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Sample records for retrofitted rc beams

  1. Evaluating the Dynamic Characteristics of Retrofitted RC Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghods, Amir S.; Esfahani, Mohamad R.; Moghaddasie, Behrang

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the relationship between the damage and changes in dynamic characteristics of reinforced concrete members strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). Modal analysis is a popular non-destructive method for evaluating health of structural systems. A total of 8 reinforced concrete beams with similar dimensions were made using concrete with two different compressive strengths and reinforcement ratios. Monotonic loading was applied with four-point-bending setup in order to generate different damage levels in the specimens while dynamic testing was conducted to monitor the changes in dynamic characteristics of the specimens. In order to investigate the effect of CFRP on static and dynamic properties of specimens, some of the beams were loaded to half of their ultimate load carrying capacity and then were retrofitted using composite laminates with different configuration. Retrofitted specimens demonstrated elevated load carrying capacity, higher flexural stiffness and lower displacement ductility. By increasing the damage level in specimens, frequencies of the beams were decreased and after strengthening these values were improved significantly. The intensity of the damage level in each specimen affects the shape of its mode as well. Fixed points and curvatures of mode shapes of beams tend to move toward the location of the damage in each case

  2. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  3. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, O.; Jara, J. M.; Jara, M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models.

  4. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, O; Jara, J M; Jara, M; Olmos, B A

    2015-01-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models. (paper)

  5. Shear Strengthening of RC Deep Beam Using Externally Bonded GFRP Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, A.; Patel, S. S.; Nayak, A. N.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the experimental investigation of RC deep beams wrapped with externally bonded Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) fabrics in order to study the Load versus deflection behavior, cracking pattern, failure modes and ultimate shear strength. A total number of five deep beams have been casted, which is designed with conventional steel reinforcement as per IS: 456 (Indian standard plain and reinforced concrete—code for practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2000). The spans to depth ratio for all RC deep beams have been kept less than 2 as per the above specification. Out of five RC deep beams, one without retrofitting serves as a reference beam and the rest four have been wrapped with GFRP fabrics in multiple layers and tested with two point loading condition. The first cracking load, ultimate load and the shear contribution of GFRP to the deep beams have been observed. A critical discussion is made with respect to the enhancement of the strength, behaviour and performance of retrofitted deep beams in comparison to the deep beam without GFRP in order to explore the potential use of GFRP for strengthening the RC deep beams. Test results have demonstrated that the deep beams retrofitted with GFRP shows a slower development of the diagonal cracks and improves shear carrying capacity of the RC deep beam. A comparative study of the experimental results with the theoretical ones predicted by various researchers available in the literatures has also been presented. It is observed that the ultimate load of the beams retrofitted with GFRP fabrics increases with increase of number of GFRP layers up to a specific number of layers, i.e. 3 layers, beyond which it decreases.

  6. Fatigue behavior of RC T-beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Farghal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the fatigue performance of reinforced concrete (RC T-beams strengthened in shear with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composite. Experiments were conducted on RC beams with and without CFRP sheets bonded on their web surfaces and subjected to static and cycling loading. The obtained results showed that the strengthened beams could survive one million cycles of cyclic loading (=50% of maximum static load with no apparent signs of damage (premature failure demonstrating the effectiveness of CFRP strengthening system on extending the fatigue life of structures. Also, for beams having the same geometry, the applied strengthening technique can significantly enhance the cycling load particularly, in case of beams provided with U-jacket sheets. Moreover, although the failure mode for the different beams was a brittle one, the strengthened beams provided with U-jacket sheets approved an acceptable enhancement in the structural ductility.

  7. SEISMICALLY RETROFITTING AND UPGRADING RC-MRF BY USING EXPANDED METAL PANELS

    OpenAIRE

    Phung Ngoc, Dung

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete moment resisting frames (RC-MRFs) have been widely used as the main structural resisting systems for over 30 years based on their capacity in resisting both gravity loads and lateral forces like winds or earthquakes and on low cost of construction. However, there have been still many existing RC-MRFs not designed according to any modern seismic code. This may lead to some undesired failures under a rather low intensity earthquake. There are several existing retrofitting sy...

  8. The effect of CFRP on retrofitting of damaged HSRC beams using AE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffian Noor, M. S.; Noorsuhada, M. N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the effect of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) on retrofitted high strength reinforced concrete (HSRC) beams using acoustic emission (AE) technique. Two RC beam parameters were prepared. The first was the control beam which was undamaged HSRC beam. The second was the damaged HSRC beam retrofitted with CFRP on the soffit. The main objective of this study is to assess the crack modes of HSRC beams using AE signal strength. The relationship between signal strength, load and time were analysed and discussed. The crack pattern observed from the visual observation was also investigated. HSRC beam retrofitted with CFRP produced high signal strength compared to control beam. It demonstrates the effect of the AE signal strength for interpretation and prediction of failure modes that might occur in the beam specimens.

  9. Seismic Retrofitting: Reinforced Concrete (RC shear wall versus Reinforcement of RC element by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP using PUSHOVER analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya RIYAD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seismic retrofitting of constructions vulnerable to earthquakes is a current problem of great political and social relevance. During the last sixty years, moderate to severe earthquakes have occurred in Morocco (specifically in Agadir 1960 and Hoceima 2004. Such events have clearly shown the vulnerability of the building stock in particular and of the built environment in general. Hence, it is very much essential to retrofit the vulnerable building to cope up for the next damaging earthquake. In this paper, the focus will be on a comparative study between two techniques of seismic retrofitting, the first one is a reinforcement using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP applied to RC elements by bonding , and the second one is a reinforcement with a shear wall. For this study, we will use a non-linear static analysis -also known as Pushover analysis - on a reinforced concrete structure consisting of beams and columns, and composed from eight storey with a gross area of 240 m², designed conforming to the Moroccan Seismic code[1].

  10. Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Beams using Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, S.; Sundaravadivelu, Karthik

    2017-07-01

    Strengthening of existing damaged structures is one of the leading studies in civil engineering. The purpose of retrofitting is to structurally treat the member with an aim to restore the structure to its original strength. The focus of this project is to study the behaviour of damaged Reinforced Concrete beam retrofitted with Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) Overlay. Reinforced concrete beams of length 1200 mm, width 100 mm and depth 200 mm were casted with M30 grade of concrete in the laboratory and cured for 28 days. One beam is taken as control and are tested under two point loading to find out ultimate load. Remaining beams are subjected to 90 % ultimate load of control beams. The partially damaged beams are retrofitted with Reactive Powder Concrete Overlay at the full tension face of the beam and side overlay depends upon the respectable retrofitting techniques with 10 mm and 20 mm thick layer to find optimum. Materials like steel fibres are added to enhance the ductility by eliminating coarse particle for homogeneity of the structure. Finally, the modes of failure for retrofitted beams are analysed experimentally under two point loading & compared the results with Control beam.

  11. Full Scale RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Alessandro; Napoli, Annalisa; Realfonzo, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy) in order to investigate the seismic performance of RC beam-column joints strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP) systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems), the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.

  12. Effectiveness of two conventional methods for seismic retrofit of steel and RC moment resisting frames based on damage control criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti Aval, Seyed Bahram; Kouhestani, Hamed Sadegh; Mottaghi, Lida

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of two types of rehabilitation methods based on economic justification that can lead to logical decision making between the retrofitting schemes. Among various rehabilitation methods, concentric chevron bracing (CCB) and cylindrical friction damper (CFD) were selected. The performance assessment procedure of the frames is divided into two distinct phases. First, the limit state probabilities of the structures before and after rehabilitation are investigated. In the second phase, the seismic risk of structures in terms of life safety and financial losses (decision variables) using the recently published FEMA P58 methodology is evaluated. The results show that the proposed retrofitting methods improve the serviceability and life safety performance levels of steel and RC structures at different rates when subjected to earthquake loads. Moreover, these procedures reveal that financial losses are greatly decreased, and were more tangible by the application of CFD rather than using CCB. Although using both retrofitting methods reduced damage state probabilities, incorporation of a site-specific seismic hazard curve to evaluate mean annual occurrence frequency at the collapse prevention limit state caused unexpected results to be obtained. Contrary to CFD, the collapse probability of the structures retrofitted with CCB increased when compared with the primary structures.

  13. RC beams shear-strengthened with fabric-reinforced-cementitious-matrix (FRCM) composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Giovanni; Babaeidarabad, Saman; Leardini, Lorenzo; Nanni, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The interest in retrofit/rehabilitation of existing concrete structures has increased due to degradation and/or introduction of more stringent design requirements. Among the externally-bonded strengthening systems fiber-reinforced polymers is the most widely known technology. Despite its effectiveness as a material system, the presence of an organic binder has some drawbacks that could be addressed by using in its place a cementitious binder as in fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) systems. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with U-wraps made of FRCM. An extensive experimental program was undertaken in order to understand and characterize this composite when used as a strengthening system. The laboratory results demonstrate the technical viability of FRCM for shear strengthening of RC beams. Based on the experimental and analytical results, FRCM increases shear strength but not proportionally to the number of fabric plies installed. On the other hand, FRCM failure modes are related with a high consistency to the amount of external reinforcement applied. Design considerations based on the algorithms proposed by ACI guidelines are also provided.

  14. Performance of Retrofitted Self-Compacting Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Beams Using External Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. M. AL-Shaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams, similar to other structural members, necessitate retrofitting for many causes. However, research on SCCFST beams externally retrofitted by bolted steel plates has seldom been explored in the literature. This paper aims at experimentally investigating the retrofitting performance of square self-compacting concrete-filled steel tube (SCCFST beams using bolted steel plates with three different retrofitting schemes including varied configurations and two different steel plate lengths under flexure. A total of 18 specimens which consist of 12 retrofitted SCCFST beams, three unretrofitted (control SCCFST beams, and three hollow steel tubes were used. The flexural behaviour of the retrofitted SCCFST beams was examined regarding flexural strength, failure modes, and moment versus deflection curves, energy absorption, and ductility. Experimental results revealed that the implemented retrofitting schemes efficiently improve the moment carrying capacity and stiffness of the retrofitted SCCFST beams compared to the control beams. The increment in flexural strength ranged from 1% to 46%. Furthermore, the adopted retrofitting schemes were able to restore the energy absorption and ductility of the damaged beams in the range of 35% to 75% of the original beam ductility. Furthermore, a theoretical model was suggested to predict the moment capacity of the retrofitted SCCFST beams. The theoretical model results were in good agreement with the test results.

  15. Nonlinear analysis of r.c. framed buildings retrofitted with elastomeric and friction bearings under near-fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Reinforced concrete (r.c.) framed buildings designed in compliance with inadequate seismic classifications and code provisions present in many cases a high vulnerability and need to be retrofitted. To this end, the insertion of a base isolation system allows a considerable reduction of the seismic loads transmitted to the superstructure. However, strong near-fault ground motions, which are characterised by long-duration horizontal pulses, may amplify the inelastic response of the superstructure and induce a failure of the isolation system. The above considerations point out the importance of checking the effectiveness of different isolation systems for retrofitting a r.c. framed structure. For this purpose, a numerical investigation is carried out with reference to a six-storey r.c. framed building, which, primarily designed (as to be a fixed-base one) in compliance with the previous Italian code (DM96) for a medium-risk seismic zone, has to be retrofitted by insertion of an isolation system at the base for attaining performance levels imposed by the current Italian code (NTC08) in a high-risk seismic zone. Besides the (fixed-base) original structure, three cases of base isolation are studied: elastomeric bearings acting alone (e.g. HDLRBs); in-parallel combination of elastomeric and friction bearings (e.g. high-damping-laminated-rubber bearings, HDLRBs and steel-PTFE sliding bearings, SBs); friction bearings acting alone (e.g. friction pendulum bearings, FPBs). The nonlinear analysis of the fixed-base and base-isolated structures subjected to horizontal components of near-fault ground motions is performed for checking plastic conditions at the potential critical (end) sections of the girders and columns as well as critical conditions of the isolation systems. Unexpected high values of ductility demand are highlighted at the lower floors of all base-isolated structures, while re-centring problems of the base isolation systems under near-fault earthquakes are

  16. Rehabilitation and retrofitting of RC nuclear facilities against earthquake with FRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete construction is very common in nuclear facilities. Natural calamities such as earthquakes, overloading and corrosion are some factors that can severely reduce the capacity and life of these structures unless they are rehabilitated, or more preferably retrofitted. Recent developments in the field of fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) have resulted in the development of highly efficient construction materials. The FRPs are unaffected by electro-mechanical deterioration and can resist corrosive effects of acids, alkalis, salts and similar aggregates under a wide range of temperatures. This novel technique of rehabilitation is very effective and fast for earthquake affected structures and retrofitting of structures against future earthquakes. In the present paper important developments in this field from its origin to the recent times have been presented. (author)

  17. Numerical model of RC beam response to corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Magdalena; Pamin, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement used to be represented by Tuutti's model with initiation and propagation phases. During the initiation phase chlorides penetrate the concrete cover and accumulate around reinforcement bars. The chloride concentration in concrete increases until it reaches a chloride threshold value, causing deterioration of the passive layer of reinforcement. Then the propagation phase begins. During the propagation phase steel has no natural anti-corrosion protection, a corrosion current flows and this induces the production of rust. A growing volume of corrosion products generates stresses in concrete, which leads to cracking, splitting, delamination and loss of strength. The mechanical response of RC elements to reinforcement corrosion has mostly been examined on the basis of a 2D cross-section analysis. However, with this approach it is not possible to represent both corrosion and static loading. In the paper a 3D finite element model of an RC beam with the two actions applied is presented. Rust is represented as an interface between steel and concrete, considering the volumetric expansion of rust.

  18. Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.

  19. Explicit expression for effective moment of inertia of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Patel

    Full Text Available AbstractDeflection is an important design parameter for structures subjected to service load. This paper provides an explicit expression for effective moment of inertia considering cracking, for uniformly distributed loaded reinforced concrete (RC beams. The proposed explicit expression can be used for rapid prediction of short-term deflection at service load. The explicit expression has been obtained from the trained neural network considering concrete cracking, tension stiffening and entire practical range of reinforcement. Three significant structural parameters have been identified that govern the change in effective moment of inertia and therefore deflection. These three parameters are chosen as inputs to train neural network. The training data sets for neural network are generated using finite element software ABAQUS. The explicit expression has been validated for a number of simply supported and continuous beams and it is shown that the predicted deflections have reasonable accuracy for practical purpose. A sensitivity analysis has been performed, which indicates substantial dependence of effective moment of inertia on the selected input parameters.

  20. Estimation methods of deformational behaviours of RC beams under the unrestrained condition at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanezu, Tsutomu; Nakano, Takehiro; Endo, Tatsumi

    1986-01-01

    The estimation methods of free deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) beams at elevated temperatures are investigated based on the concepts of ACI's and CEB/FIP's formulas, which are well used to estimate the flexural deformations of RC beams at normal temperature. Conclusions derived from the study are as follows. 1. Features of free deformations of RC beams. (i) The ratios of the average compressive strains on the top fiber of RC beams to the calculated ones at the cracked section show the inclinations that the ratios once drop after cracking and then remain constant according to temperature rises. (ii) Average compressive strains might be estimated by the average of the calculated strains at the perfect bond section and the cracked section of RC beam. (iii) The ratios of the average tensile strains on the level of reinforcements to the calculated ones at the cracked section are inclined to approach the value of 1.0 monotonically according to temperature rises. The changes of the average tensile strains are caused by the deterioration of bond strength and cracking due to the increase of the differences of expansive strains between reinforcement and concrete. 2. Estimation methods of free deformations of RC beams. (i) In order to estimate the free deformations of RC beams at elevated temperatures, the basic concepts of ACI's and CEB/FIP's formulas are adopted, which are well used to estimate the M-φ relations of RC beams at normal temperature. (ii) It was confirmed that the suggested formulas are able to estimate the free deformations of RC beams, that is, the longitudinal deformation and the curvature, at elevated temperatures. (author)

  1. Observation of damage process in RC beams under cucle bending by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsu, Masayasu; Tsuji, Nobuyuki; Yasuoka, Daisuke

    1997-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are generally applied to construction of buildings and bridges, and are imposed on cyclic loading incessantly. It is considered that detected acoustic emission (AE) waveforms are associated with the damage degree and the fracture mechanisms of RC structures. Therefor, the cyclic bending tests are applied to damaged RC beam specimens. To evaluate the interior of the damaged RC beams, the AE source kinematics are determined by 'SiGMA' procedure for AE moment tensor analysis. By using 'SiGMA' procedure, AE source kinematics, such as source locations, crack types, crack orientations and crack motions, can be identified. The results show the applicability to observation of the fracture process under cyclic bending load and evaluation the degree of damage of RC beam.

  2. Research on the Fatigue Flexural Performance of RC Beams Attacked by Salt Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiang-hong; Xu, Fang-yuan; Jin, Wei-liang; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xi-xi; Chen, Cai-sheng

    2018-04-01

    The fatigue flexural performance of RC beams attacked by salt spray was studied. A testing method involving electro osmosis, electrical accelerated corrosion and salt spray was proposed. This corrosion process method effectively simulates real-world salt spray and fatigue loading exerted by RC components on sea bridges. Four RC beams that have different stress amplitudes were tested. It is found that deterioration by corrosion and fatigue loading reduces the fatigue life of the RC and decreases the ability of deformation. The fatigue life and deflection ability could be reduced by increasing the stress amplitude and the corrosion duration time. The test result demonstrates that this experimental method can couple corrosion deterioration and fatigue loading reasonably. This procedure may be applied to evaluate the fatigue life and concrete durability of RC components located in a natural salt spray environment.

  3. Study on shear strengthening of RC continuous T-beams using different layers of CFRP strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alferjani, M. B. S.; Samad, A. A. Abdul; Mohamad, Noridah [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Elrawaff, Blkasem S.; Elzaroug, Omer [Faculty of Civil Engineering Omar Al Mukhtar University, Bayda, Libya, Africa (Libya)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are externally bonded to reinforced concrete (RC) members to provide additional strength such as flexural, shear, etc. However, this paper presents the results of an experimental investigation for enhancing the shear capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) continuous T- beams using different layers of CFRP wrapping schemes. A total of three concrete beams were tested and various sheet configurations and layouts were studied to determine their effects on ultimate shear strength and shear capacity of the beams. One beam was kept as control beams, while other beams were strengthened with externally bonded CFRP strips with three side bonding and one or two layers of CFRP strips. From the test results, it was found that all schemes were found to be effective in enhancing the shear strength of RC beams. It was observed that the strength increases with the number of sheet layers provided the most effective strengthening for RC continuous T- beam. Beam strengthened using this scheme showed 23.21% increase in shear capacity as compared to the control beam. Two prediction models available in literature were used for computing the contribution of CFRP strips and compared with the experimental results.

  4. Flexural repair/strengthening of pre-damaged R.C. beams using embedded CFRP rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa M. Morsy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many reinforced concrete R.C. elements need either strengthening due to the need of increasing the service loads or repair due to overloading stress or environmental deterioration affecting these elements. In this paper an experimental program is presented to investigate the effect of using embedded CFRP rod as NSM reinforcement for strengthening/repairing R.C. beams pre-damaged by loading to different loading levels and comparing the results to those of non-preloaded beams. A total of five beams were cast and six beams were tested under four point loading. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of providing one 12 mm diameter CFRP rod in addition to the existing steel reinforcement. Three beams were tested to failure directly without any preloading, whereas the other three beams were firstly subjected to preloading to different load levels. Following that these three beams were strengthened and were tested up to failure.

  5. RC T beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Spagnolo JR

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental data of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites. The tests were composed of eight T beams, b w=15 cm, h=40 cm, flange width 40 cm, flange height 8 cm, and length 300 cm, divided into two series with the same longitudinal steel reinforcement and a reference beam without strengthening in each series. The beams had two types of arrangement of internal steel stirrups. The test variables were the internal and external geometric ratio of the transverse reinforcement and the mechanical ratio of carbon fiber composites stirrups. All the beams were loaded at two points. The strengthened beams were submitted to a preloading and the strengthening was applied to the cracked beam. All the beams were designed in order to guarantee shear failure, and the ultimate load of the strengthened beams was 36% to 54% greater than the reference beams. The Cracking Sliding Model applied to the strengthened beams was evaluated and showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azim Shukri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels.

  7. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Ahmad Azim; Darain, Kh Mahfuz Ud; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2015-07-08

    Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM) technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels.

  8. EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING OF RC T-BEAMS WITH CFRP TENDONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennitz, Anders; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    FRPs is about to become common practice. Several guidelines on the subject have been presented during the last decade, e.g. [1-5]. Next step is to further utilize the excellent behaviour of the advanced material, in particular CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers). CFRPs have mechanical properties...... capacity could be increased, with a carefully applied compressive stress existing open cracks in concrete may be partly closed and it might also be possible to reduce large deflections. In that way the durability of the entire RC (Reinforced Concrete) -structure can be increased. Application of FRPs......As the acceptance for non-stressed FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymers) increase steadily in the construction industry, the industries susceptibility for new ideas in the material’s usage increase. Improving the performance of a bridge, a parking garage or a multistory building by the use of appropriate...

  9. Effect of web openings on the structural behavior of RC beams subjected to pure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Taha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of modern buildings, the presence of openings became a necessity nowadays in order to accommodate the many pipes and ducts required for the different services. On the other hand, the presence of these openings in RC beams affects their structural behavior. One important behavior that needs further study would be torsion. Currently, there are no guide lines available to analyze or design RC beams with web openings under pure torsion. Thus, the main objective of this research is to investigate the behavior of simply supported RC beams with openings subjected to pure torsion. In the first part of this paper, an experimental study is conducted on seven beams subjected to pure torsion loading in order to investigate the effect of the number of openings, the spacing between stirrups, and beam depth. All beams have a constant clear span length of 1800 mm and a constant beam width of 150 mm. The beams have varying opening number and stirrups arrangement as well as varying beam depth in order to investigate the effect of these parameters on the behavior of the beams. Systematic measurements such as the cracking torque, the ultimate torque, the angle of rotation of the beam at cracking, and the angle of rotation of the beam at the ultimate load are conducted for further understanding of the beam behavior under torsion. In the second part of the paper, the experimental results are compared with the numerical results obtained using the non-linear finite element analysis program, ANSYS. Good agreement between the experimental and numerical results is found.

  10. Strut and tie modeling for RC short beams with corroded stirrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed K. El-Sayed

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is one of the major problems that shorten the service life of reinforced concrete (RC structures. Steel stirrups, due to their location as an outer reinforcement, are more susceptible to corrosion problems and damage. However, there is limited research work in the literature on the effects of stirrup corrosion on the shear strength of RC beams. This paper attempts to evaluate analytically the residual shear strength of RC short beams with corrosion-damaged stirrups. The shear strength of short or deep beams are generally determined using the strut and tie model. The corrosion effects were implemented in the model to make it capable of predicting the residual shear capacity of RC beams with corroded stirrups. The effect of corrosion is implemented considering the reduction in geometry of the concrete cross section due to spalling and reduction in effective compressive strength of concrete due to corrosion cracks. The proposed strut and tie model which accounts for the corrosion effects was verified using the experimental data available in the literature, and good agreement was found.

  11. In RC buildings, the vertical and horizontal members (ie, the beams ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 4. Learning Earthquake Design and Construction - 18. How do Beams in RC Buildings Resist Earthquakes? C V R Murty. Classroom Volume 10 Issue 4 April 2005 pp 87-90 ...

  12. Shear Strengthening of RC Beams Using Sprayed Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohamad Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of externally bonded sprayed glass fiber reinforced polymer (Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening of RC beams under quasi-static loading is investigated. Different techniques were utilized to enhance the bond between concrete and Sprayed GFRP, involving the use of through bolts and nuts paired with concrete surface preparation through sandblasting and through the use of a pneumatic chisel prior to Sprayed GFRP application. It was found that roughening the concrete surface using a pneumatic chisel and using through bolts and nuts were the most effective techniques. Also, Sprayed GFRP applied on 3 sides (U-shaped was found to be more effective than 2-sided Sprayed GFRP in shear strengthening. Sprayed GFRP increased the shear load-carrying capacity and energy absorption capacities of RC beams. It was found that the load-carrying capacity of strengthened RC beams was related to an effective strain of applied Sprayed GFRP. This strain was related to Sprayed GFRP configuration and the technique used to enhance the concrete-FRP bond. Finally, an equation was proposed to calculate the contribution of Sprayed GFRP in the shear strength of an RC beam.

  13. Experimental study on fatigue crack propagation rate of RC beam strengthened with carbon fiber laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiyan; Liu, Guangwan; Guo, Xinyan; Huang, Man

    2008-11-01

    The experimental research on fatigue crack propagation rate of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber laminate (CFL) is carried out by MTS system in this paper. The experimental results show that, the main crack propagation on strengthened beam can be summarized into three phases: 1) fast propagation phase; 2) steady propagation and rest phase; 3) unsteady propagation phase. The phase 2-i.e. steady propagation and rest stage makes up about 95% of fatigue life of the strengthened beam. The propagation rate of the main crack, da/dN, in phase 2 can be described by Paris formula, and the constant C and m can be confirmed by the fatigue crack propagation experiments of the RC beams strengthened with CFL under three-point bending loads.

  14. Numerical prediction of fire resistance of RC beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serega, Szymon; Wosatko, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Fire resistance of different structural members is an important issue of their strength and durability. A simple but effective tool to investigate multi-span reinforced concrete beams exposed to fire is discussed in the paper. Assumptions and simplifications of the theory as well as numerical aspects are briefly reviewed. Two steps of nonlinear finite element analysis and two levels of observation are distinguished. The first step is the solution of transient heat transfer problem in representative two-dimensional reinforced concrete cross-section of a beam. The second part is a nonlinear mechanical analysis of the whole beam. All spans are uniformly loaded, but an additional time-dependent thermal load due to fire acts on selected ones. Global changes of curvature and bending moment functions induce deterioration of the stiffness. Benchmarks are shown to confirm the correctness of the model.

  15. RC Beams Strengthened with Mechanically Fastened Composites: Experimental Results and Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Martinelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanically-fastened fiber-reinforced polymer (MF-FRP systems has recently emerged as a competitive solution for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC beams and slabs. An overview of the experimental research has proven the effectiveness and the potentiality of the MF-FRP technique which is particularly suitable for emergency repairs or when the speed of installation and immediacy of use are imperative. A finite-element (FE model has been recently developed by the authors with the aim to simulate the behavior of RC beams strengthened in bending by MF-FRP laminates; such a model has also been validated by using a wide experimental database collected from the literature. By following the previous study, the FE model and the assembled database are considered herein with the aim of better exploring the influence of some specific aspects on the structural response of MF-FRP strengthened members, such as the bearing stress-slip relationship assumed for the FRP-concrete interface, the stress-strain law considered for reinforcing steel rebars and the cracking process in RC members resulting in the well-known tension stiffening effect. The considerations drawn from this study will be useful to researchers for the calibration of criteria and design rules for strengthening RC beams through MF-FRP laminates.

  16. Confinement Effect on Material Properties of RC Beams Under Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sumant; Shiyekar, Mukund Ramchandra; Shiyekar, Sandip Mukund

    2017-12-01

    In structural analysis, especially in indeterminate structures, it becomes essential to know the material and geometrical properties of members. The codal provisions recommend elastic properties of concrete and steel and these are fairly accurate enough. The stress-strain curve for concrete cylinder or a cube specimen is plotted. The slope of this curve is modulus of elasticity of plain concrete. Another method of determining modulus of elasticity of concrete is by flexural test of a beam specimen. The modulus of elasticity most commonly used for concrete is secant modulus. The modulus of elasticity of steel is obtained by performing a tension test of steel bar. While performing analysis by any software for high rise building, cross area of plain concrete is taken into consideration whereas effects of reinforcement bars and concrete confined by stirrups are neglected. Present aim of study is to determine elastic properties of reinforced cement concrete beam. Two important stiffness properties such as AE and EI play important role in analysis of high rise RCC building idealized as plane frame. The experimental program consists of testing of beams (model size 150 × 150 × 700 mm) with percentage of reinforcement varying from 0.54 to 1.63% which commensurate with existing Codal provisions of IS:456-2000 for flexural member. The effect of confinement is considered in this study. The experimental results are verified by using 3D finite element techniques.

  17. Experimental study of nylon fibre reinforced RC beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.A.; Jokhio, S.; Qazi, Attiq-ur-Rehman

    2002-01-01

    Six concrete beams reinforced with Nylon fibre strands placed in tensile zone as an alternative of steel bars have been tested. Fibre of 1.2 mm dia was used and 10 pieces were twisted together to form the strand; the number of turns being a parameter of study. This was done in order to over come the problem of bond, because the surface of fibre is very smooth and slippery. Two strands were used in each beam and in order to eliminate possibility of premature failure due to bond, specially designed End-Steel Anchorages were also tried. All the beams were 1000 mm long and 50 x 100 mm in cross section with an affective span of 900 mm. The tensile behaviors as well as moduli of the fibre itself were also determined. No shear reinforcement was used. The results are encourage and comparative financial study shows that this material holds promise for future use. However, more experimental study is needed. (author)

  18. Bonding techniques for flexural strengthening of R.C. beams using CFRP laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Morsy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of an alternative method of attaching FRP laminates to reinforced concrete beams by the way of fasting steel rivets through the FRP laminate and concrete substrate. Five full scale R.C. beams were casted and strengthened in flexural using FRP laminate bonded with conventional epoxy and compared with other beams strengthened with FRP laminate and bonded with fastener “steel rivets” of 50 mm length and 10 mm diameter. Based on experimental evidence the beam strengthened with conventional bonding methods failed due to de-bonding with about 13% increase over the un-strengthened beam. On the other hand, the beams strengthened with FRP laminate and bonded by four steel fastener rivets only failed by de-bonding also but at higher flexural capacity with increase 19% over the un-strengthened beam.

  19. Impact of Cyclic Loading on Chloride Diffusivity and Mechanical Performance of RC Beams under Seawater Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of cyclic loading on the mechanical performance and chloride diffusivity of RC beams exposed to seawater wet-dry cycles. To induce initial damage to RC beam specimen, cyclic loading controlled by max load and cycles was applied. Then beam specimens underwent 240 wet-dry cycles of seawater. Results show that the chloride content increased as max load and cycle increased. The chloride content at steel surface increased approximatively linearly as average crack width increased. Moreover, the max load had more influence on chloride content at steel surface than cycle. The difference of average chloride diffusion coefficient between tension and compression concrete was little at uncracked position. Average chloride diffusion coefficient increased as crack width increased when crack width was less than 0.11 mm whereas the increasing tendency was weak when crack width exceeded 0.11 mm. The residual yield load and ultimate load of RC beams decreased as max load and cycle increased. Based on univariate analysis of variance, the max load had more adverse effect on yield load and ultimate load than cycle.

  20. Interfacial stresses in damaged RC beams strengthened with externally bonded CFRP plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benrahou, K.H.; Adda bedia, E.A.; Benyoucef, S.; Tounsi, A.; Benguediab, M.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical method to predict the interfacial stresses in the adhesive layer of damaged reinforced concrete beams strengthened with externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate is presented. The adopted model is developed including the adherend shear deformations by assuming a linear shear stress through the depth of the RC beam [A. Tounsi, Int. J. Solids Struct., in press], while all existing solutions neglect this effect [e.g. S. Benyoucef, A. Tounsi, S.A. Meftah, E.A. Adda Bedia, Compos. Interfaces, in press; S.T. Smith, J.G. Teng, Eng. Struct. 23 (7) (2001) 857-871; T.M. Roberts, Struct. Eng. 67 (12) (1989) 229-233; A. Tounsi, S. Benyoucef, Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., in press; T. Stratford, J. Cadei, Construct. Building Mater. 20 (2006) 34-35]. In addition, in the present study the anisotropic damage model is adopted to describe the damage of the RC beams. It is shown that the damage has a significant effect on the interfacial stresses in FRP-damaged RC beam

  1. Sustainable RC Beam-Column Connections with Headed Bars: A Formula for Shear Strength Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Tung Tran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam-column joints are critical regions for reinforced concrete (RC frames subjected to earthquakes. The steel reinforcement is, in general, highly concentrated in these zones. This is why in many cases, headed bars are used. A headed bar is a longitudinal steel reinforcement whose end has a special button added to reduce the bonding length of the steel rebar. This paper establishes a formula predicting the shear strength of exterior RC beam-column connections where the beam longitudinal reinforcements use headed bars. A database was collected, which contained 30 experimental data about the exterior beam-column joints using headed bars and subjected to quasi-static cyclic loading. First, from the collected database, a statistical study was carried out to identify the most influencing parameters on the shear strength of the beam-column joints tested. The three most important parameters were identified and an empirical modified formula was developed based on the formula existing in the standards. The study showed that the results obtained from the modified formula proposed in the present study were closer to the experimental results than that obtained from the formula existing in the standards. Finally, a numerical study was performed on two T-form RC structures and the numerical results were compared with the prediction calculated from the modified formula proposed. For two investigated cases, the proposed formula provided the results in the safety side and the differences with the numerical results were less than 20%. Thus, the proposed formula can be used for a rapid assessment of the shear strength of RC joints using headed bars.

  2. Shear Resistance Capacity of Interface of Plate-Studs Connection between CFST Column and RC Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of a concrete-filled steel tube (CFST column and reinforced concrete (RC beam produces a composite structural system that affords good structural performance, functionality, and workability. The effective transmission of moments and shear forces from the beam to the column is key to the full exploitation of the structural performance. The studs of the composite beam transfer the interfacial shear force between the steel beam and the concrete slab, with the web bearing most of the vertical shear force of the steel beam. In this study, the studs and vertical steel plate were welded to facilitate the transfer of the interfacial shear force between the RC beam and CFST column. Six groups of a total of 18 specimens were used to investigate the shear transfer mechanism and failure mode of the plate-studs connection, which was confirmed to effectively transmit the shear forces between the beam and column. The results of theoretical calculations were also observed to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  3. Behavior of Insulated Carbon-FRP-Strengthened RC Beams Exposed to Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, B.

    2014-09-01

    There are two main approaches to improving the fire resistance of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) systems. While the most common method is to protect or insulate the FRP system, an other way is to use fibers and resins with a better fire performance. This paper presents a numerical investigation into the five protection behavior of insulated carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP)-strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The effects of external loading and thermal expansion of materials at elevated temperatures are taken into consideration in a finite-element model. The validity of the numerical model is demonstrated with results from an existing experimental study on insulated CFRP-strengthened RC beams. Conclusions of this investigation are employed to predict the structural behavior of CFRP-strengthened concrete structures.

  4. Effect of discrete glass fibers on the behavior of R.C. Beams exposed to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Riad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding discrete glass fibers on the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams under different fire and cooling conditions. Eighteen beams with different concrete compressive strengths were tested to study the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams containing discrete glass fibers when exposed to different fire and cooling conditions. Nine beams were prepared from normal strength concrete (NSC with compressive strength equal to 35 MPa while the other beams were prepared from high strength concrete (HSC with compressive strength equal to 60 MPa. The beams contained different contents of discrete glass fibers. The modes of failure of tested specimens show that the crack patterns change according to fire condition and fiber content. Analysis of test results show that adding discrete glass fibers to NSC increased the residual stiffness of the tested specimens after firing and decreased the rate of the deflection gain during firing. Also adding fibers to concrete has a limited positive effect on the ultimate strength of the specimens compared to the control specimens. Its effect on deflection due to fire is more pronounced. Finally, the recommended optimum ratio of discrete glass fibers is not more than 0.5% of the total concrete weight.

  5. Calibrating and validating a FE model for long-term behavior of RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Nikola D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the research carried out in finding an optimal finite element (FE model for calculating the long-term behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams. A multi-purpose finite element software DIANA was used. A benchmark test in the form of a simply supported beam loaded in four point bending was selected for model calibration. The result was the choice of 3-node beam elements, a multi-directional fixed crack model with constant stress cut-off, nonlinear tension softening and constant shear retention and a creep and shrinkage model according to CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. The model was then validated on 14 simply supported beams and 6 continuous beams. Good agreement was found with experimental results (within ±15%.

  6. Seismic Behavior and Retrofit of Concrete Columns of Old R.C. Buildings Reinforced With Plain Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marefat, M. S.; Arani, K. Karbasi; Shirazi, S. M. Hassanzadeh; Amrollahi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Seismic rehabilitation of old buildings has been a major challenge in recent years. The first step in seismic rehabilitation is evaluation of the existing capacity and the seismic behaviour. For investigation of the seismic behaviour of RC members of a real old building in Iran which has been designed and constructed by European engineers in 1940, three half-scale column specimens reinforced with plain bars have been tested. The tests indicate significant differences between the responses of specimens reinforced by plain bars relative to those reinforced by deformed bars. A regular pattern of cracking and a relatively brittle behaviour was observed while a relatively large residual strength appeared after sudden drop of initial strength and stiffness due to slip of longitudinal bars

  7. Development of Shear Capacity Prediction Model for FRP-RC Beam without Web Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Arman Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Available codes and models generally use partially modified shear design equation, developed earlier for steel reinforced concrete, for predicting the shear capacity of FRP-RC members. Consequently, calculated shear capacity shows under- or overestimation. Furthermore, in most models some affecting parameters of shear strength are overlooked. In this study, a new and simplified shear capacity prediction model is proposed considering all the parameters. A large database containing 157 experimental results of FRP-RC beams without shear reinforcement is assembled from the published literature. A parametric study is then performed to verify the accuracy of the proposed model. Again, a comprehensive review of 9 codes and 12 available models is done, published back from 1997 to date for comparison with the proposed model. Hence, it is observed that the proposed equation shows overall optimized performance compared to all the codes and models within the range of used experimental dataset.

  8. Interaction between corrosion crack width and steel loss in RC beams corroded under load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malumbela, Goitseone; Alexander, Mark; Moyo, Pilate

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results and discussions on an experimental study conducted to relate the rate of widening of corrosion cracks with the pattern of corrosion cracks as well as the level of steel corrosion for RC beams (153 x 254 x 3000 mm) that were corroded whilst subjected to varying levels of sustained loads. Steel corrosion was limited to the tensile reinforcement and to a length of 700 mm at the centre of the beams. The rate of widening of corrosion cracks as well as strains on uncracked faces of RC beams was constantly monitored during the corrosion process, along the corrosion region and along other potential cracking faces of beams using a demec gauge. The distribution of the gravimetric mass loss of steel along the corrosion region was measured at the end of the corrosion process. The results obtained showed that: the rate of widening of each corrosion crack is dependent on the overall pattern of the cracks whilst the rate of corrosion is independent of the pattern of corrosion cracks. A mass loss of steel of 1% was found to induce a corrosion crack width of about 0.04 mm.

  9. FRP-RC Beam in Shear: Mechanical Model and Assessment Procedure for Pseudo-Ductile Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Petrone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a mechanics-based shear model for reinforced concrete (RC elements strengthened in shear with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP and a design/assessment procedure capable of predicting the failure sequence of resisting elements: the yielding of existing transverse steel ties and the debonding of FRP sheets/strips, while checking the corresponding compressive stress in concrete. The research aims at the definition of an accurate capacity equation, consistent with the requirement of the pseudo-ductile shear behavior of structural elements, that is, transverse steel ties yield before FRP debonding and concrete crushing. For the purpose of validating the proposed model, an extended parametric study and a comparison against experimental results have been conducted: it is proven that the common accepted rule of assuming the shear capacity of RC members strengthened in shear with FRP as the sum of the maximum contribution of both FRP and stirrups can lead to an unsafe overestimation of the shear capacity. This issue has been pointed out by some authors, when comparing experimental shear capacity values with the theoretical ones, but without giving a convincing explanation of that. In this sense, the proposed model represents also a valid instrument to better understand the mechanical behavior of FRP-RC beams in shear and to calculate their actual shear capacity.

  10. 3D FE Analysis of RC Beams Externally Strengthened with SRG/SRP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bencardino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate, through a nonlinear Finite Element (FE analysis, the structural behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams externally strengthened by using Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG and Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP systems. The parameters taken into account were the external strengthening configuration, with or without U-wrap end anchorages, as well as the strengthening materials. The numerical simulations were carried out by using a three-dimensional (3D FE model. The linear and nonlinear behavior of all materials was modeled by appropriate constitutive laws and the connection between concrete substrate and external reinforcing layer was simulated by means of cohesive surfaces with appropriate bond-slip laws. In order to overcome convergence difficulties, to simulate the quasi-static response of the strengthened RC beams, a dynamic approach was adopted. The numerical results in terms of load-displacement curves, failure modes, and load and strain values at critical stages were validated against some experimental data. As a result, the proposed 3D FE model can be used to predict the structural behavior up to ultimate stage of similar strengthened beams without carrying out experimental tests.

  11. Prestress Loss of CFL in a Prestressing Process for Strengthening RC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A prestressing system was designed to strengthen reinforced concrete (RC beams with prestressed carbon fiber laminate (CFL. During different prestressing processes, prestress loss was measured using strain gauges attached on the surface of CFL along the length direction. The prestress loss was 50–68% of the whole prestress loss, which is typically associated with CFL slipping between the grip anchors. Approximately 20–27% of the prestress loss was caused by the elastic shortening of the RC beam. An analytical model using linear-elastic theory was constructed to calculate the prestress loss caused by CFL slipping between the anchors and the elastic shortening of the strengthened beams. The compared results showed that the analytical model of prestress loss can describe the experimental data well. Methods of reducing the prestress loss were also suggested. Compared to other experiments, the prestressing system proposed by this research group was effective because the maximum percentage of prestress loss was 14.9% and the average prestress loss was 12.5%.

  12. Flexural and Shear Behavior of RC Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fiber Wire Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafea Flaih Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study  the effect of using fiber wire mesh on the flexural and shear properties of RC concrete beams. Six reinforced concrete beams (120*180*1220mm were tested under two load points. Fiber wire mesh was applied with two manners, first one is three layers as U shape around the section of the beam, the second one is four layers around overall section of beam. The test results indicated that using of fiber wire mesh as additional reinforcement can increase the ultimate load of about (1.85-3.58% in the case of flexural and (17.7-23.7% in case of shear. Also,  results showed that an increasing in  first cracking  load is obtained from  (42.8-85.7% in case of flexural and from (41.2-76.5% in case of shear. Also the shear behavior of beams becomes more ductile when the fiber wire mesh was used in beams. The cracks of shrinkage was disappeared when the fiber wire mesh surround the section of the beam

  13. Lessons from shielding retrofits at the LAMPF/LANSCE/PSR accelerator, beam lines and target facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience in the past 7 years to improve the shielding and radiation control systems at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) provides important lessons for the design of radiation control systems at future, high beam power proton accelerator facilities. Major issues confronted and insight gained in developing shielding criteria and in the use of radiation interlocks are discussed. For accelerators and beam lines requiring hands-on-maintenance, our experience suggests that shielding criteria based on accident scenarios will be more demanding than criteria based on routinely encountered beam losses. Specification and analysis of the appropriate design basis accident become all important. Mitigation by active protection systems of the consequences of potential, but severe, prompt radiation accidents has been advocated as an alternate choice to shielding retrofits for risk management at both facilities. Acceptance of active protection systems has proven elusive primarily because of the difficulty in providing convincing proof that failure of active systems (to mitigate the accident) is incredible. Results from extensive shielding assessment studies are presented including data from experimental beam spill tests, comparisons with model estimates, and evidence bearing on the limitations of line-of-sight attenuation models in complex geometries. The scope and significant characteristics of major shielding retrofit projects at the LAMPF site are illustrated by the project to improve the shielding beneath a road over a multiuse, high-intensity beam line (Line D)

  14. A Retrofit Technique for Kicker Beam-Coupling Impedance Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Kroyer, T; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Kurennoy, S

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of the impedance of operational ferrite kicker structures may be desirable in order to avoid rebuilding such a device. Often resistively coated ceramic plates or tubes are installed for this purpose but at the expense of available aperture. Ceramic U-shaped profiles with a resistive coating fitting between the ellipse of the beam and the rectangular kicker aperture have been used to significantly reduce the impedance of the magnet, while having a limited effect on the available physical aperture. Details of this method, constraints, measurements and simulation results as well as practical aspects are presented and discussed.

  15. Preloading Effect on Strengthening Efficiency of RC Beams Strengthened with Non- and Pretensioned NSM Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kotynia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The near surface mounted (NSM technique has been shown to be one of the most promising methods for upgrading reinforced concrete (RC structures. Many tests carried out on RC members strengthened in flexure with NSM fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP systems have demonstrated greater strengthening efficiency than the use of externally-bonded (EB FRP laminates. Strengthening with simultaneous pretensioning of the FRP results in improvements in the serviceability limit state (SLS conditions, including the increased cracking moment and decreased deflections. The objective of the reported experimental program, which consisted of two series of RC beams strengthened in flexure with NSM CFRP strips, was to investigate the influence of a number of parameters on the strengthening efficiency. The test program focused on an analysis of the effects of preloading on the strengthening efficiency which has been investigated very rarely despite being one of the most important parameters to be taken into account in strengthening design. Two preloading levels were considered: the beam self-weight only, which corresponded to stresses on the internal longitudinal reinforcement of 25% and 14% of the yield stress (depending on a steel reinforcement ratio, and the self-weight with the additional superimposed load, corresponding to 60% of the yield strength of the unstrengthened beam and a deflection equal to the allowable deflection at the SLS. The influence of the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio was also considered in this study. To reflect the variability seen in existing structures, test specimens were varied by using different steel bar diameters. Finally, the impact of the composite reinforcement ratio and the number of pretensioned FRP strips was considered. Specimens were divided into two series based on their strengthening configuration: series “A” were strengthened with one pretensioned and two non-pretensioned carbon FRP (CFRP strips, while series

  16. Estimating the behavior of RC beams strengthened with NSM system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Rohollah Hosseini Vaez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, conventional materials such as steel and concrete are being replaced by fiber reinforced polymer (FRP materials for the strengthening of concrete structures. Among the strengthening techniques based on Fiber Reinforced Polymer composites, the use of near-surface mounted (NSM FRP rods is emerging as a promising technology for increasing flexural and shear strength of deficient concrete, masonry and timber members. An artificial neural network is an information processing tool that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems (such as the brain process the information. The key element of this tool is the novel structure of the information processing system. In engineering applications, a neural network can be a vector mapper which maps an input vector to an output one. In the present study, a new approach is developed to predict the behavior of strengthened concrete beam using a large number of experimental data by applying artificial neural networks. Having parameters used as input nodes in ANN modeling such as elastic modulus of the FRP reinforcement, the ratio of the steel longitudinal reinforcement, dimensions of the beam section, the ratio of the NSM-FRP reinforcement and characteristics of concrete, the output node was the flexural strength of beams. The idealized neural network was employed to generate empirical charts and equations to be used in design. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of strengthened RC beam using artificial neural networks.

  17. Parameters That Effect the Interfacial Stresses in Fibre Reinforced Plastic Laminates Strengthened Rc Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Sayın

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of externally bonded fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP laminates for strengthening of reinforced concrete beams has become an effective method. This method has been used because of the advantages of FRP materials such as their high strength-to-weight ratio, good corrosion resistance, and versatility in coping with different sectional shapes and corners. Many studies on this theme have been carried out since the early 1900s. In this study, interfacial stresses of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP effect the parameters will be studied as experimental and numerical. Adhesives used in the beams applied to FRP's thickness, adhesive type and the state of the concrete surface, produced experimental samples are exposed to the bending effect will be studied as a comparative. Afterwards, by using the ANSYS® WB finite element program to model and analyze RC beams by externally bonding FRP will be carried out. Adhesive thickness, adhesive type, the concrete surface will be performed by entering the parameters for analysis of stress can be obtained as a result. Thus, the analytical expressions of stress and normal stress equations will establish should be modified. Finite element analysis and experimental results will be compared, compatibility investigated, the results and recommendations presented by the study be completed.

  18. Simulation of Shear and Bending Cracking in RC Beam: Material Model and its Application to Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhatar, S. N.; Sonoda, Y.; Zuki, S. S. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Noh, M. S. Md

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a simple and reliable non-linear numerical analysis incorporated with fully Lagrangian method namely Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to predict the impact response of the reinforced concrete (RC) beam under impact loading. The analysis includes the simulation of the effects of high mass low-velocity impact load falling on beam structures. Three basic ideas to present the localized failure of structural elements are: (1) the accurate strength of concrete and steel reinforcement during the short period (dynamic), Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF) has been employed for the effect of strain rate on the compression and tensile strength (2) linear pressure-sensitive yield criteria (Drucker-Prager type) with a new volume dependent Plane-Cap (PC) hardening in the pre-peak regime is assumed for the concrete, meanwhile, shear-strain energy criterion (Von-Mises) is applied to steel reinforcement (3) two kinds of constitutive equation are introduced to simulate the crushing and bending cracking of the beam elements. Then, these numerical analysis results were compared with the experimental test results.

  19. Assessment of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams retrofitted with pre-stressed CFPR subjected to cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojatkashani, Ata; Zanjani, Sara

    2018-03-01

    Rehabilitation of weak and damaged structures has been considered widely during recent years. A relatively modern way of strengthening concrete components is to confine parts under tension and shear by means of carbon fiber reinforce polymer (CFRP). This way of strengthening due to the conditions of composite materials such as light weight, linear elastic behavior until failure point, high tensile strength, high elastic modulus, resistance against corrosion, and high fatigue resistance has become so common. During structural strengthening by means of not pre-stressed FRP materials, usually, it is not possible to benefit from the maximum capacity of FRP materials. In addition, sometimes, the expensive cost of such materials will not make a suitable balance between rates of strengthening and consuming spending. Thus, pre-stressing CFRP materials has an undeniable role in the effective use of materials. In the current research, general procedure of simulation using finite-element method (FEM) by means of the numerical package ABAQUS has been presented. In this article, 12 reinforced concrete (RC) models in two states (strengthened with simple and pre-stressed CFRP) under cycling loading have been considered. A parametric study has been carried out in this research on the effects of parameters such as CFRP surface area, percentage of tensile steel rebar and pre-stressing stress on ultimate load carrying capacity (ULCC), stiffness, and the ability of depreciation energy for the samples. In the current article also, for design parameters, percentages of tensile steel rebars, surface area of CFPR sheets, and the effective pre-stressing stress in RC beams retrofitted with pre-stressed CFPR sheets have investigated. In this paper, it was investigated that using different amount of parameters such as steel rebar percentage, CFRP surface area percentage, and CFRP pre-stressing, the resulted ULCC and energy depreciation of the specimens was observed to be increasing and

  20. Experimental investigation on full scale RC beam-column joint of NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thandavamoorthy, T.S.; Lakshmanan, N.; Reddy, G.R.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) structures in India are constructed using reinforced concrete. The beam-column joint in these structures are critical sub-assemblages because they ensure continuity of a structure and transfer forces from one element to another. Under seismic excitation, the beam-column joint region is subjected to horizontal and vertical shear forces whose magnitudes are typically many times higher than those within the adjacent beams and columns. In view of the increased incidence of seismicity in the country, the safety of these structures against earthquake loading assumes greater significance. There is a growing need to look into the seismic safety aspect of existing RC frame type structures in NPPs, which have been designed as per codes prevalent at the time of their construction. Seismic performance of such joints has not been studied extensively in India. Therefore experimental testing of full scale joint identical to those available in the existing NPP structures, was carried out to study its behaviour and evaluate its capacity. The size of the beam of the joint was 2000 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm and column 2915 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm. The percentage reinforcement of the beam was 4.95 and column 1.5. Such full scale and heavily reinforced concrete joint was cast successfully in the laboratory and tested under monotonic loading. The paper presents a complete description of the experimental testing, observations made during testing as for cracking, deflection and rotation of joint, discussion of results obtained, etc. Conclusions drawn from the investigation are also presented. (author)

  1. Anchorage strength models for end-debonding predictions in RC beams strengthened with FRP composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, V.; Guadagnini, M.; Valluzzi, M. R.

    2008-05-01

    The increase in the flexural capacity of RC beams obtained by externally bonding FRP composites to their tension side is often limited by the premature and brittle debonding of the external reinforcement. An in-depth understanding of this complex failure mechanism, however, has not yet been achieved. With specific regard to end-debonding failure modes, extensive experimental observations reported in the literature highlight the important distinction, often neglected in strength models proposed by researchers, between the peel-off and rip-off end-debonding types of failure. The peel-off failure is generally characterized by a failure plane located within the first few millimetres of the concrete cover, whilst the rip-off failure penetrates deeper into the concrete cover and propagates along the tensile steel reinforcement. A new rip-off strength model is described in this paper. The model proposed is based on the Chen and Teng peel-off model and relies upon additional theoretical considerations. The influence of the amount of the internal tensile steel reinforcement and the effective anchorage length of FRP are considered and discussed. The validity of the new model is analyzed further through comparisons with test results, findings of a numerical investigation, and a parametric study. The new rip-off strength model is assessed against a database comprising results from 62 beams tested by various researchers and is shown to yield less conservative results.

  2. Experimental behavior of full-scale exterior beam-column space joints retrofitted by ferrocement layers under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim G. Shaaban

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A majority of the traditional reinforced concrete frame buildings, existing across the Middle East, lack adequate confinement in beam-column joints, or in other words, are shear deficient because they were constructed before the introduction of seismic codes for construction. This research studies the experimental behavior of full-scale beam-column space (three-dimensional joints under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. Eleven joint specimens, included a traditionally reinforced one (without adequate shear reinforcement, a reference one with sufficient shear reinforcement according to ACI 318, and nine specimens retrofitted by ferrocement layers, were experimentally tested to evaluate a retrofit technique for strengthening shear deficient beam column joints. The studied variables were the number of layers, orientation angle of expanded wire mesh per layer, and presence of steel angles in the corners of joint specimen prior to wrapping with ferrocement layers. The experimental results showed that proper shear reinforcement for the test joints, according to ACI 318, enhanced the behavior of the specimen over that of the traditionally reinforced specimens without adequate shear reinforcement. The joints retrofitted by ferrocement layers showed higher ultimate capacity, higher ultimate displacement prior to failure (better ductility, and they did not suffer heavily damage as observed for the traditionally reinforced one. Increasing the number of ferrocement layers for retrofitted specimens led to improving performance for such specimens compared to the traditionally reinforced ones in terms of enhancing the ultimate capacity and ultimate displacement. Specimens retrofitted by ferrocement layers reinforced by expanded wire mesh of 60° orientation angle showed slightly better performance than those of 45° orientation angles. Retrofitting using steel angles in addition to ferrocement layers improves the seismic performance of the specimens

  3. Time-variant flexural reliability of RC beams with externally bonded CFRP under combined fatigue-corrosion actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaud, David; Ali, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Time-variant reliability analysis of RC highway bridges strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer CFRP laminates under four possible competing damage modes (concrete crushing, steel rupture after yielding, CFRP rupture and FRP plate debonding) and three degradation factors is analyzed in terms of reliability index β using FORM. The first degradation factor is chloride-attack corrosion which induces reduction in steel area and concrete cover cracking at characteristic key times (corrosion initiation, severe surface cover cracking). The second degradation factor considered is fatigue which leads to damage in concrete and steel rebar. Interaction between corrosion and fatigue crack growth in steel reinforcing bars is implemented. The third degradation phenomenon is the CFRP properties deterioration due to aging. Considering these three degradation factors, the time-dependent flexural reliability profile of a typical simple 15 m-span intermediate girder of a RC highway bridge is constructed under various traffic volumes and under different corrosion environments. The bridge design options follow AASHTO-LRFD specifications. Results of the study have shown that the reliability is very sensitive to factors governing the corrosion. Concrete damage due to fatigue slightly affects reliability profile of non-strengthened section, while service life after strengthening is strongly related to fatigue damage in concrete. - Highlights: • We propose a method to follow the time-variant reliability of strengthened RC beams. • We consider multiple competing failure modes of CFRP strengthened RC beams. • We consider combined degradation mechanisms (corrosion, fatigue, ageing of CFRP)

  4. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP Bars for Enhancing the Flexural Performance of RC Beams Using Side-NSM Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akter Hosen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC structures require strengthening for numerous factors, such as increased load, modification of the structural systems, structural upgrade or errors in the design and construction stages. The side near-surface mounted (SNSM strengthening technique with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars is a relatively new emerging technique for enhancing the flexural capacities of existing RC elements. Nine RC rectangular beams were flexurally strengthened with this technique and tested under four-point bending loads until failure. The main goal of this study is to optimize the structural capacity of the RC beams by varying the amount of strengthening reinforcement and bond length. The experimental test results showed that strengthening with SNSM GFRP bars significantly enhanced the flexural responses of the specimens compared with the control specimen. The first cracking and ultimate loads, energy absorption capacities, ductility and stiffness were remarkably enhanced by the SNSM technique. It was also confirmed that the bond length of the strengthened reinforcement greatly influences the energy absorption capacities, ductility and stiffness. The effect of the bond length on these properties is more significant compared to the amount of strengthening reinforcement.

  5. Effect of the Fiber Type and Axial Stiffness of FRCM on the Flexural Strengthening of RC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Jabr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of externally-bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP sheets has been successfully used in the repair and strengthening of both the shear and flexural capacities of reinforced concrete (RC beams, slabs and columns since the 1990s. However, the externally-bonded FRP reinforcements still present many disadvantages, such as poor performance in elevated temperature and fire, lack of permeability and strength degradation when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. To remedy such drawbacks, the fiber-/fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM has been recently introduced. The FRCM system consists of a fiber mesh or grid embedded in a cementitious bonding material. The present research investigates the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC beams with FRCM. The experimental testing included eight large-scale concrete beams, 150 mm × 250 mm × 2400 mm, internally reinforced with steel bars and strengthened in flexure with FRCM. The investigated parameters were the internal steel reinforcement ratio and the FRCM systems. Two steel reinforcement ratios of 0.18 and 0.36 of the balanced reinforcement ratio, as well as three FRCM systems using glass, carbon and PBO fibers were investigated. Test results are presented in terms of load-deflection, load-strain and load-crack width relationships. The test results indicated that the PBO FRCM significantly increased the ultimate capacity of the strengthened RC beams with both low and moderate internal reinforcement ratios compared to the glass and carbon FRCM.

  6. Ductility Analysis of RC Beams Considering the Concrete Confinement Effect Produced by the Shear Reinforcement: a Numerical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Gorla Nogueira

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a simplified numerical approach to study the influence of the confinement effect provided by transversal reinforcement on the ductility behavior of RC beams in bending is proposed. A unidimensional FEM mechanical model coupled to the Mazars’ damage model to simulate concrete behavior was adopted to assess ductility curvatures at the ultimate limit state. The confinement effect was incorporated to the numerical model through a calibration process of the damage internal parameters, based on the Least Square Method and an analytical law proposed by Kent and Park (1971. Several numerical analyses were carried out considering different designs of RC beams according to a parametric study varying the neutral axis position, concrete compressive strength and the volumetric transversal reinforcement ratio. The obtained results showed the importance of the amount of transversal reinforcement on the ductility behavior, increasing the ductility factor even for the cases with inappropriate neutral axis position.

  7. A study on shear behavior of R/C beams subjected to long-term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many structural members are subjected to long term heating. There are few experimental data available on the behavior especially in shear of reinforced concrete (R/C) members subjected to long term heating. This paper describes a study aimed at experimentally determining the shear behavior of R/C members in nuclear power plant facilities following sustained heating at high temperatures

  8. Implementation of Highly-Flowable Strain Hardening Fiber Reinforced Concrete in New RC Beam-Column Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Wen-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of New RC project was aimed to reduce the member sections and increase the available space of high rise buildings by using high strength concrete (f’c > 70 MPa and high strength rebars (fy > 685 MPa. Material consumptions and member section sizes can be further reduced owing to the upgrade of strength. However, the nature of brittleness of high strength may also cause early cover spalling and other ductility issues. Addition of steel fibers is an alternative as transverse reinforcement. Highly flowable strain hardening fiber reinforced concrete (HF-SHFRC has excellent workability in the fresh state and exhibits the strain-hardening and multiple cracking characteristics of high performance fiber reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCC in their hardened state. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of implementing HF-SHFRC in New RC building systems, particularly for beam-column joints as an alternative of transverse reinforcements. Four full-scale exterior beam-column joints, including two specimens with intensive transverse reinforcements and two specimens made of HF-SHFRC without any stirrup, are tested. Test results show that the HF-SHFRC specimens perform as well as specimens with intensive transverse reinforcements regarding failure mode, ductility, energy dissipation and crack width control. Integration of New RC building systems and HF-SHFRC can assuring construction qualities and further diminish labor work and give infrastructure longer service life, and eventually lower the life-cycle cost.

  9. Evaluation on effects of chloride-induced deterioration on mechanical properties of RC beams with cracking damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Otsuka, Taku

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of chloride-induced deterioration on mechanical properties of aging reinforced concrete (RC) structures and the applicability of the material degradation model that takes reinforcing steel corrosion into consideration for finite element analysis. We conducted the corrosion tests under the simulated tidal environment and the flexural loading tests for the RC beams with cracking damage and initial defects. Then, the experimental results were numerically correlated to validate the devised modeling. The obtained results were summarized as follows: (a) The cracking damage in specimens caused a minor effect on the reinforcing steel corrosion in the case where the thickness of cover concrete was 40 mm and main rebars did not yield before chloride attack. On the other hand the maximum corrosion ratio of the deteriorated part became considerably larger than that of the non-cracking part in the specimens where the cover concrete were removed partially to simulate spalling by the severe corrosion. (b) Based on the test results, we derived the corrosion velocity of reinforcing steel corresponding to cracking damage degrees. (c) In FEM analyses, we showed that the above modeling can estimate the flexural strength of RC beams in consideration of the degradation in elongation performance of reinforcing steel due to corrosion. (author)

  10. Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP under High Temperature and High Humidity Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical and experimental methods were applied to investigate fatigue crack propagation behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams strengthened with a new type carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP named as carbon fiber laminate (CFL subjected to hot-wet environment. J-integral of a central crack in the strengthened beam under three-point bending load was calculated by ABAQUS. In finite element model, simulation of CFL-concrete interface was based on the bilinear cohesive zone model under hot-wet environment and indoor atmosphere. And, then, fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out under high temperature and high humidity (50°C, 95% R · H environment pretreatment and indoor atmosphere (23°C, 78% R · H to obtain a-N curves and crack propagation rate, da/dN, of the strengthened beams. Paris-Erdogan formula was developed based on the numerical analysis and environmental fatigue tests.

  11. The structural response and manner of progressive collapse in RC buildings under the blast and Provide approaches to retrofitting columns against blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GholamReza Havaei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In accidents caused by explosion, the initial damage is usually caused by direct hit blast that it causes damage and serious destruction of structural components. In this state, the collapse of structural components and the subsequent progressive collapse may cause an increase in damages and eventually collapse of the structure. On the other hand, observations show that most of these buildings designed and built without consideration of their vulnerability to such events. In this study, global and local response of reinforced concrete buildings and their damages evaluated against explosion. First the global stability of building using SAP2000 is evaluated against explosion and then the amount and behaviour of damages in The key structural components of the building after the explosion is investigated using LS DYNA. The study involved four important areas in structural engineering that includes blast load determination, numerical modelling with FEM techniques, material performance under high strain rate and non-linear dynamic analysis. Two types of design methods are recommended for RC columns to provide superior residual capacities. They are RC columns detailing with additional steel reinforcement cages and a composite columns including a central structural steel core. The results showed that the use of this type of columns compared to typical RC column against explosion can have a significant impact in increasing the bearing capacity of structural components against gravity loads after the explosion.

  12. Experimental investigations into the shear behavior of self-compacting RC beams with and without shear reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar N. HANOON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is a new generation of high-performance concrete, known for its excellent deformability and high resistance to segregation and bleeding. Nonetheless, SCC may be incapable of resisting shear because the shear resistance mechanisms of this concrete are uncertain, especially the aggregate interlock mechanism. This uncertainty is attributed to the fact that SCC contains a smaller amount of coarse aggregates than normal concrete (NC does. This study focuses on the shear strength of self-compacting reinforced concrete (RC beams with and without shear reinforcement. A total of 16 RC beam specimens was manufactured and tested in terms of shear span-to-depth ratio and flexural and shear reinforcement ratio. The test results were compared with those of the shear design equations developed by ACI, BS, CAN and NZ codes. Results show that an increase in web reinforcement enhanced cracking strength and ultimate load. Shear-tension failure was the control failure in all tested beams.

  13. Dependence of neutron rate production with accelerator beam profile and energy range in an ADS-TRIGA RC1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozabadi, M.M.; Karimi, J. [Birjand Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Zangian, M. [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2016-12-15

    Lead, mercury, tantalum and tungsten were used as target material for calculation of spallation processes in an ADS-TRIGA RC1 reactor. The results show that tungsten has the highest neutron production rate. Therefore it was selected as target material for further calculations. The sensitivity of neutron parameters of the ADS reactor core relative to a change of beam profile and proton energy was determined. The core assembly and parameters of the TRIGA RC1 demonstration facility were used for the calculation model. By changing the proton energy from 115 to 1 400 MeV by using the intra-nuclear cascade model of Bertini (INC-Bertini), the quantity of the relative difference in % for energy gain (G) and spallation neutron yield (Y{sub n/p}), increases to 289.99 % and 5199.15 % respectively. These changes also reduce the amount of relative difference for the proton beam current (I{sub p}) and accelerator power (P{sub acc}), 99.81 % and 81.28 % respectively. In addition, the use of a Gaussian distribution instead of a uniform distribution in the accelerator beam profile increases the quantity of relative difference for energy gain (G), net neutron multiplication (M) and spallation neutron yield (Y{sub n/p}), up to 4.93 %, 4.9 % and 5.55 % respectively.

  14. Seismic Performance of RC Beam-Column Connections with Continuous Rectangular Spiral Transverse Reinforcements for Low Ductility Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadamin Azimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic performance of RC columns could be significantly improved by continuous spiral reinforcement as a result of its adequate ductility and energy dissipation capacity. Due to post-earthquake brittle failure observations in beam-column connections, the seismic behaviour of such connections could greatly be improved by simultaneous application of this method in both beams and columns. In this study, a new proposed detail for beam to column connection introduced as “twisted opposing rectangular spiral” was experimentally and numerically investigated and its seismic performance was compared against normal rectangular spiral and conventional shear reinforcement systems. In this study, three full scale beam to column connections were first designed in conformance with Eurocode (EC2-04 for low ductility class connections and then tested by quasistatic cyclic loading recommended by ACI Building Code (ACI 318-02. Next, the experimental results were validated by numerical methods. Finally, the results revealed that the new proposed connection could improve the ultimate lateral resistance, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity.

  15. NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF NONSEISMICALLY DETAILED INTERIOR RC BEAM-COLUMN CONNECTION UNDER REVERSED CYCLIC LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a nonlinear finite element analysis of non-seismically detailed RC beam column connections under reversed cyclic load. The test of half-scale nonductile reinforced concrete beam-column joints was conducted. The tested specimens represented those of the actual mid-rise reinforced concrete frame buildings designed according to the non-seismic provisions of the ACI building code.  The test results show that specimens representing small and medium column tributary area failed in brittle joint shear while specimen representing large column tributary area failed by ductile flexure though no ductile reinforcement details were provided. The nonlinear finite element analysis was applied to simulate the behavior of the specimens. The finite element analysis employs the smeared crack approach for modeling beam, column and joint, and employs the discrete crack approach for modeling the interface between beam and joint face. The nonlinear constitutive models of reinforced concrete elements consist of coupled tension-compression model to model normal force orthogonal and parallel to the crack and shear transfer model to capture the shear sliding mechanism. The FEM shows good comparison with test results in terms of load-displacement relations, hysteretic loops, cracking process and the failure mode of the tested specimens. The finite element analysis clarifies that the joint shear failure was caused by the collapse of principal diagonal concrete strut.

  16. Flexural Behavior of RC Members Using Externally Bonded Aluminum-Glass Fiber Composite Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Nam Hong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns improvement of flexural stiffness/strength of concrete members reinforced with externally bonded, aluminum-glass fiber composite (AGC beams. An experimental program, consisting of seven reinforced concrete slabs and seven reinforced concrete beams strengthened in flexure with AGC beams, was initiated under four-point bending in order to evaluate three parameters: the cross-sectional shape of the AGC beam, the glass fiber fabric array, and the installation of fasteners. The load-deflection response, strain distribution along the longitudinal axis of the beam, and associated failure modes of the tested specimens were recorded. It was observed that the AGC beam led to an increase of the initial cracking load, yielding load of the tension steels and peak load. On the other hand, the ductility of some specimens strengthened was reduced by more than 50%. The A-type AGC beam was more efficient in slab specimens than in beam specimens and the B-type was more suitable for beam specimens than for slabs.

  17. Strengthening of structurally damaged wide shallow RC beams using externally bonded CFRP plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeh A. Al-Zaid

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete wide shallow beams (WSBs are commonly used in the joist flooring systems. The structural behavior of WSBs strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP reinforcement was studied on isolated beams and as part of full-scale building. The effect of structural damage on the performance of WSBs flexurally strengthened with CFRP plates was investigated and presented in this paper. Eight full-scale WSBs were tested under four-point bending up to failure. Seven beams were strengthened with CFRP plates bonded to the soffit of the beams and one beam was unstrengthened serving as control. Prior to strengthening, the beams were subjected to different levels of damaging by preloading to 30-95% of the beams' flexural capacity. One beam was fully damaged by preloading to failure and repaired before strengthening by replacing the crushed concrete. The data showed that the pre-damaged strengthened beams exhibited ultimate capacities up to 8% lower than those of the undamaged strengthened beams. However, the load carrying capacities of pre-damaged strengthened beams were more than those predicted by ACI 440 design guide, fib Bulletin 14, and JSCE design recommendations. Both fib Bulletin 14 and JSCE design recommendations gave very conservative predictions with average ratios of experimental to predicted ultimate capacity of 2.02 and 2.35, respectively. More accurate predictions were obtained by ACI 440 design guide as the corresponding ratio was 1.24. These results indicate that strong confidence and reliability can be placed in applying CFRP strengthening to structurally damaged WSBs.

  18. Creep investigation of GFRP RC Beams - Part A : Literature review and experimental Study

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    masmoudi abdelmonem

    2014-11-01

    This paper (Part A presents a literature review and the loading history of six experimental beams reinforced with GFRP and steel bars. The results of this study revealed that Beams reinforced with GFRP are less marked with creep phenomenon.  This investigation should guide the civil engineer/designer for a better understanding creep phenomenon in GFRP reinforced concrete members.

  19. Evaluation of Shear Strength of RC Beams with Multiple Interfaces Formed before Initial Setting Using 3D Printing Technology

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    Kyeongjin Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent development of 3D printing technology, concrete materials are sometimes used in 3D printing. Concrete structures based on 3D printing have been characterized to have the form of multiple layer build-up. Unlike general concrete structures, therefore, the 3D-printed concrete can be regarded as an orthotropic material. The material property of the 3D-printed concrete’s interface between layers is expected to be far different from that of general concrete bodies since there are no aggregate interlocks and weak chemical bonding. Such a difference finally affects the structural performance of concrete structures even though the interfaces are formed before initial setting of the concrete. The current study mainly reviewed the changes in fracture energy (toughness with respect to various environmental conditions of such interface. Changes in fracture energies of interfaces between concrete layers were measured using low-speed Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD closed loop concrete fracture test. The experimental results indicated reduction in fracture energy as well as tensile strengths. To improve the tensile strength of interfaces, the use of bridging materials is suggested. Since it was assumed that reduction in fracture energy could be a cause of shear strength, to evaluate the reduced structural performance of concrete structure constructed with multiple interfaces by 3D printing technology, the shear strength of RC beam by 3D printing technology was predicted and compared with that of plain RC beam. Based on the fracture energy measured in this study, Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT theory-applied Vector 2 program was employed to predict the degree of reduction in shear strength without considering stirrups. Reduction factors were presented based on the obtained results to predict the reduction in shear strength due to interfaces before initial setting of the concrete.

  20. Effect of releasing pretension for Rc Beams Bonded with Prestressed Fr Strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao-yang, Z.; Xue-jun, H.; Xing-guo, W.; Fei-fei, X

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of releasing pretension is theoretically and experimentally investigated for flexural members externally bonded with prestressed FRP laminate or near-surface-mounted with prestressed FRP plate or rod. The stresses of FRP on the interface and at cross sections of a beam are analyzed on the basis of linear elastic theory. The expressions are derived for effective prestress, prestress loss and camber at the midspan of the beam. Tests are performed on two reinforced concrete beams bonded with prestressed GFRP plate. The comparison between the analytical and the measured results shows the analyses in this paper are rational and correct. (author)

  1. Unified model to predict flexural shear behavior of externally bonded RC beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colotti, V.; Spadea, G.; Swamy, R.N.

    2006-01-01

    Structural strengthening with externally bonded reinforcement is now recognized as a cost-effective, structurally sound and practically efficient method of rehabilitating deteriorating and damaged reinforced concrete beams. There is now an urgent need to develop a sound engineering basis which can predict the failure loads of all such strengthened beams in a reliable and consistent manner. Existing models to predict the behavior at ultimate of strengthened beams suffer from many limitations and weaknesses. This paper presents a unified global model, based on the Strut-and-Tie approach, to predict the failure loads of reinforced concrete beams strengthened for flexure and/or shear. This structural model is based on rational engineering principles, considers all the possible failure modes, and incorporates the load transfer mechanism bond to reflect the debonding phenomena which has a dominant influence on the failure process of plated beams. The model is validated against about 200 strengthened beam test reported in the literature and failing in flexure and/or shear, involving a large number of structural variables and steel, carbon and glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates as reinforcing medium. (author)

  2. Concrete cover cracking with reinforcement corrosion of RC beam during chloride-induced corrosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruijin; Castel, Arnaud; Francois, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the evolution of the corrosion pattern based on two beams corroded by 14 years (beam B1CL1) and 23 years (beam B2CL1) of conservation in a chloride environment. The experimental results indicate that, at the cracking initiation stage and the first stage of cracking propagation, localized corrosion due to chloride ingress is the predominant corrosion pattern and pitting corrosion is the main factor that influences the cracking process. As corrosion cracking increases, general corrosion develops rapidly and gradually becomes predominant in the second stage of cracking propagation. A comparison between existing models and experimental results illustrates that, although Vidal et al.'s model can better predict the reinforcement corrosion of beam B1CL1 under localized corrosion, it cannot predict the corrosion of beam B2CL1 under general corrosion. Also, Rodriguez's model, derived from the general corrosion due to electrically accelerated corrosion experiments, cannot match natural chloride corrosion irrespective of whether corrosion is localized or general. Thus, for natural general corrosion in the second stage of cracking propagation, a new model based on the parameter of average steel cross-section loss is put forward to predict steel corrosion from corrosion cracking.

  3. Flexural Behavior of Self-Compacting RC Continuous Beams Strengthened by CFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabih Z. Al-Sarraf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This search presented an experimental study of the flexural behavior of self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams externally strengthened by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP Sheets. The practical study contained eight self-compacting reinforced concrete continuous beams (with two span, each span had (1500 mm length and (150x250 mm cross sectional dimensions. Seven of these beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets with and without external anchorage. The experimental variables included location of CFRP sheets and anchor type and location. The results, shows that the beams strengthened externally by CFRP sheets provided improvement in ultimate loads reached (60.71%. The usage of CFRP in the anchorage zone indicated an effective method in comparison to increasing the CFRP sheets lengths or extending them up to the support or under the loading points. Test results also showed that side strengthening provided an effective tool for increasing the load at the cracking stage and also the load capacity and reducing flexural crack widths.

  4. Are Available Models Reliable for Predicting the FRP Contribution to the Shear Resistance of RC Beams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sas, G.; Täljsten, Björn; Barros, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the trustworthiness of the existing theory for predicting the fiber-reinforced plastic contribution to the shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams is discussed. The most well-known shear models for external bonded reinforcement are presented, commented on, and compared...

  5. Defining the crack pattern of RC beams through the golden section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantilli, A P; Chiaia, B; Cennamo, C

    2011-01-01

    Both in architecture and arts, the golden section has been exclusively taken into consideration for its geometrical properties. Specifically, among all the proportions, the golden section can inspire beauty. Indeed, it has driven the construction of buildings for centuries. Nevertheless, as discussed for the first time in the present paper, static equilibrium of structures calls the golden section into play. This is the case of reinforced concrete beam in four point bending, whose average crack spacing in the constant moment zone increases of a factor equal to the irrational number 1.61803 when the geometrical dimensions of the beam are doubled. In other words, it can be argued that the centrality of golden section in the art of construction has profound physical meanings, as it can bring together the aesthetic of nature and architecture, and the equilibrium of stress flow in solid bodies.

  6. Defining the crack pattern of RC beams through the golden section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantilli, A P; Chiaia, B [Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Cennamo, C, E-mail: alessandro.fantilli@polito.it [Department of ' Cultura del Progetto' , Universita di Napoli SUN, via San Lorenzo, Aversa 81031 (Italy)

    2011-07-19

    Both in architecture and arts, the golden section has been exclusively taken into consideration for its geometrical properties. Specifically, among all the proportions, the golden section can inspire beauty. Indeed, it has driven the construction of buildings for centuries. Nevertheless, as discussed for the first time in the present paper, static equilibrium of structures calls the golden section into play. This is the case of reinforced concrete beam in four point bending, whose average crack spacing in the constant moment zone increases of a factor equal to the irrational number 1.61803 when the geometrical dimensions of the beam are doubled. In other words, it can be argued that the centrality of golden section in the art of construction has profound physical meanings, as it can bring together the aesthetic of nature and architecture, and the equilibrium of stress flow in solid bodies.

  7. FLEXURAL CAPACITY OF THE PRECAST RC BEAM-COLUMN CONNECTION USING CFRP SHEET

    OpenAIRE

    Djamaluddin, Rudy; Rante, Harmonis; Irmawaty, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Precast concrete have advantages in quality and shorter construction time. The connection of a precast concrete structures is important for the successful construction. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the flexural capacity of the portal system beam-column connection of precast concrete using CFRP sheet. The study was conducted to develop a connection system using CFRP sheet on a precast concrete frame of a highway bridges. A series of specimens with parameter of CFRP shee...

  8. Quasi-plane-hypothesis of strain coordination for RC beams seismically strengthened with externally-bonded or near-surface mounted fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenhua; Zeng, Xiantao; Liu, Hanlong; Zhou, Fengjun

    2013-03-01

    The application of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP), including carbon FRP and glass FRP, for structural repair and strengthening has grown due to their numerous advantages over conventional materials such as externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) and near-surface mounted (NSM) strengthening techniques. This paper summarizes the results from 21 reinforced concrete beams strengthened with different methods, including externally-bonded and near-surface mounted FRP, to study the strain coordination of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam. Since there is relative slipping between the RC beam and the FRP, the strain of the FRP and steel rebar of the RC beam satisfy the quasi-plane-hypothesis; that is, the strain of the longitudinal fiber that parallels the neutral axis of the plated beam within the scope of the effective height ( h 0) of the cross section is in direct proportion to the distance from the fiber to the neutral axis. The strain of the FRP and steel rebar satisfies the equation: ɛ FRP= βɛ steel, and the value of β is equal to 1.1-1.3 according to the test results.

  9. Bonding capacity of the GFRP-S on strengthened RC beams after sea water immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mufti Amir; Djamaluddin, Rudy

    2017-11-01

    Construction of concrete structures that located in extreme environments are such as coastal areas will result in decreased strength or even the damage of the structures. As well know, chloride contained in sea water is responsible for strength reduction or structure fail were hence maintenance and repairs on concrete structure urgently needed. One popular method of structural improvements which under investigation is to use the material Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer which has one of the advantages such as corrosion resistance. This research will be conducted experimental studies to investigate the bonding capacity behavior of reinforced concrete beams with reinforcement GFRP-S immersed in sea water using immersion time of one month, three months, six months and twelve months. Test specimen consists of 12 pieces of reinforced concrete beams with dimensions (150x200x3000) mm that had been reinforced with GFRP-S in the area of bending, the beam without immersion (B0), immersion one month (B1), three months (B3), six months (B6) and twelve months (B12). Test specimen were cured for 28 days before the application of the GFRP sheet. Test specimen B1, B3, B6 and B12 that have been immersed in sea water pool with a immersion time each 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. The test specimen without immersion test by providing a static load until it reaches the failure, to record data during the test strain gauge mounted on the surface of the specimen and the GFRP to collect the strain value. From the research it obvious that there is a decrease bonding capacity on specimens immersed for one month, three months, six months and twelve months against the test object without immersion of 8.85%; 8.89%; 9.33% and 11.04%.

  10. Creep investigation of GFRP RC Beams - Part B: a theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masmoudi abdelmonem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study about the viscoelastic time-dependent (creep behavior of pultruded GFRP elements made of polyester and E-glass fibres. Experimental results reported in Part A are firstly used for material characterization by means of empirical and phenomenological formulations.   The superposition principles by adopting the law of creep following the Eurocode 2 recommendations are also investigated. Analytical study was also conducted including creep under constant stress; successions of increasing stress superposition principle equivalent time and the return creep reloading. The results of this study revealed that Beams reinforced with GFRP are less marked with creep phenomenon.  This investigation should guide the civil engineer/designer for a better understanding creep phenomenon in GFRP reinforced concrete members.

  11. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  12. Strengthening and repairing of damaged concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.K.; Ebrahiem, G.T.A.; Hassanein, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The main part in this investigation is concerned with the advanced techniques of retrofitting damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) were employed for this purpose. The aim of this paper is to investigate the advantage of using glass fiber .reinforced plastics (GFRP) to retrofit and repair damaged reinforced concrete beams. In this investigation, concrete beam specimens were preloaded up to the 60%, 70% arid 80% of their ultimate load capacity. The damaged beams were then repaired with one layer of FRP composite wraps and re-tested. Plastic reinforced by glass fibers 20% fiber volume fractions and with various fiber arrangement unidirectional, bi-directional and chopped were also considered. Four points bending test was adopted. The bending tests were performed on fourteen RC beams in addition to a two control, all of them were (225 30 15) cm in dimensions, and with a typical reinforcement details. Test results were indicative of the merit of using GFRP, as the ultimate loads were almost restored and the modes of failure were of ductile nature. Even more an increase in the ultimate bearing capacity was recorded for some of the retrofitted beams. The effects of the previously mentioned parameters on the cracking pattern and failure mode were reported and thoroughly discussed

  13. Effect of shear span-to-depth ratio on the shear behavior of BFRP-RC deep beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamad Siyam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shear behavior of deep concrete beams reinforced with basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP bars for flexure without web reinforcements. The experimental testing performed herein consisted of a total of 4 short beams, three of which were reinforced with BFRP and one beam was reinforced with steel bars. The primary test variable was the shear-span-to-effective-depth ratio (a/d and its influence on the beams’ mid-span deflections, shear capacity, load-deformation relationships and the failure modes.

  14. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  15. Effect of strong-column weak-beam design provision on the seismic fragility of RC frame buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Mitesh; Singh, Yogendra; Lang, Dominik H.

    2018-04-01

    Incremental dynamic analyses are conducted for a suite of low- and mid-rise reinforced-concrete special moment-resisting frame buildings. Buildings non-conforming and conforming to the strong-column weak-beam (SCWB) design criterion are considered. These buildings are designed for the two most severe seismic zones in India (i.e., zone IV and zone V) following the provisions of Indian Standards. It is observed that buildings non-conforming to the SCWB design criterion lead to an undesirable column failure collapse mechanism. Although yielding of columns cannot be avoided, even for buildings conforming to a SCWB ratio of 1.4, the observed collapse mechanism changes to a beam failure mechanism. This change in collapse mechanism leads to a significant increase in the building's global ductility capacity, and thereby in collapse capacity. The fragility analysis study of the considered buildings suggests that considering the SCWB design criterion leads to a significant reduction in collapse probability, particularly in the case of mid-rise buildings.

  16. Investigation on Strengthening Approaches Adopted for Poorly Detailed RC Corbels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chandra Neupane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor detailing of the position of bearing pad over reinforced concrete (RC corbel may lead to premature failure, which is undesired and structurally vulnerable. An appropriate retrofitting solution is necessary to ensure the functionality of such RC corbels. Considering the growing popularity of external carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP in retrofitting, this research examines the effectiveness of an externally wrapped unidirectional CFRP sheet and compares its performance against traditional retrofitting methods. Moreover, it is intended to fulfill the lack of extensive research on external CFRP application for corbel strengthening. A total of eight medium-scale corbel specimens were tested on vertical load. Observed premature failure due to placing the bearing pad near the edge of corbel was verified and the effectiveness of the proposed structural strengthening solutions was studied. Experimental results show that although the loading capacity of the damaged corbel due to the poor detailing of bearing pad position could not be fully recovered, the external CFRP wrapping method demonstrated superior performance over RC jacketing and was able to prevent localized failure. Further study based on non-linear 3D finite element analysis (FEA was carried out to identify the governing parameters of each retrofitting solution. Numerical studies suggested important parameters of various retrofitting alternatives for higher capacity assurance.

  17. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  18. Effect of mixed adhesive joints and tapered plate on stresses in retrofitted beams bonded with a fiber-reinforced polymer plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchikhi, A.S.; Megueni, A.; Gouasmi, S.; Boukoulda, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Interface stress distribution in beams reinforced composites jointed by homogeneous adhesive. • The reduction of stresses interfaces by using the tapered plate at edges. • The reduction of stresses interfaces by using the bi-adhesive. • The reduction of stresses interfaces by combining between the tapered plate and the bi-adhesive. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the reduction of interfacial stresses when using bonded laminates in strengthening existing structures. The presence of high interfacial stresses that develop near the end of composite known as edge effect may compromise the résistance to failure of strengthened structure. It is known that the decrease of plate thickness and fitness of adhesive (Young modulus) reduces the stress concentration at plate ends. Another way to tackle the problem is proper design of the plate end shape (tapered plate) and using mixed adhesive joints (MAJs) between the adherents. In this paper, a comprehensive finite element (FE) study has been conducted to investigate the effect of mixed adhesive joints (MAJs) and tapering plate on the interfacial stress distribution in the adhesive layer in retrofitted steel beam with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) plate, This results indicate that using the correct combination of tapering plate at the end and mixed adhesive joints can reduce the magnitude of the interfacial stresses significantly

  19. On RC-spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  20. ELASTO-PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF RC FRAMES COMPOSED OF STEEL JACKETTED RC SHORT COLUMNS AND SPANDREL WALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study is a part of the investigation on the seismic design method for Double Tubes Hybrid System (DTHS) for buildings. This structural system consists of RC core walls as the interior tube, and the exterior frames composed of RC short columns and RC spandrel walls as the exterior tube. The RC core walls are designed as the Energy Dissipation Structural Walls (EDSW), which are composed of RC coupled shear walls linked by short steel H-shaped beams as the energy dissipation de...

  1. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-07-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame. To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme.

  2. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-01-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame.To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme

  3. Design of RC frames for pre-selected collapse mechanism and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, total energy of RC frames is calculated and .... curvature relations of RC beam and column members are required for both ..... Case study ..... Turkish Seismic Design Code 2007 Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara.

  4. Seismic Behavior of Fatigue-Retrofitted Steel Frame Piers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinoshita K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue retrofit works have been conducted on severely fatigue damaged beam-to-column connections of existing steel frame bridge piers in Japan. It is clear that retrofit works provides additional stiffness but the significance on the seismic behavior of steel frame piers is not clear. Since fatigue retrofit works have become prevalent, the effect of fatigue retrofit works on the seismic behavior of steel frame piers need to be understood. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate these effects of the retrofit work, especially installation of bolted splices, which is the most common technique. Elasto-plastic finite element earthquake response analyses were carried out. It is shown that the existence of bolted splices may increase seismic demand on the piers when plastic hinge zone is located on the beam. In addition, longer bolted splices using low yield strength steel are proposed to overcome this problem and are shown to give beneficial effects.

  5. An under-designed RC frame: Seismic assessment through displacement based approach and possible refurbishment with FRP strips and RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Many existing reinforced concrete buildings in Southern Europe were built (and hence designed) before the introduction of displacement based design in national seismic codes. They are obviously highly vulnerable to seismic actions. In such a situation, simplified methodologies for the seismic assessment and retrofitting of existing structures are required. In this study, a displacement based procedure using non-linear static analyses is applied to a four-story existing RC frame. The aim is to obtain an estimation of its overall structural inadequacy as well as the effectiveness of a specific retrofitting intervention by means of GFRP laminates and RC jacketing. Accurate numerical models are developed within a displacement based approach to reproduce the seismic response of the RC frame in the original configuration and after strengthening.

  6. Retrofitting the 5045 Klystron for Higher Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Aaron; Fazio, Michael; Haase, Andy; Jongewaard, Erik; Kemp, Mark; Neilson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The 5045 klystron has been in production and accelerating particles at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for over 25 years. Although the design has undergone some changes there are still significant opportunities for improvement in performance. Retrofitting the 5045 for higher efficiencies and a more mono-energetic spent beam profile is presented.

  7. Senior citizens retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The Seniors' Residential Retrofitting Project was Yukon's most ambitious CREDA, funded demonstration with a total cost of $460,000. The project undertook to demonstrate energy-efficient retrofitting techniques in 38 homes and two apartment complexes for senior citizens. At the same time, the project strove to train Yukon tradesmen in retrofitting techniques, thus creating a local industry and employment within this industry. To this end, two training courses were given for local tradesmen and contractors, the first of their kind in Canada. The training part of the project was given equal importance as the actual demonstration part. Three levels of retrofit work were done on the homes of senior citizens. Level one included caulking, weatherstripping, furnace servicing, and installation of water flow restrictors, water heater blankets and timers. The level two retrofit included the treatment in level one, plus upgrading windows and the insulation levels in walls and ceilings. A level three retrofit involved a total rewrap of the building shell with some of the features in levels one and two incorporated. The demonstration program included the following steps: initial contact with senior citizens; energy audit on each house; determination of level of retrofit work based on individual audit results; contract packages drawn up and put to tender; monitoring of fuel records and air-tightness tests both before and after retrofit; and tabulation of data and information transfer. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Development of chloride-induced corrosion in pre-cracked RC beams under sustained loading: Effect of load-induced cracks, concrete cover, and exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Linwen [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); François, Raoul, E-mail: raoul.francois@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Dang, Vu Hiep [Hanoi Architectural University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Hanoi (Viet Nam); L' Hostis, Valérie [CEA Saclay, CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gagné, Richard [Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This paper deals with corrosion initiation and propagation in pre-cracked reinforced concrete beams under sustained loading during exposure to a chloride environment. Specimen beams that were cast in 2010 were compared to specimens cast in 1984. The only differences between the two sets of beams were the casting direction in relation to tensile reinforcement and the exposure conditions in the salt-fog chamber. The cracking maps, corrosion maps, chloride profiles, and cross-sectional loss of one group of two beams cast in 2010 were studied and their calculated corrosion rates were compared to that of beams cast in 1984 in order to investigate the factors influencing the natural corrosion process. Experimental results show that, after rapid initiation of corrosion at the crack tip, the corrosion process practically halted and the time elapsing before corrosion resumed depended on the exposure conditions and cover depth.

  9. Experimental Research on Seismic Performance of a New-Type of R/C Beam-Column Joints with End Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new-type of fabricated beam-column connections with end plates. The joint details are as follows: the concrete beams are connected to column by end plates and six high strength long bolts passing through the core area. In addition, in order to increase the stiffness and shear strength, stirrups are replaced by the steel plate hoop in the core zone. To examine the fail behavior of the fabricated beam-column connection specimens, a quasi-static test is conducted for nine full-scale models to obtain the hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, ductility, energy dissipation capacity, and other seismic indicators. The experimental results show that all specimens failed in bending in a malleable way with a beam plastic hinge and the hysteresis curves are excellently plump for the end plate connections. From the seismic indexes, the fabricated connection specimens exhibit better seismic performance, which can provide reference for the application of prefabricated frame structure in the earthquake area.

  10. Management of nuclear retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, D.

    1981-01-01

    Inherently, the retrofit work is more complex than the construction of a new project. The major factors that contribute to the complexity are: operational plant, NRC Requirements, documentation requirements, problems with the existing documentation, changing scope of work and short implementation schedules. A good understanding of the nature of the work is essential for its management. A few of the factors to be considered in the management of the work are: understanding of the retrofit work by the management, an overall management philosophy for the execution of the projects, direct access to the top management, detailed planning, close monitoring, segregation of the outage work and close coordination between the various project groups

  11. Guild Hall retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report demonstrates the economic viability of an exterior rewrap retrofit performed on a public community facility for the performing arts. This facility originally consisted of two mess halls built by the American army. The exterior retrofit consisted of constructing a super-insulated passageway to link the two halls as well as completely wrapping the facility with six millimetre polyethylene to provide an airtight barrier. The roofs and walls were reinsulated and insulation levels were increased to RSI 10.5 in the ceilings and RSI 7.7 in the walls. The installation of a propane fuelled furnace was also included in the retrofit package. Prior to the renovations and retrofitting, the Guild Hall facility was almost unusable. The demonstration project transformed the cold, drafty buildings into an attractive, comfortable and functional centre for the performing arts. Heating requirements have been reduced to 500 MJ/m {sup 2} of floor space annually compared to a predicted 1,760 MJ/m{sup 2} of floor space based on HOTCAN analysis of the heating requirements without the energy conservation measures. 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. HVAC retrofitting and remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford Co., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the pitfalls and problems as well as the benefits of updating a HVAC system. Failures and successes, and the lessons learned working in this dominant portion of the construction market are included as the author describes retrofit projects. The projects have ranged from total replacements in unoccupied buildings to updating systems in occupied buildings.

  13. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of Seismic Retrofit Strategies Applied to Existing Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Vitiello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the renovation and refurbishment of existing buildings have become the main activities of the construction industry. In particular, many studies have recently focused on the mechanical and energy performances of existing retrofitted/refurbished facilities, while some research has addressed the environmental effects of such operations. The present study aims to assess the environmental impact of some retrofit interventions on an existing reinforced concrete (RC building. Once the structural requirements have been satisfied and the environmental effects of these retrofit solutions defined, the final purpose of this study is to identify the most environmentally sustainable retrofit strategy. The environmental impact of the structural retrofit options is assessed using a life-cycle assessment (LCA. This paper sets out a systematic approach that can be adopted when choosing the best structural retrofit option in terms of sustainability performance. The final aim of the study is to also provide a tool for researchers and practitioners that reflects a deep understanding of the sustainability aspects of retrofit operations and can be used for future researches or practical activities.

  15. Deep Energy Retrofit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhivov, Alexander; Lohse, Rüdiger; Rose, Jørgen

    Deep Energy Retrofit – A Guide to Achieving Significant Energy User Reduction with Major Renovation Projects contains recommendations for characteristics of some of core technologies and measures that are based on studies conducted by national teams associated with the International Energy Agency...... Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (IEA-EBC) Annex 61 (Lohse et al. 2016, Case, et al. 2016, Rose et al. 2016, Yao, et al. 2016, Dake 2014, Stankevica et al. 2016, Kiatreungwattana 2014). Results of these studies provided a base for setting minimum requirements to the building...... envelope-related technologies to make Deep Energy Retrofit feasible and, in many situations, cost effective. Use of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in addition to core technologies bundle and high-efficiency appliances will foster further energy use reduction. This Guide also provides best practice...

  16. Retrofitting models of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, Ben

    2009-01-01

    I use the method of retrofitting, developed by Dine, Feng and Silverstein, to generate the scale of inflation dynamically, allowing it to be naturally small. This is a general procedure that may be performed on existing models of supersymmetric inflation. I illustrate this idea on two such models, one an example of F-term inflation and the other an example of D-term inflation.

  17. Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    2004-01-13

    Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.

  18. Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2013-07-01

    Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

  19. MASH Test 3-11 on the T131RC Bridge Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) currently uses the TxDOT Type T101RC Bridge Rail, : a steel post and beam bridge rail anchored to the top of concrete curbs. The T101RC Bridge Rail is : 27 inches in height and can be anchored to the top of ...

  20. Evaluation of Seismic Behaviors of Partially Deteriorated Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns Retrofitted with CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the concrete strength in some regions of reinforced concrete (RC columns in practice may weaken the seismic behaviors of columns. Its effects on RC columns should be well understood. This paper aims to investigate the influences of deteriorated segment on the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated RC columns and attempts to recover the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated columns with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites. A finite element analysis was carried out to simulate the seismic behaviors of CFRP-confined partially deteriorated RC columns. The numerical results were verified by the laboratory tests of six specimens. Based on the finite element results, the failure location of partially deteriorated columns in an earthquake was predicted, and the effectiveness of CFRP retrofitted on partially deteriorated columns was evaluated.

  1. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  2. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  3. Cochlear implant magnet retrofit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N L; Breda, S D; Hoffman, R A

    1988-06-01

    An implantable magnet is now available for patients who have received the standard Nucleus 22-channel cochlear implant and who are not able to wear the headband satisfactorily. This magnet is attached in piggy-back fashion to the previously implanted receiver/stimulator by means of a brief operation under local anesthesia. Two patients have received this magnet retrofit, and are now wearing the headset with greater comfort and satisfaction. It is felt that the availability of this magnet will increase patient compliance in regard to hours of implant usage.

  4. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  5. HVAC retrofit for healthy schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Fisher, G.; Brennan, T.; Turner, W.A.; McKnight, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has evaluated the impacts of HVAC systems and building dynamics on radon concentrations in 26 schools across the United States. Diagnostic data indicated that radon was not the only indoor air pollutant in these schools. As a result, an essential step in the School Evaluation Program is determination of the feasibility of using HVAC technology for radon remediation in addition to general indoor air improvement. In 1990, the EPA sponsored the HVAC retrofit of two schools in Maine. This paper presents the information gained by these case studies. First, the extensive pre-retrofit diagnostics and characterizations of the two schools are reviewed. Then follows a discussion of why and how the HVAC systems, including unit ventilators, central air-handling units, and heat recovery ventilation, were retrofitted. Finally, an appraisal of the post-retrofit radon and CO 2 levels is made, along with presentation of related data such as retrofit costs and energy and comfort impacts

  6. Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Building Retrofitted with Geopolymer Concrete and X-shaped Metallic Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Prakash vel, J.; Sathishkumar, K.; Rao, G. V. Rama

    2017-06-01

    A three-storey half scale reinforced concrete (RC) building is fixed with X-shaped metallic damper at the ground floor level, is designed and fabricated to study its seismic response characteristics. Experimental studies are carried out using the (4 m × 4 m) tri-axial shake-table facility to evaluate the seismic response of a retrofitted RC building with open ground storey (OGS) structure using yielding type X-shaped metallic dampers (also called as Added Damping and Stiffness-ADAS elements) and repairing the damaged ground storey columns using geopolymer concrete composites. This elasto-plastic device is normally incorporated within the frame structure between adjacent floors through chevron bracing, so that they efficiently enhance the overall energy dissipation ability of the seismically deficient frame structure under earthquake loading. Free vibration tests on RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper is carried out. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of RC building without and with yielding type X-shaped metallic damper are determined. The retrofitted reinforced concrete building is subjected to earthquake excitations and the response from the structure is recorded. This work discusses the preparation of test specimen, experimental set-up, instrumentation, method of testing of RC building and the response of the structure. The metallic damper reduces the time period of the structure and displacement demands on the OGS columns of the structure. Nonlinear time history analysis is performed using structural analysis package, SAP2000.

  7. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, Mary [Michigan Saves; Jackson, Robert [Michigan Energy Office

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  8. Full Scale Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Vita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy in order to investigate the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC beam-column joints strengthened with steel reinforced polymer (SRP systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP, and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems, the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.

  9. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  10. Retrofitting of NPP Computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, G.

    1994-01-01

    Retrofitting of nuclear power plant control rooms is a continuing process for most utilities. This involves introducing and/or extending computer-based solutions for surveillance and control as well as improving the human-computer interface. The paper describes typical requirements when retrofitting NPP process computer systems, and focuses on the activities of Institute for energieteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor project with respect to such retrofitting, using examples from actual delivery projects. In particular, a project carried out for Forsmarksverket in Sweden comprising upgrade of the operator system in the control rooms of units 1 and 2 is described. As many of the problems of retrofitting NPP process computer systems are similar to such work in other kinds of process industries, an example from a non-nuclear application area is also given

  11. Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Kim, Eyu-Jin [Southface Energy Institute; Roberts, Sydney [Southface Energy Institute; Stephenson, Robert [Southface Energy Institute

    2012-07-01

    This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.

  12. Retrofitting for fossil fuel flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.; Trueblood, R.C.; Lukas, R.W.; Worster, C.M.; Marx, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    Described in this paper are two fossil plant retrofits recently completed by the Public Service Company of New Hampshire that demonstrate the type of planning and execution required for a successful project under the current regulatory and budget constraints. Merrimack Units 1 and 2 are 120 MW and 338 MW nominal cyclone-fired coal units in Bow, New Hampshire. The retrofits recently completed at these plants have resulted in improved particulate emissions compliance, and the fuel flexibility to allow switching to lower sulphur coals to meet current and future SO 2 emission limits. Included in this discussion are the features of each project including the unique precipitator procurement approach for the Unit 1 Retrofit, and methods used to accomplish both retrofits within existing scheduled maintenance outages through careful planning and scheduling, effective use of pre-outage construction, 3-D CADD modeling, modular construction and early procurement. Operating experience while firing various coals in the cyclone fired boilers is also discussed

  13. Retrofit breakers resolve trip failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    This articles examines how power plants can use advance planning and retrofit equipment to upgrade existing systems while avoiding unnecessary downtime. A break that fails to open challenges the safety features of a nuclear power plant. To ensure reliable operations, the utility selected a comprehensive retrofit program to replace a third of the 200 breakers originally installed at the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant. Under contract, the retrofits--Siemens RLN breakers--were built and qualified for nuclear service by Wyle Laboratories through a special teaming agreement with Siemens Energy and Automation. The project offers an excellent example of how a utility can use advance planning and retrofit equipment to upgrade its existing systems while avoiding unnecessary downtime

  14. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  15. Altitmeter for RC aircraft models

    OpenAIRE

    Švec, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Předmětem mé bakalářské práce je návrh výškoměru, který využívá pro záznam letové polohy modelu RC letadla vyhodnocování aktuálního atmosferického tlaku. Údaje jsou po dobu letu ukládány do paměti, odkud je možné je po skončení záznamu přes rozhraní USB uložit v PC. Software na PC zajišťuje komunikaci se zařízením a přepočet zaznamenaného tlaku na nadmořskou výšku RC modelu. The aim of my bachelor thesis is to design a altimeter, who uses to record the attitude of the model "RC plane" eval...

  16. Public building retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report demonstrates the economic viability of cost effective, energy efficient retrofitting of a public building. The Whitehorse Chamber of Commerce in conjunction with the Canada/Yukon Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Project undertook the demonstration project. The energy conservation features included increasing the insulation in the walls and ceiling, providing a 6 mm polyethylene air-vapour barrier and installing triple glazed windows on the north side. Also, an air-to-air heat exchanger and a combination wood/oil furnace were installed. However, neither of these latter features have been used since the completion of the renovations. In total, the features cost approximately $26,300. The energy conservation measures yielded less energy savings than expected. Although the T.C. Richard building is now consuming less heating oil (33% less); the amount of electricity used has increased by 146.6%. Overall the building achieved a 23% reduction in heating consumption (this figure takes into account the heat energy generated from the lighting system). Reasons for the low yield in energy savings can be attributed to the improper installation of the air-vapour barrier and not using the existing wood boiler. 1 fig. 5 tabs.

  17. Comparative Application of Capacity Models for Seismic Vulnerability Evaluation of Existing RC Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faella, C.; Lima, C.; Martinelli, E.; Nigro, E.

    2008-01-01

    Seismic vulnerability assessment of existing buildings is one of the most common tasks in which Structural Engineers are currently engaged. Since, its is often a preliminary step to approach the issue of how to retrofit non-seismic designed and detailed structures, it plays a key role in the successful choice of the most suitable strengthening technique. In this framework, the basic information for both seismic assessment and retrofitting is related to the formulation of capacity models for structural members. Plenty of proposals, often contradictory under the quantitative standpoint, are currently available within the technical and scientific literature for defining the structural capacity in terms of force and displacements, possibly with reference to different parameters representing the seismic response. The present paper shortly reviews some of the models for capacity of RC members and compare them with reference to two case studies assumed as representative of a wide class of existing buildings

  18. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Smith, P. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Porse, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  19. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  20. Energy Retrofit for Aging K-12 Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    3D/International, Houston, TX.

    Successfully retrofitting aging K-12 schools using energy conservation measures (ECM) that can improve the physical plant and reduce energy consumption are explored. Topics explore how certain ECM measures can benefit educational facilities, why retrofitting begun sooner rather than later is important, how to finance the retrofit program, and the…

  1. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  2. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goal...... of a sustainable retrofitting project in a holistic sense: This included cultural, social, environmental and economic sustainability. The first phase of the project is built and the process included a high level of user participation. The project is an example of integral design from competition level...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Existing RC Columns Jacketed with CFRP or FRCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Del Zoppo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC columns typical of existing structures often exhibit premature failures during seismic events (i.e., longitudinal bars buckling and shear interaction mechanisms due to the poor quality concrete and the absence of proper seismic details in the potential plastic hinge region. The Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP externally bonded reinforcement is known to be a valid technique to improve the shear capacity or the ductility of existing RC columns. However, few experimental tests have proven its effectiveness in the case of columns affected by shear interaction mechanisms. In this work, the behavior of existing RC columns with border line behavior between flexure and shear have been investigated in the case of poor quality concrete and light FRP strengthening with local jacketing and medium quality concrete and strong FRP strengthening with local jacketing, in order to highlight the effect of concrete strength on the effectiveness of the retrofit intervention. As an alternative to FRP jacketing; the effectiveness of the Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite (FRCC jacketing for the seismic strengthening of columns with highly deteriorated concrete cover or columns already damaged by an earthquake is also evaluated. Six full-scale RC columns have been tested under cyclic loading: one was used as a control specimen; four were strengthened in the potential plastic hinge region with carbon FRP (CFRP; and one was fully jacketed with FRCC. The comparison between poor and medium quality concrete columns showed that the CFRP local jacketing is more effective in the case of poor quality concrete. The FRCC jacketing appears to be a sound repair strategy and a suitable alternative to the FRP jacketing in case of poor quality; however, more experimental research is needed for improving this retrofit technique.

  4. Seismic retrofitting of Apsara reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Parulekar, Y.M.; Sharma, A.; Rao, K.N.; Narasimhan, Rajiv; Srinivas, K.; Basha, S.M.; Thomas, V.S.; Soma Kumar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Seismic analysis of Apsara Reactor building was carried out and was found not meeting the current seismic requirements. Due to the building not qualifying for seismic loads, a retrofit scheme using elasto-plastic dampers is proposed. Following activities have been performed in this direction: Carried out detailed seismic analysis of Apsara reactor building structure incorporating proposed seismic retrofit. Demonstrating the capability of the retrofitted structure to with stand the earth quake level for Trombay site as per the current standards by analysis and by model studies. Implementation of seismic retrofit program. This paper presents the details of above aspects related to Seismic analysis and retrofitting of Apsara reactor building. (author)

  5. Nordic campus retrofitting concepts - Scalable practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Robert; Nenonen, Suvi; Junghans, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary collaboration and transformations in learning processes can be supported by activity-based campus retrofitting. The aim of this paper is to analyse the ongoing campus retrofitting processes at the three university campuses and to identify the elements of activity......-based retrofitting. We answer the questions “What kind of examples of retrofitting are there at Nordic Campuses?” and “What kind of elements are typical for activity-based retrofitting concepts?” The 3-level framework of campus retrofitting processes was employed when conducting the three case studies. The cases...... were about the new ways of researching, collaborating and learning with the concepts of Living lab, Creative community for innovation and entrepreneurship and Network of learning hubs. The cases provided the first insights on retrofitting based on users’ changing needs and the requirements of more...

  6. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  7. Energy Retrofit--Step One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A School Retrofit Design Analysis System (SRDAS) provides energy modeling analyses of school buildings. SRDAS has three subprograms that consider first, roof, windows, walls, floors, and infiltration sites; second, costs per student, compliance with national energy consumption norms, and electricity costs projections; and third, financial savings…

  8. Retrofitting of existing housing stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a case study in retrofitting an urban quarter with social housing of the 1950´s and 1960´s - a model project in Amberg/Germany. It documents and discusses applied ´acupuncture´ and innovative strategies on very different scales as well as on different layers, in order to meet the goa...

  9. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Siddiqui, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  10. Limit analysis on FRP-strengthened RC members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. De Domenico

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC members strengthened with externally bonded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP plates are numerically investigated by a plasticity-based limit analysis approach. The key-concept of the present approach is to adopt proper constitutive models for concrete, steel reinforcement bars (re-bars and FRP strengthening plates according to a multi-yield-criteria formulation. This allows the prediction of concrete crushing, steel bars yielding and FRP rupture that may occur at the ultimate limit state. To simulate such limitstate of the analysed elements, two iterative methods performing linear elastic analyses with adaptive elastic parameters and finite elements (FEs description are employed. The peak loads and collapse mechanisms predicted for FRP-plated RC beams are validated by comparison with the corresponding experimental findings.

  11. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltakci, M. Y.; Ozturk, M.; Arslan, M. H.

    2010-09-01

    The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls) in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools). This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application) and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam). Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  12. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Kaltakci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools. This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam. Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  13. Electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Valeriu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two types of active configurations for realizing electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators. The type-1 network employs two grounded scaled resistances KR 1 and KR 2 , where K is scaling factor. The frequency of oscillation W 0 is controlled conveniently by adjusting K, since W 0 appears in the form W 0 =1/K √ R 1 C 1 R 2 C 2 . For realizing the scaled resistances, an active configuration is proposed, which realizes KR 1 =R 1 /(1+f(V B )), where f(V B ) denotes a function of a controlling voltage V B . Thus the frequency tuning can be effected by controlling a voltage V B . The type-2 oscillator uses two periodically switched conductances. It is shown that the tuning of oscillation frequency can be done by varying the pulse width-to-period ratio (t/T) of the periodically switched conductances. (author)

  14. Behavior of RC columns retrofitted with CFRP exposed to fire under axial load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila M. Abdel-Hafez

    2015-04-01

    Although increasing the coating thickness will increase the heat insulation, plain coating of more than 3.0 cm thickness will not be able to stay in place without being reinforced with a suitable wire mesh.

  15. Forecasting uptake of retrofit packages in office building stock under government incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Andrew; Syme, Mike; McGregor, James; Marquez, Leorey; Seo, Seongwon

    2014-01-01

    As government and industry plan to reduce energy consumption in building stock, there is a need to forecast the uptake of retrofit packages across building stock over time. To address this challenge a diffusion model was set up and applied to office building stock across New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, accommodating a high spatial resolution and temporal capability for projecting uptake of technology packages characterised by multiple variables. Six retrofit packages were set up for the diffusion model, which ranged from inexpensive services and manuals through to mid-priced packages involving energy efficient T5 lighting and solar hot water through to expensive packages such as chilled beams and Solar PV. We evaluated the model using a base case and two policy programs, representing the Green Building Fund and Environmental Upgrade Agreements. These were recent incentive programs funded by the Australian government to accelerate the uptake of retrofit packages, by providing financial support to upfront expenditures and removing barriers to retrofit. By forecasting uptake of each retrofit package to 2032 under each program, we demonstrate how the model can be a valuable resource in tailoring expensive government programs and increasing their effectiveness. - Highlights: • Diffusion model for uptake of building retrofits. • Case study with New South Wales office buildings. • Forecast uptake of government policy programs

  16. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II. Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits during August 2013 - December 2013.

  17. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General Provisions § 95.201 (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? The R/C Service is a private...

  18. Structuring lighting retrofit projects for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetters, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Several trends are converging to create a substantial market for lighting retrofits in these uncertain economic times. Low interest rates are making investments in buildings more attractive than alternative financial investments such as CD's. With activity in the new construction market at an all time low, savvy contractors are turning to the retrofit market - restoring, renovating and upgrading existing buildings. Heightened environmental concerns are fueling lighting incentive programs from the electric utilities and the EPA. Improvements in lighting technology are arriving in the marketplace at an accelerated rate. Building occupants are demanding higher quality workplaces and managers are seeking higher levels of productivity. Replacing older lighting equipment can substantially improve lighting efficiency, decrease energy and maintenance costs and, at the same time, improve the workplace by increasing lighting quality Lighting retrofit projects have a demonstrated track record, reducing lighting costs on the order of 50%. This experience can be applied to help structure retrofit projects. But, in order to reap all the benefits available from a retrofit project, it must be structured for success. The retrofit option introduces a unique series of issues for building owners, managers and engineers. The best way to prevent these issues from undermining the success of retrofit projects is to anticipate and completely plan for them. Successful retrofit projects run smoothER and stay within budgetary constraints. Three important considerations will guide the successful project: (1) Start comprehensive planning early, (2) Investigate existing conditions, and (3) Be sensitive to owner/occupants needs keep building operational

  19. Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbrick, D. [Elevate Energy, Chicago, IL (United States); Scheu, R. [Elevate Energy, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [Elevate Energy, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit analyzed building, energy, and financial program data as well as other public and private data to examine the relationship between energy-efficiency retrofits and financial performance on three levels: building, city, and community.

  20. Prologis Rolls Out Warehouse Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Prologis partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  1. Radiolabelling of RC-160: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Balter Binsky, H.S.; Robles, A.M.; Rodriguez, G.; Souto, B.; Laiz, J.; Oliver, P.; Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    Vapreotide (RC-160) was labelled with 125 I using Chloramine-T and Iodogen methods and with 99m Tc by a direct method with sodium ditionite as reducing agent in the presence of ascorbic acid. Several methods of purification and quality control were evaluated. Yields of the reactions and of purification steps were calculated. The results obtained for the radioiodination reactions showed higher yields when limiting Chloramine-T method was used. Labelling of RC-160 with 99m Tc indicated better yields when high radioactivity concentration of the radionuclide was used. Stability of the products obtained was assessed at different post-labelling times by selected quality control methods: Sep-Pak cartridge as purification method and chromatography by RP-HPLC and ITLC-SG using saline solution as solvent. It was demonstrated that I-125-RC-160 and Tc-99m-RC-160 were stable during five weeks (at -20 deg. C) and 6 hours (at room temperature) respectively. Preliminary biodistribution of Tc-99m-RC-160 in normal rats and mice were done showing different biological behaviour compared with control animals injected with pertechnetate. In conclusion, RC-160 was successfully labelled with both radionuclides, with radiochemical purity higher than 95%. These results encourage further research work in animal models as well as to investigate the biochemical behaviour of radiolabelled peptide. (author)

  2. Pitting corrosion and structural reliability of corroding RC structures: Experimental data and probabilistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Mark G.; Al-Harthy, Ali

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic analysis is developed to assess the temporal and spatial variability of pitting corrosion on the reliability of corroding reinforced concrete (RC) structures. The structure considered herein is a singly reinforced RC beam with Y16 or Y27 reinforcing bars. Experimental data obtained from corrosion tests are used to characterise the probability distribution of pit depth. The RC beam is discretised into a series of small elements and maximum pit depths are generated for each reinforcing steel bar in each element. The loss of cross-sectional area, reduction in yield strength and reduction in flexural resistance are then inferred. The analysis considers various member spans, loading ratios, bar diameters and numbers of bars in a given cross-section, and moment diagrams. It was found that the maximum corrosion loss in a reinforcing bar conditional on beam collapse was no more than 16%. The probabilities of failure considering spatial variability of pitting corrosion were up to 200% higher than probabilities of failure obtained from a non-spatial analysis after 50 years of corrosion. This shows the importance of considering spatial variability in a structural reliability analysis for deteriorating structures, particularly for corroding RC beams in flexure

  3. Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

    2012-06-01

    Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

  4. A proposal for seismic evaluation index of mid-rise existing RC buildings in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqi, Ahmad; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    Mid-rise RC buildings gradually rise in Kabul and entire Afghanistan since 2001 due to rapid increase of population. To protect the safety of resident, Afghan Structure Code was issued in 2012. But the building constructed before 2012 failed to conform the code requirements. In Japan, new sets of rules and law for seismic design of buildings had been issued in 1981 and severe earthquake damage was disclosed for the buildings designed before 1981. Hence, the Standard for Seismic Evaluation of RC Building published in 1977 has been widely used in Japan to evaluate the seismic capacity of existing buildings designed before 1981. Currently similar problem existed in Afghanistan, therefore, this research examined the seismic capacity of six RC buildings which were built before 2012 in Kabul by applying the seismic screening procedure presented by Japanese standard. Among three screening procedures with different capability, the less detailed screening procedure, the first level of screening, is applied. The study founds an average seismic index (IS-average=0.21) of target buildings. Then, the results were compared with those of more accurate seismic evaluation procedures of Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM) and Time History Analysis (THA). The results for CSM and THA show poor seismic performance of target buildings not able to satisfy the safety design limit (1/100) of the maximum story drift. The target buildings are then improved by installing RC shear walls. The seismic indices of these retrofitted buildings were recalculated and the maximum story drifts were analyzed by CSM and THA. The seismic indices and CSM and THA results are compared and found that building with seismic index larger than (IS-average =0.4) are able to satisfy the safety design limit. Finally, to screen and minimize the earthquake damage over the existing buildings, the judgement seismic index (IS-Judgment=0.5) for the first level of screening is proposed.

  5. Dose determination with plane-parallel ionization chambers in therapeutic electron and photon beams. Report of the 2nd research co-ordinated meeting (326-E2-RC-641.2), March 30 - April 3, 1998, Barcelona, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1987, the IAEA published a report entitled 'Absorbed Dose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams: An International Code of Practice' (IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 277) to advise users how to obtain the absorbed dose in water from the measurements made with an ionization chamber, calibrated in terms of air kerma. For high-energy photons (energies above 1 MeV) the chamber calibration was at a single photon quality (Cobalt-60 gamma rays). The scientific scope of the Co-ordinated Research Project is to investigate the accuracy of the new data and procedures included in the Code of Practice IAEA TRS-381. Differences with existing recommendations, published by national organizations, are to be evaluated to analyze the possible impact on patient dosimetry. The second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was organized to revise the activities in the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) and the status of the various projects. The status of the on-going work under the frame of the CRP was presented by the participants in the RCM during the first two days and each contribution discussed in detail. During the following days, plans were made on the work left for each participant to complete the project and the feasibility of preparing a report describing in detail the work done in the project

  6. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  7. Infrastructure Retrofit Design via Composite Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos, C.; Gotsis,Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Select applications are described to illustrate the concept for retrofitting reinforced concrete infrastructure with fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The concept is first illustrated by using an axially loaded reinforced concrete column. A reinforced concrete arch and a dome are then used to illustrate the versatility of the concept. Advanced methods such as finite element structural analysis and progressive structural fracture are then used to evaluate the retrofitting laminate adequacy. Results obtains show that retrofits can be designed to double and even triple the as-designed load of the select reinforced concrete infrastructures.

  8. Fractional-order RC and RL circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2012-05-30

    This paper is a step forward to generalize the fundamentals of the conventional RC and RL circuits in fractional-order sense. The effect of fractional orders is the key factor for extra freedom, more flexibility, and novelty. The conditions for RC and RL circuits to act as pure imaginary impedances are derived, which are unrealizable in the conventional case. In addition, the sensitivity analyses of the magnitude and phase response with respect to all parameters showing the locations of these critical values are discussed. A qualitative revision for the fractional RC and RL circuits in the frequency domain is provided. Numerical and PSpice simulations are included to validate this study. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  9. Digital instrumentation for retrofit applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, U.E.

    1986-01-01

    There can be many reasons for applying retrofit designs to existing power plants. Whatever the reasons, care in planning and instrument design will be required in order to derive the full benefits afforded by today's technology. Specifically, the availability of microprocessors and their related integrated circuits make possible capabilities, accuracies, reliabilities, maintainability and user interfaces not achievable when original equipment was designed. Some of the motives for the replacement of current instrumentation are examined and the various benefits and pitfalls of applying present day microprocessor technology to new designs are discussed. From this, a set of design objectives can be formulated that can best take advantage of modern technology. General Electric's design solution, a family of instruments called NUMAC (Nuclear Measurement, Analysis and Control) is described, followed by descriptions of instruments currently in production and those contemplated for design in the near future

  10. Out-of-plane ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nukui, Yasushi; Imamura, Akira; Terayama, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Kojima, Isao

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the out-of-plane shear in RC mat-slab foundations, and the reasonable method has been demanded to estimate ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations in the nuclear facilities. In the previous study, the out-of-plane loading tests on the 20 square slab specimens had been performed to collect the fundamental data. In this study, the test results were successfully predicted by 3D non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It has been confirmed that the ultimate shear stress in the slab specimen can be estimated by the Arakawa's formula, which is commonly used to estimate the shear strength of RC beams. (author)

  11. A survey of some solar energy retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The report briefly describes a survey of some solar energy retrofits, such as solar heaters and Trombe walls, that can be easily adapted into existing buildings belonging to the Department. With their relatively high cost, commercial solar heaters ha...

  12. Nine Steps to a Successful Lighting Retrofit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Presents the steps needed to successfully design a lighting retrofit of school classrooms. Tips cover budgeting, technology, financing, contractor selection, assessing area function, and choosing a light source. (GR)

  13. Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philbrick, D. [The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Scheu, R. [The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, L. [The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Increasing the adoption of energy efficient building practices will require the energy sector to increase their understanding of the way that retrofits affect multifamily financial performance as well as how those indicators are interpreted by the lending and appraisal industries. This project analyzed building, energy, and financial program data as well as other public and private data to examine the relationship between energy efficiency retrofits and financial performance on three levels: building, city, and community. The project goals were to increase the data and analysis in the growing body of multifamily financial benefits work as well provide a framework for other geographies to produce similar characterization. The goals are accomplished through three tasks. Task one: A pre- and post-retrofit analysis of thirteen Chicago multifamily buildings. Task two: A comparison of Chicago income and expenses to two national datasets. Task three: An in-depth look at multifamily market sales data and the subsequent impact of buildings that undergo retrofits.

  14. Comprehensive Planning for Passive Solar Architectural Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    technical information, and the natural environ- ment. Since the Air Force Energy plan stresses Passive Solar (Architecture) before using Active Solar...retrofitted by-1990, and the Air Force Energy Plan stresses Passive Solar Applications. Bdcause of this requirement, you must consider the following retrofit...OF THI SUN AT NOON ON O CUMIN 21 EXAWMKU[ AT 3M. AN I S - W Figure 12-4 12-3 Skylight- use a reflector ,with horizontal skylights to ,iincrease solar

  15. RC Circuits: Some Computer-Interfaced Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Pratibha; Verma, Mallika

    1994-01-01

    Describes a simple computer-interface experiment for recording the response of an RC network to an arbitrary input excitation. The setup is used to pose a variety of open-ended investigations in network modeling by varying the initial conditions, input signal waveform, and the circuit topology. (DDR)

  16. SEISMIC FRAGILITY ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED RC FRAMES USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMED HAMIDI JAMNANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of bracings to increase the lateral stiffness of building structures is a technique of seismic improvement that engineers frequently have recourse to. Accordingly, investigating the role of bracings in concrete structures along with the development of seismic fragility curves are of overriding concern to civil engineers. In this research, an ordinary RC building, designed according to the 1st edition of Iranian seismic code, was selected for examination. According to FEMA 356 code, this building is considered to be vulnerable. To improve the seismic performance of this building, 3 different types of bracings, which are Concentrically Braced Frames, Eccentrically Braced Frames and Buckling Restrained Frames were employed, and each bracing element was distributed in 3 different locations in the building. The researchers developed fragility curves and utilized 30 earthquake records on the Peak Ground Acceleration seismic intensity scale to carry out a time history analysis. Tow damage scale, including Inter-Story Drifts and Plastic Axial Deformation were also used. The numerical results obtained from this investigation confirm that Plastic Axial Deformation is more reliable than conventional approaches in developing fragility curves for retrofitted frames. In lieu of what is proposed, the researchers selected the suitable damage scale and developed and compared log-normal distribution of fragility curves first for the original and then for the retrofitted building.

  17. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  18. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II: Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-03

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits during August 2013 - December 2013. A full account of Phase I of this project, including detailed home details and characterization, is found in Parker et al, 2015 (currently in draft). Phase II of this project, which is the focus of this report, applied the following additional retrofit measures to select homes that received a shallow retrofit in Phase I: a) Supplemental mini-split heat pump (MSHP) (6 homes); b) Ducted and space coupled Heat Pump Water Heater (8 homes); c) Exterior insulation finish system (EIFS) (1 homes); d) Window retrofit (3 homes); e) Smart thermostat (21 homes: 19 NESTs; 2 Lyrics); f) Heat pump clothes dryer (8 homes); g) Variable speed pool pump (5 homes).

  19. A reticle retrofit and dosimetric consideration for a linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krithivas, V

    1996-01-01

    An imperfect reticle system in an accelerator causes uncertainties in source-skin distance (SSD), off-axis distance (OAD), isocenter, and so forth. A reticle was designed and fabricated, and its implications on x-ray and electron beam dosimetry were investigated. A new reticle frame was dimensioned to fit snugly in the accelerator. The frame was fabricated to carry a pair of adjustable cross wires and to allow the machine operation in the photon and electron modes. The impact of the cross wires on 6 MV photon and 5-10 MeV electron beam parameters such as dose rate (Gy/monitor unit), beam uniformity, surface dose, and so forth, were studied using suitable ion chambers and phantoms. The retrofitted system offered long-term mechanical stability leading to precise SSD, OAD, and isocenter measurements. Changes introduced by the cross wires on the 6 MV photon and 5-10 MeV electron beams are presented. Long-term stability of a reticle in an accelerator is important for an accurate patient setup and for making reliable dosimetric measurements. Beam characteristrics have to be studied whenever modifications on a reticle system are made.

  20. Implementation of RC5 and RC6 block ciphers on digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaj Mohamed, A.; Zaibi, G.; Kachouri, A.

    2011-01-01

    With the fast evolution of the networks technology, the security becomes an important research axis. Many types of communication require the transmission of digital images. This transmission must be safe especially in applications that require a fairly high level of security such as military applications, spying, radars, and biometrics applications. Mechanisms for authentication, confidentiality, and integrity must be implemented within their community. For this reason, several cryptographic algorithms have been developed to ensure the safety and reliability of this transmission. In this paper, we investigate the encryption efficiency of RC5 and RC6 block cipher applied to digital images by including a statistical and differential analysis then, and also we investigate those two block ciphers against errors in ambient noise. The security analysis shows that RC6 algorithm is more secure than RC5. However, using RC6 to encrypt images in rough environment (low signal to noise ratio) leads to more errors (almost double of RC5) and may increase energy consumption by retransmitting erroneous packets. A compromise security/energy must be taken into account for the good choice of encryption algorithm.

  1. 47 CFR 95.221 - (R/C Rule 21) How do I have my R/C transmitter serviced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC certificated R/C transmitter (see R/C Rule 9) must be made in accord with the Technical... in order to: (1) Adjust a transmitter to an antenna; (2) Detect or measure radiation of energy other...

  2. Tapered Polymer Fiber Sensors for Reinforced Concrete Beam Vibration Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Ibrahim, Zainah; Ma, Jianxun; Ismail, Zubaidah; Iseley, David Thomas

    2016-12-16

    In this study, tapered polymer fiber sensors (TPFSs) have been employed to detect the vibration of a reinforced concrete beam (RC beam). The sensing principle was based on transmission modes theory. The natural frequency of an RC beam was theoretically analyzed. Experiments were carried out with sensors mounted on the surface or embedded in the RC beam. Vibration detection results agreed well with Kistler accelerometers. The experimental results found that both the accelerometer and TPFS detected the natural frequency function of a vibrated RC beam well. The mode shapes of the RC beam were also found by using the TPFSs. The proposed vibration detection method provides a cost-comparable solution for a structural health monitoring (SHM) system in civil engineering.

  3. Scattered housing energy retrofit program : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    Between 1999 and 2006, home energy audits were conducted in 770 scattered houses belonging to the Toronto Community Housing Corporation (TCHC). Over the course of the project, 126 houses were retrofitted with energy saving measures based on calculations of the most cost-effective measures. This report outlined the work that was conducted by the contractor, GreenSaver over the course of the project. The report discussed the project players and project execution. It included a profile of audited houses; auditing procedure; house reports; retrofit work; contractor arranging service; and post-retrofit inspections. Comments on retrofit work not carried out were also provided. The report also discussed the results of the project, including energy savings and emission reductions and participant feedback. A summary of the energy efficiency retrofit survey was also presented along with lessons learned. These included the availability of a contingency fund; the importance of tenant involvement; and making arrangements for other repair work. It was concluded that the amount of expected energy savings on space heating bills varied from house to house, and fell between 15 and 74 per cent. The report recommended that tenants and staff in the social housing sector could benefit from a greater awareness of energy issues and its more efficient use, allowing even greater and longer lasting benefits from a project like this. 8 tabs.

  4. Choosing the Right Fireplace or Fireplace Retrofit Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page is about choosing a fireplace or fireplace retrofit device, including information on hang tags and a list of fireplaces and retrofits that have qualified under the voluntary fireplace program

  5. Fractional RC and LC Electrical Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Aguilar José Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation for the electrical RC and LC circuit in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 < ɣ ≤1. To keep the dimensionality of the physical parameters R, L, C the new parameter σ is introduced. This parameter characterizes the existence of fractional structures in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative ɣ and the new parameter σ is found. The numeric Laplace transform method was used for the simulation of the equations results. The results show that the fractional differential equations generalize the behavior of the charge, voltage and current depending of the values of ɣ. The classical cases are recovered by taking the limit when ɣ = 1. An analysis in the frequency domain of an RC circuit shows the application and use of fractional order differential equations.

  6. DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load

  7. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods.

  8. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  9. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somervgille, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  10. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  11. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  12. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase I: Shallow and Deep Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Montemurno, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America program, in collaboration with Florida Power and Light (FPL), conducted a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program. This research sought to establish impacts on annual energy and peak energy reductions from the technologies applied at two levels of retrofit - shallow and deep, with savings levels approaching the Building America program goals of reducing whole-house energy use by 40%. Under the Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, we have installed phased, energy-efficiency retrofits in a sample of 56 existing, all-electric homes. End-use savings and economic evaluation results from the phased measure packages and single measures are summarized in this report.

  13. Diesel retrofit assessment for NYS DOT to retrofit its existing engine fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The NYS DEC has required the use of retrofit technologies for various state agency, state public authority, and regional public authority heavy duty vehicles, as well as heavy duty vehicles used on behalf of such agencies and authorities. This report...

  14. Numerical study on shear resisting mechanism for corroded RC box culverts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Iwamori, Akiyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of reinforcing steel corrosion on the shear resisting mechanism of RC box culverts and the applicability of the material degradation model in a finite element method. First, in FEM analyses, loss of reinforcement section area and initial tension strain due to reinforcement corrosion, and deteriorated bond characteristics between reinforcement and concrete, were considered. Second, cyclic loading tests using full-scale corroded specimens were numerically analyzed. The analyzed crack patterns and load-displacement relationships up to the maximum load were observed to be in close agreement with the experiment results within the average corrosion ratio of 10% of primary reinforcement. The fact that corrosion cracks can importantly affect the progression of shear cracks and shear strength of RC beams was also found. On the other hand, we established that RC box culverts being statically indeterminate structures, sectional forces are redistributed after cracking damage, and local material deterioration has a minor effect on shear capacity. Furthermore, a parametric study was carried out for corroded RC box culverts using parameters such as size, steel corrosion location, and corrosion level. (author)

  15. Heat exchanger network retrofit optimization involving heat transfer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yufei; Smith, Robin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    Heat exchanger network retrofit plays an important role in energy saving in process industry. Many design methods for the retrofit of heat exchanger networks have been proposed during the last three decades. Conventional retrofit methods rely heavily on topology modifications which often result in a long retrofit duration and high initial costs. Moreover, the addition of extra surface area to the heat exchanger can prove difficult due to topology, safety and downtime constraints. Both of these problems can be avoided through the use of heat transfer enhancement in heat exchanger network retrofit. This paper presents a novel design approach to solve heat exchanger network retrofit problems based on heat transfer enhancement. An optimisation method based on simulated annealing has been developed to find the appropriate heat exchangers to be enhanced and to calculate the level of enhancement required. The physical insight of enhanced exchangers is also analysed. The new methodology allows several possible retrofit strategies using different retrofit methods be determined. Comparison of these retrofit strategies demonstrates that retrofit modification duration and payback time are reduced when heat transfer enhancement is utilised. Heat transfer enhancement can be also used as a substitute for increased heat exchanger network surface area to reduce retrofit investment costs.

  16. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes In Florida Phase I: Shallow and Deep Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Montemurno, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kono, J. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America program, in collaboration with Florida Power and Light (FPL), conducted a phased residential energy-efficiency retrofit program. This research sought to establish impacts on annual energy and peak energy reductions from the technologies applied at two levels of retrofit - shallow and deep, with savings levels approaching the Building America program goals of reducing whole-house energy use by 40%. Under the Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, we have installed phased, energy-efficiency retrofits in a sample of 56 existing, all-electric homes. End-use savings and economic evaluation results from the phased measure packages and single measures are summarized in this report. Project results will be of interest to utility program designers, weatherization evaluators, and the housing remodel industry. Shallow retrofits were conducted in all homes from March to June 2013. The measures for this phase were chosen based on ease of installation, targeting lighting (CFLs and LED lamps), domestic hot water (wraps and showerheads), refrigeration (cleaning of coils), pool pump (reduction of operating hours), and the home entertainment center (smart plugs). Deep retrofits were conducted on a subset of ten PDR homes from May 2013 through March 2014. Measures included new air source heat pumps, duct repair, ceiling insulation, heat pump water heaters, variable speed pool pumps and learning thermostats. Major appliances such as refrigerators and dishwashers were replaced where they were old and inefficient.

  17. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  18. Existing School Buildings: Incremental Seismic Retrofit Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    The intent of this document is to provide technical guidance to school district facility managers for linking specific incremental seismic retrofit opportunities to specific maintenance and capital improvement projects. The linkages are based on logical affinities, such as technical fit, location of the work within the building, cost saving…

  19. Energy Retrofit Creates an Efficient Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Laurie

    1997-01-01

    After 20 years of inadequate heating and cooling, an Indiana school district took advantage of a 1994 state law that allows school districts to bypass the "low-bidder wins" restriction. The district established a guaranteed energy-saving contract for a climate-control-improvements package to retrofit the junior-senior high school. (MLF)

  20. Motel DHW Retrofit--Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-energy system designed to provide 65% of total domestic-hot-water (DHW) demands for 100-room motel in Dallas, Texas is subject of a report now available. System is retrofit, and storage-tank size was limited to 1,000 gallons (3,785 1) by size of room where it is located.

  1. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  2. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods. While the unvented crawlspace retrofit was effective in reducing heat loss, and the majority of the bulk water drainage problems had been resolved, the important finding was that some of the wood joists embedded in masonry pockets behind the brick veneer were showing signs of moisture damage.

  3. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (POSTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV is presenting a poster at the EPA's 2005 Science Forum from May 16-18, 2005 in Washington, DC. This poster will contain a summary of the performance results realized by the six verified diesel retrofit technologies, as well as potential impacts that could be realized if sigi...

  4. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  5. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  6. ECE diagnostics for RTO/RC ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayakis, G.; Bartlett, D.V.; Costley, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the current status of the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) diagnostic on the Reduced Technical Objectives/Reduced Cost International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (RTO/RC ITER). It discusses the implications of the new machine design on the measurement requirements, the ability of the diagnostic technique to meet these, and the changes in the implementation imposed by the new layout. Finally, it outlines the physics studies, design and R and D work required prior to the detailed design and construction of the diagnostic. Key results are: (i) that the localisation of the measurement is similar to that in ITER-FDR (40-100 mm in X-mode, 60-200 mm in O-mode for the reference scenario), so that the relative spatial resolution degrades in this, smaller, machine, and (ii) the expected effect of transport barriers on the temperature profile in the high temperature region will be poorly resolved, because the effect of the temperature gradient on the outboard side is to degrade the resolution to (∼250 mm in X-mode, ∼350 mm in O-mode). Nevertheless ECE will be able to make a unique and useful contribution to the RTO/RC ITER measurement set

  7. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber

  8. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber.

  9. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprak, A. Emre; Guelay, F. Guelten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 mx7.80 m = 127.90 m 2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher

  10. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, A. Emre; Gülay, F. Gülten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 m×7.80 m = 127.90 m2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher

  11. Study on reinforced concrete high-rise building using prefabricated beam-column joints. Part 3. ; Basic anchorage behaviors of longitudinal bars of beams. Hahsirater dot hari setsugobu PC ka koho (PG connection koho) wo mochiita RC koso tatemono no kaihatsu. 3. ; Hari shukin no kisoteki teichaku seijo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEkine, M.; Yoshioka, K.; Eto, H. (Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-10

    Pull-out tests were carried out to examine basic anchorage behaviors of through holes for beam re-bars by using a PG connection method, in which columns and beam-column joints with through holes for beam re-bars in the reinforced concrete framed construction are precast simultaneously. Specimens made by the PG connection method showed better anchorage behaviors than specimens made by the conventional anchorage method. In case of anchorage width of 80cm and concrete strength of about 350kgf/cm{sup 2}, it was recognized that large slipping of re-bars did not occur under allowable bond stress when the interval between re-bars was not less than 15cm and covering depth to the core of re-bars was not less than 8cm. Concerning a specimen which did not show splitting bond failure because of lateral compressive stress, bond stress of re-bars when large slipping occurred was 1.5 times or more in comparison with the allowable bond stress. Since this specimen held high slipping rigidity even after increase of slipping, its anchoring stress increased by 32-57% compared with a specimen without lateral compressive stress. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to

  13. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mattheis, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kunkle, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Howard, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lubliner, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  14. Unstable Resonator Retrofitted Handheld Laser Designator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    retrofitted with a negative-branch unstable resona- tor laser and hybrid pump cavity in place of the conventional plane-mirror/ porro prism resonator and...directed by prism B to an expanding telescope, shared with the viewing system of the designator. The actual, unfolded resonator length is approxi...was performed based on using a plane- parallel cavity consisting of a 47% reflectivity output coupler, porro - prism reflector, and the same LiNb03

  15. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Kerrie [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Hannigan, Eileen [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  16. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  17. RETROFITTING DENIZ PALACE HISTORIC BUILDING FOR REUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi KORKMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a big stock of historic structures in Turkey. Many of those structures continue to serve by changing their functions which brings new loads to the building. During their long life, historic structures have experienced many actions occurred over long periods of time and endured long term deteriorating effects and earthquake loads, besides these effects changing of the function affects the load bearing capacity of the building. This study is focused on restoration and retrofitting of historic multi storey masonry building named Deniz Palace Building which is located in Istanbul where the whole city is seismic prone area itself. Earthquake resistance is the main purpose of decision for retrofitting and strengthening of the building. In this sense walls are sheathed by concrete, floors are strengthened by steel I profiles and concrete, and foundations are reconstructed. During the restoration, interventions are made based on prevention of historic values. Static calculations are done particularly. For this purpose, foundation retrofitting is made primarily and some critical walls are sheathed by concrete. Fire protection system is designed and according to the evacuation plan some additions such as elevator shaft are constructed.

  18. The Retrofit Puzzle Extended: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior over Multiple Time Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-04

    In "The Retrofit Puzzle: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior in the Context of Diesel Retrofit Incentive Programs" (1) an integer program was developed to model profit-maximizing diesel fleet owner behavior when selecting pollution reduction retrofits. Flee...

  19. Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Benchmarking, and Financing Commercial Building Energy Retrofit Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This guide presents a process for three key activities for the building owner in preparing to retrofit existing commercial buildings: selecting project teams, benchmarking the existing building, and financing the retrofit work. Although there are other essential steps in the retrofit process, the three activities presented in this guide are the critical elements where the building owner has the greatest influence on the outcome of the project.

  20. Vapreotide: BMY 41606, RC 160, Sanvar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Vapreotide [Octastatin, Sanvar, RC 160, BMY 41606] is a somatostatin analogue developed at Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA, which holds patent rights for vapreotide. Vapreotide provides a much higher metabolic stability than its parent compound. Vapreotide was licensed to Debiopharm for development in Europe. Vapreotide is usually administered SC although a slow-release IM formulation is also available. Other sustained-release formulations are under development. H3 Pharma plans to sign agreements for all indications in the core markets of North America, Europe and in non-core geographic regions during 2003. H3 Pharma will also seek to obtain registration and early market entry in non-core countries with help from partners. Sanvar Immediate Release (IR) has been submitted for approval within the European Union for the treatment of acute oesophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). Sanvar IR has been awarded orphan drug status in the US for EVB. In July 2003, H3 Pharma received written confirmation from the US FDA that the dossier for Sanvar is fileable for registration in the United States for the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). The Sanvar IR (immediate-release) formulation is expected to enter the US market by late 2004. H3 Pharma expects to file for Latin American registration for this indication in the second half of 2003, with registrations in other regions to follow. Sanvar SR has been submitted for Orphan Drug designation.

  1. Seismic Performance of Precast Polystyrene RC Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Ari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast concrete structure such as precast wall is a concept that is growing rapidly these days. However, the earthquake resistance is believed to be one of its drawbacks. Additionally, the large weight of solid elements also increase the building weight significantly which consequently increase the earthquake base shear force as well. Therefore, investigation on the seismic performance of precast concrete wall has been carried out. Three RC wall specimens using wire mesh reinforcement and EPS (Extended Polystyrene System panel have been tested. This wall was designed as a structural wall that was capable in sustaining lateral loads (in-plane yet were lightweight to reduce the total weight of the building. Parameter observed was the ratio of height to width (aspect ratio of wall of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively with the aim to study the behaviour of brittle to ductile transition of the wall. Incremental static load tests were conducted until reaching peak load and then followed by displacement control until failure. Several data were measured at every stage of loading comprising lateral load-displacement behaviour, ultimate strength and collapse mechanism. The outcomes showed that precast concrete walls with a steel wire and EPS panel filler provided considerably good resistance against lateral load.

  2. Fatigue Assessment of Full-Scale Retrofitted Orthotropic Bridge Decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Kolstein, M.H.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full-scale fatigue tests were performed on two retrofitted orthotropic bridge decks (OBDs). The retrofitting systems consist of adding a second steel plate on the top of the existing deck. The aim is to reduce the stresses at the fatigue-sensitive details and therefore extend the fatigue life of

  3. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  4. The Second ICASE/LaRC Industry Roundtable: Session Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girimaji, Sharath

    1997-01-01

    The second ICASE/LaRC Industry Roundtable was held October 7-9, 1996 at the Williamsburg Hospitality House, Williamsburg, Virginia. Like the first roundtable in 1994, this meeting had two objectives: (1) to expose ICASE and LaRC scientists to industrial research agendas; and (2) to acquaint industry with the capabilities and technology available at ICASE, LaRC and academic partners of ICASE. Nineteen sessions were held in three parallel tracks. Of the 170 participants, over one third were affiliated with various industries. Proceedings from the different sessions are summarized in this report.

  5. Crowne Plaza Renovation Retrofit Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) and its franchise partner B.F. Saul Company Hospitality Group (B.F. Saul Co.) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  6. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  7. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  8. Combined cycle plant controls retrofit case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, D.; Pieszchala, T.

    1991-01-01

    The Comanche Power Station, Public Service of Oklahoma's combined cycle generating facility, underwent a controls and operator panel retrofit at the end of 1988. The plant consists of two gas turbines, two heat recovery boilers and a steam turbine along with three generators. This paper examines the extent to which the original goals and specifications were met. Costs, operating principles and modifications since the original installation are discussed. Operating procedures are compared with the original system. The future of the plant is discussed and the impact on the power system grid is analyzed

  9. Retrofitting compressor engines to reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Cenovus Energy Inc. is upgrading its natural gas compression facilities at 37 sites it operates in Alberta. The project itself consists of a retrofit of the natural-fas fired engines that power the compressors that fill its natural gas sales pipe-line. Piping to capture fugitive natural gas will also be installed. These emissions will be used as fuel. The efficiency rating of such engine will be the same as a new fuel-injected engine. One of the challenge in the design of the parts of these engines ss to to ensure the least possible downtime to minimize production losses.

  10. Indoor climate in renovated and energy retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2016-01-01

    The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house....... Moreover, it was investigated among house owners, who had carried out energy retrofitting, whether a number of factors, including the perceived indoor climate, became better or worse after retrofitting. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1,990 house owners in a municipality north of Copenhagen...

  11. Energy retrofit analysis toolkits for commercial buildings: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Retrofit analysis toolkits can be used to optimize energy or cost savings from retrofit strategies, accelerating the adoption of ECMs (energy conservation measures) in buildings. This paper provides an up-to-date review of the features and capabilities of 18 energy retrofit toolkits, including ECMs and the calculation engines. The fidelity of the calculation techniques, a driving component of retrofit toolkits, were evaluated. An evaluation of the issues that hinder effective retrofit analysis in terms of accessibility, usability, data requirement, and the application of efficiency measures, provides valuable insights into advancing the field forward. Following this review the general concepts were determined: (1) toolkits developed primarily in the private sector use empirically data-driven methods or benchmarking to provide ease of use, (2) almost all of the toolkits which used EnergyPlus or DOE-2 were freely accessible, but suffered from complexity, longer data input and simulation run time, (3) in general, there appeared to be a fine line between having too much detail resulting in a long analysis time or too little detail which sacrificed modeling fidelity. These insights provide an opportunity to enhance the design and development of existing and new retrofit toolkits in the future. - Highlights: • Retrofit analysis toolkits can accelerate the adoption of energy efficiency measures. • A comprehensive review of 19 retrofit analysis toolkits was conducted. • Retrofit toolkits have diverse features, data requirement and computing methods. • Empirical data-driven, normative and detailed energy modeling methods are used. • Identified immediate areas for improvement for retrofit analysis toolkits

  12. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  13. Skookum Jim Friendship Centre retrofit training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The retrofit/renovation of the Skookum Jim Friendship Centre in Whitehorse, Yukon, provided an ideal opportunity to train ten carpenters as specialists in energy conserving construction at the community level throughout the Yukon. Through this project, the trainees have gained special skills through hands-on experience with many energy conserving materials and techniques. As well, the training sessions provided extensive information on applicable thermodynamic principles and building science technology. The crew of two instructors, ten trainees, and the foreman covered all aspects of residential/light commercial construction which apply to retrofit work. Training sessions included information on site-safety, and interpreting the National Building Code, as well as special attention to the air tightness and insulation levels in the building. In observing the operation of the new building during the first heating season, it was noted that the heat provided by the lighting in the building supplied the majority of space heating requirements. Back-up electrical heating was required only at temperatures approaching design temperature for the building. 6 Figs.

  14. Deep Energy Retrofits - Eleven California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This research documents and demonstrates viable approaches using existing materials, tools and technologies in owner-conducted deep energy retrofits (DERs). These retrofits are meant to reduce energy use by 70% or more, and include extensive upgrades to the building enclosure, heating, cooling and hot water equipment, and often incorporate appliance and lighting upgrades as well as the addition of renewable energy. In this report, 11 Northern California (IECC climate zone 3) DER case studies are described and analyzed in detail, including building diagnostic tests and end-use energy monitoring results. All projects recognized the need to improve the home and its systems approximately to current building code-levels, and then pursued deeper energy reductions through either enhanced technology/ building enclosure measures, or through occupant conservation efforts, both of which achieved impressive energy performance and reductions. The beyond-code incremental DER costs averaged $25,910 for the six homes where cost data were available. DERs were affordable when these incremental costs were financed as part of a remodel, averaging a $30 per month increase in the net-cost of home ownership.

  15. Simulating Performance Risk for Lighting Retrofit Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In building retrofit projects, dynamic simulations are performed to simulate building performance. Uncertainty may negatively affect model calibration and predicted lighting energy savings, which increases the chance of default on performance-based contracts. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a simulation-based method that can analyze lighting performance risk in lighting retrofit decisions. The model uses a surrogate model, which is constructed by adaptively selecting sample points and generating approximation surfaces with fast computing time. The surrogate model is a replacement of the computation intensive process. A statistical method is developed to generate extreme weather profile based on the 20-year historical weather data. A stochastic occupancy model was created using actual occupancy data to generate realistic occupancy patterns. Energy usage of lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC is simulated using EnergyPlus. The method can evaluate the influence of different risk factors (e.g., variation of luminaire input wattage, varying weather conditions on lighting and HVAC energy consumption and lighting electricity demand. Probability distributions are generated to quantify the risk values. A case study was conducted to demonstrate and validate the methods. The surrogate model is a good solution for quantifying the risk factors and probability distribution of the building performance.

  16. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conlin, Francis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holloway, Parker [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Podorson, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Varshney, Kapil [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  17. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Conlin, F. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Holloway, Parker [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Varshney, Kapil [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques, manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder are two story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  18. Analysis and optimization of RC delay in vertical nanoplate FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Changbeom; Ko, Kyul; Kim, Jongsu; Kim, Minsoo; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed short channel effects (SCEs) and RC delay with Vertical nanoplate FET (VNFET) using 3-D Technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. The device is based on International Technology Road-map for Semiconductor (ITRS) 2013 recommendations, and it has initially gate length (LG) of 12.2 nm, channel thickness (Tch) of 4 nm, and spacer length (LSD) of 6 nm. To obtain improved performance by reducing RC delay, each dimension is adjusted (LG = 12.2 nm, Tch = 6 nm, LSD = 11.9 nm). It has each characteristic in this dimension (Ion/Ioff = 1.64 × 105, Subthreshold swing (S.S.) = 73 mV/dec, Drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) = 60 mV/V, and RC delay = 0.214 ps). Furthermore, with long shallow trench isolation (STI) length and thick insulator thickness (Ti), we can reduce RC delay from 0.214 ps to 0.163 ps. It is about a 23.8% reduction. Without decreasing drain current, there is a reduction of RC delay as reducing outer fringing capacitance (Cof). Finally, when source/drain spacer length is set to be different, we have verified RC delay to be optimum.

  19. Commercial Building Energy Saver: An energy retrofit analysis toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Chen, Yixing; Lee, Sang Hoon; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.; Zhang, Rongpeng; Sun, Kaiyu; Price, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercial Building Energy Saver is a powerful toolkit for energy retrofit analysis. • CBES provides benchmarking, load shape analysis, and model-based retrofit assessment. • CBES covers 7 building types, 6 vintages, 16 climates, and 100 energy measures. • CBES includes a web app, API, and a database of energy efficiency performance. • CBES API can be extended and integrated with third party energy software tools. - Abstract: Small commercial buildings in the United States consume 47% of the total primary energy of the buildings sector. Retrofitting small and medium commercial buildings poses a huge challenge for owners because they usually lack the expertise and resources to identify and evaluate cost-effective energy retrofit strategies. This paper presents the Commercial Building Energy Saver (CBES), an energy retrofit analysis toolkit, which calculates the energy use of a building, identifies and evaluates retrofit measures in terms of energy savings, energy cost savings and payback. The CBES Toolkit includes a web app (APP) for end users and the CBES Application Programming Interface (API) for integrating CBES with other energy software tools. The toolkit provides a rich set of features including: (1) Energy Benchmarking providing an Energy Star score, (2) Load Shape Analysis to identify potential building operation improvements, (3) Preliminary Retrofit Analysis which uses a custom developed pre-simulated database and, (4) Detailed Retrofit Analysis which utilizes real-time EnergyPlus simulations. CBES includes 100 configurable energy conservation measures (ECMs) that encompass IAQ, technical performance and cost data, for assessing 7 different prototype buildings in 16 climate zones in California and 6 vintages. A case study of a small office building demonstrates the use of the toolkit for retrofit analysis. The development of CBES provides a new contribution to the field by providing a straightforward and uncomplicated decision

  20. A Plastic Design Method for RC Moment Frame Buildings against Progressive Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Faghihmaleki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, progressive collapse potential of generic 3-, 8- and 12-storey RC moment frame buildings designed based on IBC-2006 code was investigated by performing non-linear static and dynamic analyses. It was observed that the model structures had high potential for progressive collapse when the second floor column was suddenly removed. Then, the size of beams required to satisfy the failure criteria for progressive collapse was obtained by using the virtual work method; i.e., using the equilibrium of the external work done by gravity load due to loss of a column and the internal work done by plastic rotation of beams. According to the nonlinear dynamic analysis results, the model structures designed only for normal load turned out to have strong potential for progressive collapse whereas the structures designed by plastic design concept for progressive collapse satisfied the failure criterion recommended by the GSA code. 

  1. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II: Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Originally published in February 2016, this revision contains an added section called 'Evaluation of Complete Central System Replacement with Inverter-Driven Heat Pump,' which presents the designs and energy savings evaluations of two different schemes wherein inverter-driven systems replaced a home's existing central system. Analyses for three additional retrofit measures were bolstered by longer-term data; these are described in the sections on supplemental mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs), smart thermostats, and heat pump clothes dryers. The sections on supplemental MSHPs and smart thermostats were also enhanced with larger sample sizes and projections of weather-normalized annual energy savings. Finally, peak system hour energy demand-reduction predictions are provided for all retrofit measures where meaningful impacts could be drawn.

  2. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II: Shallow Plus Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Chasar, D. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Amos, B. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Originally published in February 2016, this revision contains an added section called 'Evaluation of Complete Central System Replacement with Inverter-Driven Heat Pump,' which presents the designs and energy savings evaluations of two different schemes wherein inverter-driven systems replaced a home’s existing central system. Analyses for three additional retrofit measures were bolstered by longer-term data; these are described in the sections on supplemental mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs), smart thermostats, and heat pump clothes dryers. The sections on supplemental MSHPs and smart thermostats were also enhanced with larger sample sizes and projections of weather-normalized annual energy savings. Finally, peak system hour energy demand-reduction predictions are provided for all retrofit measures where meaningful impacts could be drawn.

  3. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  4. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musunuru, S. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  5. Amelioration and retrofitting of educational buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciati, Fabio; Casciati, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Following a seismic event that occurred years ago in Central Italy, the public opinion was growing and growing a concern on the adequacy of educational buildings all across Italy. This activated several political decisions and a consequent technical effort is in progress. Technically speaking one has to manage the classical problem of retrofitting existing buildings. However, the legal environment goes across national codes, targeted guidelines and the professional need of achieving pragmatic solutions based on ethical and social acceptation schemes.This paper introduces the topic in its worldwide exception and focuses then on some operative aspects in the Italian situation. It outlines the consolidated steps along this technical process and emphasizes the weak aspects one meets when going across the designers' reports.

  6. Retrofit of containers in civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Romano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The solid waste reuse affects all society sectors that have committed to generate the smallest possible impact in the environment. Professionals in the construction industry, from which comes an important part of solid waste, rethink their project decisions about the use of conventional materials, evaluating on a case-by-case costs and benefits of their choices. The recycling or reuse of solid waste in building became a reality and their prudent use a necessity, a fact that enhances the role of academic research involving the subject (Carneiro; CASSA ; BRUM , 2001. Among the materials investigated thoroughly is the container, discard material that can become a problem for the public space and nature, but that is slowly gaining market share due to advantages associated with cost , speed of assembly , durability and reuse residue, or retrofit , which substantially decreases (dis advantages that this type of architecture might suggest, many of them conditioned to merely esthetic analysis (ZOMER , 2009.

  7. Retrofitting reciprocating compressors for noise control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.; Qualfe, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board recently enacted their noise control directive ID 88-1. The effects of this regulation on the operation of an oil and gas facility are discussed, and a specific case history is presented to provide a disciplined strategy for noise attenuation retrofits. An investigation was carried out into sound sources at a reciprocating compressor gas plant, revealing several sound sources: engine exhaust stacks, engine exhaust silencer shells, direct-drive fan cooler inlets, direct drive fan cooler outlets, aerial cooler inlets and aerial cooler outlets. Details are presented of the investigative techniques and order-ranking of sources by decibel level. When controlling engine exhaust noise, silencers or mufflers are the preferred treatment. Choice of type (reactive or absorptive) and specification of acoustical performance of a silencer are discussed. The gas plant achieved noise reductions of 6-13 dB, measured at affected residences, through the use of engine exhaust silencers. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Retrofitting the Southeast. The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Shapiro, C. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research team has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home that was unveiled at the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show on Feb. 9, 2012, in Orlando, FL. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This report describes the deep energy retrofit of the Cool Energy House (CEH), which began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  9. Retrofitting the Southeast: The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home in connection with the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This project, which was unveiled at the 2012 International Builders Show in Orlando on February 9, is the deep energy retrofit Cool Energy House (CEH). The CEH began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  10. Collisionless effects on beam-return current systems in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study of the beam-return current system (BRCS) in solar flares shows that the precipitating electrons modify the way in which the return current (RC) is carried by the background plasma. In particular it is found that the RC is not carried by the bulk of the electrons but by a small number of high-velocity electrons. For beam/plasma densities exceeding approximately 0.001, this can reduce the effects of collisions and heating by the RC. For higher-density beams, where the RC could be unstable to current-driven instabilities, the effects of strong turbulence anomalous resistivity prevent the appearance of such instabilities. The main conclusion is that the BRCS is interconnected, and that the beam-generated strong turbulence determines how the RC is carried.

  11. Drivers for retrofit: a sociocultural approach to houses and inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørring, Lise; Gausset, Quentin

    2018-01-01

    , retrofits were investigated from the perspective of the everyday life of homeowners. Three social dimensions that played an important role when the people in the study discussed house renovation were identified and discussed: houses as part of homeowners’ life cycles and personal events; houses......Private households constitute approximately 30% of the total energy consumption in Denmark. The greatest potential for reducing energy consumption in private households is through retrofits of existing houses. One of the most common ways to promote retrofits is the act of sending an energy advisor...... as frameworks for social relations; and houses as markers of social values and status. These results indicate a need to develop new strategies to promote retrofits more effectively, which focus less on the techno-economic aspects and more on the social dimensions....

  12. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance...... to energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. To generate energy savings, we focus on optimizing the building envelope. We evaluate alternative building envelope actions using procedural solar radiation and daylight simulations. In addition, we identify the digital information flow and the information...... Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retrofit strategies. We present a case study of a Danish renovation project, implementing BPS approaches...

  13. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  14. Economy Controls Energy Retrofits of Danish Single-family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    A great energy saving potential is found in the 440,000 Danish single-family houses erected between 1960 and 1979, but the potential is not exploited. To utilize this potential homeowners must be motivated to conduct energy saving retrofits. This paper presents results from a survey from 2012 where...... 883 Danish single-family house owners completed a questionnaire about energy retrofit. The objective of this paper is, based on the survey results, to determine how Danish homeowners can be motivated to conduct energy retrofits. The conclusion is that the financial aspect of an energy retrofit...... about the potential improvements within these parameters is found among the homeowners and therefore there is a vital need for more information about this. A combination of this knowledge of the non-economic improvements, a sensible investment size and information and education about the current...

  15. Recent digital control and protection retrofits in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, R.D.; Hammer, M.; Smith, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Digital computers are now being retrofitted to all types of power plants, replacing analog equipment and solving problems such as equipment obsolescence and low reliability. Three diverse examples of retrofits are presented in this paper, representing trends in man/machine interface design at an oil-fired plant, protection system in pressurized heavy-water reactors, and control systems in light water reactors (LWRs). The examples have been chosen to illustrate diverse reasons for the retrofits and the benefits derived. The cases presented report retrofits at Northern States Power's Monticello boiling water reactor, New Brunswick Electric Power Commission's (NBEPC's) Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station, and finally NBEPC's oil-fired plant at Courtney Bay

  16. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

  17. Retrofit designs for small bench-type blood cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes several retrofit designs to correct operational problems associated with small bench-type blood cell counters. Replacement electronic circuits as well as modifications to the vacuum systems are discussed.

  18. LED Retrofit Kits, TLEDs, and Lighting Controls: An Application Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    This document provides guidance for retrofitting existing fluorescent troffers including the LED and associated control options available, the pro/cons and costs/benefits of each option, and agency specific requirements (where applicable).

  19. Analytical study of performance evaluation for seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete building using 3D dynamic nonlinear finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichi; Kajihara, Shinichi; Kaneko, Yoshio

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses of an all-frame model of a three-story reinforced concrete (RC) building damaged in the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake. Non-structural brick walls of the building acted as a seismic resistant element although their contributions were neglected in the design. Hence, the entire structure of a typical frame was modeled and static and dynamic nonlinear analyses were conducted to evaluate the contributions of the brick walls. However, the results of the analyses were considerably overestimated due to coarse mesh discretizations, which were unavoidable due to limited computer resources. This study corrects the overestimations by modifying (1) the tensile strengths and (2) shear stiffness reduction factors of concrete and brick. The results indicate that brick walls improve frame strength although shear failures are caused in columns shortened by spandrel walls. Then, the effectiveness of three types of seismic retrofits is evaluated. The maximum drift of the first floor is reduced by 89.3%, 94.8%, and 27.5% by Steel-confined, Full-RC, and Full-brick models, respectively. Finally, feasibility analyses of models with soils were conducted. The analyses indicated that the soils elongate the natural period of building models although no significant differences were observed.

  20. LP turbine retrofit modernization: Improvements in performance and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenedaal, J.C.; Fowls, L.G.; Subbiah, R.; Maxwell, B.P.; Persson, B.

    1996-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation retrofitted six low pressure (LP) nuclear turbine rotors and associated blade path components at Ringhals 1, a 1960's vintage English Electric (GEC) unit located near Varobacka, Sweden, and operated by Vattenfall AB. This achieved significant performance improvements and provided improved mechanical features over the original equipment. This paper, discusses design, manufacture, installation, operation and project coordination. The retrofit processes employed for these units can be applied to any potential customers units

  1. Attic Retrofits Using Nail-Base Insulated Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, David [Home Innovation Research Labs; Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs

    2018-03-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a roof/attic energy retrofit solution using nail-base insulated panels for existing homes where traditional attic insulation approaches are not effective or feasible. Nail-base insulated panels (retrofit panels) consist of rigid foam insulation laminated to one face of a wood structural panel. The prefabricated panels are installed above the existing roof deck during a reroofing effort.

  2. Retrofit of a Multifamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  3. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report will detail the retrofit of 2 existing houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for retrofit construction at these homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a Cold Climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project's affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  4. Retrofit of distillation columns in biodiesel production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Nghi; Demirel, Yasar

    2010-01-01

    Column grand composite curves and the exergy loss profiles produced by the Column-Targeting Tool of the Aspen Plus simulator are used to assess the performance of the existing distillation columns, and reduce the costs of operation by appropriate retrofits in a biodiesel production plant. Effectiveness of the retrofits is assessed by means of thermodynamics and economic improvements. We have considered a biodiesel plant utilizing three distillation columns to purify biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) and byproduct glycerol as well as reduce the waste. The assessments of the base case simulation have indicated the need for modifications for the distillation columns. For column T202, the retrofits consisting of a feed preheating and reflux ratio modification have reduced the total exergy loss by 47%, while T301 and T302 columns exergy losses decreased by 61% and 52%, respectively. After the retrofits, the overall exergy loss for the three columns has decreased from 7491.86 kW to 3627.97 kW. The retrofits required a fixed capital cost of approximately $239,900 and saved approximately $1,900,000/year worth of electricity. The retrofits have reduced the consumption of energy considerably, and leaded to a more environmentally friendly operation for the biodiesel plant considered.

  5. Innovative Retrofit Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huelman, P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Goldberg, L. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Jacobson, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2015-05-06

    This study was designed to test a new approach for foundation insulation retrofits, with the goal of demonstrating improved moisture control, improved occupant comfort, and reduced heat loss. Because conducting experimental research on existing below-grade assemblies is very difficult, most of the results are based on simulations. The retrofit approach consists of filling open concrete block cores with an insulating material and adding R-10 exterior insulation that extends 1 ft below grade. The core fill is designed to improve the R-value of the foundation wall and increase the interior wall surface temperature, but more importantly to block convection currents that could otherwise increase moisture loads on the foundation wall and interior space. The exterior insulation significantly reduces heat loss through the most exposed part of the foundation and further increases the interior wall surface temperature. This improves occupant comfort and decreases the risk of condensation. Such an insulation package avoids the full-depth excavation necessary for exterior insulation retrofits, reduces costs, and eliminates the moisture and indoor air quality risks associated with interior insulation retrofits. Retrofit costs for the proposed approach were estimated at roughly half those of a full-depth exterior insulation retrofit.

  6. R$_{b}$ - R$_{c}$ crisis and new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, G; Hou Wei Shu; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Branco, Gustavo C; Hou, Wei Shu

    1996-01-01

    The experimental values of R_b and R_c are the only data which do not seem to agree with Standard Model predictions. Although it is still premature to draw any definite conclusions, it is timely to look for new physics which could explain the excess in R_b and deficit in R_c. We investigate this problem in a simple extension of the Standard Model, where a charge +2/3 isosinglet quark is added to the standard spectrum. Upon the further introduction of an extra scalar doublet, one finds a solution with interesting consequences.

  7. Deformation Analysis of RC Ties Externally Strengthened with FRP Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribniak, V.; Arnautov, A. K.; Kaklauskas, G.; Jakstaite, R.; Tamulenas, V.; Gudonis, E.

    2014-11-01

    The current study has two objectives: to validate the ability of the Atena finite-element software to estimate the deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) elements strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and to assess the effect of FRP-to-concrete bond strength on the results of numerical simulation. It is shown that the bond strength has to be selected according to the overall stiffness of the composite element. The numerical results found are corroborated experimentally by tensile tests of RC elements strengthened with basalt FRP sheets.

  8. PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.

    1980-09-01

    The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.

  9. Pilot Residential Deep Energy Retrofits and the PNNL Lab Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Parker, Graham B.; Sande, Susan; Blanchard, Jeremy; Stroer, Dennis; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes research investigating the technical and economic feasibility of several pilot deep energy retrofits, or retrofits that save 30% to 50% or more on a whole-house basis while increasing comfort, durability, combustion safety, and indoor air quality. The work is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. As part of the overall program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers are collecting and analyzing a comprehensive dataset that describes pre- and post-retrofit energy consumption, retrofit measure cost, health and comfort impacts, and other pertinent information for each home participating in the study. The research and data collection protocol includes recruitment of candidate residences, a thorough test-in audit, home energy modeling, and generation of retrofit measure recommendations, implementation of the measures, test-out, and continued evaluation. On some homes, more detailed data will be collected to disaggregate energy-consumption information. This multi-year effort began in October 2010. To date, the PNNL team has performed test-in audits on 51 homes in the marine, cold, and hot-humid climate zones, and completed 3 retrofits in Texas, 10 in Florida, and 2 in the Pacific Northwest. Two of the retrofits are anticipated to save 50% or more in energy bills and the others - savings are in the 30% to 40% range. Fourteen other retrofits are under way in the three climate zones. Metering equipment has been installed in seven of these retrofits - three in Texas, three in Florida, and one in the Pacific Northwest. This report is an interim update, providing information on the research protocol and status of the PNNL deep energy retrofit project as of December, 2011. The report also presents key findings and lessons learned, based on the body of work to date. In addition, the report summarizes the status of the PNNL Lab Homes that are new

  10. Nonlinear seismic analysis of continuous RC bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čokić Miloš M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear static analysis, known as a pushover method (NSPA is oftenly used to study the behaviour of a bridge structure under the seismic action. It is shown that the Equivalent Linearization Method - ELM, recommended in FEMA 440, is appropriate for the response analysis of the bridge columns, with different geometric characteristics, quantity and distribution of steel reinforcement. The subject of analysis is a bridge structure with a carriageway plate - a continuous beam with three spans, with the 24 + 40 + 24 m range. Main girder is made of prestressed concrete and it has a box cross section of a constant height. It is important to study the behaviour, not only in the transverse, but also in the longitudinal direction of the bridge axis, when analysing the bridge columns exposed to horizontal seismic actions. The columns were designed according to EN1992, parts 1 and 2. Seismic action analysis is conducted according to EN 1998: 2004 standard. Response spectrum type 1, for the ground type B, was applied and the analysis also includes 20% of traffic load. The analysis includes the values of columns displacement and ductility. To describe the behaviour of elements under the earthquake action in both - longitudinal and transverse direction, pushover curves were formed.

  11. Economic Valuation of Hypothetical Paratransit Retrofitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Huda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a feasibility analysis of conventional and retrofitted paratransits, comparing economic performance of conventional paratransit with those using lead acid and lithium batteries. Research object is Dago-Kalapa paratransit in Bandung, West Java, travelling the distance of 11 km in town, under 8 peak hour operation. After calculating the estimated annual cost and benefit; net present value (NPV, payback period (PBP and internal rate of return (IRR then were quantified to provide feasibility description of those three paratransits. In addition, a sensitivity analysis regarding discount rate, gasoline price and battery price is given to offer broader sense of factors embraced. It is found that both gasoline and lead acid paratransit have big NPVs with only slight differences, while lithium paratransit has negative NPV. This phenomenon applies to their PBPs and IRRs as well. Only when gasoline costs reaches IDR 15,000 will electric paratransit prevails over conventional one. Thus, it can be inferred that at the moment, paratransit runs with gasoline is still the most cost effective compared to its counterparts. However, starting retrofitting from now is endorsed due to its environmental benefit. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  12. Damage Localization and Quantification of Earthquake Excited RC-Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P.S.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the paper a recently proposed method for damage localization and quantification of RC-structures from response measurements is tested on experimental data. The method investigated requires at least one response measurement along the structure and the ground surface acceleration. Further, the t...

  13. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 11 November 2016 pp 1029-1042 ... But a lot of things, (including the complex impedanceitself, and some insight into complex analysis) can be understoodbetter if we use the FT approach to solve the differentialequations that come up in ...

  14. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  15. Bellanca building, Yellowknife : building envelope retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewski, G. [A.D. Williams Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Bellanca building is a ten-story, commercial office building, located in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. The owner was concerned about annual fuel consumption, relative to other buildings of similar size. Tenants reported cold drafts and some ice build-up had been reported in the past, on the exterior of the cladding. In addition, some water penetration had occurred during rainfall. This presentation provided background information on the Bellanca building and discussed a building envelope retrofit project. A.D. Williams was hired in late 2006 in order to provide an opinion on the present condition of the building envelope. This presentation described the site investigation and presented an interior and exterior review of the building. It also presented a thermographic survey in order to map thermal anomalies and establish trends. Following acceptance of the report on findings, one of five options was selected for further development. This included removal of existing cladding, exterior gypsum wallboard, fiberglass insulation and application of BASF Walltite CT foam, sheathing, rigid insulation, drainage plane and new cladding. The preliminary design was then presented. This paper also described the tender and award of the contract; construction phase; and substantial completion of the project. tabs, figs.

  16. CRNL research reactor retrofit Emergency Filtration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippi, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of NRX and NRU research reactor effluent air treatment systems before describing the selection and design of an appropriate retrofit Emergency Filtration System (EFS) to serve these reactors and the future MX-10 isotope production reactor. The conceptual design of the EFS began in 1984. A standby concrete shielding filter-adsorber system, sized to serve the reactor with the largest exhaust flow, was selected. The standby system, bypassed under normal operating conditions, is equipped with normal exhaust stream shutoff and diversion valves to be activated manually when an emergency is anticipated, or automatically when emergency levels of gamma radiation are detected in the exhaust stream. The first phase of the EFS installation, that is the construction of the EFS and the connection of NRU to the system, was completed in 1987. The second phase of construction, which includes the connection of NRX and provisions for the future connection of MX-10, is to be completed in 1990

  17. Assessment and retrofit program at work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuyler, G [Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin Inc., Guelph, ON (Canada); Lethbridge, S [Owens-Corning, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    1993-10-01

    A glass plant in Ontario volunteered for an assessment as part of the Green Industry Assessment Retrofit Program. The project was intended to assess pollution prevention and reduction, water conservation, and energy utilization at the plant. The plant produces glass fibers and is a major user of natural gas and electricity, with a minimum electrical demand of 4 MW. Total waste heat in the flue gas from the gas-fired melting furnaces, relative to 25[degree]C, is over 5 MW. Nitrogen oxides are the predominant air emission at the plant. Glass fiber scrap constitutes the bulk of the solid wastes produced. Conservation opportunities were identified and their payback periods calculated. Options considered to be feasible included heat recovery and power generation from the furnace exhaust gases, and moving the air conditioning system intakes so they draw in cool air instead of hot air from the melter area. Bioremediation was considered to have good potential for treating the glass fiber wastes. Under this concept, the waste would be cycled through reactor cells containing microorganisms that could remove the binders and coatings on the fibers. At the end of this process, the glass fiber would be of sufficient quality that it could be recycled directly to the melter. 1 tab.

  18. Development of advanced retrofit FGD designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dene, C.E.; Boward, W.L.; Noblett, J.G.; Keeth, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment is a dramatic departure from previous legislation in that it affords the electric utility industry the flexibility to achieve their portion of the sulfur dioxide reduction in a myriad of ways. Each utility must look at its system overall. One strategy which may prove beneficial is to remove as much SO 2 as possible at facilities where there is an existing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system or where one is planned. In response to this need EPRI is developing a family of advanced retrofit FGD designs that incorporate recent advances in FGD technology. A range of design options are being investigated to determine both the SO 2 collection capability and the relative cost impacts of each option. Some of the design options considered include the use of trays, packing, additional liquid flow rate, and additives to boost the removal efficiency. These options are being investigated for limestone, and magnesium-enhanced lime systems. The sensitivity of these designs to changes in coal sulfur content, chloride content, unit size, gas velocity, and other factors are being investigated to determine how the performance of a designs is changed and the ability to meet compliance. This paper illustrates the type of analysis used to develop the advanced designs and presents the sensitivity of a Countercurrent spray tower design using limestone and forced oxidation to changes in specific design input parameters such as boiler load, tower height, and gas velocity

  19. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district ground source heat pump (GSHP) system to service the project. This report details the retrofit of two existing houses in the program, and examines the energy efficiency recommendations for the homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a cold climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project’s affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  20. The impact of domestic energy efficiency retrofit schemes on householder attitudes and behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, T.B.; Young, W.; Webber, P.; Gouldson, A.; Harwatt, H.

    2015-01-01

    Retrofitting existing housing stock to improve energy efficiency is often required to meet climate mitigation, public health and fuel poverty targets. Increasing uptake and effectiveness of retrofit schemes requires understanding of their impacts on householder attitudes and behaviours. This paper

  1. Selecting Energy Efficient Building Envelope Retrofits to Existing Department of Defense Building Using Value Focused Thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratt, David M

    2006-01-01

    ... these facilities that have the greatest potential for energy efficient building envelope retrofits. There are hundreds of various new building envelope technologies available to retrofit an existing building envelope, including window, roof, and wall technologies...

  2. Reinforced concrete beams with web openings: A state of the art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Fayyadh, M.M.; Naganathan, S.; Nasharuddin, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Present paper highlights the gaps in the work related RC beams with web opening. ► There is limited work on comparing of design approaches of RC beams with opening. ► Strengthening with externally bonded steel or FRP sheets needs to be investigated. ► There is no repair work been done on the RC beams with opening. -- Abstract: The construction of modern buildings requires many pipes and ducts in order to accommodate essential services such as air conditioning, electricity, telephone, and computer network. Web openings in concrete beams enable the installation of these services. A number of studies have been conducted with regards to reinforced concrete beams which contain web openings. The present paper aims to compile this state of the art work on the behaviour, analysis and design of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams with transverse web openings. A variety of aspects will be highlighted and discussed including the classification of openings, guidelines for opening location, and the structural behaviour of RC beams with web openings. Various design approaches will also be detailed, for example the American Concrete Institute (ACI) approach, the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) approach and the strut and tie method. Moreover, the strengthening of RC beams with openings using Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) material and steel plates is presented. Finally, directions for future research based on the gaps which exist in the present work are presented.

  3. Milliken Station Demonstration Project FDG retrofit update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, R.C.; Jackson, C.E.; O`Dea, D.T. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The Milliken Clean Coal Demonstration Project is one of the nine Clean Coal Projects selected for funding in Round 4 of the U.S. DOE`s Clean Coal Demonstration Program. The project`s sponsor is New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG). Project team members include CONSOL Inc., Saarberg-Holter-Umwelttechnik (SHU), NALCO/FuelTech, Stebbins Engineering and Manufacturing Co., DHR Technologies, and CE Air Preheater. Gilbert/Commonwealth is the Architect/Engineer and Construction Manager for the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) retrofit. The project will provide full-scale demonstration of a combination of innovative emission-reducing technologies and plant upgraded for the control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired steam generator without a significant loss of station efficiency. The overall project goals are the following: 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency using limestone while burning high sulfur coal; up to 70% NO{sub x} reduction using the NOXOUT selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology in conjunction with combustion modifications; minimization of solid waste by producing marketable by-products including commercial grade gypsum, calcium chloride, and fly ash; zero wastewater discharge; maintenance of station efficiency by using a high efficiency heat-pipe air heater system and a low-power-consuming scrubber system. The demonstration project is being conducted at NYSEG`s Milliken Station, located in Lansing, New York. Milliken Station has two 150-MWe pulverized coal-fired units built in the 1950s by Combustion Engineering. The SHU FGD process and the combustion modifications are being installed on both units, but the NOXOUT process, Plant Economic Optimization Advisor (PEOA), and the high-efficiency air heater system will be installed on only one unit.

  4. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Nelson, C. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Smith, I. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home’s energy performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Rating systems based on energy performance models, the focus of this report, can establish a home’s achievable energy efficiency potential and provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, although their accuracy needs to be verified by actual measurement or billing data. Ratings can also show homeowners where they stand compared to their neighbors, thus creating social pressure to conform to or surpass others. This project field-tested three different building performance models of varying complexity, in order to assess their value as rating systems in the context of a residential retrofit program: Home Energy Score, SIMPLE, and REM/Rate.

  5. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Varshney, Kapil [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  6. 78 FR 9936 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program: Extension of Pilot Program AGENCY...: On March 31, 2011, HUD published a notice that announced HUD's FHA Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program (Retrofit Pilot Program) known as FHA PowerSaver, which is a pilot program conducted for loans...

  7. 75 FR 21016 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; The Green Retrofit Program of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; The Green Retrofit Program of the American Recovery and... Retrofit Program authorized by the American Recovery and Revitalization Act of 2009. The legislation.... The Green Retrofit Program is detailed in HUD Notice H 09-02 issued on May 13, 2009. This Notice is...

  8. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retrofit NOX standards. 1043.50 Section 1043.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards. Regulation 13 of Annex VI provides for certification of Approved Methods, which are retrofit procedures that...

  9. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Ken [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  10. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  11. Beam-Beam Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities

  12. 75 FR 1356 - RC2 Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... primarily at toy stores and various retailers nationwide, and secondarily through RC2's e-commerce websites... various retailers nationwide, and secondarily through RC2's e-commerce Web sites or as `sub-components' of...(e). Published below is a provisionally-accepted Settlement Agreement with RC2 Corporation...

  13. Rapid Strengthening of Full-Sized Concrete Beams with Powder-Actuated fastening Systems and Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bank, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    A research study was conducted to determine if the method of retrofitting reinforced concrete beams with powder-actuated fasteners and composite materials was applicable to full-scale flexural members...

  14. Increasing draft capability for retrofit flue gas desulfurization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, R.D.; Basel, B.E.; Mosier, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The retrofit installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems results in significantly higher draft losses for existing generating stations. Consequently, the means for increasing draft capability must be included in many FGD retrofit projects. Consideration is given to several alternatives for increasing draft capability. Alternatives are developed for new induced draft (ID) fans to replace the existing ID fans and for new booster fans to supplement the existing ID fans. Both centrifugal and axial fans are evaluated, as are different means of fan volume control. Each alternative is evaluated on the basis of technical merit and economics. Presented are the development of fan alternatives and results of the technical and economic evaluations

  15. Major plant retrofits at Monticello nuclear generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.E.; Hogg, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    For the past several years, Northern States Power (NSP) has been making major plant retrofits to Monticello Nuclear generating Station in order to improve plant availability and upgrade the plant components for the potential extension of the operating license (life extension). This paper discusses in detail three major retrofits that have been completed or in the process of completion; recirculation loop piping replacement, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level-instrumentation modification, core spray piping replacement, the authors will address the scope of work, design and installation concerns, and life extension considerations during the design and procurement process for these three projects

  16. Retrofit and verification test of a 30-cm ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Poeschel, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty modifications were found to be necessary and were approved by design review. These design modifications were incorporated in the thruster documents (drawings and procedures) to define the J series thruster. Sixteen of the design revisions were implemented in a 900 series thruster by retrofit modification. A standardized set of test procedures was formulated, and the retrofit J series thruster design was verified by test. Some difficulty was observed with the modification to the ion optics assembly, but the overall effect of the design modification satisfies the design objectives. The thruster was tested over a wide range of operating parameters to demonstrate its capabilities.

  17. Pilot retrofit test of refrigerant R-134a for GDSCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, J.; Brown, B.; Dungao, M.; Spencer, G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has issued an interim policy requiring all of its Centers to eliminate consumption (purchase) of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), by 1995. Also, plans must be outlined for the eventual phase out of their usage. The greatest source of CFC consumption and usage at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is refrigerant R-12, which is used in many of the facility's air-conditioning systems. A pilot retrofit test shows that retrofitting R-12 air-conditioning systems with hydrofluorocarbon R-13a would be a workable means to comply with the R-12 portion of NASA's policy. Results indicate acceptable cost levels and nearly equivalent system performance.

  18. Assessment of cockpit interface concepts for data link retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, Hugh W.; Miles, William L.; Dwyer, John P.; Erickson, Jeffery B.

    1992-01-01

    The problem is examined of retrofitting older generation aircraft with data link capability. The approach taken analyzes requirements for the cockpit interface, based on review of prior research and opinions obtained from subject matter experts. With this background, essential functions and constraints for a retrofit installation are defined. After an assessment of the technology available to meet the functions and constraints, candidate design concepts are developed. The most promising design concept is described in detail. Finally, needs for further research and development are identified.

  19. Retrofit of safety and control systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiper, J.T.; Fassett, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The modularity, compactness, compatibility, and licensability of the microcontrol system make it a cost-effective approach to obtain the benefits of digital control technology in the retrofit of nuclear power plants. Retrofit of individual loops or complete systems can be scheduled to meet the operational needs of the plant. The existing racks, panels, and cable systems can be utilized to the maximum extent to minimize the installed cost. Future expansion to total plant control or plant management is supported by the network communication module or gateway. The microcontrol module provides benefits now in improved operation, and future benefits in planned, controlled upgrading

  20. GR712RC- Dual-Core Processor- Product Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Fredrik; Habinc, Sandi; Gaisler, Jiri

    2012-08-01

    The GR712RC System-on-Chip (SoC) is a dual core LEON3FT system suitable for advanced high reliability space avionics. Fault tolerance features from Aeroflex Gaisler’s GRLIB IP library and an implementation using Ramon Chips RadSafe cell library enables superior radiation hardness.The GR712RC device has been designed to provide high processing power by including two LEON3FT 32- bit SPARC V8 processors, each with its own high- performance IEEE754 compliant floating-point-unit and SPARC reference memory management unit.This high processing power is combined with a large number of serial interfaces, ranging from high-speed links for data transfers to low-speed control buses for commanding and status acquisition.

  1. Refurbishment and retrofitting of SF6 gas storage tanks of the pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Datar, V.M.; Parulekar, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility has completed more than twenty six years of successful round-the-clock operation, serving diverse users from institutions within and outside DAE. The main accelerating structure and associated subsystems are housed in the accelerator tank under SF 6 gas medium. During maintenance of the accelerator, the SF 6 gas present in the accelerator tank is transferred in the four storage tanks located on the terrace of the building open to outside environment. These four storage tanks (with ∼ 1/4th of the main tank volume each) are ∼ 4.27 m in diameter and ∼ 10 m in height each and are supported on RCC ring beams which are monolithically connected with the RCC structure below. Over the years, the anchor bolts and the base plates of support structure of storage tanks were found corroded and the foundation RCC ring beam indicated a few corrosion cracks. Health assessment of relevant structures and components were carried out. Considering the limitations of existing anchorage and also giving due considerations for reparability and replaceability, a new anchorage system was designed. The entire refurbishment and retrofitting works pertaining to the four SF 6 gas storage tanks was executed in a time bound manner to comply with the then PASC (Particle Accelerator Safety Committee) recommendations successfully, without disrupting the operations of the round-the-clock running Pelletron Accelerator facility. In addition, the thickness measurements for the storage tanks were performed. The relief valves and rupture disc assemblies across the storage tanks were replaced and reinstalled after introducing appropriate manual valves as suggested by the PASC. A new test set up was fabricated to perform pneumatic testing at the recommended pressure off-line for these relief valves and rupture disc assemblies prior to reinstallation. This paper describes the comprehensive rehabilitation and retrofitting procedures that were carried out at the

  2. Centrifuge modeling of rocking-isolated inelastic RC bridge piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, Marianna; Knappett, Jonathan A; Brown, Michael J; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; Gazetas, George

    2014-12-01

    Experimental proof is provided of an unconventional seismic design concept, which is based on deliberately underdesigning shallow foundations to promote intense rocking oscillations and thereby to dramatically improve the seismic resilience of structures. Termed rocking isolation , this new seismic design philosophy is investigated through a series of dynamic centrifuge experiments on properly scaled models of a modern reinforced concrete (RC) bridge pier. The experimental method reproduces the nonlinear and inelastic response of both the soil-footing interface and the structure. To this end, a novel scale model RC (1:50 scale) that simulates reasonably well the elastic response and the failure of prototype RC elements is utilized, along with realistic representation of the soil behavior in a geotechnical centrifuge. A variety of seismic ground motions are considered as excitations. They result in consistent demonstrably beneficial performance of the rocking-isolated pier in comparison with the one designed conventionally. Seismic demand is reduced in terms of both inertial load and deck drift. Furthermore, foundation uplifting has a self-centering potential, whereas soil yielding is shown to provide a particularly effective energy dissipation mechanism, exhibiting significant resistance to cumulative damage. Thanks to such mechanisms, the rocking pier survived, with no signs of structural distress, a deleterious sequence of seismic motions that caused collapse of the conventionally designed pier. © 2014 The Authors Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Investigation on the thermographic detection of corrosion in RC structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Kyriakides, Nicholas; Georgiou, Panagiota G.; Ioannou, Fotia G.

    2017-09-01

    Corrosion of the steel reinforcement is the main problem of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Over the past decades, several methods have been developed aiming to detect the corrosion process early in order to minimise the structural damage and consequently the repairing costs. Emphasis was given in developing methods and techniques of non-destructive nature providing fast on-the-spot detection and covering large areas rather that concentrating on single locations. This study, investigates a non-destructive corrosion detection technique for reinforced concrete, which is based on infrared thermography and the difference in thermal characteristics of corroded and non-corroded steel rebars. The technique is based on the principle that corrosion products have poor heat conductivity, and they inhibit the diffusion of heat that is generated in the reinforcing bar due to heating. For the investigation RC specimens, have been constructed in the laboratory using embedded steel bars of different corrosion states. Afterward, one surface of the specimens was heated using an electric device while thermal images were captured at predefined time instants on the opposite surface with an IR camera. The test results showed a clear difference between the thermal characteristics of the corroded and the non-corroded samples, which demonstrates the potential of using thermography in corrosion detection in RC structures.

  4. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, Jenne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depletingrental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  5. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, Jenne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Ruch, Russell [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depleting rental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  6. 75 FR 78730 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Notice of FHA PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Administration (FHA): Notice of FHA PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program: Extension of Period... proposal to conduct an FHA Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program (Retrofit Pilot Program or Pilot Program... Efficient Mortgage Innovation pilot program targeted to the single family housing market, and the Retrofit...

  7. Public participation in energy saving retrofitting of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenling; Zhang, Jinyun; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Wang, Can

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare public participation in three early cases of residential retrofitting in Beijing. • Residents’ involvement in pre-retrofit activities as well as in the choice and use of technologies varied. • More involvement of residents during retrofitting improves energy saving performance. • Taking into account motives and energy use practices of residents improves energy saving through retrofitting. - Abstract: Retrofitting existing residential buildings has been claimed as one crucial way to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions within the Chinese residential sector. In China’s government-dominated retrofitting projects, the participation of residents is often neglected. The objective of this paper is to assess the influence level of public participation (before, during and after retrofit) on energy saving by comparing three Beijing neighborhoods with different retrofitting models: a central government-led model, a local government-led model, and an old neighborhood retrofit model. In the three cases data were collected through interviews with neighborhood workers and residents. The results show that residents’ involvement in pre-retrofit activities, in technology selection and in the use of technology differs greatly among the three cases. This study concludes that in order to improve the effectiveness of energy saving interventions, the motives, intentions and living habits of residents need to be given more consideration when designing and implementing retrofitting. By highlighting the importance of public participation this paper contributes to energy saving policy development in China

  8. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  9. A structured approach to heat exchanger network retrofit design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reisen, J.L.B.

    2008-01-01

    Process plants have high energy consumption. Much energy can be saved by a proper design of the heat exchanger network, which contains the main heat transferring equipment of the plant. Existing plants can often be made more energy-efficient by a retrofit: the (physical) modification of the

  10. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Conlin, F. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Podorson, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, K. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Davis, T. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-23

    The Building America research team Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES) worked with four public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy-efficiency retrofit measures that the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staffs during the normal course of housing operations when units are refurbished between occupancies.

  11. A Wireless Platform for Energy Efficient Building Control Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    operate /tune the proposed controller and maintain WSN after reasonable training Feedback from CERL facility staff/ managemen t on ease of operation and...26 4.2 FACILITY/SITE LOCATION AND OPERATIONS ...HVAC RETROFITS ...................................................................................................... 36 5.4 OPERATIONAL TESTING

  12. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes was modeled. The homes were in two communities—one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  13. Seismic retrofit system for single leaf masonry buildings in Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkmen, Ö.S.; Vermeltfoort, A.T.; Martens, D.R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent seismic activity in the Netherlands, the demand of adequate strengthening and retrofitting techniques increased, especially for single leaf masonry. Two Dutch companies founded in the re-gion have initiated an experimental program to study the applicability of existing stand-alone

  14. Infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit: a design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, W K

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater management is continually evolving with the development and implementation of new, more efficient technologies. One of these is the Membrane Bioreactor (MBR). Although a relatively new technology in Australia, MBR wastewater treatment has been widely used elsewhere for over 20 years, with thousands of MBRs now in operation worldwide. Over the past 5 years, MBR technology has been enthusiastically embraced in Australia as a potential treatment upgrade option, and via retrofit typically offers two major benefits: (1) more capacity using mostly existing facilities, and (2) very high quality treated effluent. However, infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit is not a simple or low-cost solution and there are many factors which should be carefully evaluated before deciding on this method of plant upgrade. The paper reviews a range of design parameters which should be carefully evaluated when considering an MBR retrofit solution. Several actual and conceptual case studies are considered to demonstrate both advantages and disadvantages. Whilst optimising existing facilities and production of high quality water for reuse are powerful drivers, it is suggested that MBRs are perhaps not always the most sustainable Whole-of-Life solution for a wastewater treatment plant upgrade, especially by way of a retrofit.

  15. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  16. Stream Responses to a Watershed-Scale Stormwater Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure can reduce stormwater runoff and mitigate many of the problems associated with impervious surfaces; however, the effectiveness of retrofit stormwater management for improving aquatic health is largely untested. In the suburban, 1.8 km2 Shepherd Creek catchmen...

  17. Quality labels for retrofit cavity wall insulation : a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, Twan Johannes Hendrikus; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Retrofit cavity wall insulation can be exerted to reduce the energy use for space heating and cooling of existing buildings. In multiple countries, quality labels have emerged for this insulation service. In this research project, an evaluation framework for cavity wall insulation is developed by

  18. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  19. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Dianne [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  20. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  1. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  2. Optimal Retrofit Scheme for Highway Network under Seismic Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxi Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many older highway bridges in the United States (US are inadequate for seismic loads and could be severely damaged or collapsed in a relatively small earthquake. According to the most recent American Society of Civil Engineers’ infrastructure report card, one-third of the bridges in the US are rated as structurally deficient and many of these structurally deficient bridges are located in seismic zones. To improve this situation, at-risk bridges must be identified and evaluated and effective retrofitting programs should be in place to reduce their seismic vulnerabilities. In this study, a new retrofit strategy decision scheme for highway bridges under seismic hazards is developed and seamlessly integrate the scenario-based seismic analysis of bridges and the traffic network into the proposed optimization modeling framework. A full spectrum of bridge retrofit strategies is considered based on explicit structural assessment for each seismic damage state. As an empirical case study, the proposed retrofit strategy decision scheme is utilized to evaluate the bridge network in one of the active seismic zones in the US, Charleston, South Carolina. The developed modeling framework, on average, will help increase network throughput traffic capacity by 45% with a cost increase of only $15million for the Mw 5.5 event and increase the capacity fourfold with a cost of only $32m for the Mw 7.0 event.

  3. Dowel Bar Retrofit Mix Design and Specification : Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Current INDOT specifications for repair materials to be used in dowel bar retrofit (DBR) applications (Sections 507.08 and 901.07 of INDOTs Book of Specifications) are based, in large part, on the requirements of ASTM C 928 and the manufacturer-pr...

  4. The application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting the existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairi, Muhammad; Jaapar, Aini; Yahya, Zaharah

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable development has been the main topic of debate for years in some countries such as United Kingdom, United State of America and Malaysia. Depletion of natural resources, global warming, economics uncertainty and health issues are some of the reasons behind sustainable development movements, it is not just a political debate in the parliament but more towards collective works among sectors in order to minimizing the negative impact of development to the environment and other living organism. Retrofit an existing building is one of the solutions to reduce the dependency on constructing new buildings. There are huge numbers of existing building stocks that suitable to be retrofitted such as historical buildings, offices, residential, warehouse, factories, vacant buildings and other historical buildings. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide information on the application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting an existing building. Two buildings were chosen as case studies following by site visits and observation to the buildings. The data were then compared in a table form. Primary and secondary sources were also used for this research. The application of retrofit should be promoted across the construction and conservation industries since it has significant tangible and intangible benefits. It is one of the most environmentally friendly and efficient solutions to optimize the energy performance and could also helps to extend the life of the existing building or historical buildings while ensuring optimum thermal comfort for the occupants which leads to higher productivity.

  5. Modelling the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out with the primary objective of ascertaining whether it is possible to develop a model for determining the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing dams in South Africa. The need for such a model is primarily due to the growing importance of small-scale hydropower projects resulting from ...

  6. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  7. The Efficiency of Basalt Fibres in Strengthening the Reinforced Concrete Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Şerbescu, Andreea; Kypros, Pilakoutas; Ţăranu, N.

    2006-01-01

    The technique of externally bonding fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite laminates on the tension side of reinforced concrete (RC) beams is already widely accepted as an easy to apply, corrosion resistant and effective solution due to the high strength as well as the low weight of the composite material. The basalt fibres are produced from volcano rocks by a simple process; their applicability as reinforcing material composites utilized for plate bonding of RC beams was not enough researc...

  8. Multi-criteria decision model for retrofitting existing buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision is an element in the risk management process. In this paper the way how science can help in decision making and implementation for retrofitting buildings in earthquake prone urban areas is investigated. In such interventions actors from various spheres are involved. Their interests range among minimising the intervention for maximal preservation or increasing it for seismic safety. Research was conducted to see how to facilitate collaboration between these actors. A particular attention was given to the role of time in actors' preferences. For this reason, on decision level, both the processural and the personal dimension of risk management, the later seen as a task, were considered. A systematic approach was employed to determine the functional structure of a participative decision model. Three layers on which actors implied in this multi-criteria decision problem interact were identified: town, building and element. So-called 'retrofit elements' are characteristic bearers in the architectural survey, engineering simulations, costs estimation and define the realms perceived by the inhabitants. This way they represent an interaction basis for the interest groups considered in a deeper study. Such orientation means for actors' interaction were designed on other levels of intervention as well. Finally, an 'experiment' for the implementation of the decision model is presented: a strategic plan for an urban intervention towards reduction of earthquake hazard impact through retrofitting. A systematic approach proves thus to be a very good communication basis among the participants in the seismic risk management process. Nevertheless, it can only be applied in later phases (decision, implementation, control only, since it serves verifying and improving solution and not developing the concept. The 'retrofit elements' are a typical example of the detailing degree reached in the retrofit design plans in these phases.

  9. Multi-criteria decision model for retrofitting existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M. D.

    2004-08-01

    Decision is an element in the risk management process. In this paper the way how science can help in decision making and implementation for retrofitting buildings in earthquake prone urban areas is investigated. In such interventions actors from various spheres are involved. Their interests range among minimising the intervention for maximal preservation or increasing it for seismic safety. Research was conducted to see how to facilitate collaboration between these actors. A particular attention was given to the role of time in actors' preferences. For this reason, on decision level, both the processural and the personal dimension of risk management, the later seen as a task, were considered. A systematic approach was employed to determine the functional structure of a participative decision model. Three layers on which actors implied in this multi-criteria decision problem interact were identified: town, building and element. So-called 'retrofit elements' are characteristic bearers in the architectural survey, engineering simulations, costs estimation and define the realms perceived by the inhabitants. This way they represent an interaction basis for the interest groups considered in a deeper study. Such orientation means for actors' interaction were designed on other levels of intervention as well. Finally, an 'experiment' for the implementation of the decision model is presented: a strategic plan for an urban intervention towards reduction of earthquake hazard impact through retrofitting. A systematic approach proves thus to be a very good communication basis among the participants in the seismic risk management process. Nevertheless, it can only be applied in later phases (decision, implementation, control) only, since it serves verifying and improving solution and not developing the concept. The 'retrofit elements' are a typical example of the detailing degree reached in the retrofit design plans in these phases.

  10. Evaluation of NOx emissions of a retrofitted Euro 5 passenger car for the Horizon prize "Engine retrofit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giechaskiel, Barouch; Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Lähde, Tero; Clairotte, Michael; Carriero, Massimo; Bonnel, Pierre; Maggiore, Maurizio

    2018-06-13

    The Horizon 2020 prize for the "Engine Retrofit for Clean Air" aims at reducing the pollution in cities by spurring the development of retrofit technology for diesel engines. A Euro 5 passenger car was retrofitted with an under-floor SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) for NO x catalyst in combination with a solid ammonia based dosing system as the NO x reductant. The vehicle was tested both on the road and on the chassis dynamometer under various test cycles and ambient temperatures. The NO x emissions were reduced by 350-1100 mg/km (60-85%) in the laboratory depending on the test cycle and engine conditions (cold or hot start), except at type approval conditions. The reduction for cold start urban cycles was < 75 mg/km (< 15%). The on road and laboratory tests were inline. In some high speed conditions significant increase of ammonia (NH 3 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) were measured. No effect was seen on other pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particles). The results of the present study show that retrofitting high emitting vehicles can significantly reduce vehicle NO x emissions and ultimately pollution in cities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The gammaTuRC Nanomachine Mechanism and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehlman, Timothy D.

    The complexity and precision of the eukaryotic cell's cytoskeletal network is unrivaled by any man-made systems, perfected by billions of years of evolution, mastering elegant processes of self-assembly, error correction, and self-repair. Understanding the capabilities of these networks will have important and far reaching applications in human medicine by aiding our understanding of developmental processes, cellular division, and disease mechanisms, and through biomimicry will provide insights for biosynthetic manufacturing at the nanoscale and across scales. My research utilizes cross species techniques from Human to the model organism of Fission Yeast to investigate the structure and mechanisms of the g-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC). The gTuRC is a highly conserved eukaryotic multiprotein complex serving as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) responsible for microtubule nucleation through templating, regulation of dynamics, and establishment of microtubule polarity. Microtubules are 25 nm diameter dynamic flexible polymers of a/b-tubulin heterodimers that function as scaffolds, force generators, distributors, and intracellular highways. The microtubule cytoskeleton is essential for numerous fundamental cellular processes such as mitotic division of chromosomes and cell division, organelle distribution within the cell, cell signaling, and cell shape. This incredible diversity in functions is made possible in part due to molecular motor Kinesin-like proteins (Klps), which allow expansion into more specialized neural, immune, and ciliated cell functions. Combined, the MTOC, microtubules, and Klps represent ideal microtubule cytoskeleton protein (MCP) modular components for in vitro biomimicry towards generation of adaptable patterned networks for human designed applications. My research investigates the hypothesis that a mechanistic understanding of conserved MTOC gTuRC mechanisms will help us understand dynamic cellular nanomachines and their ability to self

  12. Some security results of the RC4+ stream cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Jha, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    to any even 8-bit constant other than 0xAA. Therefore, the question that naturally arises is whether the design of RC4+ can be protected by fixing the pad parameter to some constant odd value. In this paper, we try to answer this very question. We show that the design is still vulnerable by mounting...... in terms of number of faults required and the computational complexity. In fact, we reduce the number of faults by around 11264 on average, and our algorithm is around 26 times faster....

  13. Ultimate capacity and influenced factors analysis of nuclear RC containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenning; Hou Gangling; Zhou Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Ultimate compressive bearing capacity, influenced factors and its rules of nuclear RC containment are key problems of safety assessment, accident treatment and structure design, etc. Ultimate compressive bearing capacity of nuclear RC containment is shown by concrete damaged plasticity model and steel double liner model of ABAQUS. The study shows that the concrete of nuclear RC containment cylinder wall becomes plastic when the internal pressure is up to 0.87 MPa, the maximum tensile strain of steel liner exceeds 3000 × 10 6 and nuclear RC containment reaches ultimate status when the internal pressure is up to 1.02 MPa. The result shows that nuclear RC containment is in elastic condition under the design internal pressure and the bearing capacity meets requirement. Prestress and steel liner play key parts in the ultimate internal pressure and failure mode of nuclear RC containment. The study results have value for the analysis of ultimate compressive bearing capacity, structure design and safety assessment. (authors)

  14. Seismic performance of masonry-infilled RC frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Bârnaure

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The masonry infill of RC frames structures is generally considered as non-structural. The design of the concrete frames is often made by ignoring the influence of the masonry infill, which is only accounted for its mass. The experience on buildings submitted to earthquakes shows that masonry infill walls completely change the behaviour of bare frames due to increased initial stiffness and low deformability. The way in which masonry infills affect the RC frames members is difficult to predict, as different failure modes can occur either in the masonry or in the surrounding frame. In addition to local effects, the position of the masonry infills at different levels can lead to structural irregularity, with a strong influence on the global seismic response of the building. Less infilled stories, also called soft stories, have a particularly unfavourable behaviour under seismic loads, as frame members at these levels are more susceptible to failure. This paper analyses the differences in the behaviour of bare and infilled frames through numerical modelling. Nonlinear push-over analyses of infilled frames are carried out under in-plane vertical and lateral loading. The infill panels are modelled as equivalent single diagonal struts. Several force-displacements laws are considered for these diagonals.

  15. Strengthening of RC bridge slabs using CFRP sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy A. Fathelbab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many old structures became structurally insufficient to carry the new loading conditions requirements. Moreover, they suffer from structural degradation, reinforcement steel bars corrosion, bad weather conditions…etc. Many official authorities in several countries had recognized many old bridges and buildings as structurally deficient by today’s standards. Due to these reasons, structural strengthening became an essential requirement and different strengthening techniques appeared in market. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP strengthening techniques established a good position among all other techniques, giving excellent structural results, low time required and moderate cost compared with the other techniques. The main purpose of this research is to study analytically the strengthening of a reinforced concrete bridge slabs due to excessive loads, using externally bonded FRP sheets technique. A commercial finite element program ANSYS was used to perform a structural linear and non-linear analysis for strengthened slab models using several schemes of FRP sheets. A parametric study was performed to evaluate analytically the effect of changing both FRP stiffness and FRP schemes in strengthening RC slabs. Comparing the results with control slab (reinforced concrete slab without strengthening it is obvious that attaching FRP sheets to the RC slab increases its capacity and enhances the ductility/toughness.

  16. Multi-level nonlinear modeling verification scheme of RC high-rise wall buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Alwaeli, W.; Mwafy, A.; Pilakoutas, K.; Guadagnini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete (RC) high-rise wall buildings are designed and detailed to respond well beyond the elastic range under the expected earthquake ground motions. However, despite their considerable section depth, in terms of analysis, RC walls are still often treated as linear elements, ignoring the effect of deformation compatibility. Due to the limited number of available comprehensive experimental studies on RC structural wall systems subjected to cycling loading, few...

  17. Evolution of the CANDU control centre retrofit and new stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, R.A.; Mitchell, W.

    1991-01-01

    Significant event data from operating nuclear plants in many countries consistently indicates human errors are the root cause for 40-60% of operating station significant events. Because so much information is already in digital form, opportunities exist to improve the CANDU control centre with retrofits that exploit this information. These opportunities are enhanced because of rapid technological development in computers and electronics, coupled with significant progress in the behavioural sciences that greatly increases our knowledge of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of human beings. CANDU control rooms are undergoing retrofits and for future CANDU stations, a new concept of the control centre is emerging. The objective is to significantly reduce the incidence of human error, reduce operations and maintenance costs and improve both reliability and safety

  18. Evolution of the CANDU control centre retrofit and new stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmstead, R A [AECL-CANDU, ON (Canada); Mitchell, W [Ontario Hydro, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bowmanville, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    Significant event data from operating nuclear plants in many countries consistently indicates human errors are the root cause for 40-60% of operating station significant events. Because so much information is already in digital form, opportunities exist to improve the CANDU control centre with retrofits that exploit this information. These opportunities are enhanced because of rapid technological development in computers and electronics, coupled with significant progress in the behavioural sciences that greatly increases our knowledge of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of human beings. CANDU control rooms are undergoing retrofits and for future CANDU stations, a new concept of the control centre is emerging. The objective is to significantly reduce the incidence of human error, reduce operations and maintenance costs and improve both reliability and safety.

  19. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  20. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  1. Solution Améliorée Pour La Détermination Des Contraintes d’interfaces d’une Poutre En Béton Armé Renforcée Avec Une Plaque En Composite. Improved closed-form solution to interfacial stresses in RC beams strengthened with FRP strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tounsi A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Le renforcement des structures en béton armé en utilisant les matériaux composites est devenu une technique très répandue dans le domaine de la réparation et de la réhabilitation des ouvrages existants. Cependant, le décollement des plaques de renforcement par rapport à la structure renforcée empêche de profiter pleinement de cette technique. L’analyse des contraintes d’interface joue un rôle prépondérant dans la compréhension du phénomène de décollement. Dans ce travail, il est question d’étudier une poutre en flexion, simplement appuyée et renforcée par une plaque en composite en développant une nouvelle approche théorique basée sur la prise en compte de l’effet du cisaillement. En effet une distribution parabolique des contraintes de cisaillement le long des épaisseurs des adhérents est considérée. Contrairement à d’autres travaux qui reposent sur l’hypothèse d’une même courbure pour les adhérents ce travail propose une nouvelle approche considérant la moyenne des courbures au niveau de l’adhésif. Une modélisation par éléments finis est réalisée dans le but de la comparer avec le modèle analytique proposé. Les résultats de cette étude semblent concorder avec ceux de la littérature et apporte ainsi une nouvelle contribution dans le calcul des structures hybrides. The strengthening of concrete structures in situ with externally bonded fiberreinforced plastic (FRP composite sheets is increasingly being used for the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. However, debonding along the FRP-concrete interface can lead to premature failure of the structures. The interfacial stresses have played a significant role in understanding this premature debonding failure of such repaired structures. In this paper, an improved theoretical analysis of the interfacial stresses is presented for a simply supported concrete beam bonded with a FRP plate. The shear strains of the adherends have

  2. Campus Retrofitting (CARE) Methodology: A Way to Co-Create Future Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nenonen, Suvi; Eriksson, Robert; Niemi, Olli

    2016-01-01

    (CARE)- methodology for user-centric and co- creative campus retrofitting processes. The campus development research in Nordic countries and co-creation in retrofitting processes are discussed. The campus retrofitting cases in different countries are described by emphasising especially the methods...... of resources in form of both teachers and university facilities is challenged by development of integration of learning, teaching and the spaces where it takes place. The challenges are shared among users and owners of campus, where retrofitting is needed too. This paper aims to describe Campus Retrofitting...... they used. Based on the analysis of the methods the framework for Campus retrofitting (CARE) - methodology is presented and discussed. CARE-methodology is a tool to capture new logic to learning environment design. It has three key activities: co-creating, co-financing and co-evaluating. The integrated...

  3. An enhanced chaotic key-based RC5 block cipher adapted to image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragallah, Osama S.

    2012-07-01

    RC5 is a block cipher that has several salient features such as adaptability to process different word lengths with a variable block size, a variable number of rounds and a variable-length secret key. However, RC5 can be broken with various attacks such as correlation attack, timing attack, known plaintext correlation attack and differential attacks, revealing weak security. We aimed to enhance the RC5 block cipher to be more secure and efficient for real-time applications while preserving its advantages. For this purpose, this article introduces a new approach based on strengthening both the confusion and diffusion operations by combining chaos and cryptographic primitive operations to produce round keys with better pseudo-random sequences. Comparative security analysis and performance evaluation of the enhanced RC5 block cipher (ERC5) with RC5, RC6 and chaotic block cipher algorithm (CBCA) are addressed. Several test images are used for inspecting the validity of the encryption and decryption algorithms. The experimental results show the superiority of the suggested enhanced RC5 (ERC5) block cipher to image encryption algorithms such as RC5, RC6 and CBCA from the security analysis and performance evaluation points of view.

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ONAD-2D3RC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1ONAD-2D3RC 1ONA 2D3R D C ADTIVAVELDTYPNTDIGDPSYPHIGIDIKSVRSKKTAK...WNMQNGKVGTAHIIYNSVDKRLSAVVSYPNADSATVSYDVDLDNVLPEWVRVGLSASTGLYKETNTILSWSFTSKLKT------NALHFMFNQFSKDQKDLILQGDAT... 1ONA D 1ONAD TRVSSN

  5. Commissioning of the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Imm, C. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Commissioning of instrumentation and limited short-term testing have been completed on a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. This house is intended to be used as a laboratory in which several different methods of space conditioning distribution will be evaluated. This report provides background on the project, including specifications of the house and models used in its development, along with models to be evaluated through its operation.

  6. CCS Retrofit: Analysis of the Global Installed Power Plant Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity generation from coal is still growing rapidly and energy scenarios from the IEA expect a possible increase from today’s 1 600 GW of coal-fired power plants to over 2 600 GW until 2035. This trend will increase the lock-in of carbon intensive electricity sources, while IEA assessments show that two-thirds of total abatement from all sectors should come from the power sector alone to support a least-cost abatement strategy. Since coal-fired power plants have a fairly long lifetime, and in order to meet climate constraints, there is a need either to apply CCS retrofit to some of today’s installed coal-fired power plants once the technology becomes available. Another option would be to retire some plants before the end of their lifetime. This working paper discusses criteria relevant to differentiating between the technical, cost-effective and realistic potential for CCS retrofit. The paper then discusses today’s coal-fired power plant fleet from a statistical perspective, by looking at age, size and the expected performance of today’s plant across several countries. The working paper also highlights the growing demand for applying CCS retrofitting to the coal-fired power plant fleet of the future. In doing so this paper aims at emphasising the need for policy makers, innovators and power plant operators to quickly complete the development of the CCS technology and to identify key countries where retrofit applications will have the biggest extent and impact.

  7. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.; Beach, R.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes' was modeled. The homes were in two communities -- one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  8. Novel retrofit technologies incorporating silica aerogel for lower energy buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Dowson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Engineering and was awarded by Brunel University. The aim of this Engineering Doctorate is to design, build and test novel environmental retrofit technologies to reduce energy consumption in existing buildings. Three contributions to knowledge are documented. The first contribution is the technical verification of a novel proof-of-principle prototype incorporating translucent silica aerogel granules to improve the thermal performance of...

  9. Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, J.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.; Martin, E.

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  10. The Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, J. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Saunders, S. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Bordelon, E. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Baden, S. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Elam, L. [Building American Partnership for Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

  11. Retrofitted gravity mediation without the gravitino-overproduction problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Takahashi, F.; Yanagida, T.T.; Tokyo Univ.

    2007-02-01

    We propose a retrofitted gravity mediation model which alleviates the gravitino overproduction from decays of an inflaton and a supersymmetry breaking field. In the model, we introduce an approximate U(1) symmetry under which the supersymmetry breaking field is charged, although it is broken by a mass term of messenger fields to generate gaugino masses of order the weak scale. In a low-scale inflation model, we find regions in which the gravitino overproduction problem is avoided. (orig.)

  12. Life cycle assessment: Existing building retrofit versus replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Nura

    The embodied energy in building materials constitutes a large part of the total energy required for any building (Thormark 2001, 429). In working to make buildings more energy efficient this needs to be considered. Integrating considerations about life cycle assessment for buildings and materials is one promising way to reduce the amount of energy consumption being used within the building sector and the environmental impacts associated with that energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) model can be utilized to help evaluate the embodied energy in building materials in comparison to the buildings operational energy. This thesis takes into consideration the potential life cycle reductions in energy and CO2 emissions that can be made through an energy retrofit of an existing building verses demolition and replacement with a new energy efficient building. A 95,000 square foot institutional building built in the 1960`s was used as a case study for a building LCA, along with a calibrated energy model of the existing building created as part of a previous Masters of Building Science thesis. The chosen case study building was compared to 10 possible improvement options of either energy retrofit or replacement of the existing building with a higher energy performing building in order to see the life cycle relationship between embodied energy, operational energy, and C02 emissions. As a result of completing the LCA, it is shown under which scenarios building retrofit saves more energy over the lifespan of the building than replacement with new construction. It was calculated that energy retrofit of the chosen existing institutional building would reduce the amount of energy and C02 emissions associated with that building over its life span.

  13. A tri-generation retrofit towards green hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, Birol I.; Erol, Ozgur; Can Bayram, Doga [Baskent University (Turkey)], email: bkilkis@baskent.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    According to US Department of Energy statistics, hospitals consume large amounts of energy. Most of this energy involves electricity from steam and goes to providing high quality, reliable services. Energy from steam is an aging technology with low exergy efficiency. It needs to be replaced if the hospitals are to become 'green'. Retrofitting has to be done with various issues of hygiene in mind, both during and after the retrofit. This makes it a difficult task. This paper discusses a provisional technique that maintains the steam heating system while the human and infrastructure environments are adjusted to the retrofit without interfering with the hospital interior. This technique was evolved on the basis of a case study of energy and exergy-efficient thermo-mechanical systems. Results show that steam heating is an outdated system, which is harmful to the environment in terms of CO2 emissions and the energy and exergy points of view. Savings of more than 50% of the fuel presently used in hospitals could be saved with more rational utilization of energy.

  14. The evaluation of retrofit measures in a tall residential building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    As part of a joint demonstration effort involving the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Boston Edison Company (BECo), and the Chelsea Housing Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in the evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits for a tall residential building located in Boston. The thirteen story all-electric building underwent window, lighting, and control renovations in December, 1992. annual energy consumption was reduced by 15% and peak demand fell by 17%. Hourly should building consumption data were available for the comparison of pre- and post- conditions and for calibration of a DOE-2.1D simulation model. The analysis found the window retrofit accounted for 90% of total energy savings and 95% of average demand savings, due to reductions in both conduction and infiltration. Benefits from lighting retrofits were low in cooling months and negligible in winter months due to the increase in the demand for electric resistance heating which was proportional to the reduction in lighting capacity. Finally, the simulation model verified that heating system controls had not been used as intended, and that the utility rate structure would not allow cost savings from the original control strategy. These results and other interesting lessons learned are presented.

  15. Sourcing of Steam and Electricity for Carbon Capture Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2017-11-07

    This paper compares different steam and electricity sources for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) retrofits of pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. Analytical expressions for the thermal efficiency of these power plants are derived under 16 different CCS retrofit scenarios for the purpose of illustrating their environmental and economic characteristics. The scenarios emerge from combinations of steam and electricity sources, fuel used in each source, steam generation equipment and process details, and the extent of CO 2 capture. Comparing these scenarios reveals distinct trade-offs between thermal efficiency, net power output, levelized cost, profit, and net CO 2 reduction. Despite causing the highest loss in useful power output, bleeding steam and extracting electric power from the main power plant to meet the CCS plant's electricity and steam demand maximizes plant efficiency and profit while minimizing emissions and levelized cost when wholesale electricity prices are below 4.5 and 5.2 US¢/kWh for PC-CCS and NGCC-CCS plants, respectively. At prices higher than these higher profits for operating CCS retrofits can be obtained by meeting 100% of the CCS plant's electric power demand using an auxiliary natural gas turbine-based combined heat and power plant.

  16. Thermo economical evaluation of retrofitting strategies in air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribess, Arlindo; Fiorelli, Flavio Augusto Sanzogo; Hernandez Neto, Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: atribess@usp.br; fiorelli@usp.br; ahneto@usp.br

    2000-07-01

    In a building project, several subsystems are designed, among them the air conditioning system. Electrical energy consumption profiles show that this subsystem is responsible for 40 to 50% of total consumption in a commercial building. Besides the study of technical aspects that should be considered in order to assure the thermal comfort of the occupants as well the temperature and humidity conditions for an efficient equipment operation, an economical evaluation of this subsystem should be also made. In retrofit projects, the economical aspect is also critical for such projects in order to assure bigger efficiency in an economically attractive way. This paper analyses some strategies that might be adopted in retrofitting an air conditioning system installed in a commercial building with mixed occupation. By mixed we mean that some floors have a typical office occupation profile and other floors are mainly occupied by electronic equipment. This analysis includes both technical and economical evaluation. The proposed solutions performance are compared to the old system, which allows to verify the retrofitting impact in energy consumption reduction and its economical feasibility. (author)

  17. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home's asset performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Home rating systems can help motivate homeowners in several ways. Ratings can clearly communicate a home's achievable energy efficiency potential, provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, and show homeowners how they rate compared to their neighbors, thus creating an incentive to conform to a social standard. An important consideration is how rating tools for the retrofit market will integrate with existing home energy service programs. For residential programs that target energy savings only, home visits should be focused on key efficiency measures for that home. In order to gain wide adoption, a rating tool must be easily integrated into the field process, demonstrate consistency and reasonable accuracy to earn the trust of home energy technicians, and have a low monetary cost and time hurdle for homeowners. Along with the Home Energy Score, this project also evaluated the energy modeling performance of SIMPLE and REM/Rate.

  18. Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we will present the results of monitored annual energy use data from eight residential Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) case studies using a variety of performance metrics. For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use energy consumption for approximately one year. Annual performance in site and source energy, as well as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were determined on a per house, per person and per square foot basis to examine the sensitivity to these different metrics. All eight DERs showed consistent success in achieving substantial site energy and CO2e reductions, but some projects achieved very little, if any source energy reduction. This problem emerged in those homes that switched from natural gas to electricity for heating and hot water, resulting in energy consumption dominated by electricity use. This demonstrates the crucial importance of selecting an appropriate metric to be used in guiding retrofit decisions. Also, due to the dynamic nature of DERs, with changes in occupancy, size, layout, and comfort, several performance metrics might be necessary to understand a project’s success.

  19. High-Efficiency Retrofit Lessons for Retail from a SuperTarget: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, R.; Deru, M.; Hirsch, A.; Williams, S.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Target under the Commercial Building Program to design and implement a retrofit of a SuperTarget in Thornton, CO. The result was a retrofit design that predicted 37% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 29% compared to existing (pre-retrofit) store consumption. The largest savings came from energy efficient lighting, energy efficient cooling systems, improved refrigeration, and better control of plug loads.

  20. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  1. An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Hulvey, Kimberly D [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

  2. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  3. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  4. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  5. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Porse, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story Tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  6. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; German, A.; Porse, E.

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  7. Design of the RTO/RC ITER primary pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, P.; Ibbott, C; Janeschitz, G.; Martin, E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary pumping system is needed not only to exhaust helium ash resulting from the DT reaction but also excess fuelling gas injected during the fusion burn, which can extend for 100's to 1000's of seconds, and to perform a variety of other functions. The prevailing environmental conditions, principally nuclear radiation, tritium exposure, magnetic fields, and the need for containment, have a significant impact on the design and selection of equipment. This paper presents the design of the Reduced Technical Objectives/Reduced Cost (RTO/RC) ITER primary pumping system with particular emphasis on the nuclear aspects of the design. Component selection and equipment layout issues to meet established requirements for the system are reviewed together with the R and D that is being undertaken to support the design. In addition, serviceability and maintainability issues related to this system are also discussed

  8. Status of blanket design for RTO/RC ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Ioki, K.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Miki, N.

    2000-01-01

    Design has progressed on the FW/blanket for the RTO/RC (reduced technical objective/ reduced cost) ITER. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design. However, design and fabrication methods of the FW/blanket have been improved to achieve ∝ 50% reduction of the construction cost compared to that for the 1998 ITER design. Detailed blanket module designs with flat separable FW panels have been developed to reduce the fabrication cost and the future radioactive waste. Most of the R and D performed so far during the EDA (engineering design activity) is still applicable. Further cost reduction methods are also being investigated and additional R and D is being performed. (orig.)

  9. Present and future activities of TRIGA RC-1 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festinesi, A.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of reactor activities is presented and discussed. The RC-1 reactor is used by ENEA's laboratories, research institutes and national industries for different aims: research, analysis materials behaviour under neutron flux, etc. To satisfy the requests increase it is important to signalize: - the realization of a new radiochemical laboratory for radioisotopes production, to be used in a medical and/or diagnostic field in general; - the realization of a tritium handling laboratory, to study tritium solubility, release and diffusion in different material (particularly in ceramic breeder as lithium aluminate) to support Italian programs on fusion technology; - a research activity on the reactors computerized control by a console of advanced conception. The aim of this activity is the development of an ergonomic control room that could be a reference point for the planning of the power reactor control rooms

  10. SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION EFFECTS ON MULTISTOREY R/C STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muberra ESER AYDEMIR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the behavior of multistorey structures considering soil structure interaction under earthquake excitation. For this purpose, sample 3, 6, 9 storey RC frames are designed based on Turkish Seismic Design Code and analyzed in time domain with incremental dynamic analysis. Strength reduction factors are investigated for generated sample plane frames for 64 different earthquake motions recorded on different site conditions such as rock, stiff soil, soft soil and very soft soil. According to the analysis result, strength reduction factors of sample buildings considering soil structure interaction are found to be almost always smaller than design strength reduction factors given in current seismic design codes, which cause an unsafe design and nonconservative design forces.

  11. Design Optimization of Hybrid FRP/RC Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Vasileios S.; Tamijani, Ali Y.; Brown, Jeff; Kim, Daewon

    2018-04-01

    The hybrid bridge consists of a Reinforced Concrete (RC) slab supported by U-shaped Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) girders. Previous studies on similar hybrid bridges constructed in the United States and Europe seem to substantiate these hybrid designs for lightweight, high strength, and durable highway bridge construction. In the current study, computational and optimization analyses were carried out to investigate six composite material systems consisting of E-glass and carbon fibers. Optimization constraints are determined by stress, deflection and manufacturing requirements. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and optimization software were utilized, and a framework was developed to run the complete analyses in an automated fashion. Prior to that, FEA validation of previous studies on similar U-shaped FRP girders that were constructed in Poland and Texas is presented. A finer optimization analysis is performed for the case of the Texas hybrid bridge. The optimization outcome of the hybrid FRP/RC bridge shows the appropriate composite material selection and cross-section geometry that satisfies all the applicable Limit States (LS) and, at the same time, results in the lightest design. Critical limit states show that shear stress criteria determine the optimum design for bridge spans less than 15.24 m and deflection criteria controls for longer spans. Increased side wall thickness can reduce maximum observed shear stresses, but leads to a high weight penalty. A taller cross-section and a thicker girder base can efficiently lower the observed deflections and normal stresses. Finally, substantial weight savings can be achieved by the optimization framework if base and side-wall thickness are treated as independent variables.

  12. Retrofitting Of RCC Piles By Using Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer BFRP Composite Part 1 Review Papers On RCC Structures And Piles Retrofitting Works.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ananda Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retrofitting works are immensely essential for deteriorated and damaged structures in Engineering and Medical fields in order to keep or return to the originality for safe guarding the structures and consumers. In this paper different types of methods of retrofitting review notes are given based on the experimental numerical and analytical methods results on strengthening the Reinforced cement concrete RCC structures including RCC piles. Soil-pile interaction on axial load lateral load reviews are also presented. This review paper is prepared to find out the performance of basalt fibre reinforced polymer BFRP composite retrofitted reinforced cement concrete single end bearing piles.

  13. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms In this article ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. Mitrajyoti Ghosh. 83, Mitrapara 2nd Lane, Harinavi,. Kolkata 700148, West Bengal,. India. Email: mijospeakingnow@gmail.com. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. In this article we shall mathematically analyse the Resistor-. Capacitor (RC) circuit with the help of Fourier transforms. (FT).

  14. Low-E Retrofit Demonstration and Educational Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Thomas D [Birch Point Consulting LLC; Wiehagen, Joseph [Home Innovation Research Labs, Inc.; Drumheller, S Craig [Home Innovation Research Labs, Inc.; Siegel, John [Quanta Technologies Inc.; Stratmoen, Todd [Larson Manufacturing

    2013-11-16

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the capability of low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows / panels and low-E retrofit glazing systems to significantly and cost effectively improve the energy efficiency of both existing residential and commercial buildings. The key outcomes are listed below: RESIDENTIAL CASE STUDIES: (a) A residential case study in two large multifamily apartment buildings in Philadelphia showed a substantial 18-22% reduction in heating energy use and a 9% reduction in cooling energy use by replacing old clear glass storm windows with modern low-E storm windows. Furthermore, the new low-E storm windows reduced the overall apartment air leakage by an average of 10%. (b) Air leakage testing on interior low-E panels installed in a New York City multifamily building over windows with and without AC units showed that the effective leakage area of the windows was reduced by 77-95%. (c) To study the use of low-E storm windows in a warmer mixed climate with a balance of both heating and cooling, 10 older homes near Atlanta with single pane windows were tested with three types of exterior storm windows: clear glass, low-E glass with high solar heat gain, and low-E glass with lower solar heat gain. The storm windows significantly reduced the overall home air leakage by an average of 17%, or 3.7 ACH50. Considerably high variability in the data made it difficult to draw strong conclusions about the overall energy usage, but for heating periods, the low-E storm windows showed approximately 15% heating energy savings, whereas clear storm windows were neutral in performance. For cooling periods, the low-E storm windows showed a wide range of performance from 2% to over 30% cooling energy savings. Overall, the study showed the potential for significantly more energy savings from using low-E glass versus no storm window or clear glass storm windows in warmer mixed climates, but it is difficult to conclusively say whether one type of low-E performed

  15. Development of an Improved Crack Propagation Model for Corrosion-Induced Cover Cracking in RC Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilyati, S.; Nizam, Z. M.; Zurisman, M. A. A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2017-06-01

    During the last two decades, reinforced concrete (RC) has been extensively used in most of the world as one of the common construction material due to its advantages and durability. However, RC structures exposed to marine environments are subjected to chloride attack. Chlorides from seawater penetrate into RC structures are not only causing severe corrosion problems but also affect the durability and serviceability of such structures. This paper investigates the influence of transverse reinforcement and spacing of reinforcing bars on concrete cover cracking of two-way RC slab specimens using accelerated corrosion tests. The experimental program involved the testing of four RC slab specimens and was generally designed to observe the crack width and the time of crack to propagate. An improved model for predicting the timing of crack propagation based on the experimental data was then developed.

  16. X-ray irradiation of RC-MAP pre-stored for various numbers of days. Effect of X-ray irradiation on RC-MAP and reuse of RC-MAP after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Naotomo; Nagumo, Fumio; Kawasaki, Seiji; Matsuzaki, Miwako; Tadano, Jutaro

    1995-01-01

    X-ray irradiation is currently in wide use as a means of preventing post-transfusion graft-versus-host disease (PT-GVHD). In this study, we evaluated the effects of X-ray irradiation on RC-MAP pre-stored for various numbers of days, and assessed how long irradiated RC-MAP can be stored. RC-MAP was irradiated at a dosage of 15 Gy at 1, 7, 14, 21 or 28 days after blood collection. These specimens were referred to as group I, II, III, IV and V (X-ray-irradiated groups), respectively. Non-irradiated RC-MAP was used as the control. Results showed that plasma K concentration increased after X-ray irradiation. It is therefore advisable that RC-MAPs be used immediately in infants and in renal failure. However, to maximize the efficiency of blood product use, it seemed possible that groups I and II could be used within two weeks after irradiation, and group III within one week. On the basis of this increase in K concentration, however, groups IV and V plasma should be used immediately after irradiation. (author)

  17. artificial neural network model for low strength rc beam shear capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    RESEARCH PAPER. Keywords: Shear strength, reinforced concrete, Artificial Neural Network, design equations ... searchers using artificial intelligence to im- prove on theoretical ...... benefit to humanity or a waste of time?” The. Structural ...

  18. Shear Capacity of Large-Scale RC Beams Affected by ASR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) on the shear capacity for concrete slabs without shear reinforcement. An experimental full-scale in-situ program consisting of four slabs from a bridge (Vosnæsvej) has been carried out and the results have been published in ref. [1......) and Eurocode 2 (EN 1992-1-1). The analysis shows that three experiments were highly affected by the preparation of the experimental setup. Only one experiment contained useful information about the shear capacity. The analysis of this experiment shows that the shear capacity is not reduced as much...

  19. Strengthening Performance of PALF-Epoxy Composite Plate on Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Siew C.; Tong, Foo S.; Doh, Shu I.; Gimbun, Jolius; Ong, Huey R.; Serigar, Januar P.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the effective strengthening potential of pineapple leaves fiber (PALF)-epoxy composite plate on reinforced concrete (RC) beam. At first the PALF is treated with alkali (NaOH) and its morphology is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). The composite plates made of PALF and epoxy with fiber loading ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 v/v was tested for its flexural behaviour. The composite was then used for external RC beam strengthening. The structural properties of RC beams were evaluated and all the beams were tested under four-point bending. It was found that the flexural strength increased as the fiber volume ratio increases. The maximum flexural strength (301.94 MPa) was obtained at the fiber volume ratio of 40%. The beam strengthened with PALF-epoxy composite plate has a 7% higher beam capacity compared to the control beam. Cracks formed at the edge of the plate of PALF-strengthened beams resulted in diagonal cracking. Result from this work shows that the PALF-epoxy composite plate has the potential to be used as external strengthening material for RC beam.

  20. Requirements of Integrated Design Teams While Evaluating Advanced Energy Retrofit Design Options in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant ways to save energy use in buildings is to implement advanced energy retrofits in existing buildings. Improving energy performance of buildings through advanced energy retrofitting requires a clear understanding of the cost and energy implications of design alternatives from various engineering disciplines when different retrofit options are considered. The communication of retrofit design alternatives and their energy implications is essential in the decision-making process, as it affects the final retrofit selections and hence the energy efficiency of the retrofitted buildings. The objective of the research presented here was to identify a generic list of information requirements that are needed to be shared and collectively analyzed by integrated design teams during advanced energy retrofit design review meetings held in immersive settings. While identifying such requirements, the authors used an immersive environment based iterative requirements elicitation approach. The technology was used as a means to better identify the information requirements of integrated design teams to be analyzed as a group. This paper provides findings on information requirements of integrated design teams when evaluating retrofit options in immersive virtual environments. The information requirements were identified through interactions with sixteen experts in design and energy modeling domain, and validated with another group of participants consisting of six design experts who were experienced in integrated design processes. Industry practitioners can use the findings in deciding on what information to share with integrated design team members during design review meetings that utilize immersive virtual environments.

  1. Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-07-01

    National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® and numerous other utility air sealing programs have brought awareness to homeowners of the benefits of energy efficiency retrofits. Yet, these programs tend to focus on the low-hanging fruit: air-sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switch to efficient lighting, and low-flow fixtures. At the other end of the spectrum, deep-energy retrofit programs are also being encouraged by various utilities across the country. While deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy usage in existing homes lies between the low hanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches - retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy over the existing conditions. A key is to be non-intrusive with the efficiency measures so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes. This cold climate retrofit project involved the design and optimization of a home in Connecticut that sought to improve energy savings by at least 30% (excluding solar PV) over the existing home's performance. This report documents the successful implementation of a cost-effective solution package that achieved performance greater than 30% over the pre-retrofit - what worked, what did not, and what improvements could be made.

  2. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...] Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings AGENCY... for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings. DATES: Comments must be received by... must include the agency name and docket ID. Regardless of the method used for submitting comments or...

  3. Retrofitting of homes for people in fuel poverty: Approach based on household thermal comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilches, Alberto; Barrios Padura, Ángela; Molina Huelva, Marta

    2017-01-01

    In a context of fuel poverty, the application of cost-effective methodology for energy retrofitting of buildings is ineffective. In these situations, there is no energy consumption reduction and thermal comfort is hardly achieved. This paper introduces a methodology to choose the most appropriate retrofit measure in a context of fuel poverty. This methodology is based on thermal comfort as the main criterion, and secondarily, it is based on the budget for paying monthly energy bills and initial costs. This study demonstrates how thermal comfort and monthly available income of households must be the first criterion for decision-making process. The methodology has been applied in four buildings. Results demonstrate why active retrofit measures are ineffective when monthly budget to pay energy bills is reduced. In conclusion, recommendations are made to promote efficient public policies in energy retrofit. The study was supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and carried out within the research project ‘{Re} Programa. (Re)habitation +(Re)generation +(Re)programming’ during 2013–2015. - Highlights: • A methodology is proposed for energy retrofit in a fuel poverty context. • Householder's monthly budget determines the energy retrofit effectiveness. • The cost-effective methodology is not applicable in a fuel poverty context. • Energy retrofit does not reduce energy consumption in a fuel poverty context. • Energy retrofit does not produce monthly monetary savings in a fuel poverty context.

  4. School Retrofit Design Analysis System. A Microcomputer Model for School Energy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen Lee

    The School Retrofit Design Analysis System (SRDAS) developed in this study provides a non-technical method for the school administrator to use in evaluating alternative energy saving retrofit and new construction design possibilities. By providing a high degree of flexibility, SRDAS is applicable to a wide range of school building and retrofit…

  5. Designing trust: how strategic intermediaries choreograph homeowners’ low-carbon retrofit experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de M.; Spaargaren, G.

    2018-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in other European countries, the uncertain, fragmented character of the low-carbon retrofit market hampers a transition towards sustainable housing. Connecting homeowners to supply-side actors of low-carbon retrofit procedures, products and technologies in ways satisfactory to

  6. 78 FR 60700 - Source Specific Federal Implementation Plan for Implementing Best Available Retrofit Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 49 [EPA-R09-OAR-2013-0489; FRL-9901-58-Region 9] Source Specific Federal Implementation Plan for Implementing Best Available Retrofit Technology for Four... Plan (FIP) to implement the Best Available Retrofit Technology (BART) requirement of the Regional Haze...

  7. 78 FR 41731 - Source Specific Federal Implementation Plan for Implementing Best Available Retrofit Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 49 [EPA-R09-OAR-2013-0489; FRL-9830-5] Source Specific Federal Implementation Plan for Implementing Best Available Retrofit Technology for Four Corners Power... Implementation Plan (FIP) to implement the Best Available Retrofit Technology (BART) requirement of the Regional...

  8. Economic Decision-Making for Coal Power Flexibility Retrofitting and Compensation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunning Na

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, in order to integrate more renewable energy into the power grid, coal power flexibility retrofitting is imperative. This paper elaborates a generic method for estimating the flexibility potential from the rapid ramp rate and peak shaving operation using nonlinear programming, and defines three flexibility elastic coefficients to quantify the retrofitted targets. The optimized range of the retrofitted targets determined by the flexibility elastic coefficients have a reference significance on coal power flexibility retrofitting. Then, in order to enable economic decisions for coal power flexibility retrofitting, we address a profit maximizing issue regarding optimization decisions for coal power flexibility retrofitting under an assumption of perfect competition, further analyzing the characteristic roots of marginal cost equal to marginal revenue. The rationality of current compensation standards for peak shaving in China can also be judged in the analysis. The case study results show that economic decision-making depends on the compensation standard and the peak shaving depth and time. At a certain peak shaving depth and time, with rational compensation standard power plants are willing to carry out coal power flexibility retrofitting. The current compensation standard in Northeast China is high enough to carry out coal power flexibility retrofitting. These research conclusions have theoretical significance for China’s peak shaving compensation standards formulation.

  9. Use of KPIs in an integrated decision support system for energy efficient district retrofitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bektas, K.E.; Luiten, G.T.

    2014-01-01

    Retrofitting urban districts is a complex process. It deals with multiple stakeholders who have wide range of stakes, priorities, different time horizons and scale of investments. This complexity is boosted by the energy policies, as the retrofitting requires to incorporate both selection and use of

  10. 77 FR 52619 - Make Inoperative Exemptions; Retrofit On-Off Switches for Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Advancement Act Under the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA) (Pub. L. 104-113... businesses to install retrofit on-off switches for air bags in vehicles owned by or used by persons whose... 62406) a final rule permitting motor vehicle dealers and repair businesses to install retrofit on-off...

  11. Sonoma House. Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles that promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  12. Sonoma House: Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Weitzel, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; Dakin, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles which promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  13. Retrofitting Vegas: Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S.

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly forty million dollars in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The purpose of this funding was to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In an effort to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is utilized in retrofitting homes, CARB provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA) team and its local partners - Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada - for two retrofit test homes. One home was to demonstrate a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. Through this project, CARB has provided two robust solution packages for retrofitting homes built in this region between the 1980s and early 1990s without substantially inconveniencing the occupants. The two test homes, the Carmen and Sierra Hills, demonstrate how cost-effectively energy efficient upgrades can be implemented in the hot, dry climate of the Southwest. In addition, the homes were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public. In-field trainings on air-sealing, HVAC upgrades, and insulating were provided to local contractors during the retrofit and BARA documented these retrofits through a series of video presentations, beginning with a site survey and concluding with the finished remodel and test out.

  14. Public participation in energy saving retrofitting of residential buildings in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Wenling, Wenling; Zhang, J.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Retrofitting existing residential buildings has been claimed as one crucial way to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions within the Chinese residential sector. In China’s government-dominated retrofitting projects, the participation of residents is often neglected. The objective of

  15. Factors influencing German house owners' preferences on energy retrofits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achtnicht, Martin; Madlener, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we identify key drivers and barriers for the adoption of building energy retrofits in Germany, which is promoted by public policy as an important measure to address the future challenges of climate change and energy security. We analyze data from a 2009 survey of more than 400 owner-occupiers of single-family detached, semidetached, and row houses in Germany, that was conducted as a computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). In the survey, respondents were asked directly for reasons for and against retrofitting their homes, but also faced a choice experiment involving different energy retrofit measures. Overall, we find that house owners who are able to afford it financially, for whom it is profitable, and for whom there is a favorable opportunity are more likely to undertake energy retrofit activities. The latter point seems to be of particular importance in explaining the persistent low retrofit rate in Germany. Our results suggest that professional energy advice could stimulate the demand for building energy retrofits. - Highlights: • Survey data of 400 owner-occupiers from Germany is analyzed. • Drivers and barriers for the adoption of building energy retrofits are identified. • Descriptive and econometric results underline the importance of economic factors. • The simulated incentive effect of expert recommendations is notable in magnitude. • Professional energy advice thus may help to stimulate energy retrofit activities

  16. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Van Straaten, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  17. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  18. Review of retrofit strategies decision system in historic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a process. In structuring and developing its phases different actors are implied, who act under different, sometimes opposite, dynamic conditions and within different reference systems. This paper aims to explore the contribution of participatism to disaster mitigation, when this concerns earthquake impact on urban settlements, through the support provided to multi-criteria decision in matters of retrofit. The research broadness in field of decision making on one side and the lack of a specific model for the retrofit of existing buildings on another side led to an extensive review of the state of the art in related models to address the issue. Core idea in the selection of existing models has been the preoccupation for collaborative issues, in other words, the consideration for the different actors implied in the planning process. The historic perspective on participative planning models is made from the view of two generations of citizen implication. The first approaches focus on the participation of the building owner/inhabitant in the planning process of building construction. As current strategies building rehabilitation and selection from alternative retrofit strategies are presented. New developments include innovative models using the internet or spatial databases. The investigated participation approaches show, that participation and communication as a more comprehensive term are an old topic in the field politics-democratisation-urbanism. In all cases it can be talked of 'successful learning processes', of the improvement of the level of the professional debate. More than 30 years history of participation marked a transition in understanding the concept: from participation, based on a central decision process leading to a solution controlled and steered by the political-administrative system, to communication, characterised by simultaneous decision processes taking place outside politics and administration in co

  19. Coli see des Bois-Francs Victoriaville, Quebec : major retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This profile presented details of a major retrofit of the Colisee des Bois-Francs Ice Rink in Victoriaville, Quebec. The retrofit included the recovery of heat rejected from the refrigeration system; extensive integration of the refrigeration system with heating, ventilation, and dehumidification systems; short-term heat storage; and the installation of a variable condensing temperature and pressure system. Characteristics of the arena were presented, including details of annual energy consumption, energy costs, and the surface area of the building, which was built in 1978. Annual energy costs for the building were estimated at $90,000. The overall cost of the retrofit was $693,300, with technical support provided by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre. Two factory-built commercial refrigeration systems were installed using floating head pressure. Heat transfer fluid in the cold secondary loop was a mixture of water and methanol, while the warm secondary loop contained a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. Energy efficiency measures included using condensation heat rejected in the warm secondary loop and transferred through a coil in the ventilation duct. A simplified system schematic was presented. Building energy consumption savings were estimated at 14 per cent savings for 50 per cent greater cooling capacity compared with the previous system. The use of modular package refrigeration units confined the refrigerant in the mechanical room and reduced the amount of refrigerant required by 70 per cent. Potential refrigerant leaks were also reduced. With the older system, leaks accounted for 120 t equivalent of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released per year. Additional benefits of the new system include better quality ice, a more reliable system and greater comfort for spectators. 2 figs.

  20. 75 FR 37456 - Green Retrofit Program of Title XII of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-55] Green Retrofit Program of... Affordable Housing Preservation must collect certain data to administer the Green Retrofit Program (GRP... Title of Proposal: Green Retrofit Program of Title XII of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of...

  1. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  2. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, Kevin [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  3. Use of digital photography for power plant retrofits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamba, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    One of the latest advancements in electronic tools for reducing engineering and drafting effort is the use of digital photography (DP) for retrofit and betterment projects at fossil and nuclear power plants. Sargent and Lundy (S and L) has effectively used digital photography for condition assessments, minor backfit repairs, thermo-lag fire wrap assessments and repairs, and other applications. Digital photography offers several benefits on these types of projects including eliminating the need for official repair drawings and providing station maintenance with a true 3-D visualization of the repair

  4. Retrofitting a fine-pointing system to satellite optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, R.O.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describe a system that was added to an existing satellite-borne telescope design for the purpose of compensating the boresight errors that had been observed in earlier flights of similar instruments. Those errors had been found to be caused by thermal distortion of the spaceframe. This retrofit design was subject to severe volume restrictions because it was fitted into an already tightly-packaged instrument envelope. It was found practical to improve the basic design by converting a redundant structure into a statically-determinate one. It was also possible to use portions of the mechanical actuation system to facilitate the position encoding needed for computer interfacing.

  5. Newporter Apartments. Deep Energy Retrofit Short Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, Luke [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, Rick [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, Michael [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Auer, Dan [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Clegg, Zach [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost-effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960’s vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  6. Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Lubliner, M.; Auer, D.; Clegg, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  7. Glove port retrofit assembly and method of replacing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Isaac M; Cournoyer, Michael E; Rael, David G

    2014-11-18

    What is disclosed is a system for retrofitting a sealed enclosure for performing work therein having an outer enclosure assembly configured to be clamped to the outer annular face of a port ring and form a sealed engagement with the outer annular surface of the port ring, a change assembly having an inner ring and an access element wherein the inner ring has a first annular cylinder body that is sized to be slidably received by the port ring and the access element is configured to be sealably and slidably positioned within the first annular cylinder body of the inner ring.

  8. Regional hospital improves efficiency with co-generation retrofit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, D; Anderson, L

    1999-11-01

    Feasibility analysis of the co-generation retrofit of the Red Deer Regional Hospital pointed to a reasonable payback of capital cost and increased efficiency in operation of the facility. Budget restrictions nearly stopped the project from proceeding. Innovative construction procedures proposed by the Facility Management Group, in particular, Mr Keith Metcalfe, Director of Maintenance, allowed a worthwhile project to reach successful completion. We feel that this model can perhaps be used by similar facilities in the future to achieve their energy efficiency goals.

  9. Determinants of Household Water Conservation Retrofit Activity: A Discrete Choice Model Using Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T. A.; Wright, M. B.

    1990-02-01

    Economic analyses of residential water demand have typically concentrated on price and income elasticities. In the short run a substantial change in water prices might induce only small changes in consumption levels. As time passes, however, households will have the opportunity to "retrofit" existing water-using equipment to make it less water-intensive. This produces medium- to long-run demand elasticities that are higher than short-run studies suggest. We examine responses to water conservation questions appearing on the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's 1983 residential energy survey. We find that households' decisions to install shower retrofit devices are influenced by the potential to save money on water heating bills. We attribute toilet retrofit decisions more to noneconomic factors which might be characterized as "general conservation mindedness." The endogeneity of these retrofit decisions casts some doubt on the results of studies of individual households that treat voluntary retrofits as exogenous.

  10. The Life Cycle CO2 (LCCO2 Evaluation of Retrofits for Water-Saving Fittings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutoshi Shimizu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures being taken against global warming, the reduction of CO2 emissions by retrofitting for water-saving fittings in homes is spreading throughout the world. However, although this retrofitting reduces the environmental impact at the use stage, it generates new impacts at the production and disposal stages. In addition, there has been little research that discusses the reduction in environmental impact obtained by retrofitting from the viewpoint of the overall life cycle of such fittings. In this paper, an evaluation of the environmental impact of retrofitting in terms of the entire life cycle was carried out for toilet bowls and showerheads. The findings show that even for a toilet bowl that generates a large environmental load at the production stage, there is no overall increase in the environmental impact by retrofitting for the average usable life of 20 years.

  11. Indoor climate perceived as improved after energy retrofitting of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2014-01-01

    The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house....... Moreover, it was investigated among house owners, who had carried out energy retrofitting, whether a number of factors, including the perceived indoor climate, became better or worse after retrofitting. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1,990 house owners in a municipality north of Copenhagen...

  12. Retrofitting Las Vegas. Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly $40 million in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development to use to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In order to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is used in retrofitting homes, the CARB team provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the BARA team and its local partners—Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada—for two retrofit test homes. One home demonstrated a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. This report describes the retrofit packages, which were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public.

  13. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasar, Dave [Building America Partership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles R. [Building America Partership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  14. Retrofitting Of RCC Piles By Using Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer BFRP Composite Part 1 Review Papers On RCC Structures And Piles Retrofitting Works.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ananda Kumar; Dr. C. Selvamony; A. Seeni; Dr. T. R. Sethuraman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Retrofitting works are immensely essential for deteriorated and damaged structures in Engineering and Medical fields in order to keep or return to the originality for safe guarding the structures and consumers. In this paper different types of methods of retrofitting review notes are given based on the experimental numerical and analytical methods results on strengthening the Reinforced cement concrete RCC structures including RCC piles. Soil-pile interaction on axial load lateral lo...

  15. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerilli, Francesca; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  16. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerilli, Francesca [Unicusano - Università degli Studi Niccolò Cusano Telematica Roma, 00166 Rome (Italy); Vairo, Giuseppe [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”- (DICII), 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  17. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with basalt-based FRP sheets: An analytical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerilli, Francesca; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the effectiveness of the flexural strengthening of RC beams through basalt fiber-reinforced sheets is investigated. The non-linear flexural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites applied at the traction side is described via an analytical formulation. Validation results and some comparative analyses confirm soundness and consistency of the proposed approach, and highlight the good mechanical performances (in terms of strength and ductility enhancement of the beam) produced by basalt-based reinforcements in comparison with traditional glass or carbon FRPs.

  18. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  19. The role of relational capital (RC in green supply chain management (GSCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Viviane Viegas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM is an emergent issue in operations management. It is addressed to intra and inter-organizational practices adoption in order to promote sustainability in supply chains. Relational Capital (RC, also an emergent issue, plays a relevant role to resize views based solely in transactions costs and resources to a relationship view leaned on governance for information, trust and longevity in relationships, looking for positive results for all the chain’s participants. This article reviews and criticizes seminal literature on intangible assets in order to rescue RC features and link them to GSCM development. Through exploratory and descriptive methods, recent studies on RC and GSCM are identified with respect their descriptors – ways in which RC is understood and employed in GSCM; focus – goals and main use of RC; and directionality – if developments of RC in GSCM are addressed from producers to their suppliers and respective clients, or if suppliers and clients also address results of RC. It is concluded that, usually, there is unidirectionality in the application of such efforts: improvement initiatives go from the producer to the supplier or client development, but processes through which environmental practices of suppliers and clients influence the performance of GSCM are poor explored.

  20. Dynamic behavior and functional integrity tests on RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Kinji; Nasuda, Toshiaki; Shibata, Akenori.

    1991-01-01

    A project consisting of seven subprojects has been conducted to study the dynamic behavior and functional integrity of reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls in reactor buildings. The objective of this project is to obtain the data to improve and prepare the seismic analysis code regarding the nonlinear structural behavior and integrity of reactor buildings during and after earthquakes. The project started in April, 1986, and will end in March, 1994. Seven subprojects are strain rate test, damping characteristic test, ultimate state response test and the verification test for the test of restoring force characteristics regarding dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance; the restoring force characteristic test on the shear walls with openings; and pull-out strength test and the test on air leakage through concrete cracks regarding the functional integrity. The objectives of respective subprojects, the test models and the interim results are reported. Three subprojects have been completed by March, 1990. The results of these projects will be used for the overall evaluation. The strain rate test showed that the ultimate strength of shear walls increased with strain rate. A formula for estimating air flow through the cracks in walls was given by the leakage test. (K.I.)

  1. Seismic performance of existing R.C. framed buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh A. El-Betar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The earthquakes disasters basically occur due to buildings damage not because of the earth shaking. Therefore, the countries have being updated the seismic codes. The seismic loads for buildings design in Egyptian Code have been changed from (EC-1994 to (ECP-201, 2012. On the other hand, the need is raised to study the vulnerability of existing buildings, which can be divided into the buildings designed to resist the gravity loads only (GLD and the buildings designed according to Egyptian code (EC-1994. Comparison between forces due to Egyptian code for loads (EC-1994 and (ECP-201, 2012 is carried out on the multi-stories R.C. framed buildings which are the most common type of existing buildings in Egypt. To investigate the vulnerability of existing buildings, nonlinear static pushover analysis is conducted to evaluate the real strength of the existing buildings. Moreover, it is considered a useful and effective tool for the performance of three framed buildings: 3, 6 and 10 stories due to expected future earthquakes. Finally, it is found that the vulnerability of existing GLD buildings occurs at expected ground accelerations (ag greater than 0.125 g in Egyptian seismic map, while the EC-94 designed buildings behave elastically up to (ag equals to 0.2 g and above that a slight damage may occur.

  2. Prediction of Cracking Induced by Indirect Actions in RC Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anerdi, Costanza; Bertagnoli, Gabriele; Gino, Diego; Malavisi, Marzia; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Cracking of concrete plays a key role in reinforced concrete (RC) structures design, especially in serviceability conditions. A variety of reasons contribute to develop cracking and its presence in concrete structures is to be considered as almost unavoidable. Therefore, a good control of the phenomenon in order to provide durability is required. Cracking development is due to tensile stresses that arise in concrete structures as a result of the action of direct external loads or restrained endogenous deformations. This paper focuses on cracking induced by indirect actions. In fact, there is very limited literature regarding this particular phenomenon if compared to its high incidence in the construction practice. As a consequence, the correct prediction of the crack opening, width and position when structures are subjected to imposed deformations, such as massive castings or other highly restrained structures, becomes a compelling task, not so much for the structural capacity, as for their durability. However, this is only partially addressed by commonly used design methods, which are usually intended for direct actions. A set of non-linear analysis on simple tie models is performed using the Finite Element Method in order to study the cracking process under imposed deformations. Different concrete grades have been considered and analysed. The results of this study have been compared with the provisions of the most common codes.

  3. Model tests on dynamic performance of RC shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshio; Shibata, Akenori; Inoue, Norio; Muroi, Kazuo.

    1991-01-01

    For the inelastic dynamic response analysis of a reactor building subjected to earthquakes, it is essentially important to properly evaluate its restoring force characteristics under dynamic loading condition and its damping performance. Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main structural members of a reactor building, and dominate its seismic behavior. In order to obtain the basic information on the dynamic restoring force characteristics and damping performance of shear walls, the dynamic test using a large shaking table, static displacement control test and the pseudo-dynamic test on the models of a shear wall were conducted. In the dynamic test, four specimens were tested on a large shaking table. In the static test, four specimens were tested, and in the pseudo-dynamic test, three specimens were tested. These tests are outlined. The results of these tests were compared, placing emphasis on the restoring force characteristics and damping performance of the RC wall models. The strength was higher in the dynamic test models than in the static test models mainly due to the effect of loading rate. (K.I.)

  4. Shear design and assessment of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams based on a mechanical model

    OpenAIRE

    Marí Bernat, Antonio Ricardo; Bairán García, Jesús Miguel; Cladera Bohigas, Antoni; Oller Ibars, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Safe and economical design and assessment of reinforced (RC) and prestressed concrete (PC) beams requires the availability of accurate but simple formulations which adequately capture the structural response. In this paper, a mechanical model for the prediction of the shear-flexural strength of PC and RC members with rectangular, I, or T sections, with and without shear reinforcement, is presented. The model is based on the principles of concrete mechanics and on assumptions supported by the ...

  5. Formulation development of retrocyclin 1 analog RC-101 as an anti-HIV vaginal microbicide product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, A B; Cost, M R; Cole, A L; Cole, A M; Patton, D L; Gupta, P; Rohan, L C

    2011-05-01

    RC-101 is a synthetic microbicide analog of retrocyclin, which has shown in vitro activity against X4 and R5 HIV-1. In an effort to develop a safe and effective RC-101 vaginal microbicide product, we assessed safety in ex vivo macaque and human models and efficacy using in vitro and ex vivo models. A polyvinyl-alcohol vaginal film containing RC-101 (100 μg/film) was developed. Formulation assessment was conducted by evaluating disintegration, drug content, mechanical properties, and stability. Efficacy was evaluated by in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) assay and ex vivo human ectocervical tissue explant model. Ex vivo safety studies were conducted by exposing RC-101 to an excised monkey reproductive tract and excised human ectocervical tissue. RC-101 100 μg films were shown to be safe to human and monkey tissue and effective against HIV-1 in vitro and ex vivo in human ectocervical tissue. The 90% inhibitory concentration (IC90) for RC-101 films at 2,000 μg (IC90=57.5 μM) using an ex vivo model was 10-fold higher than the IC90 observed using an in vitro model (IC90=5.0 μM). RC-101 films were stable for 1 month at 25°C, with in vitro bioactivity maintained for up to 6 months. RC-101 was developed in a quick-dissolve film formulation that was shown to be safe in an ex vivo model and effective in in vitro and ex vivo models. RC-101 film formulations were shown to maintain bioactivity for a period of 6 months. Findings from the present study contribute to the development of a safe and effective topical microbicide product.

  6. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    An energy efficiency upgrade reduces a home’s heating and cooling load. If the load reduction is great enough and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system warrants replacement, that system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the load of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with floor supply air diffusers, the ducts often are removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling. In this project, IBACOS performed load calculations for a two-story 1960s house and characterized duct sizes and layouts based on industry “rules of thumb” (Herk et al. 2014). The team performed duct-sizing calculations for unaltered ducts and post-retrofit airflows and examined airflow velocities and pressure changes with respect to various factors. The team then used a mocked-up duct and register setup to measure the characteristics of isothermal air—to reduce the effects of buoyancy from the observations—passing through the duct and leaving the register.

  7. Behavioral study of cnc-retrofitting kits for lathe machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a Computerized Numerical Controlled (CNC) retrofitting kit for a lathe machine, study its behavior and compare its performance with the retrofitting kit already designed and fabricated at (Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS). Design calculations were performed assuming 100 mm work piece diameter and 800 mm length of stock using tool materials HSS, uncoated carbide, coated carbide, ceramic and cermet tools for different materials. Also cutting, thrust and radial forces on a single point cutting tool were determined. Stepper motors of torque 972 oz-in were selected to drive the carriage and cross-slide in Z and X-directions respectively. Power screws were replaced with ball screws of 0.63 inch dia. (x-direction) and 1.26 in. dia. (Z-direction) which were locally manufactured in the workshop. Deep groove and Angular contact ball bearings were used to support the ball screw shafts against axial and radial loads. Flexible and plain couplings were developed to couple encoders and motors to the ball screw shafts respectively. Panel mount optical rotary encoders are being used for feedback control. Mechanical assembly is complete but due to unavailability of wiring diagram for motors, control electronics could not be accomplished. Therefore, machine could not be evaluated in terms of accuracy, repeatability and resolution using computer software. (author)

  8. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett E. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  9. Analysis of institutional mechanisms affecting residential and commercial buildings retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.

  10. Retrofitting Heritage Buildings by Strengthening or Using Seismic Isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danieli, Moshe; Bloch, Jacob; Ribakov, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    Many heritage buildings in the Mediterranean area include stone domes as a structural and architectural element. Present stage of these buildings often requires strengthening or retrofitting in order to increase their seismic resistance. Strengthening is possible by casting above existing dome a thin reinforced concrete shell with a support ring. It yields reduction of stresses and strains in the dome. This paper deals with examples of actual restoration and strengthening of three structures in Georgia, two of them damaged by an earthquake in 1991, (a temple in Nikortzminda and a synagogue in Oni, built in 11 th and 19 r century, respectively) and a mosque in Akhaltzikhe, built in 18th century. Retrofitting of these structures was aimed at preservation of initial geometry and appearance by creating composite (stone--reinforced concrete, or stone--shotcrete) structures, which were partially or fully hidden. Further improving of seismic response may be achieved by using hybrid seismic isolation decreasing the seismic forces and adding damping. A brief description of the design procedure for such cases is presented

  11. Retrofitted green roofs and walls and improvements in thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Renato Castiglia; Wilkinson, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Increased urbanization has led to a worsening in the quality of life for many people living in large cities in respect of the urban heat island effect and increases of indoor temperatures in housing and other buildings. A solution may be to retrofit existing environments to their former conditions, with a combination of green infrastructures applied to existing walls and rooftops. Retrofitted green roofs may attenuate housing temperature. However, with tall buildings, facade areas are much larger compared to rooftop areas, the role of green walls in mitigating extreme temperatures is more pronounced. Thus, the combination of green roofs and green walls is expected to promote a better thermal performance in the building envelope. For this purpose, a modular vegetated system is adopted for covering both walls and rooftops. Rather than temperature itself, the heat index, which comprises the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity is used in the evaluation of thermal comfort in small scale experiments performed in Sydney - Australia, where identical timber framed structures prototypes (vegetated and non-vegetated) are compared. The results have shown a different understanding of thermal comfort improvement regarding heat index rather than temperature itself. The combination of green roof and walls has a valid role to play in heat index attenuation.

  12. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs. They are intended for inclusion in the online resource the Building America Solutions Center (BASC). This document is an assemblage of multiple entries in the BASC, each of which addresses a specific aspect of Deep Energy Retrofit best practices for projects targeting at least 50% energy reductions. The contents are based upon a review of actual DERs in the U.S., as well as a mixture of engineering judgment, published guidance from DOE research in technologies and DERs, simulations of cost-optimal DERs, Energy Star and Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) product criteria, and energy codes.

  13. Retrofit of ammonia plant for improving energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjeshahi, M.H.; Ghasemian Langeroudi, E.; Tahouni, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform a retrofit study of an ammonia plant, in purpose of improving energy efficiency. As a common practice, one can divide an ammonia plant into two parts: the hot-end and the cold-end. In the hot section, two different options are investigated that both lead to a threshold condition and achieve maximum energy saving. The first option covers only process-to-process energy integration, while the second option considers some modification in the convection section of the primary reformer through a new arrangement of the heating coils. Thus, a considerable reduction in cooling water, HP steam and fuel gas consumption is achieved. In the cold section, retrofit study is dominated by reducing the amount of shaft work or power consumption in the refrigeration system. Application of the Combined Pinch and Exergy Analysis revealed that part of the shaft work, which was originally being used, was inefficient and could have been avoided in a well-integrated design. Therefore, by proposing optimum refrigeration levels, reasonable saving (15%) in power consumption was observed without the need for new investment

  14. Enhancing sedimentation by improving flow conditions using parallel retrofit baffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Scott, Eric; Rochfort, Quintin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, placing parallel-connected baffles in the vicinity of the inlet was proposed to improve hydraulic conditions for enhancing TSS (total suspended solids) removal. The purpose of the retrofit baffle design is to divide the large and fast inflow into smaller and slower flows to increase flow uniformity. This avoids short-circuiting and increases residence time in the sedimentation basin. The newly proposed parallel-connected baffle configuration was assessed in the laboratory by comparing its TSS removal performance and the optimal flow residence time with those from the widely used series-connected baffles. The experimental results showed that the parallel-connected baffles outperformed the series-connected baffles because it could disperse flow faster and in less space by splitting the large inflow into many small branches instead of solely depending on flow internal friction over a longer flow path, as was the case under the series-connected baffles. Being able to dampen faster flow before entering the sedimentation basin is critical to reducing the possibility of disturbing any settled particles, especially under high inflow conditions. Also, for a large sedimentation basin, it may be more economically feasible to deploy the proposed parallel retrofit baffle in the vicinity of the inlet than series-connected baffles throughout the entire settling basin. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrofit of an MTBE-unit to ETBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, A.; Peters, U. [Degussa GmbH, Marl (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    New European policies on renewable fuels have created substantial market pressure to increase the share of bio-fuels. For blending in gasoline, ETBE formed by etherification of isobutene with bio-ethanol is an interesting alternative to direct blending of bio-ethanol. Since the physical properties of methanol and ethanol - and consequently MTBE and ETBE - are quite similar, MTBE-plants can be retrofitted for ETBE-production. Experience from a retrofit-project at Marl is presented. In an integrated C4-plant, isobutene removal is one the most important tasks of the etherification unit to purify the raffinate 2 stream for butene-1 production. Compared to MTBE, reaction rate and equilibrium constant are lower and suitable means of maintaining isobutene conversion on former levels must be found. Furthermore, the extraction of excess alcohol and its recovery by distillation is more difficult. The ethanol-water azeotrope formed on top of the alcohol recovery column has to undergo a further drying process. Alternatives for ethanol drying have been evaluated and performance data for a membrane process is presented. (orig.)

  16. Experimental and numerical results from hybrid retrofitted photovoltaic panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Cecilia; Tagliafico, Luca A.; Scarpa, Federico; Bianco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The experimental study focuses on the feasibility of hybrid PV/T panels retrofitting. • The critical role of a thin layer of air between PV panel and back plate is evidenced. • The benefit of the addition of a conductive paste layer is analyzed via FEM simulations. • The use of wood ribs to stick the back plate represents a cheap effective solution. - Abstract: The aim of present study is to investigate different methodologies to achieve a better contact between a photovoltaic panel and a thermal plate, in order to cool the PV panel by means of water in the perspective of coupling it with a heat pump. It is believed that this kind of system allows to obtain a higher energy efficiency. The analysis is developed both experimentally and numerically, testing different kinds of configurations in different operating conditions. Simulations are employed to analyze the effect of the variations of the contact resistance between the panel and the thermal plates, demonstrating that the use of a conductive paste increases the overall performance of the panel. Results show interesting possibilities in terms of retrofitting of existing photovoltaic panels by employing very simple solutions, such as to fix the thermal plate on the rear of the panel by means of wood ribs

  17. An optimum design of R-C oscillatory De-Qing circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dezhang; Pan Linghe; Yang Tianlu

    1990-01-01

    An optimum design of R-C oscillatory De-Qing circuit has been developed for voltage regulation of the pulse modulator. When a new coefficient T 3 /T is introduced, the selection of De-Qing circuit parameters will become quite simple and the optimum parameters can be calculated directly. The De-Qing circuit parameters calculated will be effective in the whole range of the percentage regulation η from zero to maximum design value. The limit value of η is 0.36 or 0.29, theoretically, when the time constant of the De-Qing circuit is 3RC or 5RC respectively

  18. Cracking and Deformation Modelling of Tensile RC Members Using Stress Transfer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldas Jakubovskis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modeling technique for bond, cracking and deformation analysis of RC members. The proposed mod-eling technique is not restricted by the geometrical dimensions of the analyzed member and may be applied for various load-ing conditions. Tensile as well as bending RC members may be analyzed using the proposed technique. Adequacy of the modeling strategy was evaluated by the developed numerical discrete crack algorithm, which allows modeling deformation and cracking behavior of tensile RC members. Comparison of experimental and numerical results proved the applicability of the proposed modeling strategy.

  19. Observations on out-of-plane behaviour of URM walls in buildings with RC slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Tondelli, Marco; Beyer, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In Switzerland many new residential buildings are constructed as unreinforced masonry (URM) structures or as mixed structures where URM walls are coupled with reinforced concrete (RC) walls by RC slabs. At present the boundary conditions of URM walls subjected to out-of-plane accelerations are still not well quantified. In the framework of a large research activity on RC-URM wall structures a shake-table test on a four-storey mixed structure was performed. The test specimen, which was built a...

  20. Experience with Kicker Beam Coupling Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Gaxiola, Enrique; Caspers, Friedhelm; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kroyer, Tom

    2005-01-01

    SPS beam impedance is still one of the worries for operation with nominal LHC beam over longer periods, once the final configuration will be installed in 2006. Several CERN SPS kickers suffer from significant beam induced ferrite heating. In specific cases, for instance beam scrubbing, the temperature of certain ferrite yokes went beyond the Curie point. Several retrofit impedance reduction techniques have been investigated theoretically and with practical tests. We report on experience gained during the 2004 SPS operation with resistively coated ceramic inserts in terms of kicker heating, pulse rise time, operating voltage, and vacuum behaviour. For another technique using interleaved metallic stripes we observed significant improvements in bench measurements. Advantages and drawbacks of both methods and potential combinations of them are discussed and simulation as well as measured data are shown. Prospects for further improvements beyond 2006 are briefly outlined.

  1. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  2. Strength and behavior in shear of reinforced concrete deep beams under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Satadru Das [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Li, Bing, E-mail: cbli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Fujikake, Kazunori [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka 239 8686 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of wider range of loading rates on dynamic shear behavior of RC deep beams. ► Experimental investigation of RC deep beam with and without shear reinforcements. ► Verification of experimental results with truss model and FE simulation results. ► Empirical equations are proposed to predict the dynamic increase factor of maximum resistance. -- Abstract: Research on reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams has seen considerable headway over the past three decades; however, information on the dynamic shear strength and behavior of RC deep beams under varying rates of loads remains limited. This paper describes the experimental results of 24 RC deep beams with and without shear reinforcements under varying rates of concentrated loading. Results obtained serve as useful data on shear resistance, failure patterns and strain rates corresponding to varying loading rates. An analytical truss model approach proves its efficacy in predicting the dynamic shear resistance under varying loading rates. Furthermore, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) model is described and the simulation results are verified with the experimental results. A parametric study is then conducted to investigate the influence of longitudinal reinforcement ratio, transverse reinforcement ratio and shear span to effective depth ratio on shear behavior. Subsequently, two empirical equations were proposed by integrating the various parameters to assess the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of maximum resistance under varying rates of concentrated loading.

  3. Flexural and Thermal Properties of Novel Energy Conservation Slotted Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional solid reinforced concrete (RC beams were modified to slotted beams for consideration as thermal insulation structural components. The slotted beam consisted of an outer and an inner beam, respectively, with a slot located near the middle of the beam along its width direction for filling thermal insulation material. Flexural and thermal behavior of the slotted beams were investigated. Three RC reference solid beams and six slotted beams were fabricated and tested under four-point bending tests. The test results indicated that the failure mode of both slotted beams and the solid beams was flexural failure. However, the damage process of the slotted beams was different from that of the solid beams at the final loading stage. The moment curvature analysis indicated that the tensile reinforcement ratio of the outer and inner beams had an important effect on the flexural behavior, especially the ductility of the slotted beams. Thermal study indicated that the heat transfer coefficient of the slotted beam was greatly reduced and the thermal inertia factor increased a lot, compared with the solid beam. In addition, FE simulation results showed that a new frame structure using slotted beams exhibited obvious and attractive thermal insulation property.

  4. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho

    2017-06-01

    Low impact development (LID)/green infrastructure (GI) practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.). Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  5. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  6. Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-13

    National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® and numerous other utility air-sealing programs have made homeowners aware of the benefits of energy-efficiency retrofits. Yet these programs tend to focus only on the low-hanging fruit: they recommend air sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switching to efficient lighting and low-flow fixtures, and improving the efficiency of mechanical systems (though insufficient funds or lack of knowledge to implement these improvements commonly prevent the implementation of these higher cost upgrades). At the other end of the spectrum, various utilities across the country are encouraging deep energy retrofit programs. Although deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and are most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy use in existing homes lies between the lowhanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches—retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy compared to the pre-retrofit conditions. The energy-efficiency measures need to be nonintrusive so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes.

  7. Performance of school bus retrofit systems: ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfang; Zhu, Yifang

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the performance of retrofit systems for diesel-powered school buses, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a spiracle crankcase filtration system (CFS), regarding ultrafine particles (UFPs) and other air pollutants from tailpipe emissions and inside bus cabins. Tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant levels were measured before and after retrofitting when the buses were idling and during actual pick-up/drop off routes. Retrofit systems significantly reduced tailpipe emissions with a reduction of 20-94% of total particles with both DOC and CFS installed. However, no unequivocal decrease was observed for in-cabin air pollutants after retrofitting. The AC/fan unit and the surrounding air pollutant concentrations played more important roles for determining the in-cabin air quality of school buses than did retrofit technologies. Although current retrofit systems reduce children's exposure while waiting to board at a bus station, retrofitting by itself does not protect children satisfactorily from in-cabin particle exposures. Turning on the bus engine increased in-cabin UFP levels significantly only when the wind blew from the bus' tailpipe toward its hood with its windows open. This indicated that wind direction and window position are significant factors determining how much self-released tailpipe emissions may penetrate into the bus cabin. The use of an air purifier was found to remove in-cabin particles by up to 50% which might be an alternative short-to-medium term strategy to protect children's health.

  8. Evaluation of retrofitting gas-fired cooling and heating systems into BCHP using design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jiacong

    2009-01-01

    The influence of energy prices on the feasibility of a retrofit is investigated. The retrofit describes the conversion of a system from HVAC to BCHP for energy-saving. This includes two optimal retrofit design models, of which the exergetic efficiency and annual costs (AC) are the separate objective functions. The retrofit scheme is planned to insert gas engines as prime movers into the original system, which have adopted gas-fired absorption chillers. The solutions of the optimizations show that such a retrofit can result in a remarkable rise in exergetic efficiency but is not viable with current energy prices. The contradictory solutions reveal a gap between the current energy prices system of the country and the present energy situation. Further investigation gives the critical lines of which each divides the coordinate plane of natural gas-electric prices into two parts of benefit and deficit. If the electric price rises to a certain extent, the retrofit will be advantageous both in benefit and energy-saving. So it is really an urgent task to reform the energy prices system in China. Conclusions may be helpful for other similar retrofit projects, and for legislators and the government which are responsible for improving the energy market in China.

  9. Experiment and simulation of double-layered RC plates under impact loadings. Part 1: Impact tests for double-layered RC plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Ueda, M.; Taniguchi, H.; Kambayashi, A.; Ohno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1993-01-01

    At a nuclear power plant facility, it should be of interest and important problem to ensure structures against impact loads induced by projectile impacts or plant-internal accidents. It has been well known that local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the impacted area and scabbing of concrete from the back face of the target together with projectile penetration into the target. There are several techniques for improving the impact resistance of RC slabs, that is, lining with a steel plate on the impacted and/or rear face of the slab, making the slab a double-layered composite slab with an elastic absorber and employing a fiber reinforced concrete or a high-strength concrete as the slab materials. Of the many measures available for withstanding impact loads, the use of a double-layered reinforced concrete (RC) slab with absorber is expected to have the higher resistance in reducing or preventing local damage. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates subjected to the impact of projectile. In the experiment, the effects of two parameters; the combination of two RC plates having different thicknesses and the existence of an absorber in the middle layer, are mainly investigated. And, the effects of the concrete thickness (7,9 and 11 cm) and the concrete strength (a normal-:35MPa, a lightweight-:40MPa and a high-strength:57MPa) of target were also examined. RC plates, 0.6m-square, were used for test specimens. The projectile has a mass of 0.43kg, made of steel with a flat nose. An average projectile velocity was about 170m/sec. A rubber plate shaped into a square with the same size of RC plate was used for a double-layered specimen as an absorber which was put between two RC plates. It could be concluded that double-layering and presence of an absorber had a considerable effect on the increase of impact resistance of RC plate. In order to reduce local damage, it is more effective to

  10. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neuhauser, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a DER pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 37 of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while 5 were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. The 42 DER projects represent 60 units of housing. The comprehensive projects all implemented a consistent 'package' of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Projects exhibited some variations in the approach to implementing the retrofit package. Pre- and post-retrofit air leakage measurements were performed for each of the projects. Each project also reported information about project costs including identification of energy-related costs. Post-retrofit energy-use data was obtained for 29 of the DER projects. Post-retrofit energy use was analyzed based on the net energy used by the DER project regardless of whether the energy was generated on site or delivered to the site. Homeowner surveys were returned by 12 of the pilot participants. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average. Larger to medium sized homes that successful implement these retrofits can be expected to achieve source EUI that is comparable to Passive House targets for new construction. The community of DER projects show post-retrofit airtightness below 1.5 ACH50 to be eminently achievable.

  11. Optimizing Whole House Deep Energy Retrofit Packages: A Case Study of Existing Chicago-Area Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnie Aguilar Leinartas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy efficiency of the residential building stock plays a key role in mitigating global climate change. New guidelines are targeting widespread application of deep energy retrofits to existing homes that reduce their annual energy use by 50%, but questions remain as to how to identify and prioritize the most cost-effective retrofit measures. This work demonstrates the utility of whole building energy simulation and optimization software to construct a “tool-box” of prescriptive deep energy retrofits that can be applied to large portions of the existing housing stock. We consider 10 generally representative typology groups of existing single-family detached homes built prior to 1978 in the Chicago area for identifying cost-optimal deep energy retrofit packages. Simulations were conducted in BEopt and EnergyPlus operating on a cloud-computing platform to first identify cost-optimal enclosure retrofits and then identify cost-optimal upgrades to heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems. Results reveal that prescriptive retrofit packages achieving at least 50% site energy savings can be defined for most homes through a combination of envelope retrofits, lighting upgrades, and upgrades to existing HVAC system efficiency or conversion to mini-split heat pumps. The average upfront cost of retrofits is estimated to be ~$14,400, resulting in average annual site energy savings of ~54% and an average simple payback period of ~25 years. Widespread application of these prescriptive retrofit packages across the existing Chicago-area residential building stock is predicted to reduce annual site energy use by 3.7 × 1016 J and yield approximately $280 million USD in annual energy savings.

  12. Measured energy savings and cost-effectiveness of conservation retrofits in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greely, K.M.; Harris, J.P.; Hatcher, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the measured savings and cost-effectiveness of 447 commercial retrofit projects in the US, Canada, and Europe, representing over 1,700 buildings. For these projects, they examine savings and cost-effectiveness by building type and retrofit strategy, savings from individual measures, peak electric demand savings, comparisons of measured vs. predicted savings, and the persistence of savings in the years following a retrofit. Median annual site energy savings amounted to 20 kBtu/ft 2 , or 18% of whole-building usage; median retrofit cost was $0.56/ft 2 (1988 $), the median payback time was 3.1 years, and the median cost of conserved energy was $3.10/site MBtu. When examined by retrofit strategy, they found that projects with only HVAC and/or lighting retrofits had median payback times of one to three years, while those affecting the building shell, either alone or in combination with other types of measures, had payback times of five or more years. Projects in which only maintenance practices were changed typically saved 12% of their pre-retrofit consumption, often using in-house labor. Their research suggests that, despite significant savings and short payback times for the majority of projects, optimum savings are often not being achieved, due to limited owner willingness to invest in all cost-effective measures, as well as to improper retrofit installation and/or maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of energy management as a process is needed, including both inspection and commissioning of installed retrofits and ongoing tracking of energy consumption as an indicator of operating problems

  13. Advanced field-solver techniques for RC extraction of integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Resistance and capacitance (RC) extraction is an essential step in modeling the interconnection wires and substrate coupling effect in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (IC). The field-solver techniques for RC extraction guarantee the accuracy of modeling, and are becoming increasingly important in meeting the demand for accurate modeling and simulation of VLSI designs. Advanced Field-Solver Techniques for RC Extraction of Integrated Circuits presents a systematic introduction to, and treatment of, the key field-solver methods for RC extraction of VLSI interconnects and substrate coupling in mixed-signal ICs. Various field-solver techniques are explained in detail, with real-world examples to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm. This book will benefit graduate students and researchers in the field of electrical and computer engineering, as well as engineers working in the IC design and design automation industries. Dr. Wenjian Yu is an Associate Professor at the Department of ...

  14. Direct Observation of Energy Detrapping in LH1-RC Complex by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hendrikx, Ruud; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2017-01-18

    The purple bacterial core light harvesting antenna-reaction center (LH1-RC) complex is the simplest system able to achieve the entire primary function of photosynthesis. During the past decade, a variety of photosynthetic proteins were studied by a powerful technique, two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). However, little attention has been paid to LH1-RC, although its reversible uphill energy transfer, trapping, and backward detrapping processes, represent a crucial step in the early photosynthetic reaction dynamics. Thus, in this work, we employed 2DES to study two LH1-RC complexes of Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum. By direct observation of detrapping, the complex reversible process was clearly identified and an overall scheme of the excitation evolution in LH1-RC was obtained.

  15. Noise analysis of gate electrode work function engineered recessed channel (GEWE-RC) MOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwala, Ajita; Chaujar, Rishu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the noise assessment, using ATLAS device simulation software, of a gate electrode work function engineered recessed channel (GEWE-RC) MOSFET involving an RC and GEWE design integrated onto a conventional MOSFET. Furthermore, the behaviour of GEWE-RC MOSFET is compared with that of a conventional MOSFET having the same device parameters. This paper thus optimizes and predicts the feasibility of a novel design, i.e., GEWE-RC MOSFET for high-performance applications where device and noise reduction is a major concern. The noise metrics taken into consideration are: minimum noise figure and optimum source impedance. The statistical tools auto correlation and cross correlation are also analysed owing to the random nature of noise.

  16. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012, 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Thirty-seven of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while five were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. Building Science Corporation developed a consistent "package" of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average.

  17. Test Methods and Protocols for Environmental and Safety Hazards Associated with Home Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cautley, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Viner, J. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Lord, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Pearce, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    A number of health hazards and hazards to the durability of homes may be associated with energy retrofitting and home renovation projects. Among the hazards associated with energy retrofit work, exposure to radon is thought to cause more than 15,000 deaths per year in the U.S., while carbon monoxide poisoning results in about 20,000 injuries and 450 deaths per year. Testing procedures have been developed for identifying and quantifying hazards during retrofitting. These procedures commonly include a battery of tests to screen combustion appliances for safe operation, including worst case depressurization measurement, backdrafting (spillage) under depressurized or normal conditions, and carbon monoxide production.

  18. Technology Solutions for Existing Homes Overview: Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-01

    In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) worked with Elevate Energy on three tasks: to conduct pre- and post-retrofit analysis on the income and expense data of 13 Chicago-area multifamily buildings, to compare Chicago income and expense data to two national samples, and to explore the ramifications that energy-efficiency retrofits have on nine Chicago-area neighborhoods. The project team collected building, energy, and income and expense data from multiple private and public sources.

  19. Tenants' experiences and satisfaction in social housing subject to comprehensive retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This report describes a Danish retrofitting project with focus on reducing the energy consump-tion in social housing. The objective of the project was to study tenants’ overall satisfaction with how the retrofitting of their dwellings was carried out and their experiences and satisfaction...... with their dwellings after the retrofits. This was studied by a questionnaire survey that included assessments of possible co-benefits like e.g. improved perceived indoor climate parameters and new balconies and questions about the tenants’ changes of habits in relation to indoor temperature and airing of the flat...

  20. Holistic energy retrofitting of multi-storey building to low energy level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Tafdrup, Morten K.

    2011-01-01

    a holistic energy retrofitting of a multi-storey building from 1930 with facades worth preserving. Different single measures, e.g. windows and wall insulation, are assessed with regard to energy saving and economy. The best performing single measures are combined in a holistic retrofitting. The total energy...... consumption of the holistic solution is theoretically calculated, and the economy is documented based on calculations of cost of conserved energy. The results show that many single measures are cost-effective. However, when they are combined, the holistic retrofitting solution turns out not to be cost...

  1. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Double-Stud Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution that provides insulation to the interior of the wall assembly with the use of a double stud wall. The guide describes two approaches to retrofitting the existing the walls: one involving replacement of the existing cladding, and the other that leaves the existing cladding in place. It discusses the design principles related to the use of various insulation types, and provides strategies and procedures for implementing the double stud wall retrofit. It also evaluates important moisture-related and indoor air quality measures that need to be implemented to achieve a durable, high performance wall.

  2. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Double-Stud Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-06-22

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution that provides insulation to the interior of the wall assembly with the use of a double-stud wall. The guide describes two approaches to retrofitting the existing walls—one that involves replacing the existing cladding and the other that leaves the cladding in place. This guideline also covers the design principles related to the use of various insulation types and provides strategies and procedures for implementing the double-stud wall retrofit. It also includes an evaluation of important moisture-related and indoor air quality measures that need to be implemented to achieve a durable high-performance wall.

  3. Study on labelling methods of 125I-RC-160 and its biodistribution in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Wang Xiqing; Wang Liangang; Li Fujun; Deng Jinglan

    2002-01-01

    A method for the iodination of peptide RC-160 with high efficiency was developed. RC-160 was iodinated with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as oxidant, the conventional chloramine T (Ch-T) method was used as control. The labelling condition of NBS method was optimized and radiolabelled conjugate 125 I-RC-160 was assessed as follows: no further purification was needed, the measured labelling yield of 125 I-RC-160 was 92% and the specific activity was 1.95 x 10 12 Bq/m mol. The yield increased as the amount of NBS increased. The optimal ratio of RC-160 (μg): 125 I (MBq): NBS(μg) was 3:7.4:1. For Ch-T method, the labelling yield is 56% and specific activity was 0.65 x 10 12 Bq/m mol; but after purification by SepPak-C 18 , the labelling yield may reach as high as 92%. 1h after injection, radioactivity in blood decreased by 87.2%. No obvious concentration of 125 I-RC-160 in thyroid or kidney was observed

  4. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  5. Gas turbines for the rubber industry: Retrofit feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaria, F.; Pautasso, F.

    1992-01-01

    Cogeneration is becoming industry's choice to satisfy process requirements characterized by high energy demand and fairly steady thermal and electrical loads. This paper illustrated the suitability of cogeneration for the production of rubber and PVC floor tiles. The example studied here consists of a gas fuelled turboalternator set capable of producing 1,050 kW of electric power. The energy plant is equipped with a heat recovery system and a post-combustor for the production of a diathermic fluid used by the process equipment. The paper points out how engineers overcame the installation problems due to the presence of existing process equipment and the necessity for continuous plant operation during retrofitting. Attention is given to the energy and cost feasibility aspects of this intervention

  6. High-Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett E. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A more accurate assessment of slab-on-grade foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated).

  7. HVAC retrofit evaluations: Persuading owners to do it right

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.G. [Linford (Robert G.), Oakland, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    HVAC system retrofit evaluations for commercial buildings are complex and, at best, imperfect. The number of variables even for a simple system is large. For a complex system, they can be nearly overwhelming. One of the most difficult questions owners of older buildings face is to decide when is it cost effective to replace or upgrade the HVAC system rather than to repair (or ignore) specific components. Similarly, two of the major questions a prospective buyer faces in evaluating a building during the due diligence process are: how well does the HVAC system work today, and how well will it work in the future and at what cost? These are addressed in this article.

  8. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs.

  9. Converter Monitoring Unit for Retrofit of Wind Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannestad, Bjorn; Maarbjerg, Anders Eggert; Frederiksen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    A Converter Monitoring Unit (CMU), which will enable condition monitoring of wind turbine converters is presented in this paper. Reducing the cost of corrective maintenance by means of condition monitoring is a way of lowering Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs for wind turbine systems....... The CMU must be able to detect a broad range of failure modes related to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules and associated gate drives. IGBT collector-emitter on-state voltage (vceon) and current (ic) is sampled in the CMU and used for detection of emerging failures. A new method...... for compensation of unwanted inductive voltage drop in the vceon measurement path is presented, enabling retrofitting of CMUs in existing wind turbines. Finally, experimental results obtained on a prototype CMU are presented. Experimentally the vceon dependency to IGBT junction temperature and deterioration...

  10. Energy retrofit via Social Housing: a proposal from Solar Decathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Tonelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar Decathlon is an annual university challenge where nearly zeroenergy housing prototypes enter in international competition, through a series of ten tests. The contest aims for superior energy performance, high standards of interior comfort, architectural aesthetics, positive electrical balances, industrialisation, and contained costs and feasibility as a marketable proposal. Seven editions of the Solar Decathlon have been held, with a total of 140 competing proposals both realized and placed on the market, representing a notable pool of experimental research to be studied and evaluated for applications in social housing. After a consideration of the competition features, the article describes the prototype presented by City College of New York at Solar Decathlon 2011, Washington DC, as a proposal of an energy retrofit suitable for many urban buildings with flat roofs.

  11. Innovation in product and services in the shipping retrofit industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Köhler, Jonathan

    regulation could create innovation in green products and services in the maritime retrofitting industry?” Our case study focus on business models for the development, installation and operation of ballast water management systems in Denmark. We engaged the perspectives of ship-owners, equipment manufacturers....... Similarly, given the deindustrialisation dynamics to regions with lower manufacturing costs, it is argued that a combination of knowledge intensive and service-based economy will eventually fill the gap left by manufacturing industries. To create added value to their products, some leading firms...... are increasingly developing product-service systems. It is however, argued that product-service systems are not always sustainable, and thus little evidence connect them with green growth. To fill in this gap, we are carrying a case study guided by the following research question: “How the ballast water treatment...

  12. Beam-beam phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    In colliding beam storage rings the beam collision regions are generally so short that the beam-beam interaction can be considered as a series of evenly spaced non-linear kicks superimposed on otherwise stable linear oscillations. Most of the numerical studies on computers were carried out in just this manner. But for some reason this model has not been extensively employed in analytical studies. This is perhaps because all analytical work has so far been done by mathematicians pursuing general transcendental features of non-linear mechanics for whom this specific model of the specific system of colliding beams is too parochial and too repugnantly physical. Be that as it may, this model is of direct interest to accelerator physicists and is amenable to (1) further simplification, (2) physical approximation, and (3) solution by analogy to known phenomena

  13. Retrofitting Garden-Style Apartments in Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Heather [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Grab, Joanna [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This research effort sought to achieve a solution package that yields energy savings greater than 30% over the pre-existing conditions in a minimally intrusive multifamily retrofit project. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with L+M Development Partners, Inc. on a Mitchell-Lama Housing Program project, Marcus Garvey Village, in Brooklyn, NY (Climate Zone 4A). The Mitchell-Lama Housing Program is a form of housing subsidy in the state of New York that provides affordable rental and cooperative housing to moderate- and middle-income families. Marcus Garvey Village was founded in 1975 and contains 625 residential units (ranging from studios to 5-bedroom units) in thirty-two 4-story garden-style apartment structures built with concrete and faced in light brown brick. The single largest challenge for implementation of energy conservation measures at Marcus Garvey was working within occupied spaces. Measures are being implemented in phases to minimize disruption. As of August 2015, the retrofit work is over 50% complete. The wall insulation, sealing of the through wall AC vent, and installation of new oil-filled electric baseboards with advanced controls are conducted at one time, limiting disruption to the living room space. In a similar fashion, the kitchen work is done, then the bathroom. The final selection of energy conservation measures is projected to save 26.5% in source energy with a cost just under $3.7 million and utility bill savings of nearly $480,000 (of an average $1.8 million annual utility cost for the development).

  14. Implementation of an RHR/LPSI pump coupling retrofit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudiak, J.G.; Koch, R.P.; Orewyler, R.; Tipton, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear plant operating experience has shown the RHR and LPSI services to be very demanding on pumps. The systems handle borated water at high temperatures and pressures with frequent step changes in both temperature and pressure. Additionally, the industry trend towards reduced flow rates during plant mid-loop (reduced inventory) conditions has resulted in extended pump operation at flow rates significantly below the pump best efficiency point flow. Operation at these low flow fates is known to cause high thrust loads and large shaft deflections. The combination of these and other factors have resulted in short mechanical seal life and short motor bearing life, thus requiring frequent pump and motor maintenance. For many nuclear plants, including Southern California Edison's (SCE) San Onofre Units 2 and 3, these pumps have represented a major operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) expenditure and a significant source of radiation exposure to plant personnel. SCE management determined that a pump upgrade was justified to reduce the O ampersand M costs and to improve plant availability. SCE decided to proceed with a pump retrofit program to improve the pump maintainability, reliability and availability. Installation was completed for four LPSI pumps at San Onofre Units 2 and 3 during the Cycle 7 refueling outages in 1993. A key to the program's success was the removal of many traditional supplier and customer barriers and revision of supplier and customer roles to create a unified team. This paper traces the RHR/LPSI retrofit program for San Onofre from problem identification to project implementation. The team approach used for this program and the lessons learned may be useful to other utilities and vendors when evaluating or implementing system and equipment upgrades

  15. Energy retrofit of commercial buildings. Case study and applied methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aste, N.; Del Pero, C. [Department of Building Environment Science and Technology (BEST), Politecnico di Milano, Via Bonardi 3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Commercial buildings are responsible for a significant share of the energy requirements of European Union countries. Related consumptions due to heating, cooling, and lighting appear, in most cases, very high and expensive. Since the real estate is renewed with a very small percentage each year and current trends suggest reusing the old structures, strategies for improving energy efficiency and sustainability should focus not only on new buildings, but also and especially on existing ones. Architectural renovation of existing buildings could provide an opportunity to enhance their energy efficiency, by working on the improvement of envelopes and energy supply systems. It has also to be noted that the measures aimed to improve the energy performance of buildings should pay particular attention to the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. In general, there is a lack of well-established methods for retrofitting, but if a case study achieves effective results, the adopted strategies and methodologies can be successfully replicated for similar kinds of buildings. In this paper, an iterative methodology for energy retrofit of commercial buildings is presented, together with a specific application on an existing office building. The case study is particularly significant as it is placed in an urban climatic context characterized by cold winters and hot summers; consequently, HVAC energy consumption is considerable throughout the year. The analysis and simulations of energy performance before and after the intervention, along with measured data on real energy performance, demonstrate the validity of the applied approach. The specifically developed design and refurbishment methodology, presented in this work, could be also assumed as a reference in similar operations.

  16. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  17. Experimental investigation of the seismic performance of the R/C frames with reinforced masonry infills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjung, Jafril; Maidiawati, Nugroho, Fajar

    2017-10-01

    Intensive studies regarding the investigation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (R/C) frames which are infilled with brick masonry walls have been carried out by several researchers within the last three-decades. According to authors' field and experimentally experiences conclude that the unreinforced brick masonry infills significantly contributes to increase the seismic performance of the R/C frame structure. Unfortunately, the presence of brick masonry infill walls causes several undesirable effects such as short column, soft-storey, torsion and out of plane collapse. In this study, a strengthening technique for the brick masonry infills were experimentally investigated to improve the seismic performance of the R/C frame structures. For this purpose, four experimental specimens have been prepared, i.e. one of bare R/C frame (BF), one of R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall (IFUM) and two of R/C frames were infilled with reinforced brick-masonry wall (IFRM-1 and IFRM-2). The bare frame and R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall represents the typical R/C buildings' construction in Indonesia assuming the brick-masonry wall as the non-structural elements. The brick-masonry wall infills in specimens IFRM-1 and IFRM-2 were strengthened by using embedded ϕ4 plain steel bar on their diagonal and center of brick-masonry wall, respectively. All specimens were laterally pushed-over. The lateral loading and its lateral displacement, failure mechanism and their crack pattern were recorded during experimental works. Comparison of the experimental results of these four specimens conclude that the strengthening of the brick-masonry infills wall gave the significantly increasing of the seismic performance of the R/C frame. The seismic performance was evaluated based on the lateral strength of the R/C specimen. The embedded plain steel bar on brick-masonry also reduces the diagonal crack on the brick-masonry wall. It seems that

  18. Building America Case Study: Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Increasing the adoption of energy efficient building practices will require the energy sector to increase their understanding of the way that retrofits affect multifamily financial performance as well as how those indicators are interpreted by the lending and appraisal industries. This project analyzed building, energy, and financial program data as well as other public and private data to examine the relationship between energy efficiency retrofits and financial performance on three levels: building, city, and community. The project goals were to increase the data and analysis in the growing body of multifamily financial benefits work as well provide a framework for other geographies to produce similar characterization. The goals are accomplished through three tasks: Task one: A pre- and post-retrofit analysis of thirteen Chicago multifamily buildings. Task two: A comparison of Chicago income and expenses to two national datasets. Task three: An in-depth look at multifamily market sales data and the subsequent impact of buildings that undergo retrofits.

  19. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  1. Trial Demonstration of Area Lighting Retrofit: Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCullough, Jeffrey J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area is a high flux lighting application in a high temperature environment, presenting a formidable challenge for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This retrofit is an Energy Savings Performance Contract ENABLE project under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program. If high flux LED technology performs well in a region with high ambient temperature and solar radiation, it can perform well in most outdoor environments. The design process for the Yuma retrofit has already provided valuable knowledge to CBP and DOE. The LED lighting system selected for the retrofit is expected to reduce energy consumption 69% compared to the incumbent quartz metal halide (QMH) lighting system. If the LED lighting system is installed, GATEWAY will continue to document and disseminate information regarding the installation and long-term performance so that others may also gain valuable knowledge from the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area lighting retrofit.

  2. Community-Scale Attic Retrofit and Home Energy Upgrade Data Mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Smith, P. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Jackson, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Residential retrofit is an essential element of any comprehensive strategy for improving residential energy efficiency, yet remains a challenging proposition to sell to homeowners due to low levels of awareness and lack of financial incentive. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) implemented a project to increase residential retrofits in Davis, CA called Retrofit Your Attic developed and appropriate data sets were uploaded to the Building America Field Data Repository (BAFDR). Two key conclusions are a broad based public awareness campaign is needed to increase understanding of the makeup and benefits of residential retrofits and a dramatic shift is needed so that efficient homes are appraised and valued at higher levels. The SAVE Act, proposed bipartisan federal legislation [S.1106], offers one way to accomplish this.

  3. Retrofit SCR system for NOx control from heavy-duty mining equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Diesel engines are used extensively in the mining industry and offer many advantages. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions and nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) are among its disadvantages. A significant concern related to PM and NOx in an underground mine involves the use of diesel exhaust after treatment systems such as diesel particulate filters and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This presentation discussed NOx and PM control and provided a description of an SCR system and examples of SCR retrofits. Options for NOx control were discussed and a case study involving the installation of an SCR retrofit system in an underground mine operated by Sifto Salt was also presented. The purpose of the case study was to identify cost effective retrofit solutions to lower nitrogen dioxide emissions from heavy-duty trucks operating in underground mines. The case study illustrated and presented the candidate vehicle, baseline emissions, a BlueMax SCR retrofit solution, and BlueMax installation. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  4. Study on the application of ambient vibration tests to evaluate the effectiveness of seismic retrofitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Takaaki, Ohkubo; Guang-hui, Li

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, earthquakes have occurred frequently, and the seismic performance of existing school buildings has become particularly important. The main method for improving the seismic resistance of existing buildings is reinforcement. However, there are few effective methods to evaluate the effect of reinforcement. Ambient vibration measurement experiments were conducted before and after seismic retrofitting using wireless measurement system and the changes of vibration characteristics were compared. The changes of acceleration response spectrum, natural periods and vibration modes indicate that the wireless vibration measurement system can be effectively applied to evaluate the effect of seismic retrofitting. The method can evaluate the effect of seismic retrofitting qualitatively, it is difficult to evaluate the effect of seismic retrofitting quantitatively at this stage.

  5. A practice-theory approach of homeowners’ energy retrofits in four European areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartiaux, Franise Bartiaux; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Fonseca, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether and how energy retrofitting of owner-occupied dwellings can be understood within the framework of social practice theories. Practice theories help to shift the focus towards more collective approaches and practices, rather than towards individuals. In addressing...... this question, energy retrofits are described and their variability compared in four European areas: Denmark, Latvia, the Coimbra area in Portugal and Wallonia in Belgium. Although these areas have different geographical, cultural and housing contexts, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD......) provides a common form of regulation. As a policy, its main underlying intention is to promote the opportunities for energy retrofitting. Based on an analysis of 60 in-depth interviews with homeowners, it is found that energy retrofitting is not an integrative practice in 2010, despite the EPBD and other...

  6. Implementation of retrofit BMPs in a suburban watershed via economic incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban stormwater is typically conveyed to centralized infrastructure, and there is great potential for reducing stormwater runoff quantity through decentralization. In this case we hypothesize that smaller-scale retrofit best management practices (BMPs) such as rain gardens and r...

  7. Vulnerability assessment of medieval civic towers as a tool for retrofitting design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casciati, Sara; Faravelli, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    The seismic vulnerability of an ancient civic bell-tower is studied. Rather than seeing it as an intermediate stage toward a risk analysis, the assessment of vulnerability is here pursued for the purpose of optimizing the retrofit design. The vulnerability curves are drawn by carrying out a single time history analysis of a model calibrated on the basis of experimental data. From the results of this analysis, the medians of three selected performance parameters are estimated, and they are used to compute, for each of them, the probability of exceeding or attaining the three corresponding levels of light, moderate and severe damage. The same numerical model is then used to incorporate the effects of several retrofitting solutions and to re-estimate the associated vulnerability curves. The ultimate goal is to provide a numerical tool able to drive the optimization process of a retrofit design by the comparison of the vulnerability estimates associated with the different retrofitting solutions

  8. Modeling of Control Costs, Emissions, and Control Retrofits for Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about EPA’s use of the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to develop estimates of SO2 and NOx emission control costs, projections of futureemissions, and projections of capacity of future control retrofits, assuming controls on EGUs.

  9. University of Maryland Wall Washer Retrofit - LED Modules Replace Halogen Lamps in a Performing Arts Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abell, Thomas C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-03

    The University of Maryland (UMD) began retrofitting halogen wall washers in the Clarice Smith Performing Arts Center (CSPAC) in April 2014. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting (SSL) GATEWAY program documented this process through the final installation in March 2015, summarized in this report. The wall washers illuminate hallways lining the atrium, providing task illuminance for transitioning between spaces and visual interest to the atrium boundaries. The main goals of the retrofit were to maintain the visual appearance of the space while reducing maintenance costs – energy savings was considered an additional benefit by UMD Facilities Management. UMD Facilities Management is pleased with the results of this retrofit, and continues to initiate LED retrofit projects across the UMD campus.

  10. The reHABITAT Guide: For Energy- and Resource-Efficient Retrofit Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This guide seeks to advance the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Existing Residential Buildings Program (ERBP): to develop approaches that will enable the housing retrofit industry to deliver energy-efficient housing improvements.

  11. Nonlinear earthquake analysis of reinforced concrete frames with fiber and Bernoulli-Euler beam-column element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaton, Muhammet

    2014-01-01

    A beam-column element based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is researched for nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) structural element. Stiffness matrix of this element is obtained by using rigidity method. A solution technique that included nonlinear dynamic substructure procedure is developed for dynamic analyses of RC frames. A predicted-corrected form of the Bossak-α method is applied for dynamic integration scheme. A comparison of experimental data of a RC column element with numerical results, obtained from proposed solution technique, is studied for verification the numerical solutions. Furthermore, nonlinear cyclic analysis results of a portal reinforced concrete frame are achieved for comparing the proposed solution technique with Fibre element, based on flexibility method. However, seismic damage analyses of an 8-story RC frame structure with soft-story are investigated for cases of lumped/distributed mass and load. Damage region, propagation, and intensities according to both approaches are researched.

  12. Solar repowering/industrial retrofit systems study: Gulf Mt. Taylor Uranium Mill solar retrofit. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report covers the efforts in a nine month study to develop a site-specific conceptual design for solar industrial process heat retrofit of the Gulf Mt. Taylor Uranium Mill. This has resulted in preparation of a System Requirements Specification, conduct of trade studies leading to selection of a system concept, and conceptual design, performance, cost estimating and economic analysis of the selected concept. A baseline system with no storage and an alternative system with extended storage were evaluated. The baseline system with no storage was selected because it provides the best overall opportunity for fuel displacement, operating experience in industrial application and successful demonstration in the near term for both DOE and the user

  13. Multifamily Retrofit Project Manager Job/Task Analysis and Report: September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    The development of job/task analyses (JTAs) is one of three components of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project and will allow industry to develop training resources, quality assurance protocols, accredited training programs, and professional certifications. The Multifamily Retrofit Project Manager JTA identifies and catalogs all of the tasks performed by multifamily retrofit project managers, as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the identified tasks.

  14. Thermal performance of lived-in passive solar buildings: Pt. 2; School retrofit at Yeruham, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiman, D. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer (Israel). J. Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research)

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes various, partially improvised, experiments that were devised in order to assess the thermal performance of a solar retrofit that was added to a school building. Typical measurements results are shown and analyzed. Two definitions are given for the system efficiency of solar retrofits to large-mass structures: one for the case when there is no backup system to complicate the analysis, and one for suggested use when auxiliary heating is present. (author).

  15. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  16. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  17. The impacts of household retrofit and domestic energy efficiency schemes: A large scale, ex post evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Phil; Gouldson, Andy; Kerr, Niall

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the ability of retrofit schemes to shape domestic energy use in order to tackle fuel poverty and reduce carbon emissions. Although much has been written on the topic, there have been few large-scale ex post evaluations of the actual impacts of such schemes. We address this by assessing domestic energy use before and after the Kirklees Warm Zone (KWZ) scheme, which by fitting insulation in 51,000 homes in the 2007–2010 period is one of the largest retrofit schemes completed in the UK to date. To do this, we develop and apply a new methodology that isolates the impacts of retrofit activity from broader background trends in energy use. The results suggest that the actual impacts of the KWZ scheme have been higher than predicted, and that the scale of any performance gaps or rebound effects have been lower than has often been assumed. They also suggest that impacts on energy use in lower income areas are consistent with predictions, but that impacts in middle and higher income areas are higher than predicted. These findings support the case for the wider and/or accelerated adoption of domestic retrofit schemes in other contexts. -- Highlights: •A large scale, ex post evaluation of the impacts of a household retrofit scheme. •A new methodology to separate retrofit impacts from background trends. •Shows impacts of retrofit have been 1.2–1.7 times higher than predicted. •Impacts as predicted in lower income areas, higher in middle and upper income areas. •Findings support the case for the wider and faster adoption of domestic retrofit

  18. Multiobjective optimisation of energy systems and building envelope retrofit in a residential community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Raphael; Mavromatidis, Georgios; Orehounig, Kristina; Carmeliet, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous optimisation of building envelope retrofit and energy systems. • Retrofit and energy systems change interact and should be considered simultaneously. • Case study quantifies cost-GHG emission tradeoffs for different retrofit options. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for a multi-objective and simultaneous optimisation of building energy systems and retrofit is presented. Tailored to be suitable for the diverse range of existing buildings in terms of age, size, and use, it combines dynamic energy demand simulation to explore individual retrofit scenarios with an energy hub optimisation. Implemented as an epsilon-constrained mixed integer linear program (MILP), the optimisation matches envelope retrofit with renewable and high efficiency energy supply technologies such as biomass boilers, heat pumps, photovoltaic and solar thermal panels to minimise life cycle cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its multi-objective, integrated assessment of building transformation options and its ability to capture both individual building characteristics and trends within a neighbourhood, this method is aimed to provide developers, neighbourhood and town policy makers with the necessary information to make adequate decisions. Our method is deployed in a case study of typical residential buildings in the Swiss village of Zernez, simulating energy demands in EnergyPlus and solving the optimisation problem with CPLEX. Although common trade-offs in energy system and retrofit choice can be observed, optimisation results suggest that the diversity in building age and size leads to optimal strategies for retrofitting and building system solutions, which are specific to different categories. With this method, GHG emissions of the entire community can be reduced by up to 76% at a cost increase of 3% compared to the current emission levels, if an optimised solution is selected for each building category.

  19. Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

    1980-11-01

    As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

  20. Note: Retrofitting an analog spectrometer for high resolving power in NUV-NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew S.; Batishchev, Oleg V.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate how an older spectrometer designed for photographic films can be efficiently retrofitted with a narrow laser-cut slit and a modern μm-pixel-size imaging CMOS camera, yielding sub-pm resolution in the broad near ultraviolet to near infrared (NUV-NIR) spectral range. Resolving power approaching 106 is achieved. Such digital retrofitting of an analog instrument is practical for research and teaching laboratories.