WorldWideScience

Sample records for retractable pin tool

  1. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  2. Closed-Loop Control System for Friction Stir Welding Retractable Pin Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Romine, Peter L.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA invention disclosure, NASA Case No. MFS-31413, entitled "System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus", (Patent Pending) authored by Jeff Ding, Dr Peter Romine and Pete Oelgoetz, addresses the precision control of the friction stir welding process. The closed-loop control system automatically adjusts the spinning welding pin, real-time, to maintain a precise penetration ligament (i.e., distance between pin-tip and weld panel backside surface). A specific pin length can be maintained while welding constant thickness or tapered material thickness weld panels. The closed-loop control system provides operator data and information relative to the exact position of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This paper presents the closed-loop RPT control system that operates using the auto-feedback of force signals sensed by the tip and shoulder of the welding pin. Significance: The FSW process can be successfully used in a production environment only if there is a method or technique that informs the FSW operator the precise location of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This is essential for applications in aerospace, automotive, pressure vessel, commercial aircraft and other industries.

  3. AORN Ergonomic Tool 5: Tissue Retraction in the Perioperative Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Patrice; Lloyd, John D; Hernandez, Edward; Hughes, Nancy; Petersen, Carol; Nelson, Audrey; Spratt, Deborah G

    2011-07-01

    Manual retraction, a task performed to expose the surgical site, poses a high risk for musculoskeletal disorders that affect the hands, arms, shoulders, neck, and back. In recent years, minimally invasive and laparoscopic procedures have led to the development of multifunctional instruments and retractors capable of performing these functions that, in many cases, has eliminated the need for manual retraction. During surgical procedures that are not performed endoscopically, the use of self-retaining retractors enables the assistant to handle tissue and use exposure techniques that do not require prolonged manual retraction. Ergonomic Tool #5: Tissue Retraction in the Perioperative Setting provides an algorithm for perioperative care providers to determine when and under what circumstances manual retraction of tissue is safe and when the use of a self-retaining retractor should be considered.

  4. Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Bruce

    2011-12-23

    Science is fully retracting the report "Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome" (V. C. Lombardi et al., Science 326, 585 (2009); 10.1126/science.1179052)

  5. Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of: Editor-in-Chief and Author 'TW-37, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, inhibits cell growth and invasion in pancreatic cancer' by Wang, Z., Song, W., Aboukameel, A., Mohammad, M., Wang, G., Banerjee, S., Kong, D., Wang, S., Sarkar, F. H. and Mohammad, R. M. The above article, published online on 4 June 2008, in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Professor Peter Lichter, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. A university investigation involving the first and the second-to-last author determined that several figures from another published paper were manipulated or duplicated and re-used in this paper. Therefore, the authors are retracting the paper in its entirety although they maintain that these issues did not affect the major conclusions. They apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused. Reference Wang, Z., Song, W., Aboukameel, A., Mohammad, M., Wang, G., Banerjee, S., Kong, D., Wang, S., Sarkar, F. H. and Mohammad, R. M. (2008), TW-37, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, inhibits cell growth and invasion in pancreatic cancer. Int. J. Cancer, 123: 958-966. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23610.

  6. Retraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiheng [Vanderbilt University; Feldman, Leonard C [ORNL; Tolk, Norman H. [Vanderbilt University; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Cohen, Philip [University of Minnesota

    2012-01-01

    IN OUR 2006 REPORT, DESORPTION OF H FROM SI(111) BY RESONANT EXCITATION OF THE Si-H vibrational stretch mode (1), we reported resonant photodesorption of hydrogen from a Si(111) surface using tunable infrared radiation that corresponded to the Si-H vibrational stretch mode. Our recent attempts to reproduce these experiments have been unsuccessful, and the free electron laser facility at Vanderbilt, a unique light source for this experiment, has shut down, prohibiting further research. Because our conclusions are now in question, we retract the Report.

  7. Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This article corrects: Retracted: Three BUB1 and BUBR1/MAD3-related spindle assembly checkpoint proteins are required for accurate mitosis in Arabidopsis. New Phytologist 205: 202-215. Article first published online: 29 September 2014. This article has been retracted at the request of: Editor-in-Chief and Author 'Three BUB1 and BUBR1/MAD3-related spindle assembly checkpoint proteins are required for accurate mitosis in Arabidopsis', by Paganelli L, Caillaud M-C, Quentin M, Damiani I, Govetto B, Lecomte P, Karpov, PA, Abad P, Chabouté M-E and Favery B. The above article, first published online on Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), and in New Phytologist 205: 202-215, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Alistair Hetherington, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Since publication of the above article, it has been brought to our attention that errors occurred in the construction of Figs 1 and 2(a); some components were inappropriately edited and duplicated, including the duplication and editing of images that first appeared in Caillaud et al. (2009), which were used by the authors as a basic template. Consequently, the integrity of the yeast two-hybrid experiments reported in the article is undermined, and, with agreement of all parties, the decision has been made to retract this article. We apologize for any inconvenience the publication of this work may have caused our readers. References Caillaud MC, Paganelli L, Lecomte P, Deslandes L, Quentin M, Pecrix Y, Le Bris M, Marfaing N, Abad P, Favery B. 2009. Spindle assembly checkpoint protein dynamics reveal conserved and unsuspected roles in plant cell division. PLoS One 4: e6757. Paganelli L, Caillaud M-C, Quentin M, Damiani I, Govetto B, Lecomte P, Karpov PA, Abad P, Chabouté M-E, Favery B. 2015. Three BUB1 and BUBR1/MAD3-related spindle assembly checkpoint proteins are required for accurate mitosis in Arabidopsis. New Phytologist 205: 202-215.

  8. Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra LF

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cárdenas WH, Mamani JB, Sibov TT, Caous CA, Amaro E Jr, Gamarra LF. Particokinetics: computational analysis of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles deposition process. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:2699–2712.It was brought to our attention that the Cárdenas et al paper did not cite a key source paper for the mathematics and approach to modeling the particokinetics of nanoparticles: Hinderliter PM, Minard KR, Orr O, et al. ISDD: A computational model of particle sedimentation, diffusion and target cell dosimetry for in vitro toxicity studies. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2010;7:36.In addition to unacceptable similarities in equations, computer implementation, and use of parameters from the above reference, three of the figures appearing in the paper are nearly identical to those published in the abovementioned Hinderliter et al, while others are very similar to those published in Teeguarden JG, Hinderliter PM, Orr G, Thrall BD, Pounds JG. Particokinetics in vitro: dosimetry considerations for in vitro nanoparticle toxicity assessments. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95(2 300–312. A number of other relevant citations were not included:Bird RB, Stewart WE, Lightfoot EN. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2002:97.Socolofsky SA, Jirka GH. Environmental Fluid Mechanics Part I: Mass Transfer and Diffusion Engineering – Lectures. 2nd edition. Karlsruhe-Germany; 2002:23.Probstein RF. Physicochemical Hydrodynamics – An Introduction. 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2003:45.Bejan A. Convection Heat Transfer. 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2004:515.We have no choice but to retract the publication by Cárdenas et al.

  9. Friction Stir Welding Technology: Adapting NASA's Retractable Pin Tool

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    In late 1991, The Welding Institute (TWI), a British research and technology organization, invented and patented a welding process named Friction Stir Welding (FSW). Friction Stir Welding is a highly significant advancement in aluminum welding technology that can produce stronger, lighter, and more efficient welds than any previous process.

  10. OPTIMAL ALGORITHM FOR NO TOOlRETRACTIONS CONTOUR-PARALLEL OFFSET TOOL-PATH LINKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yongtao; JIANG Lili

    2007-01-01

    A contour-parallel offset (CPO) tool-path linking algorithm is derived without toolretractions and with the largest practicability. The concept of "tool-path loop tree" (TPL-tree)providing the information on the parent/child relationships among the tool-path loops (TPLs) is presented. The direction, tool-path loop, leaf/branch, layer number, and the corresponding points of the TPL-tree are introduced. By defining TPL as a vector, and by traveling throughout the tree, a CPO tool-path without tool-retractions can be derived.

  11. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  12. Role of Threaded Tool Pin Profile and Rotational Speed on Generation of Defect Free Friction Stir AA 2014 Aluminium Alloy Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh D. Meshram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of threads on tool pin and rotational speeds on defect occurrence in friction stir welding (FSW of aluminum alloy AA 2014 T6 plates has been studied. The effect of FSW forces on the evolution of mechanistic defects, caused in turn through a variation in heat generation during the process has also been examined. In case of conical tool pin, relatively lower rotational speeds resulted in unbounded zones and micro defects while high speeds caused excessive flash, thereby resulting in surface defects and voids inside the weld. The FSW joints were defect-free at moderate speeds, hinting an optimum heat generation and flow. Reaction forces on the tool pin, in the welding direction, were correlated with the defect formation. Tools equipped with a threaded conical pin profile resulted in sound welds, irrespective of the tool rotational speeds in the entire range of 400 rpm - 2400 rpm. The threaded conical pin, with a relatively larger frictional area, may be contributing to higher levels of heat generation compared to a plain conical pin. Further, positive displacement of the hot plasticised material by the threads will carry away excess heat from the advancing-to-the-retracting side and simultaneously downwards, thus confining all heat within the weld zone.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 57-63, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.8566

  13. Numerical modeling of friction stir welding using the tools with polygonal pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding using the tools with polygonal pins is often found to improve the mechanical strength of weld joint in comparison to the tools with circular pins. However, the impacts of pin profile on the peak temperature, tool torque and traverse force, and the resultant mechanical stresses experienced by the tool have been rarely reported in a systematic manner. An estimation of the rate of heat generation for the tools with polygonal pins is challenging due to their non-axisymmetric cross-section about the tool axis. A novel methodology is presented to analytically estimate the rate of heat generation for the tools with polygonal pins. A three-dimensional heat transfer analysis of friction stir welding is carried out using finite element method. The computed temperature field from the heat transfer model is used to estimate the torque, traverse force and the mechanical stresses experienced by regular triangular, square, pentagon and hexagon pins following the principles of solid mechanics. The computed results show that the peak temperature experienced by the tool pin increases with the number of pin sides. However, the resultant maximum shear stress experienced by the pin reduces from the triangular to hexagonal pins.

  14. Effect of Pin Tool Shape on Metal Flow During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, J. C.; Coronado, E.; Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Murr, L. M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that metal moves behind the rotating Friction Stir Pin Tool in two separate currents or streams. One current, mostly on the advancing side, enters a zone of material that rotates with the pin tool for one or more revolutions and eventually is abandoned behind the pin tool in crescent-shaped pieces. The other current, largely on the retreating side of the pin tool is moved by a wiping process to the back of the pin tool and fills in between the pieces of the rotational zone that have been shed by the rotational zone. This process was studied by using a faying surface copper trace to clarify the metal flow. Welds were made with pin tools having various thread pitches. Decreasing the thread pitch causes the large scale top-to-bottorn flow to break up into multiple vortices along the pin and an unthreaded pin tool provides insufficient vertical motion for there to be a stable rotational zone and flow of material via the rotational zone is not possible leading to porosity on the advancing side of the weld.

  15. Removal Tools are Faster and Produce Less Force and Torque on the Helmet Than Cutting Tools During Face-Mask Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Heather L; Valovich, Tamara C; Arnold, Brent L; Gansneder, Bruce M

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the retraction time, forces, and torques applied to the football helmet during removal of the face mask with different face-mask removal tools. DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects retracted the face mask of a football helmet mounted to a force platform in a laboratory setting. They removed a standard face mask by cutting or removing (or both) the lateral plastic loop straps using 4 different tools: the Trainer's Angel (TA), FM Extractor (FM), power screwdriver (SD), and Quick Release System (QR) in a counterbalanced fashion. SUBJECTS: Eighteen certified athletic trainers participated in this study. MEASUREMENTS: We started measuring time when the subject picked up the tool and ended when the face mask was in a fully retracted position. Maximum forces and torques were measured from the force platform during the retraction process. RESULTS: The SD and QR retracted the face mask significantly faster than the TA and FM. Forces producing superior-inferior translation were least with the SD. The SD and QR produced less lateral translation and rotation and lateral flexion moment than the TA and FM. The FM produced less torque in the lateral flexion moment than the TA. CONCLUSIONS: Tools that removed the loop straps (SD, QR) were faster and produced less force and torque on the helmet than the tools that cut through the loop straps (TA, FM).

  16. Friction Stir Welding of Tapered Thickness Welds Using an Adjustable Pin Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glynn; Venable, Richard; Lawless, Kirby

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) can be used for joining weld lands that vary in thickness along the length of the weld. An adjustable pin tool mechanism can be used to accomplish this in a single-pass, full-penetration weld by providing for precise changes in the pin length relative to the shoulder face during the weld process. The difficulty with this approach is in accurately adjusting the pin length to provide a consistent penetration ligament throughout the weld. The weld technique, control system, and instrumentation must account for mechanical and thermal compliances of the tooling system to conduct tapered welds successfully. In this study, a combination of static and in-situ measurements, as well as active control, is used to locate the pin accurately and maintain the desired penetration ligament. Frictional forces at the pin/shoulder interface were a source of error that affected accurate pin position. A traditional FSW pin tool design that requires a lead angle was used to join butt weld configurations that included both constant thickness and tapered sections. The pitch axis of the tooling was fixed throughout the weld; therefore, the effective lead angle in the tapered sections was restricted to within the tolerances allowed by the pin tool design. The sensitivity of the FSW process to factors such as thickness offset, joint gap, centerline offset, and taper transition offset were also studied. The joint gap and the thickness offset demonstrated the most adverse affects on the weld quality. Two separate tooling configurations were used to conduct tapered thickness welds successfully. The weld configurations included sections in which the thickness decreased along the weld, as well as sections in which the thickness increased along the weld. The data presented here include weld metallography, strength data, and process load data.

  17. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Tool Steels Evaluated by the Pin-on-Disc Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, José Divo; Schopf, Roberto Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Present work examines tool steels abrasion wear resistance and the abrasion mechanisms which are one main contributor to failure of tooling in metal forming industry. Tooling used in cutting and metal forming processes without lubrication fails due to this type of wear. In the workshop and engineering practice, it is common to relate wear resistance as function of material hardness only. However, there are others parameters which influences wear such as: fracture toughness, type of crystalline structure and the occurrence of hard precipitate in the metallic matrix and also its nature. In the present investigation, the wear mechanisms acting in tool steels were analyzed and, by normalized tests, wear resistance performance of nine different types of tool steels were evaluated by pin-on-disc testing. Conventional tool steels commonly used in tooling such as AISI H13 and AISI A2 were compared in relation to tool steels fabricated by sintering process such as Crucible CPM 3V, CPM 9V and M4 steels. Friction and wear testing were carried out in a pin-on-disc automated equipment which pin was tool steel and the counter-face was a abrasive disc of silicon carbide. Normal load of 5 N, sliding velocity of 0.45 m/s, total sliding distance of 3000 m and room temperature were employed. The wear rate was calculated by the Archard's equation and from the plotted graphs of pin cumulated volume loss versus sliding distance. Specimens were appropriately heat treated by quenching and three tempering cycles. Percentage of alloying elements, metallographic analyses of microstructure and Vickers microhardness of specimens were performed, analyzed and correlated with wear rate. The work is concluded by the presentation of a rank of tool steel wear rate, comparing the different tool steel abrasion wear resistance: the best tool steel wear resistance evaluated was the Crucible CPM 9V steel.

  18. Variable Geometry Casting of Concrete Elements Using Pin-Type Tooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Holm; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2010-01-01

    Background: Today, free form parts are made in small production volume with time consuming methods and a significant amount of material waste. These methods include CNC machining and the layered rapid prototyping techniques SLA, SLS, FDM, 3D print etc., which are well suited for smaller parts......-called reconfigurable pin-type tooling principle (RPT). The geometric possibilities have been examined using a proof-of-concept RPT test mould. Sixty closely packed adjustable pin-elements with hemispherical tops and a square section of 43.3 x 43.3 mm create a dimpled surface that is evened out using an elastic...

  19. Intercostal retractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003322.htm Intercostal retractions To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intercostal retractions occur when the muscles between the ribs ...

  20. Characterization of the Influence of Tool Pin Profile on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Akbari, Mostafa; Asadi, Parviz; Safaee, Samad

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the effect of tool pin profile on mechanical properties, microstructural, material flow, thermal and strain distributions of friction stir welding of AA5083 was investigated. Two different tools with cylindrical and square pin profiles were employed to produce the welds. A numerical model is developed for investigating the effect of tool pin profiles on material flow, thermal and strain distributions based on thermo-mechanically coupled rigid-viscoplastic 3D FEM. Then, optical microscopy was employed to characterize the microstructures features of the weld. Finally, tensile test was carried out to characterize the mechanical properties of the weld. Obtained results showed that square pin profile produced finer grain structure and higher ultimate strength relative to cylindrical one. These results may be related to higher eccentricity, larger stirred zone, and higher temperature in the weld zone of the square pin profile.

  1. Retraction Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The article "Evaluation of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas" by Kyung-Min Lee and Timothy J. Herrman has been retracted by the authors and the Scientific Editors. The retraction is necessary owing to several corrections requested by the authors that significantly affect the findings.

  2. INFLUENCES OF TOOL PIN PROFILE ON THE MECHANICAL AND METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES OF FRICTION STIR WELDING OF DISSIMILAR ALUMINUM ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.PALANIVEL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Friction Stir Welding has provided an alternative improved way of producing aluminium joints, in a faster and reliable manner. In this study the effect of tool pin profile on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of dissimilar AA6351- AA5083H111 joints produced by FSW is analyzed. Five different tool pin profiles are developed such as straight cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, square, tapered square, and tapered octagon to weld the joints. All the welds are produced perpendicularly to the rolling direction for both alloys. Tensile tests are performed to evaluate the mechanical properties by using computerized universal testing machine. Color metallographic is carried out along various zones of the friction stir welded .Among the five tools square pin profile give better tensile strength and the stirred zone of the welded area has finer grains compared to other weld zones.

  3. Retraction Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Retraction:"Which lamp will be optimum to eye?Incandescent,fluorescent or LED etc"by Liang Chen and Xiao-Wei Zhang published on International Journal of Ophthalmology 2014;7(1):163-168.Authors of the above article failed to declare conflicts of interest,which violates the research ethics and moral norms.After a thorough investigation,we regret to announce that we must retract this article.We regret any adverse effects this article may have caused.

  4. RETRACTED: Hydrological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Panhalkar

    2014-12-01

    This paper has been retracted upon the request of the author and the editor as the paper requires major revision. The author did not have the permission to publish part of the discharge information presented in Figures 10–13. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause.

  5. A backing device based on an embedded stiffener and retractable insertion tool for thin-film cochlear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Radheshyam

    Intracochlear trauma from surgical insertion of bulky electrode arrays and inadequate pitch perception are areas of concern with current hand-assembled commercial cochlear implants. Parylene thin-film arrays with higher electrode densities and lower profiles are a potential solution, but lack rigidity and hence depend on manually fabricated permanently attached polyethylene terephthalate (PET) tubing based bulky backing devices. As a solution, we investigated a new backing device with two sub-systems. The first sub-system is a thin poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stiffener that will be embedded in the parylene array. The second sub-system is an attaching and detaching mechanism, utilizing a poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (PVP-b-PDLLA) copolymer-based biodegradable and water soluble adhesive, that will help to retract the PET insertion tool after implantation. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system one, a microfabrication process for patterning PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene has been developed. Conventional hot-embossing, mechanical micromachining, and standard cleanroom processes were integrated for patterning fully released and discrete stiffeners coated with parylene. The released embedded stiffeners were thermoformed to demonstrate that imparting perimodiolar shapes to stiffener-embedded arrays will be possible. The developed process when integrated with the array fabrication process will allow fabrication of stiffener-embedded arrays in a single process. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system two, the feasibility of the attaching and detaching mechanism was demonstrated by adhering 1x and 1.5x scale PET tube-based insertion tools and PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene using the copolymer adhesive. The attached devices survived qualitative adhesion tests, thermoforming, and flexing. The viability of the detaching mechanism was tested by aging the assemblies in-vitro in phosphate buffer solution. The average detachment times, 2.6 minutes and 10 minutes

  6. Retracted manuscript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, Anica

    2013-01-01

    The following article from Small GTPases, “Scientific Yellow Journalism” by Anica Klockars and Michael J. Williams, published online on 20 September 2012  (doi: 10.4161/sgtp.22289; http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/smallgtpases/article/22289/) by Landes Bioscience and subsequently published in print in Small GTPases 2012 3(4):201 has been retracted by agreement between the authors and the journal’s Editor in Chief, Michael J. Williams (also an author of the paper).  PMID:23485921

  7. EFFECT OF TOOL PIN PROFILES AND HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS IN THE FRICTION STIR WELDING OF AA 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir linear welding (FSLW uses a non consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters such as rotational speed, welding speed, axial force, tool tilt angle, etc., and tool pin profiles play a major role in deciding the joint properties. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the effect of four different tool pin profiles on mechanical properties of AA 6061 aluminum alloy. Four different profiles have been used to fabricate the butt joints by keeping constant process parameters of tool rotational speed 1200RPM, welding speed 14mm/min and an axial force 7kN. Different heat treatment methods like annealing, normalizing and quenching have been applied on the joints and evaluation of the mechanical properties like tensile strength, percentage of elongation, hardness and microstructure in the friction stirring formation zone are evaluated. From this investigation, it is found that the hexagonal tool profile produces good tensile strength, percent of elongation in annealing and hardness in quenching process.

  8. Retracted Science and the Retraction Index ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    Articles may be retracted when their findings are no longer considered trustworthy due to scientific misconduct or error, they plagiarize previously published work, or they are found to violate ethical guidelines. Using a novel measure that we call the “retraction index,” we found that the frequency of retraction varies among journals and shows a strong correlation with the journal impact factor. Although retractions are relatively rare, the retraction process is essential for correcting the literature and maintaining trust in the scientific process. PMID:21825063

  9. An analytical tool for PIN contact incident of LMFBR fuel-subassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Haga, Kazuo [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    A subchannel computer code COBRA-41 was modified for LMFBR local faults analysis. Calculational results to a pin contact condition were compared with experimental ones and trial calculations were made to an LMFBR fuel-subassembly geometry. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Retractions in orthopaedic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; MacDonald, A.; Baisi, L-P.; Evaniew, N.; Bhandari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite the fact that research fraud and misconduct are under scrutiny in the field of orthopaedic research, little systematic work has been done to uncover and characterise the underlying reasons for academic retractions in this field. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of retractions and identify the reasons for retracted publications in the orthopaedic literature. Methods Two reviewers independently searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1995 to current) using MeSH keyword headings and the ‘retracted’ filter. We also searched an independent website that reports and archives retracted scientific publications (www.retractionwatch.com). Two reviewers independently extracted data including reason for retraction, study type, journal impact factor, and country of origin. Results One hundred and ten retracted studies were included for data extraction. The retracted studies were published in journals with impact factors ranging from 0.000 (discontinued journals) to 13.262. In the 20-year search window, only 25 papers were retracted in the first ten years, with the remaining 85 papers retracted in the most recent decade. The most common reasons for retraction were fraudulent data (29), plagiarism (25) and duplicate publication (20). Retracted articles have been cited up to 165 times (median 6; interquartile range 2 to 19). Conclusion The rate of retractions in the orthopaedic literature is increasing, with the majority of retractions attributed to academic misconduct and fraud. Orthopaedic retractions originate from numerous journals and countries, indicating that misconduct issues are widespread. The results of this study highlight the need to address academic integrity when training the next generation of orthopaedic investigators. Cite this article: J. Yan, A. MacDonald, L-P. Baisi, N. Evaniew, M. Bhandari, M. Ghert. Retractions in orthopaedic research: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:263–268. DOI: 10

  11. Effect of Welding Speed and Tool Pin Geometry on Impact Strength in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminium 6101 T6 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajbir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW process is a solid state joining method in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters play a major role in deciding the joint characteristics. In this investigation the effect of welding speed and tool pin geometry in friction stir welds of Aluminium alloy was studied. The welded joints were made of Aluminium alloy AA 6101 T6 strips of 6mm thickness with different tool pin profile (Cylindrical, Taper cylindrical, Square and Taper Square. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Charpy tests were carried out to find the impact strength. From this investigation it is found that strength is superior with taper square tool pin profile than cylindrical, taper cylindrical and square tool pin profile. The pieces weld at rotational speed of 1200 r.p.m and welding speed of 70mm/min using taper square tool have higher strength.

  12. Influence of FSW pin tool geometry on plastic flow of AA7075 T651

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertora, Enrico; Mandolfino, Chiara; Gambaro, Carla

    2016-10-01

    In this paper the behaviour of the plastic flow during Friction Stir Welding of AA7075 T651 plates, realized with different shaped tools, has been investigated. In particular, the influence of the shape of three tools was studied using copper strips placed along the welds. After welding, radiography and metallurgical analysis were used in order to investigate the marker movement and its fragmentation.

  13. Effect of Tool Shoulder and Pin Probe Profiles on Friction Stirred Aluminum Welds - a Comparative Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. K. Mohanty; M. M. Mahapatra; P. Kumar; P. Biswas; N. R. Mandal

    2012-01-01

    In marine application,marine grade steel is generally used for haul and superstructures.However,aluminum has also become a good choice due to its lightweight qualities,while rusting of aluminum is minimal compared to steel.In this paper a study on friction stir welding of aluminum alloys was presented.The present investigation deals with the effects of different friction stir welding tool geometries on mechanical strength and the microstructure properties of aluminum alloy welds.Three distinct tool geometries with different types of shoulder and tool probe profiles were used in the investigation according to the design matrix.The effects of each tool shoulder and probe geometry on the weld was evaluated.It was also observed that the friction stir weld tool geometry has a significant effect on the weldment reinforcement,microhardness,and weld strength.

  14. Influence of tool pin profile on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AA2219 Al–Cu alloy friction stir weld nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkata Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the problems of fusion welding of aluminium alloys, the friction stir welding (FSW is recognized as an alternative joining method to improve the mechanical and corrosion properties. Tool profile is one of the important variables which affect the performance of the FS weld. In the present work, the effect of tool profile on the weld nugget microstructure and pitting corrosion of AA2219 aluminium–copper alloy was studied. FSW of AA2219 alloy was carried out using five profiles, namely conical, square, triangle, pentagon and hexagon. The temperature measurements were made in the region adjacent to the rotating pin. It was observed that the peak temperature is more in hexagonal tool pin compared to the welds produced with other tool pin profiles. It is observed that the extensive deformation experienced at the nugget zone and the evolved microstructure strongly influences the hardness and corrosion properties of the joint during FSW. It was found that the microstructure changes like grain size, misorientation and precipitate dissolution during FSW influence the hardness and corrosion behaviour. Pitting corrosion resistance of friction stir welds of AA2219 was found to be better for hexagon profile tool compared to other profiles, which was attributed to material flow and strengthening precipitate morphology in nugget zone. Higher amount of heat generation in FS welds made with hexagonal profile tool may be the reason for greater dissolution of strengthening precipitates in nugget zone.

  15. A Novel Rubric for Rating the Quality of Retraction Notices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Bilbrey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When a scientific article is found to be either fraudulent or erroneous, one course of action available to both the authors and the publisher is to retract said article. Unfortunately, not all retraction notices properly inform the reader of the problems with a retracted article. This study developed a novel rubric for rating and standardizing the quality of retraction notices, and used it to assess the retraction notices of 171 retracted articles from 15 journals. Results suggest the rubric to be a robust, if preliminary, tool. Analysis of the retraction notices suggest that their quality has not improved over the last 50 years, that it varies both between and within journals, and that it is dependent on the field of science, the author of the retraction notice, and the reason for retraction. These results indicate a lack of uniformity in the retraction policies of individual journals and throughout the scientific literature. The rubric presented in this study could be adopted by journals to help standardize the writing of retraction notices.

  16. A Multi Response Optimization of Tool Pin Profile on the Tensile Behavior of Age-hardenable Aluminum Alloys during Friction Stir Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vijayan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to select a suitable tool pin profile to maximize the tensile behavior (Ultimate Tensile Strength and Tensile Elongation of Friction stir welded aluminum alloys of AA 2024 and AA 6061. The age-hardnable aluminum alloys of 2xxx, 6xxx and 7xxx series are extensively used in automobile and aircraft industries because of its high strength to weight ratio, formability and ductility. These alloys are vulnerable to cracking (2xxx and 7xxx and highly melt (6xxx in conventional fusion welding techniques. Friction stir welding is an emerging solid state welding technique which is best suitable for joining these aluminum alloys. The influential process and tool parameters that are affecting the FS welded joints are such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial load and tool pin profile. Dissimilar friction stir welded joints of AA 2024 and AA 6061 aluminum alloys are fabricated using a friction stir welding process to examine the influence of the tool pin profiles on tensile properties on various crucial process parameters. A Box-Behnken design with four input parameters, three levels and 30 runs is used to conduct the experiments and Response Surface Method (RSM is used to develop the mathematical model. The experimental results were predicted at the 95% confidence level. The macro defects in the welds and the modes of tensile fracture are discussed in detail to reveal the root cause of failure in the fabricated samples. The rotating tool equipped with a square pin generated the highest ultimate tensile strength (143 MPa with a 12% elongation. A microstructure variation on dissimilar alloys which result 44% reduction in tensile strength on AA2024 and 51% reduction in tensile strength on AA6061 aluminum alloys was observed on the stir zones.

  17. New Tool Creates a Big Stir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A new self-adjusting, retractable pin tool for friction stir welding is now used in the manufacturing of components for NASA Space Shuttles. Friction stir welding is a process that makes straight-line welds without bringing the parent material to a liquid state. This is accomplished through high-speed rotation, which generates frictional heat between the welding tool and the piece being welded. This heat causes the material to soften to the point of plasticity without allowing it to melt. The plasticized material is then transferred from the front edge of the welding tool to the trail edge, where it joins the pieces being welded. However, a major flaw of this method is its reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The weld is left unfinished and a hole remains where the pin was inserted. The hole must be covered with a rivet in order to preserve the integrity of the weld. The NASA-developed pin tool, however, eliminates the need for this finishing step, as its retraction allows continuous rewelding at lesser depths, until the hole is completely closed. With this NASA technology, welding of higher strength alloys, as well as non-planer and variable thickness structures can be achieved.

  18. Important note! – Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Oka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Ji-Huan He, corresponding author of the paper (DOI: TSCI1305508D: Hao DOU, Hong-Yan LIU, Ping WANG, and Ji-Huan HE: A Belt-Like Superfine Film Fabricated by the Bubble-Electrospinning, published in THERMAL SCIENCE, Year 2013, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 1508-1510, asked Editor-in-chief to retract paper due to an unchangeable erratum, i.e. the experiment presented was wrongly described as another one, and the given figures do not fit experiment. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/TSCI1305508D

  19. Effect of tool pin profile on microstructure and tensile properties of friction stir welded dissimilar AA 6061–AA 5086 aluminium alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilangovan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Joints between two different grades of aluminium alloys are need of the hour in many light weight military structures. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to join the heat treatable (AA 6061 and non-heat treatable (AA 5086 aluminium alloys by friction stir welding (FSW process using three different tool pin profiles like straight cylindrical, taper cylindrical and threaded cylindrical. The microstructures of various regions were observed and analyzed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. The tensile properties and microhardness were evaluated for the welded joint. From this investigation it is founded that the use of threaded pin profile of tool contributes to better flow of materials between two alloys and the generation of defect free stir zone. It also resulted in higher hardness values of 83 HV in the stir zone and higher tensile strength of 169 MPa compared to other two profiles. The increase in hardness is attributed to the formation of fine grains and intermetallics in the stir zone, and in addition, the reduced size of weaker regions, such as TMAZ and HAZ regions, results in higher tensile properties.

  20. Impact of M2-Hss Tool Pin Profile in Fsw Welded Joints On Mechanical Properties Of Aa7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir, “welding is a solid state joining process and is widely being considered for aluminium alloys. The main advantage of FSW is the material that is being welded undergoes only localized changes. The welding parameter and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this work an effort has been made to analyze microstructure of aluminium AA 7075-T6 alloy. Three different tool profiles (Taper Threaded, cylindrical and square have been used to construct the joints in particular rotational speed. Tensile, Impact, micro hardness of mechanical properties of the joints have been evaluated and the formation of FSP zone has been analyzed microscopically. From the investigation it is found that the threaded cylindrical profile produces highly (defined Strength in welds.

  1. Happy Pinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2012-01-01

    This is about Pinterest, but with a different approach than usual to social networks. Pinterest is an image site par excellence. The images are as Windows that open outwards and also lets us look inwards and displays the soul and heart, the unintentional or pre-conscious desires. Happy Pinning!...

  2. Happy Pinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2012-01-01

    This is about Pinterest, but with a different approach than usual to social networks. Pinterest is an image site par excellence. The images are as Windows that open outwards and also lets us look inwards and displays the soul and heart, the unintentional or pre-conscious desires. Happy Pinning!...

  3. The Tie retraction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerling, Gerd; Neppert, Birte; Hemmant, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Tissue retraction is implicated in the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic disorders. Here we describe the clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathophysiology of a form of retraction syndrome which - to the best of our knowledge - has not been reported in the ophthalmic literature so far. We have termed this condition - consisting of a slowly progressive pseudovertical shortening of tie length due to a horizontal extension of girth length - the "Tie retraction syndrome" (TRS). Other pathognomonic features include an increased tie tip to belt buckle distance and a prolapse of the subumbilical fat pad (SUFP). The syndrome has a clear male to female preponderance and shows an increasing incidence with age and income before tax. Based on a newly proposed grading scheme we discuss and illustrate the diagnosis as well as the medical and surgical management options of this abundant, but often undiagnosed condition. The authors have no explanation for the apparent lack of awareness for this widely preponderant syndrome and its severe cosmetically disfiguring potential. We thus would like to invite all fellow colleagues with expertise in the field to comment or present their views.

  4. Preputial retraction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Abhinav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess preputial retractability in children at various ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty boys attending the hospital were included in the study. Children with hypospadias or history of preputial manipulation were excluded. Preputial anatomy was studied and subjects were classified into five groups as described by Kayaba et al . RESULTS: The prepuce could not be retracted at all so as to make even the external urethral meatus visible in 61.4% children aged 0-6 months while this decreased to only 0.9% in children aged 10-12 years. At the other end of the spectrum, while prepuce could not be fully retracted in any child below 6 months, it could be done in about 60% in the age group of 10-12 years. CONCLUSION Preputial nonseparation is the major cause of preputial nonretraction in the pediatric age group. Prepuce spontaneously separates from the glans as age increases and true phimosis is rare in children. Surgical intervention should be avoided for nonseparation of prepuce.

  5. Publication misconduct and plagiarism retractions: a systematic, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina; Bramich, Narelle J; Keys, Janelle R; Monk, Julie A; Ely, Julie A; Haley, Cassandra; Woolley, Mark J; Woolley, Karen L

    2012-10-01

    To investigate whether plagiarism is more prevalent in publications retracted from the medical literature when first authors are affiliated with lower-income countries versus higher-income countries. Secondary objectives included investigating other factors associated with plagiarism (e.g., national language of the first author's country affiliation, publication type, journal ranking). Systematic, controlled, retrospective, bibliometric study. Retracted publications dataset in MEDLINE (search filters: English, human, January 1966-February 2008). Retracted misconduct publications were classified according to the first author's country affiliation, country income level, and country national language, publication type, and ranking of the publishing journal. Standardised definitions and data collection tools were used; data were analysed (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence limits [CL], chi-squared tests) by an independent academic statistician. Of the 213 retracted misconduct publications, 41.8% (89/213) were retracted for plagiarism, 52.1% (111/213) for falsification/fabrication, 2.3% (5/213) for author disputes, 2.3% (5/213) for ethical issues, and 1.4% (3/213) for unknown reasons. The OR (95% CL) of plagiarism retractions (other misconduct retractions as reference) were higher (P 1 retraction) with publications retracted for plagiarism (11.5%, 9/78) than other types of misconduct (28.9%, 24/83). This is the first study to demonstrate that publications retracted for plagiarism are significantly associated with first authors affiliated with lower-income countries. These findings have implications for developing appropriate evidence-based strategies and allocation of resources to help mitigate plagiarism misconduct.

  6. Retracted Publications Within Radiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize trends related to retracted publications within radiology journals. PubMed was queried to identify all articles with the publication type "retracted publication" or "notification of retraction." Articles published within radiology journals were identified using Journal Citation Reports' journal categories. Available versions of original articles and publication notices were accessed from journal websites. Citations to retracted publications were identified using Web of Science. Overall trends were assessed. Forty-eight retracted original research articles were identified within radiology journals since 1983, which included 1.1% of all PubMed "retracted publication" entries. Distinct PubMed entries were available for the retracted publication and retraction notification in 39 of 48 articles. The original PDF was available for 37 articles, although the articles were not watermarked as retracted in 23 cases. In six cases with a watermarked PDF, further searches identified nonwatermarked versions. Original HTML versions were available for 13 articles but 11 were not watermarked. The mean (± SD) delay between publication and retraction was 2.7 ± 2.8 years (range, 0-16 years). The mean number of citations to retracted articles was 10.9 ± 17.1 (range, 0-94 citations). Reasons for retraction included problematic or incorrect methods or results (although it typically was unclear whether these represented honest errors or misconduct) in 33.3% of cases, complete or partial duplicate publication in 33.3% of cases, plagiarism in 14.6% of cases, a permission issue in 8.3% of cases, the publisher's error in 6.3% of cases, and no identified reason in 6.3% of cases. One or no retractions occurred annually from 1986 to 2001, although two or more retractions occurred annually in nine of the 12 years from 2002 through 2013. Retraction represents an uncommon, yet potentially increasing, issue within radiology journals that publishers

  7. Genetics Home Reference: isolated Duane retraction syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Condition co-contractive retraction syndrome Duane anomaly, isolated Duane retraction syndrome Duane syndrome Duane's syndrome ... of a gene for Duane retraction syndrome to chromosome 2q31. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Dec;65( ...

  8. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  9. Casting traceability with direct part marking using reconfigurable pin-type tooling based on paraffin–graphite actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    Green sand moulding machines for cast iron foundries are presently unable to uniquely identify individual castings. An insert tool concept is developed and tested via incremental mock-up development. The tool is part of the pattern plate and changes shape between each moulding, thus giving each...... simulated processing conditions. The marker geometry limitations have been tested using static symbol patterns, both for sand embossing and actual casting marking. The marked castings have successfully been identified with decoding software. The study shows that the function of each element...

  10. Discovery with RSS retracted

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Rotating Service Structure has been retracted at Pad 39A. Discovery, the Space Shuttle for STS-82 Mission is ready for the launch of the second Hubble Space Telescope service mission. The payload consists of the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Which will be installed, the Fine Guidance Sensor #1 (FGS-1) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) which will be installed. STS-82 will launch with a crew of seven at 3:54 a.m. February 11, 1997. The launch window is 65 minutes. The Mission Commander for STS-82 is Ken Bowersox. The purpose of the mission is to upgrade the scientific capabilities, service or replace aging components on the Telescope and provide a reboost to the optimum altitude.

  11. Notice of retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunali S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dear Colleagues,It has recently been brought to my attention that the following case report by Padeyappanavar et al., which was published online in the International Journal of Anatomical Variations (IJAV on February 23rd, 2010 (Padeyappanavar KV, Kazi AK, Nagaleekar A, Kulkarni D, Kulkarni U, Hukkeri V. Elongated styloid process – report of three cases. International Journal of Anatomical Variations. 2010; 3: 30–32. [1], has already been published in the Journal of the Anatomical Society of India in June 2008 [2], and in the Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences in January 2010 [3]. The manuscript has been submitted to IJAV in July 30th, 2009, and accepted for publication in January 22nd, 2010. It is obvious that the manuscript has been submitted to IJAV one year later to its initial publication in the Journal of the Anatomical Society of India. The editorial office of IJAV has confirmed that this case report by Padeyappanavar et al. was a duplicate publication, violating the publication agreement of IJAV. The most important condition of submission of a manuscript for publication is explicit declaration of the authors that the paper has not been published or is not under consideration for publication in any other journal. As such this manuscript represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system.We immediately contacted the corresponding author (Dr. Kiran V. Padeyappanavar, Department of Anatomy, Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences, India. E-mail: dr.kiranvp@gmail.com. Unfortunately, we could not get a satisfactory or logical explanation. Therefore, we hereby notice our readers that the paper by Padeyappanavar et al. [1] has been retracted.The institutions of the authors will also be advised via this notice of retraction.We deeply apologize to our readers and the international scientific community for this inconvenience that was totally occurred out of IJAV, and respectfully announce to the scientific world

  12. Corrigendum / Erratum / Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available RETRACTION TO: Dhal, G.C., Dey, S., Prasad, R., Mohan, D. (2017. Simultaneous Elimination of Soot and NOX through Silver-Barium Based Catalytic Materials. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 71-80 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.647.71-80 This article has been retracted by Publisher based on the following reason: Letter to Editor from Prof. James J. Spivey (Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University who reported that a comparison of this paper with a previously paper published in Catalysis Today (258 (2015 405-415, doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2015.02.024 shows significant duplication according to analysis by iThenticate shows 73% similarity, which is far more than acceptable. The authors have plagiarized part of the paper that had already published in [Catalysis Today (258 (2015 405-415, doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2015.02.024]. Based on clarification via email, Authors of the above paper have admitted their plagiarism to the previously published paper by Catalysis Today. Editor of Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis acknowledged Prof. James J. Spivey due to the valuable Letter to Editor. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication in this journal is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  13. A survey of retracted articles in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Gonçalves, Andréia Souza; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2017-07-06

    Publication retraction is a mechanism to preserve the scientific literature against publications that contain seriously flawed or erroneous data, redundant publication, plagiarism, unethical research, and other features that compromise the integrity of science. An increase in the occurrence of retractions in recent years has been reported. Nevertheless, there is scarce information on this topic concerning publications in dentistry and related specialties. Thus, this study aimed to investigate retracted papers published in dental journals. Data collection included an exploratory search in PubMed and a specific search in SCImago Journal Rank indexed journals, complemented by the cases reported on the Retraction Watch website and in PubMed. All 167 dental journals included in SCImago were searched for identification of retracted articles up to March 2016. The selected retracted articles and their corresponding retraction notices were recorded and assessed for classification according to the reason for retraction and other additional information. Forty of the 167 journals scrutinised at SCImago (23.9%) had at least one retracted article, and four additional journals were identified from the Retraction Watch website. A total of 72 retracted found were retracted for the reasons: redundant publication (20.8%), plagiarism (18.1%), misconduct (13.8%), overlap (13.6%) and honest error (9.7%). Higher number of retractions were reported in those journals with cites/doc retractions were mostly due to the authors' malpractice and were more frequently related to journals with less impact.

  14. Histotripsy Thrombolysis on Retracted Clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Owens, Gabe E; Cain, Charles A; Gurm, Hitinder S; Macoskey, Jonathan; Xu, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Retracted blood clots have been previously recognized to be more resistant to drug-based thrombolysis methods, even with ultrasound and microbubble enhancements. Microtripsy, a new histotripsy approach, has been investigated as a non-invasive, drug-free and image-guided method that uses ultrasound to break up clots with improved treatment accuracy and a lower risk of vessel damage compared with the traditional histotripsy thrombolysis approach. Unlike drug-mediated thrombolysis, which is dependent on the permeation of the thrombolytic agents into the clot, microtripsy controls acoustic cavitation to fractionate clots. We hypothesize that microtripsy thrombolysis is effective on retracted clots and that the treatment efficacy can be enhanced using strategies incorporating electronic focal steering. To test our hypothesis, retracted clots were prepared in vitro and the mechanical properties were quantitatively characterized. Microtripsy thrombolysis was applied on the retracted clots in an in vitro flow model using three different strategies: single-focus, electronically-steered multi-focus and dual-pass multi-focus. Results show that microtripsy was used to successfully generate a flow channel through the retracted clot and the flow was restored. The multi-focus and the dual-pass treatments incorporating the electronic focal steering significantly increased the recanalized flow channel size compared to the single-focus treatments. The dual-pass treatments achieved a restored flow rate up to 324 mL/min without cavitation contacting the vessel wall. The clot debris particles generated from microtripsy thrombolysis remained within the safe range. The results of this study show the potential of microtripsy thrombolysis for retracted clot recanalization with the enhancement of electronic focal steering. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Retracted publications in the drug literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samp, Jennifer C; Schumock, Glen T; Pickard, A Simon

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested an increase in the number of retracted scientific publications. It is unclear how broadly the issue of misleading and fraudulent publications pertains to retractions of drug therapy studies. Therefore, we sought to determine the trends and factors associated with retracted publications in drug therapy literature. A PubMed search was conducted to identify retracted drug therapy articles published from 2000-2011. Articles were grouped according to reason for retraction, which was classified as scientific misconduct or error. Scientific misconduct was further divided into data fabrication, data falsification, questions of data veracity, unethical author conduct, and plagiarism. Error was defined as duplicate publication, scientific mistake, journal error, or unstated reasons. Additional data were extracted from the retracted articles, including type of article, funding source, author information, therapeutic area, and retraction issue. A total of 742 retractions were identified from 2000-2011 in the general biomedical literature, and 102 drug studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 73 articles (72%) were retracted for a reason classified as scientific misconduct, whereas 29 articles (28%) were retracted for error. Among the 73 articles classified as scientific misconduct, those classified as unethical author conduct (32 articles [44%]) and data fabrication (24 articles [33%]) constituted the majority. The median time from publication of the original article to retraction was 31 months (range 1-130). Fifty percent of retracted articles did not state a funding source, whereas pharmaceutical manufacturer funding accounted for only 13 articles (13%) analyzed. Many retractions were due to repeat offenses by a small number of authors, with nearly 40% of the retracted studies associated with two individuals. We found that a greater proportion of drug therapy articles were retracted for reasons of misconduct and fraud compared with other

  16. Corticotomy-assisted retraction: An outcome assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vijayashri Sakthi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The rate of retraction with study group was twice as faster when compared to the control group, accelerating during the first 2 months of retraction. There was better anchorage control with the undecorticated molar segment during the retraction period but was found to increase as time advanced.

  17. 14 CFR 25.729 - Retracting mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retracting mechanism. 25.729 Section 25.729... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.729 Retracting mechanism... retracting mechanism, wheel well doors, and supporting structure, must be designed for— (i) The loads...

  18. 14 CFR 27.729 - Retracting mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retracting mechanism. 27.729 Section 27.729... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.729 Retracting mechanism..., retracting mechansim, wheel-well doors, and supporting structure must be designed for— (1) The loads...

  19. Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A tool that would be useable in both conventional and self-reacting friction stir welding (FSW) has been proposed. The tool would embody both a prior tooling concept for self-reacting FSW and an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability developed previously as an augmentation for conventional FSW. Some definitions of terms are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed tool. In conventional FSW, depicted in Figure 1, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a rotating pin that protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. The main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional FSW is augmented with an APT capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or force-control system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding (SR-FSW), there are two rotating shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft, back into the FSW machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. A tool for SRFSW embodying this concept was reported in "Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding" (MFS-31914), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 53. In its outward appearance, the proposed tool (see Figure 2) would fit the above description of an SR

  20. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  1. Clinical characteristics of the eardrum retraction pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ješić Snežana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the eardrum retraction pocket, as pathologic finding, depends on Eustachian tube dysfunction, onset of the middle ear infection and site of development of retraction on the eardrum. The study is aimed at: 1. Determining the incidence of eardrum retraction pocket and cholesteatoma within it, as well as at the degree of eardrum retraction; 2. Determining of association between eardrum retraction pocket and changes of the eardrum mucosaand parstensa of the tympanic membrane; 3. Determining of onset and intensity of the bone destruction in eardrum retraction pocket; 4. Examining of Eustachian tube function based on time of mucocilliary transport according to the type of the eardrum retraction pocket. The study is based on the retrospective analysis of the results obtained from the patients treated at the Institute of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade for the diagnosis of the chronic suppurative otitis who underwent otosurgical procedures during the six-year period, from 1996-2001. In our series of 540 patients subjected to otosurgical treatment, the incidence of the retraction pocket of the eardrum was 11.23%. Onset of more severe degree of eardrum retraction was most frequent in the attic. Cholesteatoma was detected in 82.2% of patients of the group with the attic-retraction pocket of the eardrum, as well as in 25% of patients of the group of tensa-sinus retraction pocket of the eardrum. Atrophic changes of the tympanic membrane pars tensa were detected in almost all tensa-sinus retraction pockets of the eardrum. Approximately one half of the attic-retraction pockets of the eardrum were accompanied by eardrum atrophy. Bone destruction of the auditory ossicles was limited to the long process of incus and superior structures of stapes. Time of the mucocilliary transport was significantly longer (p<0.01 in attic-retraction pocket of the eardrum than in tensa-sinus retraction pocket of

  2. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Dupont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  3. Lack of involvement of medical writers and the pharmaceutical industry in publications retracted for misconduct: a systematic, controlled, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Karen L; Lew, Rebecca A; Stretton, Serina; Ely, Julie A; Bramich, Narelle J; Keys, Janelle R; Monk, Julie A; Woolley, Mark J

    2011-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify how many publications retracted because of misconduct involved declared medical writers (i.e., not ghostwriters) or declared pharmaceutical industry support. The secondary objective was to investigate factors associated with misconduct retractions. A systematic, controlled, retrospective, bibliometric study. Retracted publications dataset in the MEDLINE database. PubMed was searched (Limits: English, human, January 1966 - February 2008) to identify publications retracted because of misconduct. Publications retracted because of mistake served as the control group. Standardized definitions and data collection tools were used, and data were analyzed by an independent academic statistician. Of the 463 retracted publications retrieved, 213 (46%) were retracted because of misconduct. Publications retracted because of misconduct rarely involved declared medical writers (3/213; 1.4%) or declared pharmaceutical industry support (8/213; 3.8%); no misconduct retractions involved both declared medical writers and the industry. Retraction because of misconduct, rather than mistake, was significantly associated with: absence of declared medical writers (odds ratio: 0.16; 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.57); absence of declared industry involvement (0.25; 0.11-0.58); single authorship (2.04; 1.01-4.12); first author having at least one other retraction (2.05; 1.35-3.11); and first author affiliated with a low/middle income country (2.34; 1.18-4.63). The main limitations of this study were restricting the search to English-language and human research articles. Publications retracted because of misconduct rarely involved declared medical writers or declared pharmaceutical industry support. Increased attention should focus on factors that are associated with misconduct retractions.

  4. Retraction RETRACTION of two articles with plagiarism in common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A M Duarte, Francisco

    2016-10-07

    The GMR editorial staff was alerted about two manuscripts that were found to be substantially equal. The Publisher and Editor decided to retract these articles in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). After a thorough investigation, there is strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure and, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract the article. The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics. The retracted articles are: Li Q, Chen C-F, Wang D-Y, Lü Y-T, et al. (2015). Transplantation of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells increases levels of nerve growth factor in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with autism. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 8725-8732. and Li Q, Chen C-F, Wang D-Y, Lü Y-T, et al. (2016). Changes in growth factor levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of autism patients after transplantation of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Genet. Mol. Res. 15: gmr.15027526. There is large-scale duplication of text from a previous publication by the authors in all sections of the articles and the Material and Methods section is identical for both manuscripts Li et al. (2015) and Li et al. (2016). Other major study, from where the text has been copied substantially, was found and can be accessed at https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/ articles/10.1186/1479-5876-11-196.

  5. Management of postblepharoplasty lower eyelid retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlus, Brett; Schwarcz, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the treatment of lower eyelid retraction will likely focus on new synthetic graft materials that are inert and stable with minimal potential for reabsorption. Other advances may focus on biomodulating agents that reduce the risk of retraction at the time of cosmetic eyelid surgery or reverse existing exuberant scarring. Nonsurgical options are viable for modest cases, and these conservative measures may continue to improve, but, for severe retraction, surgery still offers the best promise of correction.

  6. Upper Eyelid Retraction After Periorbital Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We report four unusual cases of upper eyelid retraction following periorbital trauma. Four previously healthy patients were evaluated for unilateral upper eyelid retraction following periorbital trauma. A 31-year-old man (Case 1) and a 24-year-old man (Case 2) presented with left upper eyelid retraction which developed after blow-out fractures, a 44-year-old woman (Case 3) presented with left upper eyelid retraction secondary to a periorbital contusion that occurred one week prior, and a 56-y...

  7. A Case-Control Comparison of Retracted and Non-Retracted Clinical Trials: Can Retraction Be Predicted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grant Steen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Does scientific misconduct severe enough to result in retraction disclose itself with warning signs? We test a hypothesis that variables in the results section of randomized clinical trials (RCTs are associated with retraction, even without access to raw data. We evaluated all English-language RCTs retracted from the PubMed database prior to 2011. Two controls were selected for each case, matching publication journal, volume, issue, and page as closely as possible. Number of authors, subjects enrolled, patients at risk, and patients treated were tallied in cases and controls. Among case RCTs, 17.5% had ≤2 authors, while 6.3% of control RCTs had ≤2 authors. Logistic regression shows that having few authors is associated with retraction (p < 0.03, although the number of subjects enrolled, patients at risk, or treated patients is not. However, none of the variables singly, nor all of the variables combined, can reliably predict retraction, perhaps because retraction is such a rare event. Exploratory analysis suggests that retraction rate varies by medical field (p < 0.001. Although retraction cannot be predicted on the basis of the variables evaluated, concern is warranted when there are few authors, enrolled subjects, patients at risk, or treated patients. Ironically, these features urge caution in evaluating any RCT, since they identify studies that are statistically weaker.

  8. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  9. A Novel Rubric for Rating the Quality of Retraction Notices

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Bilbrey; Natalie O'Dell; Jonathan Creamer

    2014-01-01

    When a scientific article is found to be either fraudulent or erroneous, one course of action available to both the authors and the publisher is to retract said article. Unfortunately, not all retraction notices properly inform the reader of the problems with a retracted article. This study developed a novel rubric for rating and standardizing the quality of retraction notices, and used it to assess the retraction notices of 171 retracted articles from 15 journals. Results suggest the rubric ...

  10. Retraction of Hard, Lozano, and Tversky (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, B. M.; Lozano, S. C.; Tversky, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reports a retraction of "Hierarchical encoding of behavior: Translating perception into action" by Bridgette Martin Hard, Sandra C. Lozano and Barbara Tversky (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2006[Nov], Vol 135[4], 588-608). All authors retract this article. Co-author Tversky and co-author Hard believe that the research results cannot…

  11. Retracted: FLT3: beyond good and evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro; Cortes-Penagos, Carlos; Viveros-Sandoval, Martha Eva

    2016-07-29

    The above article, published online on 29 July 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the Journal Editor in Chief, Journal Production Manager, and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to 48% similar significant between this article and an article published in Nature Reviews Cancer journal. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Flux pinning in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  13. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  14. Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    (no toxic smoke or shielding gas, liquid metal splatter, arcing, dangerous voltage, or radiation), and environmentally sound (no consumables, fumes, or noise) than fusion welding. Under computer control, an automated FSW machine can create welds with high reproducibility, improving efficiency and overall quality of manufactured materials. The process also allows for welding dissimilar metals as well as those metals considered to be "unweldable" such as the 7xxx series aluminum alloys. Its effectiveness and versatility makes FSW useful for aerospace, rail, automotive, marine, and military applications. A downside to FSW, however, is the keyhole opening left in the weld when the FSW pin tool exits the weld joint. This is a significant problem when using the FSW process to join circumferential structures such as pipes and storage containers. Furthermore, weld joints that taper in material thickness also present problems when using the conventional FSW pin tool, because the threaded pin rotating within the weld joint material is a fixed length. There must be capability for the rotating pin to both increase and decrease in length in real time while welding the tapered material. (Both circumferential and tapered thickness weldments are found in the space shuttle external tank.) Marshall engineers addressed both the keyhole and tapered material thickness problems by developing the auto-adjustable pin tool. This unique piece of equipment automatically withdraws the pin into the tool s shoulder for keyhole closeout. In addition, the auto-adjustable pin tool retracts, or shortens, the rotating pin while welding a weld joint that tapers from one thickness to a thinner thickness. This year, the impact of the Marshall innovation was recognized with an "Excellence in Technology Transfer Award" from the Federal Laboratory Consortium.

  15. Retraction of Neurosurgical Publications: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Justin; Ku, Jerry C; Alotaibi, Naif M; Rutka, James T

    2017-07-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of scientific fraud, no attempt has been made to assess its prevalence in neurosurgery. The aim of our review was to assess the chronologic trend, reasons, research type/design, and country of origin of retracted neurosurgical publications. Three independent reviewers searched the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases using neurosurgical keywords for retracted articles from 1995 to 2016. Archives of retracted articles (retractionwatch.com) and the independent Web sites of neurosurgical journals were also searched. Data including the journal, impact factor, reason for retraction, country of origin, and citations were extracted. A total of 97 studies were included for data extraction. Journal impact factor ranged from 0.57 to 35.03. Most studies (61) were retracted within the last 5 years. The most common reason for retraction was because of a duplicated publication found elsewhere (26), followed closely by plagiarism (22), or presenting fraudulent data (14). Other reasons included scientific errors/mistakes, author misattribution, and compromised peer review. Articles originated from several countries and some were widely cited. Retractions of neurosurgical publications are increasing significantly, mostly because of issues of academic integrity, including duplicate publishing and plagiarism. Implementation of more transparent data-sharing repositories and thorough screening of data before manuscript submission, as well as additional educational programs for new researchers, may help mitigate these issues in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IMp: The customizable LEGO(®) Pinned Insect Manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  17. What Studies of Retractions Tell Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marcus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The retraction is receiving a growing amount of attention as an important event in scientific and scholarly publishing. Not only are some journals becoming increasingly open in their handling of the articles they withdraw—allowing researchers to gain important insights into the work of their colleagues—but scholars, too, have greater access to the reasons for retractions, information that is dramatically reshaping our understanding of such events. As this article will demonstrate, recent research has inverted the accepted lore about why retractions happen and their impact.

  18. Retracted: Exploring resident reflections to understand burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Abigail Ford; Jakalow, Holli; Benton, Laura; Moss, Haley; Mitchell, Lauren; Feldman, Nathalie

    2016-04-05

    Retraction: Winkel, A. F., Jakalow, H., Benton, L., Moss, H., Mitchell, L. and Feldman, N. (2016), Exploring resident reflections to understand burnout. The Clinical Teacher. doi: 10.1111/tct.12513 The above article, published online on 5th April 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Co-Editors, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to a change in the status of the research project's Institutional Review Board approval, leading to permission to use some of the data in this article being revoked.

  19. [Py-Desmanet pinning in distal radius fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, O; Popia, I

    2009-01-01

    Internal fixation by pinning is one of the most used methods of surgical treatment in fractures of the distal extremity of the radius. As in stable fractures a styloid pinning is satisfactory, in unstable fractures however we must resort to different patterns of pin insertion, in order to effectively prevent the secondary displacement of the fractured fragments. The elastic pinning described by Py and Desmanet is one of the possibilities of inserting the pins. The principle of this method is to use the bending-induced tension in the pins to counteract the postero-lateral displacing forces. The authors have treated by this technique five patients with distal radius fractures (3 women and 2 men) about 56 years of average age, all with good-quality bone, all with Colles' fracture pattern (2-4 cm above the radio-carpal articulation, no articular involvement, posterior displacement of the distal fragment). The reduction of the fractures was achieved by closed manipulation and controlled intraoperatively with the C-arm. We preferred to reduce the fractures before inserting the pins, although this is not compulsory, according to the authors of the technique. The approach was minimally-invasive, through two 1-cm long incisions. The pins, previously blunted and curved along the last centimeters, were introduced using a "T"-shaped handle. The potential complications, consisting of injuries of the many elements which cross the region, were avoided by sufficiently long incisions and identification and retraction of these elements (tendons, nervous branches) in order not to penetrate them with the pins. The aftertreatment consisted of immediate mobilization of the wrist in one patient, 21-day splinting in other two and 30-day splinting in the last two, depending on the intraoperative assessment of the stability of the fixation. The pins were removed at 45 days postoperatively in all cases. There were no complications such as loss of reduction or pin migration. In all cases

  20. Retracted Publications in Orthopaedics: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rahul; Sabharwal, Sanjeev

    2017-05-03

    Retracted publications are a crucial, yet overlooked, issue in the scientific community. The purpose of our study was to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and trends of retracted publications in the field of orthopaedics. Five databases were utilized to identify retracted publications in orthopaedics. The cited articles were assessed for various characteristics, including reason for retraction, based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and trends over time. From 1984 to June 4, 2016, 59 of 229,502 orthopaedic publications were retracted (3 per 10,000 articles). There was a spike in the prevalence (22 of 59) of retracted articles in 2015. When compared with the total number of retracted publications identified through PubMed, the field of orthopaedics represented 1.4% of all retracted publications. The original version of 47 of these 59 retracted publications was still available on the respective journal's web site; 14 (30%) of these were not noted as having been retracted. The mean time from electronic publication to retraction was 19.4 ± 23.3 months. The mean number of citations of a retracted publication after the date of retraction was 9.3 ± 19.3. Reasons for retraction included plagiarism (32%), misconduct (27%), redundant publication (22%), miscalculation or experimental error (8%), and unethical research (0%); the reason for retraction was not stated for 10% of the publications. There was no correlation between a journal's impact factor and the mean number of months to retraction (p = 0.564). While uncommon, the retraction of publications within the field of orthopaedics may be increasing. The most often cited reasons for retraction were plagiarism, misconduct, and redundant publication. Retracted articles continue to be cited in the literature after retraction. Greater awareness of the COPE guidelines within the orthopaedic community and more efficient means to prevent the citation of retracted articles are needed.

  1. A systematic review of retracted publications in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Anthony; De Villelongue, Cedric; Pateron, Dominique; Yordanov, Youri

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this study was to characterize retracted publications in emergency medicine. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify all retracted publications in the field of emergency medicine. We also searched an independent website that reports and archives retracted scientific publications. Two researchers independently screened titles, abstracts and full text of search results. Data from all included studies were then independently extracted. We identified 28 retraction notes. Eleven (39%) articles were published by authors from Europe. The oldest retracted article was published in 2001. The 28 retracted papers were published by 22 different journals. Two authors were named on multiples retractions. The median impact factor of journals was 1.03 (0.6-1.9). Almost all studies were available online [26/28 (93%)], but only 40% had watermarking on the article. The retraction notification was available for all articles. Three (11%) retraction notices did not clearly report the retraction reasons, and most retraction notices were issued by the editors [14 (56%)]. The most frequent retraction reasons were plagiarism [eight (29%)], duplicate publication [three (11%)] and overlap [two (2%)]. Retracted articles were cited on average 14 times. In most cases, the retraction cause did not invalidate the study's results [17 (60%)]. The most common reason for retraction was related to a misconduct by the authors. These results can question the necessity to normalize retraction procedures among the large number of biomedical editors and to educate future researchers on research integrity.

  2. Retractions of scientific publications: responsibility and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavić, Vedran

    2014-01-01

    This evidence-based opinion piece gives a short overview of the increase in retractions of publications in scientific journals and discusses various reasons for that increase. Also discussed are some of the recent prominent cases of scientific misconduct, the number of authors with multiple retractions, and problems with reproducibility of published research. Finally, some of the effects of faulty research on science and society, as well as possible solutions are discussed.

  3. Alar retraction: etiology, treatment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ashlin J; Shah, Anil R; Constantinides, Minas S

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different rhinoplasty maneuvers on alar retraction remains to be elucidated. To determine the etiology and treatment of alar retraction based on a series of specific rhinoplasty maneuvers. Retrospective review of a single surgeon's rhinoplasty digital photo database, examining preoperative alar retraction from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2005, in 520 patients. Patients with more than 1 mm of alar retraction on preoperative photographs were identified. Postoperative photographs were examined to determine the effect of specific rhinoplasty maneuvers on the position of the alar margin; these maneuvers included cephalic trim, cephalic positioning of the lower lateral cartilage, composite grafts, alar rim grafts, alar batten grafts, and overlay of the lower lateral cartilage. Tertiary care academic health center. Forty-five patients with alar retraction met inclusion criteria, resulting in 63 nasal halves with alar retraction. Intraoperative findings, postoperative results. Forty-seven percent of the patients (n = 21) had prior surgery; 47% also had cephalically positioned lower lateral cartilages. Among patients with less than 4 mm of cartilage width at the outset, 46% of those who received supportive grafts achieved target correction vs only 7% for patients who did not undergo supportive cartilage grafting. In patients who underwent more than 4 mm of cephalic trim, those who received supportive grafts achieved 46% of target correction vs 11% among those who did not. Ninety-five percent of composite grafts, 69% of alar strut grafts, 47% of alar rim grafts, 43% of vertical lobule division, and 12% of alar batten grafts achieved their target correction values. Alar retraction is a highly complex problem. It can be seen de novo and is associated with cephalically positioned lower lateral cartilages. Structurally supportive grafting-including composite grafts, alar strut grafts, alar rim grafts, vertical lobule division, and alar batten grafts

  4. A retractable barb needle for drug darts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. van Rooyen

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism and action of a new retractable barbneedle for drug darts are described. This dart needle is particularly successful in obviating unnecessary flight reactions andtrauma in darted animals, and facilitates the complete injection of the drug dose before the barb is retracted and the dart is dislogded from the animal. The whole process is completed within a few seconds and the expended dart can usually be retrieved in the immediate vicinity where the animal was darted.

  5. A comprehensive survey of retracted articles from the scholarly literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Minghua

    2012-01-01

    The number of retracted scholarly articles has risen precipitously in recent years. Past surveys of the retracted literature each limited their scope to articles in PubMed, though many retracted articles are not indexed in PubMed. To understand the scope and characteristics of retracted articles across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines, we surveyed 42 of the largest bibliographic databases for major scholarly fields and publisher websites to identify retracted articles. This study examines various trends among them. We found, 4,449 scholarly publications retracted from 1928-2011. Unlike Math, Physics, Engineering and Social Sciences, the percentages of retractions in Medicine, Life Science and Chemistry exceeded their percentages among Web of Science (WoS) records. Retractions due to alleged publishing misconduct (47%) outnumbered those due to alleged research misconduct (20%) or questionable data/interpretations (42%). This total exceeds 100% since multiple justifications were listed in some retraction notices. Retraction/WoS record ratios vary among author affiliation countries. Though widespread, only miniscule percentages of publications for individual years, countries, journals, or disciplines have been retracted. Fifteen prolific individuals accounted for more than half of all retractions due to alleged research misconduct, and strongly influenced all retraction characteristics. The number of articles retracted per year increased by a factor of 19.06 from 2001 to 2010, though excluding repeat offenders and adjusting for growth of the published literature decreases it to a factor of 11.36. Retracted articles occur across the full spectrum of scholarly disciplines. Most retracted articles do not contain flawed data; and the authors of most retracted articles have not been accused of research misconduct. Despite recent increases, the proportion of published scholarly literature affected by retraction remains very small. Articles and editorials

  6. PINS-3X Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  7. Diffusion inspires selection of pinning nodes in pinning control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; He, Xingsheng; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liao, Hao; Cai, Shi-min; Zhuo, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The outstanding problem of controlling a complex network via pinning is related to network dynamics and has the potential to master large-scale real-world systems as well. This paper addresses the heart issue about how to choose pinning nodes for pinning control, where pinning control aims to control a network to an identical state by injecting feedback control signals to a small fraction of nodes. We explore networks' controllability from not only mathematical analysis, but also the aspects of network topology and information diffusion. Then, the connection between pinning control and information diffusion is given, and pinning node selection is transferred into multi-spreader problem in information diffusion. Based on information diffusion, a heuristic method is proposed to select pinning nodes by optimizing the spreading ability of multiple spreaders. The proposed method greatly improves the controllability of large practical networks, and provides a new perspective to investigate pinning node selection.

  8. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A. [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharya, M., E-mail: mishreyee@vecc.gov.in; Barat, P. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2014-10-14

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  9. Wear behaviour of powder metallurgy tool steel M3/2 reinforced with niobium carbide by pin-on-disk test; Estudio del desgaste de aceros rapidos pulvimetalurgicos M3/2 reforzados con carburo de niobio mediante el ensayo pin-on-disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela, N.; Lopez, A.; Ruano, O. A.; Jimenez, J. a.

    2005-07-01

    In this work, composite materials M3/2 high-speed steel reinforced with 5, 10 and 15%, in volume, of niobium carbide have been obtained to improve the wear behaviour. The materials were prepared by powder metallurgy using steel and carbide powders that were mechanically ball milled in a planetary mill, and then hot isostatically pressed. The wear mechanically ball milled in a planetary mill, and then hot isostatically pressed. The wear behaviour was determined by pin-on-disk tests. The materials present a microstructure consisting of grains with a few microns in size and fine MC and M{sub 6}C particles homogeneously dispersed in its interior. In the case of reinforced materials, reinforcing carbides particles are placed mainly at the surface of the prior steel powder particle boundaries. the wear behaviour was evaluated from friction and wear coefficients, and also from weight loss. the addition of niobium carbide improves the wear properties of the tool steel in both martensitic and tempered conditions. A decrease of the weight loss and the wear coefficient is observed with increasing volume fraction of NbC. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Pinning Down versus Density

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The pinning down number $ {pd}(X)$ of a topological space $X$ is the smallest cardinal $\\kappa$ such that for any neighborhood assignment $U:X\\to \\tau_X$ there is a set $A\\in [X]^\\kappa$ with $A\\cap U(x)\

  11. A Miniature Robot for Retraction Tasks under Vision Assistance in Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tortora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS is one of the main aims of modern medicine. It enables surgery to be performed with a lower number and severity of incisions. Medical robots have been developed worldwide to offer a robotic alternative to traditional medical procedures. New approaches aimed at a substantial decrease of visible scars have been explored, such as Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES. Simple surgical tasks such as the retraction of an organ can be a challenge when performed from narrow access ports. For this reason, there is a continuous need to develop new robotic tools for performing dedicated tasks. This article illustrates the design and testing of a new robotic tool for retraction tasks under vision assistance for NOTES. The retraction robots integrate brushless motors to enable additional degrees of freedom to that provided by magnetic anchoring, thus improving the dexterity of the overall platform. The retraction robot can be easily controlled to reach the target organ and apply a retraction force of up to 1.53 N. Additional degrees of freedom can be used for smooth manipulation and grasping of the organ.

  12. Nanowall pinning for enhanced pinning force in YBCO films with nanofabricated structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, A.; Rouco, V.; Luccas, R.F.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T., E-mail: teresa.puig@icmab.es

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • High resolution lithography techniques to fabricate artificial pinning centres in high temperature superconductors. • Enhanced critical currents of YBCO films with engineered nanofabricated structures. • Controlled nano-walls with weakened superconductivity acting as strong pinning centres. - Abstract: High resolution nanofabrication tools (Focused Ion Beam and Electron Beam Lithography) have been used to fabricate nano-metric milled structures in high critical current YBCO thin films able to further increase their vortex pinning capabilities. We have demonstrated that pinning forces at 77 K and 3 T are increased by a 70–80% by proper nanostructure designs. Model systems with linear trenches and triangular blind antidots of different sizes, distribution and density have been generated and studied. We demonstrate that specific milled nanostructures can increase the total current through the system at expenses of a limited decrease of cross section. We have identified the length of fabricated nano-walls as the main parameter controlling the pinning potential of nanostructures and thus defined the optimised milling conditions and nanostructure morphology to maximise pinning efficiency.

  13. Versatile retraction mechanics: Implant assisted en-masse retraction with a boot loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Philip

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explain the versatility offered by the use of arch wires with boot loops in retraction mechanics while taking direct anchorage from mini-screws. Materials and Methods: The materials include the mini screws placed at the appropriate location and retraction arches made of 0.019 X 0.025 SS with boot loops placed distal to the lateral incisors. Mini screw provides a stable anchorage for enmasse retraction of the anterior teeth with the help of a boot loop using sliding and/or loop mechanics. Results: The arch wires with boot loops have a definite advantage over the soldered/ crimpable hooks because of the versatility it offers during the process of retraction. Conclusion: An innovative approach combining the advantages of absolute anchorage using mini implants and a retraction arch with boot loop is presented here.

  14. Topological stability through extremely tame retractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that F : (Rn ×Rd, 0)¿(Rp ×Rd, 0) is a smoothly stable, Rd-level preserving germ which unfolds f : (Rn, 0)¿(Rp, 0); then f is smoothly stable if and only if we can find a pair of smooth retractions r : (Rn+d, 0)¿(Rn, 0) and s : (Rp+d, 0)¿(Rp, 0) such that f ¿ r = s ¿ F . Unfortunately, we do...... not know whether f will be topologically stable if we can find a pair of continuous retractions r and s. The class of extremely tame (E-tame) retractions, introduced by du Plessis and Wall, are defined by their nice geometric properties, which are sufficient to ensure that f is topologically stable....... In this article, we present the E-tame retractions and their relation with topological stability, survey recent results by the author concerning their construction, and illustrate the use of our techniques by constructing E-tame retractions for certain germs belonging to the E- and Z-series of singularities....

  15. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  16. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  17. Retracted: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-02-15

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. SIMULATE-4 pin power calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadir, T. [Studsvik Scandpower, Inc., 1087 Beacon St., Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Lindahl, S. Oe [Studsvik Scandpower AB, Hantverkargatan 2A, SE-722 12 Vasteraas (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    A new pin power reconstruction module has been implemented in Studsvik Scandpower's next generation nodal code, SIMULATE-4. Heterogeneous pin powers are calculated by modulating multi-group pin powers from the sub-mesh solver of SIMULATE-4 with pin form factors from single-assembly CASMO-5 lattice calculations. The multi-group pin power model captures instantaneous spectral effects, and actinide tracking on the assembly sub-mesh describes exposure-induced pin power variations. Model details and verification tests against high order multi-assembly transport methods are presented. The accuracy of the new methods is also demonstrated by comparing SIMULATE-4 calculations with measured critical experiment pin powers. (authors)

  19. Extendable retractable telescopic mast for deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M.; Aguirre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Extendable and Retractable Mast (ERM) which is presently developed by Dornier in the frame of an ESA-contract, will be used to deploy and retract large foldable structures. The design is based on a telescopic carbon-fiber structure with high stiffness, strength and pointing accuracy. To verify the chosen design, a breadboard model of an ERM was built and tested under thermal vacuum (TV)-conditions. It is planned as a follow-on development to manufacture and test an Engineering Model Mast. The Engineering Model will be used to establish the basis for an ERM-family covering a wide range of requirements.

  20. Deployable and retractable telescoping tubular structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new deployable and retractable telescoping boom capable of high deployed stiffness and strength is described. Deployment and retraction functions are controlled by simple, reliable, and fail-safe latches between the tubular segments. The latch and a BI-STEM (Storable Tubular Extendible Member) actuator work together to eliminate the need for the segments to overlap when deployed. This yields an unusually lightweight boom and compact launch configuration. An aluminum space-flight prototype with three joints displays zero structural deadband, low hysteresis, and high damping. The development approach and difficulties are discussed. Test results provide a joint model for sizing flight booms of any diameter and length.

  1. [Correction of severe alar retraction with alar rotation flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chun; Zheng, Dongxue; Lu, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of alar rotation flap for severe alar retraction. Patients with severely retracted alar underwent ala reconstruction using alar rotation flaps and autogenous cartilage batten grafts. First, costal cartilage was used to reshape the nasal tip and nasal dorsum. Then cartilage patch was used to extend and thicken the retracted alar. Then the alar rotation flap was transferred to correct retracted alar. Fourteen patients with severe alar retraction underwent alar reconstruction with alar rotation flap and alar batten grafts. The alar retraction was corrected in all cases, with improvements functionally and aesthetically. No recurrence of alar retraction was noted. The incision healed with acceptable cosmetic results, with obvious scar in only one patient (one side). The alar rotation flap is an effective and reliable surgical option to correct severe alar retraction. Scar can be kept inconspicuous by precise placement of the incision within the junction of the ala and the nasal dorsum, following principles of the aesthetic nasal subunits.

  2. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  3. 16 CFR 1101.52 - Procedure for retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for retraction. 1101.52 Section 1101.52 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Retraction § 1101.52 Procedure for retraction. (a) Initiative....

  4. Article retracted, but the message lives on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-04-01

    The retraction of an original article aims to ensure that readers are alerted to the fact that the findings are not trustworthy. However, the present research suggests that individuals still believe in the findings of an article even though they were later told that the data were fabricated and that the article was retracted. Participants in a debriefing condition and a no-debriefing condition learned about the scientific finding of an empirical article, whereas participants in a control condition did not. Afterward, participants in the debriefing condition were told that the article had been retracted because of fabricated data. Results showed that participants in the debriefing condition were less likely to believe in the findings than participants in the no-debriefing condition but were more likely to believe in the findings than participants in the control condition, suggesting that individuals do adjust their beliefs in the perceived truth of a scientific finding after debriefing-but insufficiently. Mediational analyses revealed that the availability of generated causal arguments underlies belief perseverance. These results suggest that a retraction note of an empirical article in a scientific journal is not sufficient to ensure that readers of the original article no longer believe in the article's conclusions.

  5. Sources of error in the retracted scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Steen, R. Grant; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    Retraction of flawed articles is an important mechanism for correction of the scientific literature. We recently reported that the majority of retractions are associated with scientific misconduct. In the current study, we focused on the subset of retractions for which no misconduct was identified, in order to identify the major causes of error. Analysis of the retraction notices for 423 articles indexed in PubMed revealed that the most common causes of error-related retraction are laboratory errors, analytical errors, and irreproducible results. The most common laboratory errors are contamination and problems relating to molecular biology procedures (e.g., sequencing, cloning). Retractions due to contamination were more common in the past, whereas analytical errors are now increasing in frequency. A number of publications that have not been retracted despite being shown to contain significant errors suggest that barriers to retraction may impede correction of the literature. In particular, few cases of retraction due to cell line contamination were found despite recognition that this problem has affected numerous publications. An understanding of the errors leading to retraction can guide practices to improve laboratory research and the integrity of the scientific literature. Perhaps most important, our analysis has identified major problems in the mechanisms used to rectify the scientific literature and suggests a need for action by the scientific community to adopt protocols that ensure the integrity of the publication process.—Casadevall, A., Steen, R. G., Fang, F. C. Sources of error in the retracted scientific literature. PMID:24928194

  6. Pinning, de-pinning and re-pinning of a slowly varying rivulet

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2013-09-01

    The solutions for the unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet with prescribed volume flux down an inclined planar substrate are used to describe the locally unidirectional flow of a rivulet with constant width (i.e. pinned contact lines) but slowly varying contact angle as well as the possible pinning and subsequent de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle and the possible de-pinning and subsequent re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width as they flow in the azimuthal direction from the top to the bottom of a large horizontal cylinder. Despite being the same locally, the global behaviour of a rivulet with constant width can be very different from that of a rivulet with constant contact angle. In particular, while a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can always run from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, the behaviour of a rivulet with constant width depends on the value of the width. Specifically, while a narrow rivulet can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, a wide rivulet can run from the top of the cylinder only to a critical azimuthal angle. The scenario in which the hitherto pinned contact lines of the rivulet de-pin at the critical azimuthal angle and the rivulet runs from the critical azimuthal angle to the bottom of the cylinder with zero contact angle but slowly varying width is discussed. The pinning and de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle, and the corresponding situation involving the de-pinning and re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width at a non-zero contact angle which generalises the de-pinning at zero contact angle discussed earlier, are described. In the latter situation, the mass of fluid on the cylinder is found to be a monotonically increasing function of the constant width. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Misconduct accounts for the majority of retracted scientific publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ferric C.; Steen, R. Grant; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of all 2,047 biomedical and life-science research articles indexed by PubMed as retracted on May 3, 2012 revealed that only 21.3% of retractions were attributable to error. In contrast, 67.4% of retractions were attributable to misconduct, including fraud or suspected fraud (43.4%), duplicate publication (14.2%), and plagiarism (9.8%). Incomplete, uninformative or misleading retraction announcements have led to a previous underestimation of the role of fraud in the ongoing retraction epidemic. The percentage of scientific articles retracted because of fraud has increased ∼10-fold since 1975. Retractions exhibit distinctive temporal and geographic patterns that may reveal underlying causes. PMID:23027971

  8. Fluctuations in type IV pilus retraction

    CERN Document Server

    Linden, M; Jonsson, A B; Wallin, M; Linden, Martin; Johansson, Emil; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Wallin, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The type IV pilus retraction motor is found in many important bacterial pathogens. It is the strongest known linear motor protein and is required for bacterial infectivity. We characterize the dynamics of type IV pilus retraction in terms of a stochastic chemical reaction model. We find that a two state model can describe the experimental force velocity relation and qualitative dependence of ATP concentration. The results indicate that the dynamics is limited by an ATP-dependent step at low load and a force-dependent step at high load, and that at least one step is effectively irreversible in the measured range of forces. The irreversible nature of the sub-step(s) lead to interesting predictions for future experiments: We find different parameterizations with mathematically identical force velocity relations but different fluctuations (diffusion constant). We also find a longer elementary step compared to an earlier analysis, which agrees better with known facts about the structure of the pilus filament and e...

  9. Fuel pin cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1986-01-28

    Disclosed is an improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients. 2 figs.

  10. Fuel pin cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Adamson, Martyn G.

    1986-01-01

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  11. Injective objects and retracts of Fra\\"iss\\'e limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2011-01-01

    We present a purely category-theoretic characterization of retracts of Fra\\"iss\\'e limits. For this aim, we consider a natural version of injectivity with respect to a pair of categories (a category and its subcategory). It turns out that retracts of Fra\\"iss\\'e limits are precisely the objects that are injective relatively to such a pair. One of the applications is a characterization of non-expansive retracts of Urysohn's universal metric space.

  12. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear retracting... retracted and must be designed for the combination of friction, inertia, brake torque, and air loads, occurring during retraction at any airspeed up to 1.6 V S 1 with flaps retracted, and for any load factor up...

  13. Why articles are retracted: a retrospective cross-sectional study of retraction notices at BioMed Central.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Elizabeth C; Kowalczuk, Maria K

    2016-11-23

    To assess why articles are retracted from BioMed Central journals, whether retraction notices adhered to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and are becoming more frequent as a proportion of published articles. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 134 retractions from January 2000 to December 2015. 134 retraction notices were published during this timeframe. Although they account for 0.07% of all articles published (190 514 excluding supplements, corrections, retractions and commissioned content), the rate of retraction is rising. COPE guidelines on retraction were adhered to in that an explicit reason for each retraction was given. However, some notices did not document who retracted the article (eight articles, 6%) and others were unclear whether the underlying cause was honest error or misconduct (15 articles, 11%). The largest proportion of notices was issued by the authors (47 articles, 35%). The majority of retractions were due to some form of misconduct (102 articles, 76%), that is, compromised peer review (44 articles, 33%), plagiarism (22 articles, 16%) and data falsification/fabrication (10 articles, 7%). Honest error accounted for 17 retractions (13%) of which 10 articles (7%) were published in error. The median number of days from publication to retraction was 337.5 days. The most common reason to retract was compromised peer review. However, the majority of these cases date to March 2015 and appear to be the result of a systematic attempt to manipulate peer review across several publishers. Retractions due to plagiarism account for the second largest category and may be reduced by screening manuscripts before publication although this is not guaranteed. Retractions due to problems with the data may be reduced by appropriate data sharing and deposition before publication. Adopting a checklist (linked to COPE guidelines) and templates for various classes of retraction notices would increase transparency of retraction notices

  14. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  15. Paddle-pin alinement test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, D. M.; Foster, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Segmented insulated test bar speeds up patch distributor paddle-pin test. Device eliminates need to disconnect cables or remove distributor. Printed circuit cable and connector reduces weight on bar, adding to tester portability.

  16. Pinning Mechanisms in YBCO Tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Spera, Marcello; Ballarino, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis work, a study on flux pinning mechanisms of commercial YBCO tapes is presented. This study has been performed via critical current characterization using transport (via direct I-V curves) and magnetization (via a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) measurements. The latter ones turned out to be better concerning the comprehension of the pinning landscape of the provided samples, as a wider range of magnetic fields and temperatures is available for those measurements in the setup I used. The comparison of the experimental data with existing theoretical models allowed me to draw a picture of the pinning mechanisms underlying in each sample, and they turned out to be quite different one another. Moreover, for high-performance research tapes, another interesting feature has been found: the counterplay between the self-field critical current and the in-field one. Very well engineered artificial pinning structures limit the self-field critical current density due to the hi...

  17. AtPIN: Arabidopsis thaliana Protein Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Filho Marcio C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs constitute one of the most crucial conditions to sustain life in living organisms. To study PPI in Arabidopsis thaliana we have developed AtPIN, a database and web interface for searching and building interaction networks based on publicly available protein-protein interaction datasets. Description All interactions were divided into experimentally demonstrated or predicted. The PPIs in the AtPIN database present a cellular compartment classification (C3 which divides the PPI into 4 classes according to its interaction evidence and subcellular localization. It has been shown in the literature that a pair of genuine interacting proteins are generally expected to have a common cellular role and proteins that have common interaction partners have a high chance of sharing a common function. In AtPIN, due to its integrative profile, the reliability index for a reported PPI can be postulated in terms of the proportion of interaction partners that two proteins have in common. For this, we implement the Functional Similarity Weight (FSW calculation for all first level interactions present in AtPIN database. In order to identify target proteins of cytosolic glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (Cyt-gluRS (AT5G26710 we combined two approaches, AtPIN search and yeast two-hybrid screening. Interestingly, the proteins glutamine synthetase (AT5G35630, a disease resistance protein (AT3G50950 and a zinc finger protein (AT5G24930, which has been predicted as target proteins for Cyt-gluRS by AtPIN, were also detected in the experimental screening. Conclusions AtPIN is a friendly and easy-to-use tool that aggregates information on Arabidopsis thaliana PPIs, ontology, and sub-cellular localization, and might be a useful and reliable strategy to map protein-protein interactions in Arabidopsis. AtPIN can be accessed at http://bioinfo.esalq.usp.br/atpin.

  18. Fixed Simplex Property for Retractable Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapart Anna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retractable complexes are defined in this paper. It is proved that they have the fixed simplex property for simplicial maps. This implies the theorem of Wallace and the theorem of Rival and Nowakowski for finite trees: every simplicial map transforming vertices of a tree into itself has a fixed vertex or a fixed edge. This also implies the Hell and Nešetřil theorem: any endomorphism of a dismantlable graph fixes some clique. Properties of recursively contractible complexes are examined.

  19. Pin-wise Reactor Analysis Based on the Generalized Equivalence Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hwan Yeal; Heo, Woong; Kim, Yong Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, a pin-wise reactor analysis is performed based on the generalized equivalence theory. From the conventional fuel assembly lattice calculations, pin-wise 2-group cross sections and pin DFs are generated. Based on the numerical results on a small PWR benchmark, it is observed that the pin-wise core analysis provide quite accurate prediction on the effective multiplication factor and the peak pin power error is bounded by about 3% in peripheral fuel assemblies facing the baffle-reflector. Also, it was found that relatively large pin power errors occur along the interface between clearly different fuel assemblies. It is expected that the GET-based pin-by-pin core calculation can be further developed as an advanced method for reactor analysis via improving the group constants and discontinuity factors. Recently, high-fidelity multi-dimensional analysis tools are gaining more attention because of their accurate prediction of local parameters for core design and safety assessment. In terms of accuracy, direct whole-core transport is quite promising. However, it is clear that it is still very costly in terms of the computing time and memory requirements. Another possible solution is the pin-by-pin core analysis in which only small fuel pins are homogenized and the 3-D core analysis is still performed using a low-order operator such as the diffusion theory. In this paper, a pin-by-pin core analysis is performed using the hybrid CMFD (HCMFD) method. Hybrid CMFD is a new global-local iteration method that has been developed for efficient parallel calculation of pinby-pin heterogeneous core analysis. For the HCMFD method, the one-node CMFD scheme is combined with a local two-node CMFD method in a non-linear way. Since the SPH method is iterative and SPH factors are not direction dependent, it is clear that SPH method takes more computing cost and cannot take into account the different heterogeneity and transport effects at each pin interface. Unlike the SPH

  20. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  1. Modeling the Interaction between AFM Tips and Pinned Surface Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yawei; Xiao, Qianxiang; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Xianren

    2016-01-26

    Although the morphology of surface nanobubbles has been studied widely with different AFM modes, AFM images may not reflect the real shapes of the nanobubbles due to AFM tip-nanobubble interactions. In addition, the interplay between surface nanobubble deformation and induced capillary force has not been well understood in this context. In our work we used constraint lattice density functional theory to investigate the interaction between AFM tips and pinned surface nanobubbles systematically, especially concentrating on the effects of tip hydrophilicity and shape. For a hydrophilic tip contacting a nanobubble, its hydrophilic nature facilitates its departure from the bubble surface, displaying a weak and intermediate-range attraction. However, when the tip squeezes the nanobubble during the approach process, the nanobubble shows an elastic effect that prevents the tip from penetrating the bubble, leading to a strong nanobubble deformation and repulsive interactions. On the contrary, a hydrophobic tip can easily pierce the vapor-liquid interface of the nanobubble during the approach process, leading to the disappearance of the repulsive force. In the retraction process, however, the adhesion between the tip and the nanobubble leads to a much stronger lengthening effect on nanobubble deformation and a strong long-range attractive force. The trends of force evolution from our simulations agree qualitatively well with recent experimental AFM observations. This favorable agreement demonstrates that our model catches the main intergradient of tip-nanobubble interactions for pinned surface nanobubbles and may therefore provide important insight into how to design minimally invasive AFM experiments.

  2. Bilateral upper eyelid retraction caused by topical bimatoprost therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Kazunami; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case with upper eyelid retraction caused by topical bimatoprost therapy. Topical bimatoprost 0.03% was administered to a 69-year-old woman with bilateral normal-tension glaucoma. It was first administered to the left eye, and 3 weeks later, therapy on the right side of the eye was initiated. One week after the initiation of therapy on the right side, right upper eyelid retraction occurred, and 63 days after starting treatment on the left side (42 days after initiation on the right side), conspicuous bilateral upper eyelid retraction was observed. Bimatoprost instillation was then stopped and the medication was switched to latanoprost 0.005%. Upper eyelid retraction was reversed to normal levels approximately 1 week after cessation of bimatoprost therapy. In conclusion, a rare case of upper eyelid retraction caused by topical bimatoprost therapy, which was reversed after discontinuation of the medication, is reported.

  3. Enhanced pinning in superconducting thin films with graded pinning landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, M.; Colauto, F.; Ortiz, W. A.; Fritzsche, J.; Cuppens, J.; Gillijns, W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.; Sanchez, A.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    A graded distribution of antidots in superconducting a-Mo79Ge21 thin films has been investigated by magnetization and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The pinning landscape has maximum density at the sample border, decreasing linearly towards the center. Its overall performance is noticeably superior than that for a sample with uniformly distributed antidots: For high temperatures and low fields, the critical current is enhanced, whereas the region of thermomagnetic instabilities in the field-temperature diagram is significantly suppressed. These findings confirm the relevance of graded landscapes on the enhancement of pinning efficiency, as recently predicted by Misko and Nori [Phys. Rev. B 85, 184506 (2012)].

  4. Interface roughening and pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Stéphane; Hansen, Alex

    1994-04-01

    We study a simple model for thé pinning of an interface by impurities with random strengths, and thé depinning due to thé applied pressure, in a quasi-static propagation lirait. The model is very close to thé so called "Robin Hood" model introduced by Zaitsev. It is designed to describe e.g. thé invasion of a wetting fluid (imbibition) in a heterogeneous porous medium containing a second immiscible fluid. The relation between this model and other previously proposed approaches is discussed. The front of thé invaded domain is shown to develop a self-affine structure with an increase of thé roughness as a power-law of thé injected volume. The value of thé apparent roughness exponent can be favorably compared to some experimental measurements although we argue that thé true roughness exponent is out of reach of commonly used methods. We show that thé distribution f(d, Δ t) of distances d between discrete local invasions at a time interval Δ t can be described by a scaling law f(d, Δ t) = d^{-1}\\varphi(d/sqrt{Δ t}). This form can be obtained from thé identification of a hierarchical structure of "bursts" in thé pressure signal. Those "bursts" are quahtatively similar to those observed in quasistatic drainage, (i.e. invasion percolation), although characterized by différent scaling indices. Nous étudions un modèle simple pour analyser l'accrochage d'une interface sur des impuretés et le décrochage sous l'effet d'une pression appliquée, dans une limite quasi-statique. Ce modèle est très voisin du modèle "Robin Hood" introduit par Zaitsev. Il s'applique en particulier à l'invasion d'un fluide mouillant (imbibition) dans un milieu poreux hétérogène contenant un fluide immiscible. Nous discutons les relations entre ce modèle et d'autres approches proposées pour décrire ce phénomène. Le front d'invasion acquiert une structure auto-affine, avec un développement de la rugosité selon une loi de puissance du volume injecté. La valeur de l

  5. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  6. Opening and retraction of particulate soap films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Lorenceau, Elise; Rouyer, Florence

    2015-07-01

    We study for the first time the bursting dynamics of thin liquid films laden with hydrophobic micronic particles either with free or constrained edges. We highlight that the particles can arrange in bilayer or monolayer configurations and explore a range of particles coverage from zero to random close packing. When the particles bridge the two interfaces (monolayer configuration) of free-edge films, the hole opens intermittently. For the other cases, we observe constant retraction velocities, modeled by balancing liquid and particles inertia against surface tension as in Taylor-Culick theory. But, this approach is only valid up to a critical value of particles coverage due to the interplay between the interfaces and the friction between particles.

  7. Synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yi Liang; Xingyuan Wang

    2013-04-01

    It is proved that the maximum eigenvalue sequence of the principal submatrices of coupling matrix is decreasing. The method of calculating the number of pinning nodes is given based on this theory. The findings reveal the relationship between the decreasing speed of maximum eigenvalue sequence of the principal submatrices for coupling matrix and the synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control. We discuss the synchronizability on some networks, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks. Numerical simulations show that different pinning strategies have different pinning synchronizability on the same complex network, and the synchronizability with pinning control is consistent with one without pinning control in various complex networks.

  8. RETRACTED: Menselijke vrijheid en het Christelijk geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Doomen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human freedom and the Christian faith. In this article, it is examined whether there is room for human freedom in a Christian perspective. Augustine’s and Luther’s views are illuminating in order to clarify this matter. The way they deal with the idea of predestination is an important issue. According to Augustine, man is, to a certain degree, able to grasp the way in which God governs man; this idea is not present in Luther’s thoughts. Their notions of ‘freedom’ differ considerably as well; here, too, Augustine has more confidence in human reason than Luther does. However, it is difficult for both Luther and Augustine to defend a notion of human freedom and at the same time maintain God’s foreknowledge. Still, even irrespective of that, human freedom is something which cannot easily be demonstrated. For both Christians and non-believers, the issue of human freedom remains an unresolved problem.*This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief.Reason: ‘The article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. It has come to light that this article has significant overlap with an article that had already appeared in Informción Filosófica, Volume 1 (2004, num. 2, pp. 251–265, entitled ‘De onverenigbaarheid van menselijke vrijheid met het christelijk geloof’. Apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process’.The full-text of the original article (2004 is here: https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/17816

  9. Structure of retracted tendons after staged repair following continuous traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Mazda; Gerber, Christian; Snedeker, Jess G; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Meyer, Dominik C

    2011-12-01

    The effect of staged repair involving continuous re-lengthening of the retracted musculotendinous unit after rotator cuff tear is not known. We quantified changes in chronically retracted tendons undergoing no repair or a staged repair involving an initial re-lengthening of the musculotendinous unit by traction in a sheep model of massive rotator cuff tear. Infraspinatus tendons of 12 sheep were released and allowed to retract for 4 months. Repair was performed after the retracted musculotendinous unit had been progressively returned to its original length through continuous traction in 8 sheep (group I). In the other 4 sheep (group II) traction was not successful and the tendons remained retracted. Tendon structure was assessed macroscopically, by MRI, histology, and TEM. Normalized to their contralateral controls, at sacrifice, tendon thickness was unchanged in group I (116%, n.s) and increased in group II (129%, P Retracted musculotendinous units have deteriorated tendons, characterized by increased collagen fiber crimp, and ultrastructural collagen fibril atrophy and disorganization. Continuous traction may arrest and partially restore degenerative changes in retracted tendon. The findings of this study might contribute to new approaches for the treatment of chronic "irreparable" rotator cuff tears.

  10. Improved pinning regime by energetic ions using reduction of pinning potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Parks, Drew; Mayes, Bill

    2003-05-15

    When ion damage is used to create pinning centers, full columnar pinning centers provide the largest pinning potential, U{sub pin}, but not the greatest J{sub c} or pinned field, B{sub pin}. Some of the characteristics of columnar defects which limit J{sub c} and B{sub pin} are discussed, including reduction of percolation path, and the need for a larger number of columns of damage, for pinning, than are usually estimated. It is concluded that columnar pinning centers are limited to B{sub pin}<4 T, and also severely reduce J{sub c}. Evidence is reviewed that aligned damage, or broken-columnar pinning centers, described herein, can provide orders of magnitude higher J{sub c}, and higher pinned field, despite providing lower U{sub pin}. A pinning center morphology is discussed which utilizes multiple-in-line-damage (MILD). For, e.g., present day large grain HTS J{sub c}, obtainable by MILD pinning, is estimated to be of the order of 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, even when crystal plane alignment and weak links are not improved. Pinned field is increased by over an order of magnitude. An experiment is proposed to confirm these observations, and to directly compare MILD to columnar pinning centers. It will also determine the optimum MILD structure. Other measurements of interest, made possible by the same data set, are described.

  11. Retraction dynamics of aquous drops upon impact on nonwetting surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, D; Bonn, D; Bartolo, Denis; Josserand, Christophe; Bonn, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We study the impact and subsequent retraction dynamics of liquid droplets upon high-speed impact on hydrophobic surfaces. Performing extensive experiments, we show that the drop retraction rate is a material constant and does not depend on the impact velocity. We show that when increasing the Ohnesorge number, $\\Oh=\\eta/\\sqrt{\\rho R_{\\rm I} \\gamma}$, the retraction, i.e. dewetting, dynamics crosses over from a capillaro-inertial regime to a capillaro-viscous regime. We rationalize the experimental observations by a simple but robust semi-quantitative model for the solid-liquid contact line dynamics inspired by the standard theories for thin film dewetting.

  12. The Retraction Penalty: Evidence from the Web of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Susan Feng; Jin, Ginger Zhe; Uzzi, Brian; Jones, Benjamin

    2013-11-01

    Scientific articles are retracted at increasing rates, with the highest rates among top journals. Here we show that a single retraction triggers citation losses through an author's prior body of work. Compared to closely-matched control papers, citations fall by an average of 6.9% per year for each prior publication. These chain reactions are sustained on authors' papers (a) published up to a decade earlier and (b) connected within the authors' own citation network by up to 4 degrees of separation from the retracted publication. Importantly, however, citation losses among prior work disappear when authors self-report the error. Our analyses and results span the range of scientific disciplines.

  13. Duane's retraction syndrome associated with morning glory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, K; Fujita, S

    1981-01-01

    A 9-year-old boy with Duane's retraction syndrome and morning glory syndrome is presented. The right eye showed a grayish-pink optic disc, which had a deep excavation containing a white mass in its center and was surrounded by an annulus of pigment disturbance, i.e., consistent with the features of morning glory syndrome. The left eye had a congenital disturbance of ocular motility, which was typical of Duane's retraction syndrome. This is probably the first report of the association of Duane's retraction syndrome and morning glory syndrome. It is hypothesized that a noxious stimulus given at around two months of gestation was responsible for this rare association.

  14. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  15. Pinning-controllability of complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sorrentino, Francesco; Di Bernardo, Mario; Garofalo, Franco; Chen, Guanrong

    2007-01-01

    We study the problem of controlling a general complex network towards an assigned synchronous evolution, by means of a pinning control strategy. We define the pinning-controllability of the network in terms of the spectral properties of an extended network topology. The roles of the control and coupling gains as well as of the number of pinned nodes are also discussed.

  16. Self-shearing retentive pins: a laboratory evaluation of pin channel penetration before shearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmeier, W W; Cooley, R L

    1979-09-01

    This laboratory study determined the depth reached by self-shearing pins in dentin pin channels. Pin channels were prepared with the self-limiting shoulder twist drill for each of the four systems tested. Mean channel depth reached for the various pin systems was: Stabilok (small), 2.31 mm; Stabilok (medium), 1.78 mm; Reten Pin, 1.40 mm; and TMS (Regular), 2.04 mm. A coparison was also made by calculating the mean percent of penetration in relation to the depth of prepared pin channel: Stabilok (small), 92.50%; Stabilok (medium), 63.62%; Reten Pin, 66.67%; and TMS (Regular) 81.75%.

  17. An explicit construction of sunny nonexpansive retractions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Reich

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An explicit algorithmic scheme for constructing the unique sunny nonexpansive retraction onto the common fixed point set of a nonlinear semigroup of nonexpansive mappings in a Banach space is analyzed and a proof of convergence is given.

  18. Self-similar breakup of a retracting liquid cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasz, Frederik; Berny, Alexis; Bird, James

    2016-11-01

    When a fluid filament breaks up due to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability, a thin thread typically pinches off from a nearly spherical drop. Depending on its shape, this thread can break up again while it retracts to form satellite and even sub-satellite droplets. Past studies have modeled the shape of the retracting filament as a cone, yet the dynamics of nearly inviscid retracting cones are known to be stable, preventing any further filament breakup. Here we show that under certain finite perturbations, retracting conical liquid filaments can become unstable and break up into a cascade of self-similar droplets. Combining numerical simulations and experiments, we explore whether or not a conical filament is likely to break up based on cone angle and initial perturbation. We expect our results to be relevant in applications in which satellite bubbles or droplets are important, such as in modeling the flux of aerosols from the ocean to the atmosphere.

  19. Invariant and energy analysis of an axially retracting beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaodong; Liu Ming; Zhang Wei; Roderick V.N. Melnik

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of a retracting cantilevered beam has been investigated by the invariant and energy-based analysis. The time-varying parameter partial differential equation governing the transverse vibrations of a beam with retracting motion is derived based on the momentum theorem. The assumed-mode method is used to truncate the governing partial differential equation into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with time-dependent coefficients. It is found that if the order of truncation is not less than the order of the initial conditions, the assumed-mode method can yield accurate results. The energy transfers among assumed modes are discussed during retrac-tion. The total energy varying with time has been investigated by numerical and analytical methods, and the results have good agreement with each other. For the transverse vibrations of the axially retracting beam, the adiabatic invariant is derived by both the averaging method and the Bessel function method.

  20. Friction stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy A.

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  1. Retracted: Post-stroke epilepsy in Polish paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyta, Ilona; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata

    2015-08-01

    The above article, published online on 5 October 2013 in Wiley Online Library Early View (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr Peter Baxter, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to several errors in the statistics. These errors make interpretation of the data difficult and the validity of the conclusions questionable.

  2. RETRACTED: Protective role of HSP70 against various gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the author. The article is a substantial duplicate of a paper that has already been published by the same author in Curr Pharm Des, 16 (2010) 1190-1196, http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161210790945986. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sessile droplet de-pinning: new life for gravimetric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwaichow B; Pierce, Scott M

    2007-02-01

    Using three different types of surfaces as exemplars, we report a gravimetric method as a viable tool for studying the de-pinning process. Namely, the de-pin time, tau(d) (the time required for a horizontal sessile droplet to de-pin at the triple phase line on a given substrate), is estimated without using a time consuming and expensive video imaging system. This is made possible by deciphering the non-linear portion of mass vs time data of an evaporating sessile droplet. Typical gravimetric glass-substrate evaporative mass loss vs time data has two regimes: a long, linear regime followed by a short, non-linear regime. Traditionally, researchers extract only the evaporation rate of a droplet from the linear regime but discard (by truncating the data) or ignore (thus deriving no information from) the non-linear regime. The origin of the linear to non-linear transition, found almost universally in gravimetric data, persists unremarked upon. By constructing three very different types of surfaces and comparing gravimetric data with video imaging data taken simultaneously, we report the transition is correlated to the onset of the de-pinning event in each case. This realization enables us to measure the de-pin time, tau(d), with gravimetric data only; i.e., without the video system, gathering more information from gravimetric data than previously considered. The method has application in estimating the de-pin time of a droplet deposited on a substrate that yields poor top-view contrast for videography, such as a water droplets on silicon wafers or glass substrates. Finally, gravimetric data is more accurate for evaporation modeling when substrate/droplet interaction areas are not circular.

  4. Pinning control of chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    The position of the coherent and incoherent domain of a chimera state in a ring of nonlocally coupled oscillators is strongly influenced by the initial conditions, making nontrivial the problem of confining them in a specific region of the structure. In this paper we propose the use of spatial pinning to induce a chimera state where the nodes belonging to one domain, either the coherent or the incoherent, are fixed by the control action. We design two different techniques according to the dynamics to be forced in the region of pinned nodes, and validate them on FitzHugh-Nagumo and Kuramoto oscillators. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable strategy to deal with the effects of finite size in small structures.

  5. Be on Pins and Needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A:It seems you’re on pins and needles today.Anything troubling you?B:Yeah.I don’t know why bad things keep happening to me .You see,mycar was stolen and the warehouse had been broken into.I can’t keep myfinger on the causes of this damned thing.A:There must be someone who had planned that.Do you have a partieularperson in mind?

  6. En masse retraction versus two-step retraction of anterior teeth in extraction treatment of bimaxillary protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Nayef H; Al-Sulaimani, Fahad F; Murshid, Zuhair A; Hassan, Ali H

    2013-01-01

    In the present report, two techniques of space closure; two-step anterior teeth retraction (TSR) and en masse retraction (ER) were used in two adult patients who had bimaxillary protrusion and were treated with four premolar extractions and fixed orthodontic appliance therapy. Both patients had a Class I dental malocclusion and the same chief complaint, which is protrusive lips. Anterior teeth were retracted by two-step retraction; canine sliding followed by retraction of incisors with T-loop archwire in the first patient and by en masse retraction using Beta titanium alloy T-loop archwire in the second case. At the end of treatment, good balance and harmony of lips was achieved with maintenance of Class I relationships. The outcome of treatment was similar in the two patients with similar anchorage control. ER can be an acceptable alternative to the TSR during space closure since it is esthetically more acceptable. However, it requires accurate bending and positioning of the T-loop.

  7. Investigation of the bulk pinning force in YBCO superconducting films with nano-engineered pinning centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, A.; Dang, V. S.; Yearwood, G.; Mikheenko, P.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.

    2014-08-01

    For practical applications of superconducting materials in applied magnetic fields, artificial pinning centres in addition to natural ones are required to oppose the Lorentz force. These pinning centres are actually various types of defects in the superconductor matrix. The pinning centres can be categorised on their dimension (volume, surface, or point) and on their character (normal cores or Δκ cores). We have used the Dew Hughes approach to determine the types of pinning centres present in various samples, with various thicknesses, temperatures and nanostructured additions to the superconducting matrix. Results show that normal surface pinning centres are present throughout almost all the samples, as dominant pinning mechanism. Such 2D extended pinning centres are mainly due to dislocations, grain boundaries, nanorods. Strong normal point pinning centres were found to be common in BZO doped YBCO samples. Other types of pinning centres, in various (minor) concentrations were also found in some of the samples.

  8. A Multi-dimensional Investigation of the Effects of Publication Retraction on Scholarly Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, Xin; Rollins, Jason; Custis, Tonya; Schilder, Frank; Edmunds, Mathilda

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the rate of publication retractions has increased dramatically in academia. In this study, we investigate retractions from a quantitative perspective, aiming to answer two fundamental questions. One, how do retractions influence the scholarly impact of retracted papers, authors, and institutions? Two, does this influence propagate to the wider academic community through scholarly associations? Specifically, we analyzed a set of retracted articles indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS), and ran multiple experiments to compare changes in scholarly impact against a control set of non-retracted articles, authors, and institutions. We further applied the Granger Causality test to investigate whether different scientific topics are dynamically affected by retracted papers occurring within those topics. Our results show two key findings: first, the scholarly impact of retracted papers and authors significantly decreases after retraction, and the most severe impact decrease correla...

  9. Lower eyelid retraction repair with resorbable polydioxanone implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel H Alsuhaibani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a unique technique to repair lower eyelid retraction using resorbable polydioxanone implants. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive, nonrandomized interventional case series. Patients with lower eyelid retraction after trauma repaired facial fracture, thyroid eye disease, lower eyelid blepharoplasty, and long-standing facial palsy were treated with middle lamellar spacer using absorbable polydioxanone implant. All patients were recruited from the King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Only patients with minimum follow-up of 12 months were included in the study. Results: Eight patients (4 males and 4 females underwent lower eyelid retraction repair using absorbable polydioxanone implant. The mean age was 43 years (range, 23-63 years. All patients noted improved ocular surface symptoms. The improvement in eyelid retraction ranged from 1.5 to 4 mm with an average of 2.7 mm postoperatively. The implant was well tolerated with no major complications. Conclusions: Several options for spacer materials are available. Absorbable polydioxanone implants seem to be an effective middle lamellar spacer that is a good alternative for repairing middle lamella related lower eyelid retraction and lower eyelid support.

  10. Endoscopic Repair of Acute and Chronic Retracted Distal Biceps Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Deepak N

    2016-12-01

    Distal biceps tendon (DBT) ruptures are infrequent injuries that result in pain, weakness, and cosmetic deformity. Severe retraction of the ruptured DBT can occur at the time of injury, or in chronic neglected ruptures, and surgical exposure is performed using a single incision or a 2-incision technique. The technique presented here describes an endoscopic approach using 3 portals that provide access to the retracted DBT, biceps sheath, and radial tuberosity. Preoperative sonographic localization of the retracted DBT and neurovascular structures is used to guide portal placement. The parabiceps portal is used for visualization of the biceps sheath remnant, and the midbiceps portal is used to visualize and retrieve the retracted tendon in the arm. The retracted DBT is shuttled through the biceps sheath into the upper forearm, and 2 suture anchors are passed into the radial tuberosity under direct endoscopic vision. The DBT is whipstitched via the distal anterior portal, and nonsliding knots are tied to securely reattach the DBT to the prepared radial tuberosity. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved denture retention in patients with retracted tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hua; Chen, Jen-Hao; Lee, Huey-Er; Chang, Hong-Po; Chen, Hong-Sen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Chou, Tsau-Mau

    2009-08-01

    Patients who wear mandibular dentures and hold their tongues in retracted positions alter the dimensions of the sublingual space and disrupt the peripheral seal that is needed for optimal denture retention. The authors studied whether retention could be improved if patients moved their tongues from a retracted resting position to an ideal resting position. The authors observed and classified the mandibular residual ridge morphologies of 85 participants who wore complete dentures. The authors recorded and compared the retention of the mandibular denture before and after repositioning the tongue to the ideal resting position. When the participants' tongues were in a retracted resting position, the average retention of the mandibular denture was 75.38 gram weight (+/- 81.83 standard deviation [SD]). After participants repositioned their tongues to the ideal resting position, the average retention of the mandibular denture was 118.89 gw (+/- 93.00 SD), an increase of 57.73 percent. In all morphological classes, when participants held their tongues in the ideal resting position, the average mandibular denture retention increased by 57.73 percent, a statistically significant improvement compared with when participants held their tongues in a retracted resting position. Clinicians are encouraged to evaluate carefully the tongue resting position in all patients who wear dentures, help create reasonable therapeutic expectations by informing patients about the significant effect that tongue position will have on future denture retention and provide helpful neuromuscular training for patients with retracted-tongue habits.

  12. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode; Amplificador espectroscopico para diodo Pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: bebe.luna_s@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  13. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Uncertainty of pin height measurement for the determination of wear in pin-on-plate test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, Nicola; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Poulios, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    machine (CMM), achieving an expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) better than 1 mm. A simple dedicated fixture adaptable to workshop environment was developed and its metrological capability investigated, estimating an average uncertainty of measurement in the order of 5 mm (k = 2). Fixture......The paper concerns measurement of pin height for the determination of wear in a pin-on-plate (POP) or pin-on-disc (POD) test, where a pin is mounted on a holder that can be fixed on the test rig and removed for measurements. The amount of wear is assessed as difference of pin height before...... and after the test, using the distance between holder plane and pin friction plane as measurand. A series of measurements were performed in connection with POP testing of different friction material pins mounted on an aluminium holder. Pin height measurements were carried out on a coordinate measuring...

  15. An analytical model of heat generation for eccentric cylindrical pin in friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ramadan Shaaban Essa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for heat generation for eccentric cylindrical pin in friction stir welding was developed that utilizes a new factor based on the tool pin eccentricity. The proposed analytical expression is a modification of previous analytical models from the literature, which is verified and well matches with the model developed by previous researchers. Results of plunge force and peak temperature were used to validate the current proposed model. The cylindrical tool pin with eccentricities of 0, 0.2, and 0.8 mm were used to weld two types of aluminum alloys; a low deformation resistant AA1050-H12, and a relatively high deformation resistant AA5754-H24 alloy. The FSW was performed at constant tool rotation speed of 600 rpm and different welding speeds of 100, 300, and 500 mm/min. Experimental results implied that less temperature is generated using eccentric cylindrical pin than cylindrical pin without eccentricity under the given set of FSW process conditions. Furthermore, numerical simulation results show that increasing the pin eccentricity leads to decrease in peak temperature.

  16. Improved shock-detection pin arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    Shockwave speeds are often measured by comparing arrival times at the tips of electrical shorting pins in a hexagonal array over two elevations (called up and down). In the conventional arrangement, the center pin is solely responsible for measuring the curvature of the wavefront. Without this datum the shock speed cannot be precisely determined. In some experiments this pin fail frequently enough to be a problem. We report a simple rearrangement between up and down designated pins which eliminates the critical reliance on a single.

  17. PIN1 gene variants in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Janusz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1 plays a significant role in the brain and is implicated in numerous cellular processes related to Alzheimer's disease (AD and other neurodegenerative conditions. There are confounding results concerning PIN1 activity in AD brains. Also PIN1 genetic variation was inconsistently associated with AD risk. Methods We performed analysis of coding and promoter regions of PIN1 in early- and late-onset AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD patients in comparison with healthy controls. Results Analysis of eighteen PIN1 common polymorphisms and their haplotypes in EOAD, LOAD and FTD individuals in comparison with the control group did not reveal their contribution to disease risk. In six unrelated familial AD patients four novel PIN1 sequence variants were detected. c.58+64C>T substitution that was identified in three patients, was located in an alternative exon. In silico analysis suggested that this variant highly increases a potential affinity for a splicing factor and introduces two intronic splicing enhancers. In the peripheral leukocytes of one living patient carrying the variant, a 2.82 fold decrease in PIN1 expression was observed. Conclusion Our data does not support the role of PIN1 common polymorphisms as AD risk factor. However, we suggest that the identified rare sequence variants could be directly connected with AD pathology, influencing PIN1 splicing and/or expression.

  18. Retraction statement: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201.

  19. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  20. The Retraction Penalty: Evidence from the Web of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Susan Feng; Jin, Ginger Zhe; Uzzi, Brian; Jones, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Scientific articles are retracted at increasing rates, with the highest rates among top journals. Here we show that a single retraction triggers citation losses through an author's prior body of work. Compared to closely-matched control papers, citations fall by an average of 6.9% per year for each prior publication. These chain reactions are sustained on authors' papers (a) published up to a decade earlier and (b) connected within the authors' own citation network by up to 4 degrees of separation from the retracted publication. Importantly, however, citation losses among prior work disappear when authors self-report the error. Our analyses and results span the range of scientific disciplines. PMID:24192909

  1. Characteristics of Retractions from Korean Medical Journals in the KoreaMed Database: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Flawed or misleading articles may be retracted because of either honest scientific errors or scientific misconduct. This study explored the characteristics of retractions in medical journals published in Korea through the KoreaMed database. Methods We retrieved retraction articles indexed in the KoreaMed database from January 1990 to January 2016. Three authors each reviewed the details of the retractions including the reason for retraction, adherence to retraction guidelines, and appropriateness of retraction. Points of disagreement were reconciled by discussion among the three. Results Out of 217,839 articles in KoreaMed published from 1990 to January 2016, the publication type of 111 articles was retraction (0.051%). Of the 111 articles (addressing the retraction of 114 papers), 58.8% were issued by the authors, 17.5% were jointly issued (author, editor, and publisher), 15.8% came from editors, and 4.4% were dispatched by institutions; in 5.3% of the instances, the issuer was unstated. The reasons for retraction included duplicate publication (57.0%), plagiarism (8.8%), scientific error (4.4%), author dispute (3.5%), and other (5.3%); the reasons were unstated or unclear in 20.2%. The degree of adherence to COPE’s retraction guidelines varied (79.8%–100%), and some retractions were inappropriate by COPE standards. These were categorized as follows: retraction of the first published article in the case of duplicate publication (69.2%), authorship dispute (15.4%), errata (7.7%), and other (7.7%). Conclusion The major reason for retraction in Korean medical journals is duplicate publication. Some retractions resulted from overreaction by the editors. Therefore, editors of Korean medical journals should take careful note of the COPE retraction guidelines and should undergo training on appropriate retraction practices. PMID:27706245

  2. Pin-Align: a new dynamic programming approach to align protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir-Ghiasvand, Farid; Nowzari-Dalini, Abbas; Momenzadeh, Vida

    2014-01-01

    To date, few tools for aligning protein-protein interaction networks have been suggested. These tools typically find conserved interaction patterns using various local or global alignment algorithms. However, the improvement of the speed, scalability, simplification, and accuracy of network alignment tools is still the target of new researches. In this paper, we introduce Pin-Align, a new tool for local alignment of protein-protein interaction networks. Pin-Align accuracy is tested on protein interaction networks from IntAct, DIP, and the Stanford Network Database and the results are compared with other well-known algorithms. It is shown that Pin-Align has higher sensitivity and specificity in terms of KEGG Ortholog groups.

  3. Pin-Align: A New Dynamic Programming Approach to Align Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Amir-Ghiasvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, few tools for aligning protein-protein interaction networks have been suggested. These tools typically find conserved interaction patterns using various local or global alignment algorithms. However, the improvement of the speed, scalability, simplification, and accuracy of network alignment tools is still the target of new researches. In this paper, we introduce Pin-Align, a new tool for local alignment of protein-protein interaction networks. Pin-Align accuracy is tested on protein interaction networks from IntAct, DIP, and the Stanford Network Database and the results are compared with other well-known algorithms. It is shown that Pin-Align has higher sensitivity and specificity in terms of KEGG Ortholog groups.

  4. Simple Correction of Alar Retraction by Conchal Cartilage Extension Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Jang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlar retraction is a challenging condition in rhinoplasty marked by exaggerated nostril exposure and awkwardness. Although various methods for correcting alar retraction have been introduced, none is without drawbacks. Herein, we report a simple procedure that is both effective and safe for correcting alar retraction using only conchal cartilage grafting.MethodsBetween August 2007 and August 2009, 18 patients underwent conchal cartilage extension grafting to correct alar retraction. Conchal cartilage extension grafts were fixed to the caudal margins of the lateral crura and covered with vestibular skin advancement flaps. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were reviewed and analyzed. Patient satisfaction was surveyed and categorized into 4 groups (very satisfied, satisfied, moderate, or unsatisfied.ResultsAccording to the survey, 8 patients were very satisfied, 9 were satisfied, and 1 considered the outcome moderate, resulting in satisfaction for most patients. The average distance from the alar rim to the long axis of the nostril was reduced by 1.4 mm (3.6 to 2.2 mm. There were no complications, except in 2 cases with palpable cartilage step-off that resolved without any aesthetic problems.ConclusionsConchal cartilage alar extension graft is a simple, effective method of correcting alar retraction that can be combined with aesthetic rhinoplasty conveniently, utilizing conchal cartilage, which is the most similar cartilage to alar cartilage, and requiring a lesser volume of cartilage harvest compared to previously devised methods. However, the current procedure lacks efficacy for severe alar retraction and a longer follow-up period may be required to substantiate the enduring efficacy of the current procedure.

  5. Simple Correction of Alar Retraction by Conchal Cartilage Extension Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong Jun; Kim, Sung Min; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Yong

    2016-11-01

    Alar retraction is a challenging condition in rhinoplasty marked by exaggerated nostril exposure and awkwardness. Although various methods for correcting alar retraction have been introduced, none is without drawbacks. Herein, we report a simple procedure that is both effective and safe for correcting alar retraction using only conchal cartilage grafting. Between August 2007 and August 2009, 18 patients underwent conchal cartilage extension grafting to correct alar retraction. Conchal cartilage extension grafts were fixed to the caudal margins of the lateral crura and covered with vestibular skin advancement flaps. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were reviewed and analyzed. Patient satisfaction was surveyed and categorized into 4 groups (very satisfied, satisfied, moderate, or unsatisfied). According to the survey, 8 patients were very satisfied, 9 were satisfied, and 1 considered the outcome moderate, resulting in satisfaction for most patients. The average distance from the alar rim to the long axis of the nostril was reduced by 1.4 mm (3.6 to 2.2 mm). There were no complications, except in 2 cases with palpable cartilage step-off that resolved without any aesthetic problems. Conchal cartilage alar extension graft is a simple, effective method of correcting alar retraction that can be combined with aesthetic rhinoplasty conveniently, utilizing conchal cartilage, which is the most similar cartilage to alar cartilage, and requiring a lesser volume of cartilage harvest compared to previously devised methods. However, the current procedure lacks efficacy for severe alar retraction and a longer follow-up period may be required to substantiate the enduring efficacy of the current procedure.

  6. A custom made jig for individual canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We face difficulty in individual canine retraction in the bracket system lacking power arms on the canines. When orthodontic force is applied through the center of resistance (CR, then, tooth translation ensues. Forces applied at a distance from the CR create a moment that tends to rotate and tip the tooth. The tendency of tipping is increased in the bracket system lacking power arm, since, force is applied more occlusally. Hence, we have designed a chair side custom made jig to retract the canines individually.

  7. Retracted: Spontaneous rectus sheath haematoma associated with rivaroxaban treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas Tuna, A; Palabiyik, O; Beyaz, S G

    2015-08-01

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcpt.12228/pdf The above article, published online on 10 November 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, A. Li Wan Po, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because, unknown to the authors, another group published a similar study based on the same material in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology: Kocayigit I, Can Y, Sahinkus S, et al. Spontaneous rectus sheath haematoma during rivaroxaban therapy. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2014;46(3):339-340. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.132193.

  8. Family of deployable/retractable structures for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, J.; Weisz, J.; Rivacoba, J.; Uríen, I. Ruiz; Capitanio, R. S.

    New trends in the frame of space applications lead to the necessity of using deployable/retractable structures, working either as beams (with payloads all along their length) or masts (loaded at their tip). SENER—under ESA/ESTEC and Spanish Space Program contracts—are developing a family of structures with deployment and retraction capabilities (LTS, SENERMAST, CTM) so as to cover all ranges of potential necessities in the space community (antennas, experiment support, solar arrays, heat rejection systems …). This paper consists of a summary of the performances and range of applications of LTS, SENERMAST and CTM, and pays special attention to the large truss structure (LTS) development and verification.

  9. RETRACTED: Ivabradine as adjuvant treatment for chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzaci, Carolina C; Porfírio, Gustavo J M; Vilela, André T; Guillhen, José Cícero S; Riera, Rachel

    2017-01-15

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of editors as it is contains multiple serious errors in the data of its primary end-point that make its conclusions unreliable. For example, in Figure 4, the cardiovascular death rates cited from Fox 2008 and Swedberg 2010 are incorrect. K. Fox, et al. Lancet, 372 (2008), pp. 807–816; K. Swedberg et al. Lancet, 376 (2010), pp. 875–885. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The maize PIN gene family of auxin transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eForestan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell-to-cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP, have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a–d cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2, three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a–c, one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8, and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a and b were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early land plants, monocots and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the twelve maize PIN genes, two PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed using semi-quantitative RT–PCR. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the SAM and IM during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots.

  11. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.

  12. Plagiarism Allegations Account for Most Retractions in Major Latin American/Caribbean Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Renan Moritz V R; de Albuquerque Rocha, Karina; Catelani, Fernanda; Fontes-Pereira, Aldo José; Vasconcelos, Sonia M R

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on retraction notices from two major Latin American/Caribbean indexing databases: SciELO and LILACS. SciELO includes open scientific journals published mostly in Latin America/the Caribbean, from which 10 % are also indexed by Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal of Citation Reports (JCR). LILACS has a similar geographical coverage and includes dissertations and conference/symposia proceedings, but it is limited to publications in the health sciences. A search for retraction notices was performed in these two databases using the keywords "retracted", "retraction" "withdrawal", "withdrawn", "removed" and "redress". Documents were manually checked to identify those that actually referred to retractions, which were then analyzed and categorized according to the reasons alleged in the notices. Dates of publication/retraction and time to retraction were also recorded. Searching procedures were performed between June and December 2014. Thirty-one retraction notices were identified, fifteen of which were in JCR-indexed journals. "Plagiarism" was alleged in six retractions of this group. Among the non-JCR journals, retraction reasons were alleged in fourteen cases, twelve of which were attributed to "plagiarism". The proportion of retracted articles for the SciELO database was approximately 0.005 %. The reasons alleged in retraction notices may be used as signposts to inform discussions in Latin America on plagiarism and research integrity. At the international level, these results suggest that the correction of the literature is becoming global and is not limited to mainstream international publications.

  13. Pinning Synchronization of Directed Networks With Switching Topologies: A Multiple Lyapunov Functions Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guanghui; Yu, Wenwu; Hu, Guoqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yu, Xinghuo

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the global pinning synchronization problem for a class of complex networks with switching directed topologies. The common assumption in the existing related literature that each possible network topology contains a directed spanning tree is removed in this paper. Using tools from M -matrix theory and stability analysis of the switched nonlinear systems, a new kind of network topology-dependent multiple Lyapunov functions is proposed for analyzing the synchronization behavior of the whole network. It is theoretically shown that the global pinning synchronization in switched complex networks can be ensured if some nodes are appropriately pinned and the coupling is carefully selected. Interesting issues of how many and which nodes should be pinned for possibly realizing global synchronization are further addressed. Finally, some numerical simulations on coupled neural networks are provided to verify the theoretical results.

  14. Nanoscale pinning effect evaluated from deformed nanobubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Classical thermodynamics theory predicts that nanosized bubbles should disappear in a few hundred microseconds. The surprisingly long lifetime and stability of nanobubbles are therefore interesting research subjects. It has been proposed that the stability of nanobubbles arises through pinning of the three-phase contact line, which results from intrinsic nanoscale geometrical and chemical heterogeneities of the substrate. However, a definitive explanation of nanobubble stability is still lacking. In this work, we examined the stability mechanism by introducing a "pinning force." We investigated nanobubbles at a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite/pure water interface by peak force quantitative nano-mechanical mapping and estimated the pinning force and determined its maximum value. We then observed the shape of shrinking nanobubbles. Because the diameter of the shrinking nanobubbles was pinned, the height decreased and the contact angle increased. This phenomenon implies that the stability results from the pinning force, which flattens the bubble through the pinned three-phase contact line and prevents the Laplace pressure from increasing. The pinning force can also explain the metastability of coalesced nanobubbles, which have two semispherical parts that are joined to form a dumbbell-like shape. The pinning force of the semispherical parts was stronger than that of the joint region. This result demonstrates that the contact line of the semispherical parts is pinned strongly to keep the dumbbell-like shape. Furthermore, we proposed a nanobubble generation mechanism for the solvent-exchange method and explained why the pinning force of large nanobubbles was not initially at its maximum value, as it was for small nanobubbles.

  15. Conceptualizing Fraudulent Studies as Viruses: New Models for Handling Retractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Oliver, Amalya L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the growing problem of retractions in the scientific literature of publications that contain bad data (i.e., fabricated, falsified, or containing error), also called "false science." While the problem is particularly acute in the biomedical literature because of the life-threatening implications when treatment…

  16. Conceptualizing Fraudulent Studies as Viruses: New Models for Handling Retractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Oliver, Amalya L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the growing problem of retractions in the scientific literature of publications that contain bad data (i.e., fabricated, falsified, or containing error), also called "false science." While the problem is particularly acute in the biomedical literature because of the life-threatening implications when treatment…

  17. The Distribution of Retracted Sibilants in Medieval Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas Q.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with 13th and 14th century distribution of [s] and [z] retracted or apical sibilants in the languages of Western and Central Europe. Based on philological evidence and on dialect evidence of today, the presence of various sibilants is determined. (SC)

  18. Computability of Homology for Compact Absolute Neighbourhood Retracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter); A. Bauer; P. Hertling; K.-I. Ko

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this note we discuss the information needed to compute the homology groups of a topological space. We argue that the natural class of spaces to consider are the compact absolute neighbourhood retracts, since for these spaces the homology groups are finite. We show that we need to

  19. Ergodic Retractions for Families of Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidi Shahram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove some theorems for the existence of ergodic retractions onto the set of common fixed points of a family of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. Our results extend corresponding results of Benavides and Ramírez (2001, and Li and Sims (2002.

  20. Pattern Reconfigurable Patch Antenna menggunakan Edge Shorting Pin dan Symmetrical Control Pin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ANDI NURMANTRIS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Metode baru dalam mendesain suatu pattern reconfigurable antenna telah diteliti. Penelitian ini fokus pada optimasi antena patch lingkaran single layer pencatuan probe koaksial dengan mengintegrasikan 24 switch/shorting pin pada sisi patch yang disebut edge shorting pin dan 8 shorting pin membentuk lingkaran dengan radius tertentu dan selanjutnya disebut symmetrical control pin yang fungsinya sebagai metode penyepadan impedansi. Algoritma Genetika yang dikombinasikan dengan Finite Element Software digunakan untuk mengoptimasi kombinasi  switch, radius lingkaran symmetrical control pin, dan radius patch untuk mendapatkan kemampuan pattern reconfigurability. Antena ini menghasilkan 8 kemungkinan arah radiasi azzimuth dengan resolusi 45o dan arah elevasi 30o pada frekuensi 2,4 Ghz. Optimasi, simulasi, fabrikasi, dan pengukuran dilakukan untuk memverifikasi hasil penelitian. Kata kunci: Patch Lingkaran, Edge Shorting Pin, Symmetrical Control Pin, Algoritma Genetika, Pattern Reconfigurable   Abstract New method for desaining pattern reconfigurable antenna was studied. This study focuses on the optimization of a single layer circular patch antenna with probe feed by integrating the 24 switch / shorting pin on the side of the patch that called Edge Shorting Pins and 8 shorting pins form circular line in such radius that called Symmetrical Control Pins as a impedance matching method. Genetic algorithm combined with the Finite Element Software is used to optimize the switch combination, the radius of circular line of symmetrical control pins, and the patch radius to obtain a pattern reconfigurability capabilities. This antenna produces 8 possible directions of azimuth radiation with a resolution of 45o and 30o elevation direction at a frequency of 2.4 GHz. Optimization, simulation, fabrication, and measurement was done to verify the results. Keywords: Circular Patch, Edge Shorting Pin, Symmetrical Control Pin, Genetic Algorithm, Pattern

  1. Effects of Auxins on PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) Dynamics Are Not Mediated by Inhibiting PIN2 Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jásik, Ján; Bokor, Boris; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Mičieta, Karol; Turňa, Ján; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2016-10-01

    By using the photoconvertible fluorescence protein Dendra2 as a tag we demonstrated that neither the naturally occurring auxins indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, nor the synthetic auxin analogs 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid nor compounds inhibiting polar auxin transport such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid, were able to inhibit endocytosis of the putative auxin transporter PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root epidermis cells. All compounds, except Indole-3-butyric acid, repressed the recovery of the PIN2-Dendra2 plasma membrane pool after photoconversion when they were used in high concentrations. The synthetic auxin analogs 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid showed the strongest inhibition. Auxins and auxin transport inhibitors suppressed also the accumulation of both newly synthesized and endocytotic PIN2 pools in Brefeldin A compartments (BFACs). Furthermore, we demonstrated that all compounds are also interfering with BFAC formation. The synthetic auxin analogs caused the highest reduction in the number and size of BFACs. We concluded that auxins and inhibitors of auxin transport do affect PIN2 turnover in the cells, but it is through the synthetic rather than the endocytotic pathway. The study also confirmed inappropriateness of the BFA-based approach to study PIN2 endocytosis because the majority of PIN2 accumulating in BFACs is newly synthesized and not derived from the plasma membrane. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Preventing alar retraction by preservation of the lateral crus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P; Zhang, Andrew Y; Zang, Andrew; Mohebali, Khashayar

    2010-08-01

    Resecting the cephalic component of the lateral crus in an attempt to reduce tip bulbosity has the potential to aggravate and/or cause alar retraction. It is a more serious problem for those patients who exhibit borderline alar retraction. Fourteen primary rhinoplasty patients with borderline alar/columellar relationships for alar retraction formed the study. They did not warrant frank treatment of alar retraction but did exhibit tip bulbosity. An "island" of cephalic lateral crus was developed by an intercartilaginous incision and another 6 mm cephalic to the caudal border of the lateral crus. One or more mattress sutures were placed in the main body of the lateral crus to stiffen and straighten it. The "island" of cephalic crus was then slipped under the main body of the lateral crus. At 11 months to 2(1/2) years, 13 of the 14 patients demonstrated no significant change in their preoperative alar/columellar relationships. Bulbosity was corrected in all patients. One patient, however, required a revision using an alar contour rim graft. The mean preoperative alar-nostril axis measurement was 1.48 mm (range, 1.3 to 1.9 mm) in contrast to a mean postoperative measurement of 1.71 mm (range, 1.5 to 2.2 mm). A one-tailed paired t test indicated no statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative values. The cephalic part of the lateral crus can act as a lateral crural strut to maintain the ala in a more caudal position. The technique is useful for borderline alar retraction and when lengthening the short nose for which there is a need to preserve side wall length.

  3. Pinning controllability of complex networks with community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qingying; Tang, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen; Fang, Jian-an; Wong, W K

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the controllability of networks with different numbers of communities and various strengths of community structure. By means of simulations, we show that the degree descending pinning scheme performs best among several considered pinning schemes under a small number of pinned nodes, while the degree ascending pinning scheme is becoming more powerful by increasing the number of pinned nodes. It is found that increasing the number of communities or reducing the strength of community structure is beneficial for the enhancement of the controllability. Moreover, it is revealed that the pinning scheme with evenly distributed pinned nodes among communities outperforms other kinds of considered pinning schemes.

  4. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziak Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  5. The problem of the open safety pin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B R

    1975-01-01

    The open safety pin lodged in the stomach or esophagus presents a challenge to surgical judgment and technical skill. Most foreign bodies causing trouble lodge in the esophagus. Once in the stomach, uneventful passage can be expected in 80 to 90% of cases. Active intervention is reserved for those where intestinal performation is likely or where there is failure to progress. We have used the fiberesophagoscope to remove three open safety pins from the stomachs of two patients whose symptoms and threat of perforation required intervention. The microbiopsy forceps was used successfully to retrieve the open pins, but a newly developed grasping forceps for use with the fiberesophagoscope now provides a more secure hold on such foreign bodies. Rigid instruments retain their value for selected cases, but the flexible equipment now provides an important advance in the management of the open safety pin in the stomach.

  6. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  7. Flux pinning in superconductors. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Teruo [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Computer Science and Electronics

    2014-04-01

    Ideal for graduate students studying superconductivity and experts alike. Written by a researcher with more than 30 years experience in the field. All chapters are completely revised. The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of superconductor, specimen size and electric field strength. Recent developments of critical current properties in various high-Tc superconductors and MgB2 are introduced. Other topics are: singularity in the case of transport current in a parallel magnetic field such as deviation from the Josephson relation, reversible flux motion inside pinning potentials which causes deviation from the critical state model prediction, the concept of the minimization of energy dissipation in the flux pinning phenomena which gives the basis for the critical state model, etc. Significant reduction in the AC loss in AC wires with very fine filaments originates from the reversible flux motion which is dominant in the two-dimensional pinning. The concept of minimum energy dissipation explains also the behavior

  8. Anisotropic flux pinning in high Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleśnik, S.; Igalson, J.; Skośkiewicz, T.; Szymczak, R.; Baran, M.; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper we present a comparison of the results of FC magnetization measurements on several PbSr(Y,Ca)CuO crystals representing various levels of flux pinning. The pinning centers in our crystals have been set up during the crystal growth process or introduced by neutron irradiation. Some possible explanations of the observed effects, including surface barrier, flux-center distribution and sample-shape effects, are discussed.

  9. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  10. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, I; Sikder, B.; R. Sinha; Paul, R

    2004-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it’ s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it’ s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  11. Memory-only selection of dictionary PINs

    OpenAIRE

    Stanek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the security of dictionary-based PINs (Personal Identification Numbers) that a user selects from his/her memory without any additional aids. The estimates take into account the distribution of words in source language. We use established security metrics, such as entropy, guesswork, marginal guesswork and marginal success rate. The metrics are evaluated for various scenarios -- aimed at improving the security of the produced PINs. In general, plain and straightforward construction...

  12. The pinning effect in quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monisha, P. J., E-mail: pjmonisha@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Soma [Department of Physics, D V R College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad-502285 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The pinning effect is studied in a Gaussian quantum dot using the improved Wigner-Brillouin perturbation theory (IWBPT) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. The electron ground state plus one phonon state is degenerate with the electron in the first excited state. The electron-phonon interaction lifts the degeneracy and the first excited states get pinned to the ground state plus one phonon state as we increase the confinement frequency.

  13. Study on contact pressure at pin connection detail; Pin setsugobu no sesshokuatsu ni taisuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, C.; Anami, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, H. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-21

    Contact pressure between pin and pin plate is discussed by FEM and UT from the point of view of the connection detail of hanger lope of long span suspension bridge. Application of the UT to the 25S surface specimen (and smoother surface) is effective. The results of UT and FEM distribution of contact pressure near the center of plate almost agree with the Hertz law. However near the surface of pin plate the contact pressure and plate width of large contact pressure region increase larger than those near contact pressure and plate width of large contact pressure region increase larger than those near center of pin plate. 12 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Folding retractable protective dome for space vehicle equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Paul R. (Inventor); Messinger, Ross H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A folding, retractable dome for protecting a feature, such as a docking mechanism, a hatch or other equipment at an exterior surface of a space vehicle, includes a plurality of arcuate ribs, each having opposite ends respectively pinioned at opposite sides of the feature at the surface of the vehicle for rotational movement about an axis of rotation extending through the opposite ends and through an arcuate path of revolution extending over the feature, and a flexible cover attached to each of the ribs such that, in a deployed configuration of the dome, in which adjacent ribs are rotated apart from each other at a maximum relative angle therebetween, the cover is stretched generally tangentially between the adjacent ribs to form a generally arcuate shield over the feature, and in a retracted position of the dome, in which adjacent ribs are rotated together at a minimum relative angle therebetween, the cover is collapsed to define folded pleats between the adjacent ribs.

  15. Pyrotechnic Actuator for Retracting Tubes Between MSL Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, John C.; Webster, Richard G.; Patterson, Keith D.; Orzewalla, Matthew A.; Roberts, Eric T.; Tuszynski, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus, denoted the "retractuator" (a contraction of "retracting actuator"), was designed to help ensure clean separation between the cruise stage and the entry-vehicle subsystem of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The retractuator or an equivalent mechanism is needed because of tubes that (1) transport a heat-transfer fluid between the stages during flight and (2) are cut immediately prior to separation of the stages retractuator. The role of the retractuator is to retract the tubes, after they are cut and before separation of the subsystem, so that cut ends of the tubes do not damage thermal-protection coats on the entry vehicle and do not contribute to uncertainty of drag and consequent uncertainty in separation velocity.

  16. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  17. Complete determination of the Pin1 catalytic domain thermodynamic cycle by NMR lineshape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Alexander I; Rogals, Monique J; De, Soumya; Lu, Kun Ping; Kovrigin, Evgenii L; Nicholson, Linda K

    2011-09-01

    The phosphorylation-specific peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 catalyzes the isomerization of the peptide bond preceding a proline residue between cis and trans isomers. To best understand the mechanisms of Pin1 regulation, rigorous enzymatic assays of isomerization are required. However, most measures of isomerase activity require significant constraints on substrate sequence and only yield rate constants for the cis isomer, [Formula: see text] and apparent Michaelis constants, [Formula: see text]. By contrast, NMR lineshape analysis is a powerful tool for determining microscopic rates and populations of each state in a complex binding scheme. The isolated catalytic domain of Pin1 was employed as a first step towards elucidating the reaction scheme of the full-length enzyme. A 24-residue phosphopeptide derived from the amyloid precurser protein intracellular domain (AICD) phosphorylated at Thr668 served as a biologically-relevant Pin1 substrate. Specific (13)C labeling at the Pin1-targeted proline residue provided multiple reporters sensitive to individual isomer binding and on-enzyme catalysis. We have performed titration experiments and employed lineshape analysis of phosphopeptide (13)C-(1)H constant time HSQC spectra to determine [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] for the catalytic domain of Pin1 acting on this AICD substrate. The on-enzyme equilibrium value of [E·trans]/[E·cis] = 3.9 suggests that the catalytic domain of Pin1 is optimized to operate on this substrate near equilibrium in the cellular context. This highlights the power of lineshape analysis for determining the microscopic parameters of enzyme catalysis, and demonstrates the feasibility of future studies of Pin1-PPIase mutants to gain insights on the catalytic mechanism of this important enzyme.

  18. Complete determination of the Pin1 catalytic domain thermodynamic cycle by NMR lineshape analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Alexander I.; Rogals, Monique J.; De, Soumya [Cornell University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (United States); Lu, Kun Ping [Cancer Biology Program and Biology of Aging Program, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School (United States); Kovrigin, Evgenii L. [Marquette University, Chemistry Department (United States); Nicholson, Linda K., E-mail: lkn2@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The phosphorylation-specific peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 catalyzes the isomerization of the peptide bond preceding a proline residue between cis and trans isomers. To best understand the mechanisms of Pin1 regulation, rigorous enzymatic assays of isomerization are required. However, most measures of isomerase activity require significant constraints on substrate sequence and only yield rate constants for the cis isomer, k{sub cat}{sup cis} and apparent Michaelis constants, K{sub M}{sup App}. By contrast, NMR lineshape analysis is a powerful tool for determining microscopic rates and populations of each state in a complex binding scheme. The isolated catalytic domain of Pin1 was employed as a first step towards elucidating the reaction scheme of the full-length enzyme. A 24-residue phosphopeptide derived from the amyloid precurser protein intracellular domain (AICD) phosphorylated at Thr668 served as a biologically-relevant Pin1 substrate. Specific {sup 13}C labeling at the Pin1-targeted proline residue provided multiple reporters sensitive to individual isomer binding and on-enzyme catalysis. We have performed titration experiments and employed lineshape analysis of phosphopeptide {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H constant time HSQC spectra to determine k{sub cat}{sup cis}, k{sub cat}{sup trans}, K{sub D}{sup cis}, and K{sub D}{sup trans} for the catalytic domain of Pin1 acting on this AICD substrate. The on-enzyme equilibrium value of [E{center_dot}trans]/[E{center_dot}cis] = 3.9 suggests that the catalytic domain of Pin1 is optimized to operate on this substrate near equilibrium in the cellular context. This highlights the power of lineshape analysis for determining the microscopic parameters of enzyme catalysis, and demonstrates the feasibility of future studies of Pin1-PPIase mutants to gain insights on the catalytic mechanism of this important enzyme.

  19. Improved pinning by multiple in-line damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Gandini, Alberto [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, Drew [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Columnar pinning centres provide the largest pinning potential, U{sub pin}, but not the greatest J{sub c} or pinnable field, B{sub pin}. Characteristics of ion-generated columnar defects which limit J{sub c} and B{sub pin} are discussed, including reduction of the percolation path, and the need for a larger number of columns of damage, for pinning, than are usually estimated. It is concluded that columnar pinning centres limit B{sub pin} to less than 4 T, and also severely reduce J{sub c}. The goal of maximizing U{sub pin}, via columnar centres, appears to have obscured a more rewarding approach and resulted in neglect of a large regime of ion interactions. Evidence is reviewed that multiple in-line damage (MILD), described herein, can provide orders of magnitude higher J{sub c} and B{sub pin}, despite providing lower U{sub pin}. The MILD pinning centre morphology is discussed, and it is estimated that for present-day large grain high T{sub c} superconductors, a J{sub c} value of {approx}10{sup 6}Acm{sup -2} is obtainable at 77 K, even when crystal plane alignment and weak links are not improved. In addition, the pinned field is increased by over an order of magnitude. An experiment is proposed to confirm these calculations, directly compare MILD pinning to continuous columnar pinning, and determine the optimum MILD structure. Applications of MILD pinning are discussed.

  20. Modified Dento - Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis Technique for Rapid Canine Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction Osteogenesis claims to reduce the duration of treatment as well aid in conservation of anchorage. With the introduction of Dento- alveolar distraction retraction of canine can now be done in about 2-3 weeks with minimal loss of anchorage and little/no root resorption. However, surgical procedure required for dento-alveolar distraction can cause significant swelling and post operative discomfort. Our small modification in the surgical procedure drastically reduces the discomfort and improves patient compliance.

  1. Modified Dento - Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis Technique for Rapid Canine Retraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Patil; Sharadindu Kotrashetti; Sumit Yadev; Ketan Vhora

    2012-01-01

    Distraction Osteogenesis claims to reduce the duration of treatment as well aid in conservation of anchorage. With the introduction of Dento- alveolar distraction retraction of canine can now be done in about 2-3 weeks with minimal loss of anchorage and little/no root resorption. However, surgical procedure required for dento-alveolar distraction can cause significant swelling and post operative discomfort. Our small modification in the surgical procedure drastically reduces the discomfort an...

  2. Retractions of the gingival margins evaluated by holographic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Manole, Marius; de Sabata, Aldo; Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Stratul, Stefan; Dudea, Diana; Dughir, Ciprian; Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2015-05-01

    The periodontal disease is one of the most common pathological states of the teeth and gums system. The issue is that its evaluation is a subjective one, i.e. it is based on the skills of the dental medical doctor. As for any clinical condition, a quantitative evaluation and monitoring in time of the retraction of the gingival margins is desired. This phenomenon was evaluated in this study with a holographic method by using a He-Ne laser with a power of 13 mW. The holographic system we have utilized - adapted for dentistry applications - is described. Several patients were considered in a comparative study of their state of health - regarding their oral cavity. The impressions of the maxillary dental arch were taken from a patient during his/her first visit and after a period of six months. The hologram of the first model was superposed on the model cast after the second visit. The retractions of the gingival margins could be thus evaluated three-dimensionally in every point of interest. An evaluation of the retraction has thus been made. Conclusions can thus be drawn for the clinical evaluation of the health of the teeth and gums system of each patient.

  3. Type-IV Pilus Deformation Can Explain Retraction Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric filament like type IV Pilus (TFP) can transfer forces in excess of 100pN during their retraction before stalling, powering surface translocation(twitching). Single TFP level experiments have shown remarkable nonlinearity in the retraction behavior influenced by the external load as well as levels of PilT molecular motor protein. This includes reversal of motion near stall forces when the concentration of the PilT protein is lowered significantly. In order to explain this behavior, we analyze the coupling of TFP elasticity and interfacial behavior with PilT kinetics. We model retraction as reaction controlled and elongation as transport controlled process. The reaction rates vary with TFP deformation which is modeled as a compound elastic body consisting of multiple helical strands under axial load. Elongation is controlled by monomer transport which suffer entrapment due to excess PilT in the cell periplasm. Our analysis shows excellent agreement with a host of experimental observations and we prese...

  4. RETRACTED: Flap side edge noise modeling and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueping

    2013-08-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).This article has been retracted at the request of the first author because of the overlap with previously published papers. The first author takes full responsibility and sincerely apologizes for the error made.This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief.The article duplicates significant parts of an earlier paper by the same author, published in AIAA (Y.P. Guo, Aircraft flap side edge noise modeling and prediction. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, (2011), 10.2514/6.2011-2731). Prior to republication, conference papers should be comprehensively extended, and re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  5. Retractions in the scientific literature: do authors deliberately commit research fraud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, R Grant

    2011-02-01

    Papers retracted for fraud (data fabrication or data falsification) may represent a deliberate effort to deceive, a motivation fundamentally different from papers retracted for error. It is hypothesised that fraudulent authors target journals with a high impact factor (IF), have other fraudulent publications, diffuse responsibility across many co-authors, delay retracting fraudulent papers and publish from countries with a weak research infrastructure. All 788 English language research papers retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. Data pertinent to each retracted paper were abstracted from the paper and the reasons for retraction were derived from the retraction notice and dichotomised as fraud or error. Data for each retracted article were entered in an Excel spreadsheet for analysis. Journal IF was higher for fraudulent papers (pfraud than error among retracted papers from the USA (χ(2)=8.71; pfraud' hypothesis. The results suggest that papers retracted because of data fabrication or falsification represent a calculated effort to deceive. It is inferred that such behaviour is neither naïve, feckless nor inadvertent.

  6. A study exploring attributes and nature of the retracted literature on mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mishra, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the retracted medical literature on mental disorders. Another aim was to test the hypothesis that the weak research infrastructure in certain countries and the rising pressure to publish in Asia due to the progress of science in that continent may have contributed to the increase in the number of retractions. A bibliometric search was carried out using the PubMed database. The data were analysed using SPSS version 21. The retraction rate for articles on mental disorders (number of retracted articles per 100,000 published articles on mental disorders) varied from a low of 3.56 (for 2005) to a high of 49.25 (for 2012). Of the 38 articles for which the reasons for retraction could be accessed, 10 (26.31%) were retracted for fraud. Overall, 0.0138% of all articles on the biomedical sciences were retracted. Of the articles on mental disorders, 0.0095% were retracted. There was a disproportionately greater number of retractions in the case of articles originating from low- and middle-income countries than high-income countries. Similarly, there was a disproportionately greater number of retractions in the case of articles originating in Asian countries than non-Asian countries.

  7. Cooperative retraction of bundled type IV pili enables nanonewton force generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Biais

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bears retractable filamentous appendages called type IV pili (Tfp. Tfp are used by many pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to carry out a number of vital functions, including DNA uptake, twitching motility (crawling over surfaces, and attachment to host cells. In N. gonorrhoeae, Tfp binding to epithelial cells and the mechanical forces associated with this binding stimulate signaling cascades and gene expression that enhance infection. Retraction of a single Tfp filament generates forces of 50-100 piconewtons, but nothing is known, thus far, on the retraction force ability of multiple Tfp filaments, even though each bacterium expresses multiple Tfp and multiple bacteria interact during infection. We designed a micropillar assay system to measure Tfp retraction forces. This system consists of an array of force sensors made of elastic pillars that allow quantification of retraction forces from adherent N. gonorrhoeae bacteria. Electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy were used in combination with this novel assay to assess the structures of Tfp. We show that Tfp can form bundles, which contain up to 8-10 Tfp filaments, that act as coordinated retractable units with forces up to 10 times greater than single filament retraction forces. Furthermore, single filament retraction forces are transient, whereas bundled filaments produce retraction forces that can be sustained. Alterations of noncovalent protein-protein interactions between Tfp can inhibit both bundle formation and high-amplitude retraction forces. Retraction forces build over time through the recruitment and bundling of multiple Tfp that pull cooperatively to generate forces in the nanonewton range. We propose that Tfp retraction can be synchronized through bundling, that Tfp bundle retraction can generate forces in the nanonewton range in vivo, and that such high forces could affect infection.

  8. Load System of Segmental T-Loops for Canine Retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zeyang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Feifei; Li, Shuning; Viecilli, Rodrigo F; Liu, Sean Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The orthodontic load system, especially the ideal moment-to-force ratios (M/F), is the commonly used design parameter of segmental T-loops for canine retraction. However, the load system, including M/F, may be affected by the changes in canine angulations and interbracket distance (IBD). Here, we hypothesize that clinical changes in canine position and angulation during canine retraction will significantly affect the load system delivered to the tooth. Methods The load systems of two T-loop groups, one for translation (TR) and the other for controlled tipping (CT), from nine bilateral canine retraction patients were made to the targeted values obtained from finite element analyses and validated. Each loop was tested on the corresponding maxillary dental cast obtained in the clinic. The casts were made before and after each treatment interval so that both initial and residual load systems could be obtained. The pre- and post-treatment IBDs were recorded for calculating IBD changes. Results As the IBDs decreased, the averaged retraction-force-drop per IBD reduction was 36 cN/mm, a 30% drop per 1 mm IBD decrease. The averaged anti-tipping-moment-drops per IBD reductions were 0.02 N-mm/mm for CT and 1.4 N-mm/mm for TR, ~0.6 % and 17% drop per 1 mm IBD decrease, respectively. Consequently, the average M/F increases per 1 mm IBD reduction were 1.24 mm/mm for CT and 6.34 mm/mm for TR. There was significant residual load left, which could continue to move the tooth if the patient missed the scheduled appointment. Conclusions Clinical changes in canine position and angulation during canine retraction significantly affect the load system. The initial planned M/F needs to be lower to reach the expected average ideal value. Patients should be required to follow the office visit schedule closely to avoid negative effects due to significant M/F increases with time. PMID:24075663

  9. Performance comparison of pin fin in-duct flow arrays with various pin cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahiti, N. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)]. E-mail: sahiti@lstm.uni-erlangen.de; Lemouedda, A. [Department of Process Engineering, Georg-Simon-Ohm University of Applied Sciences, Wassertorstr. 10, D-90489 Nuremberg (Germany); Stojkovic, D. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Durst, F. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Franz, E. [Department of Process Engineering, Georg-Simon-Ohm University of Applied Sciences, Wassertorstr. 10, D-90489 Nuremberg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Pin fin arrays are frequently used for cooling of high thermal loaded electronic components. Whereas the pin fin accomplishment regarding heat transfer is always higher than that of other fin configurations, the high pressure drop accompanying pins seriously reduces their overall performance. In order to check how the form of pin cross-section influences the pressure drop and heat transfer capabilities, six forms of pin cross-section were numerically investigated. By employing the conjugate heat transfer boundary conditions, numerical simulations close to realistic working conditions were performed. Two geometric comparison criteria were applied so that the conclusions derived from numerical computations were valid for various possible geometric parameters and working conditions. Both staggered and inline pin arrangements were investigated as these are common in practical applications. The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics are presented in terms of appropriate dimensionless variables. The final judgment of the performance of the pin fin cross-section was performed based on the heat exchanger performance plot. Such a plot allows the assessment of the pin performance including their heat transfer and the pressure drop.

  10. Design of a terahertz CW photomixer based on PIN and superlattice PIN devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Eichhorn, Finn

    2006-01-01

    We present the design of a photomixer LO based on standard and superlattice PIN diodes, operating at 1 THz. The design is based on a direct integration of a double slot antenna with the PIN device and a suitable matching circuit. The antenna has been designed together with a dielectric lens using...

  11. Dynamics and Stability of Pinned-Clamped and Clamped-Pinned Cylindrical Shells Conveying Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A. K.; Wong, S. S. T.; Païdoussis, M. P.

    2001-11-01

    The paper examines the dynamics and stability of fluid-conveying cylindrical shells having pinned-clamped or clamped-pinned boundary conditions, where ``pinned'' is an abbreviation for ``simply supported''. Flügge's equations are used to describe the shell motion, while the fluid-dynamic perturbation pressure is obtained utilizing the linearized potential flow theory. The solution is obtained using two methods - the travelling wave method and the Fourier-transform approach. The results obtained by both methods suggest that the negative damping of the clamped-pinned systems and positive damping of the pinned-clamped systems, observed by previous investigators for any arbitrarily small flow velocity, are simply numerical artefacts; this is reinforced by energy considerations, in which the work done by the fluid on the shell is shown to be zero. Hence, it is concluded that both systems are conservative.

  12. The visibility of scientific misconduct: A review of the literature on retracted journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmann, Felicitas; Graf, Verena; Schmidt, Marion; Reinhart, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Retractions of scientific articles are becoming the most relevant institution for making sense of scientific misconduct. An increasing number of retracted articles, mainly attributed to misconduct, is currently providing a new empirical basis for research about scientific misconduct. This article reviews the relevant research literature from an interdisciplinary context. Furthermore, the results from these studies are contextualized sociologically by asking how scientific misconduct is made visible through retractions. This study treats retractions as an emerging institution that renders scientific misconduct visible, thus, following up on the sociology of deviance and its focus on visibility. The article shows that retractions, by highlighting individual cases of misconduct and general policies for preventing misconduct while obscuring the actors and processes through which retractions are effected, produce highly fragmented patterns of visibility. These patterns resemble the bifurcation in current justice systems.

  13. Potential of pin-by-pin SPN calculations as an industrial reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliscounakis, M.; Girardi, E.; Courau, T.; Couyras, D. [EDF R and D/Sinetics, 1 av du General de Gaulle, F92141 Clamart Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims at analysing the potential of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations to compute the neutronic flux in PWR cores as an alternative to the diffusion approximation. As far as pin-by-pin calculations are concerned, a SPH equivalence is used to preserve the reactions rates. The use of SPH equivalence is a common practice in core diffusion calculations. In this paper, a methodology to generalize the equivalence procedure in the SP{sub n} equations context is presented. In order to verify and validate the equivalence procedure, SP{sub n} calculations are compared to 2D transport reference results obtained with the APOLL02 code. The validation cases consist in 3x3 analytical assembly color sets involving burn-up heterogeneities, UOX/MOX interfaces, and control rods. Considering various energy discretizations (up to 26 groups) and flux development orders (up to 7) for the SP{sub n} equations, results show that 26-group SP{sub 3} calculations are very close to the transport reference (with pin production rates discrepancies < 1%). This proves the high interest of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations as an industrial reference when relying on 26 energy groups combined with SP{sub 3} flux development order. Additionally, the SP{sub n} results are compared to diffusion pin-by-pin calculations, in order to evaluate the potential benefit of using a SP{sub n} solver as an alternative to diffusion. Discrepancies on pin-production rates are less than 1.6% for 6-group SP{sub 3} calculations against 3.2% for 2-group diffusion calculations. This shows that SP{sub n} solvers may be considered as an alternative to multigroup diffusion. (authors)

  14. A double tuned rail damper—increased damping at the two first pinned-pinned frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, J.; Sol, H.

    2003-10-01

    Railway-induced vibrations are a growing matter of environmental concern. The rapid development of transportation, the increase of vehicle speeds and vehicle weights have resulted in higher vibration levels. In the meantime vibrations that were tolerated in the past are now considered to be a nuisance. Numerous solutions have been proposed to remedy these problems. The majority only acts on a specific part of the dynamic behaviour of the track. This paper presents a possible solution to reduce the noise generated by the 'pinned-pinned' frequencies. Pinned-pinned frequencies correspond with standing waves whose nodes are positioned exactly at the sleeper supports. The two first pinned-pinned frequencies are situated approximately at 950 and 2200 Hz (UIC60-rail and sleeper spacing of 0.60 m). To attenuate these vibrations, the Department of MEMC at the VUB has developed a dynamic vibration absorber called the Double Tuned Rail Damper (DTRD). The DTRD is mounted between two sleepers on the rail and is powered by the motion of the rail. The DTRD consists of two major parts: a steel plate which is connected to the rail with an interface of an elastic layer, and a rubber mass. The two first resonance frequencies of the steel plate coincide with the targeted pinned-pinned frequencies of the rail. The rubber mass acts as a motion controller and energy absorber. Measurements at a test track of the French railway company (SNCF) have shown considerable attenuation of the envisaged pinned-pinned frequencies. The attenuation rate surpasses 5 dB/m at certain frequency bands.

  15. Radon measurements with a PIN photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Martin, A. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain) and Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)]. E-mail: alonsomm@libra.uva.es; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.L. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Munoz, J.M. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, M. [Laboratorio de Investigacion en Baja Radiactividad (LIBRA), Edificio I-D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Adamiec, G. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Iniguez, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Silicon photodiodes are well suited to detect alphas coming from different sources as neutron reactions or radon daughters. In this work a radon in air detecting device, using an 18x18 mm silicon PIN photodiode is studied. The ionized airborne decay products formed during radon diffusion were focused by an accelerating high voltage to the PIN surface. Several conducting rings were disposed inside a cylindrical PVC vessel in such a way that they reproduced the electric field created by a punctual charge located behind PIN position. Alpha spectra coming from the neutral and ionized species deposited on the PIN surface, dominated by {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po progeny peaks, were recorded for varying conditions. Those include radon concentration from a Pylon source, high voltage (thousands of volts) and PIN inverse bias voltage. Different parameters such as temperature and humidity were also registered during data acquisition. The increase in the particle collection efficiency with respect to zero electric field was compared with the corresponding to a parallel plates configuration. A discussion is made in terms of the most appropriate voltages for different radon concentrations.

  16. Exploring why and how journal editors retract articles: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Wager, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Editors have a responsibility to retract seriously flawed articles from their journals. However, there appears to be little consistency in journals' policies or procedures for this. In a qualitative study, we therefore interviewed editors of science journals using semi-structured interviews to investigate their experience of retracting articles. We identified potential barriers to retraction, difficulties in the process and also sources of support and encouragement. Our findings have been used as the basis for guidelines developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics.

  17. Space-time Geodesics of the 5D Schwarzschild field and its deformation retract

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Nasr

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce some types of the deformtion retracts of the $5D$ Schwarzchild space making use of Lagrangian equations. The retraction of this space into itself and into geodesics has been presented. The relation between folding and deformation retract of this space has been achieved. A relation for energy conservation similar to the one obtained in four dimensions has been obtained for the five dimensional case.

  18. The effect of temperature on pinning mechanisms in HTS composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, A. P.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pinning mechanism in samples of second generation tapes (2G) of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) was studied The critical current and the pinning force were calculated from the magnetization curves measured in the temperature range of 4.2 - 77 K in magnetic fields up to 14 Tesla using vibration sample magnetometer. To determine the pinning mechanism the dependences of pinning force on magnetic field were constructed according to the Dew-Hughes model and Kramer's rule. The obtained dependences revealed a significant influence of the temperature on effectiveness of different types of pinning. At low temperatures the 2G HTS tapes of different manufacturers demonstrated an equal efficiency of the pinning centers but with temperature increase the differences in pinning mechanisms as well as in properties and effectiveness of the pinning centers become obvious. The influence of the pinning mechanism on the energy losses in HTS tapes was shown.

  19. Pin count-aware biochemical application compilation for mVLSI biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander Raagaard, Michael; Pop, Paul

    2015-01-01

    manually by individually controlling each valve. Recent research has proposed top-down physical synthesis Computer- Aided Design tools, and programming languages and compilation techniques to automatically derive the control signals for the valve actuations. However, researchers have so far assumed...... that the number of ports used to drive the valves (control pins) is unlimited, which has resulted in very expensive, bulky and energy consuming off-chip control and infeasible control routes in the biochip control layer. In this paper, we propose a methodology to reduce the number of control pins required to run...

  20. Retracted: Magnesia-zircon brick: Evolution of microstructure, properties and performance with increasing sintering temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uredništvo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available (retraction This article has been retracted: please see Science of Sintering Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.iiss.sanu.ac.rs/forauthors.htm, see Withdrawal policy. This article has been retracted at the request of Mr. Bernd Buchberger, Head of Corporate Research and Development of the RHI AG Technology Center and Mr. Alfons Luftenegger, Head of Innovation and Intellectual Property Menagement of the RHI AG Technology Center, due to legal limitations, since the publication of this article was not authorized by RHI AG or any company within the RHI Group. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/SOS1302181G

  1. A comprehensive comparative analysis of articles retracted in 2012 and 2013 from the scholarly literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damineni, Ravi Sankar; Sardiwal, Kapil Kumar; Waghle, Sita Ram; Dakshyani, M B

    2015-01-01

    Science is a dynamic subject with ever-changing concepts and is said to be self-correcting. One of the major mechanisms of self-correction is retraction of flawed work. To study the various parameters associated with retraction of scientific articles in 2012 and 2013 and discuss the current trends in article retraction over the period of 2 years. Data were retrieved from MEDLINE (via PubMed) using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in January 2014, and analysis of articles published in 2012 and 2013 was carried out. A total of 155 articles in 2012 and 182 in 2013 were retracted, and original articles followed by case reports constituted major part of it. The most cited reasons for retraction were mistakes, plagiarism, and duplicate submission, and the time interval between submission and retraction had reduced in 2013. Although retracted articles constitute the tip of an iceberg, they are still a matter of major concern in the scientific world. So, editors should follow the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and make an effective strategy in order to reduce such misconduct, as it reflects very adversely not only in the scientific community but also in the general public.

  2. Termination of pinned spirals by local stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Guo, Ming-Ming; Ma, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The termination of pinned spirals on a defect by means of local stimuli is studied. On a completely unexcitable defect, the elimination process is discussed and its corresponding mechanism is presented. Especially, the mechanism of unpinning spirals on a partially unexcitable defect, which has not been investigated so far, is explored. With fixed pacing frequency ω L , there exists a maximal radius R max above which the pinned spiral cannot be removed. It is found that the value of R max does not increase as ω L in a dynamical regime, forming a platform in the R\\textit{max}\\text-ωL curves. Based on analyzing the dispersion relation on the spiral tip around the obstacle, the underlying mechanism is clarified. Also, it is found that when multiple spirals are pinned, the value of R max decreases on a partially unexcitable defect while the change is very slight on a completely unexcitable one.

  3. Pin solar cells made of amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaettner, R. D.; Kruehler, W. W.

    Investigations leading to solar cells with a structure SnO2-pin and an efficiency up to 9.8% are reviewed. The production of large-surface metal/pin/transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-solar cells is discussed. A two-chamber reactor, grid structure and tinning of cells, and an a-Si-module are described. The production of glass/TCO/pin/metal-solar cells and a-SiGe:H-compounds is outlined. Measurements on solar cells and diodes including the efficiency of a-Si:H-solar cells, spectral sensitivity, diffusion lengths, field effect measurements, and modifications of solar cells (space-charge limited currents, reduction of solar cells aging) are treated.

  4. Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases [Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosani M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosani M, Ardizzone S, Porro GB. Biologics: Targets and Therapy. 2009;3:77–97.This paper has been retracted after we were made aware that it contains a large amount of reused, and uncited material that was not placed within quotation marks.The following statement has been supplied by Dr Sandro Ardizzone:The review entitled "Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease" has been commissioned by this journal and published in 2009 (Matteo Bosani, Sandro Ardizzone, Gabriele Bianchi Porro. Biologics: Targets & Therapy 2009;3:77–97. The paper was written by our young coworker (Dr M Bosani. He has consulted many papers, including our previous reviews published years before. The not perfect knowledge of English language has greatly influenced the writing of the paper itself. So he saved in word file several parts of our previous papers (Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G. Inflammatory bowel disease: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment. J Intern Med 2002;252:475–496 – Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G. Biologic therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Drugs 2005:2253–2286, and then transferred to the final paper. He was unaware as we are, of the fact that he could not reuse previously published material in other journals. The reuse of this material was made in good faith.Taking our responsibility for what happened, we intend to apologize for this inconvenience to the Editor (Dr Doris Benbrook and Publisher (Dr Tim Hill. Moreover, for the reasons mentioned above, I consider appropriate to retract the paper itself.This retraction relates to this paper.

  5. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping ’quasi-static’ and low damping ’dynamic’ regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated. PMID:27694953

  6. Broken safety pin in bronchus - Anaesthetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roona Shad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety pins are not commonly aspirated objects in infants and form only a small fraction of all the metallic foreign body (FB which accounts for 4.4% of all foreign bodies found in tracheobronchial tree. Bronchoscopy procedure has various complications, in addition to failure to remove FB due to its impaction, especially with metallic pointed objects ending up in open surgical removal. Infant with inhaled foreign body are always a challenge to anaesthetist. We had one such case of broken safety pin impacted in the wall of right bronchus of an infant with failure to remove on repeated attempts at rigid bronchoscopy.

  7. Broken safety pin in bronchus - Anaesthetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Roona; Agarwal, Aditya

    2012-11-01

    Safety pins are not commonly aspirated objects in infants and form only a small fraction of all the metallic foreign body (FB) which accounts for 4.4% of all foreign bodies found in tracheobronchial tree. Bronchoscopy procedure has various complications, in addition to failure to remove FB due to its impaction, especially with metallic pointed objects ending up in open surgical removal. Infant with inhaled foreign body are always a challenge to anaesthetist. We had one such case of broken safety pin impacted in the wall of right bronchus of an infant with failure to remove on repeated attempts at rigid bronchoscopy.

  8. Self-Pinning on a Liquid Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, C; Irvoas, J; Schwarzenberger, K; Eckert, K; Wodlei, F; Pimienta, V

    2016-02-04

    We report on the first experimental evidence of a self-pinning liquid drop on a liquid surface. This particular regime is observed for a miscible heavier oil drop (dichloromethane) deposited on an aqueous solution laden by an ionic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). Experimental characterization of the drop shape evolution coupled to particle image velocimetry points to the correlation between the drop profile and the accompanying flow field. A simple model shows that the observed pinned stage is the result of a subtle competition between oil dissolution and surfactant adsorption.

  9. Simultaneous Occurrence of Duane Retraction Syndrome with Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue, while Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD which can be transmitted as autosomal dominant disorder in 5–10% of patients. In this paper, we present an 8-year-old girl who presented with left eye DRS and bilateral subluxation of the lens associated with MFS in absence of familial involvement. To our knowledge this is the first case report of DRS with MFS. The occurrence of these syndromes together is very rare and appears to be coincidental.

  10. Correction of Alar Retraction Based on Frontal Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Sung Wan; Bartlett, Erica; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    Among the various types of alar deformations in Asians, alar retraction not only has the highest occurrence rate, but is also very complicated to treat because the ala is supported only by cartilage and its soft tissue envelope cannot be easily stretched. As patients' knowledge of aesthetic procedures is becoming more extensive due to increased information dissemination through various media, doctors must give more accurate, logical explanations of the procedures to be performed and their anticipated results, with an emphasis on relevant anatomical features, accurate diagnoses, detailed classifications, and various appropriate methods of surgery.

  11. Unusual "ratchet syndrome": spontaneous lead retraction after a generator exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejima, Koichiro; Shoda, Morio; Yashiro, Bun; Yoshida, Kentaro; Nuki, Toshiaki; Kato, Ken; Manaka, Tetsuyuki; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2014-07-01

    A 72-year-old female with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy underwent a generator exchange for a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator with a full-pocket capsulectomy. The lead position after the operation was identical to that before the operation on the chest X-ray. After 4 months, a subacute exacerbation of her heart failure was caused by cardiac resynchronization therapy failure due to a dislodgement of the left ventricular lead. An aggressive adhesiotomy of the connective tissue around the leads made it possible for the lead to retract by a ratchet-like movement through the suture sleeve, so-called "ratchet syndrome", after the generator exchange.

  12. PIN2 turnover in Arabidopsis root epidermal cells explored by the photoconvertible protein Dendra2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jásik, Ján; Boggetti, Barbara; Baluška, František; Volkmann, Dieter; Gensch, Thomas; Rutten, Twan; Altmann, Thomas; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2013-01-01

    The steady state level of integral membrane proteins is dependent on a strictly controlled delivery and removal. Here we show that Dendra2, a green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent protein, is a suitable tool to study protein turnover in plants. We characterized the fluorescence properties of Dendra2 expressed either as a free protein or as a tag in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and optimized photoconversion settings to study protein turnover. Dendra2 was fused to the PIN2 protein, an auxin transporter in the root tip, and by time-lapse imaging and assessment of red and green signal intensities in the membrane after photoconversion we quantified directly and simultaneously the rate of PIN2 delivery of the newly synthesized protein into the plasma membrane as well as the disappearance of the protein from the plasma membrane due to degradation. Additionally we have verified several factors which are expected to affect PIN2 protein turnover and therefore potentially regulate root growth.

  13. New types of high field pinning centers and pinning centers for the peak effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Daniel; Zaleski, Andrzej; Morawski, Andrzej; Hossain, Md Shahriar A.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we report the results of a study that shows the existence of pinning centers inside grains and between grains in NbTi wires. We accurately show the ranges of magnetic fields in which the individual pinning centers operate. The pinning centers inside grains are activated in high magnetic fields above 6 T. We show the range of magnetic fields in which individual defects, dislocations, precipitates inside grains and substitutions in the crystal lattice can operate. We show the existence of a new kind of high field pinning center, which operates in high magnetic fields from 8 to ˜9.5 T. We indicate that dislocations create pinning centers in the range of magnetic fields from 6 to 8 T. In addition, our measurements suggest that the peak effect (increased critical current density (J c) near the upper critical field (B c2)) could be attributed to martensitic (needle-shaped) α‧-Ti inclusions inside grains. These centers are very important because they work very effectively in magnetic fields above 9.5-10 T. We also show that the α-Ti precipitates (between grains) with a thickness similar to the coherence length create pinning centers which work very effectively in magnetic fields from 3 to 6 T. In magnetic fields below 3 T, they act very efficiently in grain boundaries. The measurements indicate that the pinning centers created by dislocations only can be tested by transport measurements. This indicates that dislocations do not increase the magnetic critical current density (J cm). Cold drawing improves pinning centers at grain boundaries and increases the dislocation density, and cold-drawing pinning centers are responsible for the peak effect.

  14. Effect of the number of pins and inter-pin distance on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields following mechanical tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Suzuki, Makoto; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Hiroatsu; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2013-10-16

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were collected to investigate the effect of the number of mechanical pins and inter-pin distance on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) following mechanical stimulation (MS). We used a 306-ch whole-head MEG system. SEFs were elicited through tactile stimuli with 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 8-pins using healthy participants. Tactile stimuli were applied to the tip of the right index finger. SEF following electrical stimulation of the index finger was recorded in order to compare the activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) following MS. Prominent SEFs were recorded from the contralateral hemisphere approximately 54 ms (P50m) and 125 ms (P100m) after MS regardless of the number of pins. Equivalent current dipoles were located in the S1. The source activities for P50m and P100m significantly increased in tandem with the number of pins for MS. However, the increased ratios for the source activities according to the increase in the number of pins were significantly smaller than that induced by electrical stimulation, and when the number of the pins doubled from 1-pin to 2-pins, from 2-pins to 4-pins, and from 4-pins to 8-pins, S1 activities increased by only 130%. Additionally, source activities significantly increased when the inter-pin distance increased from 2.4 to 7.2 mm. The number of stimulated receptors was considered to have increased with an increase in the inter-pin distance as well as an increase in the number of pins. These findings clarified the effect of the number of pins and inter-pin distance for MS on SEFs.

  15. A pinned polymer model of posture control

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, C C; Chow, Carson C; Collins, J J

    1995-01-01

    A phenomenological model of human posture control is posited. The dynamics are modelled as an elastically pinned polymer under the influence of noise. The model accurately reproduces the two-point correlation functions of experimental posture data and makes predictions for the response function of the postural control system. The physiological and clinical significance of the model is discussed.

  16. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  17. Turban pin aspiration: new fashion, new syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Ophir; Eliashar, Ron; Hirshoren, Nir; Hamdan, Kasem; Gross, Menachem

    2012-04-01

    Turban pin aspiration syndrome is a new clinical entity afflicting young Islamic girls wearing a turban.The goal of this study was to present our experience in diagnosis and treatment of this new entity, define its clinical and epidemiologic features, and shed a new light on the role of fashion in the increased incidence. A retrospective study in a tertiary university hospital. Review of clinical parameters and epidemiologic features of 26 patients diagnosed with turban pin aspiration syndrome admitted to the Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospitals in Jerusalem from 1990 to 2010. All patients were Muslim females with an average age of 16 years. In all cases, the history was positive for accidental aspiration. Most of the pins were located in the trachea (42%). In 20 cases, the pins were extracted by rigid bronchoscopy without major complications. Fluoroscopy-assisted rigid bronchoscopy was used successfully in three cases. In one case, the object was self-ejected by coughing before the bronchoscopy, and two patients were referred to the chest unit for thoracotomy. Clinicians should be aware of this distinct form of foreign body aspiration, its method of diagnosis, and extraction techniques. A cultural investigation showed a difference in the turban-fastening technique of young girls as compared with their mothers. Removal by rigid bronchoscopy is a safe method with a high success rate and should be considered as the preferred extraction method of choice. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Pinning control of clustered complex networks with different size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chenbo; Wang, Jinbao; Xiang, Yun; Wu, Zhefu; Yu, Li; Xuan, Qi

    2017-08-01

    In pinning control of complex networks, it is found that, with the same pinning effort, the network can be better controlled by pinning the large-degree nodes. But in the clustered complex networks, this preferential pinning (PP) strategy is losing its effectiveness. In this paper, we demonstrate that in the clustered complex networks, especially when the clusters have different size, the random pinning (RP) strategy performs much better than the PP strategy. Then, we propose a new pinning strategy based on cluster degree. It is revealed that the new cluster pinning strategy behaves better than RP strategy when there are only a smaller number of pinning nodes. The mechanism is studied by using eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis, and the simulations of coupled chaotic oscillators are given to verify the theoretical results. These findings could be beneficial for the design of control schemes in some practical systems.

  19. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: ppessoa@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@imp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  20. Pinning control of complex networked systems synchronization, consensus and flocking of networked systems via pinning

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Housheng

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization, consensus and flocking are ubiquitous requirements in networked systems. Pinning Control of Complex Networked Systems investigates these requirements by using the pinning control strategy, which aims to control the whole dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes by imposing controllers for only a fraction of the nodes. As the direct control of every node in a dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes might be impossible or unnecessary, it’s then very important to use the pinning control strategy for the synchronization of complex dynamical networks. The research on pinning control strategy in consensus and flocking of multi-agent systems can not only help us to better understand the mechanisms of natural collective phenomena, but also benefit applications in mobile sensor/robot networks. This book offers a valuable resource for researchers and engineers working in the fields of control theory and control engineering.   Housheng Su is an Associate Professor at the Department of Contro...

  1. RETRACTED: Long-term follow-up after abdominal cerclage: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneider, Kirstine; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Sundtoft, Iben Blaabjerg; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2017-03-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and the Authors as the Authors failed to request and receive permission to use the data from Aarhus Hospital. Copyright © 2017.

  2. Auxin transport through PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) controls shade avoidance and fitness during competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuskamp, Diederik H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Peeters, Anton J. M.; Pierik, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Plants grow in dense vegetations at the risk of being out-competed by neighbors. To increase their competitive power, plants display adaptive responses, such as rapid shoot elongation (shade avoidance) to consolidate light capture. These responses are induced upon detection of proximate neighbors through perception of the reduced ratio between red (R) and far-red (FR) light that is typical for dense vegetations. The plant hormone auxin is a central regulator of plant development and plasticity, but until now it has been unknown how auxin transport is controlled to regulate shade-avoidance responses. Here, we show that low R:FR detection changes the cellular location of the PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) protein, a regulator of auxin efflux, in Arabidopsis seedlings. As a result, auxin levels in the elongating hypocotyls are increased under low R:FR. Seedlings of the pin3-3 mutant lack this low R:FR-induced increase of endogenous auxin in the hypocotyl and, accordingly, have no elongation response to low R:FR. We hypothesize that low R:FR-induced stimulation of auxin biosynthesis drives the regulation of PIN3, thus allowing shade avoidance to occur. The adaptive significance of PIN3-mediated control of shade-avoidance is shown in plant competition studies. It was found that pin3 mutants are outcompeted by wild-type neighbors who suppress fitness of pin3-3 by 40%. We conclude that low R:FR modulates the auxin distribution by a change in the cellular location of PIN3, and that this control can be of great importance for plants growing in dense vegetations. PMID:21149713

  3. Optimization study on pin tip diameter of an impact-pin nozzle at high pressure ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, C. Palani; Lee, Kwon Hee [FMTRC, Daejoo Machinery Co. Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Choon; Cha, Bong Jun [Engine Components Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heuy Dong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Wet compression system is typically installed in a gas turbine engine to increase the net power output and efficiency. A crucial component of the wet compression system is the nozzle which generates fine water droplets for injection into the compressor. The main objective of present work is to optimize a kind of nozzle called impact-pin spray nozzle and thereby produce better quality droplets. To achieve this, the dynamics occurring in the water jet impinging on the pin tip, the subsequent formation of water sheet, which finally breaks into water droplets, must be studied. In this manuscript, the progress on the numerical studies on impact-pin nozzle are reported. A small computational domain covering the orifice, pin tip and the region where primary atomization occurs is selected for numerical analysis. The governing equations are selected in three dimensional cartesian form and simulations are performed to predict the dynamics of water jet impinging on the pin. Systematic studies were carried out and the results leading to the choice of turbulence model and the effect of pin tip diameter are reported here. Further studies are proposed to show the future directions of the present research work.

  4. Acquisition of operant behavior in rats with delayed reinforcement: A retractable-lever procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Andrew A; Johnson, Lyndsey E; Tate, Christopher; Chiang, Thomas; Byrne, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Experimentally naïve rats acquired lever pressing with delayed reinforcement when the immediate programmed consequence for lever pressing was the simultaneous retraction of two identical levers. Presses on one lever also produced access to sweetened condensed milk after a delay of 10s following retraction. Presses on the second lever resulted in retraction only. Lever retraction prevented the possibility of adventitious reinforcement of contacting the operanda during the reinforcement delays. Several measures indicated that the delayed reinforcers strengthened behavior. The majority of responses for all rats were on the lever that initiated reinforcer delivery. Responding for seven out of eight rats decreased during a subsequent extinction phase in which retraction was the only consequence arranged for lever pressing. Responding recovered rapidly when food reinforcement was available again. Furthermore, when contingencies on the two levers were switched, rats allocated their behavior accordingly, showing control by the delayed reinforcers.

  5. Financial costs and personal consequences of research misconduct resulting in retracted publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Andrew M; Casadevall, Arturo; Steen, R Grant; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-08-14

    The number of retracted scientific articles has been increasing. Most retractions are associated with research misconduct, entailing financial costs to funding sources and damage to the careers of those committing misconduct. We sought to calculate the magnitude of these effects. Data relating to retracted manuscripts and authors found by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) to have committed misconduct were reviewed from public databases. Attributable costs of retracted manuscripts, and publication output and funding of researchers found to have committed misconduct were determined. We found that papers retracted due to misconduct accounted for approximately $58 million in direct funding by the NIH between 1992 and 2012, less than 1% of the NIH budget over this period. Each of these articles accounted for a mean of $392,582 in direct costs (SD $423,256). Researchers experienced a median 91.8% decrease in publication output and large declines in funding after censure by the ORI. Copyright © 2014, Stern et al.

  6. Differential Roles of PIN1 and PIN2 in Root Meristem Maintenance Under Low-B Conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Kamiya, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-06-01

    Boron (B) is an essential element for plants; its deficiency causes rapid cessation of root elongation. In addition, B influences auxin accumulation in plants. To assess the importance of auxin transport in B-dependent root elongation, Arabidopsis thaliana pin1-pin4 mutants were grown under low-B conditions. Among them, only the pin2/eir1-1 mutant showed a significantly shorter root under low-B conditions than under control conditions. Moreover, the root meristem size of pin2/eir1-1 was reduced under low-B conditions. Among the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family, PIN1 and PIN2 are important for root meristem growth/maintenance under normal conditions. To investigate the differential response of pin1 and pin2 mutants under low-B conditions, the effect of low-B on PIN1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN2-GFP accumulation and localization was examined. Low-B did not affect PIN2-GFP, while it reduced the accumulation of PIN1-GFP. Moreover, no signal from DII-VENUS, an auxin sensor, was detected under the low-B condition in the stele of wild-type root meristems. Taken together, these results indicate that under low-B conditions PIN1 is down-regulated and PIN2 plays an important role in root meristem maintenance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Retractions in general and internal medicine in a high-profile scientific indexing database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Moritz Varnier Rodrigues de Almeida

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increased frequency of retractions has recently been observed, and retractions are important events that deserve scientific investigation. This study aimed to characterize cases of retraction within general and internal medicine in a high-profile database, with interest in the country of origin of the article and the impact factor (IF of the journal in which the retraction was made. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study consisted of reviewing retraction notes in the Thomson-Reuters Web of Knowledge (WoK indexing database, within general and internal medicine. METHODS: The retractions were classified as plagiarism/duplication, error, fraud and authorship problems and then aggregated into two categories: "plagiarism/duplication" and "others." The countries of origin of the articles were dichotomized according to the median of the indicator "citations per paper" (CPP, and the IF was dichotomized according to its median within general and internal medicine, also obtained from the WoK database. These variables were analyzed using contingency tables according to CPP (high versus low, IF (high versus low and period (1992-2002 versus 2003-2014. The relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI were estimated for plagiarism/duplication. RESULTS: A total of 86 retraction notes were identified, and retraction reasons were found for 80 of them. The probability that plagiarism/duplication was the reason for retraction was more than three times higher for the low CPP group (RR: 3.4; 95% CI: [1.9-6.2], and similar results were seen for the IF analysis. CONCLUSION: The study identified greater incidence of plagiarism/duplication among retractions from countries with lower scientific impact.

  8. Genome-wide identification and evolution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Wei, Haichao

    2017-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants. Wild and cultivated soybean varieties have significant differences worth further investigation, such as plant morphology, seed size, and seed coat development; these characters may be related to auxin biology. The PIN gene family encodes essential transport proteins in cell-to-cell auxin transport, but little research on soybean PIN genes (GmPIN genes) has been done, especially with respect to the evolution and differences between wild and cultivated soybean. In this study, we retrieved 23 GmPIN genes from the latest updated G. max genome database; six GmPIN protein sequences were changed compared with the previous database. Based on the Plant Genome Duplication Database, 18 GmPIN genes have been involved in segment duplication. Three pairs of GmPIN genes arose after the second soybean genome duplication, and six occurred after the first genome duplication. The duplicated GmPIN genes retained similar expression patterns. All the duplicated GmPIN genes experienced purifying selection (Ka/Ks < 1) to prevent accumulation of non-synonymous mutations and thus remained more similar. In addition, we also focused on the artificial selection of the soybean PIN genes. Five artificially selected GmPIN genes were identified by comparing the genome sequence of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean varieties. Our research provides useful and comprehensive basic information for understanding GmPIN genes.

  9. Retracted article: Quantum dots high fluorescent signal amplification immunoassay using branched DNA and peptide nucleic acid conjugated antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Ali, Selman; Hanley, Quentin S; Boocock, David; Matharoo-Ball, Balwir

    2012-12-16

    I, Yuan-Cheng Cao, hereby wholly retract this Analyst paper for correction. This article was submitted for publication without the knowledge and approval of the co-authors listed. Signed: Yuan-Cheng Cao, Newcastle University, UK, December 2011. This retraction is endorsed by May Copsey, Editor. Retraction published 16th December 2011.

  10. Pinning Synchronization of One-Sided Lipschitz Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the pinning synchronization in complex networks with node dynamics satisfying the one-sided Lipschitz condition which is less conservative than the well-known Lipschitz condition. Based on M-matrix theory and Lyapunov functional method, some simple pinning conditions are derived for one-sided Lipschitz complex networks with full-state and partial-state coupling, respectively. A selective pinning scheme is further provided to address the selection of pinned nodes and the design of pinning feedback gains for one-sided Lipschitz complex networks with general topologies. Numerical results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  11. Shocks and Thermal Conduction Fronts in Retracting Reconnected Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Guidoni, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for plasma heating produced by time-dependent, spatially localized reconnection within a flare current sheet separating skewed magnetic fields. The reconnection creates flux tubes of new connectivity which subsequently retract at Alfv\\'enic speeds from the reconnection site. Heating occurs in gas-dynamic shocks which develop inside these tubes. Here we present generalized thin flux tube equations for the dynamics of reconnected flux tubes, including pressure-driven parallel dynamics as well as temperature dependent, anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity. The evolution of tubes embedded in a uniform, skewed magnetic field, following reconnection in a patch, is studied through numerical solutions of these equations, for solar coronal conditions. Even though viscosity and thermal conductivity are negligible in the quiet solar corona, the strong gas-dynamic shocks generated by compressing plasma inside reconnected flux tubes generate large velocity and temperature gradients along the t...

  12. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  13. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of "distracting the periodontal ligament" is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks.

  14. Dysmyelinated lower motor neurons retract and regenerate dysfunctional synaptic terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinghua; Kidd, Grahame J; Pioro, Erik P; McDonough, Jennifer; Dutta, Ranjan; Feltri, M Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Messing, Albee; Wyatt, Ryan M; Balice-Gordon, Rita J; Trapp, Bruce D

    2004-04-14

    Axonal degeneration is the major cause of permanent neurological disability in individuals with inherited diseases of myelin. Axonal and neuronal changes that precede axonal degeneration, however, are not well characterized. We show here that dysmyelinated lower motor neurons retract and regenerate dysfunctional presynaptic terminals, leading to severe neurological disability before axonal degeneration. In addition, dysmyelination led to a decreased synaptic quantal content, an indicator of synaptic dysfunction. The amplitude and rise time of miniature endplate potentials were also increased, but these changes were primarily consistent with an increase in the passive membrane properties of the transgenic muscle fibers. Maintenance of synaptic connections should be considered as a therapeutic target for slowing progression of neurological disability in primary diseases of myelin.

  15. Retractable tube design issues in ITER CXRS UPP no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baross, T., E-mail: baross.teteny@wigner.mta.hu [WIGNER RCP, RMKI, PO Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Biel, W. [Institut für Energieforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich Gmbh, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Member of Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Krejczinger, A. [WIGNER RCP, RMKI, PO Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Krasikov, Yu.; Panin, A. [Institut für Energieforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich Gmbh, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Member of Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The retractable tube is located in the upper port plug no. 3 of ITER core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (cCXRS) that carries the cleaning system of the first mirror. ► Various manufacturing methods were investigated for the proper layout of the tube cooling structure. ► The tube support boundary conditions were examined. ► A flexible compensator element was developed between the floating and structural flange of the tube. -- Abstract: The retractable tube is located in the upper port plug no. 3 of ITER core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (cCXRS), where it is surrounded by a set of mirrors, diagnostic shielding module (DSM), outer shell, cleaning device and shutter. Accordingly to the recent port plug concept the tube is an optional unit that carries the cleaning system of the first mirror. The cleaning device shall be a compact instrument at the tube head that influences the tube diameter primarily. Independently of the cleaning device the tube cooling channels and its proper support concept has to be developed. Various manufacturing methods are investigated for the proper layout of the tube cooling structure. They are the gun-drilled deep holes, the solid state bonded sheets forming cooling channels between the welded layers, ‘tube-in-tube’ approach. Most of them were analyzed in view of their thermal conditions. The tube support system design is a complex task, that has to take into account several boundary conditions and limitations. The tube must be compatible with the assumed ITER generic installation procedure, withstand the electromagnetic (EM) and thermal loads. Furthermore, the tube has to be exchanged several times during its lifetime. The paper summarizes the tube cooling layout possibilities and the assumptions on its support concepts.

  16. RETRACTION of articles with plagiarism in common with other publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The GMR editorial staff was alerted about some manuscripts that were found to be substantially equal. The Publisher and Editor decided to retract these articles in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). After a thorough investigation, we have strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure and, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract these articles. The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics. The articles containing plagiarism in common with other publications are: Peng ZA, Lu RB, Xiao DM and Xiao ZM (2016). Increased expression of the lncRNA BANCR and its prognostic significance in human osteosarcoma. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (1): gmr15017480 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15017480. Man HB, Bi WP and Man HH (2016). Decreased microRNA-198 expression and its prognostic significance in human glioma. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15027656 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027656. Tang T, Zhang GC, Li CF, Liu YF, et al. (2016). Decreased miR-452 expression in human colorectal cancer and its tumor suppressive function. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15027730 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027730. Ma YB, Song DW, Nie RH and Mu GY (2016). MicroRNA-32 functions as a tumor suppressor and directly targets EZH2 in uveal melanoma. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15027935 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027935. Wang XJ, Xia M and Bi WP (2016). Decreased expression of miR-874 and its tumor suppressive function in human colorectal cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15028077 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028077. Zhuo HC, Song YF, Ye J, Lai GX, et al. (2016). MicroRNA-154 functions as a tumor suppressor and directly targets HMGA2 in human non-small cell lung cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15028173 - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028173.

  17. The pin pixel detector--neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mmx25.4 mm has been fabricated, giving a pixel size of 2.54 mm which matches well to the spatial resolution typically required in a neutron diffractometer. A 2-Dimensional resistive divide readout system has been adapted to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics. The timing properties of the device match well to the requirements of the ISIS-pulsed neutron source.

  18. Cheap and Easy PIN Entering Using Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprowski Pawel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main advantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember and fast to enter. There are, however, some drawbacks. One of them - addressed in this paper - is a possibility to steal PIN by a technique called `shoulder surfing'. To avoid such problems a novel method of the PIN entering was proposed. Instead of using a numerical keyboard, the PIN may be entered by eye gazes, which is a hands-free, easy and robust technique. References:

  19. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Straka, M. (Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  20. Mesoscopic pinning forces in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Seveso, Stefano; Grill, Fabrizio; Haskell, Brynmor

    2014-01-01

    The crust of a neutron star is thought to be comprised of a lattice of nuclei immersed in a sea of free electrons and neutrons. As the neutrons are superfluid their angular momentum is carried by an array of quantized vortices. These vortices can pin to the nuclear lattice and prevent the neutron superfluid from spinning down, allowing it to store angular momentum which can then be released catastrophically, giving rise to a pulsar glitch. A crucial ingredient for this model is the maximum pinning force that the lattice can exert on the vortices, as this allows us to estimate the angular momentum that can be exchanged during a glitch. In this paper we perform, for the first time, a detailed and quantitative calculation of the pinning force \\emph{per unit length} acting on a vortex immersed in the crust and resulting from the mesoscopic vortex-lattice interaction. We consider realistic vortex tensions, allow for displacement of the nuclei and average over all possible orientation of the crystal with respect to...

  1. Electromagnetic panel deployment and retraction using the geomagnetic field in LEO satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, Takaya; Sugawara, Yoshiki; Satou, Yasutaka

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly, spacecraft are installed with large-area structures that are extended and deployed post-launch. These extensible structures have been applied in several missions for power generation, thermal radiation, and solar propulsion. Here, we propose a deployment and retraction method using the electromagnetic force generated when the geomagnetic field interacts with electric current flowing on extensible panels. The panels are installed on a satellite in low Earth orbit. Specifically, electrical wires placed on the extensible panels generate magnetic moments, which interfere with the geomagnetic field. The resulting repulsive and retraction forces enable panel deployment and retraction. In the proposed method, a satellite realizes structural deployment using simple electrical wires. Furthermore, the satellite can achieve not only deployment but also retraction for avoiding damage from space debris and for agile attitude maneuvers. Moreover, because the proposed method realizes quasi-static deployment and the retraction of panels by electromagnetic forces, low impulsive force is exerted on fragile panels. The electrical wires can also be used to detect the panel deployment and retraction and generate a large magnetic moment for attitude control. The proposed method was assessed in numerical simulations based on multibody dynamics. Simulation results shows that a small cubic satellite with a wire current of 25 AT deployed 4 panels (20 cm × 20 cm) in 500 s and retracted 4 panels in 100 s.

  2. Frequency of discrepancies in retracted clinical trial reports versus unretracted reports: blinded case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Graham D; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Mielewczik, Michael; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-09-20

    To compare the frequency of discrepancies in retracted reports of clinical trials with those in adjacent unretracted reports in the same journal. Blinded case-control study. Journals in PubMed. 50 manuscripts, classified on PubMed as retracted clinical trials, paired with 50 adjacent unretracted manuscripts from the same journals. Reports were randomly selected from PubMed in December 2012, with no restriction on publication date. Controls were the preceding unretracted clinical trial published in the same journal. All traces of retraction were removed. Three scientists, blinded to the retraction status of individual reports, reviewed all 100 trial reports for discrepancies. Discrepancies were pooled and cross checked before being counted into prespecified categories. Only then was the retraction status unblinded for analysis. Total number of discrepancies (defined as mathematically or logically contradictory statements) in each clinical trial report. Of 479 discrepancies found in the 100 trial reports, 348 were in the 50 retracted reports and 131 in the 50 unretracted reports. On average, individual retracted reports had a greater number of discrepancies than unretracted reports (median 4 (interquartile range 2-8.75) v 0 (0-5); Pretracted than those without a discrepancy (odds ratio 5.7 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 14.5); Pretracted than unretracted reports: factual discrepancies (P=0.002), arithmetical errors (P=0.01), and missed P values (P=0.02). Results from a retrospective analysis indicated that citations and journal impact factor were unlikely to affect the result. Discrepancies in published trial reports should no longer be assumed to be unimportant. Scientists, blinded to retraction status and with no specialist skill in the field, identify significantly more discrepancies in retracted than unretracted reports of clinical trials. Discrepancies could be an early and accessible signal of unreliability in clinical trial reports. © Cole et al 2015.

  3. Improved Pinning Center Morphology in HTS with Order-of-Magnitude Increase in Jc and Bpin Compared to Columnar Pinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The motivation for continuouscolumnar pinning centers has been to provide maximum Upin. It has been assumed that this provides the best Jc and Bpin. Limitations on Jc and Bpin observed for columnar pinning have been attributed to degradation of the order parameter and Tc. We examine columnar pinning by ionic damage and conclude instead that geometrical effects of columnar pinningon percolation path and on the number of pinning centers are the dominant limitations of columnar pinning, leading to a limit of Bpin~4 T. Evidence suggests that multiple-in-line-defects (MILD) are far better suited to increase Jc and Bpin. The morphology of MILD pinning is reviewed. Ion energy loss per unit distance, Se, is found to be most promising in a regime almost diametrically opposite to that sought to maximize Upin. We expect Jc~106 A/cm2 and Bpin>40 T from MILD pinning,despite sharply decreased Upin.Experimental confirmation is proposed.

  4. Retraction. I148M PNPLA3 variant and progressive liver disease: A new paradigm in hepatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Retraction: The following editorial from HEPATOLOGY, "I148M PNPLA3 variant and progressive liver disease: A new paradigm in hepatology", by Luca Valenti, Anna Alisi and Valerio Nobili, posted online on 2 December 2011 as an Accepted Article in Wiley Online Library (www.wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the AASLD, the journal Editor in Chief, Michael H. Nathanson, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to the fact that an incorrect version was posted online. The correct version of the Editorial has been issued under a separate DOI, 10.1002/hep.25617.

  5. RETRACTED: In vivo and in vitro antithrombus activities of depolymerized holothurian polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Mou, Jiaojiao; Ding, Dejun; Wang, Xuedong

    2017-01-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of authors. The authors have recently found a serious mistake in Table 1 of the article, where the molecular ratio of different monosaccharides is inconsistent with their previously published work. This error flaws the paper and so the authors wish it to be retracted to avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation of their research work. The authors apologise for any concern or confusion that might have resulted in publishing this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Surgical technique of displacement and retraction of the heart with a pigtail shaped hook and Tentacles Heart Positioner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yoshiei; Mochizuki, Y; Yamada, Y; Eda, K; Shibasaki, I; Inoue, Y; Miyoshi, S

    2007-07-01

    We describe a novel heart retracting system with Tentacles Heart Positioner (Sumitomo Bakelite, Tokyo) during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). The heart retracting system is composed of a pigtail shaped hook attached to a flexible Universal Stabilizer Arm (Estech, Minneapolis). After Tentacles suction device is applied on the surface of the heart, the retracting system is fixed on the sternal retracter so that the hook can hang and support the retracting tubes of the sucker. By regulating the shape of the Universal Stabilizer Arm and the position of the hook, the retracting system can lift the heart sufficiently and maintain the optimal position of the heart during OPCAB procedure. Together with Tentacles Heart Positioner, the heart retracting system provides excellent exposure of target coronary arteries with minimal effect on hemodynamics.

  7. Large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for pinned diffusion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Inahama, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Since T. Lyons invented rough path theory, one of its most successful applications is a new proof of Freidlin-Wentzell's large deviation principle for diffusion processes. In this paper we extend this method to the case of pinned diffusion processes under a mild ellipticity assumption. Besides rough path theory, our main tool is quasi-sure analysis, which is a kind of potential theory in Malliavin calculus.

  8. Large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for pinned diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Inahama, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Since T. Lyons invented rough path theory, one of its most successful applications is a new proof of Freidlin-Wentzell's large deviation principle for diffusion processes. In this paper we extend this method to the case of pinned diffusion processes under a mild ellipticity assumption. Besides rough path theory, our main tool is quasi-sure analysis, which is one of the deepest parts of Malliavin calculus.

  9. Magnetic flux pinning in superconductors with hyperbolic-tessellation arrays of pinning sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, V. R.; Nori, Franco

    2012-05-01

    We study magnetic flux interacting with arrays of pinning sites (APSs) placed on vertices of hyperbolic tessellations (HTs). We show that, due to the gradient in the density of pinning sites, HT APSs are capable of trapping vortices for a broad range of applied magnetic fluxes. Thus, the penetration of magnetic field in HT APSs is essentially different from the usual scenario predicted by the Bean model. We demonstrate that, due to the enhanced asymmetry of the surface barrier for vortex entry and exit, this HT APS could be used as a “capacitor” to store magnetic flux.

  10. RETRACTION: Challenges of combined everolimus/endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Porta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To our readers:With deep regrets, we inform our Readers that the article Challenges of combined everolimus/endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/oncol.2014.236, which has been published Ahead of Print in the first issue of Oncology Reviews (2014, contains verbatim text plagiarized from another paper.1The manuscript must be considered as retracted. On behalf of the Editorial Board of Oncology Reviews, I apologize to the Author of the manuscript whose text was plagiarized by Y. Abubakr and Y. Albushra that this was not picked up in the peer review process. I also apologize to the affected journal for the violation of copyright due to plagiarism. Oncology Reviews is uncompromising in its commitment to scientific integrity. When credible evidence of misconduct is brought to our attention, our commitment to the scientific record and to our readership requires immediate notification. Oncology Reviews is increasingly employing sophisticated software to detect plagiarism. Other journals use similar tools. Authors should be aware that most journals routinely employ plagiarism detection software, and that any plagiarism is likely to be detected.Camillo Porta, Editor-in-Chief Oncology Reviews Reference 1. André F. Enhancing effectiveness of endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. Medscape Education Oncology. CME Released: 05/24/2013; Valid for credit through 05/24/2014. http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/804496

  11. Academic medical libraries' policies and procedures for notifying library users of retracted scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C

    1998-01-01

    Academic medical libraries have a responsibility to inform library users regarding retracted publications. Many have created policies and procedures that identify flawed journal articles. A questionnaire was sent to the 129 academic medical libraries in the United States and Canada to find out how many had policies and procedures for identifying retracted publications. Of the returned questionnaires, 59% had no policy and no practice for calling the attention of the library user to retracted publications. Forty-one percent of the libraries called attention to retractions with or without a formal policy for doing so. Several responding libraries included their policy statement with the survey. The increasing number of academic medical libraries that realize the importance of having policies and practices in place highlights the necessity for this procedure.

  12. Retraction Note: Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National Univ. Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The senior author (J. Lee) and the first author (S. Y. Jeong) have retracted this review article due to misconduct. They have discovered multiple instances of misreferencing and misquotation in the text which raise the concern of potential plagiarism.

  13. RETRACTION - In Vitro Derivation of Human Sperm from Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayernia, Karim; Lee, Jae Ho; Lako, Majlinda; Armstrong, Lyle; Herbert, Mary; Li, Manyu; Engel, Wolfgang; Elliott, David; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Parrington, John; Murdoch, Alison; Strachan, Tom; Zhang, Xin

    2009-07-07

    This article, "In Vitro Derivation of Human Sperm from Embryonic Stem Cells," is being retracted from Stem Cells and Development. Further details will follow online, and in a subsequent issue of the Journal.

  14. A Jurassic stem pleurodire sheds light on the functional origin of neck retraction in turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Tong, Haiyan; Claude, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Modern turtles are composed of two monophyletic groups, notably diagnosed by divergent neck retraction mechanisms. Pleurodires (side-necked turtles) bend their neck sideways and protect their head under the anterior margin of the carapace. Cryptodires (hidden-necked turtles) withdraw their neck and head in the vertical plane between the shoulder girdles. These two mechanisms of neck retraction appeared independently in the two lineages and are usually assumed to have evolved for protective reasons. Here we describe the neck of Platychelys oberndorferi, a Late Jurassic early stem pleurodire, and find remarkable convergent morphological and functional similarities with modern cryptodires. Partial vertical neck retraction in this taxon is interpreted to have enabled fast forward projection of the head during underwater prey capture and offers a likely explanation to the functional origin of neck retraction in modern cryptodires. Complete head withdrawal for protection may therefore have resulted from an exaptation in that group. PMID:28206991

  15. Time-Dependent Response of Polypropylene/Clay Nanocomposites Under Tension and Retraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2013-01-01

    Observations are reported in relaxation tests under tension and retraction on polypropylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters in the stress...

  16. Bilateral inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Pranab

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Duane′s retraction syndrome is a well known congenital musculo-facial anomaly. Various explanations have been given for the aetiology of this syndrome. Inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome is a condition with reverse clinical features. Abduction of the affected eye is possible to some extent and is accompanied by retraction of the eyeball, narrowing of the palpebral fissure and pseudoptosis. There may be some restriction of movement on adduction. The primary lesion is suspected to be in the medial rectus muscle. Frequently the muscle is found to be entrapped following trauma to the medial wall of the orbit. A case of bilateral inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome and convergent squint along with left-sided perceptive deafness is reported. As is usually the case there was no structural abnormality or entrapment of the muscle from trauma.

  17. Robustness of pinning a general complex dynamical network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lei, E-mail: lwang@buaa.edu.c [Laboratory of Mathematics, Information and Behavior of the Ministry of Education, Department of Systems and Control, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun Youxian [State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Industrial Process Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-04-05

    This Letter studies the robustness problem of pinning a general complex dynamical network toward an assigned synchronous evolution. Several synchronization criteria are presented to guarantee the convergence of the pinning process locally and globally by construction of Lyapunov functions. In particular, if a pinning strategy has been designed for synchronization of a given complex dynamical network, then no matter what uncertainties occur among the pinned nodes, synchronization can still be guaranteed through the pinning. The analytical results show that pinning control has a certain robustness against perturbations on network architecture: adding, deleting and changing the weights of edges. Numerical simulations illustrated by scale-free complex networks verify the theoretical results above-acquired.

  18. A mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2013-02-20

    We propose a mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnetic thin films by introducing local maxima of magnetic exchange strength as pinning centers. The local maxima can be realized by engineering the local density of itinerant electrons. The stationary properties and the dynamical pinning and depinning processes of an isolated skyrmion around a pinning center are studied. We carry out numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find a way to control the position of an isolated skyrmion in a pinning center lattice using electric current pulses. The results are verified by a Thiele equation analysis. We also find that the critical current to depin a skyrmion, which is estimated to have order of magnitude 10(7)-10(8) A m(-2), has linear dependence on the pinning strength.

  19. Principles of intramedullary pin and wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, P E

    1991-02-01

    Knowledge and experience in the proper use of IM pins, K-wires, and orthopedic wire is a valuable asset to the veterinarian's ability to successfully repair a variety of long bone fractures. Most long bone fractures are amenable to repair with this form of fixation. When the principles of application are violated or the implants are used when contraindicated, complications often occur. Proper use of these implants results in the successful management of complex fractures to the satisfaction of both the animal owner and the veterinarian (Fig 10).

  20. Controlling Flow Turbulence Using Local Pinning Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Guo-Ning; HU Gang

    2006-01-01

    Flow turbulence control in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation is considered.By applying local pinning control only to a sjngle component of flow velocity field,the flow turbulence can be controlled to desirable targets.It is found that with certain number of controllers there exist an optimal control strength at which control error takes minimum value,and larger and smaller control strengths give worse control efficiency.The phvsical mechanism underlying these strange control results is analysed based on the interactions between different types of modes.

  1. Optimum Prestress of Tanks with Pinned Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Nielsen, Troels

    1998-01-01

    Amin Ghali and Eleanor Elliott presented in their paper an interesting suggestion for prestressing of circular tanks without sliding joints. For many prestressed tanks the following construction procedure is adopted:In order to ensure compressive hoop forces in the wall near the base, the wall...... is allowed to slide freely in the radial direction during tensioning (free base).After tensioning such displacements are prevented (pinned base). The present paper addresses the problem of prestress of such tanks.Keywords: circular prestressing; creep properties; prestressed concrete; redistribution...... of stress; stress relaxation; tanks....

  2. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination.

  3. Retraction: Two novel duck antibacterial peptides, avian β-defensins 9 and 10, with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The article by Ma et al. that published in the Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (2009, 19: 1447-1455) was used the same data in two journal articles (Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica, 2009, 40(9): 1320-1326, Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2009, 42(4): 1406-1412). Therefore, the article is retracted from JMB as a misconduct of the authors. JMB as the publisher regrets for any inconvenience may have caused by the retraction to readers.

  4. Kinematic analysis of the lower cervical spine in the protracted and retracted neck flexion positions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, So Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze lower cervical spine kinematics in protracted and retracted neck flexion positions in healthy people. [Subjects and Methods] The craniovertebral angle (CVA) and intervertebral body angles of the lower cervical spine of 10 healthy individuals were analyzed using fluoroscopy in a neutral sitting with the head in the neutral (N), protracted (Pro), and retracted (Ret) positions and with the neck in full flexion with the head in the neutral (N-fx), pr...

  5. RETRACTED: Effect of flux jump on temperature distributions in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Feng; He, Tian-Hu; Wang, Ping-Bo

    2010-10-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article is retracted at the request of the authors, due to admitted plagiarism of unpublished work of Tian-Hu He. He wishes to state that he was not involved in the publication process and his name was used on the paper without his knowledge.

  6. New classification for correction of alar retraction using the alar spreader graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Park, Sung Wan; Oh, Won Suk; Lee, Joo Heon

    2012-08-01

    Identifying the cause of alar retraction is essential for proper correction of this deformity. In secondary surgery, aimed primarily at cephalic orientation and medialization of the lateral crus, corrections involving spreading and lateralization of the lateral crus can achieve a more horizontal orientation. In their clinic, the authors have practiced the use of an alar spreader graft to support the spread of the lateral crus. For the lateral crus to move freely without any resistance, it is critical to release the nasal hinge and pyriform ligament. A frontal view of the alar notching and the direction of the lateral crus are highly important factors needed to determine the cause of alar retraction. This report describes a new classification system for alar retractions viewed from the front to aid in determining the cause of the retraction and the surgical management. From March 2008 to July 2010, 31 alar retractions were corrected using alar spreader grafts for patients showing clear alar retractions in frontal views. Satisfactory results without severe complications were obtained in 30 cases, with undercorrection in only 1 case. The alar cartilage was completely released to facilitate lateralization and caudal mobilization. An alar spreader graft then was used to support the lateral crus until a biologic scar cast was formed. The use of alar spreader grafts to correct alar retractions provided consistently good results. The attempt also was made to enhance the treatment strategy based on this classification system derived from frontal views of alar retraction. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at www.springer.com/00266 .

  7. RETRACTED: Test Taking Strategies Instruction and Iranian EFL Learners’ Performance on International Language Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Ghabelju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted: please see AIAC PTY.LTD. Policy on Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement.(http://www.aiac.org.au/journals/Subtemps/PEPMS.pdf This article has been retracted based on the editorial decision upon conducting a thorough invesitigatiosn. It came to our notice that the author has plagirised this paper from an unpblished thesis carried out in Iran in 2010.

  8. RETRACTED: Test Taking Strategies Instruction and Iranian EFL Learners’ Performance on International Language Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra Ghabelju

    2013-01-01

    This article has been retracted: please see AIAC PTY.LTD. Policy on Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement.(http://www.aiac.org.au/journals/Subtemps/PEPMS.pdf) This article has been retracted based on the editorial decision upon conducting a thorough invesitigatiosn. It came to our notice that the author has plagirised this paper from an unpblished thesis carried out in Iran in 2010.

  9. Quick, painless, and atraumatic gingival retraction: An overview of advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajambigai, M Aarti; Raja, S Ramesh; Soundar, S I Joephin; Kandasamy, M

    2016-10-01

    The success of any fixed prosthesis depends on the accuracy of impressions. Finish line exposure has to be adequate during impression making. The goal of gingival retraction is to atraumatically displace gingival tissues to allow access for impression material to record the finish line and provide sufficient thickness of gingival sulcus so that the impression does not tear off during removal. Numerous advanced materials are available for gingival retraction. This article describes the different advanced materials available.

  10. Quick, painless, and atraumatic gingival retraction: An overview of advanced materials

    OpenAIRE

    M Aarti Rajambigai; S Ramesh Raja; S I. Joephin Soundar; Kandasamy, M

    2016-01-01

    The success of any fixed prosthesis depends on the accuracy of impressions. Finish line exposure has to be adequate during impression making. The goal of gingival retraction is to atraumatically displace gingival tissues to allow access for impression material to record the finish line and provide sufficient thickness of gingival sulcus so that the impression does not tear off during removal. Numerous advanced materials are available for gingival retraction. This article describes the differe...

  11. Retracting Inconclusive Research: Lessons from the Séralini GM Maize Feeding Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In September 2012, Gilles-Eric Séralini and seven coauthors published an article in Food and Chemical Toxicology claiming that rats fed Roundup©-resistant genetically modified maize alone, genetically modified maize with Roundup©, or Roundup© for 2 years had a higher percentage of tumors and kidney and liver damage than normal controls. Shortly after this study was published, numerous scientists and several scientific organizations criticized the research as methodologically and ethically flawed. In January 2014, the journal retracted the article without the authors’ consent on the grounds that the research was inconclusive. In June 2014, Environmental Sciences Europe published a slightly modified version of the retracted paper. The publication, retraction and subsequent republication of the Séralini study raise important scientific and ethical issues for journal editors. Decisions to retract an article should be made on the basis of well-established policies. Articles should be retracted only for serious errors that undermine the reliability of the data or results, or for serious ethical lapses, such as research misconduct or mistreatment of animal or human subjects. Inconclusiveness, by itself, is not a sufficient reason for retracting an article, though a flawed study design might be. Retracted articles that are submitted for republication should undergo scientific review to ensure that they meet appropriate standards. Republished articles should be linked to the original, retracted publication. Journals that are reviewing studies with significant scientific and social implications should take special care to ensure that peer review is rigorous and fair. PMID:26251636

  12. RETRACTED: A novel technique of multi-track percutaneous balloon mitral commissurotomy (PBMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif A. Sakr

    2012-07-01

    This paper has been retracted upon mutual agreement between the publisher and the Editor-in-Chief of EJCDT when it was discovered that this article had also been submitted and published in the International Heart Journal http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.54.196. The authors did not give clarification for the action, therefore the paper was retracted following international publishing practices.

  13. Development of 3D pseudo pin-by-pin calculation methodology in ANC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Mayhue, L.; Huria, H.; Ivanov, B. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Advanced cores and fuel assembly designs have been developed to improve operational flexibility, economic performance and further enhance safety features of nuclear power plants. The simulation of these new designs, along with strong heterogeneous fuel loading, have brought new challenges to the reactor physics methodologies currently employed in the industrial codes for core analyses. Control rod insertion during normal operation is one operational feature in the AP1000{sup R} plant of Westinghouse next generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design. This design improves its operational flexibility and efficiency but significantly challenges the conventional reactor physics methods, especially in pin power calculations. The mixture loading of fuel assemblies with significant neutron spectrums causes a strong interaction between different fuel assembly types that is not fully captured with the current core design codes. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional methods, Westinghouse has developed a state-of-the-art 3D Pin-by-Pin Calculation Methodology (P3C) and successfully implemented in the Westinghouse core design code ANC. The new methodology has been qualified and licensed for pin power prediction. The 3D P3C methodology along with its application and validation will be discussed in the paper. (authors)

  14. Analysis and implications of retraction period and coauthorship of fraudulent publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Tan, Xin Ji Alan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the number and frequency of fraudulent publications being retracted are not subsiding even with greater awareness of such incidents in the recent decades. In this study, the trends of retraction period, number of citations and coauthors of 5 selected researchers who had ≥ 15 fraudulent publications retracted were analyzed. The obtained results shows that the retraction period is 48.96 ± 32.16 months for the 113 publications affiliated to the 5 studied researchers. There are a total of 180 coauthors with 6.40 ± 3.26 coauthors per researcher's retracted publication. The linear regression analysis indicates that there is limited correlation (R(2) = .008) between the citation counts and retraction period. The p value for multiple F-tests to assess the number of coauthors to a fraudulent publication on an interresearcher basis is found to be ranging from < .001 to .458. It is also found that a better correlation (R(2) = .592) exists between the likelihood of a researcher to involve different individuals for isolated fraudulent publications while only selecting very few to be their frequent coauthors of their mischievous acts. With this study, the possible use of coauthors as a strategy for publishing fraudulent work and a potential approach to tighten coauthorship are discussed.

  15. The pin pixel detector--X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a soft X-ray gas pixel detector, which uses connector pins for the anodes is reported. Based on a commercial 100 pin connector block, a prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mm centre dot 25.4 mm can be economically fabricated. The individual pin anodes all show the expected characteristics of small gas detectors capable of counting rates reaching 1 MHz per pin. A 2-dimensional resistive divide readout system has been developed to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics.

  16. 327 to 324 Pin tube shipment quality management process plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAM, J.E.

    1998-11-05

    The B and W Hanford Company's (BWHC) 327 Facility, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to ship five Pin Tubes to the 324 Facility for storage and eventual disposition. The Pin Tubes consist of legacy fuel pin pieces and drillings. They will be over-packed in new Pin Tubes and transported to 324 in three shipments. Once received at 324, two of the shipments will be combined for storage as a fissionable material batch, and the other shipment will be added to an existing batch.

  17. [Ingestion of an open safety pin--challenging treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRowe, Ari; Fishman, Gadi; Avni, Hadas; Reider, Ivgeny; Ogorek, Daniel

    2003-11-01

    A 9 month old girl at the emergency room appeared with an acute onset of restlessness, drooling and suspected foreign body ingestion. An X-Ray revealed an open safety pin in the child's upper aero-digestive tract. The source of the safety pin was a "Hamsah" good luck charm that was attached to her bed. Open safety pins in the aero-digestive tract are difficult to manage and great care must be taken during removal to prevent further injury. Parents should be counseled regarding the presence of safety pins in the child's surroundings in order to prevent such hazards.

  18. Changing the flux flow state in weak pinning superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, A., E-mail: antoleo@sa.infn.it [Physics Department E.R. Caianiello, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); CNR-SPIN Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Grimaldi, G. [CNR-SPIN Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Nigro, A. [Physics Department E.R. Caianiello, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); CNR-SPIN Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Bruno, E.; Priolo, F. [Matis IMM-CNR and Physics-Astronomy Department, Catania University, CT 95123 (Italy); Pace, S. [Physics Department E.R. Caianiello, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); CNR-SPIN Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, Stecca 9, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the effect of light ion irradiation on weak pinning superconductors. • We found the light ion irradiation has a strong impact on current currying stability. • We compared the results to the ones of the case of moderate strong pinning materials. - Abstract: The current carrying dissipative state well above the critical current it is known to be related to the pinning properties of the material and to the microscopic mechanisms of vortex dynamics. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that in low temperature superconducting films exhibiting moderately strong pinning the light ion irradiation has the effect of changing the distribution of the pinning centers without changing their pinning strength and this results into an increase of current stability in the flux flow state. Here we present the results of light ion irradiation on weak pinning superconducting films focusing on the influence of pinning properties of the material in the flux flow state. We realize that the possibility to switch to low dissipations by changing weak pinning is not straightforward.

  19. Pin-ups: pictures that fascinate and seduce Pin-ups: fotografias que encantam e seduzem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Pellegrino de Oliveira Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting from photography studies, social anthropology and body visual, this article approaches the social construction of the feminine image through times. It narrates the history of erotic pinups photography and its fetishist elements. Pin-ups have aroused in the end of 19tcentury and it represents the free spirit of women. Slowly, it provokes the breakup of sensuality and sexuality feminine traditionalism. The article also discusses women’s sensuality as a desire object. The pin-ups sensual demure – with a mystery atmosphere – stimulated the eroticism at the beginning of the 20 century and, until nowadays, it provokes admiration, sigh and desire. Com base em estudos sobre fotografia, antropologia social e visual do corpo, este artigo aborda a imagem feminina socialmente construída através dos tempos. Narra o histórico da fotografia erótica de pin-ups e seus elementos fetichistas. As pin-ups surgiram no final do século XIX e representaram o espírito “livre” das mulheres. Sutilmente, incitavam o rompimento do tradicionalismo da época quanto à sensualidade e sexualidade feminina. O artigo aborda também a sensualidade feminina como objeto de desejo. O recato sensual das pin-ups – com ar de mistério – alavancou o erotismo no início do século XX e, até os dias atuais, provoca admiração, suspiros e desejos.

  20. Design of Friction Stir Welding Tool for Avoiding Root Flaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shude Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve material flow behavior during friction stir welding and avoid root flaws of weld, a tool with a half-screw pin and a tool with a tapered-flute pin are suggested. The effect of flute geometry in tool pins on material flow velocity is investigated by the software ANSYS FLUENT. Numerical simulation results show that high material flow velocity appears near the rotational tool and material flow velocity rapidly decreases with the increase of distance away from the axis of the tool. Maximum material flow velocity by the tool with the tapered-flute pin appears at the beginning position of flute and the velocity decreases with the increase of flow length in flute. From the view of increasing the flow velocity of material near the bottom of the workpiece or in the middle of workpiece, the tool with the half-screw pin and the tool with the tapered-flute pin are both better than the conventional tool.

  1. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-04-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights.

  2. Medio-lateral entry pin versus lateral entry pin for displaced pediatric supracondylar fractures: A comparative, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kandel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Supracondylar fracture is one of the commonest fractures in children. Although the technique of pinning is controversial, percutaneous medio-lateral entry pinning is theoretically considered more stable biomechanical construct. The drawback of this method is injury to ulnar nerve which is not encountered in only lateral entry pinning.Materials & Methods: This was a prospective, comparative and observational study done in 60 patients which was alternately divided into two groups. The first group (A underwent medio-lateral entry pinning and the second group (B underwent lateral entry pinning. They were followed for 24 weeks and the outcome was assessed using Flynn’s criteria.Results: At twenty-four weeks, the mean loss of range of motion of elbow in medio-lateral pinning group was 3.70 degrees (SD±1.93 and that in lateral pinning group was 4.23 degrees (SD ±1.38. The mean loss in carrying angle at twenty-four weeks in medio-lateral group was 2.93 degrees (SD±2.19 and that in lateral group was 4.17 (SD±2.24. There were 2 (6.67% cases of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury in medio-lateral pinning group. Out of thirty patients, in medio-lateral pinning group, 25 had excellent results, 5 had good results and none had fair or poor results. While out of 30 patients in lateral pinning group, 23 had excellent results, 7 had good results and none had fair or poor results.Conclusion: There is no significant difference in outcome in terms of loss of carrying angle and range of motion between the medio-lateral pinning group and the lateral pinning group at the end of 6 months.Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, Vol.11(4 2015: 28-31

  3. Nanoengineering of Flux Pinning Sites in High-Tc Superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Volume pinning forces were determined for a variety of bulk high-Tcsuperconductors of the 123-type from magnetization measurements. By means of scaling of the pinning forces, the acting pinning mechanisms in various temperature ranges were identified. The Nd-based superconductors and some YBCO crystalsexhibited a dominating pinning of the δTc-type (i.e., small, superconducting pinning sites). In contrast to this, the addition of insulating 211 particles provided pinning of the δl-type; providing effective pinning in the entire temperature range acting as a "background" pinning mechanism for the peak effect. Due to the small coherence lengths of the high-Tc compounds, effective pinning sites are defects or particles of nanometer size relative to ξ3. Integral magnetic measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature in large applied magnetic fields (up to 7 T) revealed that practically all high-Tc compounds were spatially inhomogeneous, which could be caused byoxygen deficiency (YBCO), solid solutions of Nd/Ba (NdBCO and other light rare earth compounds), intergrowths (Bi-based superconductors), and doping by pair-breaking dopants like Zn, Pr. This implies that the superconducting sample consists of stronger and weaker superconducting areas, coupled together. In large appliedfields, this coupling gets broken and the magnetization versus temperature curves revealed more than one superconducting transition. In contrast, irradiation experiments by neutrons, protons, and heavy-ions enabled the artificial introduction of very effective pinning sites into the high-Tc superconductors, thus creating a large variety of different observations using magnetic data. From all these observations, we construct a pinning diagram for bulk high-Tc superconductors explaining many features observed in high-Tc samples.

  4. Influence of pin geometry on mechanical and structural properties of butt friction stir welded 2024-T351 aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisavljević Igor Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the combined effect of small difference in pin geometry, together with rotation and welding speed on the weldability, mechanical and structural properties of FSW 2024-T351 Al plates. The only difference in tool pin design was the shape of thread: regular and rounded. Specimens were welded using rotation rate of 750 rev/min and welding speeds of 73 and 93 mm/min. In all four cases, specimens were defect free, with good or acceptable weld surface. Modification in pin design showed strong influence on macro structure and hardness distribution. Weak places are identified as low hardness zone, close to the nugget zone and are in good agreement with fracture location in tensile testing. Weld efficiency, as a measure of weld quality, are better in case of 310 tool, while UTS values can differ up to 13% for the equal welding parameters. Therefore, it can be assumed that small modification in tool design, particularly in pin geometry, can have great influence on weld formation and mechanical properties.

  5. Shocks and Thermal Conduction Fronts in Retracting Reconnected Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, S. E.; Longcope, D. W.

    2010-08-01

    We present a model for plasma heating produced by time-dependent, spatially localized reconnection within a flare current sheet separating skewed magnetic fields. The reconnection creates flux tubes of new connectivity which subsequently retract at Alfvénic speeds from the reconnection site. Heating occurs in gas-dynamic shocks (GDSs) which develop inside these tubes. Here we present generalized thin flux tube equations for the dynamics of reconnected flux tubes, including pressure-driven parallel dynamics as well as temperature-dependent, anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity. The evolution of tubes embedded in a uniform, skewed magnetic field, following reconnection in a patch, is studied through numerical solutions of these equations, for solar coronal conditions. Even though viscosity and thermal conductivity are negligible in the quiet solar corona, the strong GDSs generated by compressing plasma inside reconnected flux tubes generate large velocity and temperature gradients along the tube, rendering the diffusive processes dominant. They determine the thickness of the shock that evolves up to a steady state value, although this condition may not be reached in the short times involved in a flare. For realistic solar coronal parameters, this steady state shock thickness might be as long as the entire flux tube. For strong shocks at low Prandtl numbers, typical of the solar corona, the GDS consists of an isothermal sub-shock where all the compression and cooling occur, preceded by a thermal front where the temperature increases and most of the heating occurs. We estimate the length of each of these sub-regions and the speed of their propagation.

  6. Experience-driven axon retraction in the pharmacologically inactivated visual cortex does not require synaptic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Watanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experience during early postnatal development plays an important role in the refinement of specific neural connections in the brain. In the mammalian visual system, altered visual experiences induce plastic adaptation of visual cortical responses and guide rearrangements of afferent axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus. Previous studies using visual deprivation demonstrated that the afferents serving an open eye significantly retract when cortical neurons are pharmacologically inhibited by applying a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor agonist, muscimol, whereas those serving a deprived eye are rescued from retraction, suggesting that presynaptic activity can lead to the retraction of geniculocortical axons in the absence of postsynaptic activity. Because muscimol application suppresses the spike activity of cortical neurons leaving transmitter release intact at geniculocortical synapses, local synaptic interaction may underlie the retraction of active axons in the inhibited cortex. METHOD AND FINDINGS: New studies reported here determined whether experience-driven axon retraction can occur in the visual cortex inactivated by blocking synaptic inputs. We inactivated the primary visual cortex of kittens by suppressing synaptic transmission with cortical injections of botulinum neurotoxin type E, which cleaves a synaptic protein, SNAP-25, and blocks transmitter release, and examined the geniculocortical axon morphology in the animals with normal vision and those deprived of vision binocularly. We found that afferent axons in the animals with normal vision showed a significant retraction in the inactivated cortex, as similarly observed in the muscimol-treated cortex, whereas the axons in the binocularly deprived animals were preserved. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the experience-driven axon retraction in the inactivated cortex can proceed in the absence of synaptic transmission. These results suggest that presynaptic mechanisms play

  7. Loss of PSD-95 enrichment is not a prerequisite for spine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Georgia F; Oh, Won Chan; Boudewyn, Lauren C; Mikula, Sarah K; Zito, Karen

    2011-08-24

    Changes in neuronal structure are thought to underlie long-term behavioral modifications associated with learning and memory. In particular, considerable evidence implicates the destabilization and retraction of dendritic spines along with the loss of spine synapses as an important cellular mechanism for refining brain circuits, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating spine elimination remain ill-defined. The postsynaptic density protein, PSD-95, is highly enriched in dendritic spines and has been associated with spine stability. Because spines with low levels of PSD-95 are more dynamic, and the recruitment of PSD-95 to nascent spines has been associated with spine stabilization, we hypothesized that loss of PSD-95 enrichment would be a prerequisite for spine retraction. To test this hypothesis, we used dual-color time-lapse two-photon microscopy to monitor rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons cotransfected with PSD-95-GFP and DsRed-Express, and we analyzed the relationship between PSD-95-GFP enrichment and spine morphological changes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that the majority of spines that retracted were relatively unenriched for PSD-95-GFP. However, in the subset of PSD-95-GFP-enriched spines that retracted, spine shrinkage and loss of PSD-95-GFP were tightly coupled, suggesting that loss of PSD-95-GFP enrichment did not precede spine retraction. Moreover, we found that, in some instances, spine retraction resulted in a significant enrichment of PSD-95-GFP on the dendritic shaft. Our data support a model of spine retraction in which loss of PSD-95 enrichment is not required prior to the destabilization of spines.

  8. Fundamental Characteristics of a Pinned Photodiode CMOS Pixels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis gives an insightful analysis of the pinned photodiode 4T CMOS pixel from three different aspects. Firstly, from the charge accumulated aspect, the PPD full well capacity and related parameters of influence are investigated such as the pinning voltage, and transfer gate potential barrier.

  9. RETRACTED: Fueling doubt and openness: experiencing the unconscious, constructed nature of perception induces uncertainty and openness to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, William; Tullett, Alexa M; Shreves, Wyley B; Fetterman, Zachary

    2015-04-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). The article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief, Steven Sloman, following a request by the authors. The reason for the retraction is that the article includes fabricated or manipulated data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Perpetuation of Retracted Publications Using the Example of the Scott S. Reuben Case: Incidences, Reasons and Possible Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann-Cimenti, Helmar; Szilagyi, Istvan S; Sandner-Kiesling, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In 2009, Scott S. Reuben was convicted of fabricating data, which lead to 25 of his publications being retracted. Although it is clear that the perpetuation of retracted articles negatively effects the appraisal of evidence, the extent to which retracted literature is cited had not previously been investigated. In this study, to better understand the perpetuation of discredited research, we examine the number of citations of Reuben's articles within 5 years of their retraction. Citations of Reuben's retracted articles were assessed using the Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters, NY). All citing articles were screened to discriminate between articles in which Reuben's work was quoted as retracted, and articles in which his data was wrongly cited without any note of the retraction status. Twenty of Reuben's publications had been cited 274 times between 2009 and 1024. In 2014, 45 % of the retracted articles had been cited at least once. In only 25.8 % of citing articles was it clearly stated that Reuben's work had been retracted. Annual citations decreased from 108 in 2009 to 18 in 2014; however, the percentage of publications correctly indicating the retraction status also declined. The percentage of citations in top-25 %-journals, as well as the percentage of citations in journals from Reuben's research area, declined sharply after 2009. Our data show that even 5 years after their retraction, nearly half of Reuben's articles are still being quoted and the retraction status is correctly mentioned in only one quarter of the citations.

  11. RETRACTED: Correlation between the number and origin of circulating microparticles and fibrin clot properties in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Ewa; Konkolewska, Magda; Kapusta, Maria; Żurakowski, Aleksander

    2015-02-15

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted after the journal was approached by its authors bringing important matters to our attention. It has been retracted due to the fact that following this publication there appeared concerns about provenance of the data presented and the authorship of this paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heat transfer enhancement by pin elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahiti, N.; Durst, F.; Dewan, A. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Heat transfer enhancement is an active and important field of engineering research since increases in the effectiveness of heat exchangers through suitable heat transfer augmentation techniques can result in considerable technical advantages and savings of costs. Considerable enhancements were demonstrated in the present work by using small cylindrical pins on surfaces of heat exchangers. A partly quantitative theoretical treatment of the proposed method is presented. It uses simple relationships for the conductive and convective heat transfer to derive an equation that shows which parameters permit the achievement of heat transfer enhancements. Experiments are reported that demonstrate the effectiveness of the results of the proposed approach. It is shown that the suggested method of heat transfer enhancements is much more effective than existing methods, since it results in an increase in heat transfer area (like fins) and also an increase in the heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  13. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  14. Flux pinning characteristics and irreversibility line in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, T.; Ihara, N.; Kiuchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The flux pinning properties in high temperature superconductors are strongly influenced by thermally activated flux motion. The scaling relation of the pinning force density and the irreversibility line in various high temperature superconductors are numerically analyzed in terms of the flux creep model. The effect of two factors, i.e., the flux pinning strength and the dimensionality of the material, on these properties are investigated. It is speculated that the irreversibility line in Bi-2212 superconductors is one order of magnitude smaller than that in Y-123, even if the flux pinning strength in Bi-2212 is improved up to the level of Y-123. It is concluded that these two factors are equally important in determination of the flux pinning characteristics at high temperatures.

  15. Nano-engineered pinning centres in YBCO superconducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, A.; Dang, V. S.; Mikheenko, P.

    2017-02-01

    For practical applications of superconducting materials in applied magnetic fields, artificial pinning centres in addition to natural ones are required to oppose the Lorentz force. These pinning centres are actually various types of defects in the superconductor matrix. The pinning centres can be categorised on their dimension (volume, surface or point) and on their character (normal cores or Δκ cores). Different samples have been produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition, with various thicknesses, temperatures and nanostructured additions to the superconducting matrix. They have been characterized by SQUID Magnetic Properties Measurement System and Physical Properties Measurement System, as well as by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Correlations between pinning architecture, TEM images, and critical currents at various fields and field orientations will be shown for a large number of YBa2Cu3Ox films with various types and architectures of artificial pinning centres.

  16. New Pin Puller Based on SMA Technology for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Nestor; Collado, Marcelo; Cabás, Ramiro

    2014-07-01

    Two different versions of the Pin Puller were designed during this activity, such as one with 100 N and other with 500 N of pull force. The design of both versions is based on spheres which support the pin at the initial position and a compression spring driving once the release takes place by means of the SMA. The mechanical design of the Pin Pullers has been conceived in order to optimize the device's weight, reduce the parts complexity, and achieve a suitable stiffness. A qualification test campaign for the Pin Puller with 500 N of pull force has been developed in order to check the success of the proposed mechanism for space applications. The main performed tests have been thermal-vacuum actuation, thermal-vacuum cycling, sine vibration, and random vibration. The Pin Puller has presented successful results of actuation during the test campaign

  17. In vitro analysis of self-shearing retentive pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, E W; Caputo, A A; Standlee, J P; Duncanson, M G

    1981-02-01

    Combining stress, analysis, microscopic examination, mechanical testing of the shear mechanism, and retention of the Reten Pin leads to the following conclusions: 1. The suggested 0.006 inch pin-channel mismatch induces high lateral and apical stresses. Microscopically, this was seen to correlate with injury to the dentin. 2. The degree of retention was increased by using a smaller pin-channel mismatch. This correlates with smaller stresses and reduced dentinal damage. 3. The shear mechanism acts in a uniform manner, with a relatively small variation from the mean. It is suggested that for the best results the manufacturer should supply larger twist drills and pins with a somewhat deeper self-shearing groove to minimize apical involvement during shearing of the handle from the pin.

  18. Pinning Lur’e Complex Networks via Output Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Without requiring the full-state information of network nodes, this paper studies the pinning synchronization in a network of Lur’e dynamical systems based on the output feedback control strategy. Some simple pinning conditions are established for both undirected and directed Lur’e networks by using M-matrix theory and S-procedure technique. With the derived stability criteria, the pinning synchronization problem of large-scale Lur’e networks can be transformed to the test of a low-dimensional linear matrix inequality. Some remarks are further given to address the selection of pinned nodes and the design of pinning feedback gains. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  19. A Comprehensive Analysis of Articles Retracted Between 2004 and 2013 from Biomedical Literature – A Call for Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harkanwal Preet Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Science is a dynamic subject and it was never free of misconduct or bad research. Indeed, the scientific method itself is intended to overcome mistakes and misdeeds. So, we aimed to assess various factors associated with retraction of scientific articles from 2004 to 2013. Data were retrieved from PubMed and Medline using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in April 2014 to detect articles retracted from 2004 to 2013. Statistical analysis was carried out using t-test and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results showed that a total of 2343 articles were retracted between 2004 and 2013, and original articles followed by case reports constituted major part of it. Time interval between submission and retraction of article has reduced in recent times. Impact factor and retraction do not have any significant correlation. We conclude that although retraction of articles is a rare event, its constant rise in scientific literature is quite worrisome. It is still unclear whether misconduct/mistakes in articles are increasing hastily or the articles are retracted at a rapid rate in recent times. So, it should be considered as an urgent issue and it is the responsibility of journal editors to track misconduct by following Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE guidelines and making an effective strategy.

  20. A Comprehensive Analysis of Articles Retracted Between 2004 and 2013 from Biomedical Literature – A Call for Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Mahendra, Ashish; Yadav, Bhupender; Singh, Harpreet; Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Science is a dynamic subject and it was never free of misconduct or bad research. Indeed, the scientific method itself is intended to overcome mistakes and misdeeds. So, we aimed to assess various factors associated with retraction of scientific articles from 2004 to 2013. Data were retrieved from PubMed and Medline using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in April 2014 to detect articles retracted from 2004 to 2013. Statistical analysis was carried out using t-test and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results showed that a total of 2343 articles were retracted between 2004 and 2013, and original articles followed by case reports constituted major part of it. Time interval between submission and retraction of article has reduced in recent times. Impact factor and retraction do not have any significant correlation. We conclude that although retraction of articles is a rare event, its constant rise in scientific literature is quite worrisome. It is still unclear whether misconduct/mistakes in articles are increasing hastily or the articles are retracted at a rapid rate in recent times. So, it should be considered as an urgent issue and it is the responsibility of journal editors to track misconduct by following Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and making an effective strategy. PMID:25161916

  1. A comprehensive analysis of articles retracted between 2004 and 2013 from biomedical literature - a call for reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Mahendra, Ashish; Yadav, Bhupender; Singh, Harpreet; Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika

    2014-07-01

    Science is a dynamic subject and it was never free of misconduct or bad research. Indeed, the scientific method itself is intended to overcome mistakes and misdeeds. So, we aimed to assess various factors associated with retraction of scientific articles from 2004 to 2013. Data were retrieved from PubMed and Medline using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in April 2014 to detect articles retracted from 2004 to 2013. Statistical analysis was carried out using t-test and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results showed that a total of 2343 articles were retracted between 2004 and 2013, and original articles followed by case reports constituted major part of it. Time interval between submission and retraction of article has reduced in recent times. Impact factor and retraction do not have any significant correlation. We conclude that although retraction of articles is a rare event, its constant rise in scientific literature is quite worrisome. It is still unclear whether misconduct/mistakes in articles are increasing hastily or the articles are retracted at a rapid rate in recent times. So, it should be considered as an urgent issue and it is the responsibility of journal editors to track misconduct by following Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and making an effective strategy.

  2. Randomized clinical trial comparing control of maxillary anchorage with 2 retraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Oh, Hee Soo; Boyd, Robert L; Korn, Edward L; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this pilot randomized clinical trial was to investigate the relative effectiveness of anchorage conservation of en-masse and 2-step retraction techniques during maximum anchorage treatment in patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions. Sixty-four growing subjects (25 boys, 39 girls; 10.2-15.9 years old) who required maximum anchorage were randomized to 2 treatment techniques: en-masse retraction (n = 32) and 2-step retraction (n = 32); the groups were stratified by sex and starting age. Each patient was treated by a full-time clinic instructor experienced in the use of both retraction techniques at the orthodontic clinic of Peking University School of Stomatology in China. All patients used headgear, and most had transpalatal appliances. Lateral cephalograms taken before treatment and at the end of treatment were used to evaluate treatment-associated changes. Differences in maxillary molar mesial displacement and maxillary incisor retraction were measured with the before and after treatment tracings superimposed on the anatomic best fit of the palatal structures. Differences in mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar were compared between the 2 treatment techniques, between sexes, and between different starting-age groups. Average mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar was slightly less in the en-masse group than in the 2-step group (mean, -0.36 mm; 95% CI, -1.42 to 0.71 mm). The average mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar for both treatment groups pooled (n = 63, because 1 patient was lost to follow-up) was 4.3 ± 2.1 mm (mean ± standard deviation). Boys had significantly more mesial displacement than girls (mean difference, 1.3 mm; P <0.03). Younger adolescents had significantly more mesial displacement than older adolescents (mean difference, 1.3 mm; P <0.02). Average mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar with 2-step retraction was slightly greater than that for en-masse retraction, but the

  3. Effect of large incisor retraction on upper airway morphology in adult bimaxillary protrusion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Hong, Liu; Wang, Chun-ling; Zhang, Shi-jie; Cao, Cong; Wei, Fulan; Lv, Tao; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Dong-xu

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate, using multislice computed tomography (MSCT), the morphologic changes in the upper airway after large incisor retraction in adult bimaxillary protrusion patients. Thirty adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion had four first premolars extracted, and then miniscrews were placed to provide anchorage. A CT scan was performed before incisor retraction and again posttreatment. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the pre- (T1) and post- (T2) CT data was used to assess for morphological changes of the upper airway. A paired t-test was used to compare changes from T1 to T2. The relationship among the three variables (upper incisor retraction amount, upper airway size, and hyoid position) was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. The amounts of upper incisor retraction at the incisal edge and apex were 7.64 ± 1.68 mm and 3.91 ± 2.10 mm, respectively. The hyoid was retracted 2.96 ± 0.54 mm and 9.87 ± 2.92 mm, respectively, in the horizontal and vertical directions. No significant difference was observed in the mean cross-sectional area of the nasopharynx (P > .05) between T1 and T2, while significant differences between T1 and T2 were found in the mean cross-sectional areas of the palatopharynx, glossopharynx, and hypopharynx (P bimaxillary protrusion patients.

  4. Extracellular polysaccharides mediate pilus retraction during social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinuo; Sun, Hong; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Ann; Lux, Renate; Zusman, David; Shi, Wenyuan

    2003-04-29

    Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative bacterium with a complex life cycle that includes vegetative swarming and fruiting-body formation. Social (S)-motility (coordinated movement of large cell groups) requires both type IV pili and fibrils (extracellular matrix material consisting of polysaccharides and protein). Little is known about the role of this extracellular matrix, or fibril material, in pilus-dependent motility. In this study, mutants lacking fibril material and, therefore, S-motility were found to be hyperpiliated. We demonstrated that addition of fibril material resulted in pilus retraction and rescued this phenotype. The fibril material was further examined to determine the component(s) that were responsible for triggering pilus retraction. Protein-free fibril material was found to be highly active in correcting hyperpiliation. However, the amine sugars present in hydrolyzed fibril material, e.g., glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) had no effect on fibril(-) mutants, but, interestingly, cause hyperpiliation in wild-type cells. In contrast, chitin, a natural GlcNAc polymer, was found to restore pilus retraction in hyperpiliated mutants, indicating that a polysaccharide containing amine sugars is likely required for pilus retraction. These data suggest that the interaction of type IV pili with amine-containing polysaccharides on cell and slime-trail surfaces may trigger pilus retraction, resulting in S-motility and slime-trailing behaviors.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flows and Shape Oscillations in Liquid Droplets Induced by Deployment Needle Retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2010-02-01

    Retractable opposed needles are often used in reduced-gravity droplet combustion experiments to deploy droplets prior to ignition. Needle retraction induces droplet shape oscillations and internal flows that can have important effects on subsequent droplet behaviors. In the present paper, the unsteady flows and droplet shape oscillations associated with deployment needle retraction are investigated using the commercial CFD software package Fluent. A volume-of-fluid method with a second-order upwind scheme and a dual time stepping solver is employed to solve the conservation equations in 2-d and 3-d simulations of droplets prior to ignition. A moving-mesh method is employed to model needle movements. Calculations indicate that rapid needle retraction causes ligament formation between a droplet and a needle, with ligament breakage sometimes resulting in the formation of satellite droplets. Needle retraction also induces droplet shape oscillations that rapidly decay, though significant internal flows are predicted to remain within droplets even after droplet shape oscillations have damped to low levels. The calculations indicate that the initial needle spacing can have important effects on droplet shape oscillations and internal flow characteristics. Comparison of model predictions and experimental data is favorable.

  6. Lateral tarsoconjunctival onlay flap in multi-vector lower eyelid retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Hung Chien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a lateral tarsoconjunctival onlay flap procedure in correcting multi-vector lower eyelid retraction. Settings and Design: A retrospective chart review of patients treated with a lateral tarsoconjunctival onlay flap procedure for lower eyelid retraction between 2008 and 2013. Subjects and Methods: Inclusion criteria were adult patients with multi-vector lower eyelid retraction who underwent a lateral tarsoconjunctival onlay flap procedure. Pre- and post-operative symptoms, ophthalmologic biomicroscopic findings, eyelid position, complications, and subsequent treatments were recorded. Results: A total of 147 eyelids from 131 patients were included. Exposure symptoms such as irritation, epiphora, photosensitivity, and glare improved in all patients. Signs secondary to abnormal eyelid position such as lagophthalmos, ocular surface exposure, exposure keratopathy, and eyelid retraction (both upper and lower improved in all cases. Complications were rare but included pyogenic granuloma (n = 5, flap dehiscence (n = 3, and temporal visual field obstruction (n = 8; all were mild and patients either desired no intervention or had subsequent minor surgical management. Conclusions: The lateral tarsoconjunctival onlay flap was effective in this large series of complex lower eyelid retraction.

  7. Effect of a cordless retraction paste on titanium surface: a topographic, chemical and biocompatibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Cooper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Good exposure of the preparation margins and haemostasis in the sulcular gingiva are necessary for accurate impressions to produce precise restorations. The use of cordless retraction paste material in implant dentistry is a relatively novel application. However, few studies have been conducted on the use of retraction pastes and their possible interaction with implant surfaces. Recent literature has described remnants on titanium implant surfaces and expressed the need for an assessment of the biocompatibility of the exposed surface (Chang et al.. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of a cordless gingival retraction paste on sterile titanium disks. Surface chemistry was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and further investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. After exposure to retraction paste, surface chemistry alterations were identified. A fibroblast cell line (L929 was exposed to the disks and the live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assay was used to determine any effects on the proliferation and health of cells. The disks exposed to the retraction paste showed fewer dead cells compared to the unexposed disks. This was statistically significant.

  8. The persistence of error: a study of retracted articles on the Internet and in personal libraries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accessibility of retracted articles residing on non-publisher websites and in personal libraries. Methods: Searches were performed to locate Internet copies of 1,779 retracted articles identified in MEDLINE, published between 1973 and 2010, excluding the publishers' website. Found copies were classified by article version and location. Mendeley (a bibliographic software) was searched for copies residing in personal libraries. Results: Non-publisher websites provided 321 publicly accessible copies for 289 retracted articles: 304 (95%) copies were the publisher' versions, and 13 (4%) were final manuscripts. PubMed Central had 138 (43%) copies; educational websites 94 (29%); commercial websites 24 (7%); advocacy websites 16 (5%); and institutional repositories 10 (3%). Just 15 (5%) full-article views included a retraction statement. Personal Mendeley libraries contained records for 1,340 (75%) retracted articles, shared by 3.4 users, on average. Conclusions: The benefits of decentralized access to scientific articles may come with the cost of promoting incorrect, invalid, or untrustworthy science. Automated methods to deliver status updates to readers may reduce the persistence of error in the scientific literature. PMID:22879807

  9. Root resorption of maxillary incisors retracted with and without skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sérgio Estelita; Janson, Guilherme; Chiqueto, Kelly; Baldo, Vitor Oliveira; Baldo, Taiana Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Our objective was to compare root resorption degree of the maxillary central incisors retracted with and without skeletal anchorage. This nonrandomized historical control study included 37 patients requiring maximum anterior retraction and treated with extraction of 2 maxillary premolars. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients (11 male, 11 female) in whom anterior retraction was performed without skeletal anchorage, and group 2 included 15 patients (3 male, 12 female) treated with skeletally anchored anterior retraction. Periapical radiographs were used to evaluate root resorption degree by a scoring system. The groups were compared regarding the resorption score and resorption degree distribution with the Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and Z test on proportions. There was no statistically significant intergroup difference regarding root resorption, but the number of patients with severe and extreme root resorption degrees was significantly greater in group 2. Although the root resorption degree of the skeletal anchorage group was not significantly different from the group without skeletal anchorage, the number of patients with severe to extreme resorption in the first group was significantly greater. Therefore, careful clinical monitoring of skeletally anchored anterior retraction is needed, especially when there are known root resorption predisposing factors. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The persistence of error: a study of retracted articles on the Internet and in personal libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip M

    2012-07-01

    To determine the accessibility of retracted articles residing on non-publisher websites and in personal libraries. Searches were performed to locate Internet copies of 1,779 retracted articles identified in MEDLINE, published between 1973 and 2010, excluding the publishers' website. Found copies were classified by article version and location. Mendeley (a bibliographic software) was searched for copies residing in personal libraries. Non-publisher websites provided 321 publicly accessible copies for 289 retracted articles: 304 (95%) copies were the publisher' versions, and 13 (4%) were final manuscripts. PubMed Central had 138 (43%) copies; educational websites 94 (29%); commercial websites 24 (7%); advocacy websites 16 (5%); and institutional repositories 10 (3%). Just 16 [corrected] (5%) full-article views included a retraction statement. Personal Mendeley libraries contained records for 1,340 (75%) retracted articles, shared by 3.4 users, on average. The benefits of decentralized access to scientific articles may come with the cost of promoting incorrect, invalid, or untrustworthy science. Automated methods to deliver status updates to readers may reduce the persistence of error in the scientific literature.

  11. A pinning puzzle: two similar, non-superconducting chemical deposits in YBCO-one pins, the other does not

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Skorpenske, Harley; Parks, Drew, E-mail: Weinstein@uh.ed [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at UH, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The pinning effects of two kinds of U-rich deposits in YBCO (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) are compared. One is a five-element compound, (U{sub 0.6}Pt{sub 0.4})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which is a paramagnetic double perovskite which forms as profuse stable nanosize deposits, and pins very well. The other is a four-element compound, (U{sub 0.4}Y{sub 0.6})BaO{sub 3}, which is a ferromagnetic single perovskite which forms as profuse stable nanosize deposits and pins very weakly or not at all. The pinning comparison is done with nearly equal deposit sizes and number of deposits per unit volume for the two compounds. Evidence for the pinning capability, chemical makeup, x-ray diffraction signature, and magnetic properties of the two compounds is reported.

  12. Forest management could counteract distribution retractions forced by climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Louise; Harrison, Philip J; Räty, Minna; Bärring, Lars; Strandberg, Gustav; Snäll, Tord

    2017-03-28

    Climate change is expected to drive the distribution retraction of northern species. However, particularly in regions with a history of intensive exploitation, changes in habitat management could facilitate distribution expansions counter to expectations under climate change. Here, we test the potential for future forest management to facilitate the southwards expansion of an old-forest species from the boreal region into the boreo-nemoral region, contrary to expectations under climate change. We used an ensemble of species distribution models based on citizen science data to project the response of Phellinus ferrugineofuscus, a red-listed old-growth indicator, wood-decaying fungus, to six forest management and climate change scenarios. We projected change in habitat suitability across the boreal and boreo-nemoral regions of Sweden for the period 2020-2100. Scenarios varied in the proportion of forest set-aside from production, the level of timber extraction, and the magnitude of climate change. Habitat suitabilities for the study species were projected to show larger relative increases over time in the boreo-nemoral region compared to the boreal region, under all scenarios. By 2100, mean suitabilities in set-aside forest in the boreo-nemoral region were similar to the suitabilities projected for set-aside forest in the boreal region in 2020, suggesting that occurrence in the boreo-nemoral region could be increased. However, across all scenarios, consistently higher projected suitabilities in set-aside forest in the boreal region indicated that the boreal region remained the species stronghold. Furthermore, negative effects of climate change were evident in the boreal region, and projections suggested that climatic changes may eventually counteract the positive effects of forest management in the boreo-nemoral region. Our results suggest that the current rarity of this old-growth indicator species in the boreo-nemoral region may be due to the history of intensive

  13. Research on control method for machining non-cylinder pin hole of piston

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi-jie; LENG Hong-bin; ZHAO Zhang-rong; CHEN Jun-hua

    2006-01-01

    The control method for machining non-cylinder pin hole of piston was studied systematically. A new method was presented by embedding giant magnetostrictive material (GMM) into the tool bar proper position. The model is established to characterize the relation between control current of coil and deformation of tool rod. A series of tests on deformation of giant magnetostrictive tool bar were done and the results validated the feasibility of the principle. The methods of measuring magnetostrictive coefficient of rare earth GMM were analyzed. The measuring device with the bias field and prestress was designed. A series of experiments were done to test magnetostrictive coefficient. Experimental results supplied accurate characteristic parameter for designing application device of GMM. The constitution of the developed control system made up of displacement detection and temperature detection for thermal deformation compensation was also introduced. The developed machine tool for boring the non-cylinder pin hole of piston has the micron order accuracy. This control method can be applied to other areas for machining precision or complex parts.

  14. Dissecting Pin1 and phospho-pRb regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolio, Flavio; Caligiuri, Isabella; Lucchetti, Chiara; Fratamico, Robert; Tomei, Valentina; Gallo, Gaia; Agelan, Alexis; Ferrari, Giovanni; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Giordano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the Retinoblastoma protein, the master regulator of the cell cycle, is finely regulated by phosphorylation. CDKs and cyclins are major players in phosphorylation and it has been recently discovered that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 is an essential protein that orchestrates this process. In this article, we report new findings regarding the role of Pin1 in the pRb pathway. Our data suggest that PI3K, CDKs, and the Pin1 axis have a critical role in sustaining the complete phosphorylation of pRb. Furthermore, we analyze the correlation between Pin1 and pRb phosphorylation in vivo. We show that, in human malignant glioma tissue microarrays (TMA) and in Pin1 knockout (KO) mice, there is a positive correlation between Pin1 and pRb phosphorylation. Prospectively, our findings suggest that the synergism between CDKs, Pin1, and PI3K inhibitors hold great promise for targeted pharmacological treatment of cancer patients, with the possibility of reaching high effectiveness at tolerated doses.

  15. Activation of rectus capitis posterior major muscles during voluntary retraction of the head in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Richard C; Rowan, Jacob J; Bai, Peng; Pierce, Steven J; Shafer-Crane, Gail A; Prokop, Lawrence L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess levels of electromyographic activity measured from rectus capitis posterior major (RCPM) muscles of asymptomatic subjects as their heads moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial research design was used. Disposable, intramuscular electrodes were used to collect electromyographic data from asymptomatic subjects between the ages of 20 and 40 years old. Data analysis was performed using mixed effects β regression models. Activation of RCPM muscles was found to significantly increase (P < .0001) as the head moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. Rectus capitis posterior major muscle activation levels, measured as a function of head position, have not been previously reported. The findings from this study showed that RCPM muscle activation significantly increases during voluntary retraction of the head. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Retracted: Identification of Novel Biomarkers for Pancreatic Cancer Using Integrated Transcriptomics With Functional Pathways Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Tong, Pan; Chen, Jinyun; Pei, Zenglin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Weiping; Xu, Jianqing; Wang, Jin

    2016-02-22

    Retraction: 'Identification of Novel Biomarkers for Pancreatic Cancer Using Integrated Transcriptomics With Functional Pathways Analysis' by Zhang, X., Tong, P., Chen, J., Pei, Z., Zhang, X., Chen, W., Xu, J. and Wang, J. The above article from the Journal of Cellular Physiology, published online on 10 March 2016 in Wiley Online Library as Early View (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/enhanced/doi/10.1002/jcp.25353/), has been retracted by agreement between Gary Stein, the journal's Editor-in-Chief, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation at the University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, which confirmed that the article was submitted and approved for publication by Dr. Jin Wang without acknowledgement of NIH funding received or the consent and authorship of Dr. Ann Killary and Dr. Subrata Sen, with whom the manuscript was originally drafted.

  17. α-FUZZY PAIRWISE RETRACT OF L-VALUED PAIRWISE STRATIFICATION SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. H. GHANIM; F. S. MAHMOUD; M. A. FATH ALLA; M.A. HEBESHI

    2004-01-01

    The notion of a fuzzy retract was introduced by Rodabaugh (1981). The notion of a fuzzy pairwise retract was introduced in 2001. Some weak forms and some strong forms of α-continuous mappings were introduced in 1988 and 1997. The authors extend some of these forms to the L-fuzzy bitopological setting and construct various α-fuzzy pairwise retracts. The concept of weakly induced spaces in the case L = [0, 1] was introduced by Martin (1980). Lin and Luo (1987) generalized this notion to the case that L is an arbitrary F-lattice and introduced the notion of induced L-fts. Several results are obtained, especially, for L-valued pairwise stratification spaces.

  18. Severe bidentoalveolar protrusion treated with orthodontic microimplant-dependent en-masse retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2007-07-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 14.5-year-old girl with severe bidentoalveolar protrusion. Specially designed sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) orthodontic microimplants (C-implants, Cimplant Co, Seoul, Korea) were placed in the alveolar bone in all 4 quadrants to provide anchorage for en-masse retraction without the help of banded or bonded molars. Successful retraction was achieved. The mandibular dentition was detailed by using conventional orthodontic appliances during the finishing stage. The osseointegration potential of these microimplants allows them to resist rotational force moments and control 3-dimensional movements of the anterior teeth during retraction. Facial esthetics improved for the patient, fullness of the upper and lower lips was reduced, and the interdental relationship was corrected. Biomechanical considerations, efficacy, and potential complications of the treatment technique are discussed.

  19. RETRACTED: The Virtual Cutting Edge: Adolescent Self-injury and YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, C; Ouellette, L; Seamon, J P; Jones, J S

    2015-10-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and Authors. We wish to retract the abstract "The Virtual Cutting Edge: Adolescent Self-injury and YouTube," published in the October 2015 issue of Annals. The abstract excessively borrowed from the text and methodology of a previous study published elsewhere.(1) All authors recognize the seriousness of this issue and apologize to the editors and readers of Annals. Jeffrey S. Jones, MD Chad Garthe, MD Lindsey Ouellette, MS Jason Seamon, DO Department of Emergency Medicine MSU College of Human Medicine Grand Rapids, MI 1. Lewis SP, Heath NL, St. Denis JM, et al. The scope of nonsuicidal self-injury on YouTube. Pediatrics. 2011;1127:e552-e557. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Retracted: Differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The above article, published online on 20 December 2007 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Professor L Popescu and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been requested by the University of Florida, Office of Research, in response to their investigation which concluded fabrication of data in Figures 2, 3 and 4. Reference Pan Q, Luo X, Chegini N. Retracted: differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids. J Cell Mol Med 12: 227-240. Doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00207.x. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. RETRACTED: Influence of temperature and microstructure on the mechanical properties of sintered nanosilver joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Yi-Zhe [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Mei, Yunhui, E-mail: yunhui@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Yu, Lin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Li, Xin [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Chen, Xu [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2015-02-25

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy)). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that the reason for this retraction has been updated in July 2015, as follows: The authors have plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in 'Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC), 2010 3rd', 1-6, (101109/ESTC.2010.5642948). One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and that no substantial portion has appeared in a publication elsewhere. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  2. Alar Pinning in Rigid External Distraction for Midfacial Hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jenny L; Woo, Albert S

    2017-09-01

    Distraction osteogenesis with a rigid external distractor is a widely accepted treatment for midfacial hypoplasia. In this study, the authors introduce the utilization of alar pinning with the external halo distractor for maxillary advancement, in place of an oral splint. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 7 patients who successfully underwent distraction osteogenesis using the alar pinning technique. Midfacial hypoplasia was secondary to Crouzon syndrome (n = 4), Apert syndrome (n = 1), Pfeiffer syndrome (n = 1), or bacterial meningitis (n = 1). Three patients were managed with monobloc osteotomies, 2 with Le Fort III osteotomies, 1 with Le Fort III osteotomy and frontoorbital advancement, and 1 with Le Fort I osteotomy alone. Patient charts were analyzed for postoperative course and complications relating to the alar pins. Two patients had minor complications specifically related to the alar pins. One patient had concern for a mild skin infection at a pin site that resolved with oral antibiotics. The other patient had loosening of an alar pin, which did not require operative management. Retrospective chart review indicated that all patients were pleased with their results from the distraction, and no patients opted for further advancement. Utilization of alar pin sites for external distraction is a feasible and reasonable option for treatment of midfacial hypoplasia involving a Le Fort osteotomy or monobloc procedure. Fixation sites within the alar crease minimize the visibility of pin site scars and eliminate the need for a custom-made oral splint, which prevents usage of the upper dentition and frequently requires consulting a dentist or orthodontist for fabrication. Alar pinning with an external halo distraction system for management of midfacial hypoplasia has minimal complications and is an alternative to using a custom-made oral splint.

  3. Persistent Citation of the Only Published Randomised Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Supplementation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Six Years after Its Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley S. Fulton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific articles are retracted infrequently, yet have the potential to influence the scientific literature for years. The only randomised controlled trial to explore the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was retracted in 2008 due to falsified data. The objective of this research was to determine the frequency and nature of citations of this retracted paper. Web of Science and Google Scholar were used to determine the number of times the retracted article was cited. Citations were classified as either “retraction acknowledged” or “retraction not acknowledged”. The search was conducted on 6 August 2013 and updated on 25 March 2014. Results: The search resulted in 76 citations, of which 24 occurred prior to the retraction of the article. Of the 52 citations occurring after the retraction, only two acknowledged the retraction. Of the citations not acknowledging the retraction, 20 referred to specific data and 30 cited the reference in passing. This retracted article continues to be cited by authors, suggesting that information about the retraction was unsuccessfully communicated to the scientific community. Continual citation of retracted literature has the potential to bias a field of research and potentially misinform end-users.

  4. The character and consequences of disturbing sound sensations in retraction type middle ear disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunne, M; Falk, B; Hellström, S; Magnuson, B

    1999-11-15

    Transient sound disturbances are common but neglected symptoms in retraction type middle ear disease (R-MED). The aim of this study was to explore and describe their character, their individual consequences, and their role in the development of tympanic membrane retractions. Fifty-three subjects with manifest retractions and experiences of disturbing sound and ear sensations were interviewed. A qualitative method was used for analysis of the transcribed interviews. Two different patterns emerged from the interviews. 1. Too weak sound was the least common and most tolerable disturbance. It occurred in 45% and was eliminated by Valsalva's inflation. 2. Sudden and transient sensations of too loud and piercing sound, and intermittent autophony frequently caused intense and intolerable discomfort, which might in turn cause loss of control of speech and conversation. These types occurred in 74% and 60%, respectively, and were eliminated by evacuating the middle ear, for example by sniffing. Subjects who described too loud sound or intermittent autophony commonly preferred a retracted tympanic membrane position. This may explain why pressure equalization by swallowing, and inflation by Valsalva's manoeuvre often elicited discomfort. Transient experiences of too loud sound or intermittent autophony may indicate a shift of sound preference towards the sound experienced at negative middle ear pressure, and an unreliable tubal function in the sense that it fails to stay closed to protect the ear from sounds and pressure variations in the nasopharynx. Such experiences of altered sound may trigger evacuation of the middle ear, which eliminates the sound disturbance. It is crucial to identify, interpret, and explain the disturbances correctly in the therapy and prevention of retractions, since habitual evacuation exposes the tympanic membrane to strong negative pressure loads and a subsequent risk of developing retraction.

  5. PIN2 turnover in Arabidopsis root epidermal cells explored by the photoconvertible protein Dendra2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Jásik

    Full Text Available The steady state level of integral membrane proteins is dependent on a strictly controlled delivery and removal. Here we show that Dendra2, a green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent protein, is a suitable tool to study protein turnover in plants. We characterized the fluorescence properties of Dendra2 expressed either as a free protein or as a tag in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and optimized photoconversion settings to study protein turnover. Dendra2 was fused to the PIN2 protein, an auxin transporter in the root tip, and by time-lapse imaging and assessment of red and green signal intensities in the membrane after photoconversion we quantified directly and simultaneously the rate of PIN2 delivery of the newly synthesized protein into the plasma membrane as well as the disappearance of the protein from the plasma membrane due to degradation. Additionally we have verified several factors which are expected to affect PIN2 protein turnover and therefore potentially regulate root growth.

  6. "Safety pin"--a question to its safety!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa Chettri, S; Bhattarai, M; Karki, S; Regmi, S; Mathur, N N

    2010-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is not an uncommon problem in children. They can ingest various foreign objects and one of such objects is a safety pin. The ingestion of such foreign body is not widely reported in the literature. This case highlights the risk of accidental ingestion of safety pin used on child's clothing to protect him from cold that can result in lethal complications. In a poor developing country like Nepal, this case serves to address all mothers alerting them of their ignorance while using safety pin in infants. In addition, physicians are reminded to obtain a detailed inquiry of suspected foreign body ingestion in every child with the history of dysphagia.

  7. Noises of p-i-n UV photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Ferdinand V.; Korman, Can E.; Melkonyan, Slavik V.

    2007-06-01

    Investigations of the static characteristics, responsivity, internal noises, and detectivity of the forward biased p-i-n photodetectors made on wide bandgap compensated semiconductors operating in double injection regime are presented. Noise related calculations are performed by utilizing "Impedance Field Method". Numerical simulations are made assessing 4H-SiC and GaN biased p-i-n photodiodes noise related characteristics. It is shown that forward biased p-i-n photodiodes have low level of thermal and generation-recombination noises and high values of sensitivity and detectivity at the room temperature.

  8. RETRACTED: Electrochemical formation of platinum nanoparticles by a novel rotating cathode method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Chen, Shenhao; Ren, Haipeng; Wu, Ling; Zhao, Shiyong

    2005-04-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors of Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures together with the corresponding author of the article because after thorough investigation it appears that in this article some illustrations and data contained mistakes. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  9. RETRACTED: One-step synthesis of Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles by a convenient electrochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Chen, Shenhao; Zhao, Shiyong; Ma, Houyi

    2006-06-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors of Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures together with the corresponding author of the article because after thorough investigation it now appears that in this article some pictures are wrong and data contain mistakes.The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  10. Retraction statement: Advances in the physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The above article, published online on 28 February 2013 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, William Foster, and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to the publication of a similar paper by the same authors (with the exclusion of P Mardones) in Frontiers in Bioscience in January 2014. The authors believed that they had taken the necessary steps to withdraw their paper from Frontiers in Bioscience before they submitted to Biological Reviews in June 2012.

  11. Retracted: Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on mineralization potential of rat dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The following article from the Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 'Effects of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines on Mineralization Potential of Rat Dental Pulp Stem Cells' by Yang X, Walboomers XF, Bian Z, Jansen JA, Fan M, published online on 11 July 2011 in Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to two authors (Walboomers XF, and Jansen JA) not having been involved in the research described, nor made aware of their names being listed on the manuscript, nor told of its submission to the journal.

  12. Retracted: Bacteria diversity overview and endoglucanase assessment from Himalayan Tapovan geothermal spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jitendra Kumar; Navani, Naveen Kumar; Pathania, Ranjana

    2015-08-25

    The above article from the Journal of Basic Microbiology, published online on 25 August 2015 in Wiley Online Library as Early View (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jobm.201500135/pdf), has been retracted by agreement between Naveen Kumar Navani and Ranjana Pathania, the Editor-in-Chief and Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA. The retraction has been agreed because the article has been submitted and approved for publication by Jitendra Kumar Sahoo without consent in any form by the named co-authors Naveen Kumar Navani and Ranjana Pathania.

  13. RETRACTED: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2014-03-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. The article contains duplicate images (Fig. 5A and B as well as Fig. 5C and D) which differ only in magnification and orientation despite being described as different samples. Figure 3 displays duplicated data despite being described as different samples. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this scientific misbehavior and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  14. RETRACTED: Transverse photovoltaic effect of tetragonal BiFeO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R. L.; Zhang, H. R.; Fu, C. L.; Cai, W.; Chen, G.; Deng, X. L.; Sun, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the corresponding author. The corresponding author contacted the journal to report measurement errors in Figures 1b and 1c that have been found after the article publication. Also the corresponding author did not ask permission to the co-authors, who were not aware of the submission and publication of this article. After the article was published, some of the co-authors requested to withdraw this article

  15. RETRACTED: Translating Connotative Meaning in Literary Texts at the University of Petra

    OpenAIRE

    Akram M. Beiruti

    2013-01-01

    This article has been retracted: please see AIAC PTY.LTD. Policy on Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement.(http://www.aiac.org.au/journals/Subtemps/PEPMS.pdf) This article has been retracted based on the editorial decision upon conducting a thorough invesitigatiosn. It came to our notice that Akram Beirtui, supposedly the author of this paper, has plagirised the entire paper from an unpublished paper conducted by Ahmad Al-Hassan, who is the main author of the paper from...

  16. $F$-Dugundji spaces, $F$-Milutin spaces and absolute $F$-valued retracts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    For every functional functor $F:Comp\\to Comp$ in the category $Comp$ of compact Hausdorff spaces we define the notions of $F$-Dugundji and $F$-Milutin spaces, generalizing the classical notions of a Dugundji and Milutin spaces. We prove that the class of $F$-Dugundji spaces coincides with the class of absolute $F$-valued retracts. Next, we show that for a monomorphic continuous functor $F:Comp\\to Comp$ admitting tensor products each Dugundji compact is an absolute $F$-valued retract if and on...

  17. Multiple Ocular and Systemic Disorders in Association with Bilateral Duane's Retraction Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad Ali; Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Kiarudi, Mohammad Yaser; Mehrjardi, Hadi Zare

    2016-01-01

    Duane's retraction syndrome (DRS) is characterized by limitations in horizontal eye movements, globe retraction, and palpebral fissure narrowing on attempted adduction. This disorder is caused by a disturbance in innervation originating in the brain stem and represents <1% of all cases of strabismus. It is postulated that this syndrome is due to an insult during the early weeks (8–10 weeks) of pregnancy and is 10–20 times more frequently associated with other systemic congenital anomalies. This case report of bilateral DRS included bilateral iris-retinal coloboma and congenital heart disease, sensory hearing loss, and inguinal hernia. PMID:27555711

  18. RETRACTED: Ghrelin protects infarcted myocardium by induction of autophagy and AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Jie; Kong, Bin; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xin; Huang, He; Maghsoudi, Taneen

    2016-08-05

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. It contains LM images in figure 2E, which were originally published in Nat. Comm. 6/2015, p. 1-14 (http://doi:10.1038/ncomms8388). Permission to reproduce this figure was not requested nor granted by the authors of the original article for its re-use. The authors of this article would like to apologize to all affected parties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Calculatoin and experimental study of the retracting force for magnetic spring of two types

    CERN Document Server

    Tsivilitsin, V; Goncharuk, V; Bondar, I

    2014-01-01

    Designs for magnetic springs of two types have been proposed, and the methods of calculation of their retracting forces have been developed. Formulas are obtained for the retracting force in the main section of spring force characteristics. Experimental data are in good agreement with the results of theoretical calculations. The force characteristics of the proposed magnetic spring constructions can be varied for a specific application. The derived formulas are verified experimentally. Ways to change the force characteristics of magnetic springs according to specific requirements are demonstrated.

  20. RETRACTED: Inhibition of PKM2 sensitizes triple-negative breast cancer cells to doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor and the author. We have been contacted by the corresponding author Yong Yang and by Houston Methodist Research Institute, who after investigation has concluded that the data of another researcher had been copied without authorization. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot welding of polypropylene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Bilici

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of tool geometry and properties on friction stir spot welding properties of polypropylene sheets were studied. Four different tool pin geometries, with varying pin angles, pin lengths, shoulder diameters and shoulder angles were used for friction stir spot welding. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Lap-shear tensile tests were carried out to find the weld static strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. From the experiments the effect of tool geometry on friction stir spot weld formation and weld strength were determined. The optimum tool geometry for 4 mm thick polypropylene sheets were determined. The tapered cylindrical pin gave the biggest and the straight cylindrical pin gave the lowest lap-shear fracture load.

  2. A Division in PIN-Mediated Auxin Patterning during Organ Initiation in Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Devin L.; Runions, Adam; Sluis, Aaron; Bragg, Jennifer; Vogel, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The hormone auxin plays a crucial role in plant morphogenesis. In the shoot apical meristem, the PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) efflux carrier concentrates auxin into local maxima in the epidermis, which position incipient leaf or floral primordia. From these maxima, PIN1 transports auxin into internal tissues along emergent paths that pattern leaf and stem vasculature. In Arabidopsis thaliana, these functions are attributed to a single PIN1 protein. Using phylogenetic and gene synteny analysis we identified an angiosperm PIN clade sister to PIN1, here termed Sister-of-PIN1 (SoPIN1), which is present in all sampled angiosperms except for Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis. Additionally, we identified a conserved duplication of PIN1 in the grasses: PIN1a and PIN1b. In Brachypodium distachyon, SoPIN1 is highly expressed in the epidermis and is consistently polarized toward regions of high expression of the DR5 auxin-signaling reporter, which suggests that SoPIN1 functions in the localization of new primordia. In contrast, PIN1a and PIN1b are highly expressed in internal tissues, suggesting a role in vascular patterning. PIN1b is expressed in broad regions spanning the space between new primordia and previously formed vasculature, suggesting a role in connecting new organs to auxin sinks in the older tissues. Within these regions, PIN1a forms narrow canals that likely pattern future veins. Using a computer model, we reproduced the observed spatio-temporal expression and localization patterns of these proteins by assuming that SoPIN1 is polarized up the auxin gradient, and PIN1a and PIN1b are polarized to different degrees with the auxin flux. Our results suggest that examination and modeling of PIN dynamics in plants outside of Brassicaceae will offer insights into auxin-driven patterning obscured by the loss of the SoPIN1 clade in Brassicaceae. PMID:24499933

  3. On retracting properties and covering homotopy theorem for S-maps into Sχ-cofibrations and Sχ-fibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Saif

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we generalize the retracting property in homotopy theory for topological semigroups by introducing the notions of deformation S-retraction with its weaker forms and ES-homotopy extension property. Furthermore, the covering homotopy theorems for S-maps into Sχ-fibrations and Sχ-cofibrations are introduced and pullbacks for Sχ-fibrations behave properly.

  4. A PWR Thorium Pin Cell Burnup Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Zhao, X.; Pilat, E. E; Hejzlar, P.

    2000-05-01

    As part of work to evaluate the potential benefits of using thorium in LWR fuel, a thorium fueled benchmark comparison was made in this study between state-of-the-art codes, MOCUP (MCNP4B + ORIGEN2), and CASMO-4 for burnup calculations. The MOCUP runs were done individually at MIT and INEEL, using the same model but with some differences in techniques and cross section libraries. Eigenvalue and isotope concentrations were compared on a PWR pin cell model up to high burnup. The eigenvalue comparison as a function of burnup is good: the maximum difference is within 2% and the average absolute difference less than 1%. The isotope concentration comparisons are better than a set of MOX fuel benchmarks and comparable to a set of uranium fuel benchmarks reported in the literature. The actinide and fission product data sources used in the MOCUP burnup calculations for a typical thorium fuel are documented. Reasons for code vs code differences are analyzed and discussed.

  5. Multi-pin chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-02-20

    A multi-pin chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of free-standing, bare wires is supported by an electrically insulating support, and are oriented parallel to each other and spaced closely together. A free-standing film of a chemically sensitive polymer that swells when exposed to vapors of a volatile chemical is formed in-between the pair of closely-spaced wires by capillary action. Similar in construction to a thermocouple, this "chemicouple" is relatively inexpensive and easy to fabricate by dipping the pair of bare wires into a bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink. Also, a chemiresistor "stick" is formed by dipping an electrically insulating rod with two or more linear or spiral-wrapped electrical traces into the bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink, which deposits a uniform coating of the chemically sensitive polymer on the rod and the electrical traces. These "sticks" can be easily removed and replaced from a multi-chemiresistor plug.

  6. Thermal experiment of silicon PIN detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Fei; ZOU Ji-Qing; SHI Wei-Hong; ZOU Hong; HU Ran-Sheng; TIAN Da-Yu

    2008-01-01

    The experiment of this paper is the thermal test of the leakage current of silicon PIN detector.Raising temperature may cause the detector to increase leakage current,decrease depletion and increase noise.Three samples are used in the experiment.One (called △E) is the sample of 100 tan in thickness.The other two (called E1 and E2) are stacks of five detectors of 1000 μm in thickness.All of them are 12 mm in diameter.The experiment has been done for 21 hours and with power on continuously.The samples have undergone more than 60 ℃ for about one hour.They are not degenerated when back to the room temperature.The depletion rate is temperature and bias voltage related.With the circuit of the experiment and temperature at 35 ℃,△E is still depleted while E1 and E2 are 94.9% and 99.7% depleted respectively.The noises of the samples can be derived from the values at room temperature and the thermal dependence of the leakage currents.With the addition of the noise of the pre-amplifier,the noises of E1,E2 and AE at 24 ℃ are 16.4,16.3,and 10.5 keV (FWHM) respectively while at 35 ℃ are about 33.6,33.1,and 20.6 keV (FWHM) respectively.

  7. Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales; Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego

    2008-11-01

    This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.

  8. Ideal glass transitions by random pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of freezing the positions of a fraction c of particles from an equilibrium configuration of a supercooled liquid at a temperature T. We show that within the random first-order transition theory pinning particles leads to an ideal glass transition for a critical fraction c = cK(T) even for moderate supercooling; e.g., close to the Mode-Coupling transition temperature. First we derive the phase diagram in the T - c plane by mean field approximations. Then, by applying a real-space renormalization group method, we obtain the critical properties for |c - cK(T)| → 0, in particular the divergence of length and time scales, which are dominated by two zero-temperature fixed points. We also show that for c = cK(T) the typical distance between frozen particles is related to the static point-to-set length scale of the unconstrained liquid. We discuss what are the main differences when particles are frozen in other geometries and not from an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we explain why the glass transition induced by freezing particles provides a new and very promising avenue of research to probe the glassy state and ascertain, or disprove, the validity of the theories of the glass transition. PMID:22623524

  9. Traction force microscopy in rapidly moving cells reveals separate roles for ROCK and MLCK in the mechanics of retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Timothy R; Ghassem-Zadeh, Sean A; Lee, Juliet

    2014-08-15

    Retraction is a major rate-limiting step in cell motility, particularly in slow moving cell types that form large stable adhesions. Myosin II dependent contractile forces are thought to facilitate detachment by physically pulling up the rear edge. However, retraction can occur in the absence of myosin II activity in cell types that form small labile adhesions. To investigate the role of contractile force generation in retraction, we performed traction force microscopy during the movement of fish epithelial keratocytes. By correlating changes in local traction stress at the rear with the area retracted, we identified four distinct modes of retraction. "Recoil" retractions are preceded by a rise in local traction stress, while rear edge is temporarily stuck, followed by a sharp drop in traction stress upon detachment. This retraction type was most common in cells generating high average traction stress. In "pull" type retractions local traction stress and area retracted increase concomitantly. This was the predominant type of retraction in keratocytes and was observed mostly in cells generating low average traction stress. "Continuous" type retractions occur without any detectable change in traction stress, and are seen in cells generating low average traction stress. In contrast, to many other cell types, "release" type retractions occur in keratocytes following a decrease in local traction stress. Our identification of distinct modes of retraction suggests that contractile forces may play different roles in detachment that are related to rear adhesion strength. To determine how the regulation of contractility via MLCK or Rho kinase contributes to the mechanics of detachment, inhibitors were used to block or augment these pathways. Modulation of MLCK activity led to the most rapid change in local traction stress suggesting its importance in regulating attachment strength. Surprisingly, Rho kinase was not required for detachment, but was essential for localizing

  10. Numerical Evaluation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Plate-Pin Fin Heat Sinks with Various Pin Cross-Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Feng; Catton, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    A numerical investigation of the thermal and hydraulic performance of twenty different plate-pin fin heat sinks with various shapes of pin cross-section (square, circular, elliptic, NACA profile and dropform) and different ratios of pin widths to plate fin spacing (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) was performed. Finite Volume Method based CFD software, Ansys CFX, was used as the 3-D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes Solver. A k-ω based Shear-Stress-Transport model was used to predict the turbulent flow a...

  11. Procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release in the core of VVER-type reactor for the BIPR-8 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, P. V.; Kotsarev, A. V.; Lizorkin, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields for the BIPR-8 code and the algorithm of the BIPR-8 code which is used in nodal computation of the reactor core and on which the recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release is based are briefly described. The description and results of the verification using the module of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields and the TVS-M program are given.

  12. Pins, dowels, and other retentive devices in posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, R; Shillingburg, H T

    1993-07-01

    Devices used to increase retention of restorations to severely damaged posterior teeth are described, with an emphasis on pins and dowels. Advantages and disadvantages of different techniques and measures to help prevent and correct problems are presented.

  13. Characterization of vortex pinning through the Campbell length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willa, Roland; Geshkenbein, Vadim B.; Blatter, Gianni

    Vortex pinning is decisive in establishing dissipation-free current flow in a type-II superconductor; knowledge and optimization of the pinning landscape (pinscape) is of major importance for applications. The ac magnetic response, characterized by the Campbell penetration depth λC, provides valuable information on the pinscape, besides the critical current density jc. While microscopic derivations of jc are available both in the weak and strong pinning limits, this is not the case for the Campbell length, whose understanding has remained on a phenomenological level so far. Based on the microscopic theory of strong pinning, we have established a proper link between the Campbell length and the pinscape parameters. This new quantitative formalism captures all experimentally observed signatures, among which are the dependence of λC on the vortex state preparation and the hysteresis in λC upon thermal cycling the field-cooled state.

  14. PIN1 in breast development and cancer: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustighi, Alessandra; Zannini, Alessandro; Campaner, Elena; Ciani, Yari; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino

    2017-02-01

    Mammary gland development, various stages of mammary tumorigenesis and breast cancer progression have the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase PIN1 at their centerpiece, in virtue of the ability of this unique enzyme to fine-tune the dynamic crosstalk between multiple molecular pathways. PIN1 exerts its action by inducing conformational and functional changes on key cellular proteins, following proline-directed phosphorylation. Through this post-phosphorylation signal transduction mechanism, PIN1 controls the extent and direction of the cellular response to a variety of inputs, in physiology and disease. This review discusses PIN1's roles in normal mammary development and cancerous progression, as well as the clinical impact of targeting this enzyme in breast cancer patients.

  15. 8 Pin RIC Socket for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Davids, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    process and the other one is fully automated process. This paper presents the entire process chain for both the concepts and makes a comparative analysis based on the experimental investigation and validation. The work presented here can be a source of valuable information for industrial users......The current paper presents the development of an 8 Pin RIC (Receiver in the canal) Socket for hearing instruments within the framework of the COTECH project. There are 8 industrial demonstrators developed in COTECH based on the converged product and process design. Sonion’s 8 Pin RIC Socket is one...... of them. 8 Pin RIC Socket is a functionally versatile product which can combine many different functions and presents many advantages compared with the previous 3 Pin RIC Socket. For the demonstrator production of the new Socket, two different production concepts were chosen- one based on semi-automated...

  16. Pinning impulsive directed coupled delayed dynamical network and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunnan; Wu, Quanjun; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to further investigate pinning synchronisation of a complex delayed dynamical network with directionally coupling by a single impulsive controller. By developing the analysis procedure of pinning impulsive stability for undirected coupled dynamical network previously, some simple yet general criteria of pinning impulsive synchronisation for such directed coupled network are derived analytically. It is shown that a single impulsive controller can always pin a given directed coupled network to a desired homogenous solution, including an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or a chaotic orbit. Subsequently, the theoretical results are illustrated by a directed small-world complex network which is a cellular neural network (CNN) and a directed scale-free complex network with the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley neuron oscillators. Numerical simulations are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.

  17. On Fermi level pinning in the alloys based on the lead telluride doped with gallium

    CERN Document Server

    Skipetrov, E P; Skipetrova, L A; Volkova, O S; Slynko, E I

    2002-01-01

    Effect of doping with gallium and fast electron irradiation on the galvanomagnetic properties of n-Pb sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x Te (0.04 <= x <= 0.06) alloys is investigated. The transformations the metal-type conductivity are obtained both by increasing the impurity content and under the electron irradiation. The conclusion has been drawn that Fermi level pinning by the impurity level does not take place while the doping with gallium as well as the electron irradiation may serve as effective mutually complementary tools for modifying of electrical properties of alloys

  18. Comparison of the neutral and retracted shoulder positions for infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterization: a randomized, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Jung, S H; Min, J; Hong, D M; Jeon, Y; Bahk, J-H

    2013-08-01

    There are controversies regarding the most efficient shoulder position during infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterization. We hypothesized that, regarding the success rate of subclavian venous catheterization, the neutral shoulder position would not be inferior to the retracted shoulder position. A total of 362 patients who underwent elective surgery were randomly assigned to two groups: those who underwent subclavian venous catheterizations in the neutral shoulder position (neutral group, n=181) or in the retracted shoulder position (retracted group, n=181). In the retracted group, a 1 litre saline bag was placed longitudinally beneath the spinal column between the scapulae to allow the shoulders to fall into a 'retracted' position. The incidence of failures to place the central venous catheters and complications such as arterial puncture, pneumothorax, or haemothorax were recorded. The success rates were 95.6% (173/181) in the neutral group and 96.1% (174/181) in the retracted group. The difference of 0.5% was within the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 5% with a P-value of 0.017 [two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.036 to 0.047; upper limit of the 95% CI, 0.040]. There were four catheterization failures (2.2%) in the neutral group and two failures (1.1%) in the retracted group. Complication rates were not significantly different between the neutral and retracted groups [3/181 (1.7%) vs 4/181 (2.2%) for arterial punctures and 1/181 (0.6%) vs 1/181 (0.6%) for pneumothorax]. The neutral shoulder position was as effective as the retracted shoulder position for infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterization. Shoulder retraction does not appear to be necessary for the infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterization. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01368692.

  19. An experimental study of a pin-fin heat exchanger

    OpenAIRE

    Ramthun, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A detailed experimental study has been carried out on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a compact heat exchanger with pin fins. A modular wind-tunnel with a rectangular cross-section duct-flow area was constructed that would accommodate the heat exchanger test section with varying pin designs. The flow in the tunnel was achieved through a suction-type blower, and a leading entrance length section was added to achie...

  20. Anisotropic flux pinning in high T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnik, S. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Igalson, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Skoskiewicz, T. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Baran, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668, Warszawa (Poland); Pytel, K. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk (Poland); Pytel, B. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk (Poland)

    1995-02-09

    In this paper we present a comparison of the results of FC magnetization measurements on several Pb-Sr-(Y,Ca)-Cu-O crystals representing various levels of flux pinning. The pinning centers in our crystals have been set up during the crystal growth process or introduced by neutron irradiation. Some possible explanations of the observed effects, including surface barrier, flux-center distribution and sample-shape effects, are discussed. ((orig.)).

  1. Investigating the interactions of yeast prions: [SWI+], [PSI+], and [PIN+].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhiqiang; Li, Liming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple prion elements, which are transmitted as heritable protein conformations and often linked to distinct phenotypes, have been identified in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been shown that overproduction of a prion protein Swi1 can promote the de novo conversion of another yeast prion [PSI(+)] when Sup35 is co-overproduced. However, the mechanism underlying this Pin(+) ([PSI(+)] inducible) activity is not clear. Moreover, how the Swi1 prion ([SWI(+)]) interacts with other yeast prions is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Pin(+) activity associated with Swi1 overproduction is independent of Rnq1 expression or [PIN(+)] conversion. We also show that [SWI(+)] enhances the appearance of [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)]. However, [SWI(+)] significantly compromises the Pin(+) activity of [PIN(+)] when they coexist. We further demonstrate that a single yeast cell can harbor three prions, [PSI(+)], [PIN(+)], and [SWI(+)], simultaneously. However, under this condition, [SWI(+)] is significantly destabilized. While the propensity to aggregate underlies prionogenesis, Swi1 and Rnq1 aggregates resulting from overproduction are usually nonheritable. Conversely, prion protein aggregates formed in nonoverexpressing conditions or induced by preexisting prion(s) are more prionogenic. For [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] de novo formation, heterologous "facilitators," such as preexisting [SWI(+)] aggregates, colocalize only with the newly formed ring-/rod-shaped Sup35 or Rnq1 aggregates, but not with the dot-shaped mature prion aggregates. Their colocalization frequency is coordinated with their prion inducibility, indicating that prion-prion interactions mainly occur at the early initiation stage. Our results provide supportive evidence for the cross-seeding model of prionogenesis and highlight a complex interaction network among prions in yeast.

  2. Open safety pin ingestion presenting as incarcerated umbilical hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Bilal; Sheikh, Afzal

    2011-09-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was performed.

  3. Open Safety Pin Ingestion Presenting as Incarcerated Umbilical Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Mirza; Afzal Sheikh

    2011-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was p...

  4. Open Safety Pin Ingestion Presenting as Incarcerated Umbilical Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was performed.

  5. A Versatile Mixed-Signal Pin Approach for Cost-Effective Test of Automotive ICs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Credence Systems Corporation

    2004-01-01

    @@ (上接第9期51页) Figure 3:3 different pins types which cover a wide range of requirements: - DPIN: The digital mixed signal pin for high speed digital requirements - VPIN digital mixed-signal pin with high voltage digital test capability. With the 30 V swing and 50 MHz data rate the pin fits excellent for automotive requirements.

  6. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi [Molecular Enzymology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Amamiya, Tsutsumidori, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan); Uchida, Takafumi, E-mail: uchidat@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp [Molecular Enzymology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Amamiya, Tsutsumidori, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan)

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 {mu}M. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K{sub i} value of 0.05 {mu}M. The K{sub D} value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 {mu}M by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  7. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B.

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius RNP≅3 nm while droplets have initial R0≅42 nm . At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θadv, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θadv, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded.

  8. Pinned vortex hopping in a neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Haskell, Brynmor

    2015-01-01

    The motion of superfluid vortices in a neutron star crust is at the heart of most theories of pulsar glitches. Pinning of vortices to ions can decouple the superfluid from the crust and create a reservoir of angular momentum. Sudden large scale unpinning can lead to an observable glitch. In this paper we investigate the scattering of a free vortex off a pinning potential and calculate its mean free path, in order to assess whether unpinned vortices can skip multiple pinning sites and come close enough to their neighbours to trigger avalanches, or whether they simply hop from one pinning site to another giving rise to a more gradual creep. We find that there is a significant range of parameter space in which avalanches can be triggered, thus supporting the hypothesis that they may lie at the origin of pulsar glitches. For realistic values of the pinning force and superfluid drag parameters we find that avalanches are more likely in the higher density regions of the crust where pinning is stronger. Physical dif...

  9. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi; Uchida, Takafumi

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 microM. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K(i) value of 0.05 microM. The K(D) value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 microM by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  10. Propagation of errors in citation networks: a study involving the entire citation network of a widely cited paper published in, and later retracted from, the journal Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, Van Der Paul E.; Nijveen, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Background
    In about one in 10,000 cases, a published article is retracted. This very often means that the results it reports are flawed. Several authors have voiced concerns about the presence of retracted research in the memory of science. In particular, a retracted result is propagated by

  11. Propagation of errors in citation networks: a study involving the entire citation network of a widely cited paper published in, and later retracted from, the journal Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vet, P.E.; Nijveen, Harmen

    2016-01-01

    Background In about one in 10,000 cases, a published article is retracted. This very often means that the results it reports are flawed. Several authors have voiced concerns about the presence of retracted research in the memory of science. In particular, a retracted result is propagated by citing

  12. Soldered Power Arm: An Easy and Effective Method for Intrusion and Retraction of Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan K Vakil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The orthodontic correction of deep overbite can be achieved with several mechanisms that will result in true intrusion of anterior teeth, extrusion of posterior teeth, or a combination of both. For the orthodontic correction of bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion with deep bite, there are several treatment modalities like segmented arch approach, retraction and intrusion utility arches, temporary anchorage devices. Though not a novel therapeutic concept, the use of miniscrew implants to obtain absolute anchorage has recently become very popular in clinical orthodontic approaches. To allow the use of sliding mechanics for bodily retraction with intrusion of anterior teeth, we devised a soldered power arm (SPA on standard molar tube. It is simple, stable, precise and effective in cases where anterior teeth need to be simultaneously retracted and intruded. A power arm can be readily fabricated from 20 gauge stainless steel wire and soldered on the molar buccal tube so as to avoid any distortion or loosening of power arm from molar tube during the course of the treatment. The SPA works efficiently with the molar being stabilized in all three planes of space. The resultant force vector is directed more apically toward the center of resistance of the anchor unit, which resulted in the treatment outcome of retraction and intrusion of the anterior teeth and correction of the deep bite.

  13. RETRACTED: Investigation into the kinetic behavior of molten aluminum pressureless infiltration into SiC preforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sharifi

    2016-10-01

    According to the policy of our Journal, this paper has been retracted because of sheer plagiarism. This paper has been published at the same time in the International Journal of Materials Research (IJMR: http://dx.doi.org/10.3139/146.111422.

  14. Effects of decreasing endotracheal tube cuff pressures during neck retraction for anterior cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaraj, Jebadurai; Todorov, Alexandre; McHugh, Tom; Cheng, Mary Ann; Lauryssen, Carl

    2002-09-01

    The authors' goal was to determine whether the incidence of postoperative sore throat, hoarseness, and dysphagia associated with anterior spine surgery is reduced by maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure (ETCP) at 20 mm Hg during the period of neck retraction. Fifty-one patients scheduled for anterior cervical spine surgery were enrolled. After intubation, ETCP was adjusted to 20 mm Hg in all patients. Following placement of neck retractors, ETCP was measured. Patients were randomized to a control (no adjustment) or treatment group (ETCP adjusted to 20 mm Hg). A blinded observer questioned the patients about the presence of sore throat, dysphagia, and hoarseness at 1 hour, 24 hours, and 1 week postoperatively. No differences between groups at 1 hour postoperatively were demonstrated. At 24 hours, 51% of patients in the treatment group complained of sore throat compared with 74% of control patients (p predictors of postoperative throat discomfort following anterior cervical spine surgery in which neck retraction is performed: increased ETCP during neck retraction (sore throat), neck retraction time (dysphagia), and female sex (sore throat and hoarseness). The simple maneuver of decreasing ETCP to 20 mm Hg may be helpful in improving patient comfort following anterior cervical spine surgery.

  15. Retraction of an intrathecal baclofen infusion catheter following suprapubic cystotomy: a case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Somford, D.M.; Kuppevelt, D.H. van; Burg, M.J. van den; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrathecal baclofen, administered via a Baclofen pump, is used for patients with spasticity. We report here a case of intrathecal catheter retraction following surgery. CASE REPORT: A male patient with adrenoleukodystrophy and a baclofen pump implant was admitted to the urology depart

  16. Maxillary dentoalveolar assessment following retraction of maxillary incisors: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Maia Fernandes Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2. The premaxilla was assessed through seven axial slices by means of Dolphin ImagingTM software. In each of these slices, five measurements of the distance from the buccal cortical bone to the palatal cortical bone were performed. Tooth length of maxillary incisors (n = 44 was also measured in sagittal slices. Measurements were repeated after a two-week interval, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to test examiner calibration. Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences in measurements performed at the two time intervals. Results: The ICC was satisfactory for tooth length (0.890 and for premaxilla alveolar thickness measurements (0.980. Analysis of data showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 in tooth length or alveolar thickness between the two-time intervals assessed. Conclusion: The force used in retraction of maxillary incisors in this research did not promote significant changes in tooth length of maxillary incisors or in premaxilla alveolar thickness.

  17. Maxillary dentoalveolar assessment following retraction of maxillary incisors: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago Maia Fernandes; Claudino, Lígia Vieira; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2). The premaxilla was assessed through seven axial slices by means of Dolphin ImagingTM software. In each of these slices, five measurements of the distance from the buccal cortical bone to the palatal cortical bone were performed. Tooth length of maxillary incisors (n = 44) was also measured in sagittal slices. Measurements were repeated after a two-week interval, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test examiner calibration. Wilcoxon test was used to detect differences in measurements performed at the two time intervals. Results: The ICC was satisfactory for tooth length (0.890) and for premaxilla alveolar thickness measurements (0.980). Analysis of data showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in tooth length or alveolar thickness between the two-time intervals assessed. Conclusion: The force used in retraction of maxillary incisors in this research did not promote significant changes in tooth length of maxillary incisors or in premaxilla alveolar thickness. PMID:27901233

  18. Eyelid retraction, lid lag, lagophthalmos, and von Graefe's sign quantifying the eyelid features of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddipati, Ramakrishna V; Meyer, Dale R

    2008-06-01

    To report the frequency and relationship of eyelid retraction, lid lag, lagophthalmos, and von Graefe's sign in a group of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and compare these findings to those in a group of normal individuals. Retrospective comparative cohort study. Fifty consecutive Graves' ophthalmopathy patients were compared to a control group of 50 normal individuals. Measurements were made of eyelid position in primary gaze and downgaze to assess eyelid retraction and lid lag, and the presence of lagophthalmos and von Graefe's sign was noted when present. Eyelid position in primary gaze and downgaze and presence of lagophthalmos and von Graefe's sign. In the Graves' group, eyelid retraction (38%), von Graefe's sign (36%) and lagophthalmos (16%) were observed at a significantly greater frequency (P<0.01) than in normals, whereas true eyelid lag was observed in only 8% (P = 0.67). The terms lid lag and von Graefe's sign have been used interchangeably in the past; however, they are distinct signs of downgaze-related upper eyelid static position and dynamic movement, respectively. Although von Graefe's sign was commonly exibited in Graves' patients, the relatively low frequency of lid lag suggests that factors other than restriction/fibrosis are likely responsible for the etiology of eyelid retraction in many cases.

  19. A retracting wire knife for cutting fiber bundles and making sheet lesions of brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Russell, I S

    1979-07-01

    A retracting knife which has two cutting wires for the transection of fiber bundles is described. The knife holds the fiber bundles of the stria terminalis between the two cutting wires and transects them by a shearing movement as the wires close. In addition, the feasability of such a knife producing a sheet lesion around the n. caudatus is also described.

  20. Orthodontic retraction of autotransplanted premolar to replace ankylosed maxillary incisor with replacement resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Shin, Sujung; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Chooryung J

    2014-04-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of an adult with lip protrusion and a previously traumatized maxillary central incisor that had experienced replacement root resorption. An extracted premolar was transplanted into the incisor space and retracted orthodontically. Autotransplantation was successful with complete root formation and, combined with orthodontic treatment, provided a satisfying esthetic outcome.

  1. 77 FR 75189 - Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Termination of an Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    .... 77 FR 31039-40 (Aug. 12, 2011). The notice of investigation named more than forty respondents. The... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Termination of an...

  2. Retracted: Nrf2: a novel therapeutic target in fragile X syndrome is modulated by NNZ2566.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, R M J; Hurley, M J; Rebolledo, C M; Snape, M; Altimiras, F J; Farías, L; Pino, M; Biekofsky, R; Glass, L; Cogram, P

    2017-09-01

    Retraction: "Nrf2: a novel therapeutic target in fragile X syndrome is modulated by NNZ2566" by R. M. J. Deacon, M. J. Hurley, C. M. Rebolledo, M. Snape, F. J. Altimiras, L. Farías, M. Pino, R. Biekofsky, L. Glass and P. Cogram. The above article, from Genes, Brain and Behavior, published online on 12th May 2017 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Andrew Holmes and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as all authors cannot agree on a revised author order, and at least one author continues to dispute the original order. In this case, the original article is being retracted on the grounds that the journal does not have permission to publish. Reference: Deacon, R. M. J., Hurley, M. J., Rebolledo, C. M., Snape, M., Altimiras, F. J., Farías, L., Pino, M., Biekofsky, R., Glass, L. and Cogram, P. (2017), Nrf2: a novel therapeutic target in fragile X syndrome is modulated by NNZ2566. Genes, Brain and Behavior. doi:10.1111/gbb.12373. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  3. 77 FR 31039 - Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice...

  4. Repeat biopsy in patients with initial diagnosis of PIN; La biopsia ripetuta nei pazienti con diagnosi iniziale di PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Matteis, Massimo [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Albertoni; Poggi, Cristina; De Martino, Antonietta; Pavlica, Pietro [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Palagi, Dipartimento area radiologica; Corti, Barbara [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Anatomia ed istologia patologica, Dipartimento oncologico ed ematologico; Barozzi, Libero [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia d' urgenza, Dipartimento emergenze ed accettazione

    2005-09-15

    Purpose. Prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN) is considered a pre-malignant lesion and the main precursor of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. A PIN diagnosis established by prostate needle biopsy poses a difficult clinical management. problem. We retrospectively reviewed our three-year experience in order to identify criteria for referring patients to repeat biopsy. Materials and methods. We reviewed the repeat biopsy records of 72 patients in whom PIN had been detected on initial US-guided needle biopsy of the prostate. All the patients had a minimum of 6 biopsy cores taken, and they all had PSA > 4 ng/ml. Results. Adenocarcinoma was detected in 15 patients out of 50 (30%) with an initial diagnosis of low-grade PIN and in 10 patients out of 22 (45.4%) with high grade PIN, in 7 out of 18 (39%) in whom PSA levels had decreased during the observation interval, in 16 patients out of 46 (35%) in whom the PSA had increased and in 2 patients out of 8 (25%) with stable PSA. Conclusions. Our results seem to confirm that PIN can be considered a precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma or a histological alteration often associated with it. Patients with low-grade PIN and particularly those with high-grade PIN should be regularly subjected to repeat biopsy at short intervals due to the high frequency of the final diagnosis of carcinoma. No agreement has been reached on the time interval between the first and the second biopsy. The PSA changes during the observation period are not a statistically significant parameter to suggest the repetition of prostatic biopsy. [Italian] Scopo. La neoplasia prostatica intraepiteliale (PIN) e considerata una lesione premaligna ed il precursore principale dell'adenocarcinoma prostatico infiltrante. La diagnosi di PIN ottenuta con l'agobiopsia della prostata rappresenta un difficile problema gestionale clinico. In una valutazione retrospettiva della nostra esperienza di 3 anni si e cercato di individuare i criteri che possano

  5. Pin-Hole Luminosity Monitor with Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, James H.; Spencer, James E.

    Previously, the generalized luminosity { L} was defined and calculated for all incident channels based on an NLC e+e- design. Alternatives were then considered to improve the differing beam-beam effects in the e-e-, eγ and γγ channels. Regardless of the channel, there was a large flux of outgoing, high energy photons that were produced from the beam-beam interaction e.g. beamstrahlung that needs to be disposed of and whose flux depended on { L}. One approach to this problem is to consider it a resource and attempt to take advantage of it by disposing of these straight-ahead photons in more useful ways than simply dumping them. While there are many options for monitoring the luminosity, any method that allows feedback and optimization in real time and in a non-intercepting and non-interfering way during normal data taking is extremely important - especially if it provides other capabilities such as high resolution tuning of spot sizes and can be used for all incident channels without essential modifications to their setup. Our "pin-hole" camera appears to be such a device if it can be made to work with high energy photons in ways that are compatible with the many other constraints and demands on space around the interaction region. The basis for using this method is that it has, in principle, the inherent resolution and bandwidth to monitor the very small spot sizes and their stabilities that are required for very high, integrated luminosity. While there are many possible, simultaneous uses of these outgoing photon beams, we limit our discussion to a single, blind, proof-of-principle experiment that was done on the FFTB line at SLAC to certify the concept of a camera obscura for high energy photons.

  6. Interplay between collective pinning and artificial defects on domain wall propagation in Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Perez-Junquera, A; Montenegro, N; Alameda, J M; Velez, M [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Menendez, J L [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC)-Univ. Oviedo -UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Ravelosona, D, E-mail: mvelez@uniovi.e [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Univ. Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-08-04

    The interplay between collective pinning on intrinsic structural defects and artificial pinning at a patterned hole is studied in magnetic multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy. The pinning strength of a patterned hole is measured through its efficiency to stop domain wall (DW) propagation into a consecutive unpatterned nanowire section (using antisymmetric magnetoresistance to detect the direction of DW propagation) whereas collective pinning is characterized by the field dependence of DW velocity. Close to room temperature, collective pinning becomes weaker than artificial pinning so that pinning at the hole compensates nucleation-pad geometry, blocking DW propagation across the nanowire.

  7. Assessment of Eustachian tube function in patients with tympanic membrane retraction and in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Inesângela; Petersen Schmidt Rosito, Letícia; Siliprandi, Bruno; Giugno, Cláudia; Selaimen da Costa, Sady

    The diagnosis of Eustachian tube dysfunctions is essential for better understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media. A series of tests to assess tube function are described in the literature; however, they are methodologically heterogeneous, with differences ranging from application protocols to standardization of tests and their results. To evaluate the variation in middle ear pressure in patients with tympanic membrane retraction and in normal patients during tube function tests, as well as to evaluate intra-individual variation between these tests. An observational, contemporary, cross-sectional study was conducted, in which the factor under study was the variation in middle ear pressure during tube function tests (Valsalva maneuver, sniff test, Toynbee maneuver) in healthy patients and in patients with mild and moderate/severe tympanic retraction. A total of 38 patients (76 ears) were included in the study. Patients underwent tube function tests at two different time points to determine pressure measurements after each maneuver. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 18.0, considering p-values <0.05 as statistically significant. Mean (standard deviation) age was 11 (2.72) years; 55.3% of patients were male and 44.7% female. The prevalence of type A tympanogram was higher among participants with healthy ears and those with mild retraction, whereas type C tympanograms were more frequent in the moderate/severe retraction group. An increase in middle ear pressure was observed during the Valsalva maneuver at the first time point evaluated in all three groups of ears (p=0.012). The variation in pressure was not significant either for the sniff test or for the Toynbee maneuver at the two time points evaluated (p≥0.05). Agreement between measurements obtained at the two different time points was weak to moderate for all tests in all three groups of ears, and the variations in discrepancy between measurements were higher in ears

  8. Autophagy regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 and phospho-Ser-GSK3αβ involved in protection of oral squamous cell carcinoma against cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Keum-Young [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee, E-mail: seonh@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Premedicine, School of Medicine, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-23

    Prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, its role in autophagy induction remains undefined. Here we show that Pin1 regulates cell survival via autophagy in cadmium (Cd)-exposed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC exposure to Cd induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of green fluorescent punctae in transfected cells expressing GFP-conjugated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and by LC3 flux in the presence of autophagy inhibitors. Suppression of Atg5 enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell protection. In dose–response experiments, cleavage of procaspase-3, PARP-1, and LC3-II was induced by Cd with an IC{sub 50} of 45 μM. Expression of Pin1 was decreased at or above the Cd IC{sub 50} value and was inversely correlated with the level of phospho(p)-Ser-GSK3αβ. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 suppressed Cd-induced autophagy, but increased p-Akt-mediated p-Ser-GSK3αβ; this was reversed by overexpression of Pin1. However, suppression of GSK3αβ inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis, which could be reversed by overexpression of GSK3β. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 blocked p-Akt-mediated increases in p-Ser-GSK3αβ and autophagy and induced apoptosis. Therefore, p-Ser-GSK3αβ can directly regulate Cd-induced autophagy, although its function is suppressed by Pin1. Collectively, the present results indicate that targeting Pin1 and GSK3αβ at the same time could be an effective therapeutic tool for Cd-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Pin1 regulated autophagy to protect cells from cadmium toxicity. • Pin1 suppression inhibited cadmium-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis. • Pin1 inhibited the function of p-Ser-GSK3αβ in autophagy regulation. • p-Ser-GSK3αβ regulated autophagy independently of Pin1.

  9. Attenuation of the Type IV Pilus Retraction Motor Influences Neisseria gonorrhoeae Social and Infection Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Danielle M.; Agellon, Al

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retraction of the type IV pilus (Tfp) mediates DNA uptake, motility, and social and infection behavior in a wide variety of prokaryotes. To date, investigations into Tfp retraction-dependent activities have used a mutant deleted of PilT, the ATPase motor protein that causes the pilus fiber to retract. ΔpilT cells are nontransformable, nonmotile, and cannot aggregate into microcolonies. We tested the hypothesis that these retraction-dependent activities are sensitive to the strength of PilT enzymatic activity by using the pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a model. We constructed an N. gonorrhoeae mutant with an amino acid substitution in the PilT Walker B box (a substitution of cysteine for leucine at position 201, encoded by pilTL201C). Purified PilTL201C forms a native hexamer, but mutant hexamers hydrolyze ATP at half the maximal rate. N. gonorrhoeae pilTL201C cells produce Tfp fibers, crawl at the same speed as the wild-type (wt) parent, and are equally transformable. However, the social behavior of pilTL201C cells is intermediate between the behaviors of wt and ΔpilT cells. The infection behavior of pilTL201C is also defective, due to its failure to activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) pathway. Our study indicates that pilus retraction, per se, is not sufficient for N. gonorrhoeae microcolony formation or infectivity; rather, these activities are sensitive to the strength of PilT enzymatic activity. We discuss the implications of these findings for Neisseria pathogenesis in the context of mechanobiology. PMID:27923924

  10. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie XUE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress. Results: The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. . Conclusions: Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction.

  11. Review of various liver retraction techniques in single incision laparoscopic surgery for the exposure of hiatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveenraj Palanivelu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main aspect of concern for upper GI procedures has been the retraction of the liver especially large left lobes as commonly encountered in Bariatric surgery. Not doing so would compromise the view of the hiatus, hence theoretically reducing the quality of the surgery and increasing the possibility of complications. The aim of this study was to review the various liver retraction techniques in single incision surgery being done at our institute and analyze them. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of the various techniques and a subsequent analysis was made based on advantages and disadvantages of each method. Objectively a quantitative measure of hiatal exposure was done using a scoring system based on the grade of exposure after reviewing the surgical videos. From January 2011 to January 2013 total 104 patients underwent single incision surgery with the various liver retraction techniques with following grades of exposure -liver suspension tube technique with naso gastric tubing (2.11 and with corrugated drain (2.09 needlescopic method (1.2, Umbilical tape sling (1.95, crural stitch method (2.5. Needeloscopic method has the best grade of exposure and is the easiest to start with. The average time to create the liver retraction was 2.8 to 8.6 min.There was no procedure related morbidity or mortality. Conclusions: The mentioned liver retraction techniques are cost effective and easy to learn. We recommend using these techniques to have a good exposure of hiatus, without compromising the safety of surgery in single incision surgery.

  12. Role of the Arabidopsis PIN6 Auxin Transporter in Auxin Homeostasis and Auxin-Mediated Development

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Plant-specific PIN-formed (PIN) efflux transporters for the plant hormone auxin are required for tissue-specific directional auxin transport and cellular auxin homeostasis. The Arabidopsis PIN protein family has been shown to play important roles in developmental processes such as embryogenesis, organogenesis, vascular tissue differentiation, root meristem patterning and tropic growth. Here we analyzed roles of the less characterised Arabidopsis PIN6 auxin transporter. PIN6 is auxin-inducible...

  13. THE PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF NB-47TI SUPERCONDUCTOR WITH MAGNETIC PINNING CENTERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOTOWIDLO,L.R.RUDZIAK,M.D.WONG,T.COOLEY,L.D.LEE,P.J.

    2004-02-04

    We have investigated Nb-47Ti multifilament wire with artificial pinning centers (APC). The superconducting properties and proximity effect in wires with ferromagnetic and non-magnetic pins will be discussed. Magnetization and transport measurements will be presented and the pinning characteristics will be discussed as a function of magnetic field, temperature and volume percent pins. In addition, field emission scanning electron microscopy of the pin nanostructure will be presented.

  14. Effect of annealing ambient on anisotropic retraction of film edges during solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye Hyun; Thompson, Carl V., E-mail: cthomp@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Ma, Wen [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Yildiz, Bilge [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    During solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films, film edges retract at a rate that is strongly dependent on their crystallographic orientations. Edges with kinetically stable in-plane orientations remain straight as they retract, while those with other in-plane orientations develop in-plane facets as they retract. Kinetically stable edges have retraction rates that are lower than edges with other orientations and thus determine the shape of the natural holes that form during solid-state dewetting. In this paper, measurements of the retraction rates of kinetically stable edges for single crystal (110) and (100) Ni films on MgO are presented. Relative retraction rates of kinetically stable edges with different crystallographic orientations are observed to change under different annealing conditions, and this accordingly changes the initial shapes of growing holes. The surfaces of (110) and (100) films were also characterized using low energy electron diffraction, and different surface reconstructions were observed under different ambient conditions. The observed surface structures were found to correlate with the observed changes in the relative retraction rates of the kinetically stable edges.

  15. Flux Pinning in Superconducting Niobium-Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, James Charles

    1990-01-01

    By studying Nb-Ti alloys from Nb44wt%Ti to Nb62wt%Ti the low field (2T) current density has been raised from 6500A/mm^2 (4.2^ circK) with standard Nb46.5wt%Ti to 7400A/mm ^2 with Nb58wt%Ti. When standard processing sequences were used, the alloys containing more than 46.5wt%Ti exhibited non-uniform microstructures following a precipitation heat treatment and the hardness rose from 200 DPN to over 300 DPN. By increasing the cold work prior to heat treatment the non-uniform precipitation was avoided. The amount of cold work needed prior to heat treatment to suppress non-uniform precipitation increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. The volume fraction of precipitate produced during a given heat treatment also increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. As the Ti content increased, the peak in the reduced pinning force curve shifted from b = 0.5 to b = 0.25. In order to determine whether the change in the flux pinning properties was due to the change in microstructure or due to enhanced Delta H_{c} pinning as the Ti content was increased, a set of wires with similar microstructures was developed. Their flux pinning behavior showed that the higher Ti alloys have pinning force curves which peak at progressively lower reduced fields. Thus Delta H_{c} pinning becomes the dominant pinning mechanism as the Ti content is increased.

  16. Clinical study of gingival retraction time on the effect of gingival retraction%排龈时间对排龈效果影响的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张津京; 刘玉华

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较三种排龈时间下的排龈效果,为临床上排龈时间的选择提供参考.方法 选取10名志愿者的59颗前磨牙或尖牙,于颊侧龈沟分别进行三种时间的排龈(5、10、15分钟),两次排龈间隔至少2周.制取排龈后的印模并灌制石膏模型.根据模型上牙龈不同位置牙龈与牙面的分离情况,对排龈效果由好到差进行0~3分的评分,其中0分及1分记为满意,比较不同排龈时间下排龈效果得分及满意率间的差异.结果 三种排龈时间的排龈效果得分存在统计学差异(P<0.05),随排龈时间的延长排龈效果满意率逐渐增大,排龈10分钟即可达到较好的排龈效果满意率.结论 在本实验条件下,印模制取前使用单线机械法排龈至少需要10分钟.%Objective To compare gingival retraction effects under three different types of retraction time, so as to provide references for dentists to choose gingival retraction time in clinical works. Methods Selecting 59 premolars or canines from 10 volunteers, for which gingival retraction cords were applied on the buccal sulcus under three different types of retraction time (5, 10 and 15 minutes) , respectively. The least interval between two retraction procedures was 2 weeks. Impressions and plaster models were made after gingival retraction. Based on the separation between gingival crest and tooth surface on different gingival areas of the models, gingival retraction effects from good to bad were graded from 0 to 3 score, in which 0 and 1 scores were considered to be acceptable. The scores and accepting rates of gingival retraction effects among different retraction time were compared and analyzed. Results There are statistical differences of the scores on gingival retraction effects under three types of retraction time ( P <0.05 ). The accepting rates of gingival retraction effects increased as gingival retraction time prolonged. A good accepting rate of gingival retraction effect could be

  17. Alpha particles spectrometer with photodiode PIN; Espectrometro de particulas alfa con fotodiodo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon R, A.; Hernandez V, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 09869 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Direccion General de Innovacion y Tecnologia de Informacion, Av. Heroes de Nacozari Sur 2301, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, 20276 Aguascalientes (Mexico)], e-mail: achruiz@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    The radiation propagates in form of electromagnetic waves or corpuscular radiation; if the radiation energy causes ionization in environment that crosses it is considered ionizing radiation. To detect radiation several detectors types are used, if the radiation are alpha particles are used detectors proportional type or trace elements. In this work the design results, construction and tests of an alpha particles spectrometer are presented, which was designed starting from a photodiode PIN type. The system design was simulated with a code for electronic circuits. With results of simulation phase was constructed the electronic phase that is coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The resulting electronic is evaluated analyzing the electronic circuit performance before an alphas triple source and alpha radiation that produce two smoke detectors of domestic use. On the tests phase we find that the system allows obtain, in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  18. Retraction: Genistein protects genioglossus myocyte against hypoxia-induced injury through PI3K-Akt and ERK MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    RETRACTION: The following article from Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Genistein protects genioglossus myocyte against hypoxia-induced injury through PI3K-Akt and ERK MAPK pathways by Wanghui Ding and Yuehua Liu, posted online on May 19, 2011 in Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Gary S. Stein and Wiley-Liss, Inc. The retraction has been made as authorization to publish was not granted by one of the funding bodies.

  19. Pin1 and neurodegeneration: a new player for prion disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Isopi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that catalyzes the cis/trans conversion of phosphorylated proteins at serine or threonine residues which precede a proline. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerization induces a conformational change of the proteins involved in cell signaling process. Pin1 dysregulation has been associated with some neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Proline-directed phosphorylation is a common regulator of these pathologies and a recent work showed that it is also involved in prion disorders. In fact, prion protein phosphorylation at the Ser-43-Pro motif induces prion protein conversion into a disease-associated form. Furthermore, phosphorylation at Ser-43-Pro has been observed to increase in the cerebral spinal fluid of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease patients. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of prion disorders, suggesting Pin1 as a potential new player in the disease. In this paper, we review the mechanisms underlying Pin1 involvement in the aforementioned neurodegenerative pathologies focusing on the potential role of Pin1 in prion disorders.

  20. Exchange anisotropy pinning of a standing spin-wave mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaraggia, R.; Kennewell, K.; Kostylev, M.; Stamps, R. L.; Ali, M.; Greig, D.; Hickey, B. J.; Marrows, C. H.

    2011-02-01

    Standing spin waves in a thin film are used as sensitive probes of interface pinning induced by an antiferromagnet through exchange anisotropy. Using coplanar waveguide ferromagnetic resonance, pinning of the lowest energy spin-wave thickness mode in Ni80Fe20/Ir25Mn75 exchange-biased bilayers was studied for a range of Ir25Mn75 thicknesses. We show that pinning of the standing mode can be used to amplify, relative to the fundamental resonance, frequency shifts associated with exchange bias. The shifts provide a unique “fingerprint” of the exchange bias and can be interpreted in terms of an effective ferromagnetic film thickness and ferromagnet-antiferromagnet interface anisotropy. Thermal effects are studied for ultrathin antiferromagnetic Ir25Mn75 thicknesses, and the onset of bias is correlated with changes in the pinning fields. The pinning strength magnitude is found to grow with cooling of the sample, while the effective ferromagnetic film thickness simultaneously decreases. These results suggest that exchange bias involves some deformation of magnetic order in the interface region.

  1. Research on the Pin Fin Efficiency and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bailin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of pin fin heat sink can be to measure through the temperature field. The temperature field and efficiency of the Pin Fin were analyzed, Pin fin efficiency curve was drowned also the distribution of the temperature field along the length of the pin fin curve was drawn. Thermal resistance was composed by thermal resistance of Aluminum substrate、 thermal resistance of convective heat transfer and the thermal resistance of the cooling liquid. The change rule was studied through the calculation on Aluminum plate thermal resistance、 thermal resistance of convective heat transfer and the thermal resistance of the cooling liquid. Its change regularity was simulated by toolbox In the MATLAB, and it was found that thermal resistance of convective heat transfer effect on the efficiency was most obvious in a certain amount of the heat and flow for thermal resistance of the Pin-fin radiator under the premise. The structural parameters of radiator were related to the size of thermal resistance.

  2. A Flux-Pinning Mechanism for Segment Assembly and Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other non-contacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  3. Pin1 inhibitor Juglone prevents diabetic vascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Sarah; Paneni, Francesco; Lüscher, Thomas F; Cosentino, Francesco

    2016-01-15

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of mortality in patients with diabetes. However, novel breakthrough therapies have yet to be approved in this setting. Prolyl-isomerase-1 (Pin1) is emerging as a key molecule implicated in vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present study, we investigate whether pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 may protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Experiments were performed in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) exposed to normal (5 mmol/L) or high glucose (25 mmol/L) concentrations, in the presence of Pin1 inhibitor Juglone (10 μM) or vehicle (kB-dependent inflammatory signatures were determined both in HAECs and aortas from diabetic mice. In HAECs, ambient hyperglycemia increased mitochondrial superoxide anion generation while treatment with Juglone prevented this phenomenon. Pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 also preserved mitochondrial integrity, nitric oxide availability and endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. Interestingly enough, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and NF-kB-driven inflammation were significantly attenuated in diabetic mice chronically treated with Juglone as compared to vehicle-treated animals. Pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 by Juglone prevents hyperglycemia-induced vascular dysfunction. Taken together, our findings may set the stage for novel therapeutic approaches to prevent vascular complications in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Posttranslational modification and trafficking of PIN auxin efflux carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfke, Christian; Luschnig, Christian; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms. Both animals and plants use chemicals called hormones for intercellular signaling. However, multicellularity of plants and animals has evolved independently, which led to establishment of distinct strategies in order to cope with variations in an ever-changing environment. The phytohormone auxin is crucial to plant development and patterning. PIN auxin efflux carrier-driven polar auxin transport regulates plant development as it controls asymmetric auxin distribution (auxin gradients), which in turn modulates a wide range of developmental processes. Internal and external cues trigger a number of posttranslational PIN auxin carrier modifications that were demonstrated to decisively influence variations in adaptive growth responses. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the analysis of posttranslational modification of PIN auxin efflux carriers, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, and discuss their eminent role in directional vesicle trafficking, PIN protein de-/stabilization and auxin transport activity. We conclude with updated models, in which we attempt to integrate the mechanistic relevance of posttranslational modifications of PIN auxin carriers for the dynamic nature of plant development.

  5. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  6. 78 FR 27951 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 75-Phoenix, Arizona; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... drilling systems; grinding fixture set; machining tools; hydraulic presses; test equipment fixtures...; de- coupler/disassembly wrenches; torque wrench adaptors; test benches; drills; screwdrivers; retract... drill fixtures; carbide reamers; taper cutters; small wire brushes; bits; grooved pins; position...

  7. Creating Usable Pin Array Tactons for Non-Visual Information

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrzak, Thomas; Stephen, Brewster A; Martin, Benoît; Pecci, Isabelle; 10.1109/TOH.2009.6

    2012-01-01

    Spatial information can be difficult to present to a visually impaired computer user. In this paper we examine a new kind of tactile cueing for non-visual interaction as a potential solution, building on earlier work on vibrotactile Tactons. However, unlike vibrotactile Tactons, we use a pin array to stimulate the finger tip. Here, we describe how to design static and dynamic Tactons by defining their basic components. We then present user tests examining how easy it is to distinguish between different forms of pin array Tactons demonstrating accurate Tacton sets to represent directions. These experiments demonstrate usable patterns for static, wave and blinking pin array Tacton sets for guiding a user in one of eight directions. A study is then described that shows the benefits of structuring Tactons to convey information through multiple parameters of the signal. By using multiple independent parameters for a Tacton, this study demonstrates participants perceive more information through a single Tacton. Two...

  8. Transverse commensurability effect for vortices on periodic pinning arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Using computer simulations, we demonstrate a type of commensurability that occurs for vortices moving longitudinally through periodic pinning arrays in the presence of an additional transverse driving force. As a function of vortex density, there is a series of broad maxima in the transverse critical depinning force that do not fall at the matching fields where the number of vortices equals an integer multiple of the number of pinning sites. The commensurability effects are associated with dynamical states in which evenly spaced structures consisting of one or more moving rows of vortices form between rows of pinning sites. Remarkably, the critical transverse depinning force can be more than an order of magnitude larger than the longitudinal depinning force.

  9. Pinning force scaling of electrospun Bi-2212 nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischka, Michael R.; Gokhfeld, Denis; Chang, Crosby; Hauet, Thomas; Hartmann, Uwe

    2017-09-01

    Flux pinning forces were determined on different network samples of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi-2212) nanowires prepared by the electrospinning technique. We employed magnetization data determined by SQUID magnetometry in a wide temperature range 10 K signal prevails. The scaling analysis of the pinning forces was applied to interprete the data obtained. Both pure and Li-doped Bi2212 nanowire networks exhibit a peak position of h0 ∼ 0.11, which is smaller than the expected value of h0 = 0.2 indicating flux pinning at grain boundaries or extended defects. For the flowing currents through such a network, the crystallographic anisotropy and the percolation play an important role, resulting in reduced peak positions as compared to bulk samples.

  10. Control of flux pinning in MOD YBCO coated conductor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Siegal, E.; Holesinger, T. G.; Maiorov, B.; Civale, L.; Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Li, J.; Martin, P. M.; Specht, E. D.; Goyal, A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; American Superconductor Corp.; LANL; ORNL

    2007-06-01

    NTwo different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  11. Coexistence of Pinning and Moving on a Contact Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengmao; Preston, Daniel J; Antao, Dion S; Zhu, Yangying; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-09-12

    Textured surfaces are instrumental in water repellency or fluid wicking applications, where the pinning and depinning of the liquid-gas interface plays an important role. Previous work showed that a contact line can exhibit nonuniform behavior due to heterogeneities in surface chemistry or roughness. We demonstrate that such nonuniformities can be achieved even without varying the local energy barrier. Around a cylindrical pillar, an interface can reside in an intermediate state where segments of the contact line are pinned to the pillar top while the rest of the contact line moves along the sidewall. This partially pinned mode is due to the global nonaxisymmetric pattern of the surface features and exists for all textured surfaces, especially when superhydrophobic surfaces are about to be flooded or when capillary wicks are close to dryout.

  12. Impact of Edge-Barrier Pinning in Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W. A.; Barnes, P.N.; Mullins, M. J.; Baca, F. J.; Emergo, R. L. S.; Wu, J.; Haugan, T. J.; Clem, J. R.

    2010-12-30

    It has been suggested that edge-barrier pinning might cause the critical current density (J{sub c}) in bridged superconducting films to increase. Subsequent work indicated that this edge-barrier effect does not impact bridges larger than 1 {micro}m. However, we provide a theoretical assessment with supporting experimental data suggesting edge-barrier pinning can significantly enhance J{sub c} for bridges of a few microns or even tens of microns thus skewing any comparisons among institutions. As such, when reporting flux pinning and superconductor processing improvements for J{sub c} comparisons, the width of the sample has to be taken into consideration as is currently done with film thickness.

  13. Self-pinning by colloids confined at a contact line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Byung; Je, Jung

    2013-03-01

    Colloidal particles suspended in a fluid usually inhibit complete wetting of the fluid on a solid surface and cause pinning of the contact line, known as self-pinning. We show differences in spreading and drying behaviors of pure and colloidal droplets using optical and confocal imaging methods. These differences come from spreading inhibition by colloids confined at a contact line. We propose a self-pinning mechanism based on spreading inhibition by colloids. We find a good agreement between the mechanism and the experimental result taken by directly tracking individual colloids near the contact lines of evaporating colloidal droplets. This research was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (Functional X-ray Imaging) of MEST/NRF.

  14. The enhancement of vortex pinning in ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, Marta Z.; Adamus, Z.; Abal' oshev, A.; Abal' osheva, I.; Berkowski, M. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikw 32/46, 02668 Warsaw (Poland); Cheng, X.M.; Sang, Hai; Chien, C.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md 21218 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic-domain induced vortex pinning is studied in the ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers (FSB's), in which the F layers are Co/Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and the S layers are either niobium or high temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO). The magnetization measurements reveal the enhancement of the flux pinning in both types of FSB's during the reversal of the magnetization of the F layer, but the details of the behavior depend on the type of the S layer. In the case of niobium FSB the maximum of pinning appears when the F layer is in the final stage of the magnetic reversal process, while the FSB with YBCO shows the maximum when the F layer is saturated. The possible origins of these differences are discussed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Motion of current filaments in avalanching PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingrong, Ren; Changchun, Chai; Zhenyang, Ma; Yintang, Yang; Liping, Qiao; Chunlei, Shi; Lihua, Ren

    2013-04-01

    The motion of current filaments in avalanching PIN diodes has been investigated in this paper by 2D transient numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the filament can move along the length of the PIN diode back and forth when the self-heating effect is considered. The voltage waveform varies periodically due to the motion of the filament. The filament motion is driven by the temperature gradient in the filament due to the negative temperature dependence of the impact ionization rates. Contrary to the traditional understanding that current filamentation is a potential cause of thermal destruction, it is shown in this paper that the thermally-driven motion of current filaments leads to the homogenization of temperature in the diode and is expected to have a positive influence on the failure threshold of the PIN diode.

  16. Ordered Pinning Arrays with Tunable Geometry via Thermal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.; Malnou, Maxime; Bergeal, Nicolas; Lesueur, Jerome; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo

    2015-03-01

    We have used geometrically frustrated pinning arrays to create artificial vortex-ice. The pinning arrays are fabricated via ion irradiation of high-Tc superconducting films. These arrays present a very unique characteristic: the frustration can be reversibly switched on/off using temperature as a control knob, which allows stabilizing either a vortex-ice or a square vortex lattice. We have further investigated the thermal switching mechanism by studying the matching of the flux lattice to arrays that are incrementally deformed upon fabrication by introducing minute variations of the distance between pins. The array deformation exacerbates the thermal effects, leading to dramatic variations of the vortex distribution as a function of temperature. These results illustrate the strength of the temperature-induced reconfiguration effects, which may constitute a novel knob in fluxtronic devices based on vortex manipulation. Work supported by the French ANR MASTHER, the COST Action NanoSC, the Ville de Paris and the Galician Fundacion Barrie.

  17. The minimally invasive, orbicularis-sparing, lower eyelid recession for mild to moderate lower eyelid retraction with reduced orbicularis strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donald B; Griffin, Garrett R; Azizzadeh, Babak; Massry, Guy G

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Identifying a procedure to address lower eyelid retraction (LER) in the presence of an orbicularis deficit is a useful tool for aesthetic and reconstructive eyelid surgery. OBJECTIVE To describe and evaluate a surgical technique consisting of a closed canthal suspension and true lower eyelid retractor recession to address LER in the setting of orbicularis weakness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective medical record review of patients who underwent the minimally invasive, orbicularis-sparing, lower eyelid recession from January 1, 2010, to October 1, 2012, by one of us (G.G.M.) in an ophthalmic plastic surgical practice. We included 29 patients with reduced orbicularis strength and LER resulting from eyelid paresis related to facial nerve disease, surgical trauma (after blepharoplasty), involutional change, or idiopathic causes. INTERVENTIONS Surgical intervention consisting of closed canthal suspension and lower eyelid retractor recession. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Surgical results, complications, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS The 29 patients included 18 women and 11 men. The mean patient age was 52 (range, 6-72) years; mean follow-up, 11 (range, 6-21) months; and mean preoperative orbicularis strength, 2.7 (on a scale of 0-4, where 0 indicates no function and 4, normal function). The causes of orbicularis weakness included eyelid paresis related to facial nerve disease (11 patients), surgical trauma (13 patients), involutional change (4 patients), and an isolated idiopathic finding (1 patient). In 12 patients, the eyelid retraction was unilateral; in 17, bilateral. A small tarsorrhaphy was added to the surgery in 6 patients with facial nerve disease. The mean eyelid elevation after surgery was 1.80 mm, with only minor complications. Patient and surgeon satisfaction were high. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Recent publications have demonstrated the utility of closed canthal suspension and true lower eyelid retractor recession as separate

  18. A retrospective analysis of the trend of retracted publications in the field of biomedical and life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2011-09-01

    Among the many forms of research misconduct, publishing fraudulent data is considered to be serious where the confidence and validity of the research is detrimentally undermined. In this study, the trend of 303 retracted publications from 44 authors (with more than three retracted publications each) was analysed. The results showed that only 6.60% of the retracted publications were single-authored and the discovery of fraudulent publications had reduced from 52.24 months (those published before the year 2000) to 33.23 months (those published on the year 2000 and onwards). It appears that with the widely accessible public databases like PubMed, fraudulent publications can be detected more easily. The different approaches adopted by authors who had previous publications retracted are also discussed herein.

  19. Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan

    2015-07-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.

  20. Evaluation of stresses caused by dentin pin with finite elements stress analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, E

    2000-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to show the dimensions and the amount of stresses caused by pins on dentin. Mathematically modelled stainless steel and titanium pins were applied to mandibular first molar teeth with extensive crown destruction. The stress caused by the pins was examined with the finite elements method (FEM). In both types of pin, the maximum diffuse and the dense stress areas were located at the bottom of the pin channel. It is believed that these stresses should be taken into consideration when evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of pin application to teeth with destroyed crowns.

  1. Medical Gas Cylinder with Mismatched Colour and Pin Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The medical gas cylinders have various safety features to prevent the administration of wrong gas to the patient. Most of the features have visual impact (colour, label, markings on the cylinder body except pin index system on the cylinder valve, so error in this feature is difficult to analyze and is highly unpredictable. We had received one such cylinder in our institution where all other features (label, colour, marking pointed to nitrous oxide except the pin index which resembled with that of oxygen

  2. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  3. An open safety pin in the larynx: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S S; Raine, C H; Caldicott, L D; Wade, M J

    1994-03-01

    Inhalation of a foreign body is a serious event. The number of foreign bodies that become impacted in the larynx is small and requires urgent recognition. We describe the case of a six-month-old baby with an impacted open safety pin in the larynx. The sharp end of the safety pin was upwards and had penetrated the anterior end of the left vocal fold. We discuss the management and describe our method of removal of the foreign body. Tracheostomy was not required in this case and the child had an uneventful recovery. A brief review of the literature is included.

  4. Swallowing a safety pin: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benizri, Emmanuel Isaac; Cohen, Charlotte; Bereder, Jean Marc; Rahili, Amine; Benchimol, Daniel

    2012-01-27

    Ingestion of a foreign body is a frequent and well-known medical problem with several diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Usually, ingested foreign bodies pass through the alimentary tract without incident. In some cases, they can be lodged in the appendix and may cause appendicitis. We report a case of a 29-year old woman, suffering from mental illness, with a safety pin lodged in the appendix. Initially, the patient consulted for abdominal pain. After a period of waiting, during which time the foreign body did not move, a colonoscopy was performed but failed to see the safety pin. Then, the patient underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy. Pathological examination showed an ulcerative appendicitis.

  5. Cost and effect of pinning control for network synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Rong; Duan Zhi-Sheng; Chen Guan-Rong

    2009-01-01

    The problem of pinning control for the synchronization of complex dynamical networks is discussed in this paper. A cost function of the controlled network is defined by the feedback gain and the coupling strength of the network. An interesting result is that a lower cost is achieved by using the control scheme of pinning nodes with smaller degrees. Some strict mathematical analyses are presented for achieving a lower cost in the synchronization of different star-shaped various star-shaped networks are performed for verification and illustration.

  6. Establishment of the PIN within the Colombian party system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ortiz López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the legislative elections held in Colombia in 2010 and one of their main results, the establishment of the National Integration Party (PIN. The authors offer an analysis of articles that appeared in printed media, taking into consideration such variables as financing, legal constitution, popular acceptance and settling time. In this way, the authors attempt to demonstrate how the PIN managed to get a place in the political system and what are the consequences of this development, in particular, as the Department of Valle del Cauca is concerned.

  7. Force-State Characterization of Struts Using Pinned Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook D. Ferney

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research effort to study the microgravity dynamics of a truss with pinned joints, a single strut with a single clevis-tang pinned joint was characterized. Experimental data was collected using a force-state mapping technique. The strut was subjected to axial dynamic loads and the response of the strut was measured. The force-state map aids visualization of the strut dynamics. Finite element modeling of the response was explored. An example is presented that uses a method of manual determination of the finite element model parameters. The finite element model results correspond well with the measured strut response.

  8. Development and analysis of superconductors with projected nanostructured pinning centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carlos A.; Rodrigues, D.

    2004-08-01

    The present work has the main objective to study the influence of the proximity effect on the superconducting properties of materials with pinning center dimensions comparable to the coherence length. Artificial Pinning Centers (APC) of Cu(Sn) were introduced into the Nb 3Sn superconducting phase using successive bundlings followed by swaging and wire drawing. Three superconductor wires were produced using the internal tin method. After fabrication, the samples were heat treated to optimize the superconducting phase formation. Microstructural and superconducting characterization of the samples were realized. The results showed the influence of the proximity effect on Tc, Jc and Bc2.

  9. Correlation between exchange bias and pinned interfacial spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohldag, H; Scholl, A; Nolting, F; Arenholz, E; Maat, S; Young, A T; Carey, M; Stöhr, J

    2003-07-04

    Using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we have detected the very interfacial spins that are responsible for the horizontal loop shift in three different exchange bias sandwiches, chosen because of their potential for device applications. The "pinned" uncompensated interfacial spins constitute only a fraction of a monolayer and do not rotate in an external magnetic field since they are tightly locked to the antiferromagnetic lattice. A simple extension of the Meiklejohn and Bean model is proposed to account quantitatively for the exchange bias fields in the three studied systems from the experimentally determined number of pinned moments and their sizes.

  10. Expression of PER, CRY, and TIM genes for the pathological features of colorectal cancer patients [Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wang Y, Cheng YS, Yu G, et al. Expression of PER, CRY, and TIM genes for the pathological features of colorectal cancer patients. OncoTargets and Therapy. 2016;9:1997–2005.Concerns about this paper were raised by a reader. Upon seeking an explanation from the authors we conclude that the content and data in the paper were extensively plagiarized from:Mazzocoli G, Panza A, Valvano MR, et al. Clock Gene Expression Levels and Relationship with Clinical and Pathological Features in Colorectal Cancer Patients. Chronobiology International. 2011;28(10:841–851.Dr Faris Farassati has decided that the paper in OncoTargets and Therapy should be retracted, and the relevant supervisors at the authors institutions are advised of this decision.This Retraction relates to this article   

  11. Retracted: Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, D; Yilmaz, S; Dumani, A; Yoldas, O

    2016-08-01

    The following article from International Endodontic Journal, 'Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial' by D. Bilgili, S. Yilmaz, A. Dumani & O. Yoldas, published online on 29 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief, Prof. Paul Dummer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the corresponding author did not contact the first author who carried out the work before alterations to the article were made prior to submission. This damages the integrity of the work and there are additional concerns over the number of patients and the accuracy of the results and conclusions.

  12. RETRACTED: Effect of F- ions on spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped zinc tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guonian; Zhang, Junjie; Dai, Shixun; Yang, Jianhu; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2005-06-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors, after a reader brought the following to their attention. Reason: The article substantially reproduces parts of articles published by the same authors in the Journal of Luminescence (“Effect of F- ions on physical and spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped TeO2 glasses”, Volume 113, Issues 1-2, Pages 27-32) and the Journal of Alloys and Compounds (“Fluorescence lifetime increase by introduction of F- ions in ytterbium-doped TeO2-based glasses”, Volume 393, Issues 1-2, Pages 279-282). There was also a failure to cite either of these articles. These other articles have also been retracted. This action has been agreed by the Editors of the three journals.

  13. RETRACTED: Complexity of Generating Multi-collisions for MD4 and MD5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Liu, Yang; Pan, Lei

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared on http://www.thi.uni-hannover.de/fileadmin/forschung/arbeiten/knopf-sa.pdf. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  14. RETRACTED: On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Alexis; Cardenas-Avendano, Alejandro; Torres, Daniel Alexdy

    2015-04-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. The authors have plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in Adv. High Energy Physics, P. Nicolini, A. Orlandi, E. Spallucci, The Final Stage of Gravitationally Collapsed Thick Matter Layers, Vol 2013 (2013), Article ID 812084 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/812084. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  15. Retrieval of the retracted flexor tendons for long fingers: New tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahed, K; Moujtahid, M; Nechad, M

    2014-09-01

    Zone II flexor tendon injuries continue to be a challenge for hand surgeons. During the injury event, the tendon ends may retract towards the palm. Retrieval of these lacerated ends can be problematic because the tendon sheath is unstretchable. This demanding surgery requires a precise repair technique where the tendon stumps are handled in an atraumatic manner. Microtrauma to the tendon sheath must be avoided as this can induce adhesions and lead to poor functional outcomes. Several retrieval methods for retracted tendon ends have been described in published studies. In this technical note, we will describe a technical variation that streamlines the surgical procedure and uses commonly available materials. This simple trick makes the procedure easier and avoids having to suture the tendon to the tubing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Retracted: Worst Pattern Of Invasion and occult cervical metastases for oral squamous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Stevens, Todd M; Chiosea, Simion I; Purgina, Bibiana; Carroll, William; Rosenthal, Eben; Morlandt, Anthony; Loree, Thom; Brandwein-Weber, Margaret S

    2017-03-28

    The above article, published online in Wiley Online Library as the Version of Record on March 28, 2017 (doi 10.1002/hed.24754), has been retracted by agreement between the Editor-in-Chief, Ehab Y. Hanna, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed owing to a dispute as to authorship and inclusion of some data in the analysis. Velosa, C., Shi, Q., Stevens, T. M., Chiosea, S. I., Purgina, B., Carroll, W., Rosenthal, E., Morlandt, A., Loree, T. and Brandwein-Weber, M. S. (2017), Worst pattern of invasion and occult cervical metastases for oral squamous carcinoma. Head Neck. doi:10.1002/hed.24754. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1 and agamous-like 24 (AGL24. Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1, a homolog of Pin1At, from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis-acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis. On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  18. "Demographic faultlines: A meta-analysis of the literature": Retraction of Thatcher and Patel (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Reports the retraction of "Demographic faultlines: A meta-analysis of the literature" by Sherry M. B. Thatcher and Pankaj C. Patel (, 2011[Nov], Vol 96[6], 1119-1139). At the request of the editor and in consultation with the American Psychological Association, the article is being retracted. This action is a result of a review by the editor and two additional experts that determined that there are significant errors in Tables 1, 2, and 3 which may affect the overall conclusions of the article. Co-author Pankaj C. Patel led the analysis, and both authors acknowledge that inaccuracies were made. The retraction of this article does not preclude resubmission of a new article that addresses the issues noted in the retraction. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these

  19. H\\"{o}lder continuous retractions and amenable semigroups of uniformly Lipschitzian mappings in Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wiśnicki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that S is a left amenable semitopological semigroup. We prove that if $\\{T_{t}: t \\in S \\}$ is a uniformly k-Lipschitzian semigroup on a bounded closed and convex subset C of a Hilbert space and $k<\\sqrt{2}$, then the set of fixed points of this semigroup is a H\\"{o}lder continuous retract of C. This gives a qualitative complement to the Ishihara-Takahashi fixed point existence theorem.

  20. Retraction pattern of delaminated rotator cuff tears: dual-layer rotator cuff repair

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Sang-Won; Lee, Choon-Key; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Kim, Taegyun; Lee, Su-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been no report to date regarding retraction patterns of delaminated rotator cuff tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and tearing patterns of delamination and repair integrity after the dual-layer repair of delaminated cuff tears. Methods/design A consecutive series of 64 patients with posterosuperior rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from August 2011 to September 2012. Among the patients, 53 who received either dual-l...

  1. Results of Surgery in Patients with type 1 Duane’s Retraction Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Pehlivanoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the results of surgery techniques used in Duane’s retraction syndrome (DRS type 1. Material and Method: 194 DRS cases followed in the department of strabismus were retrospectively investigated. We assessed 58 cases operated for esotropic DRS type 1 in terms of pre- and post-operative deviations in primary position, abnormal head posture (AHP, abduction deficiency, globe retraction, and up-down shoot. The cases were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical technique applied. The mean follow-up period was 22.4±4.6 (1-13 years months. Results: The cases in group 1 had undergone uni- or bilateral medial rectus (MR recession, and the postoperative 1stmonth improvement rates for distance deviation, near deviation and AHP were 68.6%, 73.9% and 50%, respectively. These rates were 69.3%, 64.7% and 57.1%, respectively in group 2 which consisted of eyes that had undergone vertical rectus muscle transposition (VRT surgery. In group 3, in which we had performed Y-split (with or without LR/MR recession surgery, the improvement rates for distance and near deviation were 63.6% and 63.9%, and 50% was determined for AHP. The improvement in globe retraction was 60% in group 1 and 66.6% in group 3. Discussion: Medial rectus muscle recession was more effective for correction of deviation and AHP in cases of DRS type 1. VRT was found to be more effective surgical option in abduction deficiency. Y-split surgery has an important place in eliminating globe retraction and up/down shoot. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 156-63

  2. RETRACTED: Bosentan attenuates cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice without affecting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Yun-Dai; Li, Min; Zhou, Fei-Hu; Xu, Yong; Wang, Guang-Yi; Li, Tian-De; Xing, You-Hong

    2015-12-01

    At the request of the authors, 'Bosentan attenuates cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice without affecting blood glucose' Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, published ahead of print August 15, 2011 as doi: 10.1177/1470320311417274 has been retracted. This is due to mistakes in the published data at Figure 3. For clarification: this problem came to the attention of Bo Yang only after publication in the journal. Bo Yang immediately brought it to the attention of the Journal.

  3. Kinematic analysis of the lower cervical spine in the protracted and retracted neck flexion positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze lower cervical spine kinematics in protracted and retracted neck flexion positions in healthy people. [Subjects and Methods] The craniovertebral angle (CVA) and intervertebral body angles of the lower cervical spine of 10 healthy individuals were analyzed using fluoroscopy in a neutral sitting with the head in the neutral (N), protracted (Pro), and retracted (Ret) positions and with the neck in full flexion with the head in the neutral (N-fx), protracted (Pro-fx), and retracted (Ret-fx) positions. [Results] There were significant differences in the CVA and intervertebral body angle at the C3-4 level, and the Ret position showed the highest values followed by the N and Pro positions. Regarding the intervertebral body angle at the C4-5 level, the Pro position showed a higher value than the N and Ret positions. At the C6-7 level, the Pro position showed the lowest value compared with the N and Ret positions. In the CVA, the Ret-fx position showed a higher value than the N-fx and Ret-fx positions. [Conclusion] The results suggest that in the neutral sitting position, protraction is an ineffective posture due to overstress of the C6-7 segment, which is placed in a hyperflexed position at this level. Instead, retraction is the recommend posture for the patient with C6-7 degeneration, which makes for a more flexed position in the upper cervical spine and a less flexed position in the lower cervical spine.

  4. RETRACTED: Effect of Aspergillus Fumigatus sensitization and colonization on lung function and airways inflammation in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2012-10-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief upon the conclusion of the Editorial Board Committee, which has confirmed that this article has been plagiarized. The content of this article has been originally published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 182, No. 11 (2010, pp. 1362–1368. DOI:10.1164/rccm.201001-0087OC

  5. RETRACTION (G' / G)-expansion method equivalent to the extended tanh-function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wakil, S. A.; Abdou, M. A.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Hendi, A.; Abdelwahed, H. G.

    2010-10-01

    This paper has been formally retracted on ethical grounds due to the similarity in content, presentation and style to another article published by Liu Chun-Ping in the journal Communications in Theoretical Physics (Chun-Ping 2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 51 985). It is unfortunate that this was not detected before going to press. Our thanks go to the original author for bringing this fact to our attention. Corrections were made to this article on 22 October 2010.

  6. 不同排龈药物的排龈效果观察%The retractive effects of different gingival retraction agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云枝; 曾晓华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the retractive effects of different gingival retraction agents. Methods Thirty subjects with healthy gingival conditions were recruited to the trial, and the buccal gingival sulcns of the hibateral first max-illary premolars of each subject (n=60) were treated randomly with one of the six agents-Group A was tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride, Group B was oxymetazoline hydrochloride, Group C was epinephrine hydrochlorid, Group D was AlCl3, Group E was Fe2 (S04)3, and Group F was normal saline as control. Both pre-treated and post-treated accurate impressions of buccal gingival sulcus of the experimental teeth were made, so were the anhydrite casts. The casts of experimental teeth were sectioned into 2 mm slices bucco-lingually at the buccal eminence. Then the width of the sulcus was measured as the distance from the tooth to the crest of the gingival under a low-power microscope to compare the effect of these giagival retraction agents. Results The width of gingival sulcus became larger after the treatment in all groups(P<0.05). Either Group A or Group B had greater gingival retraction effects than Group C and Group F (P<0.05). Except Group F, both Group D and Group E had no significant differences from the other groups (P>0.05). There was no statistically signification between Group D and Group E (P>0.05), neither was there any statistically significance between Group A and Group B (P>0.05). Conclusion Tetrahydrozoline manifested excellent effect of gingival retraction.%目的 观察不同排龈药物的排龈效果.方法选择30例志愿者的双侧上颌第一前磨牙(共60颗)作为研究牙齿,随机分成A~F共6组,分别使用含不同排龈药物的排龈线进行颊侧排龈处理.A组为盐酸四氢唑啉,B组为盐酸羟甲唑啉组,C组为盐酸肾上腺素,D组为氯化铝,E组为硫酸铁,F组为生理盐水.于排龈前后分别精确取模,获得排龈牙颊侧龈沟的清晰印模,在硬石膏模型上沿牙冠长轴

  7. RETRACTED: Vegetation analysis of Wadi Al-Jufair, a hyper-arid region in Najd, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatar, Abdulrahman; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.; Thomas, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and Author. Data processing errors have resulted in misleading conclusions. The scientific community in King Saud University has serious concerns regarding the results and the article will be resubmitted for publication after reprocessing of the data. PMID:23961161

  8. On the development of a strength prediction methodology for fibre metal laminates in pin bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimbalis, Peter Panagiotis

    The development of Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs) for application into aerospace structures represents a paradigm shift in airframe and material technology. By consolidating both monolithic metallic alloys and fibre reinforced composite layers, a new material structure is born exhibiting desired qualities emerging from its heterogeneous constituency. When mechanically fastened via pins, bolts and rivets, these laminated materials develop damage and ultimately fail via mechanisms that were not entirely understood and different than either their metallic or composite constituents. The development of a predictive methodology capable of characterizing how FMLs fastened with pins behave and fail would drastically reduce the amount of experimentation necessary for material qualification and be an invaluable design tool. The body of this thesis discusses the extension of the characteristic dimension approach to FMLs and the subsequent development of a new failure mechanism as part of a progressive damage finite element (FE) modeling methodology with yielding, delamination and buckling representing the central tenets of the new mechanism. This yielding through delamination buckling (YDB) mechanism and progressive FE model were investigated through multiple experimental studies. The experimental investigations required the development of a protocol with emphasis on measuring deformation on a local scheme in addition to a global one. With the extended protocol employed, complete characterization of the material response was possible and a new definition for yield in a pin bearing configuration was developed and subsequently extended to a tensile testing configuration. The performance of this yield definition was compared directly to existing definitions and was shown to be effective in both quasi-isotropic and orthotropic materials. The results of the experiments and FE simulations demonstrated that yielding (according to the new definition), buckling and delamination

  9. Increased damping of natural rubber stocks from prior elongation-retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Edwin R.

    1995-05-01

    The effects of elongation on the audiofrequency dynamic mechanical properties of a natural rubber (Hevea) gum stock have been described previously in terms of the elastic (J') and the viscous (J') components of a complex shear compliance, J* equals J' - iJ'. In this prior work emphasis was on the changes in compliance levels and the frequency dependencies of the elastic and viscous components at static elongations from 0 to 400%, and after retractions to elongations below 300%. At elongations above 300%, several large, sharp resonances appeared in the compliance-frequency plots coincident with the well known stretch-induced, oriented crystallinity above 300% elongation for the initially amorphous rubber at room temperatures. In the present work attention is on the loss tangent, J'/J', which governs vibration damping, and for which no data were given in the earlier report. After extensions to 400%, as described above, followed by retraction to 275%, for example, values of loss tangent were two or three times those found at any of the first elongations from 0 to 400%. Current measurements using an automated measurement system yield similar results. Additional information on the effect of time at an elongation and the elongation-retraction sequence on enhanced damping has also been gathered. In any case, it is evident that natural rubber gum stocks, ordinarily with low damping, when treated smartly can be changed to high damping materials at some audio frequencies.

  10. Intraluminal magnetisation of bowel by ferromagnetic particles for retraction and manipulation by magnetic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; André, P; McLean, D; Brown, S I; Florence, G J; Cuschieri, A

    2014-11-01

    Feasibility studies are needed to demonstrate that safe and effective manipulation of bowel during Minimal Access Surgery (MAS) can be obtained by use of magnetic force. This paper characterises two classes of magnetic particles: stainless steel microparticles (SS-μPs) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-nPs) in terms of their magnetisation, chemical composition, crystallinity, morphology and size distribution. Both magnetic particles were dispersed in a high viscosity biological liquid for intraluminal injection of bowel. Ex vivo porcine bowel segments were then retracted by permanent magnetic probes of 5.0 and 10mm diameter. Strong retraction forces reaching 6N maximum were obtained by magnetic fluid based on dispersion of SS-μPs. In contrast, the IO-nP-based magnetic liquid generated less attraction force, due to both lower magnetic and solution properties of the IO-nPs. The comparison of the two particles allowed the identification of the rules to engineer the next generation of particles. The results with SS-μPs provide proof on concept that intraluminal injection of magnetic fluid can generate sufficient force for efficient bowel retraction. Thereafter we shall carry out in vivo animal studies for efficacy and safety of both types of ferrofluids.

  11. Comparison of temporary anchorage devices and transpalatal arch-mediated anchorage reinforcement during canine retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecik, Defne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the dental and skeletal effects of canine retraction using conventional anchorage reinforcement systems and comparing them with the usage of TADs. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 50 patients having Class I malocclusions with bimaxillary protrusion indicated for first premolar extraction, and allocated into two groups. The first group consisted of 25 patients with a mean age of 18,7 years (min:14, max:22 years, 16 girls and 9 boys) that TADs were applied as an anchorage mechanic between attached gingiva of upper second premolar and first molar teeth. The second group consisted of 25 patients with a mean age of 19,4 years (min:15, max:23 years, 14 girls and 11 boys) that conventional molar anchorage with Transpalatal arch (TPA) was applied for the anchorage mechanics against canine retraction. Results: The results showed that mean mesial movement and the tipping of the first molars in TAD group between T0 - T1 were insignificant (P > 0,05), however in the TPA group were significant (P0,05). Conclusion: Although TPA is a useful appliance, it doesn't provide an effective anchorage control on anteroposterior movement maxillary first molar teeth concerning first premolar extraction treatment. TADs are more convenient to provide absolute anchorage during maxillary canine retraction in contrast to transpalatal arch. PMID:28042267

  12. Hounsfield Unit Change in Root and Alveolar Bone during Canine Retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feifei; Liu, Sean Y.; Xia, Zeyang; Li, Shuning; Chen, Jie; Kula, Katherine S.; Eckert, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the Hounsfield unit (HU) changes in the alveolar bone and root surface during controlled canine retractions. Methods Eighteen maxillary canine retraction patients were selected for this split mouth design clinical trial. The canines in each patient were randomly assigned to receive either translation or controlled tipping treatment strategy. Pre- and post-treatment cone beam computed tomography scans of each patient were used to determine tooth movement direction and HU changes. The alveolar bone and root surface were divided into 108 divisions, respectively. The HU in each division was measured. The Mixed-model ANOVA was applied to test the HU change distribution at the p<0.05 significant level. Results The HU changes varied with the directions relative to the canine movement. The HU reduction occurred at the root surface. Larger reductions occurred in the divisions that were perpendicular to the moving direction. However, HU decreased in the alveolar bone in the moving direction. The highest HU reduction was at the coronal level. Conclusions HU reduction occurs on the root surface in the direction perpendicular to the tooth movement and in the alveolar bone in the direction of tooth movement when a canine is retracted. PMID:25836004

  13. Effects of intrusion combined with anterior retraction on apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Décio Rodrigues; Tibola, Douglas; Janson, Guilherme; Maria, Fábio Rogério Torres

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of intrusion mechanics combined with anterior retraction on root resorption of the maxillary incisors. A sample of 56 patients was divided into two groups: group 1 comprised 28 patients (12 females and 16 males), presenting with an increased overjet and deep overbite (6.48 and 4.78 mm, respectively) treated with reverse curve of Spee intrusion mechanics and group 2 comprised 28 patients (12 females and 16 males) with an increased overjet of 5.67 mm and a normal overbite of 1.12 mm. The initial mean ages for groups 1 and 2 were 13.41 and 13.27 years, respectively. Pre- (T1) and post- (T2) treatment periapical radiographs were used to evaluate root resorption. The groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation between root resorption and tooth movement was investigated with Spearman's correlation coefficient. The subjects in group 1 had statistically greater root resorption (P resorption (r = 0.324 and r = 0.320, respectively). The combination of anterior retraction with intrusive mechanics causes more root resorption than anterior retraction of the maxillary incisors alone.

  14. Assessment of pin-by-pin fission rate distribution within MOX/UO{sub 2} fuel assembly using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Heba Kareem; Amin, Esmat [Nuclear and Radiological Regulation Authority (NRRA), Cairo (Egypt). Safety Engineering Dept.

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the present paper is to assess the calculations of pin-by-pin group integrated fission rates within MOX/UO{sub 2} Fuel assemblies using the Monte Carlo code MCNP2.7c with two sets of the available latest nuclear data libraries used for calculating MOX-fueled systems. The data that are used in this paper are based on the benchmark by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). The k{sub ∞} and absorption/fission reaction rates per isotope, k{sub eff} and pin-by-pin group integrated fission rates on 1/8 fraction of the geometry are determined. To assess the overall pin-by-pin fission rate distribution, the collective per cent error measures were investigated. The results of AVG, MRE and RMS error measures were less than 1 % error. The present results are compared with other participants using other Monte Carlo codes and with CEA results that were taken in the benchmark as reference. The results with ENDF/B-VI.6 are close to the results received by MVP (JENDL3.2) and SCALE 4.2 (JEF2.2). The results with ENDF/BVII.1 give higher values of k{sub ∞} reflecting the changes in the newer evaluations. In almost all results presented here, the MCNP calculated results with ENDF/B VII.1 should be considered more than those obtained by using other Monte Carlo codes and nuclear data libraries. The present calculations may be consider a reference for evaluating the numerical schemes in production code systems, as well as the global performance including cross-section data reduction methods as the calculations used continuous energy and no geometrical approximations.

  15. The Vibrio cholerae Minor Pilin TcpB Initiates Assembly and Retraction of the Toxin-Coregulated Pilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harn, Tony; Spielman, Ingrid; Gao, Yang; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Biais, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Type IV pilus (T4P) systems are complex molecular machines that polymerize major pilin proteins into thin filaments displayed on bacterial surfaces. Pilus functions require rapid extension and depolymerization of the pilus, powered by the assembly and retraction ATPases, respectively. A set of low abundance minor pilins influences pilus dynamics by unknown mechanisms. The Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) is among the simplest of the T4P systems, having a single minor pilin TcpB and lacking a retraction ATPase. Here we show that TcpB, like its homolog CofB, initiates pilus assembly. TcpB co-localizes with the pili but at extremely low levels, equivalent to one subunit per pilus. We used a micropillars assay to demonstrate that TCP are retractile despite the absence of a retraction ATPase, and that retraction relies on TcpB, as a V. cholerae tcpB Glu5Val mutant is fully piliated but does not induce micropillars movements. This mutant is impaired in TCP-mediated autoagglutination and TcpF secretion, consistent with retraction being required for these functions. We propose that TcpB initiates pilus retraction by incorporating into the growing pilus in a Glu5-dependent manner, which stalls assembly and triggers processive disassembly. These results provide a framework for understanding filament dynamics in more complex T4P systems and the closely related Type II secretion system. PMID:27992883

  16. To evaluate the use of modified power arm [Discopender 468] for efficient anterior teeth retraction - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavathi Patil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many new bracket prescriptions and Techniques have been developed and modified as treatment mechanics progress to create force system that can work efficiently and shorten the orthodontic treatment period. Aim of this study was to evaluate the use of modified power arm [Discopender 468] for efficient anterior Teeth retraction, to determine anchorage loss and upper incisor changes after space closure. Material & Method: Ten patients of class II division1were selected to need maxillary first premolars was extracted and the retraction of anterior teeth was carried out segmentally by using discopender468 which applies variable force with respect to height of power arm. To prevent anchor loss during anterior retraction we have placed the mini implant screw mesial to 1stmolar bilaterally in maxillary arch. Pre and post lateral cephalograms were taken to determine the anchorage loss and upper incisor changes. Result and Conclusion: Anterior retraction carried out by a new design of discopender 468 and minim plant brings out controlled bodily tooth movement and also has variable force vectors, which is one of the variable method to use for retraction in Straight Wire Appliance in day to day orthodontic practices and also has advantage over conventional retraction mechanics.

  17. The Vibrio cholerae Minor Pilin TcpB Initiates Assembly and Retraction of the Toxin-Coregulated Pilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon Ng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Type IV pilus (T4P systems are complex molecular machines that polymerize major pilin proteins into thin filaments displayed on bacterial surfaces. Pilus functions require rapid extension and depolymerization of the pilus, powered by the assembly and retraction ATPases, respectively. A set of low abundance minor pilins influences pilus dynamics by unknown mechanisms. The Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP is among the simplest of the T4P systems, having a single minor pilin TcpB and lacking a retraction ATPase. Here we show that TcpB, like its homolog CofB, initiates pilus assembly. TcpB co-localizes with the pili but at extremely low levels, equivalent to one subunit per pilus. We used a micropillars assay to demonstrate that TCP are retractile despite the absence of a retraction ATPase, and that retraction relies on TcpB, as a V. cholerae tcpB Glu5Val mutant is fully piliated but does not induce micropillars movements. This mutant is impaired in TCP-mediated autoagglutination and TcpF secretion, consistent with retraction being required for these functions. We propose that TcpB initiates pilus retraction by incorporating into the growing pilus in a Glu5-dependent manner, which stalls assembly and triggers processive disassembly. These results provide a framework for understanding filament dynamics in more complex T4P systems and the closely related Type II secretion system.

  18. Mechanobiology of Platelets: Techniques to Study the Role of Fluid Flow and Platelet Retraction Forces at the Micro- and Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Sniadecki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation involves a complex set of events that are important in maintaining hemostasis. Biochemical interactions are classically known to regulate the hemostatic process, but recent evidence has revealed that mechanical interactions between platelets and their surroundings can also play a substantial role. Investigations into platelet mechanobiology have been challenging however, due to the small dimensions of platelets and their glycoprotein receptors. Platelet researchers have recently turned to microfabricated devices to control these physical, nanometer-scale interactions with a higher degree of precision. These approaches have enabled exciting, new insights into the molecular and biomechanical factors that affect platelets in clot formation. In this review, we highlight the new tools used to understand platelet mechanobiology and the roles of adhesion, shear flow, and retraction forces in clot formation.

  19. Mechanobiology of platelets: techniques to study the role of fluid flow and platelet retraction forces at the micro- and nano-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feghhi, Shirin; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation involves a complex set of events that are important in maintaining hemostasis. Biochemical interactions are classically known to regulate the hemostatic process, but recent evidence has revealed that mechanical interactions between platelets and their surroundings can also play a substantial role. Investigations into platelet mechanobiology have been challenging however, due to the small dimensions of platelets and their glycoprotein receptors. Platelet researchers have recently turned to microfabricated devices to control these physical, nanometer-scale interactions with a higher degree of precision. These approaches have enabled exciting, new insights into the molecular and biomechanical factors that affect platelets in clot formation. In this review, we highlight the new tools used to understand platelet mechanobiology and the roles of adhesion, shear flow, and retraction forces in clot formation.

  20. The influence of the repetition rate on the nanosecond pulsed pin-to-pin microdischarges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bang-Dou; Takashima, Keisuke; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2014-10-01

    The effect of repetition rate on a nanosecond atmospheric pressure discharge is investigated. The discharge is generated between two pins in a mixture of Ne and Ar. The voltage, current, power waveforms and the temporally and spatially resolved electron density and an ‘effective’ electron temperature are measured, with a pulse interval between 1.5 and 200 µs. It is found that not only does the repetition rate have a strong influence on the breakdown voltage and the peak discharge power, but it can also affect the rise rate of the volume averaged electron density and its peak value. Temporally and spatially resolved measurement of the electron density and the effective electron temperature show that the spatial distributions of both quantities are also influenced by the repetition rate. In the initial discharge period of all cases, the sharp rise of the electron density correlates with the drastic drop of the effective electron temperature. It is suggested that the residual charges have a strong impact on the axial distribution of the electric field and energetic electrons between the electrodes during the breakdown period, as illustrated by a simple sheath model.

  1. Evaluation of PWR and BWR pin cell benchmark results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlgroms, B.J.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Leege, P.F.A. de (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)); Voet, J. van der (Gemeenschappelijke Kernenergiecentrale Nederland NV, Dodewaard (Netherlands)); Verhagen, F.C.M. (Keuring van Electrotechnische Materialen NV, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1991-12-01

    Benchmark results of the Dutch PINK working group on PWR and BWR pin cell calculational benchmark as defined by EPRI are presented and evaluated. The observed discrepancies are problem dependent: a part of the results is satisfactory, some other results require further analysis. A brief overview is given of the different code packages used in this analysis. (author). 14 refs., 9 figs., 30 tabs.

  2. BetterThanPin: Empowering Users to Fight Phishing (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teik Guan

    The BetterThanPin concept is an online security service that allows users to enable almost any Cloud or Web-based account (e.g. Gmail, MSN, Yahoo, etc) to be protected with "almost" 2-factor authentication (2FA). The result is that users can now protect their online accounts with better authentication, without waiting for the service or cloud provider.

  3. Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd

    2014-04-01

    Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%.

  4. Safety pin - The UNSAFE foreign body of air passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, K S; Lanjewar, K Y; Joshi, S V

    2006-10-01

    Foreign bodies in the air passage are familiar otolaryngological emergencies. The diagnosis and management in most cases is based on clinico-radiological findings. Here, we are reporting three cases of open safety pin at various locations in the respiratory tract i.e. in the nose, nasopharynx and larynx. Their clinical presentation and management are described in detail.

  5. Pinning an Ion with an Intracavity Optical Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Rasmus Bogh; Leroux, Ian Daniel; Marciante, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    We report one-dimensional pinning of a single ion by an optical lattice. A standing-wave cavity produces the lattice potential along the rf-field-free axis of a linear Paul trap. The ion’s localization is detected by measuring its fluorescence when excited by standing-wave fields with the same...

  6. Spectrometry and dosimetry of fast neutrons using pin diode detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki Dizaji, H., E-mail: hz.dizaji@znu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, International Imam Khomeini University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasi Davani, F. [Radiation Application Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-21

    Elastic scattering of light nuclei, especially hydrogen, is widely used for detection of fast neutrons. Semiconductor devices based on silicon detectors are frequently used for different radiation detections. In this work, a neutron spectrometer consisting of a pin diode coupled with a polyethylene converter and aluminum degrader layers has been developed. Aluminum layers are used as discriminators of different neutron energies for detectors. The response of the converter–degrader–pin diode configuration, the optimum thickness of the converter and the degrader layers have been extracted using MCNP and SRIM simulation codes. The possibility of using this type of detector for fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry has been investigated. A fairly good agreement was seen between neutron energy spectrum and dose obtained from our configurations and these specifications from an {sup 241}Am–Be neutron source. - Highlights: • Silicon pin diodes are applied to the fast neutron detection. • The technique of converter degrader pin diode is used for spectrometry of fast neutrons. • The method is used for dosimetry of fast neutron.

  7. Pinning synchronization of networked multi-agent systems:spectral analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linying XIANG; Fei CHEN; Guanrong CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Pinning synchronization of a networked multi-agent system with a directed communication topology is investigated from a spectral analysis approach. Some new types of synchronized regions for networked systems with different nonlinear agent dynamics and inner coupling structures are discovered. The eigenvalue distributions of the coupling and control matrices for different types of directed networks are obtained. The effects of the network topology, pinning density and pinning strength on the network synchronizability are examined through extensive numerical simulations. It is shown that the synchronizability of the pinned network can be effectively improved by increasing pinning density and pinning strength for some types of synchronized regions, whereas too large the pinning density and pinning strength will lead to desynchronization for other types. It is found that directed random networks are not always easier to synchronize than directed small-world networks, and a denser eigenvalue distribution may not always imply better synchronizability.

  8. Experimental study on thermal performance of micro pin fin heat sinks with various shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Junye; Li, Gui; Zhao, Xiaobao; Li, Qihe

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a visualization experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of various shapes of micro pin fins, including the circular, ellipse, diamond, square and triangle shape micro pin fin arrays with various equivalent diameters and pin fin density. The influences study of different sizes and shapes of pin fin on Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient have been conducted. The results show that with the increase of the flow rate, the temperature of the bottom of the experimental section decreases. And the Nusselt number of different shapes of micro pin fins increases with the increase of Re. In which, the heat transfer performance of the ellipse shape pin fin appears better among the other shapes of pin fins. However, the higher pin fin of the ellipse shape density leads to a weaker flow performance. Besides, the micro-scale heat transfer correlation between the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number is fitted based on the experimental data.

  9. Increased expression of PIN1 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1, encoded by PIN1 gene with locus in chromosome 19p13, is an enzyme that catalytically induces conformational changes in proteins after phosphorylation on serine or threonine residues preceding proline (pSer/Thr-Pro motifs; in this way, it has an influence on protein interactions and intracellular localizations of proteins. The aim of the study were: 1 an assessment of PIN1 gene expression level in benign and malignant thyroid lesions; 2 the evaluation of possible correlations between gene expression and histopathological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC or tumour size, classified according to TNM classification of primary tumours (in case of PTC only; 3 the estimation of possible relationships between expression of the gene in question and patients' sex or age. Methods Seventy (70 tissue samples were analyzed: 32 cases of PTC, 7 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC, 7 cases of follicular adenoma (FA, and 24 cases of nodular goitre (NG. In real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, two-step RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in an ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System was employed. The PIN1 gene expression level was assessed, calculating the mean relative quantification rate (RQ rate increase for each sample. Results The level of PIN1 gene expression (compared to that in macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue was higher in PTC group than those in FA, MTC and/or NG groups, but the statistical significance was noted for difference between PTC and NG groups only. On the other hand, the differences of RQ rate value between different PTC variants were statistically insignificant. No correlations were found between RQ values and tumour size, as well as between RQ values and patients' sex or age in PTC group. Conclusions The PIN1 gene expression may have - in future - an important meaning in the diagnostics of PTC and in understanding its

  10. Routine radiographs at time of pin removal after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures do not change management: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sumeet; Bloch, Nikki; Cyr, Micaela; Carry, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Radiographs are usually taken on day of pin removal for children treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether radiographs taken at time of pin removal for patients recovering uneventfully alter management. After IRB approval, billing records identified 1213 patients aged 1-10 years who underwent elbow surgery between 2007 and 2013 at our institution for a supracondylar humerus fracture. Of these patients, 389 met inclusion criteria. Clinical charts were reviewed for demographics, operative details, and clinical follow-up, focusing on clinical symptoms present at pin removal. Radiographs taken at time of pin removal and subsequent visits were assessed for healing and fracture alignment. In no case was pin removal delayed based on radiographs. One hundred and nineteen (31 %) patients had radiographs taken following pin removal; in no case was loss of reduction found among these patients. No cases of neurologic or vascular injury, re-fracture, or loss of reduction occurred. Infection occurred in 12 patients (3 %). Pins were kept in place for 23.8 ± 4.4 days. Eighty-six patients (22 %) had additional intervention after pin removal (cast application in all cases). Of 389 patients, 75 (19 %) had no documented reason for extended casting, four (1 %) were extended based on physician evaluation of radiographs, and seven (2 %) were extended for other reasons. Elimination of radiographs at time of pin removal should be considered. If continuing to obtain radiographs at pin removal, we recommend removing pins before taking radiographs to reduce patient fear and anxiety from visualizing percutaneous pins.

  11. Technical pitfalls in a porcine brain retraction model. The impact of brain spatula on the retracted brain tissue in a porcine model: a feasibility study and its technical pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiex, R.; Hans, F.J.; Gilsbach, J.M. [Aachen University, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Krings, T. [Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Sellhaus, B. [Aachen University, Department of Neuropathology, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    We describe technical pitfalls of a porcine brain injury model for identifying primary and secondary pathological sequelae following brain retraction by brain spatula. In 16 anaesthetised male pigs, the right frontal brain was retracted in the interhemispheric fissure by a brain spatulum with varying pressures applied by the gravitational force of weights from 10 to 70 g for a duration of 30 min. The retracted brain tissue was monitored for changes in intracranial pressure and perfusion of the cortex using a Laser Doppler Perfusion Imager (MoorLDI). To evaluate the extent of oedema and cortical contusions, MRI was performed 30 min and 72 h after brain retraction. Following the MR scan, the retracted brain areas were histopathologically assessed using H and E and Fluoro-Jade B staining for neuronal damage. Sinus occlusion occurred in four animals, resulting in bilateral cortical contusions and extensive brain oedema. Retracting the brain with weights of 70 g (n=4) caused extensive oedema on FLAIR images that correlated clinically with a hemiparesis in three animals. Morphologically, an increased number of Fluoro-Jade B-positive neurons were found. A sequential decrease in weights prevented functional deficits in animals. A retraction pressure applied by 10-g weights (n=7) caused a mean rise in intracranial pressure to 4.0{+-}3.1 mm Hg, and a decrement in mean cortical perfusion from 740.8{+-}41.5 to 693.8{+-}72.4 PU/cm2, (P<0.24). A meticulous dissection of the interhemispheric fissure and a reduction of weights to 10 g were found to be mandatory to study the cortical impact caused by brain spatula reproducibly. (orig.)

  12. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH ON GLASS FIBER SANDWICH COMPOSITE BY VARYING Z-PINS PITCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin*, Jeyapratha

    2016-01-01

    This paper ambit to evaluate the flexural strength of glass fiber sandwich panels with varying z-pins pitches. Failure of sandwich panel are delamination and core shear, to minimize the crack propagation, pins are inserted in z-direction, by varying pitches through its thickness. During the insertion of pin, may cause the material some damage. Despite the damage, flexural property does not affected due interpolation of pins. Although the experiment were pull out with a phenomenal results of z...

  13. Conception and modelling of photo-detection pixels. PIN photodiodes conceived in amorphous silicon for particles detection; Conception et modelisation de pixels de photodetection: Photodiodes PIN en silicium amorphe en vue de leurs utilisations comme detecteurs de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negru, R

    2008-06-15

    The research done has revealed that the a-Si:H is a material ideally suited for the detection of particles, while being resistant to radiation. It also has a low manufacturing cost, is compatible with existing technology and can be deposited over large areas. Thus, despite the low local mobility of charges (30 cm{sup 2}/V/s), a-Si:H is a material of particular interest for manufacturing high-energy particle detection pixels. As a consequence of this, we have studied the feasibility of an experimental pixel stacked structure based on a-Si:H as a basic sensor element for an electromagnetic calorimeter. The structure of such a pixel consists of different components. First, a silicon PIN diode in a-Si:H is fabricated, followed by a bias resistor and a decoupling capacitor. Before such a structure is made and in order to optimize its design, it is essential to have an efficient behavioural model of the various components. Thus, our primary goal was to develop a two-dimensional physical model of the PIN diode using the SILVACO finite element calculation software. This a-Si:H PIN diode two-dimensional physical model allowed us to study the problem of crosstalk between pixels in a matrix structure of detectors. In particular, we concentrated on the leakage current and the current generated in the volume between neighbouring pixels. The successful implementation of this model in SPICE ensures its usefulness in other professional simulators and especially its integration into a complete electronic structure (PIN diode, bias resistor, decoupling capacity and low noise amplifier). Thanks to these modelling tools, we were able to simulate PIN diode structures in a-Si:H with different thicknesses and different dimensions. These simulations have allowed us to predict that the thicker structures are relevant to the design of the pixel detectors for high energy physics. Applications in astronomy, medical imaging and the analysis of the failure of silicon integrated circuits, can

  14. New Universal Tribometer as Pin or Ball-on-Disc and Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaleli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains a description of a new Universal Tribometer design which enables simulation of different contact and test types such as pin-on-disc, ball-on-disc and linear reciprocating tests. There are many models of wear Tribometer in the world market. These devices are manufactured by various companies abroad and are imported to our country. Cost of this devices start from 50.000 euros and goes to hundreds of thousands of euros. One of the most commonly used of this device is Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Tribo Test Machine. This wear tester is produced at a low limited cost within the KAP (Scientifical Research Project Coordinator of Yıldız Technical University. The test machine can work including three types of Tribotest rigs (Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate, Pin-on-Disc and Ball-on-Disc. It is designed to operate also at high temperatures up to 500 ˚C. The new piece of equipment allows instrumented tribological testing of piston ring and cylinder liner samples at low and high temperatures and boundary lubrication conditions of any typical gasoline or Diesel engines. Some friction results were shown in boundary lubricating conditions between piston ring and cylinder liner sliding pairs describing Tribotest machine is driven by AC servo motor which is more accurate than DC motor.

  15. Radiocarbon dating of the bronze age bone pins from Eurasian steppe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, Natalia I.; Van der Plicht, Johan; Zazovskaya, Elya P.

    2011-01-01

    Bone catapult and hammer-headed pins played one of very specific roles in funerary offerings in the Bronze Age graves uncovered in the Eurasian Steppes and the North Caucasus. Scholars used different types of pins as key grave offerings for numerous chronological models. For the first time eight pin

  16. Strain tunable light emitting diodes with germanium P-I-N heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Max G; Sanchez Perez, Jose Roberto

    2016-10-18

    Tunable p-i-n diodes comprising Ge heterojunction structures are provided. Also provided are methods for making and using the tunable p-i-n diodes. Tunability is provided by adjusting the tensile strain in the p-i-n heterojunction structure, which enables the diodes to emit radiation over a range of wavelengths.

  17. The PIN family of proteins in potato and their putative role in tuberisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumeliotis, E.; Kloosterman, B.A.; Oortwijn, M.E.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bachem, C.W.B.

    2013-01-01

    The PIN family of trans-membrane proteins mediates auxin efflux throughout the plant and during various phases of plant development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PIN family comprised of 8 members, divided into ‘short’ and ‘long’ PINs according to the length of the hydrophilic domain of the protein.

  18. PIN protein phosphorylation by plant AGC3 kinases and its role in polar auxin transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Polar cell-to-cell transport of plant hormone auxin mediated by plasma membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers generates auxin gradients that provide positional information for various plant developmental processes. The apical-basal polar localization of the PIN proteins that

  19. The PIN family of proteins in potato and their putative role in tuberisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios eRoumeliotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PIN family of trans-membrane proteins mediates auxin efflux throughout the plant and during various phases of plant development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PIN family comprised of 8 members, divided into ‘short’ and ‘long’ PINs according to the length of the hydrophilic domain of the protein. Based on sequence homology using the recently published potato genome sequence (Solanum tuberosum group Phureja we identified ten annotated potato StPIN genes. Mining the publicly available gene expression data, we constructed a catalogue tissue specificity of StPIN gene expression, focusing on the process of tuberization. A total of four StPIN genes exhibited increased expression four days after tuber induction, prior to the onset of stolon swelling. For two PIN genes, StPIN4 and StPIN2, promoter sequences were cloned and fused to the GUS reporter protein to study tissue specificity in more detail. StPIN4 promoter driven GUS staining was detected in the flower stigma, in the flower style, below the ovary and petals, in the root tips, in the vascular tissue of the stolons and in the tuber parenchyma cells. StPIN2 promoter driven GUS staining was detected in flower buds, in the vascular tissue of the swelling stolons and in the storage parenchyma of the growing tubers. Based on our results, we postulate a role for the StPINs in redistributing auxin in the swelling stolon during early events in tuber development.

  20. Impregnation of a glass fibre roving with a polypropylene melt in a pin assisted process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Wevers, E.

    1998-01-01

    The impregnation of a glass fibre bundle with a polypropylene (PP) melt is studied with a pin assisted process. A fibre is pulled over a pin, which is positioned in a chamber filled with a melt. The melt is at atmospheric pressure. The impregnation rate is studied as a function of size of the pin,