a postsynaptic ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), in VP neurons caused the dendritic release of VP, which stimulated astrocytes to release the gliotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP activation of P2X receptors excited presynaptic GABA neurons to increase GABA release, which was excitatory to the VP neurons. This trans-neuronal–glial retrograde circuit activated by ghrelin provides an alternative means of stimulation of VP release and represents a novel mechanism of neuronal control by local neuronal–glial circuits. It also provides a potential cellular mechanism for the physiological integration of energy and fluid homeostasis. PMID:24790191

  8. Differential labelling of retinal neurones by 3H-2-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basinger, S.F.; Gordon, W.C.; Lam, D.M.K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of tritium-labelled 2-deoxyglucose in combination with plastic embedding is reported to produce stimulus dependent labelling at cellular level in the isolated goldfish retina. The results suggest that the use of tritium in place of the more usual 14 C labelled tracer is advantageous in studying the physiology and functional connections of retinal neurones. (U.K.)

  9. Double labelling immunohistochemical characterization of autonomic sympathetic neurons innervating the sow retractor clitoridis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ragionieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde neuronal tracing and immunohistochemical methods were used to define the neurochemical content of sympathetic neurons projecting to the sow retractor clitoridis muscle (RCM. Differently from the other smooth muscles of genital organs, the RCM is an isolated muscle that is tonically contracted in the rest phase and relaxed in the active phase. This peculiarity makes it an interesting experimental model. The fluorescent tracer fast blue was injected into the RCM of three 50 kg subjects. After a one-week survival period, the ipsilateral paravertebral ganglion S1, that in a preliminary study showed the greatest number of cells projecting to the muscle, was collected from each animal. The co-existence of tyrosine hydroxylase with choline acetyltransferase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, calcitonin gene-related peptide, leuenkephalin, neuropeptide Y, substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was studied under a fluorescent microscope on cryostat sections. Tyrosine hydroxylase was present in about 58% of the neurons projecting to the muscle and was found to be co-localized with each of the other tested substances.Within fast blue-labelled cells negative to the adrenergic marker, small populations of neurons singularly containing each of the other enzymatic markers or peptides were also observed. The present study documents the complexity of the neurochemical interactions that regulate the activity of the smooth myocytes of the RCM and their vascular components.

  10. The retrograde delivery of adenovirus vector carrying the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects neurons and oligodendrocytes from apoptosis in the chronically compressed spinal cord of twy/twy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Hirai, Takayuki; Yayama, Takafumi; Chen, Kebing; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Johnson, William Eustace; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2012-12-15

    The twy/twy mouse undergoes spontaneous chronic mechanical compression of the spinal cord; this in vivo model system was used to examine the effects of retrograde adenovirus (adenoviral vector [AdV])-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene delivery to spinal neural cells. To investigate the targeting and potential neuroprotective effect of retrograde AdV-mediated BDNF gene transfection in the chronically compressed spinal cord in terms of prevention of apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes. Several studies have investigated the neuroprotective effects of neurotrophins, including BDNF, in spinal cord injury. However, no report has described the effects of retrograde neurotrophic factor gene delivery in compressed spinal cords, including gene targeting and the potential to prevent neural cell apoptosis. AdV-BDNF or AdV-LacZ (as a control gene) was injected into the bilateral sternomastoid muscles of 18-week old twy/twy mice for retrograde gene delivery via the spinal accessory motor neurons. Heterozygous Institute of Cancer Research mice (+/twy), which do not undergo spontaneous spinal compression, were used as a control for the effects of such compression on gene delivery. The localization and cell specificity of β-galactosidase expression (produced by LacZ gene transfection) and BDNF expression in the spinal cord were examined by coimmunofluorescence staining for neural cell markers (NeuN, neurons; reactive immunology protein, oligodendrocytes; glial fibrillary acidic protein, astrocytes; OX-42, microglia) 4 weeks after gene injection. The possible neuroprotection afforded by retrograde AdV-BDNF gene delivery versus AdV-LacZ-transfected control mice was assessed by scoring the prevalence of apoptotic cells (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells) and immunoreactivity to active caspases -3, -8, and -9, p75, neurofilament 200 kD (NF), and for the oligodendroglial progenitor marker, NG2. RESULTS

  11. Neuronal Culture and labelling of receptors of rat brain by a radioactive molecule labelled with technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhoumi, C; Mejri, N.; Saidi, M.; Coulais, Y.; Dunia, D.; Masmoudi, O.; Amri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain which causes progressive and irreversible loss of mental function. It is characterized by a decrease of serotoninergic neurons that carry the 5HT1A receptors. In our study, we performed cultures of hippocampal and cortical neurons from brains of young rats. After the differentiation of these neurons, some wells of cell culture were incubated with 8 OH DPAT, a 5HT1A agonist of serotonin, which are located on the surface of neurons.The neurons were then incubated with a molecule labelled with technetium 99m Tc. These neurons are lysed and the radioactivity is read. The results show that for the culture of neurons in the hippocampus, we have levels of radioactivity of cells treated with agonist, below the level of radioactivity of cells treated with the radioactive molecule. Cortical neurons show the same level of radioactivity of cells treated with agonist and for cells treated only with the labelled molecule. Our results show a decrease in the fixation of the labelled molecule on serotoninergic neurons in the hippocampus compared to neurons in the cortex. This work will be continued in humans in order to achieve early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

  12. Anatomical evidence for direct fiber projections from the cerebellar nucleus interpositus to rubrospinal neurons. A quantitative EM study in the rat combining anterograde and retrograde intra-axonal tracing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative electron microscopic (EM) study combining the anterograde intra-axonal transport of radioactive amino acids and the retrograde intra-axonal transport of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was performed in the magnocellular red nucleus of the rat to obtain anatomical evidence as to whether there is a direct projection from the cerebellar nucleus interpositus to the cells in the red nucleus that give rise to the rubrospinal tract. Large asymmetrical synaptic terminals were radioactively labeled in the magnocellular red nucleus following injections of [ 3 H]leucine into the cerebellar nucleus interpositus. In these same animals, the postsynaptic target neurons were labeled with HRP granules after injection of this substance in the rubrospinal tract. A quantitative analysis showed that more than 85% of the large and giant neurons in the magnocellular red nucleus were labeled with HRP granules and also received synaptic contacts from radioactively-labeled terminals. Thus, it can be concluded that in the rat, afferents from the cerebellar nucleus interpositus establish asymmetrical synaptic contacts with large and giant rubrospinal neurons, thus confirming and extending the previous physiological evidence of such direct monosynaptic connections. (Auth.)

  13. Retrograde and transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cholera toxin B subunit, wheatgerm agglutinin and isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I in primary afferent neurons innervating the rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H F; Shortland, P; Park, M J; Grant, G

    1998-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated and compared the ability of the cholera toxin B subunit, wheat germ agglutinin and isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, to retrogradely and transganglionically label visceral primary afferents after unilateral injections into the rat urinary bladder wall. Horseradish peroxidase histochemical or lectin-immunofluorescence histochemical labelling of bladder afferents was seen in the L6-S1 spinal cord segments and in the T13-L2 and L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia. In the lumbosacral spinal cord, the most intense and extensive labelling of bladder afferents was seen when cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase was injected. Cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase-labelled fibres were found in Lissauer's tract, its lateral and medial collateral projections, and laminae I and IV-VI of the spinal gray matter. Labelled fibres were numerous in the lateral collateral projection and extended into the spinal parasympathetic nucleus. Labelling from both the lateral and medial projections extended into the dorsal grey commissural region. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase labelling produced a similar pattern but was not as dense and extensive as that of cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase. The isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I-horseradish peroxidase-labelled fibres, on the other hand, were fewer and only observed in the lateral collateral projection and occasionally in lamina I. Cell profile counts showed that a larger number of dorsal root ganglion cells were labelled with cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase than with wheat germ agglutinin- or isolectin B4-horseradish peroxidase. In the L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia, the majority (81%) of the cholera toxin B subunit-, and almost all of the wheat germ agglutinin- and isolectin B4-immunoreactive cells were RT97-negative (an anti-neurofilament antibody that labels dorsal root ganglion neurons with

  14. Forebrain parasympathetic control of heart activity : retrograde transneuronal viral labeling in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, GJ; Postema, F

    1997-01-01

    Dysfunction of parasympathetic command neurons may be a cause of cardiac autonomic imbalance, which has been implicated as a pathogenic mechanism of lethal arrhythmias. The locations in the brain of these command neurons are not known. The aim of this investigation is to identify selectively the

  15. Labeling of neuronal differentiation and neuron cells with biocompatible fluorescent nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tzu-Chia; Liu, Kuang-Kai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Hwang, Eric; Chao, Jui-I

    2014-05-16

    Nanodiamond is a promising carbon nanomaterial developed for biomedical applications. Here, we show fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) with the biocompatible properties that can be used for the labeling and tracking of neuronal differentiation and neuron cells derived from embryonal carcinoma stem (ECS) cells. The fluorescence intensities of FNDs were increased by treatment with FNDs in both the mouse P19 and human NT2/D1 ECS cells. FNDs were taken into ECS cells; however, FNDs did not alter the cellular morphology and growth ability. Moreover, FNDs did not change the protein expression of stem cell marker SSEA-1 of ECS cells. The neuronal differentiation of ECS cells could be induced by retinoic acid (RA). Interestingly, FNDs did not affect on the morphological alteration, cytotoxicity and apoptosis during the neuronal differentiation. Besides, FNDs did not alter the cell viability and the expression of neuron-specific marker β-III-tubulin in these differentiated neuron cells. The existence of FNDs in the neuron cells can be identified by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Together, FND is a biocompatible and readily detectable nanomaterial for the labeling and tracking of neuronal differentiation process and neuron cells from stem cells.

  16. A Simple Picaxe Microcontroller Pulse Source for Juxtacellular Neuronal Labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Anthony J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Juxtacellular neuronal labelling is a method which allows neurophysiologists to fill physiologically-identified neurons with small positively-charged marker molecules. Labelled neurons are identified by histochemical processing of brain sections along with immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter transporters or biosynthetic enzymes. A microcontroller-based pulser circuit and associated BASIC software script is described for incorporation into the design of a commercially-available intracellular electrometer for use in juxtacellular neuronal labelling. Printed circuit board construction has been used for reliability and reproducibility. The current design obviates the need for a separate digital pulse source and simplifies the juxtacellular neuronal labelling procedure. PMID:28952589

  17. eGFP expression under the Uchl1 promoter labels corticospinal motor neurons and a subpopulation of degeneration resistant spinal motor neurons in ALS mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasvoina, Marina V.

    Current understanding of basic cellular and molecular mechanisms for motor neuron vulnerability during motor neuron disease initiation and progression is incomplete. The complex cytoarchitecture and cellular heterogeneity of the cortex and spinal cord greatly impedes our ability to visualize, isolate, and study specific neuron populations in both healthy and diseased states. We generated a novel reporter line, the Uchl1-eGFP mouse, in which cortical and spinal components of motor neuron circuitry are genetically labeled with eGFP under the Uchl1 promoter. A series of cellular and anatomical analyses combined with retrograde labeling, molecular marker expression, and electrophysiology were employed to determine identity of eGFP expressing cells in the motor cortex and the spinal cord of novel Uchl1-eGFP reporter mice. We conclude that eGFP is expressed in corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) in the motor cortex and a subset of S-type alpha and gamma spinal motor neurons (SMN) in the spinal cord. hSOD1G93A and Alsin-/- mice, mouse models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), were bred to Uchl1-eGFP reporter mouse line to investigate the pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms of CSMN degeneration in vivo. Evidence suggests early and progressive degeneration of CSMN and SMN in the hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. We show an early increase of autophagosome formation in the apical dendrites of vulnerable CSMN in hSOD1G93A-UeGFP mice, which is localized to the apical dendrites. In addition, labeling S-type alpha and gamma SMN in the hSOD1G93A-UeGFP mice provide a unique opportunity to study basis of their resistance to degeneration. Mice lacking alsin show moderate clinical phenotype and mild CSMN axon degeneration in the spinal cord, which suggests vulnerability of CSMN. Therefore, we investigated the CSMN cellular and axon defects in aged Alsin-/- mice bred to Uchl1-eGFP reporter mouse line. We show that while CSMN are preserved and lack signs of degeneration, CSMN axons

  18. Neuro-Compatible Metabolic Glycan Labeling of Primary Hippocampal Neurons in Noncontact, Sandwich-Type Neuron-Astrocyte Coculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yu; Park, Matthew; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Kim, Mi-Hee; Kang, Kyungtae; Choi, Insung S

    2017-12-20

    Glycans are intimately involved in several facets of neuronal development and neuropathology. However, the metabolic labeling of surface glycans in primary neurons is a difficult task because of the neurotoxicity of unnatural monosaccharides that are used as a metabolic precursor, hindering the progress of metabolic engineering in neuron-related fields. Therefore, in this paper, we report a neurosupportive, neuron-astrocyte coculture system that neutralizes the neurotoxic effects of unnatural monosaccharides, allowing for the long-term observation and characterization of glycans in primary neurons in vitro. Polysialic acids in neurons are selectively imaged, via the metabolic labeling of sialoglycans with peracetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine (Ac 4 ManNAz), for up to 21 DIV. Two-color labeling shows that neuronal activities, such as neurite outgrowth and recycling of membrane components, are highly dynamic and change over time during development. In addition, the insertion sites of membrane components are suggested to not be random, but be predominantly localized in developing neurites. This work provides a new research platform and also suggests advanced 3D systems for metabolic-labeling studies of glycans in primary neurons.

  19. Kinematics of turnaround and retrograde axonal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid axonal transport of a pulse of 35 S-methionine-labelled material was studied in vitro in the sensory neurons of amphibian sciatic nerve using a position-sensitive detector. For 10 nerves studied at 23.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C it was found that a pulse moved in the anterograde direction characterized by front edge, peak, and trailing edge transport rates of (mm/d) 180.8 +/- 2.2 (+/- SEM), 176.6 +/- 2.3, and 153.7 +/- 3.0, respectively. Following its arrival at a distal ligature, a smaller pulse was observed to move in the retrograde direction characterized by front edge and peak transport rates of 158.0 +/- 7.3 and 110.3 +/- 3.5, respectively, indicating that retrograde transport proceeds at a rate of 0.88 +/- 0.04 that of anterograde. The retrograde pulse was observed to disperse at a rate greater than the anterograde. Reversal of radiolabel at the distal ligature began 1.49 +/- 0.15 h following arrival of the first radiolabel. Considerable variation was seen between preparations in the way radiolabel accumulated in the end (ligature) regions of the nerve. Although a retrograde pulse was seen in all preparations, in 7 of 10 preparations there was no evidence of this pulse accumulating within less than 2-3 mm of a proximal ligature; however, accumulation was observed within less than 5 mm in all preparations

  20. Targeted retrograde transfection of adenovirus vector carrying brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene prevents loss of mouse (twy/twy) anterior horn neurons in vivo sustaining mechanical compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kan; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2006-08-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis after adenovirus (AdV)-mediated BDNF gene transfer in and around the area of mechanical compression in the cervical spinal cord of the hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy). To investigate the neuroprotective effect of targeted AdV-BDNF gene transfection in the twy mouse with spontaneous chronic compression of the spinal cord motoneurons. Several studies reported the neuroprotective effects of neurotrophins on injured spinal cord. However, no report has described the effect of targeted retrograde neurotrophic gene delivery on motoneuron survival in chronic compression lesions of the cervical spinal cord resembling lesions of myelopathy. LacZ marker gene using adenoviral vector (AdV-LacZ) was used to evaluate retrograde delivery from the sternomastoid muscle in adult twy mice (16-week-old) and (control). Four weeks after the AdV-LacZ or AdV-BDNF injection, the compressed cervical spinal cord was removed en bloc for immunohistologic investigation of b-galactosidase activity and immunoreactivity and immunoblot analyses of BDNF. The number of anterior horn neurons was counted using Nissl, ChAT and AChE staining. Spinal accessory motoneurons between C1 and C3 segments were successfully transfected by AdV-LacZ in both twy and ICR mice after targeted intramuscular injection. Immunoreactivity to BDNF was significantly stronger in AdV-BDNF-gene transfected twy mice than in AdV-LacZ-gene transfected mice. At the cord level showing the maximum compression in AdV-BDNF-transfected twy mice, the number of anterior horn neurons was sinificantly higher in the topographic neuronal cell counting of Nissl-, ChAT-, and AChE-stained samples than in AdV-LacZ-injected twy mice. Targeted AdV-BDNF-gene delivery significantly increased Nissl-stained anterior horn neurons and enhanced cholinergic enzyme activities in the twy. Our results suggest that targeted retrograde AdV-BDNF-gene in vivo delivery may enhance neuronal survival even under chronic mechanical compression.

  1. Serotonergic projections from the raphe nuclei to the subthalamic nucleus; a retrograde- and anterograde neuronal tracing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reznitsky, Martin; Plenge, Per; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A not were present. Retrograde tracer FluoroGold or Choleratoxin subunit B were iontophoretically delivered in the STN and combined with immunohistochemistry for 5-HT in order to map the topographic organization in the dorsal raphe system. The study showed that approximately 320...

  2. Genetically-directed, cell type-specific sparse labeling for the analysis of neuronal morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rotolo

    Full Text Available In mammals, genetically-directed cell labeling technologies have not yet been applied to the morphologic analysis of neurons with very large and complex arbors, an application that requires extremely sparse labeling and that is only rendered practical by limiting the labeled population to one or a few predetermined neuronal subtypes.In the present study we have addressed this application by using CreER technology to non-invasively label very small numbers of neurons so that their morphologies can be fully visualized. Four lines of IRES-CreER knock-in mice were constructed to permit labeling selectively in cholinergic or catecholaminergic neurons [choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-IRES-CreER or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-IRES-CreER], predominantly in projection neurons [neurofilament light chain (NFL-IRES-CreER], or broadly in neurons and some glia [vesicle-associated membrane protein2 (VAMP2-IRES-CreER]. When crossed to the Z/AP reporter and exposed to 4-hydroxytamoxifen in the early postnatal period, the number of neurons expressing the human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter can be reproducibly lowered to fewer than 50 per brain. Sparse Cre-mediated recombination in ChAT-IRES-CreER;Z/AP mice shows the full axonal and dendritic arbors of individual forebrain cholinergic neurons, the first time that the complete morphologies of these very large neurons have been revealed in any species.Sparse genetically-directed, cell type-specific neuronal labeling with IRES-creER lines should prove useful for studying a wide variety of questions in neuronal development and disease.

  3. Zebrafish transgenic constructs label specific neurons in Xenopus laevis spinal cord and identify frog V0v spinal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Morales, José L; Martinez-De Luna, Reyna I; Zuber, Michael E; Roberts, Alan; Lewis, Katharine E

    2017-09-01

    A correctly functioning spinal cord is crucial for locomotion and communication between body and brain but there are fundamental gaps in our knowledge of how spinal neuronal circuitry is established and functions. To understand the genetic program that regulates specification and functions of this circuitry, we need to connect neuronal molecular phenotypes with physiological analyses. Studies using Xenopus laevis tadpoles have increased our understanding of spinal cord neuronal physiology and function, particularly in locomotor circuitry. However, the X. laevis tetraploid genome and long generation time make it difficult to investigate how neurons are specified. The opacity of X. laevis embryos also makes it hard to connect functional classes of neurons and the genes that they express. We demonstrate here that Tol2 transgenic constructs using zebrafish enhancers that drive expression in specific zebrafish spinal neurons label equivalent neurons in X. laevis and that the incorporation of a Gal4:UAS amplification cassette enables cells to be observed in live X. laevis tadpoles. This technique should enable the molecular phenotypes, morphologies and physiologies of distinct X. laevis spinal neurons to be examined together in vivo. We have used an islet1 enhancer to label Rohon-Beard sensory neurons and evx enhancers to identify V0v neurons, for the first time, in X. laevis spinal cord. Our work demonstrates the homology of spinal cord circuitry in zebrafish and X. laevis, suggesting that future work could combine their relative strengths to elucidate a more complete picture of how vertebrate spinal cord neurons are specified, and function to generate behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1007-1020, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Retrograde monosynaptic tracing reveals the temporal evolution of inputs onto new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Aditi; Bergami, Matteo; Ghanem, Alexander; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Lepier, Alexandra; Götz, Magdalena; Berninger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the connectome of adult-generated neurons is essential for understanding how the preexisting circuitry is refined by neurogenesis. Changes in the pattern of connectivity are likely to control the differentiation process of newly generated neurons and exert an important influence on their unique capacity to contribute to information processing. Using a monosynaptic rabies virus-based tracing technique, we studied the evolving presynaptic connectivity of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and olfactory bulb (OB) during the first weeks of their life. In both neurogenic zones, adult-generated neurons first receive local connections from multiple types of GABAergic interneurons before long-range projections become established, such as those originating from cortical areas. Interestingly, despite fundamental similarities in the overall pattern of evolution of presynaptic connectivity, there were notable differences with regard to the development of cortical projections: although DG granule neuron input originating from the entorhinal cortex could be traced starting only from 3 to 5 wk on, newly generated neurons in the OB received input from the anterior olfactory nucleus and piriform cortex already by the second week. This early glutamatergic input onto newly generated interneurons in the OB was matched in time by the equally early innervations of DG granule neurons by glutamatergic mossy cells. The development of connectivity revealed by our study may suggest common principles for incorporating newly generated neurons into a preexisting circuit. PMID:23487772

  5. Multicenter Off-Label Use of Nit-Occlud Coil in Retrograde Closure of Small Patent Ductus Arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Keyhan Sayadpour; Sobhy, Rodina; El-Kaffas, Rania; El-Sisi, Amal

    2017-04-01

    We studied the safety and efficacy of closing patent ductus arteriosus by Nit-Occlud coils via retrograde approach. This is a retrospective study of 46 attempts to close ducts by this method in two hospitals in Egypt and Iran. Ductus arteriosus was crossed by left or right Judkins or endhole catheters. The coil was delivered via the same catheter or the provided endhole catheter after exchange. The procedure was successful in 42 out of 46 attempts. Fluoroscopy and procedural times were significantly shorter when the catheter was not exchanged. This method is effective and safe for the closure of small ducts. Crossing the duct and delivering the coil by a left Judkins catheter is the easiest and fastest way to perform this method.

  6. Neurochemistry of olivocochlear neurons in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stefan; Disque-Kaiser, Ursula; Antoniou-Lipfert, Patricia; Gholi, Maryam Najaf; Riemann, Elke; Riemann, Randolf

    2009-04-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the superior olivary complex (SOC) of the lower brain stem in the pigmented Djungarian hamster Phodopus sungorus. Using Nissl-stained serial cryostat sections from fresh-frozen brains, we determined the borders of the SOC nuclei. We also identified olivocochlear (OC) neurons by retrograde neuronal tracing upon injection of Fluoro-Gold into the scala tympani. To evaluate the SOC as a putative source of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OT), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) that were all found in the cochlea, we conducted immunohistochemistry on sections exhibiting retrogradely labeled neurons. We did not observe AVP-, OT-, or VIP-immunoreactivity, neither in OC neurons nor in the SOC at all, revealing that cochlear AVP, OT, and VIP are of nonolivary origin. However, we found nNOS, the enzyme responsible for nitric oxide synthesis in neurons, and PACAP in neuronal perikarya of the SOC. Retrogradely labeled neurons of the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) system in the lateral superior olive did not contain PACAP and were only infrequently nNOS-immunoreactive. In contrast, some shell neurons and some of the medial OC (MOC) system exhibited immunofluorescence for either substance. Our data obtained from the dwarf hamster Phodopus sungorus confirm previous observations that a part of the LOC system is nitrergic. They further demonstrate that the medial olivocochlear system is partly nitrergic and use PACAP as neurotransmitter or modulator.

  7. Selectivity of neuronal [3H]GABA accumulation in the visual cortex as revealed by Golgi staining of the labeled neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, P.; Freund, T.F.; Kisvarday, Z.F.; Halasz, N.

    1981-01-01

    [ 3 H]GABA was injected into the visual cortex of rats in vivo. The labeled amino acid was demonstrated by autoradiography using semithin sections of Golgi material. Selective accumulation was seen in the perikarya of Golgi-stained, gold-toned, aspinous stellate neurons. Spine-laden pyramidal-like cells did not show labeling. This method gives direct information about the dendritic arborization of a neuron, and its putative transmitter, and allows the identification of its synaptic connections. (Auth.)

  8. Growth and atrophy of neurons labeled at their birth in a song nucleus of the zebra finch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, M.; Akutagawa, E.

    1990-01-01

    The robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA) is one of the forebrain nuclei that control song production in birds. In the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), this nucleus contains more and larger neurons in the male than in the female. A single injection of tritiated thymidine into the egg on the 6th or 7th day of incubation resulted in labeling of many RA neurons with tritium. The size of tritium-labeled neurons and the tissue volume containing them did not differ between the sexes at 15 days after hatching. In the adult brain, tritium-labeled neurons and the tissue volume containing them were much larger in the male than in the female. Also, tritium-labeled RA neurons were large in females which received an implant of estrogen immediately after hatching. The gender differences in the neuron size and nuclear volume of the zebra finch RA are, therefore, due not to the replacement of old neurons by new ones during development but to the growth and atrophy of neurons born before hatching. Similarly, the masculinizing effects of estrogen on the female RA are due not to neuronal replacement but to the prevention of atrophy and promotion of growth in preexisting neurons

  9. /sup 125/I-labelled tetanus toxin as a neuronal marker in tissue cultures derived from embryonic CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimpfel, W; Neale, J H; Habermann, E [Giessen Univ. (F.R. Germany). Pharmakologisches Inst.; National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Md. (USA). Behavioural Biology Branch)

    1975-01-01

    Primary cultures derived from embryonic mouse brain and spinal cord were exposed to /sup 125/I-labelled tetanus toxin and subjected to autoradioraphy. Cells with neuronal, but not glial, morphology selectively accumulated the toxin. The distribution of the grains over these cells and their processes was not uniform, discrete processes showing heavier labelling.

  10. A novel fluorescent retrograde neural tracer: cholera toxin B conjugated carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Hao, Zeyu; Zhao, Xiaohuan; Maharjan, Suraj; Zhu, Shoujun; Song, Yubin; Yang, Bai; Lu, Laijin

    2015-09-01

    The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde tracers.The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde

  11. Cerebellar projections to the red nucleus and inferior olive originate from separate populations of neurons in the rat: A non-fluorescent double labeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Teune (Thea); J. van der Burg (Johannes); T.J.H. Ruigrok (Tom)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the rat, the extent of collateralization of projections from the cerebellar nuclei to the red nucleus and inferior olive was investigated using a retrograde double labeling technique. The combination of tracers selected, cholera toxin-β-subunit and WGA-BSA-gold, not only enabled the

  12. Nanosensors for label-free measurement of sodium ion fluxes of neuronal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebinoga, Michael, E-mail: michael.gebinoga@tu-ilmenau.de [ZIK MacroNano Microfluidics and Biosensors, Technical University Ilmenau, P.O. Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Silveira, Liele; Cimalla, Irina [ZIK MacroNano Microfluidics and Biosensors, Technical University Ilmenau, P.O. Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Dumitrescu, Andreea [University of Pennsylvania - School of Engineering and Applied Science, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6391 (United States); Kittler, Mario; Luebbers, Benedikt; Becker, Annette [ZIK MacroNano Microfluidics and Biosensors, Technical University Ilmenau, P.O. Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Lebedev, Vadim [Fraunhofer Institute for Solid State Physics, Tullastr. 7, D-79108 Freiburg (Germany); Schober, Andreas [ZIK MacroNano Microfluidics and Biosensors, Technical University Ilmenau, P.O. Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2010-05-25

    Novel nanosensors based on aluminium gallium nitrides (AlGaN/GaN) high electron mobility transistors have been of high interest during the last years, especially for their electrical characteristics as open gate field effect transistors. These nanosensors provide a valuable tool for high content screening in drug discovery, cell monitoring and liquid analyses focusing on applications of electrochemical detection technology. Our own measurements with these sensors confirm their pH sensitivity and in addition the possibility of detection of other ions in aqueous media. These measurements deal with the reactions of NG 108-15 (mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid) neuronal cells in response to different acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Our experimental approach shows some advantages. The first advantage is the label-free measurement of ion fluxes, and another advantage is the possibility non-destructively to estimate cell signals.

  13. Nanosensors for label-free measurement of sodium ion fluxes of neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebinoga, Michael; Silveira, Liele; Cimalla, Irina; Dumitrescu, Andreea; Kittler, Mario; Luebbers, Benedikt; Becker, Annette; Lebedev, Vadim; Schober, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Novel nanosensors based on aluminium gallium nitrides (AlGaN/GaN) high electron mobility transistors have been of high interest during the last years, especially for their electrical characteristics as open gate field effect transistors. These nanosensors provide a valuable tool for high content screening in drug discovery, cell monitoring and liquid analyses focusing on applications of electrochemical detection technology. Our own measurements with these sensors confirm their pH sensitivity and in addition the possibility of detection of other ions in aqueous media. These measurements deal with the reactions of NG 108-15 (mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid) neuronal cells in response to different acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Our experimental approach shows some advantages. The first advantage is the label-free measurement of ion fluxes, and another advantage is the possibility non-destructively to estimate cell signals.

  14. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    cells that had been labelled, i.e., that had regenerated axons towards or beyond the injection site, were counted in serial sections. Large and small neurons with presumably myelinated and unmyelinated axons, respectively, were classified by immunostaining for neurofilaments. The axonal growth rate......Regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres after a crush lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was investigated by means of retrograde labelling. The advantage of this method is that the degree of regeneration is estimated on the basis of sensory somata rather than the number...... of axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...

  15. Retrograde peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jumshad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation.

  16. Glutamate and GABA in vestibulo-sympathetic pathway neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay R Holstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively. The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the

  17. Separate neurochemical classes of sympathetic postganglionic neurons project to the left ventricle of the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R J; Grkovic, I; Allen, A M; Anderson, C R

    2006-04-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the rat heart was investigated by retrograde neuronal tracing and multiple label immunohistochemistry. Injections of Fast Blue made into the left ventricular wall labelled sympathetic neurons that were located along the medial border of both the left and right stellate ganglia. Cardiac projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons could be grouped into one of four neurochemical populations, characterised by their content of calbindin and/or neuropeptide Y (NPY). The subpopulations of neurons contained immunoreactivity to both calbindin and NPY, immunoreactivity to calbindin only, immunoreactivity to NPY only and no immunoreactivity to calbindin or NPY. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons were also labelled in vitro with rhodamine dextran applied to the cut end of a cardiac nerve. The same neurochemical subpopulations of sympathetic neurons were identified by using this technique but in different proportions to those labelled from the left ventricle. Preganglionic terminals that were immunoreactive for another calcium-binding protein, calretinin, preferentially surrounded retrogradely labelled neurons that were immunoreactive for both calbindin and NPY. The separate sympathetic pathways projecting to the rat heart may control different cardiac functions.

  18. Retrograde pulmonary arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcaterra, G.; Lam, J.; Losekoot, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors performed retrograde pulmonary arteriography by means of a pulmonary venous wedge injection in 10 patients with no demonstrable intrapericardial pulmonary arteries by 'conventional' angiographic techniques. In all cases but one, the procedure demonstrated the feasibility of a further operation. No complications were observed. Retrograde pulmonary arteriography is an important additional method for determining the existence of surgically accessible pulmonary arteries when other techniques have failed. (Auth.)

  19. Vertical organization of gamma-aminobutyric acid-accumulating intrinsic neuronal systems in monkey cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFelipe, J.; Jones, E.G.

    1985-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic methods were used to examine the neurons in the monkey cerebral cortex labeled autoradiographically following the uptake and transport of [ 3 H]-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Nonpyramidal cell somata in the sensory-motor areas and primary visual area (area 17) were labeled close to the injection site and at distances of 1 to 1.5 mm beyond the injection site, indicating labeling by retrograde axoplasmic transport. This labeling occurred preferentially in the vertical dimension of the cortex. Prior injections of colchicine, an inhibitor of axoplasmic transport, abolished all labeling of somata except those within the injection site. In each area, injections of superficial layers (I to III) produced labeling of clusters of cell somata in layer V, and injections of the deep layers (V and VI) produced labeling of clusters of cell somata in layers II and III. In area 17, injections of the superficial layers produced dense retrograde cell labeling in three bands: in layers IVC, VA, and VI. Vertically oriented chains of silver grains linked the injection sites with the resulting labeled cell clusters. In all areas, the labeling of cells in the horizontal dimension was insignificant. Electron microscopic examination of labeled neurons confirms that the neurons labeled at a distance from an injection site are nonpyramidal neurons, many with somata so small that they would be mistaken for neuroglial cells light microscopically. They receive few axosomatic synapses, most of which have symmetric membrane thickenings. The vertical chains of silver grains overlie neuronal processes identifiable as both dendrites and myelinated axons, but unmyelinated axons may also be included. The clusters of [ 3 H]GABA-labeled cells are joined to one another and to adjacent unlabeled cells by junctional complexes, including puncta adherentia and multi-lamellar cisternal complexes

  20. Retrograde tracing and toe spreading after experimental autologous nerve transplantation and crush injury of the sciatic nerve: a descriptive methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Neerven Sabien GA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of functional and structural recovery after peripheral nerve injury is crucial to determine the therapeutic effect of a nerve repair strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the structural evaluation of regeneration by means of retrograde tracing and the functional analysis of toe spreading. Two standardized rat sciatic nerve injury models were used to address this relationship. As such, animals received either a 2 cm sciatic nerve defect (neurotmesis followed by autologous nerve transplantation (ANT animals or a crush injury with spontaneous recovery (axonotmesis; CI animals. Functional recovery of toe spreading was observed over an observation period of 84 days. In contrast to CI animals, ANT animals did not reach pre-surgical levels of toe spreading. After the observation period, the lipophilic dye DiI was applied to label sensory and motor neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG; sensory neurons and spinal cord (motor neurons, respectively. No statistical difference in motor or sensory neuron counts could be detected between ANT and CI animals. In the present study we could indicate that there was no direct relationship between functional recovery (toe spreading measured by SSI and the number of labelled (motor and sensory neurons evaluated by retrograde tracing. The present findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach with a variety of independent evaluation tools is essential to understand and estimate the therapeutic benefit of a nerve repair strategy.

  1. Large-scale Reconstructions and Independent, Unbiased Clustering Based on Morphological Metrics to Classify Neurons in Selective Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Elise M; Briggs, Farran

    2017-02-15

    This protocol outlines large-scale reconstructions of neurons combined with the use of independent and unbiased clustering analyses to create a comprehensive survey of the morphological characteristics observed among a selective neuronal population. Combination of these techniques constitutes a novel approach for the collection and analysis of neuroanatomical data. Together, these techniques enable large-scale, and therefore more comprehensive, sampling of selective neuronal populations and establish unbiased quantitative methods for describing morphologically unique neuronal classes within a population. The protocol outlines the use of modified rabies virus to selectively label neurons. G-deleted rabies virus acts like a retrograde tracer following stereotaxic injection into a target brain structure of interest and serves as a vehicle for the delivery and expression of EGFP in neurons. Large numbers of neurons are infected using this technique and express GFP throughout their dendrites, producing "Golgi-like" complete fills of individual neurons. Accordingly, the virus-mediated retrograde tracing method improves upon traditional dye-based retrograde tracing techniques by producing complete intracellular fills. Individual well-isolated neurons spanning all regions of the brain area under study are selected for reconstruction in order to obtain a representative sample of neurons. The protocol outlines procedures to reconstruct cell bodies and complete dendritic arborization patterns of labeled neurons spanning multiple tissue sections. Morphological data, including positions of each neuron within the brain structure, are extracted for further analysis. Standard programming functions were utilized to perform independent cluster analyses and cluster evaluations based on morphological metrics. To verify the utility of these analyses, statistical evaluation of a cluster analysis performed on 160 neurons reconstructed in the thalamic reticular nucleus of the thalamus

  2. Selective serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eAvesar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT acting as a neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex is critical for cognitive function, yet how 5-HT regulates information processing in cortical circuits is not well understood. We tested the serotonergic responsiveness of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and found 3 distinct response types: long-lasting 5-HT1A (1A receptor-dependent inhibitory responses (84% of L5PNs, 5-HT2A (2A receptor-dependent excitatory responses (9%, and biphasic responses in which 2A-dependent excitation followed brief inhibition (5%. Relative to 5-HT-inhibited neurons, those excited by 5-HT had physiological properties characteristic of callosal/commissural (COM neurons that project to the contralateral cortex. We tested whether serotonergic responses in cortical pyramidal neurons are correlated with their axonal projection pattern using retrograde fluorescent labeling of COM and corticopontine-projecting (CPn neurons. 5-HT generated excitatory or biphasic responses in all 5-HT-responsive layer 5 COM neurons. Conversely, CPn neurons were universally inhibited by 5-HT. Serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was blocked by the 2A antagonist MDL 11939, while serotonergic inhibition of CPn neurons was blocked by the 1A antagonist WAY 100635, confirming a role for these two receptor subtypes in regulating pyramidal neuron activity. Selective serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was not layer-specific, as COM neurons in layer 2/3 were also selectively excited by 5-HT relative to their non-labeled pyramidal neuron neighbors. Because neocortical 2A receptors are implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we propose that COM neurons may represent a novel cellular target for intervention in psychiatric disease.

  3. Local connections of layer 5 GABAergic interneurons to corticospinal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo H Tanaka

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the local circuit of the cerebral cortex, GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are considered to work in collaboration with excitatory neurons. Although many interneuron subgroups have been described in the cortex, local inhibitory connections of each interneuron subgroup are only partially understood with respect to the functional neuron groups that receive these inhibitory connections. In the present study, we morphologically examined local inhibitory inputs to corticospinal neurons (CSNs in motor areas using transgenic rats in which GABAergic neurons expressed fluorescent protein Venus. By analysis of biocytin-filled axons obtained with whole-cell recording/staining in cortical slices, we classified fast-spiking (FS neurons in layer (L 5 into two types, FS1 and FS2, by their high and low densities of axonal arborization, respectively. We then investigated the connections of FS1, FS2, somatostatin-immunopositive (SOM and other (non-FS/non-SOM interneurons to CSNs that were retrogradely labeled in a Golgi-like manner in motor areas. When close appositions between the axon boutons of the intracellularly labeled interneurons and the somata/dendrites of the retrogradely labeled CSNs were examined electron-microscopically, 74% of these appositions made symmetric synaptic contacts. The axon boutons of single FS1 neurons were 2–4-fold more frequent in appositions to the somata/dendrites of CSNs than those of FS2, SOM and non-FS/non-SOM neurons. Axosomatic appositions were most frequently formed with axon boutons of FS1 and FS2 neurons (approximately 30% and least frequently formed with those of SOM neurons (7%. In contrast, SOM neurons most extensively sent axon boutons to the apical dendrites of CSNs. These results might suggest that motor outputs are controlled differentially by the subgroups of L5 GABAergic interneurons in cortical motor areas. 

  4. Glycine: an alternative transmitter candidate of the pallidosubthalamic projection neurons in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M.; Hattori, T.

    1987-01-01

    Autoradiographic retrograde tracing techniques with radioactive transmitters were used to analyse the identity of a putative transmitter in the rat pallidosubthalamic (GP-STN) pathway. One to 2 hours after the stereotaxic injection of 3 H-glycine restricted to the STN, a large number of neuronal somata were radiolabeled in the GP. No comparable labeling was observed following the injection of 3 H-gamma-aminobutyric acid ( 3 H-GABA) into the same nucleus even with survival times as long as 6 hours. Specifically, no significant somatic labeling was detected either in the GP or in the caudoputamen (CPU). Only when 3 H-GABA was injected into the substantia nigra did CPU and GP neurons become labeled. On the contrary, STN neuronal somata were invariably labeled 6 hours after the intrapallidal injection of 3 H-GABA, whereas no perikaryal labeling was observed in the STN after 3 H-glycine injection into the GP. The perikaryal labeling was prevented in all cases by intraventricular administration of colchicine 1 day before the isotope injections. The observations suggest that 3 H-glycine was preferentially transported retrogradely through the GP-STN pathway, and 3 H-GABA through the STN-GP projection. In view of the recent controversy on the role of GABA as a putative transmitter of the GP-STN projection, we now propose glycine as an alternative transmitter candidate of these critically situated neurons in the basal ganglia

  5. Functional properties and synaptic integration of genetically labelled dopaminergic neurons in intrastriatal grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Thompson, Lachlan; Kirik, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    in the dopamine-depleted striatum than of those in the intact striatum. Our findings define specific electrophysiological characteristics of transplanted fetal dopaminergic neurons, and we provide the first direct evidence of functional synaptic integration of these neurons into host neural circuitries......., the electrophysiological properties grafted cells need to have in order to induce substantial functional recovery are poorly defined. It has not been possible to prospectively identify and record from dopaminergic neurons in fetal transplants. Here we used transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein under control...... of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of endogenous and grafted dopaminergic neurons. We transplanted ventral mesencephalic tissue from E12.5 transgenic mice into striatum of neonatal rats with or without lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The transplanted...

  6. Live-Cell, Label-Free Identification of GABAergic and Non-GABAergic Neurons in Primary Cortical Cultures Using Micropatterned Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Sho; Kushida, Takatoshi; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Niwano, Michio; Tanii, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory neurons have distinct roles in cortical dynamics. Here we present a novel method for identifying inhibitory GABAergic neurons from non-GABAergic neurons, which are mostly excitatory glutamatergic neurons, in primary cortical cultures. This was achieved using an asymmetrically designed micropattern that directs an axonal process to the longest pathway. In the current work, we first modified the micropattern geometry to improve cell viability and then studied the axon length from 2 to 7 days in vitro (DIV). The cell types of neurons were evaluated retrospectively based on immunoreactivity against GAD67, a marker for inhibitory GABAergic neurons. We found that axons of non-GABAergic neurons grow significantly longer than those of GABAergic neurons in the early stages of development. The optimal threshold for identifying GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons was evaluated to be 110 μm at 6 DIV. The method does not require any fluorescence labelling and can be carried out on live cells. The accuracy of identification was 98.2%. We confirmed that the high accuracy was due to the use of a micropattern, which standardized the development of cultured neurons. The method promises to be beneficial both for engineering neuronal networks in vitro and for basic cellular neuroscience research. PMID:27513933

  7. Characterization of spinal afferent neurons projecting to different chambers of the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guić, Maja Marinović; Kosta, Vana; Aljinović, Jure; Sapunar, Damir; Grković, Ivica

    2010-01-29

    The pattern of distribution of spinal afferent neurons (among dorsal root ganglia-DRGs) that project to anatomically and functionally different chambers of the rat heart, as well as their morphological and neurochemical characteristics were investigated. Retrograde tracing using a patch loaded with Fast blue (FB) was applied to all four chambers of the rat heart and labeled cardiac spinal afferents were characterized by using three neurochemical markers. The majority of cardiac projecting neurons were found from T1 to T4 DRGs, whereas the peak was at T2 DRG. There was no difference in the total number of FB-labeled neurons located in ipsilateral and contralateral DRGs regardless of the chambers marked with the patch. However, significantly more FB-labeled neurons projected to the ventricles compared to the atria (859 vs. 715). The proportion of isolectin B(4) binding in FB-labeled neurons was equal among all neurons projecting to different heart chambers (2.4%). Neurofilament 200 positivity was found in greater proportions in DRG neurons projecting to the left side of the heart, whereas calretinin-immunoreactivity was mostly represented in neurons projecting to the left atrium. Spinal afferent neurons projecting to different chambers of the rat heart exhibit a variety of neurochemical phenotypes depending on binding capacity for isolectin B(4) and immunoreactivity for neurofilament 200 and calretinin, and thus represent important baseline data for future studies. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Axonal collateral-collateral transport of tract tracers in brain neurons: false anterograde labelling and useful tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Aston-Jones, G

    1998-02-01

    It is well established that some neuroanatomical tracers may be taken up by local axonal terminals and transported to distant axonal collaterals (e.g., transganglionic transport in dorsal root ganglion cells). However, such collateral-collateral transport of tracers has not been systematically examined in the central nervous system. We addressed this issue with four neuronal tracers--biocytin, biotinylated dextran amine, cholera toxin B subunit, and Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin--in the cerebellar cortex. Labelling of distant axonal collaterals in the cerebellar cortex (indication of collateral-collateral transport) was seen after focal iontophoretic microinjections of each of the four tracers. However, collateral-collateral transport properties differed among these tracers. Injection of biocytin or Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin in the cerebellar cortex yielded distant collateral labelling only in parallel fibres. In contrast, injection of biotinylated dextran amine or cholera toxin B subunit produced distant collateral labelling of climbing fibres and mossy fibres, as well as parallel fibres. The present study is the first systematic examination of collateral-collateral transport following injection of anterograde tracers in brain. Such collateral-collateral transport may produce false-positive conclusions regarding neural connections when using these tracers for anterograde transport. However, this property may also be used as a tool to determine areas that are innervated by common distant afferents. In addition, these results may indicate a novel mode of chemical communication in the nervous system.

  9. Brainstem neurons projecting to the rostral ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the medulla oblongata of the rat revealed by co-application of NMDA and biocytin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Y; Riche, D; Rekling, J C

    1998-01-01

    retrogradely brainstem neurons reciprocally connected to a population of inspiratory neurons in the rat rVRG. The procedure excited rVRG neurons in multi-unit recordings and led to a Golgi-like labelling of distant cells presumably excited by efferents from the rVRG. Injection of biocytin without NMDA did...... dendrites of labelled neurons, suggesting monosynaptic connections between the rVRG and these nuclei.......Groups of neurons in the medulla and pons are essential for the rhythm generation, pattern formation and modulation of respiration. The rostral Ventral Respiratory Group (rVRG) is thought to be a crucial area for rhythm generation. Here we co-applied biocytin and NMDA in the rVRG to label...

  10. Brainstem neurons projecting to the rostral ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the medulla oblongata of the rat revealed by co-application of NMDA and biocytin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Y; Riche, D; Rekling, J C

    1998-01-01

    retrogradely brainstem neurons reciprocally connected to a population of inspiratory neurons in the rat rVRG. The procedure excited rVRG neurons in multi-unit recordings and led to a Golgi-like labelling of distant cells presumably excited by efferents from the rVRG. Injection of biocytin without NMDA did......Groups of neurons in the medulla and pons are essential for the rhythm generation, pattern formation and modulation of respiration. The rostral Ventral Respiratory Group (rVRG) is thought to be a crucial area for rhythm generation. Here we co-applied biocytin and NMDA in the rVRG to label...... not label neurons in distant structures. Several brainstem ipsi- and contralateral structures were found to project to the rVRG, but three major respiratory-related structures, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the parabrachialis medialis and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei (PB/KF) and the caudal VRG, which...

  11. Digoxigenylated wheat germ agglutinin visualized with alkaline phosphatase-labeled anti-digoxigenin antibodies--a new, sensitive technique with the potential for single and double tracing of neuronal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veh, R W

    1991-01-02

    For double tracing experiments, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) molecules labeled with two different haptens are desirable. In the present report the suitability of digoxigenylated WGA (DIG-WGA) for retrograde tracing was investigated. For this purpose the new tracer was pressure injected into rat brains and the transported DIG-WGA visualized via its digoxigenyl group with an alkaline phosphatase linked anti DIG antibody in permanently stained sections of high quality. With fixatives containing 2.5% glutaraldehyde only few positive cells were found. However, at milder fixation conditions (4% paraformaldehyde, 0.05% glutaraldehyde 0.2% picric acid, 30 min) retrogradely labeled cells were detected with a sensitivity comparable to tetramethylbenzidine protocols for conventional WGA-HRP (horseradish peroxidase) tracing. Preliminary experiments suggest excellent suitability for double labeling.

  12. Parasympathetic preganglionic cardiac motoneurons labeled after voluntary diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Michael ePanneton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dramatic bradycardia is induced by underwater submersion in vertebrates. The location of parasympathetic preganglionic cardiac motor neurons driving this aspect of the diving response was investigated using cFos immunohistochemistry combined with retrograde transport of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB to double-label neurons. After pericardial injections of CTB, trained rats voluntarily dove underwater, and their heart rates dropped immediately to 95±2bpm, an 80% reduction. After immunohistochemical processing, the vast majority of CTB labeled neurons were located in the reticular formation from the rostral cervical spinal cord to the facial motor nucleus, confirming previous studies. Labeled neurons caudal to the rostral ventrolateral medulla were usually spindle-shaped aligned along an oblique line running from the dorsal vagal nucleus to the ventrolateral reticular formation, while those more rostrally were multipolar with extended dendrites. Nine percent of retrogradely-labeled neurons were positive for both cFos and CTB after diving and 74% of these were found rostral to the obex. CTB also was transported transganglionically in primary afferent fibers, resulting in large granular deposits in dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and commissural subnuclei of the nucleus tractus solitarii and finer deposits in lamina I and IV-V of the trigeminocervical complex. The overlap of parasympathetic preganglionic cardiac motor neurons activated by diving with those activated by baro- and chemoreceptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla is discussed. Thus the profound bradycardia seen with underwater submersion reinforces the notion that the mammalian diving response is the most powerful autonomic reflex known.

  13. Two distinct populations of projection neurons in the rat lateral parafascicular thalamic nucleus and their cholinergic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J A; Sylwestrak, E L; Cox, C L

    2009-08-04

    The lateral parafascicular nucleus (lPf) is a member of the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, a collection of nuclei that characteristically provides widespread projections to the neocortex and basal ganglia and is associated with arousal, sensory, and motor functions. Recently, lPf neurons have been shown to possess different characteristics than other cortical-projecting thalamic relay neurons. We performed whole cell recordings from lPf neurons using an in vitro rat slice preparation and found two distinct neuronal subtypes that were differentiated by distinct morphological and physiological characteristics: diffuse and bushy. Diffuse neurons, which had been previously described, were the predominant neuronal subtype (66%). These neurons had few, poorly-branching, extended dendrites, and rarely displayed burst-like action potential discharge, a ubiquitous feature of thalamocortical relay neurons. Interestingly, we discovered a smaller population of bushy neurons (34%) that shared similar morphological and physiological characteristics with thalamocortical relay neurons of primary sensory thalamic nuclei. In contrast to other thalamocortical relay neurons, activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced a membrane hyperpolarization via activation of M(2) receptors in most lPf neurons (60%). In a minority of lPf neurons (33%), muscarinic agonists produced a membrane depolarization via activation of predominantly M(3) receptors. The muscarinic receptor-mediated actions were independent of lPf neuronal subtype (i.e. diffuse or bushy neurons); however the cholinergic actions were correlated with lPf neurons with different efferent targets. Retrogradely-labeled lPf neurons from frontal cortical fluorescent bead injections primarily consisted of bushy type lPf neurons (78%), but more importantly, all of these neurons were depolarized by muscarinic agonists. On the other hand, lPf neurons labeled by striatal injections were predominantly hyperpolarized by muscarinic

  14. Correlating Anatomy and Function with Gene Expression in Individual Neurons by Combining in Vivo Labeling, Patch Clamp, and Single Cell RNA-seq

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    Carsten K. Pfeffer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The classification of neurons into distinct types is an ongoing effort aimed at revealing and understanding the diversity of the components of the nervous system. Recently available methods allow us to determine the gene expression pattern of individual neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex to generate powerful categorization schemes. For a thorough understanding of neuronal diversity such genetic categorization schemes need to be combined with traditional classification parameters like position, axonal projection or response properties to sensory stimulation. Here we describe a method to link the gene expression of individual neurons with their position, axonal projection, or sensory response properties. Neurons are labeled in vivo based on their anatomical or functional properties and, using patch clamp pipettes, their RNA individually harvested in vitro for RNAseq. We validate the methodology using multiple established molecularly and anatomically distinct cell populations and explore molecular differences between uncharacterized neurons in mouse visual cortex. Gene expression patterns between L5 neurons projecting to frontal or contralateral cortex are distinct while L2 neurons differing in position, projection, or function are molecularly similar. With this method we can determine the genetic expression pattern of functionally and anatomically identified individual neurons.

  15. Neurokinin B-producing projection neurons in the lateral stripe of the striatum and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ligang; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2004-12-06

    Neurons producing preprotachykinin B (PPTB), the precursor of neurokinin B, constitute 5% of neurons in the dorsal striatum and project to the substantia innominata (SI) selectively. In the ventral striatum, PPTB-producing neurons are collected mainly in the lateral stripe of the striatum (LSS) and cell clusters of the accumbens nucleus (Acb). In the present study, we first examined the distribution of PPTB-immunoreactive neurons in rat ventral striatum and found that a large part of the PPTB-immunoreactive cell clusters was continuous to the LSS, but a smaller part was not. Thus, we divided the PPTB-immunoreactive cell clusters into the LSS-associated and non-LSS-associated ones. We next investigated the projection targets of the PPTB-producing ventral striatal neurons by combining immunofluorescence labeling and retrograde tracing. After injection of Fluoro-Gold into the basal component of the SI (SIb) and medial part of the interstitial nucleus of posterior limb of the anterior commissure, many PPTB-immunoreactive neurons were retrogradely labeled in the LSS-associated cell clusters and LSS, respectively. When the injection site included the ventral part of the sublenticular component of the SI(SIsl), retrogradely labeled neurons showed PPTB-immunoreactivity frequently in non-LSS-associated cell clusters. Furthermore, these PPTB-immunoreactive projections were confirmed by the double-fluorescence method after anterograde tracer injection into the ventral striatum containing the cell clusters. Since the dorsalmost part of the SIsl is known to receive strong inputs from PPTB-producing dorsal striatal neurons, the present results indicate that PPTB-producing ventral striatal neurons project to basal forebrain target regions in parallel with dorsal striatal neurons without significant convergence. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Neurogenic period of ascending tract neurons in the upper lumbar spinal cord of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, K.N.; Beal, J.A.; Knight, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Although the neurogenic period for neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has been clearly established (Days 12 through 16 of gestation), it is not known when the neurogenesis of ascending tract neurons is completed within this period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the duration of the neurogenic period for projection neurons of the ascending tracts. To label neurons undergoing mitosis during this period, tritiated thymidine was administered to fetal rats on Embryonic (E) Days E13 through E16 of gestation. Ascending tract neurons of the lumbar cord were later (Postnatal Days 40-50) labeled in each animal with a retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, applied at the site of a hemisection at spinal cord segment C3. Ascending tract neurons which were undergoing mitosis in the upper lumbar cord were double labeled, i.e., labeled with both tritiated thymidine and Fluoro-Gold. On Day E13, 89-92% of the ascending tract neurons were double labeled; on Day E14, 35-37%; and on Day E15, 1-4%. Results showed, then, that some ascending tract neurons were double labeled through Day E15 and were, therefore, proliferating in the final one-third of the neurogenic period. Ascending tract neurons proliferating on Day E15 were confined to laminae III, IV, V, and X and the nucleus dorsalis. Long tract neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II), on the other hand, were found to have completed neurogenesis on Day E14 of gestation. Results of the present study show that spinal neurogenesis of ascending projection neurons continues throughout most of the neurogenic period and does not completely follow the well-established ventral to dorsal gradient

  17. The pattern and extent of retrograde transsynaptic transport of WGA-Alexa 488 in the phrenic motor system is dependent upon the site of application.

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    Goshgarian, Harry G; Buttry, Janelle L

    2014-01-30

    The first aim of the study was to determine if WGA-Alexa 488 would undergo retrograde transsynaptic transport in the phrenic motor system as we have shown with WGA-HRP in a previous study. The advantage of using WGA-Alexa 488 is that labeled neurons could be isolated and analyzed for intracellular molecular mechanisms without exposing tissue sections to chemicals for histochemical staining. The second aim of the study was to investigate the pattern and extent of labeling that occurs when WGA-Alexa 488 is applied to the cervical phrenic nerve as compared to intradiaphragmatic injection. After injecting the hemidiaphragm ipsilateral to a C2 spinal cord hemisection, WGA-Alexa 488 presumably diffused to the contralateral hemidiaphragm and labeled the phrenic nuclei bilaterally. In all animals with hemidiaphragmatic injection, the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) was also labeled bilaterally in the medulla. Thus, injection of WGA-Alexa 488 into the diaphragm results in retrograde transsynaptic transport in the phrenic motor system. After applying WGA-Alexa 488 to the ipsilateral intact cervical phrenic nerve in both C2 hemisected rats and rats with a sham hemisection, only ipsilateral phrenic neurons were labeled; there was no labeling of the rVRG or any other center in the medulla. These results suggest that WGA-Alexa 488 must be applied in the vicinity of the phrenic myoneural junction where there is a high concentration of WGA receptors in order for transsynaptic transport to occur. The present study provides investigators with a new tool to study plasticity in the respiratory system after spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Endoscopic retrograde cholanglopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, S.C.; Garra, B.S.; Zeman, R.K.; Krasner, B.H.; Lo, S.C.B.; Davros, W.J.; Silverman, P.M.; Cattau, E.L.; Fleischer, D.E.; Benjamin, S.B.S.B.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the clinical evaluation of image management and communications system (IMACS), the authors undertook a prospective study to compare conventional film versus digitized film viewed on a workstation. Twenty-five each of normal and abnormal endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic (ERCP) studies were digitized with a 1,684 x 2,048-pixel matrix and evaluated in a single-blind fashion on the workstation. The resulting interpretations were then compared with those resulting from interpretation of film (spot film and 100-mm photospot) images. They report that no significant differences were found in ability to see anatomic detail or pathology. A second study involved performing 10 ERCP studies in a lithotripsy suite equipped with biplane digital fluoroscopy. The digital video displays were comparable in quality to that of film. Progress is being made in using the IMACS for archiving and retrieval of all current ERCP images

  19. FIB/SEM technology and high-throughput 3D reconstruction of dendritic spines and synapses in GFP-labeled adult-generated neurons

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    Carles eBosch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fine analysis of synaptic contacts is usually performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and its combination with neuronal labeling techniques. However, the complex 3D architecture of neuronal samples calls for their reconstruction from serial sections. Here we show that focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM allows efficient, complete, and automatic 3D reconstruction of identified dendrites, including their spines and synapses, from GFP/DAB-labeled neurons, with a resolution comparable to that of TEM. We applied this technology to analyze the synaptogenesis of labeled adult-generated granule cells (GCs in mice. 3D reconstruction of spines in GCs aged 3–4 and 8–9 weeks revealed two different stages of spine development and unexpected features of synapse formation, including vacant and branched spines and presynaptic terminals establishing synapses with up to 10 spines. Given the reliability, efficiency, and high resolution of FIB/SEM technology and the wide use of DAB in conventional EM, we consider FIB/SEM fundamental for the detailed characterization of identified synaptic contacts in neurons in a high-throughput manner.

  20. WGA-Alexa transsynaptic labeling in the phrenic motor system of adult rats: Intrapleural injection versus intradiaphragmatic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttry, Janelle L; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2015-02-15

    Intrapleural injection of CTB-Alexa 488, a retrograde tracer, provides an alternative labeling technique to the surgically invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injection. However, CTB-Alexa 488 is incapable of crossing synapses restricting the tracer to the phrenic nuclei and the intercostal motor nuclei in the spinal cord. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa 488, a transsynaptic tracer, provides a method to label the respiratory motor pathway in both the spinal cord and medulla. Intradiaphragmatic injection of WGA-Alexa 594 and vagal nerve injections of True blue were used to confirm the phrenic nuclei and to differentiate between the rVRG and the NA in the medulla. Following intrapleural injection, WGA-Alexa 488 was retrogradely transported to the phrenic nuclei and to the intercostal motor nuclei. Subsequently WGA-Alexa 488 was transsynaptically transported from the phrenic motoneurons to the pre-motor neurons in the rVRG that provide the descending drive to the phrenic neurons during inspiration. In addition WGA-Alexa 488 was identified in select cells of the NA confirmed by a dual label of both WGA-Alexa 488 and True blue. WGA-Alexa 488 demonstrates retrograde transsynaptic labeling following intrapleural injection whereas the previous method of injecting CTB-Alexa 488 only demonstrates retrograde labeling. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa fluor conjugates is an effective method to transsynaptically label the phrenic motor system providing an alternative for the invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injections. Furthermore, the study provides the first anatomical evidence of a direct synaptic relationship between rVRG and select NA cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphological Analysis of the Axonal Projections of EGFP-Labeled Esr1-Expressing Neurons in Transgenic Female Medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Buntaro; Karigo, Tomomi; Kanda, Shinji; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2018-02-01

    Some hypothalamic neurons expressing estrogen receptor α (Esr1) are thought to transmit a gonadal estrogen feedback signal to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) neurons, which is the final common pathway for feedback regulation of reproductive functions. Moreover, estrogen-sensitive neurons are suggested to control sexual behaviors in coordination with reproduction. In mammals, hypothalamic estrogen-sensitive neurons release the peptide kisspeptin and regulate GnRH1 neurons. However, a growing body of evidence in nonmammalian species casts doubt on the regulation of GnRH1 neurons by kisspeptin neurons. As a step toward understanding how estrogen regulates neuronal circuits for reproduction and sex behavior in vertebrates in general, we generated a transgenic (Tg) medaka that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) specifically in esr1-expressing neurons (esr1 neurons) and analyzed their axonal projections. We found that esr1 neurons in the preoptic area (POA) project to the gnrh1 neurons. We also demonstrated by transcriptome and histological analyses that these esr1 neurons are glutamatergic or γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) but not kisspeptinergic. We therefore suggest that glutamatergic and GABAergic esr1 neurons in the POA regulate gnrh1 neurons. This hypothesis is consistent with previous studies in mice that found that glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission is critical for estrogen-dependent changes in GnRH1 neuron firing. Thus, we propose that this neuronal circuit may provide an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for regulation of reproduction. In addition, we showed that telencephalic esr1 neurons project to medulla, which may control sexual behavior. Moreover, we found that some POA-esr1 neurons coexpress progesterone receptors. These neurons may form the neuronal circuits that regulate reproduction and sex behavior in response to the serum estrogen/progesterone. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  2. Label-free electrochemical immunoassay for neuron specific enolase based on 3D macroporous reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiaoyan; Qian, Chunhua; Dou, Li; Cui, Feng; Chen, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    The content of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum is considered to be an essential indicator of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Here, a novel label-free electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of NSE based on the three dimensionally macroporous reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline (3DM rGO/PANI) film has been proposed. The 3DM rGO/PANI film was constructed by electrochemical co-deposition of GO and aniline into the interspaces of a sacrificial silica opal template modified Au slice. During the co-deposition, GO was successfully reduced by aniline and PANI could be deposited on the surfaces of rGO sheets. The ratio of rGO and PANI in the composite was also optimized to achieve the maximum electrochemical performance. The 3DM rGO/PANI composite provided larger specific surface area for the antibody immobilization, exhibited enhanced conductivity for electron transfer, and more important was that PANI acted as the electroactive probe for indicating the NSE concentration. Under the optimal conditions, a linear current response of PANI to NSE concentration was obtained over 0.5 pg mL -1 -10.0 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.1 pg mL -1 . Moreover, the immunosensor showed excellent selectivity, good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration, and was employed to detect NSE in clinical serum specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity of layer 5 projection neurons in the mouse motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Manfred J.; Tantirigama, Malinda L. S.; Sonntag, Ivo; Hughes, Stephanie M.; Empson, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    In the primary motor cortex (M1), layer 5 projection neurons signal directly to distant motor structures to drive movement. Despite their pivotal position and acknowledged diversity these neurons are traditionally separated into broad commissural and corticofugal types, and until now no attempt has been made at resolving the basis for their diversity. We therefore probed the electrophysiological and morphological properties of retrogradely labeled M1 corticospinal (CSp), corticothalamic (CTh), and commissural projecting corticostriatal (CStr) and corticocortical (CC) neurons. An unsupervised cluster analysis established at least four phenotypes with additional differences between lumbar and cervical projecting CSp neurons. Distinguishing parameters included the action potential (AP) waveform, firing behavior, the hyperpolarisation-activated sag potential, sublayer position, and soma and dendrite size. CTh neurons differed from CSp neurons in showing spike frequency acceleration and a greater sag potential. CStr neurons had the lowest AP amplitude and maximum rise rate of all neurons. Temperature influenced spike train behavior in corticofugal neurons. At 26°C CTh neurons fired bursts of APs more often than CSp neurons, but at 36°C both groups fired regular APs. Our findings provide reliable phenotypic fingerprints to identify distinct M1 projection neuron classes as a tool to understand their unique contributions to motor function. PMID:24137110

  4. Diversity of Layer 5 Projection Neurons in the Mouse Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred J Oswald

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the primary motor cortex (M1, layer 5 projection neurons signal directly to distant motor structures to drive movement. Despite their pivotal position and acknowledged diversity these neurons are traditionally separated into broad commissural and corticofugal types, and until now no attempt has been made at resolving the basis for their diversity. We therefore probed the electrophysiological and morphological properties of retrogradely labelled M1 corticospinal (CSp, corticothalamic (CTh, and commissural projecting corticostriatal (CStr and corticocortical (CC neurons. An unsupervised cluster analysis established at least four phenotypes with additional differences between lumbar and cervical projecting CSp neurons. Distinguishing parameters included the action potential (AP waveform, firing behaviour, the hyperpolarisation-activated sag potential, sublayer position, and soma and dendrite size. CTh neurons differed from CSp neurons in showing spike frequency acceleration and a greater sag potential. CStr neurons had the lowest AP amplitude and maximum rise rate of all neurons. Temperature influenced spike train behaviour in corticofugal neurons. At 26 ºC CTh neurons fired bursts of APs more often than CSp neurons, but at 36 ºC both groups fired regular APs. Our findings provide reliable phenotypic fingerprints to identify distinct M1 projection neuron classes as a tool to understand their unique contributions to motor function.

  5. Distribution and chemical coding of neurons in intramural ganglia of the porcine urinary bladder trigone.

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    Zenon Pidsudko

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the distribution and chemical coding of neurons in the porcine intramural ganglia of the urinary bladder trigone (IG-UBT demonstrated using combined retrograde tracing and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB was injected into the wall of both the left and right side of the bladder trigone during laparotomy performed under pentobarbital anaesthesia. Ten-microm-thick cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, somatostatin (SOM, galanin (GAL, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, Leu5-enkephalin (LENK and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. IG-UBT neurons formed characteristic clusters (from a few to tens neuronal cells found under visceral peritoneum or in the outer muscular layer. Immunohistochemistry revealed four main populations of IG-UBT neurons: SOM- (ca. 35%, SP- (ca. 32%, ChAT- and NPY- immunoreactive (-IR (ca. 23% as well as non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerve cells (ca. 6%. This study has demonstrated a relatively large population of differently coded IG-UBT neurons, which constitute an important element of the complex neuro-endocrine system involved in the regulation of the porcine urogenital organ function.

  6. The projection and synaptic organisation of NTS afferent connections with presympathetic neurons, GABA and nNOS neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, V.S.; Coote, J.H.; Pyner, S.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated sympathetic nerve activity, strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, is partly generated from the presympathetic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The PVN-presympathetic neurons regulating cardiac and vasomotor sympathetic activity receive information about cardiovascular status from receptors in the heart and circulation. These receptors signal changes via afferent neurons terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), some of which may result in excitation or inhibition of PVN-presympathetic neurons. Understanding the anatomy and neurochemistry of NTS afferent connections within the PVN could provide important clues to the impairment in homeostasis cardiovascular control associated with disease. Transynaptic labelling has shown the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing neurons and GABA interneurons that terminate on presympathetic PVN neurons any of which may be the target for NTS afferents. So far NTS connections to these diverse neuronal pools have not been demonstrated and were investigated in this study. Anterograde (biotin dextran amine – BDA) labelling of the ascending projection from the NTS and retrograde (fluorogold – FG or cholera toxin B subunit – CTB) labelling of PVN presympathetic neurons combined with immunohistochemistry for GABA and nNOS was used to identify the terminal neuronal targets of the ascending projection from the NTS. It was shown that NTS afferent terminals are apposed to either PVN-GABA interneurons or to nitric oxide producing neurons or even directly to presympathetic neurons. Furthermore, there was evidence that some NTS axons were positive for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGLUT2). The data provide an anatomical basis for the different functions of cardiovascular receptors that mediate their actions via the NTS–PVN pathways. PMID:22698695

  7. High-resolution labeling and functional manipulation of specific neuron types in mouse brain by Cre-activated viral gene expression.

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    Sandra J Kuhlman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2 upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain.

  8. Transgenic labeling of higher order neuronal circuits linked to phospholipase C-β2-expressing taste bud cells in medaka fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieki, Takashi; Okada, Shinji; Aihara, Yoshiko; Ohmoto, Makoto; Abe, Keiko; Yasuoka, Akihito; Misaka, Takumi

    2013-06-01

    The sense of taste plays a pivotal role in the food-selecting behaviors of vertebrates. We have shown that the fish ortholog of the phospholipase C gene (plc-β2) is expressed in a subpopulation of taste bud cells that transmit taste stimuli to the central nervous system to evoke favorable and aversive behaviors. We generated transgenic medaka expressing wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) under the control of a regulatory region of the medaka plc-β2 gene to analyze the neuronal circuit connected to these sensory cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of the transgenic fish 12 days post fertilization revealed that the WGA protein was transferred to cranial sensory ganglia and several nuclei in the hindbrain. WGA signals were also detected in the secondary gustatory nucleus in the hindbrain of 3-month-old transgenic fish. WGA signals were observed in several diencephalic and telencephalic regions in 9-month-old transgenic fish. The age-dependent increase in the labeled brain regions strongly suggests that labeling occurred at taste bud cells and progressively extended to cranial nerves and neurons in the central nervous system. These data are the first to demonstrate the tracing of higher order gustatory neuronal circuitry that is associated with a specific subpopulation of taste bud cells. These results provide insight into the basic neuronal architecture of gustatory information processing that is common among vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nociceptive afferents to the premotor neurons that send axons simultaneously to the facial and hypoglossal motoneurons by means of axon collaterals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Dong

    Full Text Available It is well known that the brainstem premotor neurons of the facial nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus coordinate orofacial nociceptive reflex (ONR responses. However, whether the brainstem PNs receive the nociceptive projection directly from the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus is still kept unclear. Our present study focuses on the distribution of premotor neurons in the ONR pathways of rats and the collateral projection of the premotor neurons which are involved in the brainstem local pathways of the orofacial nociceptive reflexes of rat. Retrograde tracer Fluoro-gold (FG or FG/tetramethylrhodamine-dextran amine (TMR-DA were injected into the VII or/and XII, and anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA was injected into the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc. The tracing studies indicated that FG-labeled neurons receiving BDA-labeled fibers from the Vc were mainly distributed bilaterally in the parvicellular reticular formation (PCRt, dorsal and ventral medullary reticular formation (MdD, MdV, supratrigeminal nucleus (Vsup and parabrachial nucleus (PBN with an ipsilateral dominance. Some FG/TMR-DA double-labeled premotor neurons, which were observed bilaterally in the PCRt, MdD, dorsal part of the MdV, peri-motor nucleus regions, contacted with BDA-labeled axonal terminals and expressed c-fos protein-like immunoreactivity which induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin into the lip. After retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP was injected into VII or XII and BDA into Vc, electron microscopic study revealed that some BDA-labeled axonal terminals made mainly asymmetric synapses on the dendritic and somatic profiles of WGA-HRP-labeled premotor neurons. These data indicate that some premotor neurons could integrate the orofacial nociceptive input from the Vc and transfer these signals simultaneously to different brainstem motonuclei by axonal collaterals.

  10. Age-related changes of neurochemically different subpopulations of cardiac spinal afferent neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guić, Maja Marinović; Runtić, Branka; Košta, Vana; Aljinović, Jure; Grković, Ivica

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging on cardiac spinal afferent neurons in the rat. A patch loaded with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to all chambers of the rat heart. Morphological and neurochemical characteristics of labeled cardiac spinal afferent neurons were assessed in young (2 months) and old (2 years) rats using markers for likely unmyelinated (isolectin B4; IB4) and myelinated (neurofilament 200; N52) neurons. The number of cardiac spinal afferent neurons decreased in senescence to 15% of that found in young rats (1604 vs. 248). The size of neuronal soma as well as proportion of IB4+ neurons increased significantly, whereas the proportion of N52+ neurons decreased significantly in senescence. Unlike somatic spinal afferents, neurochemically different populations of cardiac spinal afferent neurons experience morphological and neurochemical changes related to aging. A major decrease in total number of cardiac spinal afferent neurons occurs in senescence. The proportion of N52+ neurons decreased in senescence, but it seems that nociceptive innervation is preserved due to increased proportion and size of IB4+ unmyelinated neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of retrograde transport vesicles containing nerve growth factor in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weible, M.W.; Sandow, S.L.; Ozsarac, N.; Hendry, I.A.; Grimes, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Survival, differentiation, and development of responsive neurons are regulated by neurotrophins secreted from the target cells that they innervate. These responsive neurons must meet the challenge of transporting the neurotrophins chemical message from the target tissue to the soma; the distance of which may be a few millimetres to many meters. One hypothesis involves the formation of a signalling organelle at the neurite tip and subsequent retrograde axonal transport to the soma. This signalling vesicle is derived from the endocytosis of the neurotrophin-receptor complex. By modifying a method developed to isolate signalling endosomes from PC12 cells, we are able to isolate signalling vesicles from rat and mouse sciatic tissue. Approximately, 4 mole of I 125 -labelled neurotrophin was injected into the rodent foot pad and the sciatic nerve ligated under 88 μ/g ketamine and 16 μ/g rompun (i.p.) anaesthetic. All experiments had the approval of the ANU animal ethics committee. We achieved a recovery of 23% and 34% in the mouse and rat respectively of total transported iodinated neurotrophin accumulating on the distal side of the ligation. The homogenized tissue was characterized via differential centrifugation, blotted, and probed using antibodies to the neurotrophin receptors. Electron microscopy confirmed that the membrane pellet containing the transported neurotrophin from this in vivo preparation contained vesicular structures. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  12. Anterograde or Retrograde Transsynaptic Circuit Tracing in Vertebrates with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Kevin T; Mundell, Nathan A; Pan, Y Albert; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-04

    Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells. To date, their use has been largely restricted to mammals. In order to explore the use of such viruses in an expanded host range, we tested the transsynaptic tracing ability of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors in a variety of organisms. Successful infection and gene expression were achieved in a wide range of organisms, including vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Moreover, rVSV enabled transsynaptic tracing of neural circuitry in predictable directions dictated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (G), derived from either VSV or rabies virus (RABV). Anterograde and retrograde labeling, from initial infection and/or viral replication and transmission, was observed in Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, jellyfish, zebrafish, chickens, and mice. These vectors are widely applicable for gene delivery, afferent tract tracing, and/or directional connectivity mapping. Here, we detail the use of these vectors and provide protocols for propagating virus, changing the surface glycoprotein, and infecting multiple organisms using several injection strategies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. PINP: a new method of tagging neuronal populations for identification during in vivo electrophysiological recording.

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    Susana Q Lima

    Full Text Available Neural circuits are exquisitely organized, consisting of many different neuronal subpopulations. However, it is difficult to assess the functional roles of these subpopulations using conventional extracellular recording techniques because these techniques do not easily distinguish spikes from different neuronal populations. To overcome this limitation, we have developed PINP (Photostimulation-assisted Identification of Neuronal Populations, a method of tagging neuronal populations for identification during in vivo electrophysiological recording. The method is based on expressing the light-activated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 to restricted neuronal subpopulations. ChR2-tagged neurons can be detected electrophysiologically in vivo since illumination of these neurons with a brief flash of blue light triggers a short latency reliable action potential. We demonstrate the feasibility of this technique by expressing ChR2 in distinct populations of cortical neurons using two different strategies. First, we labeled a subpopulation of cortical neurons-mainly fast-spiking interneurons-by using adeno-associated virus (AAV to deliver ChR2 in a transgenic mouse line in which the expression of Cre recombinase was driven by the parvalbumin promoter. Second, we labeled subpopulations of excitatory neurons in the rat auditory cortex with ChR2 based on projection target by using herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1, which is efficiently taken up by axons and transported retrogradely; we find that this latter population responds to acoustic stimulation differently from unlabeled neurons. Tagging neurons is a novel application of ChR2, used in this case to monitor activity instead of manipulating it. PINP can be readily extended to other populations of genetically identifiable neurons, and will provide a useful method for probing the functional role of different neuronal populations in vivo.

  14. Divergent projections of catecholaminergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract to limbic forebrain and medullary autonomic brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2006-10-30

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a critical structure involved in coordinating autonomic and visceral activities. Previous independent studies have demonstrated efferent projections from the NTS to the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in rat brain. To further characterize the neural circuitry originating from the NTS with postsynaptic targets in the amygdala and medullary autonomic targets, distinct green or red fluorescent latex microspheres were injected into the PGi and the CNA, respectively, of the same rat. Thirty-micron thick tissue sections through the lower brainstem and forebrain were collected. Every fourth section through the NTS region was processed for immunocytochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of catecholaminergic neurons. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the PGi or CNA were distributed throughout the rostro-caudal segments of the NTS. However, the majority of neurons containing both retrograde tracers were distributed within the caudal third of the NTS. Cell counts revealed that approximately 27% of neurons projecting to the CNA in the NTS sent collateralized projections to the PGi while approximately 16% of neurons projecting to the PGi sent collateralized projections to the CNA. Interestingly, more than half of the PGi and CNA-projecting neurons in the NTS expressed TH immunoreactivity. These data indicate that catecholaminergic neurons in the NTS are poised to simultaneously coordinate activities in limbic and medullary autonomic brain regions.

  15. Excitatory inputs to four types of spinocerebellar tract neurons in the cat and the rat thoraco-lumbar spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sony Shakya; Bannatyne, B Anne; Jankowska, Elzbieta; Hammar, Ingela; Nilsson, Elin; Maxwell, David J

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum receives information from the hindlimbs through several populations of spinocerebellar tract neurons. Although the role of these neurons has been established in electrophysiological experiments, the relative contribution of afferent fibres and central neurons to their excitatory input has only been estimated approximately so far. Taking advantage of differences in the immunohistochemistry of glutamatergic terminals of peripheral afferents and of central neurons (with vesicular glutamate transporters VGLUT1 or VGLUT2, respectively), we compared sources of excitatory input to four populations of spinocerebellar neurons in the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord: dorsal spinocerebellar tract neurons located in Clarke's column (ccDSCT) and in the dorsal horn (dhDSCT) and ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT) neurons including spinal border (SB) neurons. This was done on 22 electrophysiologically identified intracellularly labelled neurons in cats and on 80 neurons labelled by retrograde transport of cholera toxin b subunit injected into the cerebellum of rats. In both species distribution of antibodies against VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 on SB neurons (which have dominating inhibitory input from limb muscles), revealed very few VGLUT1 contacts and remarkably high numbers of VGLUT2 contacts. In VSCT neurons with excitatory afferent input, the number of VGLUT1 contacts was relatively high although VGLUT2 contacts likewise dominated, while the proportions of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 immunoreactive terminals were the reverse on the two populations of DSCT neurons. These findings provide morphological evidence that SB neurons principally receive excitatory inputs from central neurons and provide the cerebellum with information regarding central neuronal activity. PMID:22371473

  16. Effects of kainic acid lesions in lateral geniculate nucleus: activity dependence of retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, W R; Coull, B M

    1988-06-28

    Kainic acid lesions in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of rats block the retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes in corticogeniculate neurons without affecting the retrograde transport of D-aspartate or the orthograde transport of radiolabelled proteins in these neurons. This blocking of dye transport does not appear to be a consequence of kainic acid-induced damage to axon terminals in the geniculate since retinal ganglion cells are still able to transport dyes retrograde. A more likely explanation for these results is that fluorescent dye transport requires electrical activity in neurons, and elimination of the geniculate afferents to visual cortex reduces impulse traffic in cortical output fibers to a level below that required to support detectable dye transport. This interpretation is supported by the observation that kainic acid lesions also reduce retrograde transport of dyes in cortical neurons which project to the superior colliculus. Electrical stimulation in the subcortical white matter restores the transport of dye compounds in corticogeniculate neurons: evidence consistent with an activity-dependent mechanism of retrograde transport for these substances. These results provide evidence that axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells and corticogeniculate neurons survive in kainate-lesioned geniculates and are capable of normal neuronal function.

  17. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis was suspected on ...

  18. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We highlight a potentially lethal complication of acute severe pancreatitis that may not be suspected in severely ill patients. A 41-year-old woman developed acute severe pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected choledocholithiasis. When her condition deteriorated ...

  19. A study of signalling events regulating the retrograde axonal transport of neurotrophic factors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, A.J.; Bartlett, S.E.; Hendry, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Soluble neurotrophic factors such as NGF promote the survival of sympathetic and sensory neuronal populations by binding to receptors present on the nerve terminal and transported to the cell body. This study aimed to establish the molecular mechanisms regulating this process by identifying potential signalling molecules that may be involved using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Adult Balb/c or CBA mice were anaesthetized using 88 μg/g ketamine and 16 μg/g rompun (i.p.) and 1 μl containing 4 μCi of 125 I-labelled NT-3 (37 ng) or pNGF (22 ng) was co-injected with inhibitors into the anterior eye chamber. After 20 hours the accumulated radioactivity was measured in the superior cervical and trigeminal ganglia. The PI3-kinase inhibitor Wortmannin inhibited 125 I-NT-3 transport in the range of 0.1-1 nmol/eye as previously shown with 125 I-βOeGF. The cPLA 2 inhibitor AACOCF3 did not significantly affect the retrograde transport of either 125 I-NT-3 or 125 I-βNGF suggesting that Wortmannin is not influencing the transport of these neurotrophins by inhibiting cPLA 2 activity. The dynein ATPase inhibitor erythro-9-[3-(2-hydroxynonyl)]adenine (1 mM) also selectively reduced 125 I-βNGF transport. Non-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not have a significant effect. These results further suggest that PI3-kinase might regulate the intracellular transport of neurotrophic factors, and that retrograde axonal transport of these proteins relies on the dynein motor protein in vivo. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  20. Feed-forward and feedback projections of midbrain reticular formation neurons in the cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie ePerkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaze changes involving the eyes and head are orchestrated by brainstem gaze centers found within the superior colliculus (SC, paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF, and medullary reticular formation (MdRF. The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF also plays a role in gaze. It receives a major input from the ipsilateral SC and contains cells that fire in relation to gaze changes. Moreover, it provides a feedback projection to the SC and feed-forward projections to the PPRF and MdRF. We sought to determine whether these MRF feedback and feed-forward projections originate from the same or different neuronal populations by utilizing paired fluorescent retrograde tracers in cats. Specifically, we tested: 1. whether MRF neurons that control eye movements form a single population by injecting the SC and PPRF with different tracers, and 2. whether MRF neurons that control head movements form a single population by injecting the SC and MdRF with different tracers. In neither case were double labeled neurons observed, indicating that feedback and feed-forward projections originate from separate MRF populations. In both cases, the labeled reticulotectal and reticuloreticular neurons were distributed bilaterally in the MRF. However, neurons projecting to the MdRF were generally constrained to the medial half of the MRF, while those projecting to the PPRF, like MRF reticulotectal neurons, were spread throughout the mediolateral axis. Thus, the medial MRF may be specialized for control of head movements, with control of eye movements being more widespread in this structure.

  1. Functional Characterization of Lamina X Neurons in ex-Vivo Spinal Cord Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Krotov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of lamina X neurons in the spinal cord remain unknown despite the established role of this area for somatosensory integration, visceral nociception, autonomic regulation and motoneuron output modulation. Investigations of neuronal functioning in the lamina X have been hampered by technical challenges. Here we introduce an ex-vivo spinal cord preparation with both dorsal and ventral roots still attached for functional studies of the lamina X neurons and their connectivity using an oblique LED illumination for resolved visualization of lamina X neurons in a thick tissue. With the elaborated approach, we demonstrate electrophysiological characteristics of lamina X neurons by their membrane properties, firing pattern discharge and fiber innervation (either afferent or efferent. The tissue preparation has been also probed using Ca2+ imaging with fluorescent Ca2+ dyes (membrane-impermeable or -permeable to demonstrate the depolarization-induced changes in intracellular calcium concentration in lamina X neurons. Finally, we performed visualization of subpopulations of lamina X neurons stained by retrograde labeling with aminostilbamidine dye to identify sympathetic preganglionic and projection neurons in the lamina X. Thus, the elaborated approach provides a reliable tool for investigation of functional properties and connectivity in specific neuronal subpopulations, boosting research of lamina X of the spinal cord.

  2. Scaling proprioceptor gene transcription by retrograde NT3 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lee

    Full Text Available Cell-type specific intrinsic programs instruct neuronal subpopulations before target-derived factors influence later neuronal maturation. Retrograde neurotrophin signaling controls neuronal survival and maturation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons, but how these potent signaling pathways intersect with transcriptional programs established at earlier developmental stages remains poorly understood. Here we determine the consequences of genetic alternation of NT3 signaling on genome-wide transcription programs in proprioceptors, an important sensory neuron subpopulation involved in motor reflex behavior. We find that the expression of many proprioceptor-enriched genes is dramatically altered by genetic NT3 elimination, independent of survival-related activities. Combinatorial analysis of gene expression profiles with proprioceptors isolated from mice expressing surplus muscular NT3 identifies an anticorrelated gene set with transcriptional levels scaled in opposite directions. Voluntary running experiments in adult mice further demonstrate the maintenance of transcriptional adjustability of genes expressed by DRG neurons, pointing to life-long gene expression plasticity in sensory neurons.

  3. Accurate counting of neurons in frozen sections: some necessary precautions.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J D; Payne, J N; Horobin, R W

    1988-01-01

    In 30 microns frozen sections of rat midbrain the retrograde axonal transport of diamidino yellow, a fluorescent tracer, was used to demonstrate a population of neurons in the substantia nigra. However, when visualisation was carried out using the routine Nissl method a significant proportion of neurons failed to stain. As the presence of the retrograde tracer did not affect Nissl staining of such cells, such incomplete staining, with consequent underestimation of neuronal populations, is pro...

  4. Organization of Valence-Encoding and Projection-Defined Neurons in the Basolateral Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beyeler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The basolateral amygdala (BLA mediates associative learning for both fear and reward. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that different BLA projections distinctly alter motivated behavior, including projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc, medial aspect of the central amygdala (CeM, and ventral hippocampus (vHPC. Although there is consensus regarding the existence of distinct subsets of BLA neurons encoding positive or negative valence, controversy remains regarding the anatomical arrangement of these populations. First, we map the location of more than 1,000 neurons distributed across the BLA and recorded during a Pavlovian discrimination task. Next, we determine the location of projection-defined neurons labeled with retrograde tracers and use CLARITY to reveal the axonal path in 3-dimensional space. Finally, we examine the local influence of each projection-defined populations within the BLA. Understanding the functional and topographical organization of circuits underlying valence assignment could reveal fundamental principles about emotional processing.

  5. Effects of cevimeline on excitability of parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the superior salivatory nucleus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Hirotaka; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Masako; Kobashi, Motoi; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2017-09-01

    The superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) contains parasympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist, is a sialogogue that possibly stimulates SSN neurons in addition to the salivary glands themselves because it can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we examined immunoreactivities for mAChR subtypes in SSN neurons retrogradely labeled with a fluorescent tracer in neonatal rats. Additionally, we examined the effects of cevimeline in labeled SSN neurons of brainstem slices using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Mainly M1 and M3 receptors were detected by immunohistochemical staining, with low-level detection of M4 and M5 receptors and absence of M2 receptors. Most (110 of 129) SSN neurons exhibited excitatory responses to application of cevimeline. In responding neurons, voltage-clamp recordings showed that 84% (101/120) of the neurons exhibited inward currents. In the neurons displaying inward currents, the effects of the mAChR antagonists were examined. A mixture of M1 and M3 receptor antagonists most effectively reduced the peak amplitude of inward currents, suggesting that the excitatory effects of cevimeline on SSN neurons were mainly mediated by M1 and M3 receptors. Current-clamp recordings showed that application of cevimeline induced membrane depolarization (9/9 neurons). These results suggest that most SSN neurons are excited by cevimeline via M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Glutamatergic Neurons in the Rat Atrial Intrinsic Cardiac Ganglia that Project to the Cardiac Ventricular Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic cardiac nervous system modulates cardiac function by acting as an integration site for regulating autonomic efferent cardiac output. This intrinsic system is proposed to be composed of a short cardio-cardiac feedback control loop within the cardiac innervation hierarchy. For example, electrophysiological studies have postulated the presence of sensory neurons in intrinsic cardiac ganglia for regional cardiac control. There is still a knowledge gap, however, about the anatomical location and neurochemical phenotype of sensory neurons inside intrinsic cardiac ganglia. In the present study, rat intrinsic cardiac ganglia neurons were characterized neurochemically with immunohistochemistry using glutamatergic markers: vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1; VGLUT2), and glutaminase (GLS), the enzyme essential for glutamate production. Glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT1/VGLUT2/GLS) in the ICG that have axons to the ventricles were identified by retrograde tracing of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injected in the ventricular wall. Co-labeling of VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and GLS with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was used to evaluate the relationship between post-ganglionic autonomic neurons and glutamatergic neurons. Sequential labeling of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in adjacent tissue sections was used to evaluate the co-localization of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in ICG neurons. Our studies yielded the following results: (1) intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain glutamatergic neurons with GLS for glutamate production and VGLUT1 and 2 for transport of glutamate into synaptic vesicles; (2) atrial intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain neurons that project to ventricle walls and these neurons are glutamatergic; (3) many glutamatergic ICG neurons also were cholinergic, expressing VAChT. (4) VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 co-localization occurred in ICG neurons with variation of their protein expression level. Investigation of both glutamatergic and cholinergic ICG

  7. Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve

  8. Target-specific M1 inputs to infragranular S1 pyramidal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanselow, Erika E.; Simons, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of input from the primary motor cortex (M1) to primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is unclear; one key to understanding this pathway may lie in elucidating the cell-type specific microcircuits that connect S1 and M1. Recently, we discovered that a subset of pyramidal neurons in the infragranular layers of S1 receive especially strong input from M1 (Kinnischtzke AK, Simons DJ, Fanselow EE. Cereb Cortex 24: 2237–2248, 2014), suggesting that M1 may affect specific classes of pyramidal neurons differently. Here, using combined optogenetic and retrograde labeling approaches in the mouse, we examined the strengths of M1 inputs to five classes of infragranular S1 neurons categorized by their projections to particular cortical and subcortical targets. We found that the magnitude of M1 synaptic input to S1 pyramidal neurons varies greatly depending on the projection target of the postsynaptic neuron. Of the populations examined, M1-projecting corticocortical neurons in L6 received the strongest M1 inputs, whereas ventral posterior medial nucleus-projecting corticothalamic neurons, also located in L6, received the weakest. Each population also possessed distinct intrinsic properties. The results suggest that M1 differentially engages specific classes of S1 projection neurons, thereby regulating the motor-related influence S1 exerts over subcortical structures. PMID:27334960

  9. Autoradiographic detection of [125I]-secondary antiserum: a sensitive light and electron microscopic labeling method compatible with peroxidase immunocytochemistry for dual localization of neuronal antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, V.M.; Chan, J.; Milner, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    We examined whether autoradiographic localization of [ 125 I]-antirabbit immunoglobulin (IgG) was suitable for light and electron microscopic detection of a rabbit antiserum to the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and whether autoradiographic and peroxidase labeling could be combined for simultaneous immunocytochemical identification of TH and neuropeptides in brain. Adult rat brains were fixed by aortic arch perfusion with acrolein and paraformaldehyde. Vibratome sections of the fixed tissues were incubated with various dilutions of TH antiserum followed by [ 125 I]-secondary IgG. These sections were then directly processed for autoradiography or were incubated with rabbit antiserum to substance P (SP) or methionine [Met5]-enkephalin (ME). These latter sections were then processed by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) or conjugated peroxidase methods followed by autoradiography. Exposure periods of 12-20 days for light microscopy or 90 days for electron microscopy yielded substantial accumulations of silver grains even at the highest (1:30,000) dilution of TH antiserum. At this dilution, immunoreactivity for TH was virtually nondetectable by PAP and conjugated peroxidase methods. The differential sensitivities of the autoradiographic versus peroxidase methods provided a means for separable identification of rabbit antiserum to TH and to SP or ME. Ultrastructural analysis of the catecholaminergic neurons in the medial nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) showed selective cytoplasmic localization of silver grains for [ 125 I]-labeling of TH in perikarya, dendrites, and terminals. Within single thin sections prepared for dual labeling, the peroxidase marker for SP and for ME was differentially localized with respect to autoradiographic labeling of TH

  10. The first retrograde Trojan asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Veillet, Christian

    2018-04-01

    There are about six thousand asteroids which share Jupiter's orbit around the Sun. Called the 'Trojan asteroids', they co-exist easily with this giant planet because they travel in the same direction as it ('direct' or 'prograde' motion), and remain roughly 60 degrees ahead of or behind it in its orbit. Newly discovered asteroid 2015 BZ509 is on a retrograde orbit, but is nonetheless in a state dynamically analogous to that of the prograde Trojans. The discovery circumstances and the nature of the motion of this curious asteroid -the first of its kind- will be outlined.

  11. Diversity in the Neural Circuitry of Cold Sensing Revealed by Genetic Axonal Labeling of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Takashima, Yoshio; Daniels, Richard L.; Knowlton, Wendy; Teng, James; Liman, Emily R.; McKemy, David D.

    2007-01-01

    Sensory nerves detect an extensive array of somatosensory stimuli, including environmental temperatures. Despite activating only a small cohort of sensory neurons, cold temperatures generate a variety of distinct sensations that range from pleasantly cool to painfully aching, prickling, and burning. Psychophysical and functional data show that cold responses are mediated by both C- and Aδ-fibers with separate peripheral receptive zones, each of which likely provides one or more of these disti...

  12. Sonourethrography compared to retrograde urethrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Chang, Nam Sik; Park, Cheong Hee; Rhee, Byung Chul; Kong, Jae Chul; Park, Jong Yoon

    1989-01-01

    A total of 15 patients with suspected urethral stricture or fistula underwent conventional retrograde urethrography and following sonourethrography with saline infusion or voiding against Eschmann penile clamp, in Gyeongsang and Chungnam National University Hospital from July, 1989 to June, 1989. The sonographic findings were as diagnostic as the roentgen findings in 12 patients. When the length of the strictures assessed by each imaging modality was compared to measurement at open urothroplasty of 2 patients, sonourethrography was consistently more accurate. Urethroscopy was done in all cases. Sonourethrography using distension technique of the urethra enabled classification of the degree of spongiofibrosis, thus provided the guidance of direct vision internal urethrotomy in 9 patients. In 2 patients, the sonourethrogram identified periurethral tumor and urethral polyp which were not definitely analysed on the retrograde urethrogram. In the patient of posttraumatic postoperative urethrorectal fistula, residual fistuous tract was seen on both examinations. In 1 patient of stricture with severe periurethral scar, urethral stricture recurred after graft. No patient reported significant discomfort during the sonourethrogram. The sonourethrogram provided valuable, dynamic. 3 dimensional information about the luminal and extraluminal anatomy and pathology of the anterior urethra. The new method of sonourethrogram allows for the appropriate decision to be made easier for optimal treatment of urethal stricture, etc, and can be used as a follow up study

  13. Subpopulations of somatostatin-immunoreactive nonpyramidal neurons in the amygdala and adjacent external capsule project to the basal forebrain: evidence for the existence of GABAergic projection neurons in the cortical nuclei and basolateral nuclear complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. McDonald

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus and amygdala are key structures of the limbic system whose connections include reciprocal interactions with the basal forebrain (BF. The hippocampus receives both cholinergic and GABAergic afferents from the medial septal area of the BF. Hippocampal projections back to the medial septal area arise from nonpyramidal GABAergic neurons that express somatostatin (SOM, calbindin (CB, and neuropeptide Y (NPY. Recent experiments in our lab have demonstrated that the basolateral amygdala, like the hippocampus, receives both cholinergic and GABAergic afferents from the BF. These projections arise from neurons in the substantia innominata and ventral pallidum. It remained to be determined, however, whether the amygdala has projections back to the BF that arise from GABAergic nonpyramidal neurons. This question was investigated in the present study by combining Fluorogold (FG retrograde tract tracing with immunohistochemistry for GABAergic nonpyramidal cell markers, including SOM, CB, NPY, parvalbumin, calretinin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD. FG injections into the basal forebrain produced a diffuse array of retrogradely labeled neurons in many nuclei of the amygdala. The great majority of amygdalar FG+ neurons did not express nonpyramidal cell markers. However, a subpopulation of nonpyramidal SOM+ neurons, termed long range nonpyramidal neurons (LRNP neurons, in the external capsule, basolateral amygdala, and cortical and medial amygdalar nuclei were FG+. About one-third of the SOM+ LRNP neurons were CB+ or NPY+, and one-half were GAD+. It remains to be determined if these inhibitory amygdalar projections to the BF, like those from the hippocampus, are important for regulating synchronous oscillations in the amygdalar-BF network.

  14. Different populations of prostaglandin EP3 receptor-expressing preoptic neurons project to two fever-mediating sympathoexcitatory brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Nakamura, K; Morrison, S F

    2009-06-30

    The central mechanism of fever induction is triggered by an action of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on neurons in the preoptic area (POA) through the EP3 subtype of prostaglandin E receptor. EP3 receptor (EP3R)-expressing POA neurons project directly to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and to the rostral raphe pallidus nucleus (rRPa), key sites for the control of thermoregulatory effectors. Based on physiological findings, we hypothesize that the febrile responses in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and those in cutaneous vasoconstrictors are controlled independently by separate neuronal pathways: PGE(2) pyrogenic signaling is transmitted from EP3R-expressing POA neurons via a projection to the DMH to activate BAT thermogenesis and via another projection to the rRPa to increase cutaneous vasoconstriction. In this case, DMH-projecting and rRPa-projecting neurons would constitute segregated populations within the EP3R-expressing neuronal group in the POA. Here, we sought direct anatomical evidence to test this hypothesis with a double-tracing experiment in which two types of the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb), conjugated with different fluorophores were injected into the DMH and the rRPa of rats and the resulting retrogradely labeled populations of EP3R-immunoreactive neurons in the POA were identified with confocal microscopy. We found substantial numbers of EP3R-immunoreactive neurons in both the DMH-projecting and the rRPa-projecting populations. However, very few EP3R-immunoreactive POA neurons were labeled with both the CTb from the DMH and that from the rRPa, although a substantial number of neurons that were not immunoreactive for EP3R were double-labeled with both CTbs. The paucity of the EP3R-expressing neurons that send collaterals to both the DMH and the rRPa suggests that pyrogenic signals are sent independently to these caudal brain regions from the POA and that such pyrogenic outputs from the POA reflect different control mechanisms for BAT

  15. Retrograde amnesia in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Eijsackers, E; Mulder, J

    2006-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on two retrograde memory tests, one based on public events, and the other querying autobiographical memory. On both tests, patients showed strong decrements as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

  16. Neural control of left ventricular contractility in the dog heart: synaptic interactions of negative inotropic vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, V J; Dickerson, L W; Gray, A L; Lauenstein, J M; Blinder, K J; Newsome, J T; Rodak, D J; Fleming, T J; Gatti, P J; Gillis, R A

    1998-08-17

    Recent physiological evidence indicates that vagal postganglionic control of left ventricular contractility is mediated by neurons found in a ventricular epicardial fat pad ganglion. In the dog this region has been referred to as the cranial medial ventricular (CMV) ganglion [J.L. Ardell, Structure and function of mammalian intrinsic cardiac neurons, in: J.A. Armour, J.L. Ardell (Eds.). Neurocardiology, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1994, pp. 95-114; B.X. Yuan, J.L. Ardell, D.A. Hopkins, A.M. Losier, J.A. Armour, Gross and microscopic anatomy of the canine intrinsic cardiac nervous system, Anat. Rec., 239 (1994) 75-87]. Since activation of the vagal neuronal input to the CMV ganglion reduces left ventricular contractility without influencing cardiac rate or AV conduction, this ganglion contains a functionally selective pool of negative inotropic parasympathetic postganglionic neurons. In the present report we have defined the light microscopic distribution of preganglionic negative inotropic neurons in the CNS which are retrogradely labeled from the CMV ganglion. Some tissues were also processed for the simultaneous immunocytochemical visualization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH: a marker for catecholaminergic neurons) and examined with both light microscopic and electron microscopic methods. Histochemically visualized neurons were observed in a long slender column in the ventrolateral nucleus ambiguus (NA-VL). The greatest number of retrogradely labeled neurons were observed just rostral to the level of the area postrema. TH perikarya and dendrites were commonly observed interspersed with vagal motoneurons in the NA-VL. TH nerve terminals formed axo-dendritic synapses upon negative inotropic vagal motoneurons, however the origin of these terminals remains to be determined. We conclude that synaptic interactions exist which would permit the parasympathetic preganglionic vagal control of left ventricular contractility to be modulated monosynaptically by

  17. Advances in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiangping

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is a well-established advanced endoscopic technique for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatobiliary diseases. New advances have been made in the treatment concept and techniques of ERCP in recent years. This article elaborates on the recent advances in ERCP, including the application of pancreatic duct stent, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and aggressive hydration to prevent postoperative pancreatitis, covered metal stent for the treatment of benign bile duct stenosis, intraluminal radiofrequency ablation for malignant bile duct stenosis, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and covered metal stent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, peroral choledochoscopy for qualitative diagnosis of bile duct stenosis and huge refractory stones, definition of difficult intubation, timing of pre-cut technique, and ERCP after gastrointestinal reconstruction.

  18. Spinal afferent neurons projecting to the rat lung and pleura express acid sensitive channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummer Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid sensitive ion channels TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 and ASIC3 (acid sensing ion channel-3 respond to tissue acidification in the range that occurs during painful conditions such as inflammation and ischemia. Here, we investigated to which extent they are expressed by rat dorsal root ganglion neurons projecting to lung and pleura, respectively. Methods The tracer DiI was either injected into the left lung or applied to the costal pleura. Retrogradely labelled dorsal root ganglion neurons were subjected to triple-labelling immunohistochemistry using antisera against TRPV1, ASIC3 and neurofilament 68 (marker for myelinated neurons, and their soma diameter was measured. Results Whereas 22% of pulmonary spinal afferents contained neither channel-immunoreactivity, at least one is expressed by 97% of pleural afferents. TRPV1+/ASIC3- neurons with probably slow conduction velocity (small soma, neurofilament 68-negative were significantly more frequent among pleural (35% than pulmonary afferents (20%. TRPV1+/ASIC3+ neurons amounted to 14 and 10% respectively. TRPV1-/ASIC3+ neurons made up between 44% (lung and 48% (pleura of neurons, and half of them presumably conducted in the A-fibre range (larger soma, neurofilament 68-positive. Conclusion Rat pleural and pulmonary spinal afferents express at least two different acid-sensitive channels that make them suitable to monitor tissue acidification. Patterns of co-expression and structural markers define neuronal subgroups that can be inferred to subserve different functions and may initiate specific reflex responses. The higher prevalence of TRPV1+/ASIC3- neurons among pleural afferents probably reflects the high sensitivity of the parietal pleura to painful stimuli.

  19. Retrograde transurethral balloon dilation of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Wasserman, N.F.; Lund, G.; Hulbert, J.; Hunter, D.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    A series of patients with documented benign prostatic hypertrophy evaluated by urodynamic studies, voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, and MR imaging underwent dilation performed using a retrograde transurethral approach with 25-mm balloon dilators inflated at a pressure of 3-4 atm for 10 minutes. Immediately after the procedure, retrograde and voiding cystourethrography as well as MR imaging were performed. A Foley catheter was left in place for 24 hours. Complete relief of symptoms has occurred in all of the patients during the follow-up period. No significant complications other than transient hematuria resulted from the procedure. Results of the comparison studies and of MR imaging are discussed

  20. Kinesin Khc-73/KIF13B modulates retrograde BMP signaling by influencing endosomal dynamics at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Edward H; Gray, Lindsay; Tsurudome, Kazuya; El-Mounzer, Wassim; Elazzouzi, Fatima; Baim, Christopher; Farzin, Sarah; Calderon, Mario R; Kauwe, Grant; Haghighi, A Pejmun

    2018-01-01

    Retrograde signaling is essential for neuronal growth, function and survival; however, we know little about how signaling endosomes might be directed from synaptic terminals onto retrograde axonal pathways. We have identified Khc-73, a plus-end directed microtubule motor protein, as a regulator of sorting of endosomes in Drosophila larval motor neurons. The number of synaptic boutons and the amount of neurotransmitter release at the Khc-73 mutant larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are normal, but we find a significant decrease in the number of presynaptic release sites. This defect in Khc-73 mutant larvae can be genetically enhanced by a partial genetic loss of Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) signaling or suppressed by activation of BMP signaling in motoneurons. Consistently, activation of BMP signaling that normally enhances the accumulation of phosphorylated form of BMP transcription factor Mad in the nuclei, can be suppressed by genetic removal of Khc-73. Using a number of assays including live imaging in larval motor neurons, we show that loss of Khc-73 curbs the ability of retrograde-bound endosomes to leave the synaptic area and join the retrograde axonal pathway. Our findings identify Khc-73 as a regulator of endosomal traffic at the synapse and modulator of retrograde BMP signaling in motoneurons.

  1. Expression of the transient receptor potential channels TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 in mouse trigeminal primary afferent neurons innervating the dura

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Migraine and other headache disorders affect a large percentage of the population and cause debilitating pain. Activation and sensitization of the trigeminal primary afferent neurons innervating the dura and cerebral vessels is a crucial step in the “headache circuit”. Many dural afferent neurons respond to algesic and inflammatory agents. Given the clear role of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of channels in both sensing chemical stimulants and mediating inflammatory pain, we investigated the expression of TRP channels in dural afferent neurons. Methods We used two fluorescent tracers to retrogradely label dural afferent neurons in adult mice and quantified the abundance of peptidergic and non-peptidergic neuron populations using calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity (CGRP-ir) and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding as markers, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels in dural afferent neurons with the expression in total trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. To examine the distribution of TRPM8 channels, we labeled dural afferent neurons in mice expressing farnesylated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFPf) from a TRPM8 locus. We used nearest-neighbor measurement to predict the spatial association between dural afferent neurons and neurons expressing TRPA1 or TRPM8 channels in the TG. Results and conclusions We report that the size of dural afferent neurons is significantly larger than that of total TG neurons and facial skin afferents. Approximately 40% of dural afferent neurons exhibit IB4 binding. Surprisingly, the percentage of dural afferent neurons containing CGRP-ir is significantly lower than those of total TG neurons and facial skin afferents. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are expressed in dural afferent neurons. Furthermore, nearest-neighbor measurement indicates that TRPA1-expressing neurons are clustered around a subset of dural afferent neurons. Interestingly, TRPM

  2. Orexinergic fibers are in contact with Kölliker-Fuse nucleus neurons projecting to the respiration-related nuclei in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shigefumi; Oka, Tatsuro; Asano, Hirohiko; Yasui, Yukihiko

    2016-10-01

    The neural pathways underlying the respiratory variation dependent on vigilance states remain unsettled. In the present study, we examined the orexinergic innervation of Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN) neurons sending their axons to the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) and phrenic nucleus (PhN) as well as to the hypoglossal nucleus (HGN) by using a combined retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry. After injection of cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the KFN, CTb-labeled neurons that are also immunoreactive for orexin (ORX) were found prominently in the perifornical and medial regions and additionally in the lateral region of the hypothalamic ORX field. After injection of fluorogold (FG) into the rVRG, PhN or HGN, we found an overlapping distribution of ORX-immunoreactive axon terminals and FG-labeled neurons in the KFN. Within the neuropil of the KFN, asymmetrical synaptic contacts were made between these terminals and neurons. We further demonstrated that many neurons labeled with FG injected into the rVRG, PhN, or HGN are immunoreactive for ORX receptor 2. Present data suggest that rVRG-, PhN- and HGN-projecting KFN neurons may be under the excitatory influence of the ORXergic neurons for the state-dependent regulation of respiration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inflammation-induced increase in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor current in cutaneous nociceptive DRG neurons from the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-L; Albers, K M; Gold, M S

    2015-01-22

    The goals of the present study were to determine (1) the properties of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) currents in rat cutaneous dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons; (2) the impact of nAChR activation on the excitability of cutaneous DRG neurons; and (3) the impact of inflammation on the density and distribution of nAChR currents among cutaneous DRG neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to study retrogradely labeled DRG neurons from naïve and complete Freund's adjuvant inflamed rats. Nicotine-evoked currents were detectable in ∼70% of the cutaneous DRG neurons, where only one of two current types, fast or slow currents based on rates of activation and inactivation, was present in each neuron. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of the fast current were consistent with nAChRs containing an α7 subunit while those of the slow current were consistent with nAChRs containing α3/β4 subunits. The majority of small diameter neurons with fast current were IB4- while the majority of small diameter neurons with slow current were IB4+. Preincubation with nicotine (1 μM) produced a transient (1 min) depolarization and increase in the excitability of neurons with fast current and a decrease in the amplitude of capsaicin-evoked current in neurons with slow current. Inflammation increased the current density of both slow and fast currents in small diameter neurons and increased the percentage of neurons with the fast current. With the relatively selective distribution of nAChR currents in putative nociceptive cutaneous DRG neurons, our results suggest that the role of these receptors in inflammatory hyperalgesia is likely to be complex and dependent on the concentration and timing of acetylcholine release in the periphery. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrograde prostatic urethroplasty with balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Hulbert, J.; Letourneau, J.G.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed retrograde prostatic urethroplasty in 18 patients using a 25-mm urethroplasty balloon catheter. The procedure was performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia. Voiding cystourethrography, retrograde urethrography, rectal US, and MRE imaging were performed before and immediately after the procedure and at 2 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Long-term results at 18 months and possible clinical implications are discussed

  5. Multiple-indicator dilution technique for characterization of normal and retrograde flow in once-through rat liver perfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, M.V.; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A.; Lee, W.F.; Pang, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of normal and retrograde rat liver perfusion has been widely used to probe zonal differences in drug-metabolizing activities. The validity of this approach mandates the same tissue spaces being accessed by substrates during both normal and retrograde perfusions. Using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, we presently examine the extent to which retrograde perfusion alters the spaces accessible to noneliminated references. A bolus dose of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-albumin, 14C-sucrose and 3H2O was injected into the portal (normal) or hepatic (retrograde) vein of rat livers perfused at 10 ml per min per liver. The outflow perfusate was serially collected over 220 sec to characterize the transit times and the distribution spaces of the labels. During retrograde perfusion, red blood cells, albumin and sucrose profiles peaked later and lower than during normal perfusion, whereas the water curves were similar. The transit times of red blood cells, albumin and sucrose were longer (p less than 0.005), whereas those for water did not change. Consequently, retrograde flow resulted in significantly larger sinusoidal blood volumes (45%), albumin Disse space (42%) and sucrose Disse space (25%) than during normal flow, whereas the distribution spaces for total and intracellular water remained unaltered. The distension of the vascular tree was confirmed by electron microscopy, by which occasional isolated foci of widened intercellular recesses and spaces of Disse were observed. Cellular ultrastructure was otherwise unchanged, and there was no difference found between normal and retrograde perfusion for bile flow rates, AST release, perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption and metabolic removal of ethanol, a substrate with flow-limited distribution, which equilibrates rapidly with cell water (hepatic extraction ratios were virtually identical: normal vs. retrograde, 0.50 vs. 0.48 at 6 to 7.4 mM input concentration)

  6. Morphology, classification, and distribution of the projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changying Ling

    Full Text Available The morphology of confirmed projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN of the rat was examined by filling these cells retrogradely with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA injected into the visual cortex. BDA-labeled projection neurons varied widely in the shape and size of their cell somas, with mean cross-sectional areas ranging from 60-340 µm(2. Labeled projection neurons supported 7-55 dendrites that spanned up to 300 µm in length and formed dendritic arbors with cross-sectional areas of up to 7.0 × 10(4 µm(2. Primary dendrites emerged from cell somas in three broad patterns. In some dLGN projection neurons, primary dendrites arise from the cell soma at two poles spaced approximately 180° apart. In other projection neurons, dendrites emerge principally from one side of the cell soma, while in a third group of projection neurons primary dendrites emerge from the entire perimeter of the cell soma. Based on these three distinct patterns in the distribution of primary dendrites from cell somas, we have grouped dLGN projection neurons into three classes: bipolar cells, basket cells and radial cells, respectively. The appendages seen on dendrites also can be grouped into three classes according to differences in their structure. Short "tufted" appendages arise mainly from the distal branches of dendrites; "spine-like" appendages, fine stalks with ovoid heads, typically are seen along the middle segments of dendrites; and "grape-like" appendages, short stalks that terminate in a cluster of ovoid bulbs, appear most often along the proximal segments of secondary dendrites of neurons with medium or large cell somas. While morphologically diverse dLGN projection neurons are intermingled uniformly throughout the nucleus, the caudal pole of the dLGN contains more small projection neurons of all classes than the rostral pole.

  7. Up-regulation of p55 TNF alpha-receptor in dorsal root ganglia neurons following lumbar facet joint injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Ohtori, Seiji; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Tetsu; Inoue, Gen; Doya, Hideo; Koshi, Takana; Ito, Toshinori; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Moriya, Hideshige; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2007-08-01

    The rat L5/6 facet joint is multisegmentally innervated from the L1 to L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a known mediator of inflammation. It has been reported that satellite cells are activated, produce TNF and surround DRG neurons innervating L5/6 facet joints after facet injury. In the current study, changes in TNF receptor (p55) expression in DRG neurons innervating the L5/6 facet joint following facet joint injury were investigated in rats using a retrograde neurotransport method followed by immunohistochemistry. Twenty rats were used for this study. Two crystals of Fluorogold (FG; neurotracer) were applied into the L5/6 facet joint. Seven days after surgery, the dorsal portion of the capsule was cut in the injured group (injured group n = 10). No injury was performed in the non-injured group (n = 10). Fourteen days after the first application of FG, bilateral DRGs from T13 to L6 levels were resected and sectioned. They were subsequently processed for p55 immunohistochemistry. The number of FG labeled neurons and number of FG labeled p55-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were counted. FG labeled DRG neurons innervating the L5/6 facet joint were distributed from ipsilateral L1 to L6 levels. Of FG labeled neurons, the ratio of DRG neurons immunoreactive for p55 in the injured group (50%) was significantly higher than that in the non-injured group (13%). The ratio of p55-IR neurons of FG labeled DRG neurons was significantly higher in total L1 and L2 DRGs than that in total L3, 4, 5 and 6 DRGs in the injured group (L1 and 2 DRG, 67%; L3, 4, 5 and 6 DRG, 37%, percentages of the total number of p55-IR neurons at L1 and L2 level or L3-6 level/the total number of FG-labeled neurons at L1 and L2 level or L3-6 level). These data suggest that up-regulation of p55 in DRG neurons may be involved in the sensory transmission from facet joint injury. Regulation of p55 in DRG neurons innervating the facet joint was different between upper DRG innervated

  8. Persistent activation of microglia is associated with neuronal dysfunction of callosal projecting pathways and multiple sclerosis-like lesions in relapsing--remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Wang, Yue; Kivisäkk, Pia

    2007-01-01

    callosal projecting neurons. There was significant impairment of retrograde labeling of NeuN-positive callosal projecting neurons and reduction in the labelling of their transcallosal axons. These data demonstrate a novel paradigm of cortical and callosal neuropathology in a mouse model of MS, perpetuated......Cortical pathology, callosal atrophy and axonal loss are substrates of progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we describe cortical, periventricular subcortical lesions and callosal demyelination in relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL mice that are similar...... to lesions found in MS. Unlike the T-cell infiltrates that peak during acute disease, we found that microglia activation persists through the chronic disease phase. Microglia activation correlated with abnormal phosphorylation of neurofilaments in the cortex and stripping of synaptic proteins in cortical...

  9. Fluorescence Imaging of Fast Retrograde Axonal Transport in Living Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Schellingerhout

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to enable an in vivo imaging technology that can assess the anatomy and function of peripheral nerve tissue (neurography. To do this, we designed and tested a fluorescently labeled molecular probe based on the nontoxic C fragment of tetanus toxin (TTc. TTc was purified, labeled, and subjected to immunoassays and cell uptake assays. The compound was then injected into C57BL/6 mice (N = 60 for in vivo imaging and histologic studies. Image analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed. We found that TTc could be labeled with fluorescent moieties without loss of immunoreactivity or biologic potency in cell uptake assays. In vivo fluorescent imaging experiments demonstrated uptake and retrograde transport of the compound along the course of the sciatic nerve and in the spinal cord. Ex vivo imaging and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the presence of TTc in the sciatic nerve and spinal cord, whereas control animals injected with human serum albumin did not exhibit these features. We have demonstrated neurography with a fluorescently labeled molecular imaging contrast agent based on the TTc.

  10. Projections of Somatosensory Cortex and Frontal Eye Fields onto Incertotectal Neurons in the Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Eddie; Warren, Susan; Lin, Rick C.-S.; May, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the input-output characteristics of the zona incerta (ZI) are appropriate for it to serve as a conduit for cortical control over saccade-related activity in the superior colliculus. The study utilized the neuronal tracers wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) in the cat. Injections of WGA-HRP into primary somatosensory cortex (SI) revealed sparse, widespread nontopographic projections throughout ZI. In addition, region-specific areas of more intense termination were present in ventral ZI, although strict topography was not observed. In comparison, the frontal eye fields (FEF) also projected sparsely throughout ZI, but terminated more heavily, medially, along the border between the two sublaminae. Furthermore, retrogradely labeled incertocortical neurons were observed in both experiments. The relationship of these two cortical projections to incertotectal cells was also directly examined by retrogradely labeling incertotectal cells with WGA-HRP in animals that had also received cortical BDA injections. Labeled axonal arbors from both SI and FEF had thin, sparsely branched axons with numerous en passant boutons. They formed numerous close associations with the somata and dendrites of WGA-HRP-labeled incertotectal cells. In summary, these results indicate that both sensory and motor cortical inputs to ZI display similar morphologies and distributions. In addition, both display close associations with incertotectal cells, suggesting direct synaptic contact. From these data, we conclude that inputs from somatosensory and FEF cortex both play a role in controlling gaze-related activity in the superior colliculus by way of the inhibitory incertotectal projection. PMID:17083121

  11. Expression of TRPM8 in the distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the brain mesencephalon of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Licai

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (dCSF-CNs exist near the ventral midline of the midbrain aqueduct and also in the grey matter of the inferior third ventricle and the fourth ventricle floor in the superior segment of the pons. The dCSF-CNs communicate between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the brain parenchyma and may participate in the transduction and regulation of pain signals. The cold sensation receptor channel, TRPM8 is involved in analgesia for neuropathic pain, but whether the TRPM8 receptor exists on dCSF-CNs remains unknown. However, there is preliminary evidence that TRPM8 is expressed in dCSF-CNs and may participate in the transmission and regulation of sensory information between brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in rats. Methods Retrograde tracing of the cholera toxin subunit B labeled with horseradish peroxidase (CB-HRP injected into the lateral ventricle was used to identify dCSF-CNs. A double-labeled immunofluorescent technique and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to identify the expression of TRPM8 in dCSF-CNs. Software Image-Pro Plus was used to count the number of neurons in three sections where CB-HRP positive neurons were located in the mesencephalon of six rats. Results The cell bodies of CB-HRP-positive dCSF-CNs were found in the brain parenchyma near the midline of the ventral Aq, also in the grey of the 3V, and the 4V floor in the superior segment of the pons. In the mesencephalon their processes extended into the CSF. TRPM8 labeled neurons were also found in the same area as were CB-HRP/TRPM8 double-labeled neurons. CB-HRP/TRPM8 double-labeled neurons were found in 42.9 ± 2.3% of neurons labeled by TRPM8, and all CB-HRP-labeled neurons were also labeled with TPRM8. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that the cold sensation receptor channel, TRPM8, is localised within the dCSF-CNs of the mesencephalon. TRPM8 acts as receptor of d

  12. Discovery of New Retrograde Substructures: The Shards of ω Centauri?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, G. C.; Evans, N. W.; Belokurov, V.; Sanders, J. L.; Koposov, S. E.

    2018-06-01

    We use the SDSS-Gaia catalogue to search for substructure in the stellar halo. The sample comprises 62 133 halo stars with full phase space coordinates and extends out to heliocentric distances of ˜10 kpc. As actions are conserved under slow changes of the potential, they permit identification of groups of stars with a common accretion history. We devise a method to identify halo substructures based on their clustering in action space, using metallicity as a secondary check. This is validated against smooth models and numerical constructed stellar halos from the Aquarius simulations. We identify 21 substructures in the SDSS-Gaia catalogue, including 7 high significance, high energy and retrograde ones. We investigate whether the retrograde substructures may be material stripped off the atypical globular cluster ω Centauri. Using a simple model of the accretion of the progenitor of the ω Centauri, we tentatively argue for the possible association of up to 5 of our new substructures (labelled Rg1, Rg3, Rg4, Rg6 and Rg7) with this event. This sets a minimum mass of 5× 108M⊙ for the progenitor, so as to bring ω Centauri to its current location in action - energy space. Our proposal can be tested by high resolution spectroscopy of the candidates to look for the unusual abundance patterns possessed by ω Centauri stars.

  13. A retrograde object near Jupiter's orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, M.; Wiegert, P.

    2018-02-01

    Asteroid 2007 VW266 is among the rare objects with a heliocentric retrograde orbit, and its semimajor axis is within a Hill sphere radius of that of Jupiter. This raised the interesting possibility that it could be in co-orbital retrograde resonance with Jupiter, a second "counter-orbital" object in addition to recently discovered 2015 BZ509. We find instead that the object is in 13/14 retrograde mean motion resonance (also referred to as 13/-14). The object is shown to have entered its present orbit about 1700 years ago, and it will leave it in about 8000 years, both through close approach to Jupiter. Entry and exit states both avoid 1:1 retrograde resonance, but the retrograde nature is preserved. The temporary stable state is due to an elliptic orbit with high inclination keeping nodal passages far from the associated planet. We discuss the motion of this unusual object based on modeling and theory, and its observational prospects.

  14. Odd-skipped labels a group of distinct neurons associated with the mushroom body and optic lobe in the adult Drosophila brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Peter; Larsen, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory processing has been intensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster. However, we still know little about the descending neural pathways from the higher order processing centers and how these connect with other neural circuits. Here we describe, in detail, the adult projections patterns that arise from a cluster of 78 neurons, defined by the expression of the Odd-skipped transcription factor. We term these neurons Odd neurons. By using expression of genetically encoded axonal and dendritic markers, we show that a subset of the Odd neurons projects dendrites into the calyx of the mushroom body (MB) and axons into the inferior protocerebrum. We exclude the possibility that the Odd neurons are part of the well-known Kenyon cells whose projections form the MB and conclude that the Odd neurons belong to a previously not described class of extrinsic MB neurons. In addition, three of the Odd neurons project into the lobula plate of the optic lobe, and two of these cells extend axons ipsi- and contralaterally in the brain. Anatomically, these cells do not resemble any previously described lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs) in Drosophila. We show that the Odd neurons are predominantly cholinergic but also include a small number of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. Finally, we provide evidence that the Odd neurons are a hemilineage, suggesting they are born from a defined set of neuroblasts. Our anatomical analysis hints at the possibility that subgroups of Odd neurons could be involved in olfactory and visual processing. PMID:23749685

  15. Characterisation of the binding of [{sup 3}H]methyllycaconitine: a new radioligand for labelling {alpha}7-type neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.R.L.; Wolstenholme, A.J.; Wonnacott, S. [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Hardick, D.J.; Blagbrough, I.S.; Potter, B.V.L. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-15

    Methyllycaconitine (MLA), a norditerpenoid alkaloid isolated from Delphinium seeds, is one of the most potent non-proteinacious ligands that is selective for {alpha}bungarotoxin-sensitive neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). [{sup 3}H]MLA bound to rat brain membranes with high affinity (K{sub d}=1.86{+-}0.31 nM) with a good ratio of specific to non-specific binding. The binding of [{sup 3}H]MLA was characterised by rapid association (t{sub 1/2}=2.3 min) and dissociation (t{sub 1/2}=12.6 min) kinetics. The radioligand binding displayed nicotinic pharmacology, consistent with an interaction with {alpha}bungarotoxin-sensitive nAChR. The snake {alpha}-toxins, {alpha}bungarotoxin and {alpha}cobratoxin, displaced [{sup 3}H]MLA with high affinity (K{sub i}=1.8{+-}0.5 and 5.5{+-}0.9 nM, respectively), whereas nicotine was less potent (K{sub i}=6.1{+-}1.1 {mu}M). The distribution of [{sup 3}H]MLA binding sites in crudely dissected rat brain regions was identical to that of [{sup 125}I]{alpha}bungarotoxin binding sites, with a high binding site density in hippocampus and hypothalamus, but low density in striatum and cerebellum. [{sup 3}H]MLA also labelled a sub-population of binding sites which are not sensitive to the snake {alpha}toxins, but which did not differ significantly from the major population with respect to their other pharmacological properties or regional distribution. [{sup 3}H]MLA, therefore, is a novel radiolabel for characterising {alpha}7-type nAChR. A good signal to noise ratio and rapid binding kinetics provide advantages over the use of radiolabelled {alpha}bungarotoxin for rapid and accurate equilibrium binding assays. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Characterisation of the binding of [3H]methyllycaconitine: a new radioligand for labelling α7-type neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.R.L.; Wolstenholme, A.J.; Wonnacott, S.; Hardick, D.J.; Blagbrough, I.S.; Potter, B.V.L.

    1999-01-01

    Methyllycaconitine (MLA), a norditerpenoid alkaloid isolated from Delphinium seeds, is one of the most potent non-proteinacious ligands that is selective for αbungarotoxin-sensitive neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). [ 3 H]MLA bound to rat brain membranes with high affinity (K d =1.86±0.31 nM) with a good ratio of specific to non-specific binding. The binding of [ 3 H]MLA was characterised by rapid association (t 1/2 =2.3 min) and dissociation (t 1/2 =12.6 min) kinetics. The radioligand binding displayed nicotinic pharmacology, consistent with an interaction with αbungarotoxin-sensitive nAChR. The snake α-toxins, αbungarotoxin and αcobratoxin, displaced [ 3 H]MLA with high affinity (K i =1.8±0.5 and 5.5±0.9 nM, respectively), whereas nicotine was less potent (K i =6.1±1.1 μM). The distribution of [ 3 H]MLA binding sites in crudely dissected rat brain regions was identical to that of [ 125 I]αbungarotoxin binding sites, with a high binding site density in hippocampus and hypothalamus, but low density in striatum and cerebellum. [ 3 H]MLA also labelled a sub-population of binding sites which are not sensitive to the snake αtoxins, but which did not differ significantly from the major population with respect to their other pharmacological properties or regional distribution. [ 3 H]MLA, therefore, is a novel radiolabel for characterising α7-type nAChR. A good signal to noise ratio and rapid binding kinetics provide advantages over the use of radiolabelled αbungarotoxin for rapid and accurate equilibrium binding assays. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Popliteal versus tibial retrograde access for subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, W R; Yi, M Q; Min, T L; Feng, S N; Xuan, L Z; Xing, J

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to ascertain differences in benefit and effectiveness of popliteal versus tibial retrograde access in subintimal arterial flossing with the antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique. This was a retrospective study of SAFARI-assisted stenting for long chronic total occlusion (CTO) of TASC C and D superficial femoral lesions. 38 cases had superficial femoral artery lesions (23 TASC C and 15 TASC D). All 38 cases underwent SAFARI-assisted stenting. The ipsilateral popliteal artery was retrogradely punctured in 17 patients. A distal posterior tibial (PT) or dorsalis pedis (DP) artery was retrogradely punctured in 21 patients, and 16 of them were punctured after open surgical exposure. SAFARI technical success was achieved in all cases. There was no significant difference in 1-year primary patency (75% vs. 78.9%, p = .86), secondary patency (81.2% vs. 84.2%, p = .91) and access complications (p = 1.00) between popliteal and tibial retrograde access. There was statistical difference in operation time between popliteal (140.1 ± 28.4 min) and tibial retrograde access with PT/DP punctures after surgical vessel exposure (120.4 ± 23.0 min, p = .04). The SAFARI technique is a safe and feasible option for patients with infrainguinal CTO (TASC II C and D). The PT or DP as the retrograde access after surgical vessel exposure is a good choice when using the SAFARI technique. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brown dwarfs in retrogradely precessing cataclysmic variables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We compare Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations of retrogradely precessing accretion disks that have a white dwarf primary and a main sequence secondary with observational data and with theory on retrograde precession via tidal torques like those by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth [1, 2]. Assuming the primary does not accrete much of the mass lost from the secondary, we identify the theoretical low mass star/brown dwarf boundary. We find no observational candidates in our study that could qualify as brown dwarfs.

  19. Amyloid-Beta Induced Changes in Vesicular Transport of BDNF in Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Seifert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is an important growth factor in the CNS. Deficits in transport of this secretory protein could underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Investigation of disease-related changes in BDNF transport might provide insights into the cellular mechanism underlying, for example, Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To analyze the role of BDNF transport in AD, live cell imaging of fluorescently labeled BDNF was performed in hippocampal neurons of different AD model systems. BDNF and APP colocalized with low incidence in vesicular structures. Anterograde as well as retrograde transport of BDNF vesicles was reduced and these effects were mediated by factors released from hippocampal neurons into the extracellular medium. Transport of BDNF was altered at a very early time point after onset of human APP expression or after acute amyloid-beta(1-42 treatment, while the activity-dependent release of BDNF remained unaffected. Taken together, extracellular cleavage products of APP induced rapid changes in anterograde and retrograde transport of BDNF-containing vesicles while release of BDNF was unaffected by transgenic expression of mutated APP. These early transport deficits might lead to permanently impaired brain functions in the adult brain.

  20. Retrograde amnesia after electroconvulsive therapy: a temporary effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Birkenhager, T.; van den Broek, W.W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is generally considered effective against depression, it remains controversial because of its association with retrograde memory loss. Here, we assessed memory after ECT in circumstances most likely to yield strong retrograde amnesia. Method: A

  1. Functional Outcomes of the Knee after Retrograde and Antegrade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of femur shaft fractures although retrograde technique is gaining acceptance. Although ... Antegrade group, while the rate of knee stiffness was higher in the retrograde .... reaching direct and indirect social economic effect within the society.

  2. ASIC3, an acid-sensing ion channel, is expressed in metaboreceptive sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fierro Leonardo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ASIC3, the most sensitive of the acid-sensing ion channels, depolarizes certain rat sensory neurons when lactic acid appears in the extracellular medium. Two functions have been proposed for it: 1 ASIC3 might trigger ischemic pain in heart and muscle; 2 it might contribute to some forms of touch mechanosensation. Here, we used immunocytochemistry, retrograde labelling, and electrophysiology to ask whether the distribution of ASIC3 in rat sensory neurons is consistent with either of these hypotheses. Results Less than half (40% of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons react with anti-ASIC3, and the population is heterogeneous. They vary widely in cell diameter and express different growth factor receptors: 68% express TrkA, the receptor for nerve growth factor, and 25% express TrkC, the NT3 growth factor receptor. Consistent with a role in muscle nociception, small ( Conclusion Our data indicates that: 1 ASIC3 is expressed in a restricted population of nociceptors and probably in some non-nociceptors; 2 co-expression of ASIC3 and CGRP, and the absence of P2X3, are distinguishing properties of a class of sensory neurons, some of which innervate blood vessels. We suggest that these latter afferents may be muscle metaboreceptors, neurons that sense the metabolic state of muscle and can trigger pain when there is insufficient oxygen.

  3. Studies of retrograde memory: A long-term view

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington, Elizabeth K.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of retrograde amnesia are reviewed. First, the issues of temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia are discussed. Second, the question of the anatomical substrates of this syndrome are considered. Finally, some evidence for fractionation of different classes of memoranda within the retrograde time period are presented.

  4. Fear conditioning leads to alteration in specific genes expression in cortical and thalamic neurons that project to the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ira K; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2015-02-01

    RNA transcription is needed for memory formation. However, the ability to identify genes whose expression is altered by learning is greatly impaired because of methodological difficulties in profiling gene expression in specific neurons involved in memory formation. Here, we report a novel approach to monitor the expression of genes after learning in neurons in specific brain pathways needed for memory formation. In this study, we aimed to monitor gene expression after fear learning. We retrogradely labeled discrete thalamic neurons that project to the lateral amygdala (LA) of rats. The labeled neurons were dissected, using laser microdissection microscopy, after fear conditioning learning or unpaired training. The RNAs from the dissected neurons were subjected to microarray analysis. The levels of selected RNAs detected by the microarray analysis to be altered by fear conditioning were also assessed by nanostring analysis. We observed that the expression of genes involved in the regulation of translation, maturation and degradation of proteins was increased 6 h after fear conditioning compared to unpaired or naïve trained rats. These genes were not expressed 24 h after training or in cortical neurons that project to the LA. The expression of genes involved in transcription regulation and neuronal development was altered after fear conditioning learning in the cortical-LA pathway. The present study provides key information on the identity of genes expressed in discrete thalamic and cortical neurons that project to the LA after fear conditioning. Such an approach could also serve to identify gene products as targets for the development of a new generation of therapeutic agents that could be aimed to functionally identified brain circuits to treat memory-related disorders. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to chemosensitivity of breathing-related neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Rafiq; Pollema-Mays, Sarah L; Chang, Zheng; Alheid, George F; McCrimmon, Donald R; Martina, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Cellular mechanisms of central pH chemosensitivity remain largely unknown. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) integrates peripheral afferents with central pathways controlling breathing; NTS neurons function as central chemosensors, but only limited information exists concerning the ionic mechanisms involved. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) mediate chemosensitivity in nociceptive terminals, where pH values ∼6.5 are not uncommon in inflammation, but are also abundantly expressed throughout the brain where pHi s tightly regulated and their role is less clear. Here we test the hypothesis that ASICs are expressed in NTS neurons and contribute to intrinsic chemosensitivity and control of breathing. In electrophysiological recordings from acute rat NTS slices, ∼40% of NTS neurons responded to physiological acidification (pH 7.0) with a transient depolarization. This response was also present in dissociated neurons suggesting an intrinsic mechanism. In voltage clamp recordings in slices, a pH drop from 7.4 to 7.0 induced ASIC-like inward currents (blocked by 100 μM amiloride) in ∼40% of NTS neurons, while at pH ≤ 6.5 these currents were detected in all neurons tested; RT-PCR revealed expression of ASIC1 and, less abundantly, ASIC2 in the NTS. Anatomical analysis of dye-filled neurons showed that ASIC-dependent chemosensitive cells (cells responding to pH 7.0) cluster dorsally in the NTS. Using in vivo retrograde labelling from the ventral respiratory column, 90% (9/10) of the labelled neurons showed an ASIC-like response to pH 7.0, suggesting that ASIC currents contribute to control of breathing. Accordingly, amiloride injection into the NTS reduced phrenic nerve activity of anaesthetized rats with an elevated arterial P(CO(2)) .

  6. Topographic Anterograde and Retrograde Memory for Spatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was on the effects of haloperidol injection on anterograde and retrograde topographic memories for spatial behaviours in Long Evan rats. Twelve Long Evan albino rats weighing 0.5 – 0.8 kg (6 males, 6 females) were used for the study. Complex Maze Box of 14 unit T Alley from the Royal Institute of ...

  7. Liver parenchumography following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revert, A.; Arana, E.; Pertejo, V.; Berenguer, M.; Masip, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Focal liver opacification during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is an uncommon complication caused by excessive pressure during contrast injection. In this situation, ERCP must be interrupted and the position of the cannula checked. We recommend that these images be excluded from the diagnosis of tumor or cystic cavities. 4 refs

  8. Synchronous Retrograde and Micturating Cysto Urethrography A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Retrograde Urethrography (RUG) combined with Micturating cystourethrography (MCUG) is imaging method of choice for studying the urethra and its 1-9 abnormalities . Though there are many modern imaging modalities that are also useful but these are not available in most developing countries. Even the ...

  9. Pseudotyped Lentiviral Vectors for Retrograde Gene Delivery into Target Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Kobayashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer through retrograde axonal transport of viral vectors offers a substantial advantage for analyzing roles of specific neuronal pathways or cell types forming complex neural networks. This genetic approach may also be useful in gene therapy trials by enabling delivery of transgenes into a target brain region distant from the injection site of the vectors. Pseudotyping of a lentiviral vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with various fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different combinations of rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G enhances the efficiency of retrograde gene transfer in both rodent and nonhuman primate brains. The most recently developed lentiviral vector is a pseudotype with fusion glycoprotein type E (FuG-E, which demonstrates highly efficient retrograde gene transfer in the brain. The FuG-E–pseudotyped vector permits powerful experimental strategies for more precisely investigating the mechanisms underlying various brain functions. It also contributes to the development of new gene therapy approaches for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, by delivering genes required for survival and protection into specific neuronal populations. In this review article, we report the properties of the FuG-E–pseudotyped vector, and we describe the application of the vector to neural circuit analysis and the potential use of the FuG-E vector in gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease.

  10. Retrograde Renal Cooling to Minimize Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Colli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.9° C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.9° C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.1° C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  11. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in neurons of trigeminal ganglion contributes to nociception induced by acute pulpitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Ji; Du, Yi; Cai, Wen-Ke; Kuang, Rong; Chang, Ting; Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Li, Zhu-Yi; Kuang, Fang

    2015-07-30

    Pain caused by acute pulpitis (AP) is a common symptom in clinical settings. However, its underlying mechanisms have largely remained unknown. Using AP model, we demonstrated that dental injury caused severe pulp inflammation with up-regulated serum IL-1β. Assessment from head-withdrawal reflex thresholds (HWTs) and open-field test demonstrated nociceptive response at 1 day post injury. A consistent up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) ipsilateral to the injured pulp was found; and downstream signaling components of TLR4, including MyD88, TRIF and NF-κB, and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, were also increased. Retrograde labeling indicated that most TLR4 positve neuron in the TG innnervated the pulp and TLR4 immunoreactivity was mainly in the medium and small neurons. Double labeling showed that the TLR4 expressing neurons in the ipsilateral TG were TRPV1 and CGRP positive, but IB4 negative. Furthermore, blocking TLR4 by eritoran (TLR4 antagonist) in TGs of the AP model significantly down-regulated MyD88, TRIF, NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β production and behavior of nociceptive response. Our findings suggest that TLR4 signaling in TG cells, particularly the peptidergic TRPV1 neurons, plays a key role in AP-induced nociception, and indicate that TLR4 signaling could be a potential therapeutic target for orofacial pain.

  12. Autoradiographic demonstration of 3H-labelled glycoproteins in 'light' and 'dark' neurons of different grisea of rat brain after intraventricular application of tritiated fucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.; Rummelfaenger, H.; Pohle, W.

    1982-01-01

    The simultaneous demonstration of 3 H radioactivity and of 'light' and 'dark' neurons by histological staining revealed that the occurrence of 'light' and 'dark' neurons are morphological correlates of different activity stages of cell metabolism. In this connection it became evident that 'light' nerve cells incorporated significantly greater amounts of fucose and therefore should be regarded as metabolically more active. (author)

  13. Gene expression profiling of two distinct neuronal populations in the rodent spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Ryge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the field of neuroscience microarray gene expression profiles on anatomically defined brain structures are being used increasingly to study both normal brain functions as well as pathological states. Fluorescent tracing techniques in brain tissue that identifies distinct neuronal populations can in combination with global gene expression profiling potentially increase the resolution and specificity of such studies to shed new light on neuronal functions at the cellular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examine the microarray gene expression profiles of two distinct neuronal populations in the spinal cord of the neonatal rat, the principal motor neurons and specific interneurons involved in motor control. The gene expression profiles of the respective cell populations were obtained from amplified mRNA originating from 50-250 fluorescently identified and laser microdissected cells. In the data analysis we combine a new microarray normalization procedure with a conglomerate measure of significant differential gene expression. Using our methodology we find 32 genes to be more expressed in the interneurons compared to the motor neurons that all except one have not previously been associated with this neuronal population. As a validation of our method we find 17 genes to be more expressed in the motor neurons than in the interneurons and of these only one had not previously been described in this population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide an optimized experimental protocol that allows isolation of gene transcripts from fluorescent retrogradely labeled cell populations in fresh tissue, which can be used to generate amplified aRNA for microarray hybridization from as few as 50 laser microdissected cells. Using this optimized experimental protocol in combination with our microarray analysis methodology we find 49 differentially expressed genes between the motor neurons and the interneurons that reflect the functional

  14. Connectivity of Pacemaker Neurons in the Neonatal Rat Superficial Dorsal Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Neil C.; Arbabi, Shahriar; Baccei, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Pacemaker neurons with an intrinsic ability to generate rhythmic burst-firing have been characterized in lamina I of the neonatal spinal cord, where they are innervated by high-threshold sensory afferents. However, little is known about the output of these pacemakers, as the neuronal populations which are targeted by pacemaker axons have yet to be identified. The present study combines patch clamp recordings in the intact neonatal rat spinal cord with tract-tracing to demonstrate that lamina I pacemaker neurons contact multiple spinal motor pathways during early life. Retrograde labeling of premotor interneurons with the trans-synaptic virus PRV-152 revealed the presence of burst-firing in PRV-infected lamina I neurons, thereby confirming that pacemakers are synaptically coupled to motor networks in the spinal ventral horn. Notably, two classes of pacemakers could be distinguished in lamina I based on cell size and the pattern of their axonal projections. While small pacemaker neurons possessed ramified axons which contacted ipsilateral motor circuits, large pacemaker neurons had unbranched axons which crossed the midline and ascended rostrally in the contralateral white matter. Recordings from identified spino-parabrachial and spino-PAG neurons indicated the presence of pacemaker activity within neonatal lamina I projection neurons. Overall, these results show that lamina I pacemakers are positioned to regulate both the level of activity in developing motor circuits as well as the ascending flow of nociceptive information to the brain, thus highlighting a potential role for pacemaker activity in the maturation of pain and sensorimotor networks in the CNS. PMID:25380417

  15. Doppler-guided retrograde catheterization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazin, Leon J.; Vonesh, Michael J.; Chandran, Krishnan B.; Khasho, Fouad; Lanza, George M.; Talano, James V.; McPherson, David D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a Doppler guided catheterization system as an adjunctive or alternative methodology to overcome the disadvantages of left heart catheterization and angiography. These disadvantages include the biological effects of radiation and the toxic and volume effects of iodine contrast. Doppler retrograde guidance uses a 20 MHz circular pulsed Doppler crystal incorporated into the tip of a triple lumen multipurpose catheter and is advanced retrogradely using the directional flow information provided by the Doppler waveform. The velocity detection limits are either 1 m/second or 4 m/second depending upon the instrumentation. In a physiologic flow model of the human aortic arch, multiple data points revealed a positive wave form when flow was traveling toward the catheter tip indicating proper alignment for retrograde advancement. There was a negative wave form when flow was traveling away from the catheter tip if the catheter was in a branch or bent upon itself indicating improper catheter tip position for retrograde advancement. In a series of six dogs, the catheter was able to be accurately advanced from the femoral artery to the left ventricular chamber under Doppler signal guidance without the use of x-ray. The potential applications of a Doppler guided retrograde catheterization system include decreasing time requirements and allowing safer catheter guidance in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease and suspected aortic dissection. The Doppler system may allow left ventricular pressure monitoring in the intensive care unit without the need for x-ray and it may allow left sided contrast echocardiography. With pulse velocity detection limits of 4 m/second, this system may allow catheter direction and passage into the aortic root and left ventricle in patients with aortic stenosis. A modification of the Doppler catheter may include transponder technology which would allow precise catheter tip localization once the

  16. Thy1.2 YFP-16 transgenic mouse labels a subset of large-diameter sensory neurons that lack TRPV1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Taylor-Clark

    Full Text Available The Thy1.2 YFP-16 mouse expresses yellow fluorescent protein (YFP in specific subsets of peripheral and central neurons. The original characterization of this model suggested that YFP was expressed in all sensory neurons, and this model has been subsequently used to study sensory nerve structure and function. Here, we have characterized the expression of YFP in the sensory ganglia (DRG, trigeminal and vagal of the Thy1.2 YFP-16 mouse, using biochemical, functional and anatomical analyses. Despite previous reports, we found that YFP was only expressed in approximately half of DRG and trigeminal neurons and less than 10% of vagal neurons. YFP-expression was only found in medium and large-diameter neurons that expressed neurofilament but not TRPV1. YFP-expressing neurons failed to respond to selective agonists for TRPV1, P2X(2/3 and TRPM8 channels in Ca2+ imaging assays. Confocal analysis of glabrous skin, hairy skin of the back and ear and skeletal muscle indicated that YFP was expressed in some peripheral terminals with structures consistent with their presumed non-nociceptive nature. In summary, the Thy1.2 YFP-16 mouse expresses robust YFP expression in only a subset of sensory neurons. But this mouse model is not suitable for the study of nociceptive nerves or the function of such nerves in pain and neuropathies.

  17. Vagal withdrawal during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Schulze, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are at risk of developing cardiorespiratory complications, but the mechanism is still unknown. Treatment with metoprolol 2 h before the endoscopy has been shown to decrease the incidence of myocardial ischaemia......: The existence of a defence-like reaction ('vagal withdrawal') during ERCP has been shown. Metoprolol given 2 h before the procedure did not affect the occurrence of this phenomenon. The interaction of other periendoscopic factors is still unclear and should be studied further....

  18. An unusual experience with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is known for its varied diagnostic and therapeutic utility for a variety of disorders. However it has greater likelihood of procedure related complications among the endoscopic procedures of gastrointestinal tract. The extraluminal hemorrhagic complications following ERCP are potentially life threatening though relatively rare. We present a 50 year patient with choledocholithiasis and cholelithiasis developing rare complication of subcapsular hepatic hematoma, following ERCP due to guide wire injury.

  19. TRPA1 is functionally expressed primarily by IB4-binding, non-peptidergic mouse and rat sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E Barabas

    Full Text Available Subpopulations of somatosensory neurons are characterized by functional properties and expression of receptor proteins and surface markers. CGRP expression and IB4-binding are commonly used to define peptidergic and non-peptidergic subpopulations. TRPA1 is a polymodal, plasma membrane ion channel that contributes to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity during tissue injury, making it a key target for pain therapeutics. Some studies have shown that TRPA1 is predominantly expressed by peptidergic sensory neurons, but others indicate that TRPA1 is expressed extensively within non-peptidergic, IB4-binding neurons. We used FURA-2 calcium imaging to define the functional distribution of TRPA1 among peptidergic and non-peptidergic adult mouse (C57BL/6J DRG neurons. Approximately 80% of all small-diameter (<27 µm neurons from lumbar 1-6 DRGs that responded to TRPA1 agonists allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; 79% or cinnamaldehyde (84% were IB4-positive. Retrograde labeling via plantar hind paw injection of WGA-Alexafluor594 showed similarly that most (81% cutaneous neurons responding to TRPA1 agonists were IB4-positive. Additionally, we cultured DRG neurons from a novel CGRP-GFP mouse where GFP expression is driven by the CGRPα promoter, enabling identification of CGRP-expressing live neurons. Interestingly, 78% of TRPA1-responsive neurons were CGRP-negative. Co-labeling with IB4 revealed that the majority (66% of TRPA1 agonist responders were IB4-positive but CGRP-negative. Among TRPA1-null DRGs, few small neurons (2-4% responded to either TRPA1 agonist, indicating that both cinnamaldehyde and AITC specifically target TRPA1. Additionally, few large neurons (≥27 µm diameter responded to AITC (6% or cinnamaldehyde (4%, confirming that most large-diameter somata lack functional TRPA1. Comparison of mouse and rat DRGs showed that the majority of TRPA1-responsive neurons in both species were IB4-positive. Together, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 is

  20. TRPA1 Is Functionally Expressed Primarily by IB4-Binding, Non-Peptidergic Mouse and Rat Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Subpopulations of somatosensory neurons are characterized by functional properties and expression of receptor proteins and surface markers. CGRP expression and IB4-binding are commonly used to define peptidergic and non-peptidergic subpopulations. TRPA1 is a polymodal, plasma membrane ion channel that contributes to mechanical and cold hypersensitivity during tissue injury, making it a key target for pain therapeutics. Some studies have shown that TRPA1 is predominantly expressed by peptidergic sensory neurons, but others indicate that TRPA1 is expressed extensively within non-peptidergic, IB4-binding neurons. We used FURA-2 calcium imaging to define the functional distribution of TRPA1 among peptidergic and non-peptidergic adult mouse (C57BL/6J) DRG neurons. Approximately 80% of all small-diameter (neurons from lumbar 1–6 DRGs that responded to TRPA1 agonists allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; 79%) or cinnamaldehyde (84%) were IB4-positive. Retrograde labeling via plantar hind paw injection of WGA-Alexafluor594 showed similarly that most (81%) cutaneous neurons responding to TRPA1 agonists were IB4-positive. Additionally, we cultured DRG neurons from a novel CGRP-GFP mouse where GFP expression is driven by the CGRPα promoter, enabling identification of CGRP-expressing live neurons. Interestingly, 78% of TRPA1-responsive neurons were CGRP-negative. Co-labeling with IB4 revealed that the majority (66%) of TRPA1 agonist responders were IB4-positive but CGRP-negative. Among TRPA1-null DRGs, few small neurons (2–4%) responded to either TRPA1 agonist, indicating that both cinnamaldehyde and AITC specifically target TRPA1. Additionally, few large neurons (≥27 µm diameter) responded to AITC (6%) or cinnamaldehyde (4%), confirming that most large-diameter somata lack functional TRPA1. Comparison of mouse and rat DRGs showed that the majority of TRPA1-responsive neurons in both species were IB4-positive. Together, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 is functionally expressed

  1. Complications of bladder distension during retrograde urethrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, J A; Crowell, W; Losonsky, J; Talkington, F D

    1981-05-01

    A severe, ulcerative cystitis that resulted in macroscopic hematuria occurred in 8 of 20 healthy dogs undergoing a series of diagnostic tests. Four of the remaining 12 dogs had mild bladder lesions consisting of submucosal edema and hemorrhage. Nine of the 20 dogs developed urinary tract infection after the procedures. These complications seemed associated with the radiographic technique of retrograde urethrography performed when the urinary bladder was distended. To test this hypothesis, retrograde urethrography was performed on 5 additional dogs. With the bladder undistended, no complications occurred. However, distention of these same dogs' bladders for 1 minute or less with sterile lactated Ringer's solution administered through a Foley catheter in the penile urethra resulted in a macroscopic hematuria in all 5 dogs which persisted for 24 hours. A microscopic hematuria continued for 5 days. One dog developed a bacterial urinary tract infection. A severe fibrinopurulent cystitis was present at necropsy of 2 dogs 2 days after distention. The morphologic changes in the bladder gradually diminished over 7 days, but mild submucosal edema and hemorrhage were still present when 2 dogs were necropsied, 7 days after distention. These studies indicated that retrograde urethrography in dogs may be complicated by hemorrhagic cystitis and urinary tract infection if performed with urinary bladder distention.

  2. Hindbrain Catecholamine Neurons Activate Orexin Neurons During Systemic Glucoprivation in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Elsarelli, Megan M; Brown, R Lane; Ritter, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Hindbrain catecholamine neurons are required for elicitation of feeding responses to glucose deficit, but the forebrain circuitry required for these responses is incompletely understood. Here we examined interactions of catecholamine and orexin neurons in eliciting glucoprivic feeding. Orexin neurons, located in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH), are heavily innervated by hindbrain catecholamine neurons, stimulate food intake, and increase arousal and behavioral activation. Orexin neurons may therefore contribute importantly to appetitive responses, such as food seeking, during glucoprivation. Retrograde tracing results showed that nearly all innervation of the PeFLH from the hindbrain originated from catecholamine neurons and some raphe nuclei. Results also suggested that many catecholamine neurons project collaterally to the PeFLH and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Systemic administration of the antiglycolytic agent, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, increased food intake and c-Fos expression in orexin neurons. Both responses were eliminated by a lesion of catecholamine neurons innervating orexin neurons using the retrogradely transported immunotoxin, anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase saporin, which is specifically internalized by dopamine-β-hydroxylase-expressing catecholamine neurons. Using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in transgenic rats expressing Cre recombinase under the control of tyrosine hydroxylase promoter, catecholamine neurons in cell groups A1 and C1 of the ventrolateral medulla were activated selectively by peripheral injection of clozapine-N-oxide. Clozapine-N-oxide injection increased food intake and c-Fos expression in PeFLH orexin neurons as well as in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus neurons. In summary, catecholamine neurons are required for the activation of orexin neurons during glucoprivation. Activation of orexin neurons may contribute to appetitive responses required for glucoprivic feeding.

  3. The retrograde IFT machinery of C. elegans cilia: two IFT dynein complexes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Hao

    Full Text Available We analyzed the relatively poorly understood IFT-dynein (class DYNC2-driven retrograde IFT pathway in C. elegans cilia, which yielded results that are surprising in the context of current models of IFT. Assays of C. elegans dynein gene expression and intraflagellar transport (IFT suggest that conventional IFT-dynein contains essential heavy (CHE-3, light-intermediate (XBX-1, plus three light polypeptide chains that participate in IFT, but no "essential" intermediate chain. IFT assays of XBX-1::YFP suggest that IFT-dynein is transported as cargo to the distal tip of the cilium by kinesin-2 motors, but independent of the IFT-particle/BBSome complexes. Finally, we were surprised to find that the subset of cilia present on the OLQ (outer labial quadrant neurons assemble independently of conventional "CHE-3" IFT-dynein, implying that there is a second IFT-dynein acting in these cilia. We have found a novel gene encoding a dynein heavy chain, DHC-3, and two light chains, in OLQ neurons, which could constitute an IFT-dynein complex in OLQ neuronal cilia. Our results underscore several surprising features of retrograde IFT that require clarification.

  4. elPBN neurons regulate rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections during activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Fu, Liang-Wu

    2016-08-01

    The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (elPBN) within the pons and rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) contributes to central processing of excitatory cardiovascular reflexes during stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves (CSAN). However, the importance of elPBN cardiovascular neurons in regulation of rVLM activity during CSAN activation remains unclear. We hypothesized that CSAN stimulation excites the elPBN cardiovascular neurons and, in turn, increases rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections. Compared with controls, in rats subjected to microinjection of retrograde tracer into the rVLM, the numbers of elPBN neurons double-labeled with c-Fos (an immediate early gene) and the tracer were increased after CSAN stimulation (P neurons contain vesicular glutamate transporter 3. In cats, epicardial bradykinin and electrical stimulation of CSAN increased the activity of elPBN cardiovascular neurons, which was attenuated (n = 6, P neurons in the elPBN and rVLM sequentially through a monosynaptic (glutamatergic) excitatory elPBN-rVLM pathway. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde amnesia within semantic memory. No evidence for a gradient within this amnesia was found, although one was present on an autobiographic test of retrograde amnesia that had a wider time scale. Several...

  6. A role for nitric oxide-driven retrograde signaling in the consolidation of a fear memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie A Overeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In both invertebrate and vertebrate models of synaptic plasticity, signaling via the putative “retrograde messenger” nitric oxide (NO has been hypothesized to serve as a critical link between functional and structural alterations at pre- and postsynaptic sites. However, while in vitro models of synaptic plasticity have consistently implicated NO signaling in linking postsynaptic induction mechanisms with accompanying presynaptic changes, a convincing role of such “retrograde signaling” in mammalian memory formation has remained elusive. Using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, we show that synaptic plasticity and NO signaling in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA regulate the expression of the ERK-driven immediate early gene early growth response gene I (EGR-1 in regions of the auditory thalamus that are presynaptic to the LA. Further, antisense knockdown of EGR-1 in the auditory thalamus impairs both fear memory consolidation and the training-induced elevation of two presynaptically localized proteins in the LA. These findings indicate that synaptic plasticity and NO signaling in the LA during auditory fear conditioning promote alterations in ERK-driven gene expression in auditory thalamic neurons that are required for both fear memory consolidation as well as presynaptic correlates of fear memory formation in the LA, and provide general support for a role of NO as a “retrograde signal” in mammalian memory formation.

  7. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia following Bitemporal Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schnider

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient suffered very severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia following infarction of both medial temporal lobes (hippocampus and adjacent cortex and the left inferior temporo-occipital area. The temporal stem and the amygdala were intact; these structures do not appear to be critical for new learning in humans. Extension of the left-sided infarct into the inferior temporo-occipital lobe, an area critically involved in visual processing, appears to be responsible for our patient's loss of remote memories.

  8. Retrograde prostatic urethroplasty with a balloon catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, F.; Reddy, P.; Hulbert, J.; Letourneau, J.G.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with prostatism and documented BPH who were candidates for transurethral resection of the prostate were dilated for 10 minutes with 25-mm urethroplasty balloons using a retrograde transurethral approach. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia using 2% viscous lidocaine on an outpatient basis. A mild discomfort was experienced by all patients with a moderate urgency sensation. Mild transient hematuria was present in all, which cleared in 4 to 6 hours. Dysuria usually lasted for 72 hours. Significant improvement has been seen in the relief of symptoms in patients without middle-lobe hypertrophy as documented by uroflow studies, voiding cystourethrograms, and retrograde urethrograms. In patients with middle-lobe hypertrophy, moderate improvement in uroflow studies was observed, which correlated well with symptomatic improvement. Rectal US and MR studies have shown no evidence of intraprostatic or periprostatic abnormalities. No complications have been encountered so far. The longest current follow-up is 20 months, with a mean of 10 months

  9. Co-cultures provide a new tool to probe communication between adult sensory neurons and urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, Lauren M; Keast, Janet R; Osborne, Peregrine B

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the urothelium functions as a sensory transducer of chemical, mechanical or thermal stimuli and signals to nerve terminals and other cells in the bladder wall. The cellular and molecular basis of neuro-urothelial communication is not easily studied in the intact bladder. This led us to establish a method of co-culturing dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and bladder urothelial cells. Sensory neurons and urothelial cells obtained from dorsal root ganglia and bladders dissected from adult female Sprague-Dawley® rats were isolated by enzyme treatment and mechanical dissociation. They were plated together or separately on collagen coated substrate and cultured in keratinocyte medium for 48 to 72 hours. Retrograde tracer labeling was performed to identify bladder afferents used for functional testing. Neurite growth and complexity in neurons co-cultured with urothelial cells was increased relative to that in neuronal monocultures. The growth promoting effect of urothelial cells was reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a but upstream inhibition of nerve growth factor signaling with TrkA-Fc had no effect. Fura-2 calcium imaging of urothelial cells showed responses to adenosine triphosphate (100 μM) and activation of TRPV4 (4α-PDD, 10 μM) but not TRPV1 (capsaicin, 1 μM), TRPV3 (farnesyl pyrophosphate, 1 μM) or TRPA1 (mustard oil, 100 μM). In contrast, co-cultured neurons were activated by all agonists except farnesyl pyrophosphate. Co-culturing provides a new methodology for investigating neuro-urothelial interactions in animal models of urological conditions. Results suggest that neuronal properties are maintained in the presence of urothelium and neurite growth is potentiated by a nerve growth factor independent mechanism. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Healthy Live Birth Following ICSI with Retrograde Ejaculated Sperm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Retrograde ejaculation, sometimes called dry orgasm, refers to the medical condition when semen enters the urinary bladder. (retrograde) instead of emerging through the penis after orgasm (antegrade). In some instances, a very minute quantity of antegrade semen appears in the ejaculate and may or may not be devoid of ...

  11. Using Kinesthetic Activities to Teach Ptolemaic and Copernican Retrograde Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ted

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for teaching planetary retrograde motion, and the Ptolemaic and Copernican accounts of retrograde motion, by means of a series kinesthetic learning activities (KLAs). In the KLAs described, the students literally walk through the motions of the planets in both systems. A retrospective statistical analysis shows that…

  12. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

  13. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Knollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

  14. Disrupting circadian rhythms in rats induces retrograde amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, Mátyás; Ree, J.M. van; Niesink, Raymond J.M.; Wied, D. de

    1985-01-01

    Disrupting circadian organization in rats by phase-shifting the illumination cycle or by exposure to a reversed day/night cycle or to continuous light, resulted in retrograde amnesia for passive avoidance behavior. This retrograde amnesia induced by phase-shifting lasted at least 2 days, and

  15. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  16. Dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating skeletal muscle respond to physiological combinations of protons, ATP, and lactate mediated by ASIC, P2X, and TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Alan R; Hughen, Ronald W; Zhang, Jie; Rainier, Jon; Liu, Zhuqing; Lee, Jeewoo

    2008-09-01

    The adequate stimuli and molecular receptors for muscle metaboreceptors and nociceptors are still under investigation. We used calcium imaging of cultured primary sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from C57Bl/6 mice to determine candidates for metabolites that could be the adequate stimuli and receptors that could detect these stimuli. Retrograde DiI labeling determined that some of these neurons innervated skeletal muscle. We found that combinations of protons, ATP, and lactate were much more effective than individually applied compounds for activating rapid calcium increases in muscle-innervating dorsal root ganglion neurons. Antagonists for P2X, ASIC, and TRPV1 receptors suggested that these three receptors act together to detect protons, ATP, and lactate when presented together in physiologically relevant concentrations. Two populations of muscle-innervating DRG neurons were found. One responded to low metabolite levels (likely nonnoxious) and used ASIC3, P2X5, and TRPV1 as molecular receptors to detect these metabolites. The other responded to high levels of metabolites (likely noxious) and used ASIC3, P2X4, and TRPV1 as their molecular receptors. We conclude that a combination of ASIC, P2X5 and/or P2X4, and TRPV1 are the molecular receptors used to detect metabolites by muscle-innervating sensory neurons. We further conclude that the adequate stimuli for muscle metaboreceptors and nociceptors are combinations of protons, ATP, and lactate.

  17. Live imaging of dense-core vesicles in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwinter, David M; Silverman, Michael A; Kwinter, David; Michael, Silverman

    2009-05-29

    Observing and characterizing dynamic cellular processes can yield important information about cellular activity that cannot be gained from static images. Vital fluorescent probes, particularly green fluorescent protein (GFP) have revolutionized cell biology stemming from the ability to label specific intracellular compartments and cellular structures. For example, the live imaging of GFP (and its spectral variants) chimeras have allowed for a dynamic analysis of the cytoskeleton, organelle transport, and membrane dynamics in a multitude of organisms and cell types [1-3]. Although live imaging has become prevalent, this approach still poses many technical challenges, particularly in primary cultured neurons. One challenge is the expression of GFP-tagged proteins in post-mitotic neurons; the other is the ability to capture fluorescent images while minimizing phototoxicity, photobleaching, and maintaining general cell health. Here we provide a protocol that describes a lipid-based transfection method that yields a relatively low transfection rate (~0.5%), however is ideal for the imaging of fully polarized neurons. A low transfection rate is essential so that single axons and dendrites can be characterized as to their orientation to the cell body to confirm directionality of transport, i.e., anterograde v. retrograde. Our approach to imaging GFP expressing neurons relies on a standard wide-field fluorescent microscope outfitted with a CCD camera, image capture software, and a heated imaging chamber. We have imaged a wide variety of organelles or structures, for example, dense-core vesicles, mitochondria, growth cones, and actin without any special optics or excitation requirements other than a fluorescent light source. Additionally, spectrally-distinct, fluorescently labeled proteins, e.g., GFP and dsRed-tagged proteins, can be visualized near simultaneously to characterize co-transport or other coordinated cellular events. The imaging approach described here is

  18. Discrete innervation of murine taste buds by peripheral taste neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal N; Whitehead, Mark C

    2006-08-09

    The peripheral taste system likely maintains a specific relationship between ganglion cells that signal a particular taste quality and taste bud cells responsive to that quality. We have explored a measure of the receptoneural relationship in the mouse. By injecting single fungiform taste buds with lipophilic retrograde neuroanatomical markers, the number of labeled geniculate ganglion cells innervating single buds on the tongue were identified. We found that three to five ganglion cells innervate a single bud. Injecting neighboring buds with different color markers showed that the buds are primarily innervated by separate populations of geniculate cells (i.e., multiply labeled ganglion cells are rare). In other words, each taste bud is innervated by a population of neurons that only connects with that bud. Palate bud injections revealed a similar, relatively exclusive receptoneural relationship. Injecting buds in different regions of the tongue did not reveal a topographic representation of buds in the geniculate ganglion, despite a stereotyped patterned arrangement of fungiform buds as rows and columns on the tongue. However, ganglion cells innervating the tongue and palate were differentially concentrated in lateral and rostral regions of the ganglion, respectively. The principal finding that small groups of ganglion cells send sensory fibers that converge selectively on a single bud is a new-found measure of specific matching between the two principal cellular elements of the mouse peripheral taste system. Repetition of the experiments in the hamster showed a more divergent innervation of buds in this species. The results indicate that whatever taste quality is signaled by a murine geniculate ganglion neuron, that signal reflects the activity of cells in a single taste bud.

  19. Long-term estradiol-17β administration changes the population of paracervical ganglion neurons supplying the ovary in adult gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Barbara; Palus, Katarzyna; Czarzasta, Joanna; Całka, Jarosław

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of estradiol-17β (E(2)) overdose on the number and distribution of ovarian parasympathetic neurons in the paracervical ganglion (PCG) in adult pigs. To identify the neurons innervating gonads on day 3 of the estrous cycle, the ovaries of both the control and experimental gilts were injected with retrograde neuronal tracer Fast Blue. From next day to the expected day 20 of the second studied cycle, experimental gilts were injected with E(2), while control gilts received oil. The PCG were then collected and processed for double-labeling immunofluorescence. Injections of E(2) increased the E(2) level in the peripheral blood approximately four- to fivefold and reduced the following in the PCG: the total number of Fast Blue-positive neurons; the number of perikarya in the lateral part of the PCG; the numbers of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)(+)/somatostatin(+), VAChT(+)/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)(+), VAChT(+)/neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase(+), VAChT(+)/VIP(-), VAChT(+)/dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH)(-), VAChT(-)/VIP(-), and VAChT(-)/DβH(-) perikarya; and the total number of perikarya expressing estrogen receptors (ERs) subtype α and/or β. In summary, long-term E(2) treatment of adult gilts downregulates the population of both cholinergic and ERs expressing the PCG ovary-projecting neurons. Our results suggest that elevated E(2) levels occurring during pathological states may regulate gonadal function(s) by affecting ovary-supplying neurons.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendenaa, K.; Horn, A.; Viste, A.

    1994-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was carried out for the first time in 1968. Five years later endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed. Since then both modalities have become established as necessary adjuncts in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pathology in the bile duct or pancreas. The main indication is common bile duct stone, and as a consequence of this treatment fewer patients are now treated surgically. Patients with malignant bile duct obstruction can be given reasonable palliation of both jaundice and pruritus and therefore improved quality of life. Some reports indicate that endoscopic drainage may be useful for pancreatic stenosis. Complications are few, but vigilance and prompt treatment is necessary to keep morbidity at a minimum. Follow-up after several years shows that sphincterotomy is successful also in the long term. The authors discuss the present diagnostic and therapeutic situation. 31 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Our experiences on retrograde intrarenal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Kemal Hatipoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate outcomes of the cases who had undergone retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS in our clinics. Methods: Outcomes of 100 cases who had undergone RIRS because of renal stones between February 2012, and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Study population consisted of 35 female and 65 male patients with a mean age of 36.81(1-76 years. RIRS was performed with the indication of rest double J (D-J stent (n=1, and renal stone (n=99. Mean stone size was 15.26 (5-27 mm. Preoperatively, 61 cases (61% had preexisting D-J stents, while 39 (39% cases were stentless. Access sheaths were used in 86 (86% cases, while in 14 (14% cases the procedure was applied without using an access sheath. Mean operative, and fluoroscopy times were 52.72 (10-120 minus, and 57.32 (10-180 seconds, respectively. Postoperatively D-J stents were implanted in 88 (88% cases, and 12 (12% cases were stent-free. Mean hospital time was 1.3 (1-7 days. After one month postoperatively, stone-free rate was achieved in 87 (87% patients. Clinically insignificant residual stone fragments (CIRF 6 (6%, and residual stones 7 (7% were also detected. The latter group consisted of cases with horseshoe kidney (n=1, pelvic kidney (n=1, and kyphoscoliosis (n=1. Also in two case procedure was terminated prematurely, because of blurring of the vision secondary to bleeding. Apart from these patients, any preoperative complication did not develop. During follow-up period, urinary tract infection developed in 3 patients with resultant renal parenchymal damage in one patient. In one patient, D-J stent migrated into ureter. Conclusion: Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe technique in the management of renal stones.

  2. Selective Enhancement of Synaptic Inhibition by Hypocretin (Orexin) in Rat Vagal Motor Neurons: Implications for Autonomic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Scott F.; Williams, Kevin W.; Xu, Weiye; Glatzer, Nicholas R.; Smith, Bret N.

    2012-01-01

    The hypocretins (orexins) are hypothalamic neuropeptides implicated in feeding, arousal, and autonomic regulation. These studies were designed to determine the actions of hypocretin peptides on synaptic transmission in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from DMV neurons in transverse slices of rat brainstem. Some of the neurons were identified as gastric-related by retrograde labeling after inoculation of the stomach wall with pseudorabies virus 152, a viral label that reports enhanced green fluorescent protein. Consistent with previous findings, hypocretins caused an inward current (6–68 pA) in most neurons at holding potentials near rest. In addition, the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs was increased in a concentration-related manner (up to 477%), with little change in EPSCs. This effect was preserved in the presence of tetrodotoxin, suggesting a presynaptic site of action. Hypocretins increased the amplitude of IPSCs evoked by electrical stimulation of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) but not evoked EPSCs. Hypocretin-induced increases in the frequency of IPSCs evoked by photoactivation of caged glutamate within the NTS were also observed. Identical effects of the peptides were observed in identified gastric-related and unlabeled DMV neurons. In contrast to some previous studies, which have reported primarily excitatory actions of the hypocretins in many regions of the CNS, these data support a role for hypocretin in preferentially enhancing synaptic inhibition, including inhibitory inputs arising from neurons in the NTS. These findings indicate that the hypocretins can modulate and coordinate visceral autonomic output by acting directly on central vagal circuits. PMID:12736355

  3. PRODUCTION OF NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS ON RETROGRADE ORBITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, S.; Gladman, B.; Ngo, H.; Granvik, M.; Larson, S.

    2012-01-01

    While computing an improved near-Earth object (NEO) steady-state orbital distribution model, we discovered in the numerical integrations the unexpected production of retrograde orbits for asteroids that had originally exited from the accepted main-belt source regions. Our model indicates that ∼0.1% (a factor of two uncertainty) of the steady-state NEO population (perihelion q < 1.3 AU) is on retrograde orbits. These rare outcomes typically happen when asteroid orbits flip to a retrograde configuration while in the 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter and then live for ∼0.001 to 100 Myr. The model predicts, given the estimated near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population, that a few retrograde 0.1-1 km NEAs should exist. Currently, there are two known MPC NEOs with asteroidal designations on retrograde orbits which we therefore claim could be escaped asteroids instead of devolatilized comets. This retrograde NEA population may also answer a long-standing question in the meteoritical literature regarding the origin of high-strength, high-velocity meteoroids on retrograde orbits.

  4. Dynamics of the retrograde 1/1 mean motion resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yukun; Li, Miao; Li, Junfeng; Gong, Shengping

    2018-04-01

    Mean motion resonances are very common in the solar system. Asteroids in mean motion resonances with giant planets have been studied for centuries. But it was not until recently that asteroids in retrograde mean motion resonances with Jupiter and Saturn were discovered. The newly discovered asteroid, 2015 BZ509 is confirmed to be the first asteroid in retrograde 1:1 mean motion resonance (or retrograde co-orbital resonance) with Jupiter, which gives rise to our interests in its unique resonant dynamics. In this study, we thoroughly investigate the phase-space structure of the retrograde 1:1 resonance within the framework of the circular restricted three-body problem. We begin by constructing a simple integrable approximation for the planar retrograde resonance with the Hamiltonian approach and show that the variables definition of the retrograde resonance is very different to the prograde one. When it comes to the disturbing function, we abandon the classical series expansion approach, whereas numerically carry out the averaging process on the disturbing function in closed form. The phase portrait of the retrograde 1:1 resonance is depicted with the level curves of the averaged Hamiltonian. We find that the topological structure of phase space for the retrograde 1:1 resonance is very different to other resonances, due to the consistent existence of the collision separatrix. And the surprising bifurcation of equilibrium point around 180° (i.e., the apocentric libration center) has never been found in any other mean motion resonances before. We thoroughly analyze the novel apocentric librations and find that close encounter with the planet does not always lead to the disruption of a stable apocentric libration. Afterwards, we examine the Kozai dynamics inside the mean motion resonance with the similar Hamiltonian approach and explain why the exact resonant point does not exist in the 3D retrograde 1:1 resonance model.

  5. Structural effects and potential changes in growth factor signalling in penis-projecting autonomic neurons after axotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keast Janet R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The responses of adult parasympathetic ganglion neurons to injury and the neurotrophic mechanisms underlying their axonal regeneration are poorly understood. This is especially relevant to penis-projecting parasympathetic neurons, which are vulnerable to injury during pelvic surgery such as prostatectomy. We investigated the changes in pelvic ganglia of adult male rats in the first week after unilateral cavernous (penile nerve axotomy (cut or crush lesions. In some experiments FluoroGold was injected into the penis seven days prior to injury to allow later identification of penis-projecting neurons. Neurturin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF are neurotrophic factors for penile parasympathetic neurons, so we also examined expression of relevant receptors, GFRα1 and GFRα2, in injured pelvic ganglion neurons. Results Axotomy caused prolific growth of axon collaterals (sprouting in pelvic ganglia ipsilateral to the injury. These collaterals were most prevalent in the region near the exit of the penile nerve. This region contained the majority of FluoroGold-labelled neurons. Many sprouting fibres formed close associations with sympathetic and parasympathetic pelvic neurons, including many FluoroGold neurons. However immunoreactivity for synaptic proteins could not be demonstrated in these collaterals. Preganglionic terminals showed a marked loss of synaptic proteins, suggesting a retrograde effect of the injury beyond the injured neurons. GFRα2 immunofluorescence intensity was decreased in the cytoplasm of parasympathetic neurons, but GFRα1 immunofluorescence was unaffected in these neurons. Conclusion These studies show that there are profound changes within the pelvic ganglion after penile nerve injury. Sprouting of injured postganglionic axons occurs concurrently with structural or chemical changes in preganglionic terminals. New growth of postganglionic axon collaterals within the ganglion raises the

  6. The formation of retrograde planetary orbits by close stellar encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford E. B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the growing number of observations of the RossiterMcLaughlin effect in transiting planets, which seem to suggest that ~30% of transiting planets are in highly inclined or retrograde orbits. We consider the dense cluster environment in which stars are born and investigate whether perturbations from passing stars can drive planetary systems into retrograde configurations. We find that fly-bys can result in significantly more inclination excitation than might naively be expected from impulse approximations, leading to several percent of stellar systems possessing planets in retrograde orbits.

  7. Using Kinesthetic Activities to Teach Ptolemaic and Copernican Retrograde Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ted

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a method for teaching planetary retrograde motion, and the Ptolemaic and Copernican accounts of retrograde motion, by means of a series kinesthetic learning activities (KLAs). In the KLAs described, the students literally walk through the motions of the planets in both systems. A retrospective statistical analysis shows that students who participated in these activities performed better on examination questions pertaining to retrograde motion than students who did not. Potential explanations for this result, including the breaking of classroom routine, the effect of body movement on conceptual memory, and egocentric spatial proprioception, are considered.

  8. REVIVE Trial: Retrograde Delivery of Autologous Bone Marrow in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amit N; Mittal, Sanjay; Turan, Goekmen; Winters, Amalia A; Henry, Timothy D; Ince, Hueseyin; Trehan, Naresh

    2015-09-01

    Cell therapy is an evolving option for patients with end-stage heart failure and ongoing symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Our goal was to evaluate retrograde bone marrow cell delivery in patients with either ischemic heart failure (IHF) or nonischemic heart failure (NIHF). This was a prospective randomized, multicenter, open-label study of the safety and feasibility of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) infused retrograde into the coronary sinus. Sixty patients were stratified by IHF and NIHF and randomized to receive either BMAC infusion or control (standard heart failure care) in a 4:1 ratio. Accordingly, 24 subjects were randomized to the ischemic BMAC group and 6 to the ischemic control group. Similarly, 24 subjects were randomized to the nonischemic BMAC group and 6 to the nonischemic control group. All 60 patients were successfully enrolled in the study. The treatment groups received BMAC infusion without complications. The left ventricular ejection fraction in the patients receiving BMAC demonstrated significant improvement compared with baseline, from 25.1% at screening to 31.1% at 12 months (p=.007) in the NIHF group and from 26.3% to 31.1% in the IHF group (p=.035). The end-systolic diameter decreased significantly in the nonischemic BMAC group from 55.6 to 50.9 mm (p=.020). Retrograde BMAC delivery is safe. All patients receiving BMAC experienced improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction, but only those with NIHF showed improvements in left ventricular end-systolic diameter and B-type natriuretic peptide. These results provide the basis for a larger clinical trial in HF patients. This work is the first prospective randomized clinical trial using high-dose cell therapy delivered via a retrograde coronary sinus infusion in patients with heart failure. This was a multinational, multicenter study, and it is novel, translatable, and scalable. On the basis of this trial and the safety of retrograde coronary sinus infusion, there are

  9. Synaptic plasticity in the medial vestibular nuclei: role of glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers in rat brainstem slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2001-08-01

    The analysis of cellular-molecular events mediating synaptic plasticity within vestibular nuclei is an attempt to explain the mechanisms underlying vestibular plasticity phenomena. The present review is meant to illustrate the main results, obtained in vitro, on the mechanisms underlying long-term changes in synaptic strength within the medial vestibular nuclei. The synaptic plasticity phenomena taking place at the level of vestibular nuclei could be useful for adapting and consolidating the efficacy of vestibular neuron responsiveness to environmental requirements, as during visuo-vestibular recalibration and vestibular compensation. Following a general introduction on the most salient features of vestibular compensation and visuo-vestibular adaptation, which are two plastic events involving neuronal circuitry within the medial vestibular nuclei, the second and third sections describe the results from rat brainstem slice studies, demonstrating the possibility to induce long-term potentiation and depression in the medial vestibular nuclei, following high frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. In particular the mechanisms sustaining the induction and expression of vestibular long-term potentiation and depression, such as the role of various glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers have been described. The relevant role of the interaction between the platelet-activating factor, acting as a retrograde messenger, and the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors, in determining the full expression of vestibular long-term potentiation is also underlined. In addition, the mechanisms involved in vestibular long-term potentiation have been compared with those leading to long-term potentiation in the hippocampus to emphasize the most significant differences emerging from vestibular studies. The fourth part, describes recent results demonstrating the essential role of nitric oxide, another retrograde messenger, in the induction of vestibular

  10. Neuronal-glial trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelard, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The name 'glia' originates from the Greek word for glue, because astro glia (or astrocytes) were thought only to provide an anatomical framework for the electrically-excitable neurones. However, awareness that astrocytes perform vital roles in protecting the neurones, which they surround, emerged from evidence that they act as neuroprotective K + -sinks, and that they remove potentially toxic extracellular glutamate from the vicinity of the neurones. The astrocytes convert the glutamate to non-toxic glutamine which is returned to the neurones and used to replenish transmitter glutamate. This 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' (established in the 1960s by Berl and his colleagues) also contributes to protecting the neurones against a build-up of toxic ammonia. Glial cells also supply the neurones with components for free-radical scavenging glutathione. Recent studies have revealed that glial cells play a more positive interactive role in furnishing the neurones with fuels. Studies using radioactive 14 C, 13 C-MRS and 15 N-GCMS have revealed that glia produce alanine, lactate and proline for consumption by neurones, with increased formation of neurotransmitter glutamate. On neuronal activation the release of NH 4 + and glutamate from the neurones stimulates glucose uptake and glycolysis in the glia to produce more alanine, which can be regarded as an 'alanine-glutamate cycle' Use of 14 C-labelled precursors provided early evidence that neurotransmitter GABA may be partly derived from glial glutamine, and this has been confirmed recently in vivo by MRS isotopomer analysis of the GABA and glutamine labelled from 13 C-acetate. Relative rates of intermediary metabolism in glia and neurones can be calculated using a combination of [1- 13 C] glucose and [1,2- 13 C] acetate. When glutamate is released by neurones there is a net neuronal loss of TCA intermediates which have to be replenished. Part of this is derived from carboxylation of pyruvate, (pyruvate carboxylase

  11. Antegrade or Retrograde Accessory Pathway Conduction: Who Dies First?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hadid, MD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old man with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome due to a left-sided accessory pathway (AP was referred for catheter ablation. Whether abolition of antegrade and retrograde AP conduction during ablation therapy occurs simultaneously, is unclear. At the ablation procedure, radiofrequency delivery resulted in loss of preexcitation followed by a short run of orthodromic tachycardia with eccentric atrial activation, demonstrating persistence of retrograde conduction over the AP after abolition of its antegrade conduction. During continued radiofrequency delivery at the same position, the fifth non-preexcitated beat failed to conduct retrogradely and the tachycardia ended. In this case, antegrade AP conduction was abolished earlier than retrograde conduction.

  12. Prostatic urethra malformation associated with retrograde ejaculation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Aiming; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Zengjun

    2016-12-21

    Retrograde ejaculation can have anatomical, neurogenic, or pharmacological causes. Among these factors, malformation of the prostatic urethra is an uncommon cause. We describe a 29-year-old Han Chinese man with absence of his verumontanum combined with ejaculatory duct cysts, and no other cause for ejaculatory dysfunction. His verumontanum was replaced by a deep groove adjacent to his bladder neck, which could significantly influence bladder neck contraction. In addition, the large cysts in the ejaculatory duct could obstruct the anterior outlet of his prostatic urethra and prevent seminal fluid flow in an anterograde direction. There are few reports of retrograde ejaculation associated with congenital malformations of the posterior urethra. Malformations associated with bladder neck laxity and increased tone of the prostatic urethral outlet can contribute to retrograde ejaculation. Malformation of the prostatic urethra is an uncommon cause of retrograde ejaculation, and can be difficult to treat.

  13. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harith M. Alkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: (1 Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2 A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3 Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective.

  14. Trace Fear Conditioning Differentially Modulates Intrinsic Excitability of Medial Prefrontal Cortex-Basolateral Complex of Amygdala Projection Neurons in Infralimbic and Prelimbic Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chenghui; Ehlers, Vanessa L; Moyer, James R

    2015-09-30

    Neuronal activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critical for the formation of trace fear memory, yet the cellular mechanisms underlying these memories remain unclear. One possibility involves the modulation of intrinsic excitability within mPFC neurons that project to the basolateral complex of amygdala (BLA). The current study used a combination of retrograde labeling and in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to examine the effect of trace fear conditioning on the intrinsic excitability of layer 5 mPFC-BLA projection neurons in adult rats. Trace fear conditioning significantly enhanced the intrinsic excitability of regular spiking infralimbic (IL) projection neurons, as evidenced by an increase in the number of action potentials after current injection. These changes were also associated with a reduction in spike threshold and an increase in h current. In contrast, trace fear conditioning reduced the excitability of regular spiking prelimbic (PL) projection neurons, through a learning-related decrease of input resistance. Interestingly, the amount of conditioned freezing was (1) positively correlated with excitability of IL-BLA projection neurons after conditioning and (2) negatively correlated with excitability of PL-BLA projection neurons after extinction. Trace fear conditioning also significantly enhanced the excitability of burst spiking PL-BLA projection neurons. In both regions, conditioning-induced plasticity was learning specific (observed in conditioned but not in pseudoconditioned rats), flexible (reversed by extinction), and transient (lasted extinction of trace fear conditioning. Significance statement: Frontal lobe-related function is vital for a variety of important behaviors, some of which decline during aging. This study involves a novel combination of electrophysiological recordings from fluorescently labeled mPFC-to-amygdala projection neurons in rats with acquisition and extinction of trace fear conditioning to determine how

  15. Retrograde Melting and Internal Liquid Gettering in Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudelson, Steve; Newman, Bonna K.; Bernardis, Sarah; Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-07-01

    Retrograde melting (melting upon cooling) is observed in silicon doped with 3d transition metals, via synchrotron-based temperature-dependent X-ray microprobe measurements. Liquid metal-silicon droplets formed via retrograde melting act as efficient sinks for metal impurities dissolved within the silicon matrix. Cooling results in decomposition of the homogeneous liquid phase into solid multiple-metal alloy precipitates. These phenomena represent a novel pathway for engineering impurities in semiconductor-based systems.

  16. Retrograde vs. Antegrade Puncture for Infra-Inguinal Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nice, C.; Timmons, G.; Bartholemew, P.; Uberoi, R.

    2003-01-01

    This study was done to compare antegrade punctures with a retrograde puncture technique for infrainguinal angioplasty. A group of 100 consecutive patients (71 men, 29 women) were randomized for antegrade puncture or retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery. Following retrograde puncture the guidewire was 'turned' and placed into the superficial femoral artery. The time for gaining access, screening time, radiation dose, patient height, weight and complications were recorded. All patients were reviewed the day after the procedure and within 3 months. Data from 46 patients (34 males and 12 females) in the retrograde group and 44 (28 males and 16 females) in the antegrade group were available for analysis. Mean procedure time,screening time, radiation dose, height and weight were 8.3 minutes(range 3-22), 2.1 minutes (0.3-6.5), 7950 mGy cm -2 (820-71250), 169 cm (149-204) and 79 kg (32-108) for retrograde puncture and 8 min (2-60), 0.7 min (0.0-3.2), 1069 mGycm -2 (0-15400), 169 cm (152-186) and 75 kg (39-125) for antegrade punctures, respectively. An average of 1.2 (1-2) punctures was required for retrograde and 1.75 (1-8) for antegrade. Seven small hematomas occurred with antegrade and three for retrograde puncture.Retrograde puncture is technically easier with a tendency to fewer complications but results in a higher radiation dose. This technique should be used in difficult patients at high risk of haematoma formation

  17. Mismatch analysis of humeral nailing. Antegrade versus retrograde insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaisavariya, B.; Jiamwatthanachai, P.; Aroonjarattham, P.; Aroonjarattham, K.; Wongcumchang, M.; Sitthiseripratip, K.

    2011-01-01

    Closed humeral nailing is now considered an alternative treatment for humeral-shaft fracture. The nail can be inserted with either the antegrade or retrograde method. We investigated and compared the problem of geometric mismatch of the humeral nail to the humerus between the two methods of insertion. The study was performed using virtual simulation based on computed tomography (CT) data of 76 Thai cadaveric humeri and the commonly used Russell-Taylor humeral nail 8 mm in diameter and 220 mm long. Mismatch of the nail to the intact humerus was analyzed and compared between the antegrade and retrograde nailing approaches. The results showed: the diameter of the medullary canal averaged 7.9-13.8 mm; the minimal reaming diameter to accommodate virtual nail insertion averaged 8.8-14.8 mm for the antegrade and 8.8-29.3 mm for the retrograde approach; the minimal reaming thickness of the inner cortex averaged 0.1-1.5 mm for the antegrade and 0.1-9.9 mm for the retrograde approach; the percentages of cortical bone removed prior to nail insertion were 3.8-107.1% and 3.8-1,287.6% for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively; the eccentricity of the nail-medullary canal center were 0.4-3.4 and 0.4-10.6 mm for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively. Less mismatching occurred with antegrade nailing than with the retrograde approach. Retrograde nailing requires excessive reaming at the distal part of the humerus to accommodate nail insertion. This may create bone weakness and the risk of supracondylar fracture. (author)

  18. Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis reduces ASIC channel but enhances TRPV1 receptor function in rat bladder sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khoa; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Gebhart, G F

    2013-07-01

    Using patch-clamp techniques, we studied the plasticity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) and transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) channel function in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons retrogradely labeled from the bladder. Saline (control) or cyclophosphamide (CYP) was given intraperitoneally on days 1, 3, and 5. On day 6, lumbosacral (LS, L6-S2) or thoracolumbar (TL, T13-L2) DRG were removed and dissociated. Bladders and bladder DRG neurons from CYP-treated rats showed signs of inflammation (greater myeloperoxidase activity; lower intramuscular wall pH) and increased size (whole cell capacitance), respectively, compared with controls. Most bladder neurons (>90%) responded to protons and capsaicin. Protons produced multiphasic currents with distinct kinetics, whereas capsaicin always triggered a sustained response. The TRPV1 receptor antagonist A-425619 abolished capsaicin-triggered currents and raised the threshold of heat-activated currents. Prolonged exposure to an acidic environment (pH range: 7.2 to 6.6) inhibited proton-evoked currents, potentiated the capsaicin-evoked current, and reduced the threshold of heat-activated currents in LS and TL bladder neurons. CYP treatment reduced density but not kinetics of all current components triggered by pH 5. In contrast, CYP-treatment was associated with an increased current density in response to capsaicin in LS and TL bladder neurons. Correspondingly, heat triggered current at a significantly lower temperature in bladder neurons from CYP-treated rats compared with controls. These results reveal that cystitis differentially affects TRPV1- and ASIC-mediated currents in both bladder sensory pathways. Acidification of the bladder wall during inflammation may contribute to changes in nociceptive transmission mediated through the TRPV1 receptor, suggesting a role for TRPV1 in hypersensitivity associated with cystitis.

  19. Distant retrograde orbits and the asteroid hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Ettore; Ceccaroni, Marta; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Rossi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) gained a novel wave of fame in space mission design because of their numerous advantages within the framework of the US plans for bringing a large asteroid sample in the vicinity of the Earth as the next target for human exploration. DROs are stable solutions of the three-body problem that can be used whenever an object, whether of natural or artificial nature, is required to remain in the neighborhood of a celestial body without being gravitationally captured by it. As such, they represent an alternative option to Halo orbits around the collinear Lagrangian points L1 and L2. Also known under other names ( e.g., quasi-satellite orbits, cis-lunar orbits, family- f orbits) these orbital configurations found interesting applications in several mission profiles, like that of a spacecraft orbiting around the small irregularly shaped satellite of Mars Phobos or the large Jovian moon Europa. In this paper a basic explanation of the DRO dynamics is presented in order to clarify some geometrical properties that characterize them. Their accessibility is then discussed from the point of view of mission analysis under different assumptions. Finally, their relevance within the framework of the present asteroid hazard protection programs is shown, stressing the significant increase in warning time they would provide in the prediction of impactors coming from the direction of the Sun.

  20. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  1. The inherent catastrophic traps in retrograde CTO PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eugene B; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2018-05-01

    When we learn to drive, our driving instructor tells us how to check the side mirror and turn your head to check the blind spot before changing lanes. He tells us how to stop at stop signs, how to drive in slippery conditions, the safe stopping distances, and these all make our driving safe. Similarly, when we learn PCI, our mentors teach us to seat the guiding catheter co-axially, to wire the vessel safely, to deliver balloon and stents over the wire, to watch the pressure of the guiding, in order that we perform PCI safely and evade complications. In retrograde CTO PCI, there is no such published teaching. Also many individual mentors have not had the wide experience to see all the possible complications of retrograde CTO PCI and, therefore, may not be able to warn their apprentice. As the number of retrograde procedures increase worldwide, there is a corresponding increase in catastrophic complications, many of which, we as experts, can see are easily avoidable. To breach this gap in knowledge, this article describes 12 commonly met inherent traps in retrograde CTO PCI. They are inherent because by arranging our equipment in the manner to perform retrograde CTO PCI, these complications are either induced directly or happen easily. We hope this work will enhance safety of retrograde CTO PCI and avoid many catastrophic complications for our readers and operators. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  3. Evidence for role of acid-sensing ion channels in nucleus ambiguus neurons: essential differences in anesthetized versus awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Altmann, Joseph B; Chitravanshi, Vineet; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2014-08-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) are widely expressed in several brain regions including medulla; their role in physiology and pathophysiology is incompletely understood. We examined the effect of acidic pH of 6.2 on the medullary neurons involved in parasympathetic cardiac control. Our results indicate that retrogradely labeled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus are depolarized by acidic pH. In addition, acidic saline of pH 6.2 increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration by promoting Ca(2+) influx in nucleus ambiguus neurons. In vivo studies indicate that microinjection of acidic artificial cerebrospinal fluid (pH 6.2) into the nucleus ambiguus decreases the heart rate in conscious rats, whereas it has no effect in anesthetized animals. Pretreatment with either amiloride or benzamil, two widely used ASIC blockers, abolishes both the in vitro and in vivo effects elicited by pH 6.2. Our findings support a critical role for ASIC in modulation of cardiac vagal tone and provide a potential mechanism for acidosis-induced bradycardia, while identifying important differences in the response to acidic pH between anesthetized and conscious rats.

  4. Urotensin II promotes vagal-mediated bradycardia by activating cardiac-projecting parasympathetic neurons of nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, Gabriela Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Tilley, Douglas G; Koch, Walter J; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2014-05-01

    Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic undecapeptide that regulates cardiovascular function at central and peripheral sites. The functional role of U-II nucleus ambiguus, a key site controlling cardiac tone, has not been established, despite the identification of U-II and its receptor at this level. We report here that U-II produces an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in retrogradely labeled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus via two pathways: (i) Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor; and (ii) Ca(2+) influx through P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. In addition, U-II depolarizes cultured cardiac parasympathetic neurons. Microinjection of increasing concentrations of U-II into nucleus ambiguus elicits dose-dependent bradycardia in conscious rats, indicating the in vivo activation of the cholinergic pathway controlling the heart rate. Both the in vitro and in vivo effects were abolished by the urotensin receptor antagonist, urantide. Our findings suggest that, in addition, to the previously reported increase in sympathetic outflow, U-II activates cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus, which may contribute to cardioprotection. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Characterization of dendritic morphology and neurotransmitter phenotype of thoracic descending propriospinal neurons after complete spinal cord transection and GDNF treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingxiao; Ruan, Yiwen; Chen, Chen; Frye, Christian Corbin; Xiong, Wenhui; Jin, Xiaoming; Jones, Kathryn; Sengelaub, Dale; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), poor regeneration of damaged axons of the central nervous system (CNS) causes limited functional recovery. This limited spontaneous functional recovery has been attributed, to a large extent, to the plasticity of propriospinal neurons, especially the descending propriospinal neurons (dPSNs). Compared with the supraspinal counterparts, dPSNs have displayed significantly greater regenerative capacity, which can be further enhanced by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the present study, we applied a G-mutated rabies virus (G-Rabies) co-expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP) to reveal Golgi-like dendritic morphology of dPSNs. We also investigated the neurotransmitters expressed by dPSNs after labeling with a retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). dPSNs were examined in animals with sham injuries or complete spinal transections with or without GDNF treatment. Bilateral injections of G-Rabies and FG were made into the 2nd lumbar (L2) spinal cord at 3 days prior to a spinal cord transection performed at the 11th thoracic level (T11). The lesion gap was filled with Gelfoam containing either saline or GDNF in the injury groups. Four days post-injury, the rats were sacrificed for analysis. For those animals receiving G-rabies injection, the GFP signal in the T7–9 spinal cord was visualized via 2-photon microscopy. Dendritic morphology from stack images was traced and analyzed using a Neurolucida software. We found that dPSNs in sham injured animals had a predominantly dorsal-ventral distribution of dendrites. Transection injury resulted in alterations in the dendritic distribution with dorsal-ventral retraction and lateral-medial extension. Treatment with GDNF significantly increased the terminal dendritic length of dPSNs. The density of spine-like structures was increased after injury, and treatment with GDNF enhanced this effect. For the group receiving FG injections, immunohistochemistry for glutamate, choline

  6. Light and electron microscopy of contacts between primary afferent fibres and neurones with axons ascending the dorsal columns of the feline spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, D J; Koerber, H R; Bannatyne, B A

    1985-10-01

    In addition to primary afferent fibres, the dorsal columns of the cat spinal cord contain ascending second-order axons which project to the dorsal column nuclei. The aim of the present study was to obtain morphological evidence that certain primary afferent axons form monosynaptic contacts with cells of origin of this postsynaptic dorsal column pathway. In ten adult cats, neurones with axons ascending the dorsal columns were retrogradely labelled with horseradish peroxidase using a pellet implantation method in the thoracic dorsal columns. In the lumbosacral regions of the same animals, primary afferent fibres were labelled intra-axonally with ionophoretic application of horseradish peroxidase. Tissue containing labelled axons was prepared for light and combined light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated that slowly adapting (Type I), hair follicle, Pacinian corpuscle and group Ia muscle spindle afferents formed monosynaptic contacts with labelled cells and light microscopical analysis suggested that they also received monosynaptic input from rapidly adapting (Krause) afferents. This evidence suggests that sensory information from large-diameter cutaneous and muscle spindle afferent fibres is conveyed disynaptically via the postsynaptic dorsal column pathway to the dorsal column nuclei. Some of the input to this pathway is probably modified in the spinal cord as the majority of primary afferent boutons forming monosynaptic contacts were postsynaptic to other axon terminals. The postsynaptic dorsal column system appears to constitute a major somatosensory pathway in the cat.

  7. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Ward

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2, we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2 to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555 was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour, one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-. We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons.

  8. Criteria for retrograde rotation of accreting black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. G.; Piotrovich, M. Yu; Gnedin, Yu N.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.; Buliga, S. D.

    2018-06-01

    Rotating supermassive black holes produce jets and their origin is connected to the magnetic field that is generated by accreting matter flow. There is a point of view that electromagnetic fields around rotating black holes are brought to the hole by accretion. In this situation the prograde accreting discs produce weaker large-scale black hole threading magnetic fields, implying weaker jets than in retrograde regimes. The basic goal of this paper is to find the best candidates for retrograde accreting systems in observed active galactic nuclei. We show that active galactic nuclei with low Eddington ratio are really the best candidates for retrograde systems. This conclusion is obtained for kinetically dominated Fanaroff-Riley class II radio galaxies, flat-spectrum radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert I galaxies and a number of nearby galaxies. Our conclusion is that the best candidates for retrograde systems are the noticeable population of active galactic nuclei in the Universe. This result corresponds to the conclusion that in the merging process the interaction of merging black holes with a retrograde circumbinary disc is considerably more effective for shrinking the binary system.

  9. Mercury Retrograde Effect in Capital Markets: Truth or Illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgea Aurora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From the most ancient times, the astrological beliefs have played an important role in human history, thinking, world-views, language and other elements of social culture. The practice of relating the movement of celestial bodies to events in financial markets is relatively newer but despite the inconsistency between financial astrology and standard economic or financial theory, it seems to be largely spread among capital market traders. This paper evaluates one of the astrological effects on the capital market, more precisely the Mercury retrograde effect on US capital market. Despite the fact that it is just an optical illusion the astrological tradition says that Mercury retrograde periods are characterized by confusion and miscommunications. The trades could be less effective, the individuals more prone to make mistakes so there is a long-held belief that it is better to avoid set plans during Mercury retrograde, signing contracts, starting new ventures or open new stock market positions. The main findings of this study are lower return’s volatilities in the Mercury retrograde periods, inconsistent with the astrologic theories assumptions but consistent with the idea that trader’s beliefs in Mercury retrograde effect could change the market volatility exactly in the opposite sense than the predicted one.

  10. Survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons determines synaptic integrity in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Tara L; Kong, Lingling; Wang, Xueyong; Osborne, Melissa A; Crowder, Melissa E; Van Meerbeke, James P; Xu, Xixi; Davis, Crystal; Wooley, Joe; Goldhamer, David J; Lutz, Cathleen M; Rich, Mark M; Sumner, Charlotte J

    2012-06-20

    The inherited motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficient expression of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and results in severe muscle weakness. In SMA mice, synaptic dysfunction of both neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and central sensorimotor synapses precedes motor neuron cell death. To address whether this synaptic dysfunction is due to SMN deficiency in motor neurons, muscle, or both, we generated three lines of conditional SMA mice with tissue-specific increases in SMN expression. All three lines of mice showed increased survival, weights, and improved motor behavior. While increased SMN expression in motor neurons prevented synaptic dysfunction at the NMJ and restored motor neuron somal synapses, increased SMN expression in muscle did not affect synaptic function although it did improve myofiber size. Together these data indicate that both peripheral and central synaptic integrity are dependent on motor neurons in SMA, but SMN may have variable roles in the maintenance of these different synapses. At the NMJ, it functions at the presynaptic terminal in a cell-autonomous fashion, but may be necessary for retrograde trophic signaling to presynaptic inputs onto motor neurons. Importantly, SMN also appears to function in muscle growth and/or maintenance independent of motor neurons. Our data suggest that SMN plays distinct roles in muscle, NMJs, and motor neuron somal synapses and that restored function of SMN at all three sites will be necessary for full recovery of muscle power.

  11. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto a postsynaptic neuron when both pre- and postsynaptic neurons are coactive. In this work, a theory of homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release by retrograde messenger and Hebbian plasticity in neuronal encoding is presented. Encoding efficiency was measured for different synaptic conditions. In order to gain high encoding efficiency, the spiking pattern of a neuron should be dependent on the intensity of the input and show low levels of noise. In this work, we represent spiking trains as zeros and ones (corresponding to non-spike or spike in a time bin, respectively) as words with length equal to three. Then the frequency of each word (here eight words) is measured using spiking trains. These frequencies are used to measure neuronal efficiency in different conditions and for different parameter values. Results show that neurons that have synapses acting as band-pass filters show the highest efficiency to encode their input when both Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release exist in synapses. Specifically, the integration of homeostatic regulation of feedback inhibition with Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the synapses leads to even higher efficiency when high stimulus intensity is presented to the neurons. However, neurons with synapses acting as high-pass filters show no remarkable increase in encoding efficiency for all simulated synaptic plasticity mechanisms. This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation of Hebbian mechanism with regulation of neurotransmitter release induced by rapid diffused retrograde

  12. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Rydbirk, Rasmus; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Pakkenberg, Bente; Aznar, Susana

    2017-05-30

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT 2A Rs in mice exposed to a novel open-field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact of 5-HT 2A R blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin-treated animals, upholding its involvement in modulating averseness. Ketanserin did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum. These results support a role of 5-HT 2A R activation in modulating mPFC and BLA activation during exposure to a novel environment, which may be interrelated. Conversely, 5-HT 2A R blockade does not seem to affect the amygdala-striatal projection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hippocampal Ghrelin-positive neurons directly project to arcuate hypothalamic and medial amygdaloid nuclei. Could they modulate food-intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cristina; Russo, Antonella; Pellitteri, Rosalia; Stanzani, Stefania

    2017-07-13

    Feeding is a process controlled by a complex of associations between external and internal stimuli. The processes that involve learning and memory seem to exert a strong control over appetite and food intake, which is modulated by a gastrointestinal hormone, Ghrelin (Ghre). Recent studies claim that Ghre is involved in cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the conditioning of eating behaviors. The expression of Ghre increases in anticipation of food intake based on learned behaviors. The hippocampal Ghre-containing neurons neurologically influence the orexigenic hypothalamus and consequently the learned feeding behavior. The CA1 field of Ammon's horn of the hippocampus (H-CA1) constitutes the most important neural substrate to control both appetitive and ingestive behavior. It also innervates amygdala regions that in turn innervate the hypothalamus. A recent study also implies that Ghre effects on cue-potentiated feeding behavior occur, at the least, via indirect action on the amygdala. In the present study, we investigate the neural substrates through which endogenous Ghre communicates conditioned appetite and feeding behavior within the CNS. We show the existence of a neural Ghre dependent pathway whereby peripherally-derived Ghre activates H-CA1 neurons, which in turn activate Ghre-expressing hypothalamic and amygdaloid neurons to stimulate appetite and feeding behavior. To highlight this pathway, we use two fluorescent retrograde tracers (Fluoro Gold and Dil) and immunohistochemical detection of Ghre expression in the hippocampus. Triple fluorescent-labeling has determined the presence of H-CA1 Ghre-containing collateralized neurons that project to the hypothalamus and amygdala monosynaptically. We hypothesize that H-Ghre-containing neurons in H-CA1 modulate food-intake behavior through direct pathways to the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. BigNeuron: Large-scale 3D Neuron Reconstruction from Optical Microscopy Images

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael; Roskams, Jane; Hill, Sean; Spruston, Nelson; Meijering, Erik; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding the structure of single neurons is critical for understanding how they function within neural circuits. BigNeuron is a new community effort that combines modern bioimaging informatics, recent leaps in labeling and microscopy, and the widely recognized need for openness and standardization to provide a community resource for automated reconstruction of dendritic and axonal morphology of single neurons. Understanding the structure of single neurons is critical for unde...

  15. Fluoroscopically guided pyeloureteral interventions using a retrograde perurethral approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, M.A.; Banner, M.P.; Pollack, H.M.; Gordon, R.L.; Van Arsdalen, K.N.

    1987-01-01

    Employing standard interventional equipment, fluoroscopy, and partially or completely inserted ureteral catheters for access, the authors performed 168 perurethral interventional procedures since 1985. Procedures have included insertion of double (n = 42) or single pigtail stents (n = 47), advancement of retrograde ureteral catheters with or without displacement of a ureteral stone to the renal pelvis (n = 42), urothelial biopsy (n = 30), balloon dilation of ureteral structures (n = 3), ureteral stone extraction (n = 1), and conversion of retrograde to antegrade catheters for balloon dilation of ureteropelvic junction strictures (n = 3). This retrograde approach often obviates the need for antegrade interventional procedures (including percutaneous nephrostomy and ureteral stenting), ureteroscopy, or surgery. Indications, techniques, pitfalls, and complications are illustrated

  16. Dynein is the motor for retrograde axonal transport of organelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnapp, B.J.; Reese, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Vesicular organelles in axons of nerve cells are transported along microtubules either toward their plus ends (fast anterograde transport) or toward their minus ends (retrograde transport). Two microtubule-based motors were previously identified by examining plastic beads induced to move along microtubules by cytosol fractions from the squid giant axon: (i) an anterograde motor, kinesin, and (ii) a retrograde motor, which is characterized here. The retrograde motor, a cytosolic protein previously termed HMW1, was purified from optic lobes and extruded axoplasm by nucleotide-dependent microtubule affinity and release; microtubule gliding was used as the assay of motor activity. The following properties of the retrograde motor suggest that it is cytoplasmic dynein: (i) sedimentation at 20-22 S with a heavy chain of Mr greater than 200,000 that coelectrophoreses with the alpha and beta subunits of axonemal dynein, (ii) cleavage by UV irradiation in the presence of ATP and vanadate, and (iii) a molecular structure resembling two-headed dynein from axonemes. Furthermore, bead movement toward the minus end of microtubules was blocked when axoplasmic supernatants were treated with UV/vanadate. Treatment of axoplasmic supernatant with UV/vanadate also blocks the retrograde movement of purified organelles in vitro without changing the number of anterograde moving organelles, indicating that dynein interacts specifically with a subgroup of organelles programmed to move toward the cell body. However, purified optic lobe dynein, like purified kinesin, does not by itself promote the movement of purified organelles along microtubules, suggesting that additional axoplasmic factors are necessary for retrograde as well as anterograde transport

  17. A new retrograde transillumination technique for videolaryngoscopic tracheal intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biro, P; Fried, E; Schlaepfer, M

    2018-01-01

    This single-centre, prospective trial was designed to assess the efficacy of a new retrograde transillumination device called the 'Infrared Red Intubation System' (IRRIS) to aid videolaryngoscopic tracheal intubation. We included 40 adult patients, who were undergoing elective urological surgery......-10])), credibility (10 (8-10 [5-10])) and ease of use (10 (9-10 [8-10])). Tracheal intubation with the system lasted 26 (16-32 [6-89]) s. No alternative technique of securing the airway was necessary. The lowest SpO2 during intubation was 98 (97-99 [91-100])%. We conclude that this method of retrograde...

  18. CaMKII Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptor Activity of Hypothalamic Presympathetic Neurons and Sympathetic Outflow in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Pei; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Jixiang; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2017-11-01

    NMDAR activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is increased and critically involved in heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binds to and modulates NMDAR activity. In this study, we determined the role of CaMKII in regulating NMDAR activity of PVN presympathetic neurons in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). NMDAR-mediated EPSCs and puff NMDA-elicited currents were recorded in spinally projecting PVN neurons in SHRs and male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The basal amplitude of evoked NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in retrogradely labeled PVN neurons were significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. The CaMKII inhibitor autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP) normalized the increased amplitude of NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in labeled PVN neurons in SHRs but had no effect in WKY rats. Treatment with AIP also normalized the higher frequency of NMDAR-mediated miniature EPSCs of PVN neurons in SHRs. CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation level of GluN2B serine 1303 (S1303) in the PVN, but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, was significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. Lowering blood pressure with celiac ganglionectomy in SHRs did not alter the increased level of phosphorylated GluN2B S1303 in the PVN. In addition, microinjection of AIP into the PVN significantly reduced arterial blood pressure and lumbar sympathetic nerve discharges in SHRs. Our findings suggest that CaMKII activity is increased in the PVN and contributes to potentiated presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity to elevate sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone is a major contributor to the development of hypertension. Although glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory drive in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in increased sympathetic output in hypertension, the molecular mechanism involved in

  19. Maresin 1 Inhibits TRPV1 in Temporomandibular Joint-Related Trigeminal Nociceptive Neurons and TMJ Inflammation-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in the Trigeminal Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Kyu Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the trigeminal system, disruption of acute resolution processing may lead to uncontrolled inflammation and chronic pain associated with the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Currently, there are no effective treatments for TMJ pain. Recently, it has been recognized that maresin 1, a newly identified macrophage-derived mediator of inflammation resolution, is a potent analgesic for somatic inflammatory pain without noticeable side effects in mice and a potent endogenous inhibitor of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 in the somatic system. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the analgesic actions of maresin 1 on TMJ pain are unclear in the trigeminal system. Here, by performing TMJ injection of a retrograde labeling tracer DiI (a fluorescent dye, I showed that maresin 1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents and neuronal activity via Gαi-coupled G-protein coupled receptors in DiI-labeled trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Further, maresin 1 blocked TRPV1 agonist-evoked increases in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency and abolished TMJ inflammation-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal nucleus. These results demonstrate the potent actions of maresin 1 in regulating TRPV1 in the trigeminal system. Thus, maresin 1 may serve as a novel endogenous inhibitor for treating TMJ-inflammatory pain in the orofacial region.

  20. elPBN neurons regulate rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections during activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, John C.; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Fu, Liang-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (elPBN) within the pons and rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) contributes to central processing of excitatory cardiovascular reflexes during stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves (CSAN). However, the importance of elPBN cardiovascular neurons in regulation of rVLM activity during CSAN activation remains unclear. We hypothesized that CSAN stimulation excites the elPBN cardiovascular neurons and, in turn, increases rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections. Compared with controls, in rats subjected to microinjection of retrograde tracer into the rVLM, the numbers of elPBN neurons double-labeled with c-Fos (an immediate early gene) and the tracer were increased after CSAN stimulation (P < 0.05). The majority of these elPBN neurons contain vesicular glutamate transporter 3. In cats, epicardial bradykinin and electrical stimulation of CSAN increased the activity of elPBN cardiovascular neurons, which was attenuated (n = 6, P < 0.05) after blockade of glutamate receptors with iontophoresis of kynurenic acid (Kyn, 25 mM). In separate cats, microinjection of Kyn (1.25 nmol/50 nl) into the elPBN reduced rVLM activity evoked by both bradykinin and electrical stimulation (n = 5, P < 0.05). Excitation of the elPBN with microinjection of dl-homocysteic acid (2 nmol/50 nl) significantly increased basal and CSAN-evoked rVLM activity. However, the enhanced rVLM activity induced by dl-homocysteic acid injected into the elPBN was reversed following iontophoresis of Kyn into the rVLM (n = 7, P < 0.05). These data suggest that cardiac sympathetic afferent stimulation activates cardiovascular neurons in the elPBN and rVLM sequentially through a monosynaptic (glutamatergic) excitatory elPBN-rVLM pathway. PMID:27225950

  1. The Influence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX on the Distribution and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion (CaMG Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Lepiarczyk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of micturition disorders creates a serious problem for urologists. Recently, new therapeutic agents, such as neurotoxins, are being considered for the therapy of urological patients. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical instillation of tetrodotoxin (TTX. The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast blue (FB and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labeling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, somatostatin (SOM, calbindin (CB, galanin (GAL and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. It was found that in both the control (n = 6 and TTX-treated pigs (n = 6, the vast majority (92.6% ± 3.4% and 88.8% ± 2%, respectively of FB-positive (FB+ nerve cells were TH+. TTX instillation caused a decrease in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunopositive to NPY (88.9% ± 5.3% in the control animals vs. 10.6% ± 5.3% in TTX-treated pigs or VIP (1.7% ± 0.6% vs. 0%, and an increase in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunoreactive to SOM (8.8% ± 1.6% vs. 39% ± 12.8%, CB (1.8% ± 0.7% vs. 12.6% ± 2.7%, GAL (1.7% ± 0.8% vs. 10.9% ± 2.6% or nNOS (0% vs. 1.1% ± 0.3%. The present study is the first to suggest that TTX modifies the chemical coding of CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder.

  2. The loss of episodic memories in retrograde amnesia: single-case and group studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Kopelman, M D; Kapur, N

    2001-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia in neurological disorders is a perplexing and fascinating research topic. The severity of retrograde amnesia is not well correlated with that of anterograde amnesia, and there can be disproportionate impairments of either. Within retrograde amnesia, there are various dissociations which have been claimed-for example, between the more autobiographical (episodic) and more semantic components of memory. However, the associations of different types of retrograde amnesia are als...

  3. Neural circuits containing olfactory neurons are involved in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichen eNiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, have been associated with abnormalities in the function of the olfactory system and prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle reflex. However, whether these two abnormalities are related is unclear. The present study was designed to determine whether inhibiting olfactory sensory input via the infusion of zinc sulfate (ZnE, 0.17 M, 0.5 ml into the olfactory naris disrupts PPI. Furthermore, lidocaine/MK801 was bilaterally microinjected into the olfactory bulb (OB to examine whether the blockade of olfactory sensory input impairs PPI. To identify the neural projections that connect the olfaction- and PPI-related areas of the CNS, trans-synaptic retrograde tracing using a recombinant pseudorabies virus (PRV was performed. Our results demonstrated that blocking olfactory sensory input altered olfaction-related behavior. At the functional level, we demonstrated that the inhibition of olfactory sensory input impaired PPI of the startle response subsequent to a decrease in c-fos expression in relevant brain regions. Furthermore, the results of a similar and more robust experiment indicated that blocking olfactory sensory input via the microinjection of lidocaine/MK801 into the OB impaired PPI. At the circuit level, based on trans-synaptic retrograde tracing using PRV, we demonstrated that a large portion of the labeled neurons in several regions of the olfactory cortices connected to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg. Thus, these data suggest that the olfactory system participates in the regulation of PPI and plays a role in the effect of PPI on the startle response in rats.

  4. Retrograde pylorogastric intussusception – Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat Avinadav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of gastric outlet obstruction in an infant due to retrograde intussusception of the pylorus into the stomach is presented. This anomaly is extremely rare, with almost no reports in the literature. The patient underwent formal Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty with an uneventful recovery and resumed full enteral feeding.

  5. Retrograde ejaculation and sexual dysfunction in men with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, J; Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Brandslund, I

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) and erectile dysfunction may be caused by diabetes mellitus (DM), but the prevalence of RE among DM patients is unknown. A prospective, blinded case-control study comparing men with DM with matched controls according to RE and erectile dysfunction was performed. Twenty...

  6. Case Report: A Healthy Live Birth Following ICSI with Retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been employed to achieve fertilization in some cases of male subfertility e.g. severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Assisted reproductive techniques to aid conception in cases of retrograde ejaculation have been described extensively elsewhere but there is paucity of knowledge ...

  7. Retrograde amnesia after electroconvulsive therapy: a temporary effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, Martijn; Murre, Jaap M J; Janssen, Steve M J; Birkenhager, Tom; van den Broek, W W

    2011-07-01

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is generally considered effective against depression, it remains controversial because of its association with retrograde memory loss. Here, we assessed memory after ECT in circumstances most likely to yield strong retrograde amnesia. A cohort of patients undergoing ECT for major depression was tested before and after ECT, and again at 3-months follow-up. Included were 21 patients scheduled to undergo bilateral ECT for severe major depression and 135 controls matched for gender, age, education, and media consumption. Two memory tests were used: a verbal learning test to assess anterograde memory function, and a remote memory test that assessed memory for news during the course of one year. Before ECT the patients' scores were lower than those of controls. They were lower again after treatment, suggesting retrograde amnesia. At follow-up, however, memory for events before treatment had returned to the pre-ECT level. Memory for events in the months after treatment was as good as that of controls. The sample size in this study was not large. Moreover, memory impairment did not correlate with level of depression, which may be due to restriction of range. Our results are consistent with the possibility that ECT as currently practiced does not cause significant lasting retrograde amnesia, but that amnesia is mostly temporary and related to the period of impairment immediately following ECT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Retrograde jejunal intussusception after total gastrectomy: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde jejunal intussusception is a rare disease. A 60‑year‑old female patient was hospitalized due to vomiting for 2 days, with a history of radical gastrectomy plus esophagus jejunum Rouxs‑en‑Y. On examination, there was a palpable wax‑like mass on the left‑hand side underneath the umbilicus. Computerized ...

  9. Retrograde jejunal intussusception after total gastrectomy: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... Retrograde jejunal intussusception is a rare disease. A 60-year-old female patient was hospitalized due to vomiting for 2 days, with a history of radical gastrectomy plus esophagus jejunum Rouxs-en-Y. On examination, there was a palpable wax-like mass on the left-hand side underneath the umbilicus.

  10. Rutinemaessig endoskopisk retrograd kolangiopankreatikografi kan ikke anbefales ved galdestenspankreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    Danish guidelines recommend that patients with presumed severe gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis (GAP) should receive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) within 72 hours. The results of a newly performed meta-analysis show that acute ERCP in patients with GAP does not reduce...

  11. Retrograde transport of protein toxins through the Golgi apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Skotland, Tore; van Deurs, Bo

    2013-01-01

    at the cell surface, and they are endocytosed both by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. Sorting to the Golgi and retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are common to these toxins, but the exact mechanisms turn out to be toxin and cell-type dependent. In the ER...

  12. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS FOR INCLINED AND RETROGRADE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Veras, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    We perform numerical calculations of the expected transit timing variations (TTVs) induced on a hot-Jupiter by an Earth-mass perturber. Motivated by the recent discoveries of retrograde transiting planets, we concentrate on an investigation of the effect of varying relative planetary inclinations, up to and including completely retrograde systems. We find that planets in low-order (e.g., 2:1) mean-motion resonances (MMRs) retain approximately constant TTV amplitudes for 0 deg. 170 deg. Systems in higher order MMRs (e.g., 5:1) increase in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase toward 45 deg., becoming approximately constant for 45 deg. 135 deg. Planets away from resonance slowly decrease in TTV amplitude as inclinations increase from 0 deg. to 180 deg., whereas planets adjacent to resonances can exhibit a huge range of variability in TTV amplitude as a function of both eccentricity and inclination. For highly retrograde systems (135 deg. < i ≤ 180 deg.), TTV signals will be undetectable across almost the entirety of parameter space, with the exceptions occurring when the perturber has high eccentricity or is very close to an MMR. This high inclination decrease in TTV amplitude (on and away from resonance) is important for the analysis of the known retrograde and multi-planet transiting systems, as inclination effects need to be considered if TTVs are to be used to exclude the presence of any putative planetary companions: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

  13. Endoskopisk ultralydvejledt rendezvouskolangiografi ved mislykket endoskopisk retrograd kolangiopankreatikografi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, Pia Snedker; Perdawid, Sharafaden Karim; Lykkegaard, John

    2012-01-01

    In this case report we describe an alternative method of cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was not successful in a patient with choledocolithiasis. A combined endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and ERCP procedure was performed and a stent was inserted in the common...

  14. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography causes reduced myocardial blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Hendel, H W; Rasmussen, V

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Previous studies have shown that up to 50% of healthy patients may develop ST-segment changes during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate myocardial blood flow in patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP...

  15. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a disorder of the hand which results from compression of the median nerve within its fibro-osseous tunnel at the wrist. The slowing in the forearm motor conduction velocity suggests the presence of retrograde degeneration. Existing studies conflict regarding a correlation ...

  16. A rare cause of coffee-ground vomiting: Retrograde jejunogastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde jejunogastric intussusception is a well-recognised, rare, but potentially fatal long-term complication of gastrojejunostomy or Billroth II reconstruction. Only about 200 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Diagnosis of this condition is difficult in most cases. To avoid mortality, earlydiagnosis and prompt ...

  17. Developing a Repeatable Methodology to Calculate Retrograde Planning Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    supply chain inefficiencies, changes in demand xiv rates, operational tempo, task force organization, drawdown, and redeployment, for which the...and its causes, most notably the effect of supply chain inefficiencies on serviceable retrograde. It should be noted that, because of data limitations... supplies and equipment, and housekeeping supplies and equipment Class IIIP Packaged petroleum products; includes fuel in collapsible containers less

  18. Treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive through retrograde access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xueqiang; Guo Pingfan; Zhang Jinchi; Cai Fanggang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of retrograde access for the interventional treatment of lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment of lower extremity artery could not be reached through antegrade access. Methods: Twenty-seven cases (male 17, female 10; age range 32-89 years) were retrospectively investigated, including 18 with lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans, 7 with diabetic foot and 2 with thromboangiitis obliterans. According to the Fontaine staging, 6 cases were classified as Fontaine Ⅱ, 11 were classified as Fontaine Ⅲ and 10 were classified as Fontaine Ⅳ. All cases underwent endovascular operation through antegrade access first with an attempt to cross the occlusive segment, but in vain. So retrograde access was tried via puncture of pedis dorsalis or posterior tibial artery or exposure of lateral branches of posterior tibial artery, peroneal artery or dorsal artery by open surgery,which followed by Percutaneous transluminal angiography and (or) stenting. Results: The operation through retrograde access was successful in all cases with obvious improvement of ischemic symptoms. Hematoma at the puncture site occurred in 3 patients, and paresthesia of toes occurred in 1 after dorsalis pedis arteriotomy. No severe perioperative complication occurred. The average ankle brachial index increased from 0.37 ± 0.11 preoperatively to 0.85 ± 0.12 postoperatively. Conclusions: Retrograde access could be used as an alternative strategy in lower extremity arterial occlusive diseases when the occluded segment could not reach through antegrade access. (authors)

  19. Orexin neurons receive glycinergic innervations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hondo

    Full Text Available Glycine, a nonessential amino-acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is currently used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. We confirmed the effects of glycine on sleep/wakefulness behavior in mice when administered peripherally. Glycine administration increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep time and decreased the amount and mean episode duration of wakefulness when administered in the dark period. Since peripheral administration of glycine induced fragmentation of sleep/wakefulness states, which is a characteristic of orexin deficiency, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons. The number of Fos-positive orexin neurons markedly decreased after intraperitoneal administration of glycine to mice. To examine whether glycine acts directly on orexin neurons, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Glycine directly induced hyperpolarization and cessation of firing of orexin neurons. These responses were inhibited by a specific glycine receptor antagonist, strychnine. Triple-labeling immunofluorescent analysis showed close apposition of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2-immunoreactive glycinergic fibers onto orexin-immunoreactive neurons. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that GlyT2-immunoreactive terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata and dendrites of orexin neurons. Double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that glycine receptor alpha subunits were localized in the postsynaptic membrane of symmetrical inhibitory synapses on orexin neurons. Considering the importance of glycinergic regulation during REM sleep, our observations suggest that glycine injection might affect the activity of orexin neurons, and that glycinergic inhibition of orexin neurons might play a role in physiological sleep regulation.

  20. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approach for investigating late endosome–lysosome retrograde fusion events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A.M.; Goldman, S.D.B.; Krise, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, lysosomes have been considered to be a terminal endocytic compartment. Recent studies suggest that lysosomes are quite dynamic, being able to fuse with other late endocytic compartments as well as with the plasma membrane. Here we describe a quantitative fluorescence energy transfer (FRET)-based method for assessing rates of retrograde fusion between terminal lysosomes and late endosomes in living cells. Late endosomes were specifically labeled with 800-nm latex beads that were conjugated with streptavidin and Alexa Fluor 555 (FRET donor). Terminal lysosomes were specifically labeled with 10,000-MW dextran polymers conjugated with biotin and Alexa Fluor 647 (FRET acceptor). Following late endosome–lysosome fusion, the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin brought the donor and acceptor fluorophore molecules into close proximity, thereby facilitating the appearance of a FRET emission signal. Because apparent size restrictions in the endocytic pathway do not permit endocytosed latex beads from reaching terminal lysosomes in an anterograde fashion, the appearance of the FRET signal is consistent with retrograde transport of lysosomal cargo back to late endosomes. We assessed the efficiency of this transport step in fibroblasts affected by different lysosome storage disorders—Niemann–Pick type C, mucolipidosis type IV, and Sandhoff’s disease, all of which have a similar lysosomal lipid accumulation phenotype. We report here, for the first time, that these disorders can be distinguished by their rate of transfer of lysosome cargos to late endosomes, and we discuss the implications of these findings for developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:19109922

  1. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approach for investigating late endosome-lysosome retrograde fusion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A M; Goldman, S D B; Krise, J P

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally, lysosomes have been considered to be a terminal endocytic compartment. Recent studies suggest that lysosomes are quite dynamic, being able to fuse with other late endocytic compartments as well as with the plasma membrane. Here we describe a quantitative fluorescence energy transfer (FRET)-based method for assessing rates of retrograde fusion between terminal lysosomes and late endosomes in living cells. Late endosomes were specifically labeled with 800-nm latex beads that were conjugated with streptavidin and Alexa Fluor 555 (FRET donor). Terminal lysosomes were specifically labeled with 10,000-MW dextran polymers conjugated with biotin and Alexa Fluor 647 (FRET acceptor). Following late endosome-lysosome fusion, the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin brought the donor and acceptor fluorophore molecules into close proximity, thereby facilitating the appearance of a FRET emission signal. Because apparent size restrictions in the endocytic pathway do not permit endocytosed latex beads from reaching terminal lysosomes in an anterograde fashion, the appearance of the FRET signal is consistent with retrograde transport of lysosomal cargo back to late endosomes. We assessed the efficiency of this transport step in fibroblasts affected by different lysosome storage disorders-Niemann-Pick type C, mucolipidosis type IV, and Sandhoff's disease, all of which have a similar lysosomal lipid accumulation phenotype. We report here, for the first time, that these disorders can be distinguished by their rate of transfer of lysosome cargos to late endosomes, and we discuss the implications of these findings for developing new therapeutic strategies.

  2. The prognostic value of cerebral oxygenation and retrograde pressure during carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Карпенко

    2016-08-01

    retrograde pressure, while the other indicators (∆rSO2 and rSO2 did not exceed the area under the curve (AUC over 0.60. Conclusion: Methods of measuring retrograde pressure and cerebral oxygenation are merely a reflection of the collateral blood flow and the cerebral oxygenation level due to their close relationship, but they cannot be used as predictors of ischemic neuronal damage during carotid endarterectomy because of poor predictive quality.

  3. Eeyarestatin 1 interferes with both retrograde and anterograde intracellular trafficking pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina-Olga Aletrari

    Full Text Available The small molecule Eeyarestatin I (ESI inhibits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-cytosol dislocation and subsequent degradation of ERAD (ER associated protein degradation substrates. Toxins such as ricin and Shiga/Shiga-like toxins (SLTx are endocytosed and trafficked to the ER. Their catalytic subunits are thought to utilise ERAD-like mechanisms to dislocate from the ER into the cytosol, where a proportion uncouples from the ERAD process, recovers a catalytic conformation and destroys their cellular targets. We therefore investigated ESI as a potential inhibitor of toxin dislocation.Using cytotoxicity measurements, we found no role for ES(I as an inhibitor of toxin dislocation from the ER, but instead found that for SLTx, ESI treatment of cells was protective by reducing the rate of toxin delivery to the ER. Microscopy of the trafficking of labelled SLTx and its B chain (lacking the toxic A chain showed a delay in its accumulation at a peri-nuclear location, confirmed to be the Golgi by examination of SLTx B chain metabolically labelled in the trans-Golgi cisternae. The drug also reduced the rate of endosomal trafficking of diphtheria toxin, which enters the cytosol from acidified endosomes, and delayed the Golgi-specific glycan modifications and eventual plasma membrane appearance of tsO45 VSV-G protein, a classical marker for anterograde trafficking.ESI acts on one or more components that function during vesicular transport, whilst at least one retrograde trafficking pathway, that of ricin, remains unperturbed.

  4. Accurate counting of neurons in frozen sections: some necessary precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J D; Payne, J N; Horobin, R W

    1988-01-01

    In 30 microns frozen sections of rat midbrain the retrograde axonal transport of diamidino yellow, a fluorescent tracer, was used to demonstrate a population of neurons in the substantia nigra. However, when visualisation was carried out using the routine Nissl method a significant proportion of neurons failed to stain. As the presence of the retrograde tracer did not affect Nissl staining of such cells, such incomplete staining, with consequent underestimation of neuronal populations, is probably a common error in similar material. Further investigation revealed that the proportion of such unstained neurons was greater when the staining time was short, when stain concentration was low, or when section thickness was increased. Some stains were worse in this respect than others. Cresyl fast violet resulted in the highest proportion of unstained neurons, thionin resulted in the lowest proportion. It was concluded that the rate of diffusion of the stain into the section was the main factor limiting the staining of neurons present. Staining with pure thionin at 0.1% concentration for at least 3 minutes and with sections no thicker than 30 microns is one regime which would avoid this problem. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2461923

  5. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  6. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  7. Down-regulation of A-type potassium channel in gastric-specific DRG neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Chen, J D Z

    2014-07-01

    Although without evidence of organic structural abnormalities, pain or discomfort is a prominent symptom of functional dyspepsia and considered to reflect visceral hypersensitivity whose underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we studied electrophysiological properties and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a rat model of functional dyspepsia induced by neonatal gastric irritation. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10-day old received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA) or vehicle by oral gavage for 6 days and studied at adulthood. Retrograde tracer-labeled gastric-specific T8 -T12 DRG neurons were harvested for the patch-clamp study in voltage and current-clamp modes and protein expression of K(+) channel in T8 -T12 DRGs was examined by western blotting. (1) Gastric specific but not non-gastric DRG neurons showed an enhanced excitability in neonatal IA-treated rats compared to the control: depolarized resting membrane potentials, a lower current threshold for action potential (AP) activation, and an increase in the number of APs in response to current stimulation. (2) The current density of tetraethylammonium insensitive (transiently inactivating A-type current), but not the tetraethylammonium sensitive (slow-inactivating delayed rectifier K(+) currents), was significantly smaller in IA-treated rats (65.4 ± 6.9 pA/pF), compared to that of control (93.1 ± 8.3 pA/pF). (3) Protein expression of KV 4.3 was down-regulated in IA-treated rats. A-type potassium channels are significantly down-regulated in the gastric-specific DRG neurons in adult rats with mild neonatal gastric irritation, which in part contribute to the enhanced DRG neuron excitabilities that leads to the development of gastric hypersensitivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Birth of projection neurons in adult avian brain may be related to perceptual or motor learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Buylla, A.; Kirn, J.R.; Nottebohm, F.

    1990-01-01

    Projection neurons that form part of the motor pathway for song control continue to be produced and to replace older projection neurons in adult canaries and zebra finches. This is shown by combining [3H]thymidine, a cell birth marker, and fluorogold, a retrogradely transported tracer of neuronal connectivity. Species and seasonal comparisons suggest that this process is related to the acquisition of perceptual or motor memories. The ability of an adult brain to produce and replace projection neurons should influence our thinking on brain repair

  9. NMDA receptors induce somatodendritic secretion in hypothalamic neurones of lactating female rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kock, C.P.J.; Burnashev, N.; Lodder, J.C.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Brussaard, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Many neurones in the mammalian brain are known to release the content of their vesicles from somatodendritic locations. These vesicles usually contain retrograde messengers that modulate network properties. The back-propagating action potential is thought to be the principal physiological stimulus

  10. Ileal Varices Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun

    2009-04-01

    A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment.

  11. Retrograde Jejuno-Jejunal Intussusception after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yoneda

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An eighty-year-old female was transferred to the hospital after experiencing abdominal pain and nausea. She had had a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 14 years previously. Abdominal X-ray revealed a localized expansion of the small bowel. Computed tomography revealed a mass with a lamellar structure in a concentric circle. With a tentative diagnosis of small bowel obstruction due to intussusception, she underwent emergency operation. Laparotomy revealed a retrograde jejuno-jejunal intussusception. Bowel resection was performed due to the severe ischemic damage. All reported intussusception cases after total gastrectomy displayed retrograde characteristics and could occur both during the early and late period after surgery. It is important to consider the possibility of intussusception for patients presenting with acute abdomen who have previously undergone gastric resection.

  12. Co-localization of hypocretin-1 and leucine-enkephalin in hypothalamic neurons projecting to the nucleus of the solitary tract and their effect on arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, J; Caverson, M M; McMurray, J C; Bruckschwaiger, E B

    2013-10-10

    Experiments were done to investigate whether hypothalamic hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1; orexin-A) neurons that sent axonal projections to cardiovascular responsive sites in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) co-expressed leucine-enkephalin (L-Enk), and to determine the effects of co-administration of hcrt-1 and D-Ala2,D-Leu5-Enkephalin (DADL) into NTS on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. In the first series, in the Wistar rat the retrograde tract-tracer fluorogold (FG) was microinjected (50nl) into caudal NTS sites at which L-glutamate (0.25 M; 10 nl) elicited decreases in MAP and where fibers hcrt-1 immunoreactive fibers were observed that also contained L-Enk immunoreactivity. Of the number of hypothalamic hcrt-1 immunoreactive neurons identified ipsilateral to the NTS injection site (1207 ± 78), 32.3 ± 2.3% co-expressed L-Enk immunoreactivity and of these, 2.6 ± 1.1% were retrogradely labeled with FG. Hcrt-1/L-Enk neurons projecting to NTS were found mainly within the perifornical region. In the second series, the region of caudal NTS found to contain axons that co-expressed hcrt-1 and L-Enk immunoreactivity was microinjected with a combination of hcrt-1 and DADL in α-chloralose anesthetized Wistar rats. Microinjection of DADL into NTS elicited depressor and bradycardia responses similar to those elicited by microinjection of hcrt-1. An hcrt-1 injection immediately after the DADL injection elicited an almost twofold increase in the magnitude of the depressor and bradycardia responses compared to those elicited by hcrt-1 alone. Prior injections of the non-specific opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or the specific opioid δ-receptor antagonist ICI 154,129 significantly attenuated the cardiovascular responses to the combined hcrt-1-DADL injections. Taken together, these data suggest that activation of hypothalamic-opioidergic neuronal systems contribute to the NTS hcrt-1 induced cardiovascular responses, and that this descending hypothalamo

  13. Biomechanical Strength of Retrograde Fixation in Proximal Third Scaphoid Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Charles A; Boden, Allison L; Hutton, William C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-04-01

    Current techniques for fixation of proximal pole scaphoid fractures utilize antegrade fixation via a dorsal approach endangering the delicate vascular supply of the dorsal scaphoid. Volar and dorsal approaches demonstrate equivalent clinical outcomes in scaphoid wrist fractures, but no study has evaluated the biomechanical strength for fractures of the proximal pole. This study compares biomechanical strength of antegrade and retrograde fixation for fractures of the proximal pole of the scaphoid. A simulated proximal pole scaphoid fracture was produced in 22 matched cadaveric scaphoids, which were then assigned randomly to either antegrade or retrograde fixation with a cannulated headless compression screw. Cyclic loading and load to failure testing were performed and screw length, number of cycles, and maximum load sustained were recorded. There were no significant differences in average screw length (25.5 mm vs 25.6 mm, P = .934), average number of cyclic loading cycles (3738 vs 3847, P = .552), average load to failure (348 N vs 371 N, P = .357), and number of catastrophic failures observed between the antegrade and retrograde fixation groups (3 in each). Practical equivalence between the 2 groups was calculated and the 2 groups were demonstrated to be practically equivalent (upper threshold P = .010). For this model of proximal pole scaphoid wrist fractures, antegrade and retrograde screw configuration have been proven to be equivalent in terms of biomechanical strength. With further clinical study, we hope surgeons will be able to make their decision for fixation technique based on approaches to bone grafting, concern for tenuous blood supply, and surgeon preference without fear of poor biomechanical properties.

  14. A cadaveric study of surgical landmarks for retrograde parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that all three landmarks are useful for surgeons to locate the facial nerve branches during retrograde parotidectomy. Since all three landmarks were consistent indicators for the corresponding facial nerve branches, the surgeon has more than one option should one landmark be obscured by tumors. The optimal landmark is the distance from A to MM because it is shortest and most reliable, followed by RMV to MM, and Z to B.

  15. Rutinemaessig endoskopisk retrograd kolangiopankreatikografi kan ikke anbefales ved galdestenspankreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    Danish guidelines recommend that patients with presumed severe gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis (GAP) should receive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) within 72 hours. The results of a newly performed meta-analysis show that acute ERCP in patients with GAP does not reduce...... the risk of complications, and ERCP is therefore not to be used routinely in GAP patients. The possible benefits of replacing ERCP with either endoscopic ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatograhy have yet to be demonstrated. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Aug-31...

  16. Neurovascular Structures at Risk With Curved Retrograde TTC Fusion Nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Johannesmeyer, David; Cone, Brent; Araoye, Ibukunoluwa; Hudson, Parke William; Sahranavard, Bahman; Johnson, Michael; Shah, Ashish

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of iatrogenic injury to plantar neurovascular structures of the foot during insertion of a curved retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion nail. Ten below-knee thawed fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens underwent curved retrograde nailing of the ankle. The shortest distance between the nail and the main plantar neurovascular branches and injured structures were recorded during dissection. We also evaluated the relative position of these structures along 2 lines (AB, connecting the calcaneus to the first metatarsal, and BC, connecting the first and fifth metatarsal). The lateral plantar artery was found to be in direct contact with the nail 70% of the time, with a macroscopic laceration 30% of the time. The Baxter nerve was injured 20% of the time, as was the lateral plantar nerve. The medial plantar artery and nerve were never injured. The most proximal structure to cross line AB was the Baxter nerve followed by the lateral plantar artery, the nail, the lateral plantar nerve, and the medial plantar nerve. Our cadaveric anatomic study found that the most common structures at risk for iatrogenic injury by lateral curved retrograde TTC fusion nails were the lateral plantar artery and nerve, and the Baxter nerve. Determination of a true neurovascular safe zone is challenging and therefore warrants careful operative dissection to minimize neurovascular injuries.

  17. A retrograde co-orbital asteroid of Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Veillet, Christian

    2017-03-29

    Recent theoretical work in celestial mechanics has revealed that an asteroid may orbit stably in the same region as a planet, despite revolving around the Sun in the sense opposite to that of the planet itself. Asteroid 2015 BZ 509 was discovered in 2015, but with too much uncertainty in its measured orbit to establish whether it was such a retrograde co-orbital body. Here we report observations and analysis that demonstrates that asteroid 2015 BZ 509 is indeed a retrograde co-orbital asteroid of the planet Jupiter. We find that 2015 BZ 509 has long-term stability, having been in its current, resonant state for around a million years. This is long enough to preclude precise calculation of the time or mechanism of its injection to its present state, but it may be a Halley-family comet that entered the resonance through an interaction with Saturn. Retrograde co-orbital asteroids of Jupiter and other planets may be more common than previously expected.

  18. The Retrograde and Retroperitoneal Totally Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Volpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We retrospectively report our experience with the utilization of an original procedure for total laparoscopic hysterectomy based on completely retrograde and retroperitoneal technique for surgical staging and treatment of the endometrial cancer. The surgical, financial, and oncological advantages are here discussed. Methods. The technique used here has been based on a combination of a retroperitoneal approach with a retrograde and lateral dissection of the bladder and retrograde culdotomy with variable resection of parametrium. No disposable instruments and no uterine manipulator were utilized. Results. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed in 10% of the cases overall. Operative time length and mean haemoglobin drop value results were 129 min and 125 mL, respectively. Most patients were dismissed on days 3–5 from the hospital. Seventy-eight percent of the patients were alive with no evidence of disease at mean followup of 49 months. Conclusions. Our original laparoscopic technique is based on a retroperitoneal approach in order to rapidly control main uterine vessels coagulation, constantly check the ureter, and eventually decide type and site of lymph nodes removal. This procedure has important cost saving implications and the avoidance of uterine manipulator is of matter in case such as these of uterine malignancy.

  19. Novel Class of Potential Therapeutics that Target Ricin Retrograde Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Redmann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ricin toxin, an A-B toxin from Ricinus communis, induces cell death through the inhibition of protein synthesis. The toxin binds to the cell surface via its B chain (RTB followed by its retrograde trafficking through intracellular compartments to the ER where the A chain (RTA is transported across the membrane and into the cytosol. Ricin A chain is transported across the ER membrane utilizing cellular proteins involved in the disposal of aberrant ER proteins by a process referred to as retrograde translocation. Given the current lack of therapeutics against ricin intoxication, we developed a high-content screen using an enzymatically attenuated RTA chimera engineered with a carboxy-terminal enhanced green fluorescent protein (RTAE177Qegfp to identify compounds that target RTA retrograde translocation. Stabilizing RTAE177Qegfp through the inclusion of proteasome inhibitor produced fluorescent peri-nuclear granules. Quantitative analysis of the fluorescent granules provided the basis to discover compounds from a small chemical library (2080 compounds with known bioactive properties. Strikingly, the screen found compounds that stabilized RTA molecules within the cell and several compounds limited the ability of wild type RTA to suppress protein synthesis. Collectively, a robust high-content screen was developed to discover novel compounds that stabilize intracellular ricin and limit ricin intoxication.

  20. BigNeuron: Large-Scale 3D Neuron Reconstruction from Optical Microscopy Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Peng (Hanchuan); M. Hawrylycz (Michael); J. Roskams (Jane); S. Hill (Sean); N. Spruston (Nelson); E. Meijering (Erik); G.A. Ascoli (Giorgio A.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding the structure of single neurons is critical for understanding how they function within neural circuits. BigNeuron is a new community effort that combines modern bioimaging informatics, recent leaps in labeling and microscopy, and the widely recognized need for openness and

  1. Single-cell axotomy of cultured hippocampal neurons integrated in neuronal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis-Rüth, Susana; Stiess, Michael; Wierenga, Corette J; Meyn, Liane; Bradke, Frank

    2014-05-01

    An understanding of the molecular mechanisms of axon regeneration after injury is key for the development of potential therapies. Single-cell axotomy of dissociated neurons enables the study of the intrinsic regenerative capacities of injured axons. This protocol describes how to perform single-cell axotomy on dissociated hippocampal neurons containing synapses. Furthermore, to axotomize hippocampal neurons integrated in neuronal circuits, we describe how to set up coculture with a few fluorescently labeled neurons. This approach allows axotomy of single cells in a complex neuronal network and the observation of morphological and molecular changes during axon regeneration. Thus, single-cell axotomy of mature neurons is a valuable tool for gaining insights into cell intrinsic axon regeneration and the plasticity of neuronal polarity of mature neurons. Dissociation of the hippocampus and plating of hippocampal neurons takes ∼2 h. Neurons are then left to grow for 2 weeks, during which time they integrate into neuronal circuits. Subsequent axotomy takes 10 min per neuron and further imaging takes 10 min per neuron.

  2. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  3. Psychogenic amnesia: syndromes, outcome, and patterns of retrograde amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil A; Johnston, Kate; Corno, Federica; Casey, Sarah J; Friedner, Kimberley; Humphreys, Kate; Jaldow, Eli J; Pitkanen, Mervi; Kopelman, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    There are very few case series of patients with acute psychogenic memory loss (also known as dissociative/functional amnesia), and still fewer studies of outcome, or comparisons with neurological memory-disordered patients. Consequently, the literature on psychogenic amnesia is somewhat fragmented and offers little prognostic value for individual patients. In the present study, we reviewed the case records and neuropsychological findings in 53 psychogenic amnesia cases (ratio of 3:1, males:females), in comparison with 21 consecutively recruited neurological memory-disordered patients and 14 healthy control subjects. In particular, we examined the pattern of retrograde amnesia on an assessment of autobiographical memory (the Autobiographical Memory Interview). We found that our patients with psychogenic memory loss fell into four distinct groups, which we categorized as: (i) fugue state; (ii) fugue-to-focal retrograde amnesia; (iii) psychogenic focal retrograde amnesia following a minor neurological episode; and (iv) patients with gaps in their memories. While neurological cases were characterized by relevant neurological symptoms, a history of a past head injury was actually more common in our psychogenic cases (P = 0.012), perhaps reflecting a 'learning episode' predisposing to later psychological amnesia. As anticipated, loss of the sense of personal identity was confined to the psychogenic group. However, clinical depression, family/relationship problems, financial/employment problems, and failure to recognize the family were also statistically more common in that group. The pattern of autobiographical memory loss differed between the psychogenic groups: fugue cases showed a severe and uniform loss of memories for both facts and events across all time periods, whereas the two focal retrograde amnesia groups showed a 'reversed' temporal gradient with relative sparing of recent memories. After 3-6 months, the fugue patients had improved to normal scores for facts

  4. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  5. Presence of corticotrophin-releasing factor and/or tyrosine hydroxylase in cells of a neural brain-testicular pathway that are labelled by a transganglionic tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P; Rivier, C; Lee, S

    2008-02-01

    Our laboratory has shown that male testosterone levels are not solely controlled by the release of hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and pituitary luteinising hormone, but are also regulated by a multisynaptic pathway connecting the brain and the testis that interferes with the testosterone response to gonadotrophins. This pathway, which is independent of the pituitary gland, is activated by an i.c.v. injection of either the stress-related peptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) or of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, both of which alter androgen release and decrease levels of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein within Leydig cells. Our original studies used the retrograde transganglionic tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) to map progression of the virus from the testes to upper brain levels. The present study aimed to extend this work by identifying the regions where CRF and catecholamine neurones represented components of the stress-activated, brain-testicular pathway that prevents testosterone increases. To this end, anaesthetised adult male rats received an intra-testicular injection of PRV. Using immunofluorescence, we identified co-labelling of PRV and either CRF or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the enzyme responsible for biogenic amine synthesis. Co-labelling of PRV and CRF was found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the central amygdala. Co-labelling of PRV and TH was found in the PVN, substantia nigra, A7/Kölliker-Fuse area, area of A5, locus coeruleus, nucleus of solitary tract, area of C3, area of C2 and the area of C1/A1. These results indicate that most cell groups of the ventral noradrenergic pathway have neurones that are a part of the brain-testicular pathway. This suggests that the stress hormones CRF and catecholamines may act as neurotransmitters that signal the pathway to inhibit increases in plasma testosterone levels.

  6. Effects of inulin with different degree of polymerization on gelatinization and retrogradation of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Denglin; Li, Yun; Xu, Baocheng; Ren, Guangyue; Li, Peiyan; Li, Xuan; Han, Sihai; Liu, Jianxue

    2017-08-15

    The effects of three types of inulin, including FS (DP≤10), FI (DP of 2-60) and FXL (DP≥23), on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of wheat starch were investigated. As the concentration of inulin added into starch increased, the gelatinization temperature increased whereas the breakdown value decreased, and the value of setback first decreased and then increased slightly. The three types of inulin with lower concentrations (inulin showed a significant suppression of starch retrogradation in the addition range of 5-7.5%. They can all inhibit amylose retrogradation, but accelerate amylopectin retrogradation. Inulin with lower DP has stronger effects on the starch retrogradation. Generally, the three types of inulin can all retard the retrogradation performance of wheat starch to some extent in the long-term storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz eFaghihi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto a postsynaptic neuron when both pre- and postsynaptic neurons are coactive. In this work, a theory of homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release by retrograde messenger and Hebbian plasticity in neuronal encoding is presented. Encoding efficiency was measured for different synaptic conditions. In order to gain high encoding efficiency, the spiking pattern of a neuron should be dependent on the intensity of the input and show low levels of noise. In this work, we represent spiking trains as zeros and ones (corresponding to non-spike or spike in a time bin, respectively as words with length equal to three. Then the frequency of each word (here eight words is measured using spiking trains. These frequencies are used to measure neuronal efficiency in different conditions and for different parameter values. Results show that neurons that have synapses acting as band-pass filters show the highest efficiency to encode their input when both Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release exist in synapses. Specifically, the integration of homeostatic regulation of feedback inhibition with Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the synapses leads to even higher efficiency when high stimulus intensity is presented to the neurons. However, neurons with synapses acting as high-pass filters show no remarkable increase in encoding efficiency for all simulated synaptic plasticity mechanisms.

  8. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  9. NEURAL PAIN PATHWAY TRACING OF RABBIT ISCHEMIC HEART BY DOUBLE-RETROGRADE NEUROTRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorus Dapamede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Myocardial ischaemia occurs due to inadequate supply of oxygen to fulfill the myocardial tissue oxygen demand. This leads to angina pectoris or referred pain, whichhappens because of the inability of the brain to distinguish the visceral afferent inputs from the somatic afferent inputs since they run along a common pathway via the dorsal root ganglia. Aims. This study aims to distinguish specific areas of the rabbit heart that are projected to specific dorsal root ganglia, which then associates to its specific dermatomes. Methods. A double-retrograde neurotracing method was used, with True Blue and Nuclear Yellow as the neurotracers. Rabbits were divided into 3 groups, which the first and second groups were ligated at the left anterior descending artery and at the left circumflex artery, respectively.The third group acted as the control group, without ligation.True blue was injected at ischaemic sites following ligation. Nuclear yellowwas injected at the skin, dermatomes T1-T4. Dorsal root ganglia levels T1-T4 were then examined for both neurotracers at 3 days post injection. Results. There is significant association between the site of ligation to the projection of the neurotracers at specific dorsal root ganglia (p<0.05. The first group showed high tendency to be projected to T2 and the second group showed a high tendency to project to T1. Conclusion. This study shows that the rabbit heart can be specifically projected neuronally to specific dorsal root ganglia, following coronary artery ligation.

  10. Retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.T.; Yarbrough, T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for retrograde contrast radiography of the distal portions of the intestinal tract of foals was developed and then performed in 25 foals (1 to 30 days old) with colic. Retrograde contrast radiography was shown to be sensitive (100%) and specific (100%) for evaluating obstruction of the small colon or transverse colon. It was slightly less sensitive (86%) and specific (83%) for evaluation of the entire large colon, particularly in older foals. Retrograde contrast radiography provided increased diagnostic capability, compared with that for noncontrast radiography. Retrograde contrast radiography can provide valuable information when evaluating foals with colic and should be part of the diagnostic evaluation

  11. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  12. Fluoroscopic guidance of retrograde exchange of ureteral stents in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruey-Sheng; Liang, Huei-Lung; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Wang, Po-Chin; Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Hong; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our experience with fluoroscopically guided retrograde exchange of ureteral stents in women. During a 48-month period, 28 women (age range, 38-76 years) were referred to our department for retrograde exchange of a ureteral stent. The causes of urinary obstruction were tumor compression in 26 patients and benign fibrotic stricture in two patients. A large-diameter snare catheter (25-mm single loop or 18- to 35-mm triple loop) or a foreign body retrieval forceps (opening width, 11.3 mm) was used to grasp the bladder end of the stent under fluoroscopic guidance. The technique entailed replacement of a patent or occluded ureteral stent with a 0.035- or 0.018-inch guidewire with or without the aid of advancement of an angiographic sheath. A total of 54 ureteral stents were exchanged with a snare catheter in 42 cases or a forceps in 12 cases. One stent misplaced too far up the ureter was replaced successfully through antegrade percutaneous nephrostomy. Ten occluded stents, including one single-J stent, were managed with a 0.018-inch guidewire in three cases, advancement of an angiographic sheath over the occluded stent into the ureter in five cases, and recannulation of the ureteral orifice with a guidewire in two cases. No complications of massive hemorrhage, ureter perforation, or infection were encountered. With proper selection of a snare or forceps catheter, retrograde exchange of ureteral stents in women can be easily performed under fluoroscopic guidance with high technical success and a low complication rate.

  13. Pancreas imaging by computed tomography after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, M.P.; O'Leary, J.F.; Salomonowitz, E.; Stoltenberg, E.; Hutton, S.; Gedgaudas, E.

    1984-01-01

    A method using CT after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (CT-ERP) is described for pancreatic imaging. When using an ERP technique in the canine model comparable to that used in humans, small amounts of contrast material in peripheral pancreatic radicles resulted in enhancement of the pancreas on CT scans. Nine patients were also studied by CT-ERP images. The main pancreatic duct was seen on delayed images. In cases of chronic pancreatitis (n = 2), pancreatic opacification was patchy and heterogeneous. There was no contrast-material enhancement in areas of pancreatic carcimomas (n = 2). CT-ERP showed the true extent of carcinoma better than ERP alone

  14. Modified Technique of Retrograde Intubation in TMJ Ankylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Kamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case report on the anaesthetic management of a case of ankylosis of temporomandibular joint for corrective surgery in a 7 year old child. Anticipated difficult airway in paediatric population has always been a perplexing problem, awake fibreoptic intubation almost impossible due to obvious difficulties with co-operation. Here we are describing a new approach to this problem, in which the patients were kept under GA with spontaneous ventilation while retrograde intubation was done quite comfortably by the conventional method.

  15. Combined antegrade and retrograde ureteral stenting: the rendezvous technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macri, A.; Magno, C.; Certo, A.; Basile, A.; Scuderi, G.; Crescenti, F.; Famulari, C.

    2005-01-01

    Ureteral stenting is a routine procedure in endourology. To increase the success rate in difficult cases, it may be helpful to use the rendezvous technique, a combined antegrade and retrograde approach. We performed 16 urological rendezvous in 11 patients with ureteral strictures or urologic lesions. The combined approach was successful in all patients, without morbidity or mortality. In our experience the rendezvous technique increased the success rate of antegrade ureteral stenting from 78.6 to 88.09% (p>0.05). This procedure is a valid option in case of failure of conventional ureteral stenting

  16. Diagnostic and Prevention Approach in Post Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Ilone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive jaundice (icterus was an emergency situation in gastroenterology. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was a nonsurgical approach to release obstruction, mostly in common bile duct. Nowadays, this procedure was become frequently used in daily practice, but several complications also emerging. One of the severe complication was Post-ERCP Pancreatitis (PEP. Since it has a high mortality and morbidity, and also reduce patient quality of life, several approaches have been developed to reduce its incidence. In general, approaches consist of patient identification, efficient procedure, until pharmacological agent prevention. Although there were still contradiction among these, careful approach should be considered for each patients for a better outcomes.

  17. Transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of optic nerves associated with bilateral occipital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev Mahipal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A case is reported of a 9-year old male who presented with abnormal behaviour and progressive diminution of vision. Pupils were middilated in both eyes but the pupillary reflexes were preserved. Fundus examination revealed a bilateral optic atrophy and radiological investigations showed a bilateral occipital calcification. We hereby document a case of retrograde transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of the visual system secondary to bilateral occipital lesions. Transsynapptic neuronal degeneration of optic nerves consequent to occipital lobe lesions is a rare phenomenon. Experimentally occipital lobe ablation in non-human primates has been shown to result in optic atrophy. Herein, we document a case of retrograde transsynaptic neuronal degeneration of the visual system secondary to bilateral occipital lesions.

  18. [RECONSTRUCTION OF LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTION OF COMPLETE SPINAL CORD INJURY RATS BY FIRST NEURON CONNECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangyong; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Jianjun

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of the first neuron connection for the reconstruction of lower extremity function of complete spinal cord injury rats. Forty adult female Sprague Dawley rats of 300-350 g in weight were selected to prepare the models of L₁ transverse spinal cord injury. After 2 weeks of establishing model, the rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 20) and experimental group (n = 20). In the experimental group, the right hind limb function was reconstructed directly by the first neuron; in the control group, the other treatments were the same to the experimental group except that the distal tibial nerve and the proximal femoral nerve were not sutured. The recovery of motor function of lower extremity was observed by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system on bilateral hind limbs at 7, 30, 50, and 70 days after operation. The changes of the spinal cord were observed by HE staining, neurofilament 200 immunohistochemistry staining, and the technique of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing. After establishing models, 6 rats died. The right hind limb had no obvious recovery of the motor function, with the BBB score of 0 in 2 groups; the left hind limb motor function was recovered in different degrees, and there was no significant difference in BBB score between 2 groups (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, HE staining showed that the spinal cord was reconstructed with the sciatic nerve, which was embedded in the spinal cord, and the sciatic nerve membrane was clearly identified, and there was no obvious atrophy in the connecting part of the spinal cord. In the experimental group, the expression of nerve fiber was stained with immunohistochemistry, and the axons of the spinal cord were positively by stained and the peripheral nerve was connected with the spinal cord. HRP labelled synapses were detected by HRP retrograde tracing in the experimental group, while there was no HRP labelled synapse in the control group. Direct reconstruction

  19. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  20. Gastrointestinal-projecting neurones in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus exhibit direct and viscerotopically organized sensitivity to orexin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabauskas, Gintautas; Moises, Hylan C

    2003-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin)-containing projections from lateral hypothalamus (LH) are thought to play an important role in the regulation of feeding behaviour and energy balance. In rodent studies, central administration of orexin peptides increases food intake, and orexin neurones in the LH are activated by hypoglycaemia during fasting. In addition, administration of orexins into the fourth ventricle or the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) has been shown to stimulate gastric acid secretion and motility, respectively, via vagal efferent pathways. In this study, whole-cell recordings were obtained from DMV neurones in rat brainstem slices to investigate the cellular mechanism(s) by which orexins produce their gastrostimulatory effects. To determine whether responsiveness to orexins might be differentially expressed among distinct populations of preganglionic vagal motor neurones, recordings were made from neurones whose projections to the gastrointestinal tract had been identified by retrograde labelling following apposition of the fluorescent tracer DiI to the gastric fundus, corpus or antrum/pylorus, the duodenum or caecum. Additionally, the responses of neurones to orexins were compared with those produced by oxytocin, which acts within the DMV to stimulate gastric acid secretion, but inhibits gastric motor function. Bath application of orexin-A or orexin-B (30–300 nm) produced a slow depolarization, accompanied by increased firing in 47 of 102 DMV neurones tested, including 70 % (30/43) of those that projected to the gastric fundus or corpus. In contrast, few DMV neurones that supplied the antrum/pylorus (3/13), duodenum (4/18) or caecum (1/13) were responsive to these peptides. The depolarizing responses were concentration dependent and persisted during synaptic isolation of neurones with TTX or Cd2+, indicating they resulted from activation of postsynaptic orexin receptors. They were also associated with a small increase in membrane resistance, and in voltage

  1. Subtypes of GABAergic neurons project axons in the neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyoshi Higo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic neurons in the neocortex have been regarded as interneurons and speculated to modulate the activity of neurons locally. Recently, however, several experiments revealed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS-positive GABAergic neurons project cortico-cortically with long axons. In this study, we illustrate Golgi-like images of the nNOS-positive GABAergic neurons using a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d reaction and follow the emanating axon branches in cat brain sections. These axon branches projected cortico-cortically with other non-labeled arcuate fibers, contra-laterally via the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. The labeled fibers were not limited to the neocortex but found also in the fimbria of the hippocampus. In order to have additional information on these GABAergic neuron projections, we investigated green fluorescent protein (GFP-labeled GABAergic neurons in GAD67-Cre knock-in / GFP Cre-reporter mice. GFP-labeled axons emanate densely, especially in the fimbria, a small number in the anterior commissure, and very sparsely in the corpus callosum. These two different approaches confirm that not only nNOS-positive GABAergic neurons but also other subtypes of GABAergic neurons project long axons in the cerebral cortex and are in a position to be involved in information processing.

  2. An indigenous economic technique of positive pressure retrograde urethrography in female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Singh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually double balloon catheter is required forpositive pressure retrograde urethrography in females. We describe a technique of positive pressure retrograde urethrography using Foley catheter and rubber stopper, inexpensive and could be adopted in any hospital or radiological suite.

  3. Deterioration of cholestasis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in advanced primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Spengler, U.; Sackmann, M.; Paumgartner, G.; Sauerbruch, T.

    1992-01-01

    Complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography specific to patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis have not yet been reported. We observed transient rises of serum bilirubin after diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in five of 15 patients and persistent rises in three of 15

  4. A case of persistent retrograde amnesia following a dissociative fugue: neuropsychological and neurofunctional underpinnings of loss of autobiographical memory and self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meister, Franziska; Frodl, Thomas; Beraldi, Anna; Padberg, Frank; Engel, Rolf R; Reiser, Maximilian; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Meindl, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Autobiographical memory relies on complex interactions between episodic memory contents, associated emotions and a sense of self-continuity over the course of one's life. This paper reports a study based upon the case of the patient NN who suffered from a complete loss of autobiographical memory and awareness of identity subsequent to a dissociative fugue. Neuropsychological, behavioral, and functional neuroimaging tests converged on the conclusion that NN suffered from a selective retrograde amnesia following an episode of dissociative fugue, during which he had lost explicit knowledge and vivid memory of his personal past. NN's loss of self-related memories was mirrored in neurobiological changes after the fugue whereas his semantic memory remained intact. Although NN still claimed to suffer from a stable loss of autobiographical, self-relevant memories 1 year after the fugue state, a proportionate improvement in underlying fronto-temporal neuronal networks was evident at this point in time. In spite of this improvement in neuronal activation, his anterograde visual memory had been decreased. It is posited that our data provide evidence for the important role of visual processing in autobiographical memory as well as for the efficiency of protective control mechanisms that constitute functional retrograde amnesia.

  5. Dcc regulates asymmetric outgrowth of forebrain neurons in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxia Gao

    Full Text Available The guidance receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer ortholog UNC-40 regulates neuronal asymmetry development in Caenorhabditis elegans, but it is not known whether DCC plays a role in the specification of neuronal polarity in vertebrates. To examine the roles of DCC in neuronal asymmetry regulation in vertebrates, we studied zebrafish anterior dorsal telencephalon (ADt neuronal axons. We generated transgenic zebrafish animals expressing the photo-convertible fluorescent protein Kaede in ADt neurons and then photo-converted Kaede to label specifically the ADt neuron axons. We found that ADt axons normally project ventrally. Knock down of Dcc function by injecting antisense morpholino oligonucleotides caused the ADt neurons to project axons dorsally. To examine the axon projection pattern of individual ADt neurons, we labeled single ADt neurons using a forebrain-specific promoter to drive fluorescent protein expression. We found that individual ADt neurons projected axons dorsally or formed multiple processes after morpholino knock down of Dcc function. We further found that knock down of the Dcc ligand, Netrin1, also caused ADt neurons to project axons dorsally. Knockdown of Neogenin1, a guidance receptor closely related to Dcc, enhanced the formation of aberrant dorsal axons in embryos injected with Dcc morpholino. These experiments provide the first evidence that Dcc regulates polarized axon initiation and asymmetric outgrowth of forebrain neurons in vertebrates.

  6. A single-neuron tracing study of arkypallidal and prototypic neurons in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Nakano, Takashi; Matsuda, Wakoto; Furuta, Takahiro; Udagawa, Jun; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    The external globus pallidus (GP) is known as a relay nucleus of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Recent studies in dopamine-depleted and healthy rats indicate that the GP comprises two main types of pallidofugal neurons: the so-called "prototypic" and "arkypallidal" neurons. However, the reconstruction of complete arkypallidal neurons in healthy rats has not been reported. Here we visualized the entire axonal arborization of four single arkypallidal neurons and six single prototypic neurons in rat brain using labeling with a viral vector expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein and examined the distribution of axon boutons in the target nuclei. Results revealed that not only the arkypallidal neurons but nearly all of the prototypic neurons projected to the striatum with numerous axon varicosities. Thus, the striatum is a major target nucleus for pallidal neurons. Arkypallidal and prototypic GP neurons located in the calbindin-positive and calbindin-negative regions mainly projected to the corresponding positive and negative regions in the striatum. Because the GP and striatum calbindin staining patterns reflect the topographic organization of the striatopallidal projection, the striatal neurons in the sensorimotor and associative regions constitute the reciprocal connection with the GP neurons in the corresponding regions.

  7. Identification of neurons that express ghrelin receptors in autonomic pathways originating from the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, John B; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Hunne, Billie; Hirayama, Haruko; Callaghan, Brid P; Lomax, Alan E; Brock, James A

    2012-06-01

    Functional studies have shown that subsets of autonomic preganglionic neurons respond to ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics and in situ hybridisation has revealed receptor gene expression in the cell bodies of some preganglionic neurons. Our present goal has been to determine which preganglionic neurons express ghrelin receptors by using mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the promoter for the ghrelin receptor (also called growth hormone secretagogue receptor). The retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected into target organs of reporter mice under anaesthesia to identify specific functional subsets of postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Cryo-sections were immunohistochemically stained by using anti-EGFP and antibodies to neuronal markers. EGFP was detected in nerve terminal varicosities in all sympathetic chain, prevertebral and pelvic ganglia and in the adrenal medulla. Non-varicose fibres associated with the ganglia were also immunoreactive. No postganglionic cell bodies contained EGFP. In sympathetic chain ganglia, most neurons were surrounded by EGFP-positive terminals. In the stellate ganglion, neurons with choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity, some being sudomotor neurons, lacked surrounding ghrelin-receptor-expressing terminals, although these terminals were found around other neurons. In the superior cervical ganglion, the ghrelin receptor terminals innervated subgroups of neurons including neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive neurons that projected to the anterior chamber of the eye. However, large NPY-negative neurons projecting to the acini of the submaxillary gland were not innervated by EGFP-positive varicosities. In the celiaco-superior mesenteric ganglion, almost all neurons were surrounded by positive terminals but the VIP-immunoreactive terminals of intestinofugal neurons were EGFP-negative. The pelvic ganglia contained groups of neurons without ghrelin receptor terminal innervation and other groups with

  8. Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Wiebke [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hayata-Takano, Atsuko [Molecular Research Center for Children' s Mental Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kamo, Toshihiko [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakazawa, Takanobu, E-mail: takanobunakazawa-tky@umin.ac.jp [iPS Cell-based Research Project on Brain Neuropharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Kazuki [iPS Cell-based Research Project on Brain Neuropharmacology and Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kasai, Atsushi; Seiriki, Kaoru [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Program for Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Academic Initiatives, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shintani, Norihito [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ago, Yukio [Laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Farfan, Camille [Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-27

    Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains. - Highlights: • We develop a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes. • Neuron-specific labeling is achieved using Scg10 and synapsin promoters. • Astrocyte-specific labeling is generated using the minimal GFAP promoter. • Nuclear localization of fluorescent proteins is achieved with histone 2B protein.

  9. Simultaneous neuron- and astrocyte-specific fluorescent marking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Wiebke; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Kamo, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Kasai, Atsushi; Seiriki, Kaoru; Shintani, Norihito; Ago, Yukio; Farfan, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Systematic and simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types in the brain is becoming important, but such tools have not yet been adequately developed. Here, we aimed to generate a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes, two major cell types in the brain, and we have developed lentiviral vectors to express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato in neurons and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in astrocytes. Importantly, both fluorescent proteins are fused to histone 2B protein (H2B) to confer nuclear localization to distinguish between single cells. We also constructed several expression constructs, including a tandem alignment of the neuron- and astrocyte-expression cassettes for simultaneous labeling. Introducing these vectors and constructs in vitro and in vivo resulted in cell type-specific and nuclear-localized fluorescence signals enabling easy detection and distinguishability of neurons and astrocytes. This tool is expected to be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of changes in neurons and astrocytes in healthy and diseased brains. - Highlights: • We develop a method for the specific fluorescent labeling of neurons and astrocytes. • Neuron-specific labeling is achieved using Scg10 and synapsin promoters. • Astrocyte-specific labeling is generated using the minimal GFAP promoter. • Nuclear localization of fluorescent proteins is achieved with histone 2B protein

  10. The Influence of Prolonged Acetylsalicylic Acid Supplementation-Induced Gastritis on the Neurochemistry of the Sympathetic Neurons Supplying Prepyloric Region of the Porcine Stomach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Palus

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to establish the localization and neurochemical phenotyping of sympathetic neurons supplying prepyloric area of the porcine stomach in a physiological state and during acetylsalicylic acid (ASA induced gastritis. In order to localize the sympathetic perikarya the stomachs of both control and acetylsalicylic acid treated (ASA group animals were injected with neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB. Seven days post FB injection, animals were divided into a control and ASA supplementation group. The ASA group was given 100 mg/kg of b.w. ASA orally for 21 days. On the 28th day all pigs were euthanized with gradual overdose of anesthetic. Then fourteen-micrometer-thick cryostat sections were processed for routine double-labeling immunofluorescence, using primary antisera directed towards tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, galanin (GAL, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, leu 5-enkephalin (LENK, cocaine- and amphetamine- regulated transcript peptide (CART, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. The data obtained in this study indicate that postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers supplying prepyloric area of the porcine stomach originate from the coeliac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CCMG. In control animals, the FB-labelled neurons expressed TH (94.85 ± 1.01%, DβH (97.10 ± 0.97%, NPY (46.88 ± 2.53% and GAL (8.40 ± 0.53%. In ASA group, TH- and DβH- positive nerve cells were reduced (85.78 ± 2.65% and 88.82 ± 1.63% respectively. Moreover, ASA- induced gastritis resulted in increased expression of NPY (76.59 ± 3.02% and GAL (26.45 ± 2.75% as well as the novo-synthesis of nNOS (6.13 ± 1.11% and LENK (4.77 ± 0.42% in traced CCMG neurons. Additionally, a network of CART-, CGRP-, SP-, VIP-, LENK-, nNOS- immunoreactive (IR nerve fibers encircling the FB-positive perikarya were observed in both intact and ASA

  11. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Durrani, A.A.; Butt, A.A.; Ashfaq, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with obstructive jaundice. Results: Of the 226 patients, 117 (51.8%) were males, and 109 (48.2%) females, their mean age being 51.8 plus minus 16.6 years. Common bile and pancreatic ducts were visualized in 81.8% and 68.1% patients respectively. Growth/masses and stones were commonest causes of obstructive jaundice. Choledocholithias was common in males, while biliary channel related growth/masses were common in females (p-value = 0.03). Common bile duct stone clearance rate was 88%, stenting was highly successful in patients with growth and strictures. ERCP related complications were noted in 11 (4.8%) patients. Conclusion: ERCP is an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality for evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice. Growth/masses and stones are common causes of obstructive jaundice, which can be diagnosed and treated with ERCP. (author)

  12. Mitochondrial morphology transitions and functions: implications for retrograde signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin; Shirihai, Orian S.; Gentil, Benoit J.

    2013-01-01

    In response to cellular and environmental stresses, mitochondria undergo morphology transitions regulated by dynamic processes of membrane fusion and fission. These events of mitochondrial dynamics are central regulators of cellular activity, but the mechanisms linking mitochondrial shape to cell function remain unclear. One possibility evaluated in this review is that mitochondrial morphological transitions (from elongated to fragmented, and vice-versa) directly modify canonical aspects of the organelle's function, including susceptibility to mitochondrial permeability transition, respiratory properties of the electron transport chain, and reactive oxygen species production. Because outputs derived from mitochondrial metabolism are linked to defined cellular signaling pathways, fusion/fission morphology transitions could regulate mitochondrial function and retrograde signaling. This is hypothesized to provide a dynamic interface between the cell, its genome, and the fluctuating metabolic environment. PMID:23364527

  13. An interstellar origin for Jupiter's retrograde co-orbital asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namouni, F.; Morais, M. H. M.

    2018-06-01

    Asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 was discovered recently in Jupiter's co-orbital region with a retrograde motion around the Sun. The known chaotic dynamics of the outer Solar system have so far precluded the identification of its origin. Here, we perform a high-resolution statistical search for stable orbits and show that asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 has been in its current orbital state since the formation of the Solar system. This result indicates that (514107) 2015 BZ509 was captured from the interstellar medium 4.5 billion years in the past as planet formation models cannot produce such a primordial large-inclination orbit with the planets on nearly coplanar orbits interacting with a coplanar debris disc that must produce the low-inclination small-body reservoirs of the Solar system such as the asteroid and Kuiper belts. This result also implies that more extrasolar asteroids are currently present in the Solar system on nearly polar orbits.

  14. Diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and therapeutic results with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Pachon, Carlos; Gonzalez Cansino, Juan; Fernandez Maderos, Irma

    2009-01-01

    A descriptive, prospective study was carried out on 451 patients that were attended for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography at CIMEQ's Hospital from January 2004-March 2006. The sample was constituted by 353 patients with choledocholithiasis suspicion. The information was search in the reports of ERCP and the variables were analyzed with the objective of evaluating the diagnostic possibilities and the therapy for choledocholithiasis by ERCP. Choledocholithiasis was detected in 1/4 of the patients with indication of ERCP, and was more frequent in patients of the female sex and in patients older than 40 years. The jaundice was the main clinical condition that motivated the ERCP in the patients with choledocholithiasis. The diagnostic effectiveness of the alkaline phosphatase and the ultrasound was not high. The treatment of the choledocholithiasis by means of ERCP showed good results and low morbidity

  15. Duodenal perforation: after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: when to operate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Navarrete, Aldhem Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The mainly surgical management of duodenal perforation as the iatrogenicity of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is defined and protocolized through the exhaustive review of the most conclusive literature available on the subject. Bibliography on the management of post-ERCP duodenal perforation is reviewed in scientific databases, textbooks, publications of medical journals, MD Consult and Medline. A total of 60 bibliographical citations were reviewed; succeeding in defining the protocol on the management of this type of complications, thanks to the appropriate selection of the most conclusive citations and the greatest consensus on the subject. A total of 60 bibliographical citations were reviewed; succeeding in defining the protocol on the management of this type of complications, based on the appropriate selection of the most conclusive citations and the greatest consensus on the subject [es

  16. Retrograde versus Prograde Models of Accreting Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garofalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that magnetic fields, accretion disks, and rotating black holes are instrumental in the generation of the most powerful sources of energy in the known universe. Nonetheless, because magnetized accretion onto rotating black holes involves both the complications of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics that currently cannot fully be treated numerically, and uncertainties about the origin of magnetic fields that at present are part of the input, the space of possible solutions remains less constrained. Consequently, the literature still bears witness to the proliferation of rather different black hole engine models. But the accumulated wealth of observational data is now sufficient to meaningfully distinguish between them. It is in this light that this critical paper compares the recent retrograde framework with standard “spin paradigm” prograde models.

  17. Retrograde nailing for distal femur fractures in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddie Jasdeep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report the results of treating a series of 56 fractures in 54 elderly patients with a distal femur fracture with a retrograde femoral nail. Methods: Fifty-four of the nails were inserted percutaneously with a closed reduction. After surgery all patients were allowed to weight bear as tolerated. Four fractures were supported in a temporary external splint. Results: The mean age of patients was 80.6 years (range 51–103 years, 52/54 (96% were females. There were no cases of nail related complications and no re-operations were required. One patient was lost to follow up. The 30-day mortality was 5/54 (9.3% and the one year mortality was 17/54 (31.5%. Conclusions: Distal femoral nail fixation provides a good method of fixation allowing immediate mobilisation for this group of patients.

  18. Primary Retrograde Tibiotalocalcaneal Nailing For Fragility Ankle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin C; Hansen, Dane C; Harrison, Ryan; Lucas, Douglas E; Degenova, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ankle fragility fractures are difficult to treat due to poor bone quality and soft tissues as well as the near ubiquitous presence of comorbidities including diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Conventional open reduction and internal fixation in this population has been shown to lead to a significant rate of complications. Given the high rate of complications with contemporary fixation methods, the present study aims to critically evaluate the use of acute hindfoot nailing as a percutaneous fixation technique for high-risk ankle fragility fractures. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated 31 patients treated with primary retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal nail without joint preparation for a mean of 13.6 months postoperatively from an urban Level I trauma center during the years 2006-2012. Overall, there were two superficial infections (6.5%) and three deep infections (9.7%) in the series. There were 28 (90.3%) patients that went on to radiographic union at a mean of 22.2 weeks with maintenance of foot and ankle alignment. There were three cases of asymptomatic screw breakage observed at a mean of 18.3 months postoperatively, which were all treated conservatively.. This study shows that retrograde hindfoot nailing is an acceptable treatment option for treatment of ankle fragility fractures. Hindfoot nailing allows early weightbearing, limited soft tissue injury, and a relatively low rate of complications, all of which are advantages to conventional open reduction internal fixation techniques. Given these findings, larger prospective randomized trials comparing this treatment with conventional open reduction internal fixation techniques are warranted.

  19. Schwann cells promote neuronal differentiation of bone marrow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been suggested that the BMSCs have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under specific experimental conditions, using chemical factors. In this study, we showed that BMSCs can be induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when they are co-cultured with Schwann cells by Brdu pulse label technology.

  20. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  1. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  2. The Yeast Retrograde Response as a Model of Intracellular Signaling of Mitochondrial Dysfunction

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    S. Michal eJazwinski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction activates intracellular signaling pathways that impact yeast longevity, and the best known of these pathways is the retrograde response. More recently, similar responses have been discerned in other systems, from invertebrates to human cells. However, the identity of the signal transducers is either unknown or apparently diverse, contrasting with the well-established signaling module of the yeast retrograde response. On the other hand, it has become equally clear that several other pathways and processes interact with the retrograde response, embedding it in a network responsive to a variety of cellular states. An examination of this network supports the notion that the master regulator NFkB aggregated a variety of mitochondria-related cellular responses at some point in evolution and has become the retrograde transcription factor. This has significant consequences for how we view some of the deficits associated with aging, such as inflammation. The support for NFkB as the retrograde response transcription factor is not only based on functional analyses. It is bolstered by the fact that NFkB can regulate Myc-Max, which is activated in human cells with dysfunctional mitochondria and impacts cellular metabolism. Myc-Max is homologous to the yeast retrograde response transcription factor Rtg1-Rtg3. Further research will be needed to disentangle the pro-aging from the anti-aging effects of NFkB. Interestingly, this is also a challenge for the complete understanding of the yeast retrograde response.

  3. Investigation of the Usability of Retrograded Flour in Meatball Production as A Structure Enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, Elif Aykin; Büyükkurt, Özlem Kiliç; Candal, Cihadiye; Bilgiç, Büşra Fatma; Erbaş, Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to research the possibilities of using retrograded flour produced in the laboratory environment in meatballs and the characteristics of these meatballs. In the use of retrograded flour to produce meatballs, it was ensured that the meatball properties, with respect to chemical, physical and sensorial aspects, were comparable to those of meatballs produced with bread (traditional) and rusk flour (commercial). The cooking loss of meatballs produced with using retrograded flour was similar to that of commercial meatballs. Doses of retrograded flour from 5% to 20% led to a significant decrease in cooking loss, from 21.95% to 6.19%, and in the diameter of meatballs, from 18.60% to 12.74%, but to an increase in the thickness of meatballs, from 28.82% to 41.39% compared to the control. The increase of a * and b * values was shown in that the meatballs were browned on cooking with increasing retrograded flour doses because of non-enzymatic reactions. The springiness of the traditional meatballs was significantly higher than that of the other meatballs. This might have been due to the bread crumbs having a naturally springy structure. Moreover, the addition of retrograded flour in the meatballs significantly ( p meatballs with respect to textural properties. Accordingly, it is considered that the use of 10% retrograded flour is ideal to improve the sensorial values of meatballs and the properties of their structure.

  4. Dynamic Portrait of the Retrograde 1:1 Mean Motion Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yukun; Li, Miao; Li, Junfeng; Gong, Shengping

    2018-06-01

    Asteroids in mean motion resonances with giant planets are common in the solar system, but it was not until recently that several asteroids in retrograde mean motion resonances with Jupiter and Saturn were discovered. A retrograde co-orbital asteroid of Jupiter, 2015 BZ509 is confirmed to be in a long-term stable retrograde 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter, which gives rise to our interests in its unique resonant dynamics. In this paper, we investigate the phase-space structure of the retrograde 1:1 resonance in detail within the framework of the circular restricted three-body problem. We construct a simple integrable approximation for the planar retrograde resonance using canonical contact transformation and numerically employ the averaging procedure in closed form. The phase portrait of the retrograde 1:1 resonance is depicted with the level curves of the averaged Hamiltonian. We thoroughly analyze all possible librations in the co-orbital region and uncover a new apocentric libration for the retrograde 1:1 resonance inside the planet’s orbit. We also observe the significant jumps in orbital elements for outer and inner apocentric librations, which are caused by close encounters with the perturber.

  5. Importance of variants in cerebrovascular anatomy for potential retrograde embolization in cryptogenic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Semaan, Edouard; Carr, James; Collins, Jeremy [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Stromberg, LeRoy [Northwestern University, Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Edward Hospital, Department of Radiology, Naperville, IL (United States); Prabhakaran, Shyam [Northwestern University, Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To test the hypothesis that variants in cerebrovascular anatomy will affect the number of patients demonstrating a plausible retrograde embolization mechanism from plaques in the descending aorta (DAo). Thirty-five patients (aged 63 ± 17 years) with cryptogenic stroke underwent 4D flow MRI for the assessment of aortic 3D blood flow and MR angiography for the evaluation of circle of Willis, posterior circulation, and aortic arch architecture. In patients with proven DAo plaque, retrograde embolization was considered a potential mechanism if retrograde flow extended from the DAo to a supra-aortic vessel supplying the cerebral infarct territory. Retrograde embolization with matching cerebral infarct territory was detected in six (17%) patients. Circle of Willis and aortic arch variant anatomy was found in 60% of patients, leading to reclassification of retrograde embolization risk as present in three (9%) additional patients, for a total 26% of cryptogenic stroke patients. 4D flow MRI demonstrated 26% concordance with infarct location on imaging with retrograde diastolic flow into the feeding vessels of the affected cerebral area, identifying a potential etiology for cryptogenic stroke. Our findings further demonstrate the importance of cerebrovascular anatomy when determining concordance of retrograde flow pathways with vascular stroke territory from DAo plaques. (orig.)

  6. Importance of variants in cerebrovascular anatomy for potential retrograde embolization in cryptogenic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markl, Michael; Semaan, Edouard; Carr, James; Collins, Jeremy; Stromberg, LeRoy; Prabhakaran, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that variants in cerebrovascular anatomy will affect the number of patients demonstrating a plausible retrograde embolization mechanism from plaques in the descending aorta (DAo). Thirty-five patients (aged 63 ± 17 years) with cryptogenic stroke underwent 4D flow MRI for the assessment of aortic 3D blood flow and MR angiography for the evaluation of circle of Willis, posterior circulation, and aortic arch architecture. In patients with proven DAo plaque, retrograde embolization was considered a potential mechanism if retrograde flow extended from the DAo to a supra-aortic vessel supplying the cerebral infarct territory. Retrograde embolization with matching cerebral infarct territory was detected in six (17%) patients. Circle of Willis and aortic arch variant anatomy was found in 60% of patients, leading to reclassification of retrograde embolization risk as present in three (9%) additional patients, for a total 26% of cryptogenic stroke patients. 4D flow MRI demonstrated 26% concordance with infarct location on imaging with retrograde diastolic flow into the feeding vessels of the affected cerebral area, identifying a potential etiology for cryptogenic stroke. Our findings further demonstrate the importance of cerebrovascular anatomy when determining concordance of retrograde flow pathways with vascular stroke territory from DAo plaques. (orig.)

  7. Mitochondrial import of human and yeast fumarase in live mammalian cells: Retrograde translocation of the yeast enzyme is mainly caused by its poor targeting sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhag; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2006-01-01

    Studies on yeast fumarase provide the main evidence for dual localization of a protein in mitochondria and cytosol by means of retrograde translocation. We have examined the subcellular targeting of yeast and human fumarase in live cells to identify factors responsible for this. The cDNAs for mature yeast or human fumarase were fused to the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and they contained, at their N-terminus, a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) derived from either yeast fumarase, human fumarase, or cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII (COX) protein. Two nuclear localization sequences (2x NLS) were also added to these constructs to facilitate detection of any cytosolic protein by its targeting to nucleus. In Cos-1 cells transfected with these constructs, human fumarase with either the native or COX MTSs was detected exclusively in mitochondria in >98% of the cells, while the remainder 1-2% of the cells showed varying amounts of nuclear labeling. In contrast, when human fumarase was fused to the yeast MTS, >50% of the cells showed nuclear labeling. Similar studies with yeast fumarase showed that with its native MTS, nuclear labeling was seen in 80-85% of the cells, but upon fusion to either human or COX MTS, nuclear labeling was observed in only 10-15% of the cells. These results provide evidence that extramitochondrial presence of yeast fumarase is mainly caused by the poor mitochondrial targeting characteristics of its MTS (but also affected by its primary sequence), and that the retrograde translocation mechanism does not play a significant role in the extramitochondrial presence of mammalian fumarase

  8. The analgesic effect on neuropathic pain of retrogradely transported botulinum neurotoxin A involves Schwann cells and astrocytes.

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    Sara Marinelli

    Full Text Available In recent years a growing debate is about whether botulinum neurotoxins are retrogradely transported from the site of injection. Immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 (cl-SNAP-25, the protein of the SNARE complex targeted by botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A, could represent an excellent approach to investigate the mechanism of action on the nociceptive pathways at peripheral and/or central level. After peripheral administration of BoNT/A, we analyzed the expression of cl-SNAP-25, from the hindpaw's nerve endings to the spinal cord, together with the behavioral effects on neuropathic pain. We used the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in CD1 mice as animal model of neuropathic pain. We evaluated immunostaining of cl-SNAP-25 in the peripheral nerve endings, along the sciatic nerve, in dorsal root ganglia and in spinal dorsal horns after intraplantar injection of saline or BoNT/A, alone or colocalized with either glial fibrillar acidic protein, GFAP, or complement receptor 3/cluster of differentiation 11b, CD11b, or neuronal nuclei, NeuN, depending on the area investigated. Immunofluorescence analysis shows the presence of the cl-SNAP-25 in all tissues examined, from the peripheral endings to the spinal cord, suggesting a retrograde transport of BoNT/A. Moreover, we performed in vitro experiments to ascertain if BoNT/A was able to interact with the proliferative state of Schwann cells (SC. We found that BoNT/A modulates the proliferation of SC and inhibits the acetylcholine release from SC, evidencing a new biological effect of the toxin and further supporting the retrograde transport of the toxin along the nerve and its ability to influence regenerative processes. The present results strongly sustain a combinatorial action at peripheral and central neural levels and encourage the use of BoNT/A for the pathological pain conditions difficult to treat in clinical practice and dramatically impairing patients' quality of life.

  9. Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis by Endoscopic Retrograde Appendicitis Therapy (ERAT): Combination of Colonoscopy and Endoscopic Retrograde Appendicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Mi, Chen; Li, Weizhi; She, Junjun

    2016-11-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency, but the diagnosis of appendicitis remains a challenge. Endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy (ERAT) is a new and minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis. To investigate the diagnostic value of ERAT for acute appendicitis by the combination of colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde appendicography (ERA). Twenty-one patients with the diagnosis of suspected uncomplicated acute appendicitis who underwent ERAT between November 2014 and January 2015 were included in this study. The main outcomes, imaging findings of acute appendicitis including colonoscopic direct-vision imaging and fluoroscopic ERA imaging, were retrospectively reviewed. Secondary outcomes included mean operative time, mean hospital stay, rate of complication, rate of appendectomy during follow-up period, and other clinical data. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established in 20 patients by positive ERA (5 patients) or colonoscopy (1 patient) alone or both (14 patients). The main colonoscopic imaging findings included mucosal inflammation (15/20, 75 %), appendicoliths (14/20, 70 %), and maturation (5/20, 25 %). The key points of ERA for diagnosing acute appendicitis included radiographic changes of appendix (17/20, 85 %), intraluminal appendicoliths (14/20, 70 %), and perforation (1/20, 5 %). Mean operative time of ERAT was 49.7 min, and mean hospital stay was 3.3 days. No patient converted to emergency appendectomy. Perforation occurred in one patient after appendicoliths removal was not severe and did not require invasive procedures. During at least 1-year follow-up period, only one patient underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. ERAT is a valuable procedure of choice providing a precise yield of diagnostic information for patients with suspected acute appendicitis by combination of colonoscopy and ERA.

  10. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions significantly reversed the weight-bearing deficit and the overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn in the monosodium iodoacetate induced model of osteoarthritis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Yu

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom of osteoarthritis (OA. Clinical data suggest that subchondral bone lesions contribute to the occurrence of joint pain. The present study investigated the effect of the inhibition of subchondral bone lesions on joint pain.Osteoarthritic pain was induced by an injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the rat knee joint. Zoledronic acid (ZOL, a third generation of bisphosphonate, was used to inhibit subchondral bone lesions. Joint histomorphology was evaluated using X-ray micro computed tomography scanning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activity of osteoclast in subchondral bone was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Joint pain was evaluated using weight-bearing asymmetry, the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and spinal glial activation status using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1 immunofluorescence. Afferent neurons in the DRGs that innervated the joints were identified using retrograde fluorogold labeling.MIA injections induced significant histomorphological alterations and joint pain. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions by ZOL significantly reduced the MIA-induced weight-bearing deficit and overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn at 3 and 6 weeks after MIA injection; however, joint swelling and synovial reaction were unaffected.The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions alleviated joint pain. Subchondral bone lesions should be a key target in the management of osteoarthritic joint pain.

  11. Right retrograde brachial cerebral angiography with simultaneous compression of the left carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, K.; Mosskin, M.

    1981-01-01

    Right retrograde brachial angiography with simultaneous compression of the left common carotid artery was performed in 12 patients, invariably resulting in filling of the right vertebral and the basilar artery. In all but one patient, the right carotid artery and its branches were also filled. Retrograde filling of the left internal carotid artery occurred in 8 patients. Furthermore, retrograde filling of the intracranial part of the left vertebral artery was obtained in 5 of 12 patients. A complete four-vessel cranial angiography was thus obtained in one third of the patients. The method may be considered as a safe and valuable adjunct to other angiographic techniques. (Auth.)

  12. Independent predictors of retrograde failure in CTO-PCI after successful collateral channel crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Muto, Makoto; Yamane, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Okamura, Atsunori; Igarashi, Yasumi; Fujita, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Shigeru; Oida, Akitsugu; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing is important for the retrograde approach in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO). A total of 5984 CTO-PCI procedures performed in 45 centers in Japan from 2009 to 2012 were studied. The retrograde approach was used in 1656 CTO-PCIs (27.7%). We investigated these retrograde procedures to evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure even after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral crossing was achieved in 77.1% (n = 1,276) of 1656 retrograde CTO-PCI procedures. Retrograde procedural success after successful collateral crossing was achieved in 89.4% (n = 1,141). Univariate analysis showed that the predictors for retrograde CTO-PCI failure were in-stent occlusion (OR = 1.9829, 95%CI = 1.1783 - 3.3370 P = 0.0088), calcified lesions (OR = 1.9233, 95%CI = 1.2463 - 2.9679, P = 0.0027), and lesion tortuosity (OR = 1.5244, 95%CI = 1.0618 - 2.1883, P = 0.0216). On multivariate analysis, lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing (OR = 1.3472, 95%CI = 1.0614 - 1.7169, P = 0.0141). The success rate of retrograde CTO-PCI following successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing was high in this registry. Lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Devices and techniques to overcome complex CTO lesion morphology, such as lesion calcification, are required to further improve the retrograde CTO-PCI success rate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The vestibulo- and preposito-cerebellar cholinergic neurons of a ChAT-tdTomato transgenic rat exhibit heterogeneous firing properties and the expression of various neurotransmitter receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2014-04-01

    Cerebellar function is regulated by cholinergic mossy fiber inputs that are primarily derived from the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN). In contrast to the growing evidence surrounding cholinergic transmission and its functional significance in the cerebellum, the intrinsic and synaptic properties of cholinergic projection neurons (ChPNs) have not been clarified. In this study, we generated choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-tdTomato transgenic rats, which specifically express the fluorescent protein tdTomato in cholinergic neurons, and used them to investigate the response properties of ChPNs identified via retrograde labeling using whole-cell recordings in brainstem slices. In response to current pulses, ChPNs exhibited two afterhyperpolarisation (AHP) profiles and three firing patterns; the predominant AHP and firing properties differed between the MVN and PHN. Morphologically, the ChPNs were separated into two types based on their soma size and dendritic extensions. Analyses of the firing responses to time-varying sinusoidal current stimuli revealed that ChPNs exhibited different firing modes depending on the input frequencies. The maximum frequencies in which each firing mode was observed were different between the neurons that exhibited distinct firing patterns. Analyses of the current responses to the application of neurotransmitter receptor agonists revealed that the ChPNs expressed (i) AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, (ii) GABAA and glycine receptors, and (iii) muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The current responses mediated by these receptors of MVN ChPNs were not different from those of PHN ChPNs. These findings suggest that ChPNs receive various synaptic inputs and encode those inputs appropriately across different frequencies. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  15. Neuronal tracing of oral nerves in a velvet worm – Implications for the evolution of the ecdysozoan brain

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    Christine eMartin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the closest relatives of arthropods, Onychophora plays an important role in understanding the evolution of arthropod body plans. Currently there is controversy surrounding the evolution of the brain among the ecdysozoan clades, which shows a collar-shaped, circumoral organisation in cycloneuralians but a ganglionic architecture in panarthropods. Based on the innervation pattern of lip papillae surrounding the mouth, the onychophoran brain has been interpreted as a circumoral ring, suggesting that this organisation is an ancestral feature of Ecdysozoa. However, this interpretation is inconsistent with other published data. To explore the evolutionary origin of the onychophoran mouth and to shed light on the evolution of the ecdysozoan brains, we analysed the innervation pattern and morphogenesis of the oral lip papillae in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli using DNA labelling, immunocytochemistry and neuronal tracing techniques. Our morphogenetic data revealed that the seven paired and one unpaired oral lip papillae arise from three anterior-most body segments. Retrograde fills show that only the first and the third nerves supplying the lip papillae are associated with cell bodies within the brain, whereas the second nerve exclusively receives fibres from somata of peripheral neurons located in the lip papillae. According to our anterograde fills and immunocytochemical data, the first nerve supplies the anterior-most pair of lip papillae, whereas the second and the third nerves are associated with the second to fifth and second to eighth lip papillae, respectively. These data suggest that the lip papillae of E. rowelli are mainly innervated by the proto- and deutocerebrum, whereas there are only a few additional cell bodies situated posterior to the brain. According to these findings, the overall innervation pattern of the oral lip papillae in E. rowelli is incompatible with the interpretation of the onychophoran brain as a

  16. Insights into the internalization and retrograde trafficking of Dengue 2 virus in BHK-21 cells.

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    Nidhi Shrivastava

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV enters cells via endocytosis, traffics to perinuclear (PN region, the site of morphogenesis and exits by exocytosis. This study aims to understand the role of dynamin II, endosomes, microtubules (MT and dynein in the early events of DENV replication. FINDINGS: Using double immunoflourescence labelling of DENV-2 infected BHK-21 cells it was observed that the surface envelope (E protein of the virion associated with dynamin II from 0-30 min post infection (p.i.. The sphincter like array of dynamin II supported its pinchase-like activity. The association with endosomes was observed from 0 min at cell periphery to 30 min in the perinuclear (PN region, suggesting that internalization continued for 30 min. Association of E protein with alpha-tubulin was observed from 8 h indicating that it was the newly translated protein that trafficked on the MT. Dynein was found to associate with the E protein from 4 h in the cytoplasm to 48 h in the PN region and dissociate at 72 h. Association of E protein with dynein was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Overexpression of dynamitin, which disrupts the dynein complex, resulted in loss of trafficking of viral E and core proteins. The findings corroborated with the growth kinetics assessed by quantitation of viral RNA in infected BHK-21 cells. The detection of E protein at 4 h-8 h correlated with detectable increase in viral RNA from 8 h. The detection of high concentrations of E protein in the PN region at 24-48 h coincided with release of virus into the supernatant starting from 36 h p.i. The dissociation of dynein from E protein by 72 h was coincident with maximum release of virus, hinting at a possible negative feedback for viral protein translation. CONCLUSION: The study shows for the first time the association of dynamin II with DENV-2 during entry and dynein dependent retrograde trafficking of DENV proteins on microtubules.

  17. Afferent projections to the different medial amygdala subdivisions: a retrograde tracing study in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Moretti, Bernardita; Otero-García, Marcos; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) is a key node in the socio-sexual brain, composed of anterior (MeA), posteroventral (MePV) and posterodorsal (MePD) subdivisions. These subdivisions have been suggested to play a different role in reproductive and defensive behaviours. In the present work we analyse the afferents of the three Me subdivisions using restricted injections of fluorogold in female outbred CD1 mice. The results reveal that the MeA, MePV and MePD share a common pattern of afferents, with some differences in the density of retrograde labelling in several nuclei. Common afferents to Me subdivisions include: the accessory olfactory bulbs, piriform cortex and endopiriform nucleus, chemosensory amygdala (receiving direct inputs from the olfactory bulbs), posterior part of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM), CA1 in the ventral hippocampus and posterior intralaminar thalamus. Minor projections originate from the basolateral amygdala and amygdalo-hippocampal area, septum, ventral striatum, several allocortical and periallocortical areas, claustrum, several hypothalamic structures, raphe and parabrachial complex. MeA and MePV share minor inputs from the frontal cortex (medial orbital, prelimbic, infralimbic and dorsal peduncular cortices), but differ in the lack of main olfactory projections to the MePV. By contrast, the MePD receives preferential projections from the rostral accessory olfactory bulb, the posteromedial BSTM and the ventral premammillary nucleus. In summary, the common pattern of afferents to the Me subdivisions and their interconnections suggest that they play cooperative instead of differential roles in the various behaviours (e.g., sociosexual, defensive) in which the Me has been shown to be involved.

  18. From synapse to nucleus and back again--communication over distance within neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainzilber, Mike; Budnik, Vivian; Segal, Rosalind A; Kreutz, Michael R

    2011-11-09

    How do neurons integrate intracellular communication from synapse to nucleus and back? Here we briefly summarize aspects of this topic covered by a symposium at Neuroscience 2011. A rich repertoire of signaling mechanisms link both dendritic terminals and axon tips with neuronal soma and nucleus, using motor-dependent transport machineries to traverse the long intracellular distances along neuronal processes. Activation mechanisms at terminals include localized translation of dendritic or axonal RNA, proteolytic cleavage of receptors or second messengers, and differential phosphorylation of signaling moieties. Signaling complexes may be transported in endosomes, or as non-endosomal complexes associated with importins and dynein. Anterograde transport of RNA granules from the soma to neuronal processes, coupled with retrograde transport of proteins translated locally at terminals or within processes, may fuel ongoing bidirectional communication between soma and synapse to modulate synaptic plasticity as well as neuronal growth and survival decisions.

  19. The clinical and radiological observation of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Shik; Park, Byoung Lan; Chun, Hyun Woo; Kim, Byung Geun; Park, Hong Bae [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a new diagnostic method for pancreatic and biliary disease which has been made possible by the development of fiberoptic duodenoscopy. It has been thought that ERCP will serve an important role in the early detection of pancreatic cancer, but in order to detect minor lesions of the pancreas and improve the diagnostic accuracy of resectable pancreatic cancer, Endoscopic Retrograde Parenchymography of the pancreas (ERPP) was developed recently. The authors analyzed 117 cases of ERCP performed at the Kwangju Christian Hospital between January and December 1980, and compared them with the final diagnosis. The results were as follows: 1. One of 117 cases, successful visualization of the duct of concern was achieved in 105 cases. Of these, 25 cases were ERPP. 2. The ratio of males to females was 1.44 : 1. Most patients were in the 4th to 6th decade. 3. The commonest clinical manifestations were upper abdominal pain (77 cases), jaundice (23 cases), indigestion, vomiting and abdominal mass, in order of frequency. 4. Out of 46 cases of suspected pancreatic diseases, the pancreatic duct was visualized in 36 cases, and 24 cases revealed pathognomonic findings. These were diagnosed as 16 cases of pancreatic cancer, 4 cases of chronic pancreatitis, 2 cases of pancreatic pseudocyst and 2 cases of periampullary cancer with pancreas invasion. In pancreatic cancer findings were; encasement, local dilatation, delayed excretion, poor filling, obstruction of pancreatic duct, accompanying C.B.D. obstruction or stenosis and so called double duct sign. The chronic pancreatitis findings included; ductal dilatation (with or without) obstruction, tortuosity with dilated saccular lateral branching, stone formation and the parenchymal filling defect. 5. Out of 71 cases of suspected biliary tract disease, the biliary tract was visualized in 57 cases, and in 31 cases abnormalities were suggested; such as 20 cases of biliary stone, 1 case

  20. Differential radioautographic visualization of central catecholaminergic neurons following intracisternal or intraventricular injection of tritiated norepinephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowaczyk, T.; Pujol, J.F.; Valatx, J.L.; Bobillier, P.

    1978-01-01

    The differential [ 3 H]NE labeling of CA groups following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) injection procedures seems to be accounted by the dynamics of CSF formation and circulation, which is similar in the rat to that known in man. Following intraventricular injection there was a lack of labeling of CA neurons located at a distance from the cerebrospinal cavities. Labeled neurons were also visualized outside known CA groups, questioning the nature and functional significance of these cells. (C.F.)

  1. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Benjamin J; Noor, Natassya M; Whish, Sophie C; Truettner, Jessie S; Dietrich, W Dalton; Zhang, Moses; Crack, Peter J; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Saunders, Norman R

    2013-01-01

    Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P)7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming) P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating that although

  2. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating

  3. Localization and neurochemical characteristics of the extrinsic sympathetic neurons projecting to the pylorus in the domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalecki, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The pylorus, an important part of the digestive tract controlling the flow of chyme between the stomach and the duodenum, is widely innervated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. To determine the locations of postganglionic sympathetic perikarya that innervate the pylorus of the domestic pig, a retrograde tracing method with application of Fast Blue tracer was used. All positive neuronal cell bodies (ca. 1750) were found in the celiac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG), however, the coeliac poles of this complex provided the major input to the pylorus. Afterwards, the immunohistochemical staining procedure was applied to determine biologically active substances expressed in the FB-labeled perikarya. Approximately 77% of the FB-positive cell bodies contained tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), 87% dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), 40% neuropeptide Y (NPY), 12% somatostatin (SOM) and 7% galanin (GAL). The presence of all these substances in the ganglion tissue was confirmed by RT-PCR technique. Double immunocytochemistry revealed that all of the TH-positive perikarya contained DβH, about 40% NPY, 12% SOM and 8% GAL. Additionally, all above-cited immunohistochemical markers as well as VIP, PACAP, ChAT, LEU, MET, SP and nNOS were observed within nerve fibers associated with the FB-positive perikarya. Immunocytochemical labeling of the pyloric wall tissue disclosed that TH+, DβH+ and NPY+ nerve fibers innervated ganglia of the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, blood vessels, both muscular layers and the muscularis mucosae; nerve fibers immunoreactive to GAL mostly innervated both muscular layers, while SOM+ nerve fibers were observed within the myenteric plexus. Presented study revealed sources of origin and immunohistochemical characteristics of the sympathetic postganglionic perikarya innervating the porcine pylorus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The “SAFARI” Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Kun Da; Tan, Seck Guan; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2012-01-01

    The “SAFARI” technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade–retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  5. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Kun Da, E-mail: zkunda@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore); Tan, Seck Guan [Singapore General Hospital, Department of General Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore)

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  6. Vesicourethral fistula after retrograde primary endoscopic realignment in posterior urethral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajat; John, Nirmal Thampi; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male patient presented with iatrogenic vesicourethral fistula after immediate retrograde endoscopic realignment of urethra after a posterior urethral injury associated with pelvic fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconsidering the nature and mode of action of metabolite retrograde signals from the chloroplast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martín Estavillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant organelles produce retrograde signals to alter nuclear gene expression in order to coordinate their biogenesis, maintain homeostasis or optimize their performance under adverse conditions. Many signals of different chemical nature have been described in the past decades, including chlorophyll intermediates, reactive oxygen species and adenosine derivatives. While the effects of retrograde signalling on gene expression are well understood, the initiation and transport of the signals and their mode of action have either not been resolved, or are a matter of speculation. Moreover, retrograde signalling should be consider as part of a broader cellular network, instead of as separate pathways, required to adjust to changing physiologically relevant conditions. Here we summarize current plastid retrograde signalling models in plants, with a focus on new signalling pathways, SAL1-PAP, MEcPP and β- cyclocitral, and outline missing links or future areas of research that we believe need to be addressed to have a better understanding of plant intracellular signalling networks.

  8. Retrograde Tibiopedal Access as a Bail-Out Procedure for Endovascular Intervention Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Amro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Retrograde pedal access has been well described in the literature as a secondary approach for limb salvage in critical limb ischemia (CLI patients. In this manuscript we are presenting a case where retrograde tibiopedal access has been used as a bail-out procedure for the management of superficial femoral artery (SFA intervention complications. Procedure/Technique. After development of a perforation while trying to cross the totally occluded mid SFA using the conventional CFA access, we were able to cross the mid SFA lesion after accessing the posterior tibial artery in a retrograde fashion and delivered a self-expanding stent which created a flap that sealed the perforation without the need for covered stent. Conclusion. Retrograde tibiopedal access is a safe and effective approach for delivery of stents from the distal approach and so can be used as a bail-out technique for SFA perforation.

  9. Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Edwin van der; Baalen, Jary M. van; Pattynama, Peter M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

  10. Retrograde cystogram for precise localization and irradiation of the urinary bladder of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, D.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Bangerter cannula contrast medium (Telebrix 30 Meglumine) was instilled for retrograde urography in adult, female mice. Afterwards localization, size and shape of the urinary bladder were examined by computer tomography. (author)

  11. Retrograde cystography US. A new ultrasound technique for the diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, R.; Arena, C.; Pennisi, F.; Di Benedetto, V.; Politi, G.; Di Benedetto, A.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the accuracy of a new US (ultrasound) investigation technique, called retrograde cystography US, in the early diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux. 5 patients, aged 3 months to 10 years, suffering from hydronephrosis and/or pyelonephritis, were examined using retrograde cystography US followed by conventional retrograde cystography. Retrograde cystography US consists in the transcatheter introduction of a contrast agent into the bladder and a subsequent color Doppler examination to show or exclude the presence of reflux. Superpubic scanning of bladder, ureters and pyelocaliceal cavity was performed after echo contrast agent introduction to assess the reflux grade. US was performed with an Esaote AU 590 asynchronous scanner with a 3.5 MHz convex probe. The total agreement of conventional and US findings seems to confirm the importance of the US method for the diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux [it

  12. Factors that affect the variability in heart rate during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete; Reinert, Rebekka; Rasmussen, Verner

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find out if drugs, position, and endoscopic manipulation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) influence the changes in the variability of heart rate. DESIGN: Single-blind randomised trial. SUBJECTS: 10 volunteers given butyscopolamine, glucagon, or saline...

  13. Retrograd intrarenal stenkirurgi--en minimalinvasiv metode til behandling af nyresten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene U; Osther, Palle J S

    2009-01-01

    Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS) is a safe and effective minimally invasive method for the treatment of minor (ESWL-resistant kidney stones where resistance is due e.g. to anatomical abnormalities or stones...

  14. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of nerve activity on transport of nerve growth factor and dopamine β-hydroxylase antibodies in sympathetic neurones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, G.; Chubb, I.; Freeman, C.; Geffen, L.; Rush, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of nerve activity on the uptake and retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) antibodies was studied by injecting 125 I-labelled NGF and anti-DBH into the anterior eye chamber of guinea-pigs. Decentralization of the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG) had no significant effect on the retrograde transport of either NGF or anti-DBH. Phenoxybenzamine produced a 50% increase in anti-DBH but not NGF accumulation and this effect was prevented by prior decentralization. This demonstrates that NGF is taken up independently of the retrieval of synaptic vesicle components. (Auth.)

  16. Interventricular Septal Hematoma and Coronary-Ventricular Fistula: A Complication of Retrograde Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-rahman R. Abdel-karim; Minh Vo; Michael L. Main; J. Aaron Grantham

    2016-01-01

    Interventricular septal hematoma is a rare complication of retrograde chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with a typically benign course. Here we report two cases of interventricular septal hematoma and coronary-cameral fistula development after right coronary artery (RCA) CTO-PCI using a retrograde approach. Both were complicated by development of ST-segment elevation and chest pain. One case was managed actively and the other conservatively, both with a f...

  17. Retrograde solubility of formamidinium and methylammonium lead halide perovskites enabling rapid single crystal growth

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-10-20

    Here we show the retrograde solubility of various hybrid perovskites through the correct choice of solvent(s) and report their solubility curves. Retrograde solubility enables to develop inverse temperature crystallization of FAPbX3 (FA = HC(NH2)2+, X = Br−/I−). FAPbI3 crystals exhibit a 1.4 eV bandgap – considerably narrower than their polycrystalline counterparts.

  18. Brachial Artery Flow-mediated Dilation Following Exercise with Augmented Oscillatory and Retrograde Shear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Blair D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute doses of elevated retrograde shear rate (SR appear to be detrimental to endothelial function in resting humans. However, retrograde shear increases during moderate intensity exercise which also enhances post-exercise endothelial function. Since SR patterns differ with the modality of exercise, it is important to determine if augmented retrograde SR during exercise influences post-exercise endothelial function. This study tested the hypothesis that (1 increased doses of retrograde SR in the brachial artery during lower body supine cycle ergometer exercise would attenuate post-exercise flow-mediated dilation (FMD in a dose-dependent manner, and (2 antioxidant vitamin C supplementation would prevent the attenuated post-exercise FMD response. Methods Twelve men participated in four randomized exercise sessions (90 W for 20 minutes on separate days. During three of the sessions, one arm was subjected to increased oscillatory and retrograde SR using three different forearm cuff pressures (20, 40, 60 mmHg (contralateral arm served as the control and subjects ingested placebo capsules prior to exercise. A fourth session with 60 mmHg cuff pressure was performed with 1 g of vitamin C ingested prior to the session. Results Post-exercise FMD following the placebo conditions were lower in the cuffed arm versus the control arm (arm main effect: P P > 0.05. Following vitamin C treatment, post-exercise FMD in the cuffed and control arm increased from baseline (P P > 0.05. Conclusions These results indicate that augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR in non-working limbs during lower body exercise attenuates post-exercise FMD without an evident dose–response in the range of cuff pressures evaluated. Vitamin C supplementation prevented the attenuation of FMD following exercise with augmented oscillatory and retrograde SR suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to the adverse effects of oscillatory and

  19. Dating of retrograde metamorphism in Western Carpathians by K-Ar analysis of muscovites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.; Korikovskij, S.P.; Krasivskaya, I.S.; Arakelyants, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using the K-Ar isotope dating method of muscovites it was found that many retrogradely metamorphosed rocks are the results of Variscan retrograde metamorphism and are not pre-Cambrian or Alpine metamorphites (diaphthorites). Samples for dating were taken from the Western Carpathian crystalline formation. The content of radiogenic argon was determined by mass spectrometry using the method of isotope dilution. (M.D.)

  20. Successful Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for Gastric Varix Mainly Draining into the Pericardiophrenic Vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Ken; Nishida, N.; Matsui, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Nakamura, K.; Miki, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two cases of gastric varices were treated by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via the pericardiophrenic vein at our hospital, and both were successful. One case developed left hydrothorax. Gastric varices did not bled and esophageal varices were not aggravated in both cases for 24–30 months thereafter. These outcomes indicate the feasibility of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration via the pericardiophrenic vein.

  1. Comparison of regional pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic morphology in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measured by the needle method and pancreatic duct morphology was studied in 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis. After preoperative endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) the patients were submitted to a drainage operation. The predrain......The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measured by the needle method and pancreatic duct morphology was studied in 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis. After preoperative endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) the patients were submitted to a drainage operation...

  2. Transient global amnesia and functional retrograde amnesia: contrasting examples of episodic memory loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchevsky, M; Zouzounis, J; Squire, L R

    1997-01-01

    We studied 11 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA) and ten patients with functional retrograde amnesia (FRA). Patients with TGA had a uniform clinical picture: a severe, relatively isolated amnesic syndrome that started suddenly, persisted for 4-12 h, and then gradually improved to essentially normal over the next 12-24 h. During the episode, the patients had severe anterograde amnesia for verbal and non-verbal material and retrograde amnesia that typically covered at least two decade...

  3. Profound loss of general knowledge in retrograde amnesia: evidence from an amnesic artist

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael; Landau, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Studies of retrograde amnesia have focused on autobiographical memory, with fewer studies examining how non-autobiographical memory is affected. Those that have done so have focused primarily on memory for famous people and public events—relatively limited aspects of memory that are tied to learning during specific times of life and do not deeply tap into the rich and extensive knowledge structures that are developed over a lifetime. To assess whether retrograde amnesia can also cause impai...

  4. Retrograde solubility of formamidinium and methylammonium lead halide perovskites enabling rapid single crystal growth

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Maculan, Giacomo; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Here we show the retrograde solubility of various hybrid perovskites through the correct choice of solvent(s) and report their solubility curves. Retrograde solubility enables to develop inverse temperature crystallization of FAPbX3 (FA = HC(NH2)2+, X = Br−/I−). FAPbI3 crystals exhibit a 1.4 eV bandgap – considerably narrower than their polycrystalline counterparts.

  5. A dam for retrograde axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, L.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Steenwijk, M.D.; Daams, M.; Tewarie, P.; Killestein, J.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Polman, C.H.; Petzold, A.F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Trans-synaptic axonal degeneration is a mechanism by which neurodegeneration can spread from a sick to a healthy neuron in the central nervous system. This study investigated to what extent trans-synaptic axonal degeneration takes place within the visual pathway in multiple sclerosis

  6. Failed Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Is Retrograde Ventriculosinus Shunt a Reliable Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes de; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Reis, Rodolfo Casimiro; Petitto, Carlo Emanuel; Gomes Pinto, Fernando Campos

    2016-08-01

    Currently, the treatment of hydrocephalus is mainly carried out through a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) insertion. However, in some cases, there may be surgical revisions and requirement of an alternative distal site for shunting. There are several described distal sites, and secondary options after VPS include ventriculopleural and ventriculoatrial shunt, which have technical difficulties and harmful complications. In this preliminary report we describe our initial experience with retrograde ventriculosinus shunt (RVSS) after failed VPS. In 3 consecutive cases we applied RVSS to treat hydrocephalus in shunt-dependent patients who had previously undergone VPS revision and in which peritoneal space was full of adhesions and fibrosis. RVSS was performed as described by Shafei et al., with some modifications to each case. All 3 patients kept the same clinical profile after RVSS, with no perioperative or postoperative complications. However, revision surgery was performed in the first operative day in 1 out of 3 patients, in which the catheter was not positioned in the superior sagittal sinus. We propose that in cases where VPS is not feasible, RVSS may be a safe and applicable second option. Nevertheless, the long-term follow-up of patients and further learning curve must bring stronger evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the human GARP (Golgi associated retrograde protein) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewen, Heike; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Oliveira, Vasco; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Luo Guorong; Wadle, Andreas; Jung, Martin; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Stenner-Liewen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The Golgi associated retrograde protein complex (GARP) or Vps fifty-three (VFT) complex is part of cellular inter-compartmental transport systems. Here we report the identification of the VFT tethering factor complex and its interactions in mammalian cells. Subcellular fractionation shows that human Vps proteins are found in the smooth membrane/Golgi fraction but not in the cytosol. Immunostaining of human Vps proteins displays a vesicular distribution most concentrated at the perinuclear envelope. Co-staining experiments with endosomal markers imply an endosomal origin of these vesicles. Significant accumulation of VFT complex positive endosomes is found in the vicinity of the Trans Golgi Network area. This is in accordance with a putative role in Golgi associated transport processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GARP is the main effector of the small GTPase Ypt6p and interacts with the SNARE Tlg1p to facilitate membrane fusion. Accordingly, the human homologue of Ypt6p, Rab6, specifically binds hVps52. In human cells, the 'orphan' SNARE Syntaxin 10 is the genuine binding partner of GARP mediated by hVps52. This reveals a previously unknown function of human Syntaxin 10 in membrane docking and fusion events at the Golgi. Taken together, GARP shows significant conservation between various species but diversification and specialization result in important differences in human cells

  8. Advances in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Dushant S; Wang, Andrew Y

    2015-06-25

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignancy of the bile ducts that carries high morbidity and mortality. Patients with CCA typically present with obstructive jaundice, and associated complications of CCA include cholangitis and biliary sepsis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a valuable treatment modality for patients with CCA, as it enables internal drainage of blocked bile ducts and hepatic segments by using plastic or metal stents. While there remains debate as to if bilateral (or multi-segmental) hepatic drainage is required and/or superior to unilateral drainage, the underlying tenant of draining any persistently opacified bile ducts is paramount to good ERCP practice and good clinical outcomes. Endoscopic therapy for malignant biliary strictures from CCA has advanced to include ablative therapies via ERCP-directed photodynamic therapy (PDT) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA). While ERCP techniques cannot cure CCA, advancements in the field of ERCP have enabled us to improve upon the quality of life of patients with inoperable and incurable disease. ERCP-directed PDT has been used in lieu of brachytherapy to provide neoadjuvant local tumor control in patients with CCA who are awaiting liver transplantation. Lastly, mounting evidence suggests that palliative ERCP-directed PDT, and probably ERCP-directed RFA as well, offer a survival advantage to patients with this difficult-to-treat malignancy.

  9. Occupational exposure to staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Elzaki, M.; Khalil, M.

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure is an invasive technique that requires fluoroscopic and radiographic exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the occupational dose of ionising radiation at three gastroenterology departments (Fedial, Soba and Ibn seena hospitals) in Khartoum (Sudan). The radiation dose was measured during 55 therapeutic ERCP procedures. Thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. The mean radiation dose for the first operator was 0.27 mGy for the eye lens, 0.21 for the thyroid, 0.32 for the chest, 0.17 for the hand and 0.22 for the leg. The mean radiation dose for the second operator was 0.21 mGy for the hand and 0.20 mGy for the chest, while the mean radiation dose for the nurse was 0.44 mGy for the hand and 0.19 for the chest. The radiation dose received by the staff in these hospitals was found to be higher than most of the values in the literature. The radiation absorbed dose received by the different organs is relatively low. Additional studies need to be conducted for radiation dose optimisation. (authors)

  10. Early Results of Retrograde Transpopliteal Angioplasty of Iliofemoral Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Saumitra; Gibson, Matthew; Magee, Timothy R.; Galland, Robert B.; Torrie, E. Peter H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether the retrograde transpopliteal approach is a safe, practical and effective alternative to femoral puncture for percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA).Methods: Forty PTAs in 38 patients were evaluated. Intentional subintimal recanalization was performed in 13 limbs. Ultrasound evaluation of the popliteal fossa was carried out 30 min and 24 hr post procedurally in the first 10 patients to exclude local complications. All patients had a follow-up of at least 6 weeks.Results: The indication for PTA was critical ischemia in seven limbs and disabling claudication in the remainder.Stenoses (single or multiple) were present in 24 and occlusion in 15.The superficial femoral artery (SFA) was the commonest segment affected(36) followed by common femoral artery (CFA) in four and iliac artery in four. Technical success was achieved in 38 of 39 limbs where angioplasty was carried out. In one limb no lesion was found.Immediate complications were distal embolization in two and thrombosis in one. None of these required immediate surgery. There were no puncture site hematomas or popliteal arteriovenous fistulae.Symptomatic patency at 6 weeks was 85%. Further reconstructive surgery was required in three limbs and amputation in two.Conclusion: The transpopliteal approach has a high technical success rate and a low complication rate with a potential to develop into an outpatient procedure. It should be considered for flush SFA occulsions or iliac disease with tandem CFA/SFA disease where the contralateral femoral approach is often technically difficult

  11. Effects of low molecular sugars on the retrogradation of tapioca starch gels during storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhang

    Full Text Available The effects of low molecular sugars (sucrose, glucose and trehalose on the retrogradation of tapioca starch (TS gels stored at 4°C for different periods were examined with different methods. Decrease in melting enthalpy (ΔHmelt were obtained through differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Analysis of decrease in crystallization rate constant (k and increase in semi-crystallization time (τ1/2 results obtained from retrogradation kinetics indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels and further revealed trehalose as the best inhibitor among the sugars used in this study. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis indicated that the intensity ratio of 1047 to 1022 cm-1 was increased with the addition of sugars in the order of trehalose > sucrose > glucose. Decrease in hardness parameters and increase in springiness parameters obtained from texture profile analysis (TPA analysis also indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels. The results of FTIR and TPA showed a consistent sugar effect on starch retrogradation with those of DSC and retrogradation kinetics analysis.

  12. Optimal Timing for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy After Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, C; Rothman, J P; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J

    2018-06-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy is often used as definitive treatment for common bile duct stones. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal time interval between endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies comparing different time delays between endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials were included. Primary outcome was conversion rate from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy and secondary outcomes were complications, mortality, operating time, and length of stay. A total of 14 studies with a total of 1930 patients were included. The pooled estimate revealed an increase from a 4.2% conversion rate when laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed within 24 h of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to 7.6% for 24-72 h delay to 12.3% when performed within 2 weeks, to 12.3% for 2-6 weeks, and to a 14% conversion rate when operation was delayed more than 6 weeks. According to this systematic review, it is preferable to perform cholecystectomy within 24 h of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to reduce conversion rate. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not increase mortality, perioperative complications, or length of stay and on the contrary it reduces the risk of reoccurrence and progression of disease in the delay between endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  13. Real-time visualization and quantification of retrograde cardioplegia delivery using near infrared fluorescent imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaraj, Aravind T; Ghanta, Ravi K; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Soltesz, Edward G; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John; Cohn, Lawrence H; Bolman, R M; Frangioni, John V; Chen, Frederick Y

    2008-01-01

    Homogeneous delivery of cardioplegia is essential for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. Presently, there exist no established methods to quantitatively assess cardioplegia distribution intraoperatively and determine when retrograde cardioplegia is required. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of near infrared (NIR) imaging for real-time visualization of cardioplegia distribution in a porcine model. A portable, intraoperative, real-time NIR imaging system was utilized. NIR fluorescent cardioplegia solution was developed by incorporating indocyanine green (ICG) into crystalloid cardioplegia solution. Real-time NIR imaging was performed while the fluorescent cardioplegia solution was infused via the retrograde route in five ex vivo normal porcine hearts and in five ex vivo porcine hearts status post left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Horizontal cross-sections of the hearts were obtained at proximal, middle, and distal LAD levels. Videodensitometry was performed to quantify distribution of fluorophore content. The progressive distribution of cardioplegia was clearly visualized with NIR imaging. Complete visualization of retrograde distribution occurred within 4 minutes of infusion. Videodensitometry revealed retrograde cardioplegia, primarily distributed to the left ventricle (LV) and anterior septum. In hearts with LAD ligation, antegrade cardioplegia did not distribute to the anterior LV. This deficiency was compensated for with retrograde cardioplegia supplementation. Incorporation of ICG into cardioplegia allows real-time visualization of cardioplegia delivery via NIR imaging. This technology may prove useful in guiding intraoperative decisions pertaining to when retrograde cardioplegia is mandated.

  14. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  15. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  16. NBLAST: Rapid, Sensitive Comparison of Neuronal Structure and Construction of Neuron Family Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marta; Manton, James D; Ostrovsky, Aaron D; Prohaska, Steffen; Jefferis, Gregory S X E

    2016-07-20

    Neural circuit mapping is generating datasets of tens of thousands of labeled neurons. New computational tools are needed to search and organize these data. We present NBLAST, a sensitive and rapid algorithm, for measuring pairwise neuronal similarity. NBLAST considers both position and local geometry, decomposing neurons into short segments; matched segments are scored using a probabilistic scoring matrix defined by statistics of matches and non-matches. We validated NBLAST on a published dataset of 16,129 single Drosophila neurons. NBLAST can distinguish neuronal types down to the finest level (single identified neurons) without a priori information. Cluster analysis of extensively studied neuronal classes identified new types and unreported topographical features. Fully automated clustering organized the validation dataset into 1,052 clusters, many of which map onto previously described neuronal types. NBLAST supports additional query types, including searching neurons against transgene expression patterns. Finally, we show that NBLAST is effective with data from other invertebrates and zebrafish. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. NEUROANATOMICAL ASSOCIATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC HSD2-CONTAINING NEURONS WITH ERα, CATECHOLAMINES, OR OXYTOCIN: IMPLICATIONS FOR FEEDING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegan L. Askew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used immunohistochemical methods to investigate the possibility that hypothalamic neurons that contain 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2 are involved in the control of feeding by rats via neuroanatomical associations with the α subtype of estrogen receptor (ERα, catecholamines, and/or oxytocin. An aggregate of HSD2-containing neurons is located laterally in the hypothalamus, and the numbers of these neurons were greatly increased by estradiol treatment in ovariectomized rats compared to numbers in male rats and in ovariectomized rats that were not given estradiol. However, HSD2-containing neurons were anatomically segregated from ERα-containing neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus and the Arcuate Nucleus. There was an absence of oxytocin-immunolabeled fibers in the area of HSD2-labeled neurons. Taken together, these findings provide no support for direct associations between hypothalamic HSD2 and ERα or oxytocin neurons in the control of feeding. In contrast, there was catecholamine-fiber labeling in the area of HSD2-labeled neurons, and these fibers occasionally were in close apposition to HSD2-labeled neurons. Therefore, we cannot rule out interactions between HSD2 and catecholamines in the control of feeding; however, given the relative sparseness of the appositions, any such interaction would appear to be modest. Thus, these studies do not conclusively identify a neuroanatomical substrate by which HSD2-containing neurons in the hypothalamus may alter feeding, and leave the functional role of hypothalamic HSD2-containing neurons subject to further investigation.

  18. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia blunts heart rate responses and alters neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Jameson, Heather; Dergacheva, Olga; Jain, Vivek; Alhusayyen, Mona; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea experience chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia (CIHH) during sleep that elicit sympathetic overactivity and diminished parasympathetic activity to the heart, leading to hypertension and depressed baroreflex sensitivity. The parasympathetic control of heart rate arises from pre-motor cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) located in nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX). The mechanisms underlying diminished vagal control of heart rate were investigated by studying the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and neurotransmission to CVNs evoked by acute hypoxia-hypercapnia (H-H) and CIHH. In vivo telemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in adult rats during 4 weeks of CIHH exposure. Retrogradely labelled CVNs were identified in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation obtained from adult rats exposed either to air or CIHH for 4 weeks. Postsynaptic inhibitory or excitatory currents were recorded using whole cell voltage clamp techniques. Rats exposed to CIHH had increases in blood pressure, leading to hypertension, and blunted heart rate responses to acute H-H. CIHH induced an increase in GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA and DMNX, respectively; and a reduction in glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs in both nuclei. CIHH blunted the bradycardia evoked by acute H-H and abolished the acute H-H evoked inhibition of GABAergic transmission while enhancing glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA. These changes with CIHH inhibit CVNs and vagal outflow to the heart, both in acute and chronic exposures to H-H, resulting in diminished levels of cardioprotective parasympathetic activity to the heart as seen in OSA patients. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  19. Ghrelin Attenuates Retinal Neuronal Autophagy and Apoptosis in an Experimental Rat Glaucoma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ke; Zhang, Meng-Lu; Liu, Shu-Ting; Li, Xue-Yan; Zhong, Shu-Min; Li, Fang; Xu, Ge-Zhi; Wang, Zhongfeng; Miao, Yanying

    2017-12-01

    Ghrelin, a natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), may protect retinal neurons against glaucomatous injury. We therefore characterized the underlying mechanism of the ghrelin/GHSR-1a-mediated neuroprotection with a rat chronic intraocular hypertension (COH) model. The rat COH model was produced by blocking episcleral veins. A combination of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, TUNEL assay, and retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was used. Elevation of intraocular pressure induced a significant increase in ghrelin and GHSR-1a expression in retinal cells, including RGCs and Müller cells. Western blot confirmed that the protein levels of ghrelin exhibited a transient upregulation at week 2 after surgery (G2w), while the GHSR-1a protein levels were maintained at high levels from G2w to G4w. In COH retinas, the ratio of LC3-II/LC-I and beclin1, two autophagy-related proteins, were increased from G1w to G4w, and the cleavage product of caspase3, an apoptotic executioner, was detected from G2w to G4w. Intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin significantly increased the number of surviving RGCs; inhibited the changes of LC3-II/LC-I, beclin1, and the cleavage products of caspase3; and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in COH retinas. Ghrelin treatment also reversed the decreased levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR, upregulated GHSR-1a protein levels, and attenuated glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in COH retinas. All these results suggest that ghrelin may provide neuroprotective effect in COH retinas through activating ghrelin/GHSR-1a system, which was mediated by inhibiting retinal autophagy, ganglion cell apoptosis, and Müller cell gliosis.

  20. Dense reconstruction of brain-wide neuronal population close to the ground truth

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun; Zhou, Hang; Li, Shiwei; Li, Jing; Su, Lei; Li, Anan; Feng, Xiong; Li, Ning; Han, Jiacheng; Kang, Hongtao; Chen, Yijun; Fang, Wenqian; Liu, Yidong; Lin, Huimin; Jin, Sen

    2017-01-01

    Neuron is the basic structure and functional unit of the brain, its projection and connections with other neurons provide a basic physical infrastructure for neural signal storage, allocation, processing, and integration. Recent technique progresses allow for labeling and imaging specific neuronal populations at single axonal level across a whole mouse brain. However, digital reconstruction of these neuron individuals needs months of human labor or sometimes is even an impossible task. Here w...

  1. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with rendezvous cannulation reduces pancreatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Fredrik; Regnér, Sara; Enochsson, Lars; Lundell, Lars; Permert, Johan; Nilsson, Magnus; Thorlacius, Henrik; Arnelo, Urban

    2013-09-28

    To examine whether rendezvous endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is associated with less pancreatic damage, measured as leakage of proenzymes, than conventional ERCP. Patients (n = 122) with symptomatic gallstone disease, intact papilla and no ongoing inflammation, were prospectively enrolled in this case-control designed study. Eighty-one patients were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy and if intraoperative cholangiography suggested common bile duct stones (CBDS), rendezvous ERCP was performed intraoperatively (n = 40). Patients with a negative cholangiogram constituted the control group (n = 41). Another 41 patients with CBDS, not subjected to surgery, underwent conventional ERCP. Pancreatic proenzymes, procarboxypeptidase B and trypsinogen-2 levels in plasma, were analysed at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h. The proenzymes were determined in-house with a double-antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Pancreatic amylase was measured by an enzymatic colourimetric modular analyser with the manufacturer's reagents. All samples were blinded at analysis. Post ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) occurred in 3/41 (7%) of the patients cannulated with conventional ERCP and none in the rendezvous group. Increased serum levels indicating pancreatic leakage were significantly higher in the conventional ERCP group compared with the rendezvous ERCP group regarding pancreatic amylase levels in the 4- and 8-h samples (P = 0.0015; P = 0.03), procarboxypeptidase B in the 4- and 8-h samples (P rendezvous cannulation technique compared with patients that underwent cholecystectomy alone (control group). Post procedural concentrations of pancreatic amylase and procarboxypeptidase B were significantly correlated with pancreatic duct cannulation and opacification. Rendezvous ERCP reduces pancreatic enzyme leakage compared with conventional ERCP cannulation technique. Thus, laparo-endoscopic technique can be recommended with the ambition to minimise the risk for post ERCP

  2. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  3. Snapin-regulated late endosomal transport is critical for efficient autophagy-lysosomal function in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Lu, Li; Tian, Jin-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Qiao, Haifa; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2010-10-06

    Neuron maintenance and survival require late endocytic transport from distal processes to the soma where lysosomes are predominantly localized. Here, we report a role for Snapin in attaching dynein to late endosomes through its intermediate chain (DIC). snapin(-/-) neurons exhibit aberrant accumulation of immature lysosomes, clustering and impaired retrograde transport of late endosomes along processes, reduced lysosomal proteolysis due to impaired delivery of internalized proteins and hydrolase precursors from late endosomes to lysosomes, and impaired clearance of autolysosomes, combined with reduced neuron viability and neurodegeneration. The phenotypes are rescued by expressing the snapin transgene, but not the DIC-binding-defective Snapin-L99K mutant. Snapin overexpression in wild-type neurons enhances late endocytic transport and lysosomal function, whereas expressing the mutant defective in Snapin-DIC coupling shows a dominant-negative effect. Altogether, our study highlights new mechanistic insights into how Snapin-DIC coordinates retrograde transport and late endosomal-lysosomal trafficking critical for autophagy-lysosomal function, and thus neuronal homeostasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of Hypocretin-1/Orexin-A Neurons Projecting to the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Paraventricular Nucleus Is Critical for Reinstatement of Alcohol Seeking by Neuropeptide S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Giordano, Antonio; Severi, Ilenia; Li, Hongwu; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Ruggeri, Barbara; Stopponi, Serena; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cannella, Nazzareno

    2016-03-15

    Environmental conditioning is a major trigger for relapse in abstinent addicts. We showed that activation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system exacerbates reinstatement vulnerability to cocaine and alcohol via stimulation of the hypocretin-1/orexin-A (Hcrt-1/Ox-A) system. Combining pharmacologic manipulations with immunohistochemistry techniques, we sought to determine how NPS and Hcrt-1/Ox-A systems interact to modulate reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats. Intrahypothalamic injection of NPS facilitated discriminative cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. This effect was blocked by the selective Hcrt-1/Ox-A antagonist SB334867 microinjected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) but not into the ventral tegmental area or the locus coeruleus. Combining double labeling and confocal microscopy analyses, we found that NPS-containing axons are in close apposition to hypothalamic Hcrt-1/Ox-A positive neurons, a significant proportion of which express NPS receptors, suggesting a direct interaction between the two systems. Retrograde tracing experiments showed that intra-PVN or intra-BNST red fluorobead unilateral injection labeled bilaterally Hcrt-1/Ox-A somata, suggesting that NPS could recruit two distinct neuronal pathways. Confirming this assumption, intra-BNST or PVN Hcrt-1/Ox-A injection enhanced alcohol seeking similarly to hypothalamic NPS injection but to a lesser degree. Results suggest that the Hcrt-1/Ox-A neurocircuitry mediating the facilitation of cue-induced reinstatement by NPS involves structures critically involved in stress regulation such as the PVN and the BNST. These findings open to the tempting hypothesis of a role of the NPS system in modulating the interactions between stress and environmental conditioning factors in drug relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  6. Dexamethasone rapidly increases GABA release in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus via retrograde messenger-mediated enhancement of TRPV1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V Derbenev

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids influence vagal parasympathetic output to the viscera via mechanisms that include modulation of neural circuitry in the dorsal vagal complex, a principal autonomic regulatory center. Glucocorticoids can modulate synaptic neurotransmitter release elsewhere in the brain by inducing release of retrograde signalling molecules. We tested the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX modulates GABA release in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that DEX (1-10 µM rapidly (i.e. within three minutes increased the frequency of tetrodotoxin-resistant, miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs in 67% of DMV neurons recorded in acutely prepared slices. Glutamate-mediated mEPSCs were also enhanced by DEX (10 µM, and blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors reduced the DEX effect on mIPSC frequency. Antagonists of type I or II corticosteroid receptors blocked the effect of DEX on mIPSCs. The effect was mimicked by application of the membrane-impermeant BSA-conjugated DEX, and intracellular blockade of G protein function with GDP βS in the recorded cell prevented the effect of DEX. The enhancement of GABA release was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists, 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin or capsazepine, but was not altered by the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist AM251. The DEX effect was prevented by blocking fatty acid amide hydrolysis or by inhibiting anandamide transport, implicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the response. These findings indicate that DEX induces an enhancement of GABA release in the DMV, which is mediated by activation of TRPV1 receptors on afferent terminals. The effect is likely induced by anandamide or other 'endovanilloid', suggesting activation of a local retrograde signal originating from DMV neurons to enhance synaptic inhibition locally in response to glucocorticoids.

  7. Dopaminergic Neurons Controlling Anterior Pituitary Functions: Anatomy and Ontogenesis in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Bureau, Charlotte; Colin, Ingrid; Demarque, Michaël; Dufour, Sylvie; Vernier, Philippe; Yamamoto, Kei; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the preoptico-hypothalamic region of the brain exert a major neuroendocrine control on reproduction, growth, and homeostasis by regulating the secretion of anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) hormones. Here, using a retrograde tract tracing experiment, we identified the neurons playing this role in the zebrafish. The DA cells projecting directly to the anterior pituitary are localized in the most anteroventral part of the preoptic area, and we named them preoptico-hypophyseal DA (POHDA) neurons. During development, these neurons do not appear before 72 hours postfertilization (hpf) and are the last dopaminergic cell group to differentiate. We found that the number of neurons in this cell population continues to increase throughout life proportionally to the growth of the fish. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation analysis suggested that this increase is due to continuous neurogenesis and not due to a phenotypic change in already-existing neurons. Finally, expression profiles of several genes (foxg1a, dlx2a, and nr4a2a/b) were different in the POHDA compared with the adjacent suprachiasmatic DA neurons, suggesting that POHDA neurons develop as a distinct DA cell population in the preoptic area. This study offers some insights into the regional identity of the preoptic area and provides the first bases for future functional genetic studies on the development of DA neurons controlling anterior pituitary functions.

  8. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Modulates Vomeronasal Neuron Response to Male Salamander Pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste R. Wirsig-Wiechmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies have shown that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH modifies chemosensory neurons responses to odors. We have previously demonstrated that male Plethodon shermani pheromone stimulates vomeronasal neurons in the female conspecific. In the present study we used agmatine uptake as a relative measure of the effects of GnRH on this pheromone-induced neural activation of vomeronasal neurons. Whole male pheromone extract containing 3 millimolar agmatine with or without 10 micromolar GnRH was applied to the nasolabial groove of female salamanders for 45 minutes. Immunocytochemical procedures were conducted to visualize and quantify relative agmatine uptake as measured by labeling density of activated vomeronasal neurons. The relative number of labeled neurons did not differ between the two groups: pheromone alone or pheromone-GnRH. However, vomeronasal neurons exposed to pheromone-GnRH collectively demonstrated higher labeling intensity, as a percentage above background (75% as compared with neurons exposed to pheromone alone (63%, P < 0.018. Since the labeling intensity of agmatine within neurons signifies the relative activity levels of the neurons, these results suggest that GnRH increases the response of female vomeronasal neurons to male pheromone.

  9. Impact of Emulsifiers Addition on the Retrogradation of Rice Gels during Low-Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice and its products are widely consumed in Asian countries; however, starch retrogradation decreases the quality and shortens the shelf-life of rice foods particularly at low temperature. In this study sucrose ester (SE, glycerol monostearate (GMS, and sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL were added to rice flour and corresponding rice gels. Then, gelatinization properties, retrogradation characteristics, texture, and water content of these rice gels were investigated at 4°C and −20°C storage, respectively. The results demonstrated that the rice gels with 0.2% GMS had the lowest retrogradation index (ΔHr/ΔHg (11.84% and hardness (1359 g at 4°C for a 10 d period, which was significantly lower in comparison to control and the other two emulsifiers (P<0.05. Adhesiveness and water content were increased compared to the other samples. Furthermore, the retrogradation of rice gels stored at 4°C was comparatively rapid compared to gels stored at −20°C. Gel samples stored at −20°C were still acceptable for more than 15 days. Thus it was revealed that GMS has the potential to retard starch retrogradation and produce high-quality rice products in preservation.

  10. Loss of Huntingtin stimulates capture of retrograde dense-core vesicles to increase synaptic neuropeptide stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Dinara; Deitcher, David L; Levitan, Edwin S

    2017-08-01

    The Huntington's disease protein Huntingtin (Htt) regulates axonal transport of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) containing neurotrophins and neuropeptides. DCVs travel down axons to reach nerve terminals where they are either captured in synaptic boutons to support later release or reverse direction to reenter the axon as part of vesicle circulation. Currently, the impact of Htt on DCV dynamics in the terminal is unknown. Here we report that knockout of Drosophila Htt selectively reduces retrograde DCV flux at proximal boutons of motoneuron terminals. However, initiation of retrograde transport at the most distal bouton and transport velocity are unaffected suggesting that synaptic capture rate of these retrograde DCVs could be altered. In fact, tracking DCVs shows that retrograde synaptic capture efficiency is significantly elevated by Htt knockout or knockdown. Furthermore, synaptic boutons contain more neuropeptide in Htt knockout larvae even though bouton size, single DCV fluorescence intensity, neuropeptide release in response to electrical stimulation and subsequent activity-dependent capture are unaffected. Thus, loss of Htt increases synaptic capture as DCVs travel by retrograde transport through boutons resulting in reduced transport toward the axon and increased neuropeptide in the terminal. These results therefore identify native Htt as a regulator of synaptic capture and neuropeptide storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. On the electrodynamic explanation of the retrograde motion of the electric arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, J.S.; Allen, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The retrograde motion of the cathode spot in a transverse magnetic field is one of the more intriguing phenomena of the electric arc. Although the phenomenon has been known for nearly ninety years since its discovery by Stark and has stimulated numerous investigations which result in many models giving explanation from different points of view, there is still no theory that can account both qualitatively and quantitatively for all the observations. Most of the explanations of the retrograde motion involve the study of cathode processes to give the preferential formation of new cathode spots along the retrograde direction. One line of explanation, which is rather different from the others, is based on electrodynamics. In this approach the retrograde motion is treated as an electrodynamic event. The present paper develops the theory suggested by Robson and von Engel. A more complete model is proposed and studied in detail by means of electromagnetic field theory. The results obtained not only show that the retrograde motion can be explained by the electrodynamics, but also confirm that the average current density on the cathode spot must be around the order of 10 12 A/m 2 . Recent studies of spot current density have shown values of this order. (author) 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Profound loss of general knowledge in retrograde amnesia: Evidence from an amnesic artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eGregory

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of retrograde amnesia have focused on autobiographical memory, with fewer studies examining how non-autobiographical memory is affected. Those that have done so have focused primarily on memory for famous people and public events—relatively limited aspects of memory that are tied to learning during specific times of life and do not deeply tap into the rich and extensive knowledge structures that are developed over a lifetime. To assess whether retrograde amnesia can also cause impairments to other forms of general world knowledge, we explored losses across a broad range of knowledge domains in a newly-identified amnesic. LSJ is a professional artist, amateur musician and history buff with extensive bilateral medial temporal and left anterior temporal damage. We examined LSJ's knowledge across a range of everyday domains (e.g., sports and domains for which she had premorbid expertise (e.g., famous paintings. Across all domains tested, LSJ showed losses of knowledge at a level of breadth and depth never before documented in retrograde amnesia. These results show that retrograde amnesia can involve broad and deep deficits across a range of general world knowledge domains. Thus, losses that have already been well-documented (famous people and public events may severely underestimate the nature of human knowledge impairment that can occur in retrograde amnesia.

  13. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  14. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Gu, Qinfen; Hemar, Yacine; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed. PMID:27219066

  15. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*. The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  16. NeuronMetrics: software for semi-automated processing of cultured neuron images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narro, Martha L; Yang, Fan; Kraft, Robert; Wenk, Carola; Efrat, Alon; Restifo, Linda L

    2007-03-23

    Using primary cell culture to screen for changes in neuronal morphology requires specialized analysis software. We developed NeuronMetrics for semi-automated, quantitative analysis of two-dimensional (2D) images of fluorescently labeled cultured neurons. It skeletonizes the neuron image using two complementary image-processing techniques, capturing fine terminal neurites with high fidelity. An algorithm was devised to span wide gaps in the skeleton. NeuronMetrics uses a novel strategy based on geometric features called faces to extract a branch number estimate from complex arbors with numerous neurite-to-neurite contacts, without creating a precise, contact-free representation of the neurite arbor. It estimates total neurite length, branch number, primary neurite number, territory (the area of the convex polygon bounding the skeleton and cell body), and Polarity Index (a measure of neuronal polarity). These parameters provide fundamental information about the size and shape of neurite arbors, which are critical factors for neuronal function. NeuronMetrics streamlines optional manual tasks such as removing noise, isolating the largest primary neurite, and correcting length for self-fasciculating neurites. Numeric data are output in a single text file, readily imported into other applications for further analysis. Written as modules for ImageJ, NeuronMetrics provides practical analysis tools that are easy to use and support batch processing. Depending on the need for manual intervention, processing time for a batch of approximately 60 2D images is 1.0-2.5 h, from a folder of images to a table of numeric data. NeuronMetrics' output accelerates the quantitative detection of mutations and chemical compounds that alter neurite morphology in vitro, and will contribute to the use of cultured neurons for drug discovery.

  17. Safety and effectiveness of a circumferential clip-based vascular closure device for hemostasis in off-label applications: Comparison with standard applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Kim, Chang Won [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ung Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan Pusan National University Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of a circumferential nitinol clip based arterial closure device following arteriotomy, especially in off-label applications. Consecutive patients who underwent the procedure with arteriotomy from January 2011 to February 2014 were included in this study. We defined standard use as the use of StarClose for retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and off-label use as the use of StarClose for retrograde puncture of the superficial femoral artery (SFA), antegrade puncture of the CFA or SFA, puncture of the brachial artery or puncture of the vascular graft. The procedures performed included percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and thrombolysis. Technical success was defined as complete hemostasis achieved within 3 minute after the closure. Complications, and laboratory findings associated with coagulation function, were also investigated. There were 146 cases of standard applications and 111 cases of off-label applications. Technical success was achieved in all cases. The off-label group comprised the use of StarClose for retrograde puncture of the SFA (n = 19), antegrade puncture of the CFA or SFA (n = 74), brachial artery puncture (n = 5), larger sheath than 6 Fr (n = 7) and vascular graft puncture (n = 6). Minor complications were noted in both groups (standard group: 7.5%, off-label group: 2.7%). Off-label use of StarClose is safe and feasible.

  18. Safety and effectiveness of a circumferential clip-based vascular closure device for hemostasis in off-label applications: Comparison with standard applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Kim, Chang Won; Jeon, Ung Bae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of a circumferential nitinol clip based arterial closure device following arteriotomy, especially in off-label applications. Consecutive patients who underwent the procedure with arteriotomy from January 2011 to February 2014 were included in this study. We defined standard use as the use of StarClose for retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and off-label use as the use of StarClose for retrograde puncture of the superficial femoral artery (SFA), antegrade puncture of the CFA or SFA, puncture of the brachial artery or puncture of the vascular graft. The procedures performed included percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and thrombolysis. Technical success was defined as complete hemostasis achieved within 3 minute after the closure. Complications, and laboratory findings associated with coagulation function, were also investigated. There were 146 cases of standard applications and 111 cases of off-label applications. Technical success was achieved in all cases. The off-label group comprised the use of StarClose for retrograde puncture of the SFA (n = 19), antegrade puncture of the CFA or SFA (n = 74), brachial artery puncture (n = 5), larger sheath than 6 Fr (n = 7) and vascular graft puncture (n = 6). Minor complications were noted in both groups (standard group: 7.5%, off-label group: 2.7%). Off-label use of StarClose is safe and feasible

  19. Distribution, structure and projections of the frog intracardiac neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batulevicius, Darius; Skripkiene, Gertruda; Batuleviciene, Vaida; Skripka, Valdas; Dabuzinskiene, Anita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2012-05-21

    Histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase was used to determine the distribution of intracardiac neurons in the frog Rana temporaria. Seventy-nine intracardiac neurons from 13 frogs were labelled iontophoretically by the intracellular markers Alexa Fluor 568 and Lucifer Yellow CH to determine their structure and projections. Total neuronal number per frog heart was (Mean ± SE) 1374 ± 56. Largest collections of neurons were found in the interatrial septum (46%), atrioventricular junction (25%) and venal sinus (12%). Among the intracellularly labelled neurons, we found the cells of unipolar (71%), multipolar (20%) and bipolar (9%) types. Multiple processes originated from the neuron soma, hillock and proximal axon. These processes projected onto adjacent neuron somata and cardiac muscle fibers within the interatrial septum. Average total length of the processes from proximal axon was 348 ± 50 μm. Average total length of processes from soma and hillock was less, 118 ± 27 μm and 109 ± 24 μm, respectively. The somata of 59% of neurons had bubble- or flake-shaped extensions. Most neurons from the major nerves in the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the ventricle. In contrast, most neurons from the ventral part of the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the atria. Our findings contradict to a view that the frog intracardiac ganglia contain only non-dendritic neurons of the unipolar type. We conclude that the frog intracardiac neurons are structurally complex and diverse. This diversity may account for the complicated integrative functions of the frog intrinsic cardiac ganglia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. α-Tubulin Tyrosination and CLIP-170 Phosphorylation Regulate the Initiation of Dynein-Driven Transport in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Nirschl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor-cargo recruitment to microtubules is often the rate-limiting step of intracellular transport, and defects in this recruitment can cause neurodegenerative disease. Here, we use in vitro reconstitution assays with single-molecule resolution, live-cell transport assays in primary neurons, computational image analysis, and computer simulations to investigate the factors regulating retrograde transport initiation in the distal axon. We find that phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal-organelle linker protein CLIP-170 and post-translational modifications of the microtubule track combine to precisely control the initiation of retrograde transport. Computer simulations of organelle dynamics in the distal axon indicate that while CLIP-170 primarily regulates the time to microtubule encounter, the tyrosination state of the microtubule lattice regulates the likelihood of binding. These mechanisms interact to control transport initiation in the axon in a manner sensitive to the specialized cytoskeletal architecture of the neuron.

  1. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  2. Exclusive neuronal expression of SUCLA2 in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobolyi, Arpád; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Bagó, Attila G

    2015-01-01

    associated with SUCLA2 mutations, the precise localization of SUCLA2 protein has never been investigated. Here, we show that immunoreactivity of A-SUCL-β in surgical human cortical tissue samples was present exclusively in neurons, identified by their morphology and visualized by double labeling...... was absent in glial cells, identified by antibodies directed against the glial markers GFAP and S100. Furthermore, in situ hybridization histochemistry demonstrated that SUCLA2 mRNA was present in Nissl-labeled neurons but not glial cells labeled with S100. Immunoreactivity of the GTP-forming β subunit (G......-SUCL-β) encoded by SUCLG2, or in situ hybridization histochemistry for SUCLG2 mRNA could not be demonstrated in either neurons or astrocytes. Western blotting of post mortem brain samples revealed minor G-SUCL-β immunoreactivity that was, however, not upregulated in samples obtained from diabetic versus non...

  3. Endoscopic retrograde JJ-stenting of the ureter without fluoroscopy guidance--an appraisal of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibu, S I; Gidado, S; Oseni-Momodu, E

    2013-01-01

    JJ- ureteral stenting is a means of relieving ureteric obstruction. It is done as a retrograde or antegrade procedure, usually under fluoroscopy guidance. We reviewed our results in 2 independent tertiary health centers in Nigeria which lack fluoroscopy units. A 2 year retrospective review of data of patients who had retrograde JJ- ureteric stenting was done. Data relating to age, indication and outcome of procedure were retrieved and analysed. 22 (71%) patients had successful retrograde JJ- ureteric stenting out of 31 patients who were taken for the procedure. These 22 patients had stenting of 27 ureteric units. Mean age was 48.5 years. Commonest indication was carcinoma of the cervix (31.8%). Commonest complication was irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (43.5%). In spite of inherent complications, JJ-stenting is a simple and safe technique. Therefore, the decision to attempt JJ -stenting in carefully selected patients in the absence of fluoroscopy is acceptable.

  4. Transport According to GARP: Receiving Retrograde Cargo at the Trans-Golgi Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hierro, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    Tethering factors are large protein complexes that capture transport vesicles and enable their fusion with acceptor organelles at different stages of the endomembrane system. Recent studies have shed new light on the structure and function of a heterotetrameric tethering factor named Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP), which promotes fusion of endosome-derived, retrograde transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). X-ray crystallography of the Vps53 and Vps54 subunits of GARP has revealed that this complex is structurally related to other tethering factors such as the exocyst, COG and Dsl1, indicating that they all might work by a similar mechanism. Loss of GARP function compromises the growth, fertility and/or viability of the defective organisms, underscoring the essential nature of GARP-mediated retrograde transport. PMID:21183348

  5. Pasting, rheological, and retrogradation properties of low-amylose rice starch with date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O; Babucurr, Jobe

    2017-09-01

    Effects of date syrup on pasting, rheological, and retrogradation properties of low-amylose rice starch were investigated using three levels of date syrup (starch:syrup 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3). Measurements were carried out using HR-2 Discovery Rheometer equipped with a pasting cell and parallel plate geometry. The pasting measurements showed that the peak viscosity of the control is significantly higher than the samples with date syrup (p date syrup levels. Addition of date syrup increases the solid-like behavior of the gel in reverse order with increased date syrup levels. Low-amylose starch gel used in this study showed minor changes in elastic modulus (G') during one week cold storage indicting that low-amylose rice starch is resistant to retrogradation. Addition of date syrup slightly resulted in increased retrogradation compared to the control.

  6. Retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic duct diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.D.; Sedletskaya, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Results of retrograde cannulation with the aid of flexible fibroduodenoscopes with subsequent introduction of a contrast substance into biliary and pancreatic ducts are presented. The investigation is carried out on 120 patients with different diseases of hepatopancreatoduodenal zone. The standard technique of X-ray examination has been applied permitting to obtain the most exhaustive information. Using retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed have been choledocholithiasis, deformation of biliary ducts after surgical intervention, pancreatic cyst, tumor of the main pancreatic duct etc. Results of investigation of biliary and pancreatic ducts using retrograde cannulation are reaffirmed with the data of operations on biliary tract in 72 patients. Intraoperational cholangiography has been carried out on 36 of them during operation. An attempt to cannulate big duodenal papilla in 12 patients proved to be ineffective. No complications have been observed during examination

  7. Charge collection control using retrograde well tested by proton microprobe irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayama, Hirokazu; Takai, Mikio; Kimura, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yoshikazu; Satoh, Shinichi; Sonoda, Kenichirou; Katani, Norihiko.

    1993-01-01

    Soft error reduction by high-energy ion-implanted layers has been investigated by novel evaluation techniques using high-energy proton microprobes. A retrograde well formed by 160 and 700 keV boron ion implantation could completely suppress soft errors induced by the proton microprobes at 400 keV. The proton-induced current revealed the charge collection efficiency for the retrograde well structure. The collected charge for the retrograde well in the soft-error mapping was proved to be lower than the critical charge of the measured DRAMs(dynamic random-access memories). Complementary use of soft-error mapping and ion-induced-current measurement could clarify well structures immune against soft errors. (author)

  8. On the observed excess of retrograde orbits among long-period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of orbital inclinations of the observed long-period comets is analysed. An excess of retrograde orbits is found which increases with the perihelion distance, except for the range 1.1 10 3 A U) has the same behaviour as the total sample. It is thus suggested that the excess of retrograde orbits among long-period comets is related to an already existent excess among the incoming new comets (i.e. comets driven into the planetary region by stellar perturbations). Using theoretical considerations and a numerical model it is proposed that an important fraction of the so-called new comets are actually repeating passages through the planetary region. Nearly a half of the new comets with q > 2 A U may be repeating passages. An important consequence of the presence of comets repeating passages among the new ones is the production of an excess of retrograde orbits in the whole sample. (author)

  9. Combined use of intraarterial digital subtraction angiography with conventional retrograde brachial vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Toshihide; Inugami, Atsushi; Kawata, Yasushi; Shishido, Fumio; Uemura, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    For 102 patients who had the examination of conventional bilaterally retrograde brachial vertebral angiography (retrograde VAG), intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was successively performed to investigate steno-occlusive lesions of proximal vertebral and subclavian arteries. All the patients had no complication due to the DSA procedure. In 50% of 72 ischemic stroke cases, positive findings were found either in the origin of the vertebral artery or in the subclavian artery. Stenosis of more than 50% of the lumen of the vertebral artery were found in 14% of the cases at the origin of the right one and also in 14% in the left one. Occlusion of the vertebral artery was found in 4% in the left side only. In 30 cases with non-ischemic brain diseases, positive findings were noted in 10%. Intraarterial DSA combined with retrograde VAG was thought to be useful, especially in the examination for ischemic stroke. (author)

  10. Retrograde Signals: Integrators of Interorganellar Communication and Orchestrators of Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Amancio; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2017-04-28

    Interorganellar cooperation maintained via exquisitely controlled retrograde-signaling pathways is an evolutionary necessity for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. This signaling feature has therefore attracted much research attention aimed at improving understanding of the nature of these communication signals, how the signals are sensed, and ultimately the mechanism by which they integrate targeted processes that collectively culminate in organellar cooperativity. The answers to these questions will provide insight into how retrograde-signal-mediated regulatory mechanisms are recruited and which biological processes are targeted, and will advance our understanding of how organisms balance metabolic investments in growth against adaptation to environmental stress. This review summarizes the present understanding of the nature and the functional complexity of retrograde signals as integrators of interorganellar communication and orchestrators of plant development, and offers a perspective on the future of this critical and dynamic area of research.

  11. Cortical Divergent Projections in Mice Originate from Two Sequentially Generated, Distinct Populations of Excitatory Cortical Neurons with Different Initial Axonal Outgrowth Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Namikawa, Tomohiro; Yamauchi, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    Excitatory cortical neurons project to various subcortical and intracortical regions, and exhibit diversity in their axonal connections. Although this diversity may develop from primary axons, how many types of axons initially occur remains unknown. Using a sparse-labeling in utero electroporation method, we investigated the axonal outgrowth of these neurons in mice and correlated the data with axonal projections in adults. Examination of lateral cortex neurons labeled during the main period of cortical neurogenesis (E11.5-E15.5) indicated that axonal outgrowth commonly occurs in the intermediate zone. Conversely, the axonal direction varied; neurons labeled before E12.5 and the earliest cortical plate neurons labeled at E12.5 projected laterally, whereas neurons labeled thereafter projected medially. The expression of Ctip2 and Satb2 and the layer destinations of these neurons support the view that lateral and medial projection neurons are groups of prospective subcortical and callosal projection neurons, respectively. Consistently, birthdating experiments demonstrated that presumptive lateral projection neurons were generated earlier than medial projection neurons, even within the same layer. These results suggest that the divergent axonal connections of excitatory cortical neurons begin from two types of primary axons, which originate from two sequentially generated distinct subpopulations: early-born lateral (subcortical) and later-born medial (callosal) projection neuron groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  13. A dissociation between anterograde and retrograde amnesia after treatment with electroconvulsive therapy: a naturalistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Margaret; Lebowitz, Brian K; Ly, Jenny; Panizzon, Matthew S; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Dey, Sangeeta; Bloomingdale, Kerry; Thall, Mark; Pearlman, Chester

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the cumulative effects of a clinically determined course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on anterograde and retrograde amnesia. In this study, mood and memory were examined in the context of a protocol driven by therapeutic response, rather than by preordained research criteria. Twenty-two patients with major depressive disorder and 18 nondepressed controls were taught a series of faces and names before the initiation of ECT, and their retention of this information was examined after the end of treatment. Anterograde (ie, new learning) and retrograde memory (ie, recall of information learned before ECT) were assessed. Eleven ECT patients underwent unilateral (UL) stimulation, and 11 had a combination of UL and bilateral stimulation. Major depressive disorder patients and nondepressed controls participants were matched according to baseline memory abilities. Unilateral and unilateral/bilateral (UB) ECT patients were matched according to baseline depression and memory abilities. Treatment with ECT resulted in a dissociation between anterograde and retrograde memory; after treatment, major depressive disorder patients demonstrated significant retrograde amnesia, whereas there was no change in their anterograde memory. Unilateral and UB ECT patients performed equally well on tasks of anterograde memory. Contrary to our expectation, UB ECT was not associated with greater retrograde memory loss than was UL ECT treatment. However, a trend toward a group difference was present on 1 memory measure. Results of the study suggest that a clinical course of ECT is associated with isolated impairment for information learned before treatment (ie, retrograde memory), whereas there was no effect of ECT on posttreatment learning abilities (ie, anterograde memory).

  14. Retrograde or antegrade double-pigtail stent placement for malignant ureteric obstruction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uthappa, M.C.; Cowan, N.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the optimum approach for double-pigtail stent placement in malignant ureteric obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrograde stent placement was attempted in a consecutive series of patients presenting with malignant ureteric obstruction. If retrograde stent placement was unsuccessful, percutaneous nephrostomy was performed immediately followed by elective antegrade stent placement. Identical digital C-arm fluoroscopy for image-guidance and conditions for anaesthesia and analgesia were employed for both retrograde and antegrade procedures. Identical 8 Fr (20-26 cm) double-pigtail hydrophilic coated stents were used for each approach. RESULTS: Retrograde placement was attempted in 50 ureters in 30 patients {19 male, 11 female, average age 61.4 yr (range 29-90 yr)} over a 24-month period. The success rate for retrograde ureteric stent placement was 50% (n=25/50). Technical failures were due to failure to identify the ureteric orifice (n=22), failure to cross the stricture (n=1), failure to pass the stent (n=1) and failure to pass a 4 Fr catheter (n=1). Antegrade placement was attempted in 25 ureters with a success rate of 96% (n=24/25). Failure in the one case was due to inability to cross an upper third stricture secondary to pyeloureteritis cystica. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that retrograde route should be the initial approach if imaging shows no involvement of ureteric orifice (UO), when nephrostomy is technically very difficult or in cases of solitary kidney. The antegrade route is preferred if imaging shows tumour occlusion of the UO or if there is a tight stricture very close to the uretero-vesical junction (UVJ) making purchase within the ureter difficult for crossing the stricture

  15. Twelve months follow-up after retrograde recanalization of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojtasik-Bakalarz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Fifty percent of cases of peripheral artery disease are caused by chronic total occlusion (CTO of the superficial femoral artery (SFA. Ten–fifteen percent of percutaneous SFA recanalization procedures are unsuccessful. In those cases the retrograde technique can increase the success rate of the procedure, but the long-term follow-up of such procedures is still unknown. Aim : To assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up after retrograde recanalization of the SFA. Material and methods: We included patients after at least one unsuccessful percutaneous antegrade recanalization of the SFA. Patients were evaluated for the procedural and clinical follow-up of mean time 13.9 months. Results: The study included 17 patients (7 females, 10 males who underwent percutaneous retrograde recanalization of the SFA from June 2011 to June 2015. The mean age of patients was 63 ±7 years. Retrograde puncture of the distal SFA was successful in all cases. A retrograde procedure was performed immediately after antegrade failure in 4 (23.5% patients and after a previously failed attempt in 13 (76.5% patients. The procedure was successful in 15 (88.2% patients, and unsuccessful in 2 (11.8% patients. Periprocedural complications included 1 peripheral distal embolization (successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy, 1 bleeding event from the puncture site and 7 puncture site hematomas. During follow-up the all-cause mortality rate was 5.8% (1 patient, non-cardiac death. The primary patency rate at 12 months was 88.2% and secondary patency 100%. Conclusions : The retrograde SFA puncture seems to be a safe and successful technique for CTO recanalization and is associated with a low rate of perioperative and long-term follow-up complications.

  16. Cell Biological Mechanisms of Activity-Dependent Synapse to Nucleus Translocation of CRTC1 in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Hean eCh'ng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed a critical role for CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC1 in regulating neuronal gene expression during learning and memory. CRTC1 localizes to synapses but undergoes activity-dependent nuclear translocation to regulate the transcription of CREB target genes. Here we investigate the long-distance retrograde transport of CRTC1 in hippocampal neurons. We show that local elevations in calcium, triggered by activation of synaptic glutamate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, initiate active, dynein-mediated retrograde transport of CRTC1 along microtubules. We identify a nuclear localization signal within CRTC1, and characterize three conserved serine residues whose dephosphorylation is required for nuclear import. Domain analysis reveals that the amino-terminal third of CRTC1 contains all of the signals required for regulated nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. We fuse this region to Dendra2 to generate a reporter construct and perform live-cell imaging coupled with local uncaging of glutamate and photoconversion to characterize the dynamics of stimulus-induced retrograde transport and nuclear accumulation.

  17. Dimensions of the prostatic and membranous urethra in normal male dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Osborne, C.A.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Prostatic and membranous urethral diameter was measured in 24 normal mature male Beagle dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography. This technique involved retrograde urethral distension by infusion with contrast medium until the urinary bladder was distended and the vesicourethral junction remained opened as observed by fluoroscopy. Lateral and ventro-dorsal radiographs were made during subsequent injections of 5–10 ml of contrast medium. The prostatic urethra was consistently greater in diameter than the membranous urethra. However, the numerical ratio between the prostatic urethral diameter and the membranous urethral diameter varied among these dogs by a factor of 2 at the numerical extremes

  18. Hypotonic duodenography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, P.J.; Rolny, P.; Nilson, A.E.; Gamklou, R.

    1981-01-01

    Hypotonic duodenography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography were performed in 45 non-icteric patients with suggested pancreatic disease or long-standing upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The accuracy of each method in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease was compared. Hypotonic duodenography revealed pancreatitis in 48 per cent and ERP in 83 per cent of the cases. All 6 pancreatic tumours were detected at ERP and 3 at duodenography. The role of hypotonic duodenography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease is discussed. (Auth.)

  19. MR imaging of the entry, the abdominal communicating orifice, and the retrograde dissection in aortic dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Mukohara, N.; Nakamura, K.; Sugimura, K.; Kono, M.

    1986-01-01

    MR imaging (1.5 T) was performed on 41 patients with aortic dissection. Entries were clearly visualized on the MR images as partial defects of the intimal flap in 18 of 21 patients (85.7%). In eight of ten patients, the locations of abdominal communicating orifices corresponded to the lowest signal intensities of the false lumina. Retrograde disections were diagnosed in all six patients from gradual increases in signal intensities of the false lumina toward the heart. MR imaging was very useful in diagnosing entries of the thoracic aorta, abdominal communicating orifices between true and false lumina, and retrograde dissections

  20. Radiation-related retrograde hydrogen isotope and K-Ar exchange in clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halter, C.; Pagel, M.; Sheppard, S.M.F.; Weber, F.; Clauer, N.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope studies have been widely applied to characterize the origin of fluids during ore-foaming processes. The primary isotope record, however, may be disturbed by retrograde exchange reactions, thus complicating the interpretation of the data. The susceptibility of minerals to retrograde isotope and chemical exchange is variable, reflecting differences in the mechanism and rate of isotope exchange. Results are presented on deuterium depletion, K/Ar ages and H 2 O + content of illites associated with uranium mineralization from the Athabasca basin (Canada). (author)

  1. Outcomes of infrageniculate retrograde versus transfemoral access for endovascular intervention for chronic lower extremity ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ashraf G; Abou Ali, Adham N; Al-Khoury, George; Singh, Michael J; Makaroun, Michel S; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Chaer, Rabih A

    2018-03-31

    Retrograde infrageniculate access is an alternative treatment strategy for patients who have failed to respond to antegrade endovascular intervention. This study compares the outcomes of infrageniculate retrograde arterial access with the conventional transfemoral access for the endovascular management of chronic lower extremity ischemia. This was a retrospective single-center review of retrograde endovascular intervention (REI) from 2012 to 2016. Indications for intervention, comorbidities, complications, procedural success, limb outcomes, and mortality were analyzed. Technical failure was defined as the inability to complete the procedure because of failed access or unsuccessful recanalization. Infrageniculate access and transfemoral access were obtained with ultrasound or angiographic roadmap guidance. Patency rates were calculated for technically successful interventions. There were 47 patients (85% presenting with critical limb ischemia) who underwent sheathless REI after failed antegrade recanalization of TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus class D infrainguinal lesions, whereas 93 patients (83% with critical limb ischemia) underwent standard transfemoral access. There were 16 (34%) femoropopliteal, 14 (30%) tibial, and 17 (36%) multilevel interventions in the retrograde group compared with 41 (41%) femoropopliteal, 20 (20%) tibial, and 39 (39%) multilevel interventions in the transfemoral group. Access sites for the retrograde group included the dorsalis pedis (26%), midcalf peroneal (24%), anterior tibial (22%), posterior tibial (26%), and popliteal (2%) arteries. Overall technical success was achieved in 57% of the retrograde group compared with 78% of the transfemoral group. Mean follow-up was 20 months (range, 1-45 months). There were no significant differences in the primary patency rates between the two groups at 1 year and 2 years. The primary assisted patency rates were significantly better in the transfemoral group at 1 year (66% vs 46%; P

  2. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for gingival carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Y.; Hata, M.; Koike, I.; Inoue, T. [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Mitsudo, K.; Koizumi, T.; Oguri, S.; Kioi, M.; Tohnai, I. [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, M. [Shonankamakura General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. In all, 34 patients (21 men and 13 women) with squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva underwent radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Treatment consisted of daily external irradiation and concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion with cisplatin and docetaxel. A median total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions was delivered to tumors. Of the 34 patients, 29 (85 %) achieved a complete response (CR) and 5 had residual tumors. Of the 29 patients with a CR, 2 had local recurrences and 1 had distant metastasis 1-15 months after treatment. Twenty-six of the 36 patients had survived at a median follow-up time of 36 months (range 12-79 months); 4 died of cancer and 4 died of non-cancer-related causes. At both 3 and 5 years after treatment, the overall survival rates were 79 % and the cause-specific survival rates were 85 %. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandibular bone only developed in 1 patient after treatment. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy was effective and safe in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. This treatment may be a promising curative and organ-preserving treatment option for gingival carcinoma. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie war die Ueberpruefung der Effizienz und Toxizitaet einer Strahlenbehandlung des Gingivakarzinoms mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Chemotherapie. Insgesamt 34 Patienten (21 Maenner und 13 Frauen) mit Zahnfleischplattenzellkarzinom erhielten eine Strahlenbehandlung mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Chemotherapie. Die Behandlung umfasste eine taegliche externe Bestrahlung mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Infusion von Cisplatin und

  3. Retrograde shear rate in formerly preeclamptic and healthy women before and after exercise training: relationship with endothelial function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Green, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood flow patterns in conduit arteries characterized by high levels of retrograde shear stress can be detrimental for vascular health. In this study we examined whether retrograde shear rate and endothelial function are related in healthy and formerly preeclamptic (PE) women and whether this

  4. A rapid method combining Golgi and Nissl staining to study neuronal morphology and cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Nadia; Barker, Matthew; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Donga, Revers; Hamann, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue slice tend to use the Golgi silver impregnation technique for neuronal morphology followed by deimpregnation as a prerequisite for showing that neuron's histological location by subsequent Nissl staining. Here, we describe a rapid method combining Golgi silver impregnation with cresyl violet staining that provides a useful and simple approach to combining cellular morphology with cytoarchitecture without the need for deimpregnating the tissue. Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the dorsal cochlear nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet-labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities. Our observation suggests that cresyl violet staining is inadequate to quantify differences in soma sizes.

  5. Crosstalks between kisspeptin neurons and somatostatin neurons are not photoperiod dependent in the ewe hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufourny, Laurence; Lomet, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal reproduction is under the control of gonadal steroid feedback, itself synchronized by day-length or photoperiod. As steroid action on GnRH neurons is mostly indirect and therefore exerted through interneurons, we looked for neuroanatomical interactions between kisspeptin (KP) neurons and somatostatin (SOM) neurons, two populations targeted by sex steroids, in three diencephalic areas involved in the central control of ovulation and/or sexual behavior: the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the preoptic area (POA) and the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl). KP is the most potent secretagogue of GnRH secretion while SOM has been shown to centrally inhibit LH pulsatile release. Notably, hypothalamic contents of these two neuropeptides vary with photoperiod in specific seasonal species. Our hypothesis is that SOM inhibits KP neuron activity and therefore indirectly modulate GnRH release and that this effect may be seasonally regulated. We used sections from ovariectomized estradiol-replaced ewes killed after photoperiodic treatment mimicking breeding or anestrus season. We performed triple immunofluorescent labeling to simultaneously detect KP, SOM and synapsin, a marker for synaptic vesicles. Sections from the POA and from the mediobasal hypothalamus were examined using a confocal microscope. Randomly selected KP or SOM neurons were observed in the POA and ARC. SOM neurons were also observed in the VMHvl. In both the ARC and POA, nearly all KP neurons presented numerous SOM contacts. SOM neurons presented KP terminals more frequently in the ARC than in the POA and VMHvl. Quantitative analysis failed to demonstrate major seasonal variations of KP and SOM interactions. Our data suggest a possible inhibitory action of SOM on all KP neurons in both photoperiodic statuses. On the other hand, the physiological significance of KP modulation of SOM neuron activity and vice versa remain to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroanatomy of pars intercerebralis neurons with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor in the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuyama, Kouji; Hase, Hiroaki; Shiga, Sakiko

    2015-10-01

    Input regions of pars intercerebralis (PI) neurons are examined by confocal and electron microscopies with special reference to their connections with neurons immunoreactive for pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae. PI neurons are a prerequisite for ovarian development under long-day conditions. Backfills from the cardiac recurrent nerve after severance of the posterior lateral tracts labeled thin fibers derived from the PI neurons in the superior medial protocerebrum. These PI fibers were mainly synapsin-negative and postsynaptic to unknown varicose profiles containing dense-core vesicles. Backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils, derived from the PI neurons or neurons with somata in the subesophageal zone, were varicose and some were synapsin-positive. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites in backfilled fibers in the periesophageal neuropils. Many PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were found in the superior medial and lateral protocerebrum and double-labeling showed that 60-88 % of PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were also synapsin-immunoreactive. Double-labeling with the backfills and PDF immunocytochemistry showed that the PI fibers and PDF-immunoreactive varicosities were located close to each other in the superior medial protocerebrum. Results of triple-labeling of PI neurons, PDF-immunoreactive neurons and synapsin-immunoreactive terminals demonstrated that the synapsin-positive PDF-immunoreactive varicosities contacted the PI fibers. These data suggest that PI neurons receive synaptic contacts from PDF-immunoreactive fibers, which are derived from circadian clock neurons, of small ventral lateral neurons (previously called OL2) or posterior dorsal (PD) neurons with somata in the pars lateralis.

  7. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work In The Brain Order Publications ... birth defects caused by the abnormal migration of neurons in the developing brain and nervous system. In ...

  8. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ...

  9. Local-circuit phenotypes of layer 5 neurons in motor-frontal cortex of YFP-H mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Yu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Layer 5 pyramidal neurons comprise an important but heterogeneous group of cortical projection neurons. In motor-frontal cortex, these neurons are centrally involved in the cortical control of movement. Recent studies indicate that local excitatory networks in mouse motor-frontal cortex are dominated by descending pathways from layer 2/3 to 5. However, those pathways were identified in experiments involving unlabeled neurons in wild type mice. Here, to explore the possibility of class-specific connectivity in this descending pathway, we mapped the local sources of excitatory synaptic input to a genetically labeled population of cortical neurons: YFP-positive layer 5 neurons of YFP-H mice. We found, first, that in motor cortex, YFP-positive neurons were distributed in a double blade, consistent with the idea of layer 5B having greater thickness in frontal neocortex. Second, whereas unlabeled neurons in upper layer 5 received their strongest inputs from layer 2, YFP-positive neurons in the upper blade received prominent layer 3 inputs. Third, YFP-positive neurons exhibited distinct electrophysiological properties, including low spike frequency adaptation, as reported previously. Our results with this genetically labeled neuronal population indicate the presence of distinct local-circuit phenotypes among layer 5 pyramidal neurons in mouse motor-frontal cortex, and present a paradigm for investigating local circuit organization in other genetically labeled populations of cortical neurons.

  10. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  11. RenderGAN: Generating Realistic Labeled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sixt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Convolutional Neuronal Networks (DCNNs are showing remarkable performance on many computer vision tasks. Due to their large parameter space, they require many labeled samples when trained in a supervised setting. The costs of annotating data manually can render the use of DCNNs infeasible. We present a novel framework called RenderGAN that can generate large amounts of realistic, labeled images by combining a 3D model and the Generative Adversarial Network framework. In our approach, image augmentations (e.g., lighting, background, and detail are learned from unlabeled data such that the generated images are strikingly realistic while preserving the labels known from the 3D model. We apply the RenderGAN framework to generate images of barcode-like markers that are attached to honeybees. Training a DCNN on data generated by the RenderGAN yields considerably better performance than training it on various baselines.

  12. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  13. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  14. Altered balance of glutamatergic/GABAergic synaptic input and associated changes in dendrite morphology after BDNF expression in BDNF-deficient hippocampal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, B.; Henneberger, C.; Betances, D.; Arevalo, M.A.; Rodriguez-Tebar, A.; Meier, J.C.; Grantyn, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cultured neurons from bdnf-/- mice display reduced densities of synaptic terminals, although in vivo these deficits are small or absent. Here we aimed at clarifying the local responses to postsynaptic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). To this end, solitary enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled hippocampal neurons from bdnf-/- mice were compared with bdnf-/- neurons after transfection with BDNF, bdnf-/- neurons after transient exposure to exogenous BDNF, and bdnf+/+ neurons...

  15. Membrane properties of striatal direct and indirect pathway neurons in mouse and rat slices and their modulation by dopamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Planert

    Full Text Available D1 and D2 receptor expressing striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs are ascribed to striatonigral ("direct" and striatopallidal ("indirect" pathways, respectively, that are believed to function antagonistically in motor control. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto the two types is differentially affected by Dopamine (DA, however, less is known about the effects on MSN intrinsic electrical properties. Using patch clamp recordings, we comprehensively characterized the two pathways in rats and mice, and investigated their DA modulation. We identified the direct pathway by retrograde labeling in rats, and in mice we used transgenic animals in which EGFP is expressed in D1 MSNs. MSNs were subjected to a series of current injections to pinpoint differences between the populations, and in mice also following bath application of DA. In both animal models, most electrical properties were similar, however, membrane excitability as measured by step and ramp current injections consistently differed, with direct pathway MSNs being less excitable than their counterparts. DA had opposite effects on excitability of D1 and D2 MSNs, counteracting the initial differences. Pronounced changes in AP shape were seen in D2 MSNs. In direct pathway MSNs, excitability increased across experimental conditions and parameters, and also when applying DA or the D1 agonist SKF-81297 in presence of blockers of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic receptors. Thus, DA induced changes in excitability were D1 R mediated and intrinsic to direct pathway MSNs, and not a secondary network effect of altered synaptic transmission. DAergic modulation of intrinsic properties therefore acts in a synergistic manner with previously reported effects of DA on afferent synaptic transmission and dendritic processing, supporting the antagonistic model for direct vs. indirect striatal pathway function.

  16. Antegrade Ureteral Stenting is a Good Alternative for the Retrograde Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Rutger W; Weltings, Saskia; van Erkel, Arian R; Roshani, Hossain; Elzevier, Henk W; van Dijk, Lukas C; van Overhagen, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Double J (JJ) stents for treating obstructive ureteral pathology are generally inserted through a retrograde route with cystoscopic guidance. Antegrade percutaneous insertion using fluoroscopy can be performed alternatively but is less known. Indications, success rate and complications of antegrade ureteral stenting were evaluated. Data of consecutive patients in which antegrade ureteral stenting was performed were retrospectively analysed using the radiology information system and patient records. Patient characteristics, details of the antegrade JJ stent insertion procedure and registered complications were collected. Furthermore, it was investigated if prior to the antegrade procedure a retrograde attempt for JJ stent insertion was performed. Total 130 attempts for antegrade JJ stent insertion were performed in 100 patients. A percutaneous nephrostomy catheter had already been placed in the majority of kidneys (n = 109) for initial treatment of hydronephrosis. Most prevelant indication for a JJ stent was obstructive ureteral pathology due to malignancy (n = 63). A JJ stent was successfully inserted in 125 of 130 procedures. In 21 cases, previous retrograde ureteral stenting had failed but, subsequent antegrade ureteral stenting was successful. There were 8 procedure related complications; 6 infections, 1 false tract and 1 malposition. Antegrade percutaneous insertion of a JJ stent is a good alternative for retrograde insertion.

  17. Excimer laser coronary atherectomy in septal collaterals during retrograde recanalization of a chronic total occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernward Lauer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Management of chronic total occlusions has been refined through the development of a retrograde approach via collateral pathways. We describe the use of Excimer Laser Coronary Atherectomy in the septal collaterals. This appraoch was not yet described in the literature.

  18. Cervical Retrograde Spinal Cord Stimulation Lead Placement to Treat Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, N. van; Kardaszewski, C.N.; Chapman, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is an effective treatment modality for refractory neuropathic pain conditions, but the placement of leads can be challenging due to unforeseen anatomical variations. We used a retrograde C7-T1 approach to place a lead at the bottom of T8 in a patient suffering from failed

  19. Atrial activation during atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia: studies on retrograde fast pathway conduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katritsis, Demosthenes G.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Becker, Anton E.

    2006-01-01

    Detailed right and left septal mapping of retrograde atrial activation during typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) has not been undertaken and may provide insight into the complex physiology of AVNRT, especially the anatomic localization of the fast and slow pathways. The

  20. Changing strategies of the retrograde approach for chronic total occlusion during the past 7 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramatsu, Toshiya; Tsukahara, Reiko; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ishimori, Hiroshi; Park, Seung-Jung; de Winter, Robert; Shokry, Khaled; Wang, Lefeng; Chen, Jiyan; Wang, Haichang

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the technical changes and results achieved with the retrograde approach since we introduced it 7 years ago. The subjects were 1,268 patients who were treated for CTO between January 2004 and December 2010. They were investigated with respect to the success rate, the frequency of

  1. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for gingival carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Y.; Hata, M.; Koike, I.; Inoue, T.; Mitsudo, K.; Koizumi, T.; Oguri, S.; Kioi, M.; Tohnai, I.; Omura, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. In all, 34 patients (21 men and 13 women) with squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva underwent radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Treatment consisted of daily external irradiation and concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion with cisplatin and docetaxel. A median total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions was delivered to tumors. Of the 34 patients, 29 (85 %) achieved a complete response (CR) and 5 had residual tumors. Of the 29 patients with a CR, 2 had local recurrences and 1 had distant metastasis 1-15 months after treatment. Twenty-six of the 36 patients had survived at a median follow-up time of 36 months (range 12-79 months); 4 died of cancer and 4 died of non-cancer-related causes. At both 3 and 5 years after treatment, the overall survival rates were 79 % and the cause-specific survival rates were 85 %. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandibular bone only developed in 1 patient after treatment. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy was effective and safe in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. This treatment may be a promising curative and organ-preserving treatment option for gingival carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  2. Closing the medullary canal after retrograde nail removal using a bioabsorbable bone plug: technical tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, T.; Vogels, L. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple technique for closure of the intra-articular opening after the removal of a retrograde femur nail. With the use of a gelatine bioabsorbable bone plug the medullary canal is closed, reducing leakage of blood and cancellous bone particles from the bone into the knee joint

  3. Is the 'Trondsen Discriminant Function' useful in patients referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, A P; Pless, T; Mortensen, M B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ideally, patients should only be referred to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) if therapy is indicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not the 'Trondsen Discriminant Function' (DF) could be used for selecting patients directly for ERCP. METHODS...

  4. The therapeutic effect of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdar Yousefvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The glutamatergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Administration of crocus sativus (Saffron or its constituent, crocin, facilitates the formation of memory. This research investigated the effect of crocin on antagonizing retrograde amnesia induced by ketamine, a glutamatergic receptor antagonist, in rats by shuttle box. Methods: Male Wistar rats were tested to measure their learning behavior in the passive avoidance task. All animals were trained by a 1 mA shock. The drugs were injected immediately after the training was successfully performed. The animals were tested 24h after training to measure Step Through Latency (STL. Results: On the test day, administration of ketamine (12 mg/kg, ip impaired the memory after training. Different doses of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip were injected 30 min after ketamine, but only 2 mg/kg crocin could improve retrograde amnesia and 5 and 10 mg/kg doses did not have any significant effect on retrograde amnesia. Moreover, administration of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip after training had no significant impact on passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the therapeutic effect of post-training administration of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia, it can be argued that crocin has an interaction with glutamatergic system in formation of passive avoidance memory in rats.

  5. Is the 'Trondsen Discriminant Function' useful in patients referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, A P; Pless, T; Mortensen, M B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ideally, patients should only be referred to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) if therapy is indicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether or not the 'Trondsen Discriminant Function' (DF) could be used for selecting patients directly for ERCP. METHODS: T...

  6. Reexposure to the Amnestic Agent Alleviates Cycloheximide-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for Reactivated and Extinction Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James F.; Olson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether reexposure to an amnestic agent would reverse amnesia for extinction of learned fear similar to that of a reactivated memory. When cycloheximide (CHX) was administered immediately after a brief cue-induced memory reactivation (15 sec) and an extended extinction session (12 min) rats showed retrograde amnesia for both…

  7. Retrograde mineral and fluid evolution in high-pressure metapelites (Schistes Lustres unit, Western Alps).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agard, Ph.; Goffe, B.; Touret, J.L.R.; Vidal, O.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid inclusions have been analysed in successive generations of syn-metamorphic segregations within low-grade, high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) metapelites from the Western Alps. Fluid composition was then compared to mass transfer deduced from outcrop-scale retrograde mineral reactions. Two

  8. A Hands-on Exploration of the Retrograde Motion of Mars as Seen from the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, M. M.; Otranto, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a set of activities based on the use of a celestial simulator to gain insights into the retrograde motion of Mars as seen from the Earth. These activities provide a useful link between the heliocentric concepts taught in schools and those tackled in typical introductory physics courses based on classical mechanics for…

  9. Behavioral and Functional Neuroanatomical Correlates of Anterograde Autobiographical Memory in Isolated Retrograde Amnesic Patient M. L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Brian; Svoboda, Eva; Turner, Gary R.; Mandic, Marina; Mackey, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Patient M. L. [Levine, B., Black, S. E., Cabeza, R., Sinden, M., Mcintosh, A. R., Toth, J. P., et al. (1998). "Episodic memory and the self in a case of isolated retrograde amnesia." "Brain", "121", 1951-1973], lost memory for events occurring before his severe traumatic brain injury, yet his anterograde (post-injury) learning and memory appeared…

  10. The immune impact of mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy on rabbits of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suqin; Pei, Fenghua; Wang, Xinhong; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lixia; Song, Yanyan; Chen, Zhendong; Liu, Bingrong

    2017-09-12

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immune impact of mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy on rabbits of acute suppurative appendicitis and to determine whether TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in this process. 48 rabbits were assigned into 4 groups: group I, the mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy group; group II, the appendectomy group; group III, the model group; and group IV, the blank group. White blood cells decreased, while levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 increased on the 2 nd day in group I and II. IgA in feces decreased at 2 weeks, while fecal microbiota changed at 2 and 4 weeks after appendectomy. CD8 + cells in appendix of group I increased within 8 weeks. Upregulated expression of TLR4, MYD88, and nuclear NF-κB were detected on the 2 nd day in group I and II. Mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy are effective ways for acute suppurative appendicitis. Mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy was more preferable due to its advantage in maintaining intestinal immune function. TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in acute phase of appendicitis.

  11. Retrograde approach for the recanalization of coronary chronic total occlusion: collateral selection and collateral related complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Ying; Qian, Ju-Ying; Ge, Lei; Fan, Bing; Wang, Qi-Bing; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Yao, Kang; Huang, Dong; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2013-03-01

    The retrograde approach through collaterals has been applied in the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions during percutaneous recanalization of coronary arteries. This study was to investigate the success rate of recanalization and collateral related complications in patients when using the retrograde approach. Eighty-four cases subjected to retrograde approach identified from July 2005 to July 2012 were included in this study. Patient characteristics, procedural outcomes and in-hospital clinical events were evaluated. Mean age of the patient was (59.6 ± 11.2) years old and 91.7% were men. The target CTO lesions were distributed among the left anterior descending artery in 45 cases (53.5%), left circumflex artery in one case (1.2%), right coronary artery in 34 cases (40.5%), and left main in four cases (4.8%). The overall success rate of recanalization was 79.8%. The septal collateral was three times more frequently used for retrograde access than the epicardial collateral, 68/84 (81%) vs. 16/84 (19%). Successful wire passage through the collateral channel was achieved in 58 (72.6%) patients. The success rate of recanalization was 93.1% (54/58) in patients with and 50% (13/26) in patients without successful retrograde wire passage of the collateral channel (P collaterals was achieved in 49 of 68 septal collaterals (72.1%) and in 9 of 16 epicardial collaterals (56.3%) (P = NS). There was no significant difference between the septal collateral group and the epicardial group in the success rate of recanalization after retrograde wire crossing the collaterals (91.8% vs. 100%, P > 0.05). CART or reverse CART technique was used in 15 patients, and 14 patients (93.3%) were recanalized successfully. Collateral related perforation occurred in three (18.8%) cases with the epicardial collateral as the first choice (compared with the septal collateral group (0), P collaterals. The retrograde approach is an effective technique to recanalize CTO lesions, the septal

  12. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  13. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  14. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  15. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  16. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  17. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  18. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  19. Male pheromone protein components activate female vomeronasal neurons in the salamander Plethodon shermani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldhoff Pamela W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mental gland pheromone of male Plethodon salamanders contains two main protein components: a 22 kDa protein named Plethodon Receptivity Factor (PRF and a 7 kDa protein named Plethodon Modulating Factor (PMF, respectively. Each protein component individually has opposing effects on female courtship behavior, with PRF shortening and PMF lengthening courtship. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PRF or PMF individually activate vomeronasal neurons. The agmatine-uptake technique was used to visualize chemosensory neurons that were activated by each protein component individually. Results Vomeronasal neurons exposed to agmatine in saline did not demonstrate significant labeling. However, a population of vomeronasal neurons was labeled following exposure to either PRF or PMF. When expressed as a percent of control level labeled cells, PRF labeled more neurons than did PMF. These percentages for PRF and PMF, added together, parallel the percentage of labeled vomeronasal neurons when females are exposed to the whole pheromone. Conclusion This study suggests that two specific populations of female vomeronasal neurons are responsible for responding to each of the two components of the male pheromone mixture. These two neural populations, therefore, could express different receptors which, in turn, transmit different information to the brain, thus accounting for the different female behavior elicited by each pheromone component.

  20. Imaging Action Potential in Single Mammalian Neurons by Tracking the Accompanying Sub-Nanometer Mechanical Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunze; Liu, Xian-Wei; Wang, Hui; Yu, Hui; Guan, Yan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2018-03-28

    Action potentials in neurons have been studied traditionally by intracellular electrophysiological recordings and more recently by the fluorescence detection methods. Here we describe a label-free optical imaging method that can measure mechanical motion in single cells with a sub-nanometer detection limit. Using the method, we have observed sub-nanometer mechanical motion accompanying the action potential in single mammalian neurons by averaging the repeated action potential spikes. The shape and width of the transient displacement are similar to those of the electrically recorded action potential, but the amplitude varies from neuron to neuron, and from one region of a neuron to another, ranging from 0.2-0.4 nm. The work indicates that action potentials may be studied noninvasively in single mammalian neurons by label-free imaging of the accompanying sub-nanometer mechanical motion.

  1. Engineering connectivity by multiscale micropatterning of individual populations of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Jonas; Toma, Koji; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Functional networks are the basis of information processing in the central nervous system. Essential for their formation are guided neuronal growth as well as controlled connectivity and information flow. The basis of neuronal development is generated by guiding cues and geometric constraints. To investigate the neuronal growth and connectivity of adjacent neuronal networks, two-dimensional protein patterns were created. A mixture of poly-L-lysine and laminin was transferred onto a silanized glass surface by microcontact printing. The structures were populated with dissociated primary cortical embryonic rat neurons. Triangular structures with diverse opening angles, height, and design were chosen as two-dimensional structures to allow network formation with constricted gateways. Neuronal development was observed by immunohistochemistry to pursue the influence of the chosen structures on the neuronal outgrowth. Neurons were stained for MAP2, while poly-L-lysine was FITC labeled. With this study we present an easy-to-use technique to engineer two-dimensional networks in vitro with defined gateways. The presented micropatterning method is used to generate daisy-chained neuronal networks with predefined connectivity. Signal propagation among geometrically constrained networks can easily be monitored by calcium-sensitive dyes, providing insights into network communication in vitro. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  3. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  16. Astrocyte-neuronal interactions in epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadera, Mussie Ghezu; Eloqayli, Haytham; Jaradat, Saied; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    Pentylenetetrazol, kainic acid, or pilocarpine can be used to induce seizures in animal models of epilepsy. The present Review describes disturbances in astrocyte-neuron interactions in the acute, latent, and chronic phases analyzed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain tissue extracts from rats injected with [1-(13)C]glucose and [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The most consistent change after onset of seizures was the decrease in (13)C labeling of glutamate (GLU) from [1-(13) C]glucose regardless of brain area, severity, or duration of the period with seizures and toxin used. In most cases this decrease was accompanied by a reduction in glutamine (GLN) labeling from [1-(13)C]glucose, presumably as a direct consequence of the reduction in labeling of GLU and the GLU-GLN cycle. Amounts of GLN were never changed. Reduction in the content of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) was first detectable some time after status epilepticus but before the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. This decrease can be an indication of neuronal death and/or mitochondrial impairment and might indicate beginning gliosis. It is known that gliosis occurs in the chronic phase of temporal lobe epilepsy in hippocampus, but astrocyte metabolism appears normal in this phase, indicating that the gliotic astrocytes have a somewhat reduced metabolism per volume. A decrease in (13)C labeling of GLU from [1-(13)C]glucose is a very sensitive measure for the onset of epileptogenesis, whereas reduction of NAA is first detectable later. In the chronic phases of the hippocampal formation, astrocyte metabolism is upregulated given that the number of neurons is reduced. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [3H]acetylcholine synthesis in cultured ciliary ganglion neurons: effects of myotube membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.B.; Tuttle, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Avian ciliary ganglion neurons in cell culture were examined for the capacity to synthesize acetylcholine (ACh) from the exogenously supplied precursor, choline. Relevant kinetic parameters of the ACh synthetic system in cultured neurons were found to be virtually the same as those of the ganglionic terminals in the intact iris. Neurons were cultured in the presence of and allowed to innervate pectoral muscle; this results in an capacity for ACh synthesis. In particular, the ability to increase ACh synthesis upon demand after stimulation is affected by interaction with the target. This effect is shown to be an acceleration of the maturation of the cultured neurons. Lysed and washed membrane remnants of the muscle target were able to duplicate, in part, this effect of live target tissue on neuronal transmitter metabolism. Culture medium conditioned by muscle, and by the membrane remnants of muscle, was without significant effect. Thus, substances secreted into the medium do not play a major role in this interaction. Neurons cultured with either muscle or muscle membrane remnants formed large, elongate structures on the target membrane surface. These were not seen in the absence of the target at the times examined. This morphological difference in terminal-like structures may parallel the developmental increases in size and vesicular content of ciliary ganglion nerve terminals in the chick iris, and may relate to the increased ACh synthetic activity. The results suggest that direct contact with an appropriate target membrane has a profound, retrograde influence upon neuronal metabolic and morphological maturation

  18. Myelin-associated proteins labelled by slow axonal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, P.P.; DuBois, H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of protein metabolism and provides evidence that the neuronal contribution to myelin metabolism may be restricted to lipids only. On the other hand this line of research led to the partial characterization of a group of neuronal proteins probably involved in axo-glial interactions subserving the onset of myelination and the structural maintenance of the mature myelin sheath. Intraocular injection of radioactive amino acids allows the study of the anterograde transport of labelled proteins along retinofugal fibres which are well myelinated. Myelin extracted from the optic nerve and tract under these conditions also contains labelled proteins. Three hypotheses are available to explain this phenomenon. To offer an explanation for this phenomenon the work was planned as follows. a) Characterization of the spatio-temporal pattern of labelling of myelin, in order to define the experimental conditions (survival time and region of the optic pathway to be studied) necessary to obtain maximal labelling. b) Characterization (by gel electrophoresis) of the myelin-associated proteins which become labelled by axonal transport, in order to work on a consistent pattern of labelling. c) Investigation of the possible mechanism responsible for the labelling of myelin-associated proteins. (Auth.)

  19. Birthdating of myenteric neuron subtypes in the small intestine of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Annette J; Stamp, Lincon A; Gonsalvez, David G; Allison, Margaret B; Olson, David P; Myers, Martin G; Anderson, Colin R; Young, Heather M

    2014-02-15

    There are many different types of enteric neurons. Previous studies have identified the time at which some enteric neuron subtypes are born (exit the cell cycle) in the mouse, but the birthdates of some major enteric neuron subtypes are still incompletely characterized or unknown. We combined 5-ethynynl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling with antibody markers that identify myenteric neuron subtypes to determine when neuron subtypes are born in the mouse small intestine. We found that different neurochemical classes of enteric neuron differed in their birthdates; serotonin neurons were born first with peak cell cycle exit at E11.5, followed by neurofilament-M neurons, calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons (peak cell cycle exit for both at embryonic day [E]12.5-E13.5), tyrosine hydroxylase neurons (E15.5), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) neurons (E15.5), and calretinin neurons (postnatal day [P]0). The vast majority of myenteric neurons had exited the cell cycle by P10. We did not observe any EdU+/NOS1+ myenteric neurons in the small intestine of adult mice following EdU injection at E10.5 or E11.5, which was unexpected, as previous studies have shown that NOS1 neurons are present in E11.5 mice. Studies using the proliferation marker Ki67 revealed that very few NOS1 neurons in the E11.5 and E12.5 gut were proliferating. However, Cre-lox-based genetic fate-mapping revealed a small subpopulation of myenteric neurons that appears to express NOS1 only transiently. Together, our results confirm a relationship between enteric neuron subtype and birthdate, and suggest that some enteric neurons exhibit neurochemical phenotypes during development that are different from their mature phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The epithelial cell cytoskeleton and intracellular trafficking. I. Shiga toxin B-subunit system: retrograde transport, intracellular vectorization, and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Ludger

    2002-07-01

    Many intracellular transport routes are still little explored. This is particularly true for retrograde transport between the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Shiga toxin B subunit has become a powerful tool to study this pathway, and recent advances on the molecular mechanisms of transport in the retrograde route and on its physiological function(s) are summarized. Furthermore, it is discussed how the study of retrograde transport of Shiga toxin B subunit allows one to design new methods for the intracellular delivery of therapeutic compounds.

  1. Neuronal Networks on Nanocellulose Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Malin; Brackmann, Christian; Puchades, Maja; Brattås, Karoline; Ewing, Andrew; Gatenholm, Paul; Enejder, Annika

    2015-11-01

    Proliferation, integration, and neurite extension of PC12 cells, a widely used culture model for cholinergic neurons, were studied in nanocellulose scaffolds biosynthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus to allow a three-dimensional (3D) extension of neurites better mimicking neuronal networks in tissue. The interaction with control scaffolds was compared with cationized nanocellulose (trimethyl ammonium betahydroxy propyl [TMAHP] cellulose) to investigate the impact of surface charges on the cell interaction mechanisms. Furthermore, coatings with extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, fibronectin, and laminin) were investigated to determine the importance of integrin-mediated cell attachment. Cell proliferation was evaluated by a cellular proliferation assay, while cell integration and neurite propagation were studied by simultaneous label-free Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering and second harmonic generation microscopy, providing 3D images of PC12 cells and arrangement of nanocellulose fibrils, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced by TMAHP modification, but not by protein coating. Protein coating instead promoted active interaction between the cells and the scaffold, hence lateral cell migration and integration. Irrespective of surface modification, deepest cell integration measured was one to two cell layers, whereas neurites have a capacity to integrate deeper than the cell bodies in the scaffold due to their fine dimensions and amoeba-like migration pattern. Neurites with lengths of >50 μm were observed, successfully connecting individual cells and cell clusters. In conclusion, TMAHP-modified nanocellulose scaffolds promote initial cellular scaffold adhesion, which combined with additional cell-scaffold treatments enables further formation of 3D neuronal networks.

  2. GABAergic inhibition through synergistic astrocytic neuronal interaction transiently decreases vasopressin neuronal activity during hypoosmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Min-Yu; Hou, Qiuling; Hamilton, Kathryn A

    2013-04-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is crucial to mammalian osmotic regulation. Local hypoosmotic challenge transiently decreases and then increases vasopressin secretion. To investigate mechanisms underlying this transient response, we examined the effects of hypoosmotic challenge on the electrical activity of rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressin neurons using patch-clamp recordings. We found that 5 min exposure of hypothalamic slices to hypoosmotic solution transiently increased inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) frequency and reduced the firing rate of vasopressin neurons. Recovery occurred by 10 min of exposure, even though the osmolality remained low. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor blocker, gabazine, blocked the IPSCs and the hypoosmotic suppression of firing. The gliotoxin l-aminoadipic acid blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min and the recovery of firing at 10 min, indicating astrocytic involvement in hypoosmotic modulation of vasopressin neuronal activity. Moreover, β-alanine, an osmolyte of astrocytes and GABA transporter (GAT) inhibitor, blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min of hypoosmotic challenge. Confocal microscopy of immunostained SON sections revealed that astrocytes and magnocellular neurons both showed positive staining of vesicular GATs (VGAT). Hypoosmotic stimulation in vivo reduced the number of VGAT-expressing neurons, and increased co-localisation and molecular association of VGAT with glial fibrillary acidic protein that increased significantly by 10 min. By 30 min, neuronal VGAT labelling was partially restored, and astrocytic VGAT was relocated to the ventral portion while it decreased in the somatic zone of the SON. Thus, synergistic astrocytic and neuronal GABAergic inhibition could ensure that vasopressin neuron firing is only transiently suppressed under hypoosmotic conditions. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Expression of diverse neuropeptide cotransmitters by identified motor neurons in Aplysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, P.J.; Lloyd, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Neuropeptide synthesis was determined for individual identified ventral-cluster neurons in the buccal ganglia of Aplysia. Each of these cells was shown to be a motor neuron that innervates buccal muscles that generate biting and swallowing movements during feeding. Individual neurons were identified by a battery of physiological criteria and stained with intracellular injection of a vital dye, and the ganglia were incubated in 35S-methionine. Peptide synthesis was determined by measuring labeled peptides in extracts from individually dissected neuronal cell bodies analyzed by HPLC. Previously characterized peptides found to be synthesized included buccalin, FMRFamide, myomodulin, and the 2 small cardioactive peptides (SCPs). Each of these neuropeptides has been shown to modulate buccal muscle responses to motor neuron stimulation. Two other peptides were found to be synthesized in individual motor neurons. One peptide, which was consistently observed in neurons that also synthesized myomodulin, is likely to be the recently sequenced myomodulin B. The other peptide was observed in a subset of the neurons that synthesize FMRFamide. While identified motor neurons consistently synthesized the same peptide(s), neurons that innervate the same muscle often express different peptides. Neurons that synthesized the SCPs also contained SCP-like activity, as determined by snail heart bioassay. Our results indicate that every identified motor neuron synthesizes a subset of these methionine-containing peptides, and that several neurons consistently synthesize peptides that are likely to be processed from multiple precursors

  4. Conversion rate of laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in the treatment of choledocholithiasis - Does the time interval matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.; Donkervoort, S. C.; van Geloven, A. A. W.; Pierik, E. G. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Preceding endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in patients with choledochocystolithiasis impedes laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and increases risk of conversion. We studied the influence of time interval between ERC and LC on the course of LC. Methods: All patients treated for

  5. Posterior pelvic exenteration and retrograde total hysterectomy in patients with locally advanced ovarian cancer: Clinical and functional outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berretta

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study confirmed that pelvic posterior exenteration associated with retrograde radical hysterectomy represents the safest radical surgical approach to advanced ovarian cancer, which permits preservation of the pelvic autonomic nerve plexus and, therefore, bladder and colorectal functions.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients suspected of pancreaticobiliary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, A P; Rafaelsen, S R; Wamberg, P A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not known whether initial endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is more cost effective than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis of EUS, MRCP and ERCP was performed on 163...

  7. Irrelevant, Incidental and Core Features in the Retrograde Amnesia Associated with Korsakoff’s Psychosis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Meudell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the literature on retrograde amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome is presented. Various explanations of the phenomenon are discussed including the notions that it results from the effects of “state-dependency”, that it occurs as a result of a progressive learning problem and that it arises through a failure in contextual processing. None of these hypotheses can satisfactorily account for the length and temporal gradient of alcoholic amnesics retrograde amnesia. Although some evidence points towards the hypothesis that anterograde and retrograde amnesia might result from separate and independent impairments, this view is presently unproven and leaves open what causes the form and duration of Korsakoffs retrograde amnesia.

  8. Non-viral gene therapy that targets motor neurons in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise eRogers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in neurological gene therapy is safe delivery of transgenes to sufficient cell numbers from the circulation or periphery. This is particularly difficult for diseases involving spinal cord motor neurons such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. We have examined the feasibility of non-viral gene delivery to spinal motor neurons from intraperitoneal injections of plasmids carried by ‘immunogene’ nanoparticles targeted for axonal retrograde transport using antibodies. PEGylated polyethylenimine (PEI-PEG12 as DNA carrier was conjugated to an antibody (MLR2 to the neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR. We used a plasmid (pVIVO2 designed for in vivo gene delivery that produces minimal immune responses, has improved nuclear entry into post mitotic cells and also expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP. MLR2-PEI-PEG12 carried pVIVO2 and was specific for mouse motor neurons in mixed cultures containing astrocytes. While only 8% of motor neurons expressed GFP 72 h post transfection in vitro, when the immunogene was given intraperitonealy to neonatal C57BL/6J mice GFP specific motor neuron expression was observed in 25.4% of lumbar, 18.3% of thoracic and 17.0 % of cervical motor neurons, 72 h post transfection. PEI-PEG12 carrying pVIVO2 by itself did not transfect motor neurons in vivo, demonstrating the need for specificity via the p75NTR antibody MLR2. This is the first time that specific transfection of spinal motor neurons has been achieved from peripheral delivery of plasmid DNA as part of a non-viral gene delivery agent. These results stress the specificity and feasibility of immunogene delivery targeted for p75NTR expressing motor neurons, but suggests that further improvements are required to increase the transfection efficiency of motor neurons in vivo.

  9. Percutaneous reconstruction of the innominate bifurcation using the retrograde 'kissing stents' technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shun-ichi; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi; Matsubara, Shuko [Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Chikushino, Fukuoka (Japan); Sugata, Sei [Bironoki Neurosurgical Hospital, Shibushi, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    Obstructions of the supraaortic vessels are an important cause of morbidity associated with a variety of symptoms. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has evolved as an effective and safe treatment modality for occlusive lesions of the supraaortic vessels. However, the endovascular management of an innominate bifurcation has not previously been reported. A 53-year-old female with a history of systematic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia presented with left hemiparesis and dysarthria. Angiography of the innominate artery showed a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation. The lesion was successfully treated using the retrograde kissing stent technique via a brachial approach and an exposed direct carotid approach. The retrograde kissing stent technique for the treatment of a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation was found to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery. (orig.)

  10. Retrograde tracing of fluorescent gold after autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, X; Liu, W; Ding, Ming

    2016-01-01

    , the transplantation group using autologous sural nerve graft to repair spinal cord injury period and non-transplantation group was only exposed incision without treatment. In the 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, the retrograde tracing of FG Fluoro-Gold was performed to discover the recovery of the axial plasma......Objective To investigate the changes of the fluorescent gold retrograde tracing autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups, with modified Allen impact method to establish model of spinal cord injury. After 4 weeks.......01). Conclusion After spinal cord injury, autologous nerve graft was repaired and survived well and promote the recovery of spinal cord injury segment shaft pulp transportation function....

  11. Percutaneous reconstruction of the innominate bifurcation using the retrograde 'kissing stents' technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shun-ichi; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi; Matsubara, Shuko; Sugata, Sei

    2006-01-01

    Obstructions of the supraaortic vessels are an important cause of morbidity associated with a variety of symptoms. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has evolved as an effective and safe treatment modality for occlusive lesions of the supraaortic vessels. However, the endovascular management of an innominate bifurcation has not previously been reported. A 53-year-old female with a history of systematic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia presented with left hemiparesis and dysarthria. Angiography of the innominate artery showed a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation. The lesion was successfully treated using the retrograde kissing stent technique via a brachial approach and an exposed direct carotid approach. The retrograde kissing stent technique for the treatment of a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation was found to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery. (orig.)

  12. Detection of retrograde gas streaming in the SB0 galaxy NGC 4546

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletta, G.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations are reported of the almost edge-on SB0 galaxy NGC 4546 which reveal a striking discordance between the derived emission and absorption-line velocities. The gas clouds show velocities that are similar in amplitude but opposite in direction from the stars. This discordance is seen in observations obtained through slits oriented in a wide range of position angles. NGC 4546 is thus, at present, unique as a disk system exhibiting large-scale retrograde motions relative to the stellar component. Orbits elongated both along the bar major axis (prograde, stars) and along the bar intermediate axis (retrograde, gas) are found. The possibility that this material originated from an infall is discussed. 27 references

  13. Retrograde densification in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.W. Jr.; Rhodes, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 was prepared using the mixed oxide-carbonate method and sintered at temperatures ranging from 850 degrees to 911 degrees C. The samples were characterized for density, mechanical strength, phase composition, microstructure, and superconducting transition temperatures. A unique retrograde densification characteristic is demonstrated in the temperature range 850 degrees to 890 degrees C whereby the material first becomes less dense as the sintering temperature is raised, and only in a narrow temperature range from 900 degrees to 905 degrees C does the material densify then with the formation of a liquid phase. This retrograde densification, coupled with a narrow sintering range overlapping the melting temperature, makes this compound a difficult one to process

  14. Functional characterisation of filamentous actin probe expression in neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrujna Patel

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded filamentous actin probes, Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin, are used as tools to label the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence in several different cell types indicates that these probes can cause changes in filamentous actin dynamics, altering cell morphology and function. Although these probes are commonly used to visualise actin dynamics in neurons, their effects on axonal and dendritic morphology has not been systematically characterised. In this study, we quantitatively analysed the effect of Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin on neuronal morphogenesis in primary hippocampal neurons. Our data show that the expression of actin-tracking probes significantly impacts on axonal and dendrite growth these neurons. Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a pBABE promoter, caused a significant decrease in total axon length, while another Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a CAG promoter, decreased the length and complexity of dendritic trees. Utr261-EGFP resulted in increased dendritic branching but Utr230-EGFP only accumulated in cell soma, without labelling any neurites. Lifeact-7-mEGFP and F-tractin-EGFP in a pEGFP-C1 vector, under the control of a CMV promoter, caused only minor changes in neuronal morphology as detected by Sholl analysis. The results of this study demonstrate the effects that filamentous actin tracking probes can have on the axonal and dendritic compartments of neuronal cells and emphasise the care that must be taken when interpreting data from experiments using these probes.

  15. Alpha-2 agonist attenuates ischemic injury in spinal cord neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kirsten A; Puskas, Ferenc; Bell, Marshall T; Mares, Joshua M; Foley, Lisa S; Weyant, Michael J; Cleveland, Joseph C; Fullerton, David A; Meng, Xianzhong; Herson, Paco S; Reece, T Brett

    2015-05-01

    Paraplegia secondary to spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a devastating complication of thoracoabdominal aortic intervention. The complex interactions between injured neurons and activated leukocytes have limited the understanding of neuron-specific injury. We hypothesize that spinal cord neuron cell cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) would simulate ischemia-reperfusion injury, which could be attenuated by specific alpha-2a agonism in an Akt-dependent fashion. Spinal cords from perinatal mice were harvested, and neurons cultured in vitro for 7-10 d. Cells were pretreated with 1 μM dexmedetomidine (Dex) and subjected to OGD in an anoxic chamber. Viability was determined by MTT assay. Deoxyuridine-triphosphate nick-end labeling staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used for apoptosis and necrosis identification, respectively. Western blot was used for protein analysis. Vehicle control cells were only 59% viable after 1 h of OGD. Pretreatment with Dex significantly preserves neuronal viability with 88% viable (P control cells by 50% (P neuron cell culture, OGD mimics neuronal metabolic derangement responsible for paraplegia after aortic surgery. Dex preserves neuronal viability and decreases apoptosis in an Akt-dependent fashion. Dex demonstrates clinical promise for reducing the risk of paraplegia after high-risk aortic surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Taura, Kojiro; Arizono, Shigeki; Shimada, Kotaro; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-01-01

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40 o C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  17. Ipsilateral proximal femur and shaft fractures treated with hip screws and a reamed retrograde intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrum, Robert F; Tornetta, Paul; Watson, J Tracy; Christiano, Anthony; Vafek, Emily

    2014-09-01

    Although not common, proximal femoral fractures associated with ipsilateral shaft fractures present a difficult management problem. A variety of surgical options have been employed with varying results. We investigated the use of hip screws and a reamed retrograde intramedullary (IM) nail for the treatment of this combined fracture pattern in terms of postoperative alignment (malunion), nonunion, and complications. Between May 2002 and October 2011, a total of 95 proximal femoral fractures with associated shaft fractures were treated at three participating Level 1 trauma centers; all were treated with hip screw fixation (cannulated screws or sliding hip screws) and retrograde reamed IM nails. The medical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively for alignment, malunion, nonunion, and complications. Followup was available on 92 of 95 (97%) of the patients treated with hip screws and a retrograde nail. Forty were treated with a sliding hip screw, and 52 were treated with cannulated screws. There were five proximal malunions in this series (5%). The union rate was 98% (90 of 92) for the femoral neck fractures and 91.3% (84 of 92) for the femoral shaft fractures after the initial surgery. There were two nonunions of comminuted femoral neck fractures after cannulated screw fixation. There was no difference in femoral neck union or alignment when comparing cannulated screws to a sliding hip screw. Four open comminuted femoral shaft fractures went on to nonunion and required secondary surgery to obtain union, and one patient developed symptomatic avascular necrosis. The treatment of ipsilateral proximal femoral neck and shaft fractures with hip screw fixation and a reamed retrograde nail demonstrated a high likelihood of union for the femoral neck fractures and a low risk of malunion. Comminution and initial displacement of the proximal femoral fracture may still lead to a small incidence of malunion or nonunion, and open comminuted femoral shaft fractures

  18. Recovery from anterograde and retrograde amnesia after percutaneous drainage of a cystic craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignelzi, R J; Squire, L R

    1976-01-01

    A case is reported of a cystic craniopharyngioma involving the floor and walls of the third ventricle. Pronounced anterograde and retrograde amnesia were documented preoperatively by formal testing. Rapid improvement in both new learning capacity and remote memory occurred after percutaneous twist drill drainage of the cystic portion of the tumour. The relevance of these observations to the amnesic syndrome and its neuropathological basis is discussed. Images PMID:1011035

  19. Retrograde Colonic Stent Implantation Assisted by Percutaneous Colostomy: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Han, Hyun Young; Chun, Tong Jin [Eulji Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    We present a patient with disseminated pancreatic cancer who presented with symptoms of acute obstruction of the sigmoid colon. It was not possible to pass the region of the obstruction with a guide wire under colonoscopy and fluoroscopy. Consequently retrograde implantation of stents was performed successfully with the assistance of a minimally-sized colostomy when compared with a previously described procedure in the literature.

  20. Retrograde Colonic Stent Implantation Assisted by Percutaneous Colostomy: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Han, Hyun Young; Chun, Tong Jin

    2009-01-01

    We present a patient with disseminated pancreatic cancer who presented with symptoms of acute obstruction of the sigmoid colon. It was not possible to pass the region of the obstruction with a guide wire under colonoscopy and fluoroscopy. Consequently retrograde implantation of stents was performed successfully with the assistance of a minimally-sized colostomy when compared with a previously described procedure in the literature

  1. Computed tomography, ultrasonography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, W.D.; Stewart, E.T.; Lawson, T.L.; Maher, L.; Unger, G.F.; Geenan, J.; Loguidice, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prospective study was performed comparing the sensitivity of computed tomography, ultrasonography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the diagnosis of pancreatic disease. Forty patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma, acute recurrent or chronic pancreatitis, and/or jaundice were studied. CT was the most sensitive study in evaluation of pancreatitis. ERCP was most accurate in evaluation of pancreatic malignancy. Ultrasonography was the least sensitive method in detecting pancreatic disease and dilatation of the extrahepatic biliary ducts. (orig.) [de

  2. Conservative Management of an Epicardial Collateral Perforation During Retrograde Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Christian; Christopoulos, George; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery perforation is a highly feared complication of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and can lead to pericardial effusion, tamponade, and, rarely, emergent cardiac surgery. Perforation of epicardial collaterals during retrograde CTO-PCI may be particularly challenging to treat, as embolization from both sides of the perforation may be required to control the bleeding. However, conservative measures can occasionally be effective. We present a case of epicardial collateral vessel perforation that was managed conservatively with anticoagulation reversal.

  3. COPI-mediated retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER regulates EGFR nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying-Nai; Wang, Hongmei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → ARF1 activation is involved in the EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. → Assembly of γ-COP coatomer mediates EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. → Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking regulates nuclear transport of EGFR. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH 2 -terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with γ-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.

  4. Urethro-venous intravasation during retrograde urethrography (report of 5 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Five instances of urethro-venous intravasation during retrograde urethrography are reported. Four cases were of urethral strictures and one case was of urethral hemangioma. All patients had post procedural bleeding while one patient got allergic reactions, another showed chills and rigors. Anatomy of the drainage veins is described. Factors responsible for this complication and its clinical implications are discussed. It is suggested that urethro-venous intravasation should be considered a diagnostic sign of urethral inflammation.

  5. Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Supat Chaiyakul; Direk Sukkasem; Patnachapa Natthapanpaisith

    2016-01-01

    Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the...

  6. A Case of Persistent Generalized Retrograde Autobiographical Amnesia Subsequent to the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Odagaki, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Functional retrograde autobiographical amnesia is often associated with physical and/or psychological trauma. On 11 March 2011, the largest earthquake on record in Japan took place, and subsequent huge tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This case report describes a patient suffering from retrograde episodic-autobiographical amnesia for whole life, persisting for even more than five years after the disaster. A Japanese man, presumably in his 40s, got police protection in A...

  7. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi

    2016-01-01

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  8. Irrelevant, Incidental and Core Features in the Retrograde Amnesia Associated with Korsakoff’s Psychosis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Meudell, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    A brief review of the literature on retrograde amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome is presented. Various explanations of the phenomenon are discussed including the notions that it results from the effects of “state-dependency”, that it occurs as a result of a progressive learning problem and that it arises through a failure in contextual processing. None of these hypotheses can satisfactorily account for the length and temporal gradient of alcoholic amnesics retrograde amnesia. Although some evid...

  9. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian, E-mail: gangzhuliang@126.com; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi [Capital Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital (China)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  10. Neuronal network disturbance after focal ischemia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Yamada, K.; Mushiroi, T.; Kuroda, R.; Mogami, H.

    1989-01-01

    We studied functional disturbances following left middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Neuronal function was evaluated by [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography 1 day after occlusion. We analyzed the mechanisms of change in glucose utilization outside the infarct using Fink-Heimer silver impregnation, axonal transport of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated-horseradish peroxidase, and succinate dehydrogenase histochemistry. One day after occlusion, glucose utilization was remarkably reduced in the areas surrounding the infarct. There were many silver grains indicating degeneration of the synaptic terminals in the cortical areas surrounding the infarct and the ipsilateral cingulate cortex. Moreover, in the left thalamus where the left middle cerebral artery supplied no blood, glucose utilization significantly decreased compared with sham-operated rats. In the left thalamus, massive silver staining of degenerated synaptic terminals and decreases in succinate dehydrogenase activity were observed 4 and 5 days after occlusion. The absence of succinate dehydrogenase staining may reflect early changes in retrograde degeneration of thalamic neurons after ischemic injury of the thalamocortical pathway. Terminal degeneration even affected areas remote from the infarct: there were silver grains in the contralateral hemisphere transcallosally connected to the infarct and in the ipsilateral substantia nigra. Axonal transport study showed disruption of the corticospinal tract by subcortical ischemia; the transcallosal pathways in the cortex surrounding the infarct were preserved. The relation between neural function and the neuronal network in the area surrounding the focal cerebral infarct is discussed with regard to ischemic penumbra and diaschisis

  11. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons ar...

  12. Temporary Vascular Occlusion by Rapid Reverse Phase Polymer: A Preliminary In Vitro Study of Retrograde Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Dregelid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During vascular surgical operations, there is a need for a simpler and more reliable method of temporary arterial occlusion than those currently employed, especially of heavily calcified arteries. A thermosensitive polymer, LeGoo (LG (Pluromed, Woburn, MA, has been used successfully for temporary vascular occlusion. It has hitherto been injected by a cannula that has been introduced into the artery to be occluded, here henceforth called the “cannulation method.” Injection into arterial ostia without cannulation, using an injection device that arrests blood flow during the injection, here henceforth called “a retrograde method” may enable temporary hemostasis when ostial stenoses render it impossible to inject LG using the cannulation method. The objective of the present study was to study the feasibility of a retrograde method and to compare it with the cannulation method in an in vitro model, incorporating a narrow orifice to simulate ostial stenosis, using tap water at 37°C instead of blood. The retrograde method of LG injection, using a modified paediatric Foley catheter, turned out to be feasible to produce a durable LG plug more reliably, at higher water pressure and with less deep LG injection than with the cannulation method.

  13. MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerimaa, Pekka; Ojala, Risto; Markkanen, Paula; Tervonen, Osmo; Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oulu (Finland); Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Korhonen, Jussi [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Oulu (Finland); Hyvoenen, Pekka [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI guidance for percutaneous retrograde drilling in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus (OCDT). Four patients, one juvenile and three adults, with one OCDT lesion each and persisting ankle pain after conservative treatment, were treated with MRI-guided retrograde drilling. All lesions were stable and located in the middle or posterior medial third of the talar dome. Pain relief and the ability to return to normal activities were assessed during clinical follow-up. MRI and plain film radiographs were used for imaging follow-up. Technical success was 100 % with no complications and with no damage to the overlying cartilage. All patients experienced some clinical benefit, although only one had complete resolution of pain and one had a relapse leading to surgical treatment. Changes in the pathological imaging findings were mostly very slight during the follow-up period. MRI guidance seems accurate, safe and technically feasible for retrograde drilling of OCDT. Larger series are needed to reliably assess its clinical value. (orig.)

  14. Measuring retrograde autobiographical amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy: historical perspective and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2013-06-01

    Retrograde amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a major concern for both patients and clinicians. In contemporary ECT research, retrograde autobiographical amnesia (RAA) is commonly measured with instruments assessing autobiographical memory (AM) consistency over time. However, normal AM recall loses in consistency with the passage of time, and time has a differential effect on stability of personal memories. In addition, experiencing depression is associated with a decreased ability to recall specific AMs, and this difficulty may persist in the euthymic phase of recurrent depression. Despite these scientific facts, relatively few attempts have been made to accurately measure the specific effect of ECT on AM independent of both normal and mood-associated forgetting over time. This major gap in our knowledge prevents us at present from objectively quantifying the nature and extent of RAA associated with ECT. In turn, this hinders our identifying and implementing strategies for prevention or remediation of AM deficits. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date review and historical perspective of this major methodological conundrum for ECT research, highlight current issues in retrograde amnesia assessment following ECT, and propose directions for future studies. In conclusion, we suggest methods to reliably and specifically measure the extent and progression over time of ECT-associated RAA independently from persistent depressive symptoms' contribution and normal loss in AM consistency over time.

  15. Preserved memory in retrograde amnesia: sparing of a recently acquired skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R; Cohen, N J; Zouzounis, J A

    1984-01-01

    Recent work with amnesic patients has revealed a preserved capacity for acquiring and retaining new skills despite otherwise profound anterograde impairment. In addition to their anterograde impairment, amnesic patients also have retrograde memory loss for some information acquired prior to the amnesic event. The present experiment addresses for the first time the question of whether preservation of memory for skills is also a feature memory impairment. To determine the susceptibility of a recently learned skill to retrograde amnesia, we taught patients to read mirror-reversed words before and during the early part of a prescribed course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and then tested retention of the skill after the course of treatment had been completed. Patients prescribed bilateral or right unilateral ECT and depressed patients not receiving ECT acquired the mirror-reading skill at the same rate and then retained it at the same level. For the patients prescribed ECT, intact learning and retention of the skill occurred despite retrograde amnesia for the previous testing sessions and for the words that they had read previously.

  16. Retrograde and anterograde memory following selective damage to the dorsolateral entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Nicole J; Barrett-Bernstein, Meagan; Sutherland, Robert J; Mumby, Dave G

    2014-12-01

    Anatomical and electrophysiological evidence suggest the dorsolateral entorhinal cortex (DLEC) is involved in processing spatial information, but there is currently no consensus on whether its functions are necessary for normal spatial learning and memory. The present study examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the DLEC on retrograde and anterograde memory on two tests of allocentric spatial learning: a hidden fixed-platform watermaze task, and a novelty-preference-based dry-maze test. Deficits were observed on both tests when training occurred prior to but not following n-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) lesions of DLEC, suggesting retrograde memory impairment in the absence of anterograde impairments for the same information. The retrograde memory impairments were temporally-graded; rats that received DLEC lesions 1-3 days following training displayed deficits, while those that received lesions 7-10 days following training performed like a control group that received sham surgery. The deficits were not attenuated by co-infusion of tetrodotoxin, suggesting they are not due to disruption of neural processing in structures efferent to the DLEC, such as the hippocampus. The present findings provide evidence that the DLEC is involved in the consolidation of allocentric spatial information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovations in the Endovascular Management of Critical Limb Ischemia: Retrograde Tibiopedal Access and Advanced Percutaneous Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry J; Saab, Fadi

    2017-08-01

    Retrograde tibiopedal access and interventions have contributed to advance of endovascular techniques to treat critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. This review encompasses the spectrum from advanced diagnostic imaging and technical therapeutic approaches for infrapopliteal occlusions, to a discussion of current standards and future directions. Contemporary studies of infrapopliteal angioplasty show suboptimal short-term and 1-year clinical outcomes. Comparative data is needed to shift the focus from PTA to disruptive treatment modalities that can further improve outcomes. Retrograde pedal access has emerged as an important tool to facilitate successfully percutaneous revascularization and limb salvage in patients with CLI. To efficiently approach the complexity of CLI, new thought processes are needed to change the reigning paradigms. Retrograde tibial-pedal access has shown improvement in the rate of successful revascularizations and is an important tool in the amputation-prevention armamentarium. Additional technologies may further improve success rates. Drug-eluting stents have shown better outcomes than PTA in patients with focal infrapopliteal lesions. Registry data have demonstrated the advantage of several atherectomy devices in the tibial arteries. More recently, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds have been used successfully, and further studies with drug-coated balloons are underway. Interventional operators are now even working in the inframalleolar space to reconstitute the plantar arch. Well-conducted studies are needed to generate high-quality evidence in the field of critical limb ischemia management.

  18. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1995-01-01

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method