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Sample records for retinol-replenished vitamin a-deficient

  1. VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a global problem of public health significance in many ... It is therefore important to know Vitamin A status of. Nigerian ..... Ph D thesis University of Ibadan. Ajaiyeoba AI (1994). Childhood blindness in Nigeria.

  2. Hematopoietic studies in vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R E; Sauberlich, H E; Canham, J E; Wallace, D L; Rucker, R B; Mejia, L A; Mohanram, M

    1978-05-01

    Recent studies of experimental vitamin A deficiency in man led the authors to conclude that anemia may result from lack of vitamin A. A review of numerous nutrition surveys in underdeveloped countries enhanced the suspicion that deficiency of vitamin A does contribute to the prevalence of anemia. Preliminary studies of vitamin A-deficient rats confirmed previous observations that anemia may result from lack of this vitamin. The livers of these animals had very low concentrations of vitamin A but normal or increased concentrations of iron. The finding of anemia is in contrast with other reports that vitamin A deficiency may cause elevated values for hemoglobin and hematocrit. The authors suggest that loss of taste and smell as a result of deficiency may account for refusal of experimental animals to eat and drink enough to prevent inanitation and dehydration. The resulting hemoconcentration may mask the true hematological picture, which is one of anemia.

  3. Vitamin A deficiency Ann Burgess MPH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    Here we describe vitamin A deficiency, future articles will cover other ... Vitamin A occurs mainly as 'retinol' in animal foods and as 'Я-carotene' in plant foods c. .... instil chloramphenicol or tetracycline eye drops (as required 2-3 hourly for 7-10.

  4. Synchronization of the seminiferous epithelium after vitamin A replacement in vitamin A-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; de rooij, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin A replacement on spermatogenesis was studied in mice. Breeding pairs of Cpb-N mice were given a vitamin A-deficient diet for at least 4 wk. The born male mice received the same diet and developed signs of vitamin A deficiency at the age of 14-16 wk. At

  5. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Book cover Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency. Auteur(s) : H.V. Kuhnlein and G.H. Pelto. Maison(s) d'édition : INFDC, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Out of print. 220 pages. e-ISBN : 1552504409. Téléchargez le PDF · Téléchargez ...

  6. Vitamin A deficiency among Moroccan women and children | Nasri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), attributable to an inadequate food intake, constitutes a problem in developing countries. The determination of plasma vitamin A (VA) is a reliable method for assessing VA status of the population. In this context, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has become the ...

  7. Anterior Segment Findings in Vitamin A Deficiency: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangela Rubino

    2015-01-01

    lead to blindness for severe keratomalacia with cornea scarring and perforation or night blindness due to impaired dark adaptation. Conversely, the disease is quite common in developing countries, as a consequence of chronic malnutrition. The correct diagnosis and therapy with prompt vitamin A supplementation avoid blindness. We report a series of 3 local cases with different age and causes for vitamin A deficiency. The diagnostic workup, therapy, and prognosis are discussed.

  8. Vitamin A deficiency in Nigerian children | Ajaiyeoba | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biomedical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Vitamin A deficiency in Nigerian children.

  9. Subclinical vitamin A deficiency in Israeli-Bedouin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, C L; Levy, A; Gorodischer, R; Dagan, R; Deckelbaum, R J; Blaner, W S; Fraser, D

    2004-05-01

    This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of and evaluate risk factors for subclinical vitamin A deficiency in Arab-Bedouin children at age 18 months, followed from birth. Community-based, prospective, cohort study conducted in Rahat, a large Arab-Bedouin township, located near the city of Beer Sheva in the Negev region of southern Israel. Healthy Bedouin infants (n=117) from the township, born at Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC) in Beer Sheva, were randomly recruited at birth. Enrollment was restricted to well infants born weighing >2500 g at birth. More than 15% of the children had serum retinol concentrations below 0.7 micromol/l. Male sex (odds ratio (OR) 4.17 [1.14-15.32], P=0.031), stunting at age 12 months (OR 10.09 [2.00-50.97], P=0.05) and warm season at age 18 months (OR 6.20 [1.36-28.28], P=0.018) were associated with vitamin A deficiency. Maternal education decreased the risk of vitamin A deficiency (OR 0.81 [0.68-0.95], P=0.011). Study results indicate a significant vitamin A deficiency problem among Bedouin children. Deficiency may be prevented by increasing dietary intake of vitamin A, especially during the warm season. Other interventions include preventing and controlling diarrheal diseases in order to avert nutritional stunting, and providing nutritional education to women of childbearing age. This study received financial support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (AI-26497), the US-Israel Bi-national Science Foundation (BSF 90-00257), and the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine (AID/ANE 0158-G-SS-9035-00).

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment Before and After Vitamin Supplementation in a Patient With Vitamin A Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; S?daba, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin A is an essential fat-soluble vitamin important for the function of various body systems. In the eye, vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of visual pigments in photoreceptors. Vitamin A deficiency is a rare condition in the developed countries and might follow bariatric or intestinal bypass surgery. We present the case of a 67-year-old male that complained of visual loss and nyctalopia. Patient had bariatric surgery 15 years before for weight loss. Low serum levels of vi...

  11. VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN AND ASSOCIATED VARIABLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniela Braga; Damiani, Lucas Petri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2018-03-29

    To analyze the variables associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in Brazilian children aged 6 to 59 months, considering a hierarchical model of determination. This is part of the National Survey on Demography and Health of Women and Children, held in 2006. Data analysis included 3,417 children aged from six to 59 months with retinol data. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol Poisson regression analysis were performed, with significance level set at 5%, using a hierarchical model of determination that considered three conglomerates of variables: those linked to the structural processes of community (socioeconomic-demographic variables); to the immediate environment of the child (maternal variables, safety and food consumption); and individual features (biological characteristics of the child). Data were expressed in prevalence ratio (PR). After adjustment for confounding variables, the following remained associated with VAD: living in the Southeast [PR=1,59; 95%CI 1,19-2,17] and Northeast [PR=1,56; 95%CI 1,16-2,15]; in urban area [RP=1,31; 95%CI 1,02-1,72]; and mother aged ≥36 years [RP=2,28; 95%CI 1,37-3,98], the consumption of meat at least once in the last seven days was a protective factor [PR=0,24; 95%CI 0,13-0,42]. The main variables associated with VAD in the country are related to structural processes of society and to the immediate, but not individual, environment of the child.

  12. Vitamin A deficiency and Newcastle disease virus infection in chickens : a model for the study of measles infection in vitamin A-deficient children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most important micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries and usually does not occur as an isolated problem but is almost invariably accompanied by protein-energy malnutrition. Xerophthalmia, the term used for all ocular manifestations of impaired vitamin A

  13. Vitamin A deficiency among children in a periurban South African settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsoudis, A; Mametja, D; Jinabhai, C C; Coovadia, H M

    1993-06-01

    Preschool children (aged 3-6 y) who were living in an informal settlement within metropolitan Durban, South Africa, were assessed for vitamin A status. The serum retinol concentration of 169 children tested was 0.73 +/- 0.26 mumol/L (mean +/- SD). Nine children (5%) had vitamin A deficiency (poor vitamin A status as defined by two abnormal conjunctival specimens. The CIC test was a feasible and reproducible method; however, it correlated poorly with the traditionally accepted serum retinol threshold of deficiency in this population where overt vitamin A deficiency is not prevalent. This survey demonstrated that regardless of the measurement tool, there is a prevalence of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in this typical periurban informal settlement and accordingly we suggest that these children should be targeted for vitamin A-intervention strategies.

  14. Mitogen response of B cells, but not T cells, is impaired in adult vitamin A-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekum, A. M.; Wong Yen Kong, L. R.; Gijbels, M. J.; Tielen, F. J.; Roholl, P. J.; Brouwer, A.; Hendriks, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of vitamin A deficiency on the mitogen response of splenic B and T lymphocytes was determined in adult vitamin A-deficient rats. Female weanling Brown Norway/Billingham-Rijswijk (BN/BiRij) and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semipurified, essentially vitamin A-free diet, which resulted in

  15. Vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female garment factory workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F; Hasan, N; Kabir, Y

    1997-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among adolescent female factory workers in Bangladesh, and examine the association between various factors and vitamin A status. A cross-sectional study. Garment factories in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Three hundred and eighty eight adolescent girls aged 12-19 y from ten garment factories were selected randomly for the present study. Information on socio-economic conditions and usual pattern of dietary intake were obtained by interview. Anthropometric data and blood samples were collected following the interview. By NCHS reference standard, 15.5% of the participants were thin ( 120% Wt/Ht). In about 56%, serum vitamin A level was below the adequate level of 1.05 mumol/l, with 14% having vitamin A deficiency (Bangladesh, although the anthropometric indices suggest that they do not suffer from acute under nutrition. Consumption of DGLV appears to have an important relation with the vitamin A status of these girls.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of vitamin a deficiency among infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) is a major nutritional public health problem among children under-5-years-old in the developing world including Kenya. A community-based cross-sectional survey among 1,630 children (aged 6-23 mos) was undertaken in Western Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to collect ...

  17. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The critical immediate need for vitamin A could be met by periodic high-dose ... Hence, the approach deals with issues of food availability from a perspective not ..... As a general rule, foods boiled in an open container show the greatest losses.

  18. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans cet ouvrage qui s'adresse aux planificateurs du développement et aux étudiants en nutrition, santé publique et anthropologie culturelle humaine, on aborde des enjeux de l'utilisation des sources naturelles d'aliments pour prévenir la carence en vitamine A.

  19. Rural nutrition interventions with indigenous plant foods - a case study of vitamin A deficiency in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, propagation, and introduction of a nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the existing cropping system are presented in this paper as a method of rural nutrition intervention. A case study of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, which is a common tree in Malawi and one of the richest sources of vitamin A and vitamin C compared to the commonly consumed vegetables is presented to address the problem of vitamin A deficiency. After a brief review of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and the efforts to reduce its incidence in Malawi, Moringa is suggested as a potential solution to the problem. A framework for designing nutrition intervention with Moringa is described for actual implementation. It is argued that attempts to identify, document, and encourage the utilization of nutrient-rich indigenous plants could be cost-effective, and a sustainable method of improving the nutritional status of local populations.

  20. Carotenoid status among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Mary V; Palafox, Neal A; Dancheck, Barbara; Ricks, Michelle O; Briand, Kennar; Semba, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Although carotenoids are known to be important dietary sources of vitamin A, there have been few epidemiological studies that have characterized the serum concentrations of major dietary carotenoids among preschool children with vitamin A deficiency. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of serum pro-vitamin A carotenoids (alpha -carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), non-provitamin A carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene), and retinol among 278 children, aged 1-5 y, in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol Marshall Islands have extremely low serum concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids and interventions are needed to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids among Marshallese children.

  1. [Current status of vitamin A deficiency in preschool children in Dongguan, China and the effect of vitamin A on serum ferritin and red blood cell parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Hong; Ni, Ming; Hu, Yuan

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the current status of vitamin A deficiency in preschool children in Dongguan, China, as well as the effect of vitamin A on serum ferritin, red blood cell, and reticulocyte parameters. Cluster sampling was performed from April 2015 to December 2016 to select 2 085 preschool children (3-6 years old) without any disease in Dongguan. Routine blood test, reticulocyte count, serum ferritin measurement, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and vitamin A measurement were performed for all children. The associations of age and sex with vitamin A and serum ferritin concentrations were analyzed. The effect of vitamin A concentration on serum ferritin, red blood cell, and reticulocyte parameters and the effect of reduced iron storage caused by vitamin A deficiency on red blood cell parameters were evaluated. Of the 2 085 children, 140 (6.71%) had reduced iron storage, and 678 (32.52%) had vitamin A deficiency. Among the 678 children with vitamin A deficiency, 647 (95.4%) had subclinical deficiency and 31 (4.6%) had clinical deficiency. There was no significant difference in vitamin A concentration between boys and girls, however girls had a significantly higher serum ferritin concentration than boys (P<0.05). The clinical vitamin A deficiency group had a significantly higher serum ferritin concentration than the subclinical vitamin A deficiency group and the normal group (P<0.05). In cases of vitamin A deficiency, the reduced iron storage group had significant reductions in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin than the normal iron storage group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal vitamin A group, the vitamin A deficiency group had significantly lower hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, absolute reticulocyte count, reticulocyte percentage, and reticulocyte hemoglobin content, as well as a significantly higher mean corpuscular volume (P<0.05). Vitamin A deficiency is prevalent in preschool children

  2. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Vitamin A Deficiency: Two Problems, One Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Eric C; Suchdev, Parminder S; Addiss, David G

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) represent two widely prevalent and often overlapping global health problems. Approximately 75% of countries with moderate or severe VAD are coendemic for STH. We reviewed the literature on the complex relationship between STH and VAD. Treatment for STH significantly increases provitamin A (e.g., β-carotene) levels but is associated with minimal increases in preformed vitamin A (retinol). Interpretation of the data is complicated by variations in STH infection intensity and limitations of vitamin A biomarkers. Despite these challenges, increased coordination of STH and VAD interventions represents an important public health opportunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of bitot's spot in screening for Vitamin A deficiency in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2,905 children between 6 and 71 months of age were selected using a 2 stage stratified sampling method and screened for xerophthalmia using World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria and vitamin a deficiency (VAD) using serum retinol < 20 ìg/dl (low/marginal). Only 33 cases of xerophthalmia were seen ...

  4. Sub clinical vitamin A deficiency and anemia among Vietnamese children less than five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.C.; Ninh, N.X.; Nhien, N.V.; Khoi, H.H.; West, C.E.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of sub clinical vitamin A deficiency and anemia in Vietnamese children. For this, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 40 villages (clus-ters) of four ecological regions in Vietnam during Apr-May 2001. In total 1657 children less than 5

  5. Morphological changes in the tracheal epithelium of guinea pigs in conditions of "marginal" vitamin A deficiency. A light, scanning- and transmission-electron microscopic study under special breeding conditions appropriate to early vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofft, E; Biesalski, H K; Zschaebitz, A; Weiser, H

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out the influence of marginal vitamin A deficiency on morphological structures in the tracheobronchial epithelium in guinea pigs. The tracheobronchial epithelium of animals with vitamin A deficiency (n = 15) and control animals (n = 7), kept under optimal laboratory conditions, was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The cellular ultrastructure was morphometrically analyzed. The height of the respiratory epithelium was slightly increased. The basal cells were arranged in a loose cell band of three to four layers. The quantity of cytofilaments in their cytoplasm was enhanced. Goblet cells were significantly reduced in vitamin A deficiency. There was also a significant decrease in their secretory granules. The number of ciliated cells was almost unchanged. They showed a significant reduction in mitochondria. The kinocilia often contained an atypical structure of the microtubules. Our findings confirm multiple ultrastructural dysplasias in early vitamin A deficiency which may lead to a disturbance of mucociliary clearance.

  6. Herpetic keratouveitis mixed with bilateral Pseudomonas corneal ulcers in vitamin A deficiency

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    Hung-Yuan Hsu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman complained of blurred vision and pain in her right eye for several days. Slit lamp examination revealed a large epithelial defect and disciform stromal edema with ring infiltration in her right cornea. Unfortunately, hypopyon and purulent discharge subsequently developed in both eyes. Herpetic keratouveitis and a superimposed pseudomonas infection were diagnosed. A systemic review on the patient showed malnutrition due to her dietary preference and vegetarianism. After the infection was controlled, bilateral epithelial defects persisted for a long time. We performed amniotic membrane transplantation on both eyes and the clinical status improved with administration of vitamin and protein supplements. Although rare in Taiwan, vitamin A deficiency should be kept in mind when conjunctival and corneal xerosis occurred. Vitamin A supplements are suggested because of the increased susceptibility to infection in patients with this clinical status.

  7. High vitamin A content in some small indigenous fish species in Bangladesh: perspectives for food-based strategies to reduce vitamin A deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, N.; Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette

    2002-01-01

    Recognising the importance of fish in the Bangladeshi diet, the objective of the present study was to screen commonly consumed fish species for vitamin A content to evaluate the potential of fish as a vitamin A source in food-based strategies to combat vitamin A deficiency. Samples of 26 commonly...... (Colisa lalia; an alternative scientific name is Colisa lalius). The vitamin A content in cultured species, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), rui (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was low,...

  8. Moving from efficacy to effectiveness: red palm oil's role in preventing vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amy L; Burns, Jennifer B

    2010-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most widespread nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Hundreds of millions of children and tens of millions of women living in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia are at particularly high risk of the adverse health consequences associated with this largely preventable condition. Red palm oil comes from oil palms that are traditionally grown in tropical regions of West Africa and are now cultivated on a large-scale commercial basis in Southeast Asia. Red palm oil is the richest naturally occurring source of beta-carotene, a carotenoid that the human body can convert into usable vitamin A (retinol). This paper reviews a series of key intervention studies designed to investigate the impact of using red palm oil-based interventions to improve vitamin A status. These included studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America in which red palm oil was used (or proposed for use) (1) as a dietary supplement, (2) as an in-home fortificant, (3) to fortify foods used for distribution in targeted supplementary feeding programs, and (4) to fortify staple food products. Overall, the results suggest that red palm oil is highly efficacious in improving vitamin A status among populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency. The time has come to move beyond trials of biological efficacy and focus on conducting operational research projects, effectiveness trials, and cost-benefit analyses that will help expand the use of red palm oil in areas where it is likely to be well accepted but remains underutilized as a dietary source of provitamin A.

  9. Determinants of vitamin a deficiency in children between 6 months and 2 years of age in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Jørgensen, Mathias Jul

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies Guinea-Bissau as having severe vitamin A deficiency (VAD). To date, no national survey has been conducted. We assessed vitamin A status among children in rural Guinea-Bissau to assess status and identify risk factors for VAD....

  10. Vitamin A deficiency and inflammatory markers among preschool children in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

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    Ricks Michelle O

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exclusion of individuals with elevated acute phase proteins has been advocated in order to improve prevalence estimates of vitamin A deficiency in surveys, but it is unclear whether this will lead to sampling bias. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the exclusion of individuals with elevated acute phase proteins is associated with sampling bias and to characterize inflammation in children with night blindness. Methods In a survey in the Republic of the Marshall Islands involving 281 children, aged 1–5 years, serum retinol, C-reactive protein (CRP, and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP were measured. Results Of 281 children, 24 (8.5% had night blindness and 165 (58.7% had serum retinol 5 mg/L and/or AGP >1000 mg/L. Among children with and without night blindness, the proportion with serum retinol P = 0.03 and with anemia was 58.3% and 35.7% (P = 0.029, respectively. The proportion of children with serum retinol P = 0.016, the proportion of boys was 43.1% vs. 54.3% (P = 0.075, with no hospitalizations in the last year was 11.0% vs 23.6% (P = 0.024, and with anemia was 43.8% vs 31.7% (P = 0.05, respectively. Conclusions Exclusion of children with inflammation in this survey of vitamin A deficiency does not improve prevalence estimates for vitamin A deficiency and instead leads to sampling bias for variables such as age, gender, anemia, and hospitalization history.

  11. Vitamin-A deficiency and its determinants among preschool children: a community based cross-sectional study in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariku, Amare; Fekadu, Abel; Ferede, Ayanaw Tsega; Mekonnen Abebe, Solomon; Adane, Akilew Awoke

    2016-06-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable visual impairments in children. It is also an underlying cause for nearly one-fourth of global child mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and malaria. The limited literature available in Ethiopia shows severe public health significance of vitamin-A deficiency. Hence the aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and factors determining vitamin-A deficiency among preschool children in Dembia District, northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among preschool children of Dembia District from January to February, 2015. A multi-stage sampling, followed by a systematic sampling technique was employed to select study participants. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Using a binary logistic regression model, multivariable analysis was fitted to identify the associated factors of vitamin-A deficiency. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95 % confidence interval was computed to assess the strength of the association, and variables with a p value of preschool children were included in the study, giving a response rate of 96.5 %. The overall prevalence of xerophthalmia was 8.6 %. The result of the multivariable analysis revealed that nonattendance at the antenatal care clinic [AOR 2.65,95 % CI (1.39,5.07)], being male [AOR 1.81, 95 % CI (1.01,3.24)], and in the age group of 49-59 months [AOR 3.00, 95 % CI (1.49,6.02)] were significantly associated with vitamin-A deficiency. Vitamin-A deficiency is a severe public health problem in the study area. Further strengthening antenatal care utilization and giving emphasis to preschool children will help to mitigate vitamin-A deficiency in the study area.

  12. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

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    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  13. Decreasing stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru: results of the Good Start in Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Cornale, Guido; Ugaz, María Elena; Arias, Lena

    2009-03-01

    The rates of stunting, iron-deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru are among the highest in South America. There is little scaled-up experience on how to solve these problems countrywide. To evaluate the Good Start in Life Program during the period from 2000 to 2004. Data on weight, height, hemoglobin, serum retinol, urinary iodine, and age were obtained from children under 3 years of age during two transverse surveys in 2000 and 2004. In 2004, the program covered 75,000 children, 35,000 mothers, and 1 million inhabitants from 223 poor communities. The rate of stunting decreased from 54.1% to 36.9%, the rate of iron-deficiency anemia decreased from 76.0% to 52.3%, and the rate of vitamin A deficiency decreased from 30.4% to 5.3% (p anemia, and vitamin A deficiency at the national scale in Peru and many other countries.

  14. Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency

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    James P. Wirth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A supplementation (VAS programs targeted at children aged 6–59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. To address this data gap and contribute to the debate, we examined data from 82 countries implementing VAS programs, identified other VA programs, and assessed the recentness of national VA deficiency (VAD data. We found that two-thirds of the countries explored either have no VAD data or data that were >10 years old (i.e., measured before 2006, which included twenty countries with VAS coverage ≥70%. Fifty-one VAS programs were implemented in parallel with at least one other VA intervention, and of these, 27 countries either had no VAD data or data collected in 2005 or earlier. To fill these gaps in VAD data, countries implementing VAS and other VA interventions should measure VA status in children at least every 10 years. At the same time, the coverage of VA interventions can also be measured. We identified three countries that have scaled down VAS, but given the lack of VA deficiency data, this would be a premature undertaking in most countries without appropriate status assessment. While the global debate about VAS is important, more attention should be directed towards individual countries where programmatic decisions are made.

  15. Vitamin A deficiency and anemia among children 12-71 months old in Honduras

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    Penelope Nestel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency (VAD and iron deficiency anemia (IDA have been recognized as public health problems in Honduras for over 30 years. This paper, based on the 1996 National Micro nutrient Survey on 1 678 children 12–71 months of age, presents the results for vitamin A status and anemia prevalence, as well as the level of vitamin A in sugar at the household level. The results showed that 14% of the children were subclinically vitamin A deficient (plasma retinol < 20 µg/dL and 32% were at risk of VAD (plasma retinol 20–30 µg/dL. These data indicate that VAD is a moderate public health problem in Honduras. Logistic regression analysis showed that children 12–23 months old living in areas other than the rural south of the country were at greatest risk of subclinical VAD. Infection, indicated by an elevated alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein level, increased the risk of subclinical VAD more than three-fold. Children from households that obtained water from a river, stream, or lake were at twice the risk of subclinical VAD compared with other children. That same doubled risk was found for children from a household with an outside toilet. VAD can be controlled by fortifying sugar. Retinol levels in sugar at the household level were about 50% of those mandated by Honduran law. There appears to be significant leakage of unfortified sugar into the market. This is particularly true in the rural north, where 33% of samples contained no retinol. Overall, 30% of children were anemic (Hb < 11 g/dL. Logistic regression analysis showed that children whose fathers lived with them but who had not attended at least grade 4 of primary school were at 33% greater risk of being anemic. Infection and being underweight increased the risk of being anemic by 51% and 21%, respectively. Many of the anemic children had not been given iron supplements, suggesting health care providers may not be aware that anemia is widespread among young children and/or know how to diagnose it.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of "golden mustard" for treating vitamin A deficiency in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY: Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea, which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23-$50 per DALY averted and $1,000-$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million-6 million more DALYs and 8,000-46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of

  17. Selection of radioresistant cells by vitamin A deficiency in a small cell lung cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Takeo; Shimosato, Yukio; Wada, Makio; Yokota, Jun; Terada, Masaaki

    1990-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of a human small cell lung cancer cell line, Lu-134-B cells, cultured in serum-supplemented medium and of cells transferred to and cultured in delipidized serum-supplemented (vitamin A-deficient) medium was studied. The cells cultured in serum-supplemented medium showed the phenotype of classic small cell lung cancer sensitive to radiation, while cells transferred to delipidized serum-supplemented medium showed partial squamous cell differentiation and became resistant to radiation. These results suggest that some small cell lung cancer cells in vitro change their morphology and radiosensitivity depending on the culture conditions. The change in radiosensitivity was reproducible, and was not reversible by culture of the radioresistant cells in delipidized serum-supplemented medium with addition of retinoic acid (vitamin A-sufficient medium) for two months, although squamous cells disappeared. Acquisition of radioresistancy was considered to occur as the result of clonal selective growth in delipidized medium of a minor cell population in the original cell culture, based on a study of chromosome number. It was also found that there was no association of myc-family oncogenes with the changes of radiosensitivity in this cell line. (author)

  18. Potential contribution of mangoes to reduction of vitamin A deficiency in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoki, Penina N; Makokha, Anselimo O; Onyango, Christine A; Ojijo, Nelson K O

    2009-01-01

    The β-carotene content of fresh and dried mangoes commonly consumed in Kenya was evaluated and converted to retinol equivalent (RE). Mango fruits of varieties Ngowe, Apple, and Tommy Atkins were harvested at mature green, partially ripe, and ripe stages and their β-carotene content analyzed. The stability of β-carotene in sun dried mangoes was also studied over 6 months under usual marketing conditions used in Kenya. The effect of using simple pretreatment methods prior to drying of mango slices on retention of β-carotene was as well evaluated. In amounts acceptable to children and women, fresh and dried mangoes can supply 50% or more of the daily required retinol equivalent for children and women. Stage of ripeness, variety, postharvest holding temperature, method of drying, and storage time of dried mango slices affected β-carotene content and consequently vitamin A value of the fruits. Apple variety grown in Machakos had the highest β-carotene. It exceeded the daily RE requirements by 11.8% and 21.5% for women and children respectively. Fresh or dried mangoes are a significant provitamin A source and should be included in food-based approaches aiming to reduce vitamin A deficiency.

  19. [Prevalence of vitamin a deficiency and anemia in children under five years of age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Jaime; Miranda, Marianella; Zamora, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and nutritional anemia (NA) in children under five in Peru. Cross-sectional study with a stratified and multi-staged probabilistic sample conducted between November 2007 and April 2010.2,736 children were included for NA and 1,465 children for VAD. NA was defined as Hb<11 g/dL.VAD was identified by serum retinol levels <20 µg/dL. Sociodemographic variables related to the child and the mother were studied in addition to their participation in growth control and development programs, integrated nutrition program and supplementation with iron and vitamin A. Analysis of complex samples was performed, descriptive statistics and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals and a significance level of p<0.05 were calculated. The prevalence of VAD was 11.7% (95% CI: 9.4 to 14.4). The highest prevalences were in children under five months (44.6%) and those living in rural areas (19.5%). The prevalence of NA was 33% (95% CI: 29.9 to 36.1) and was higher in children under 11 months (68.2%) and children of mothers aged 13-19 years old (55.4 %). VAD is a public health problem that remains, with the most affected children living in rural areas and in the jungle. The prevalence of NA shows a slight improvement. It is necessary to improve the efficiency and impact of programs that include supplementation of vitamin A and iron.

  20. Prevalence and demographic factors associated with vitamin A deficiency in Colombian children aged 12-59 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Javier; Meneses-Echavéz, José F; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2014-11-01

    To examine the sociodemographic factors associated with subclinical vitamin A deficiency in a representative sample of Colombian children. Subjects and methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey of Colombia (ENSIN 2010) on 4,279 children aged 12 to 59 months. Plasma vitamin A levels were measured using high resolution liquid chromatography (HRLC), and sociodemographic factors (sex, age, ethnicity, SISBEN score, and geographic region) were collected using a structured survey. Prevalence rates and associations were established using a multivariate regression model. Vitamin A levels ranged from 7.5-93.7 μg/dL (mean=26.2; 95% CI, 25.9 to 26.5μg/dL). Vitamin A levels less than 20 μg/dL (subclinical deficiency) were found in 24.3% of children. Children belonging to ethnic groups of African ascent, those living in the Orinoquia and Amazonia regions, and those aged 12-23 months had the greatest subclinical vitamin A deficiencies (29.5%, 31.1%, and 27.6% respectively. Regression models showed that age ranging from 12 and 23 months (OR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.73), a SISBEN score 1 (OR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.34), an African ascent (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.74), and living in the Orinoquia and Amazonia regions (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.62 to 3.51) were factors associated to subclinical vitamin A deficiency. The study population shows a high prevalence of subclinical vitamin A deficiency, and comprehensive interventions involving nutritional and educational components are therefore recommended. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with vitamin A deficiency (VAD in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 546 schoolchildren, aged between 7 and 14 years, of both genders, enrolled in public elementary schools. Blood was collected for measurement of serum retinol. The retinol concentration in the samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Data were collected on anthropometrics, dietary, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Results: Approximately 27.5% of the students had retinol values < 30 μg/dL. The multivariate analysis showed, after the appropriate adjustments, a positive and statistically significant association of moderate/severe VAD (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.17 to 4.10 and marginal VAD (OR = 2.34; 95% CI 1.47 to 3.73 with age < 10 years. There was also association of VAD moderate/severe (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.01 to 5.05 and borderline VAD (OR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.08 to 4.21 with the anthropometric status of underweight. Lower intake of retinol was detected among those with severe VAD. Conclusion: VAD is a health concern among children and adolescents. Lower weight and younger schoolchildren had greater vulnerability to VAD.

  2. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Assegedech

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is known to be a major public health problem among women of reproductive age in South East Asia and Africa. In Ethiopia, there are no studies conducted on serum vitamin A status of HIV-infected pregnant women. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the level of serum vitamin A and VAD among pregnant women with and without HIV infection in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P Conclusion The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection.

  3. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  4. We need studies of the mortality effect of vitamin A supplementation, not surveys of vitamin A deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell

    2017-01-01

    It is usually acknowledged that high‐dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) provides no sustained improvement in vitamin A status, and that the effect of VAS on mortality is more likely linked to its immunomodulating effects. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that we can deduce something about...

  5. High Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in School Age Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty two children aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected from10 out of 33 public primary schools in a Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, to assess their plasma Vitamin A levels. Bessey's spectrophotometric method of ultraviolet destruction of vitamin A was used for determination of their ...

  6. Changes on metabolic parameters induced by acute cannabinoid administration (CBD, THC) in a rat experimental model of nutritional vitamin A deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    El Amrani, Loubna; Porres, Jesus M.; Merzouki, Abderrahmane; Louktibi, Abdelaziz; Aranda, Pilar; Lopez-Jurado, María; Urbano, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vitamin A deficiency can result from malnutrition, malabsorption of vitamin A, impaired vitamin metabolism associated with liver disease, or chronic debilitating diseases like HIV infection or cancer. Background & aims: Cannabis administration has been described as a palliative symptom management therapy in such pathological stages. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effects of acute administration of cannabidiol (CBD) or thetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the levels of ret...

  7. Effect of vitamin A deficiency on permeability of the small intestinal mucosa for macromolecules in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmoshinskii, I.V.; Khvylya, S.I.; Kon', I.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the effect of experimental vitamin A deficiency on absorption of macromolecules of hen's ovalbumin in the intestine. An electron-microscopic study of permeability of small intestine enterocytes for particles of colloidal lanthanum hydroxide La(OH) 3 was carried out at the same time. The concentration of unsplit hen's ovalbumin in the blood of the rats used in the experiment was determined by competitive radioimmunoassay. Samples of serum were incubated with indicator doses of 125 I-OA. Radioactivity of the precipitates was measured

  8. The Alterations in the Expression and Function of P-Glycoprotein in Vitamin A-Deficient Rats as well as the Effect of Drug Disposition in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate whether vitamin A deficiency could alter P-GP expression and function in tissues of rats and whether such effects affected the drug distribution in vivo of vitamin A-deficient rats. We induced vitamin A-deficient rats by giving them a vitamin A-free diet for 12 weeks. Then, Abcb1/P-GP expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that Abcb1a mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus and liver. In kidney, it only showed an upward trend. Abcb1b mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus, but decreased in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. Western blot results were in good accordance with the alterations of Abcb1b mRNA levels. P-GP function was investigated through tissue distribution and body fluid excretion of rhodamine 123 (Rho123, and the results proclaimed that P-GP activities were also in good accordance with P-GP expression in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. The change of drug distribution was also investigated through the tissue distribution of vincristine, and the results showed a significantly upward trend in all indicated tissues of vitamin A-deficient rats. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency may alter Abcb1/P-GP expression and function in rat tissues, and the alterations may increase drug activity/toxicity through the increase of tissue accumulation.

  9. Carotenoids and β-carotene in orange fleshed sweet potato: A possible solution to vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Nusrat, Tania; Begum, Parveen; Ahsan, Monira

    2016-05-15

    The present study, in line with a plant-food-based approach to address vitamin A deficiency, reports the analysis of total carotenoids, and trans- and cis-β-carotenes, in different varieties of raw and boiled orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP). Carotenoids were isolated using acetone-petroleum ether extraction followed by spectrophotometric determination. trans- and cis-β-Carotenes were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC method using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile:methanol:2-propanol in the ratio of 85:15:33 with 0.01% ammonium acetate. Intra-varietal difference in carotenoids as well as trans- and cis-β-carotenes were noted in both the raw and boiled potatoes. Carotenoid content was found to be higher in the raw potatoes compared to the boiled samples from the same variety. Amongst the OFSP varieties, Kamalasundari (BARI SP-2) was found to contain the most carotenoids in both the raw and boiled samples. β-Carotene was significantly higher in the Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 varieties. trans-β-Carotene was found to be the major carotenoid in all of the raw potatoes, but boiling was associated with an increase in cis-β-carotene and a decrease in the trans isomer. Kamalsundari and BARI SP-5 orange-fleshed sweet potatoes have the potential to be used as food-based supplements to reduce vitamin A deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among pre-school and school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate vitamin A status of pre-school and school aged children in the study area. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Arssi, Ethiopia Subjects: Four hundred and two children. Results: Night blindness, Bitots spot, corneal xerosis, corneal ulceration and corneal scar were observed in 7.2%, 2.2 %, 0.2%, 0.5%, ...

  11. Food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency : studies in breastfeeding women in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pee, de S.

    1996-01-01


    Micronutrient deficiencies seriously hinder mental and physical development and are still an important cause of death in developing countries. Therefore, goals have been set worldwide for the year 2000: to eliminate deficiencies of vitamin A and iodine and to reduce prevalence of iron

  12. Potential use of Red Palm Oil in Combating Vitamin A deficiency in India

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    K Manorama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of vitamin A has long been recognized as a serious and preventable nutritional disease.  Various intervention strategies have been implemented to combat the problem.  Massive dosing of the vitamin has the advantage of immediate implementation but suffers from the disadvantage in that it applies to the isolated nutrient and requires repetitive administration. Natural food sources regularly included in diets offer a more viable long term solution. Red palm oil (RPO can emerge as a viable alternative to other vitamin A rich foods, since it contains enormous amounts of natural carotenoids to the tune of around 700 PPM, the predominant ones being a and b carotene which have the highest biological potential for vitamin A conversion.  Value addition of palm oil for edible purposes results in several nutritionally rich products like edible grade red palm oil (RPO, deacidified, deodourised RPOlein, isolated carotenoids and refined, bleached and deodourized palmolein oil RBD palmolein. RBD palmolein oil can serve as a replacement for any other commonly used edible oil, but has little additional advantage over other edible oils, stripped of its carotenoids. However, it’s naturally rich composition of tocopherols and tocotrienols, as well as the balanced fatty acid composition, makes it more superior to other edible oils used for dietary purposes. Addition of RBD palmolein to hydrogenated vegetable oil confers no advantage, and paradoxically, decreases it’s beneficial properties making it a more harmful vegetable oil from the cardiovascular health angle, because of conversion of fatty acids from the cis to trans type.

  13. Vitamin A Deficiency Due to Selective Eating as a Cause of Blindness in a High-Income Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia; Rizzello, Angela; Corsini, Ilaria; Romanin, Benedetta; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Grandi, Sara; Bergamaschi, Rosalba

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin A is a fat-soluble micronutrient involved in the regulation of several physiologic functions, such as visual acuity, epithelial tissue integrity, immune response, and gene expression, thus playing a crucial role in childhood growth and development. Although vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in resource-limited settings is still an actual issue and represents the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, its occurrence in high-income countries is rare, although possibly underdiagnosed because of its nonspecific early manifestations. A good awareness of VAD symptoms and risk factors could aid its early diagnosis, which is fundamental to undertake a prompt treatment and to prevent ocular complications. Nevertheless, the role of restrictive dietary habits, increasingly common in developed countries, is often overlooked in infants and children. We present a case of VAD with permanent ocular sequelae in a 5-year-old girl from a high-income country. In the case described, VAD ensued from a highly restricted diet, mainly limited to oat milk, which had been followed for more than 2 years. This child presented with ocular symptoms, opportunistic infection, anemia, poor growth, and a diffuse squamous metaplasia of the bladder; after commencing retinol supplementation, a gradual healing of clinical VAD manifestations occurred, with the exception of the ocular sequelae, which resulted in irreversible visual loss. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Vitamin A deficiency leads to severe functional disturbance of the intestinal epithelium enzymes associated with diarrhoea and increased bacterial translocation in gnotobiotic rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Hason, L. A.; Štěpánková, Renata; Kahu, H.; Dahlgren, U. I.; Wiedermann, U.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 405-411 ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020101; GA ČR GA303/00/1370 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : vitamin a deficiency * diarroea * septicaemia Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2003

  15. Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep S Chattha

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12 and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10 cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2 and IFNγ (PID6 compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more

  16. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de Freitas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5% preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age.

  17. Relationship between vitamin A deficiency and the thyroid axis in clinically stable patients with liver cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eshmawy, Mervat M; Arafa, Mona M; Elzehery, Rasha R; Elhelaly, Rania M; Elrakhawy, Mohamed M; El-Baiomy, Azza A

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and altered thyroid function are commonly encountered in patients with liver cirrhosis. The link between vitamin A metabolism and thyroid function has been previously identified. The aim of this study was to explore the association between VAD and the thyroid axis in clinically stable patients with cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). One hundred and twelve patients with clinically stable HCV-related cirrhosis and 56 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status were recruited for this study. Vitamin A status, liver function, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), and thyroid volume were evaluated. The prevalence of VAD among patients with HCV-related cirrhosis was 62.5% compared with 5.4% among controls (P vitamin A status: VAD and normal vitamin A. Patients with VAD had significantly lower vitamin A intake and serum albumin and higher serum bilirubin, FT4, FT3, and TSH than patients with normal vitamin A status. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that VAD was associated with Child-Pugh score (β = 0.11, P = 0.05) and TSH (β = -1.63, P = 0.02) independently of confounding variables. We conclude that VAD may be linked to central hyperthyroidism in patients with clinically stable HCV-related liver cirrhosis.

  18. Dietary Intake of Vitamins in Different Options of Treatment in Chronic Kidney Disease: Is There a Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, M; Szupryczyńska, N; Dębska-Ślizień, A; Borek, P; Kaczkan, M; Rutkowski, B; Małgorzewicz, S

    2016-06-01

    The importance of diet in the management of kidney transplantation (KT), as well as other treatment options of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is generally acknowledged. However, data regarding vitamin intake are very limited. Vitamins are essential in maintaining good nutritional status and preventing many chronic complications. It is still not clear which treatment modality imposes the highest risk of dietary vitamin deficiency and whether successful KT reverses such a threat. We performed this observational study to assess dietary intake of vitamins in CKD patients: after successful KT, not yet dialyzed (ND), treated with hemodialysis (HD), and with peritoneal dialysis (PD). A total of 202 patients were recruited (45 KT, 50 ND, 45 HD, and 62 PD). Vitamin intakes were evaluated through the use of a 24-hour dietary recall and processed with the use of a computerized database. Each record was evaluated by a skilled dietitian. In general, vitamin intakes in all study groups were comparable, with KT and ND groups manifesting lower risk of deficiency than HD and PD groups. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in diet was insufficient, with remarkably high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins were close to recommended, with the exception of folic acid, which was profoundly deficient in all groups. CKD patients are at risk of inadequate vitamin intake. Vitamin D and folic acid are universally deficient in diet. KT patients have the most satisfactory content of vitamins in their diet, whereas HD individuals are at highest risk of deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Helping to eliminate vitamin A deficiency disorders using nuclear and related techniques. Report of an IAEA consultants' meeting, 30 November - 2 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting was convened by the IAEA from 30 November to 2 December 1994, and made recommendations on the objectives and strategies of a new Coordinated Research Programme (CRP), ''Helping to Eliminate Vitamin A Deficiency Disorders Using Nuclear and Related Techniques''. The objectives of the CRP will be to i) develop and/or modify isotopic and related techniques for measuring whole body retinol stores and carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion which can be transferred to food-based vitamin A intervention programmes in developing countries; ii) evaluate and improve the sensitivity of commonly used biological, ecological, and dietary indicators of vitamin A status in human populations; iii) formulate model protocols which incorporate isotopic and related techniques in evaluations of intervention programmes, in collaboration with expert nutrition groups (e.g., WHO, FAO, UNICEF, MI, USAID, etc.). Priority will be given to proposals which aim to improve or validate the deuterated retinol dilution method for measuring retinol stores, particularly during pregnancy or during the complementary feeding in young children, and which propose to develop appropriate methods for measuring absorption and the bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids. The production of uniformly-labelled carotenoids is of particular interest but proposals which use extrinsic labels as well as non-isotopic methods will also be considered. The studies should be conducted in developing countries through collaborations via 'twinning' relationships between scientists of developing and industrialized countries. 19 refs, 2 figs

  20. Consequences of revised estimates of carotenoid bioefficacy for dietary control of vitamin A deficiency in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Eilander, A.; Lieshout, van M.

    2002-01-01

    According to existing recommendations of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), the amount of provitamin A in a mixed diet having the same vitamin A activity as 1 ?g of retinol is 6 ?g of ß-carotene or 12 ?g of other provitamin A carotenoids. The efficiency of

  1. The Influence of Iron and Zinc Supplementation on the Bioavailability of Provitamin A Carotenoids from Papaya Following Consumption of a Vitamin A-Deficient Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana-Sop, Marie Modestine; Gouado, Inocent; Achu, Mercy Bih; Van Camp, John; Amvam Zollo, Paul Henri; Schweigert, Florian J; Oberleas, Donald; Ekoe, Tetanye

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies are serious public health problems in Cameroon, as in many developing countries. Local vegetables which are sources of provitamin A carotenoids (PACs) can be used to improve vitamin A intakes. However, traditional meals are often unable to cover zinc and iron needs. The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability of 3 PACs (α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) in young men, who were fed with a vitamin A-free diet and received iron and zinc supplementation. Twelve healthy participants were divided into three groups and were supplemented with elemental iron (20 mg of iron fumarate), 20 mg of zinc sulfate or iron+zinc (20 mg of iron in the morning and 20 mg of zinc in the evening) for 11 d. They were given a vitamin A- and PAC-free diet from the 6th to the 11th day, followed by a test meal containing 0.55 kg of freshly peeled papaya as a source of PACs. Blood samples were collected four times successively on the 11th day (the test meal day), at T0 (just after the test meal), after 2 h (T2), after 4 h (T4) and after 7 h (T7). Ultracentrifugation was used to isolate serum chylomicrons. Retinol appearance and PAC postprandial concentrations were determined. The supplementation with zinc, iron and iron+zinc influenced the chylomicron appearance of retinol and PACs differently as reflected by retention times and maximum absorption peaks. Iron led to highest retinol levels in the chylomicron. Zinc and iron+zinc supplements were best for optimal intact appearance of α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin respectively. Supplementation with iron led to the greatest bioavailability of PACs from papaya and its conversion to retinol.

  2. Hipovitaminose A em escolares da zona rural de Minas Gerais Vitamin A deficiency in school children of the rural area in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Aparecida Santos

    2005-06-01

    occurrence of vitamin A deficiency in school children of the rural area of Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to identify the possible predisposing factors for such occurrence. METHODS: The sample comprised 241 school children, ranging from 6 to 14 years of age, from four rural schools of the region. The serum levels of retinol were interpreted by the criteria of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition National Defense. The epidemiological significance of the vitamin A deficiency was evaluated according to the World Health Organization criteria. As predisposing factors for vitamin A deficiency, the following conditions were considered: intestinal parasitism, protein-energy malnutrition, inadequate ingestion of vitamin A food sources, and per capita family income. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test. RESULTS: Vitamin A deficiency was identified in 29.0% of the subjects, 23.2% of the children presented stunting, and 8.7% were malnourished, according to the body mass index. In 63.1% of the subjects, inadequate ingestion of retinol sources was verified, while 78.8% of the subjects presented some type of intestinal parasite. Most school-children families (87.1% had per capita monthly incomes bellow ¼ of the minimum wage; the rest of the families were situated respectively in the ranges: (10.4%>¼ to ½ to 1 minimum wage. CONCLUSION: Vitamin A deficiency among school children was found to be a public health problem in the studied area. Nonetheless, no significant statistic association between vitamin A deficiency and the factors selected as predisposing ones was observed.

  3. Prenatal vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive immune responses to pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq®) in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Saif, Linda J

    2014-02-07

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is associated with increased childhood mortality and morbidity in impoverished Asian and African countries, but the impact of VAD on rotavirus (RV) vaccine or infection is poorly understood. We assessed effects of gestational and dietary induced pre- and post-natal VAD and vitamin A supplementation on immune responses to a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq(®) in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Vaccine efficacy was assessed against virulent G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV) challenge. VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) piglets were derived from dietary VAD and VAS sows, respectively. VAD piglets had significantly lower levels of hepatic vitamin A compared to that of VAS piglets. RotaTeq(®)-vaccinated VAD piglets had 350-fold higher fecal virus shedding titers compared to vaccinated VAS piglets post-challenge. Only 25% of vaccinated non-vitamin A supplemented VAD piglets were protected against diarrhea compared with 100% protection rate in vaccinated non-supplemented VAS piglets post-challenge. Intestinal HRV specific immune responses were compromised in VAD piglets. Vaccinated VAD piglets had significantly lower ileal HRV IgG antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses (pre-challenge) and duodenal HRV IgA ASC responses (post-challenge) compared to vaccinated VAS piglets. Also, intestinal HRV IgA antibody titers were 11-fold lower in vaccinated VAD compared to vaccinated VAS piglets post-challenge. Persistently elevated levels of IL-8, a pro-inflammatory mediator, and lower IL-10 responses (anti-inflammatory) in vaccinated VAD compared to VAS piglets suggest more severe inflammatory responses in VAD piglets post-challenge. Moreover higher IFN-γ responses pre-challenge were observed in VAD compared to VAS piglets. The impaired vaccine-specific intestinal antibody responses and decreased immunoregulatory cytokine responses coincided with reduced protective efficacy of the RV vaccine against virulent HRV challenge in VAD piglets. In

  4. Thriving public-private partnership to fortify cooking oil in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) to control vitamin A deficiency: Faire Tache d'Huile en Afrique de l'Ouest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablah, Mawuli; Klopp, Jennifer; Steinberg, Douglas; Touaoro, Zaoro; Laillou, Arnaud; Baker, Shawn

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, more than 42% of children are at risk for vitamin A deficiency, and control of vitamin A deficiency will prevent more than 600,000 child deaths annually. In the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), an estimated 54.3% of preschool-age children are vitamin A deficient and 13% of pregnant women have night blindness. To project the achievements of this West African coalition. This article documents the achievements, challenges, and lessons learned associated with the development of a public-private partnership to fortify vegetable oil in West Africa through project reports and industry assessments. National-level food consumption surveys identified cooking oil as a key vehicle for vitamin A. Stakeholders therefore advocated for the production of fortified vegetable oil at large scale, supported industrial assessments, and reinforced the capacity of cooking oil industries to implement vitamin A fortification through effective coordination of public and private partnerships tied with standards, regulations, and social marketing. Strong alliances for food fortification were established at the regional and national levels. Stakeholders also developed policies, adopted directives, built capacity, implemented social marketing, and monitored quality enforcement systems to sustain fortification for maximum public health impact. The synergy created resulted from the unique and complementary core competencies of all the partners under effective coordination. The initiative began with the 8 UEMOA member countries and now includes all 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), plus Cameroon, Tanzania, and Mozambique, forming a sub-Saharan Africa-wide initiative on food fortification. All members of the Professional Association of Cooking Oil Industries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (AIFO-UEMOA) now fortify edible oil with vitamin A. Through multisector cooperation, an estimated 70% of the population

  5. Xerosis conjuntival y corneal ligera por déficit de vitamina A Mild conjunctival and corneal xerosis due to vitamin A deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán García Álvarez

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo a un grupo de niños que asistieron a consulta de oftalmología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Cienfuegos, durante un período de dos meses con Xeroftalmía demostrada por la prueba de Citología de Impresión Conjuntival, cuyas edades estaban comprendidas entre 5 y 14 años. Se les realizó un examen oftalmológico detallado de anexos y córnea, incluyendo la tinción con fluoresceína y la prueba del tiempo de desintegración de la película de lágrimas y se relacionó ese grupo con otras posibles afecciones sistémicas causadas por el déficit de vitamina A. Sólo se diagnosticó xerosis conjuntival y corneal ligera asociada en la mayoría de los casos a enfermedad respiratoria aguda y parasitismo intestinalA descriptive study of a group of children aged 5-14 that attended the Ophthalmology Department of the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos during months with xerophthalmia demostrated by the test of Conjunctival Impression Cytology was carried out. A detailled ophthalmological examination of adnexa and cornea was made, including the staining with fluorescein and the test of the of desintegration of the lacrimal pellicle. This group was related to other possible systemic caused by vitamin A deficiency. Only mild conjunctival and croneal xerosis was diagnosed. It was mostly associated with acute respiratory disease and intestinal parasitism

  6. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's time for them to be used, special carriers in your body take them to where they're needed. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are different. When you eat foods ...

  7. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  8. Inability to induce tympanic squamous metaplasia using organochlorine compounds in vitamin A-deficient red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenlein, Karl R; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Holladay, Steven D; Joyner, Priscilla H; Brown, Justin D; Griffin, Mark; Saunders, Geoffrey; Smith, Stephen A

    2008-07-01

    Previously, we reported that wild eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses contained higher body burdens of organochlorine (OC) compounds than those without the lesion. This lesion in captive chelonians is associated with turtles that are fed diets deficient in vitamin A. To examine the pathophysiology of this lesion and evaluate the relationship between OC burdens and vitamin A metabolism, we maintained red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) under different conditions of OC exposure and dietary vitamin A concentrations from August 2005 to February 2006. Dietary vitamin A concentration (0 or 5 international units/g in the diet) and OC exposure (no OC compound or the mixture of 2 mg/kg chlordane, 0.25 mg/kg aroclor, and 1 mg/kg lindane) did not affect histologic score based on degree of squamous metaplasia of the tympanic epithelium or levels of plasma or liver vitamin A among the study groups. The results of this study suggest that 6 mo of exposure to the selected OC compounds, or similar duration of reduced dietary vitamin A concentrations do not influence the formation of squamous metaplasia and aural abscesses in red-eared sliders. Further studies are required to determine whether the duration of the experiment was insufficient, the OC compounds selected were inappropriate, the dosing was incorrect, and whether there are other unknown mechanisms causing the reported association between OC exposure and aural abscesses seen in eastern box turtles.

  9. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was last reviewed on October 21, 2015. This article was last modified on June 29, 2018. At a Glance Why Get Tested? To detect vitamin A deficiency or toxicity When To Get Tested? When you have symptoms suggesting a vitamin A deficiency or excess, or are at risk for a deficiency Sample ...

  10. Vitamin A deficiency modifies response of predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae to volatile kairomone of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Groeneveld, A.

    1986-01-01

    volatile kairomone of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae, elicits a searching response of the phytoseiid predatorAmblyseius potentillae, only when the predator is reared on a carotenoid-free diet. However, after addition of crystalline betta-carotene or vitamin A acetate to the

  11. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A higher than normal value means you have excess vitamin A in your blood (toxic levels). This may ... Saunders; 2013:1175-1177. Ross AC, Tan L. Vitamin A deficiencies and excess. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  12. Vitamin A and mother child health Review

    OpenAIRE

    Günlemez, Ayla; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin A has a critical role in normal vision cell differantiation proliferation and maintanence of epithelial cell integrity Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and important deficiencies and is of public health significance in developing countries This article reviews vitamin A deficiency in the world and Turkey and it’s effect on maternal and child health Key words: vitamin A maternal health child health

  13. Relationship between vitamin A status and anaemia among school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are two major public health problems affecting many developing countries world-wide. Vitamin A deficiency, in addition to other health problems, can contribute to anaemia. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the relationship between vitamin A status and ...

  14. A strategy for scaling up vitamin A supplementation for young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Zimbabwe. Addressing vitamin A deficiency has the potential to enhance resistance to disease and reduce mortality, especially in children aged <5 years. Objective. To describe a vitamin A supplementation outreach strategy implemented in one of the remote ...

  15. The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia : a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suharno, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional

  16. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of vitamin A rich foods and fortified foods was generally low. Only 40% of the ... to address the vitamin A deficiency problem, nutrition and healthy planners should put more efforts on food ...... Malaysia and Indonesia can significantly contribute ...

  17. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... This manual presents a practical step-by-step guide for assessing various aspects of natural food sources of vitamin A within a community and is essential for any research program involved in alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

  18. Vitamin A supplementation awareness among mothers of children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency is one of the leading micro-nutrient deficiencies of public health importance in Kenya. Provision of vitamin A supplements every six months is an inexpensive, safe, quick and effective way to improve vitamin A status and save children's lives. Objectives: To determine vitamin A ...

  19. Assessment of vitamin A supplementation coverage and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin A plays vital role in the physiology of vision and immunity. Globally quarters of a billion children are Vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A supplementation of children and mothers during postpartum period is a key strategy to avert the deficiency. However the effect of Vitamin A supplementation on incidence of ...

  20. Hipovitaminose A em pré-escolares internados em uma instituição na capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Vitamin A deficiency in institutionalized children in the capital of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Wilson

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o estado nutricional, em relação à vitamina A, de crianças de 2 a 6 anos de idade, internadas em uma instituição para menores. Foram realizados exames clínicos e bioquímicos. Os exames clínicos revelaram alta prevalência de xerose cutânea (75,8% e prevalência moderada de hiperceratose folicular (18,3%. Exames oftalmológicos realizados sem o auxílio de corante vital revelaram uma prevalência de 20,7% de xerose conjuntival, enquanto que aqueles realizados com auxílio de colírio de Rosa Bengala a 1%, nas mesmas crianças, revelaram 31,7% de xerose conjuntival. Os exames bioquímicos mostraram que 39,4% dos examinados apresentaram níveis plasmáticos de vitamina A de 10mig/100ml ou menos, e 73,9% de 20mig/ 100ml ou menos.Children from 2 to 6 years of age from an agency for the welfare of minors were studied clinically and biochemically for vitamin A deficiency. Clinical examinations showed a very high prevalence of cutaneous xerosis (75.8% and not so high of follicular keratosis (18.3%. Unaided eye examinations showed a xerosis conjunctivae prevalence of 20.7% whereas with the aid of 1% Rose Bengal staining prevalence rose to 31.7%. Biochemical examinations showed that 39.4% of subjects presented vitamin A plasma levels of 10mug/100ml or less, and 73.9% 20mug/100ml or less.

  1. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  2. Awareness, attitude and practice of vitamin A supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Vitamin A deficiency is a major nutritional concern in poor societies, especially in lower income countries like Nigeria. Africa and South East Asia bear the highest burden of pre-school age children and pregnant women with biochemical vitamin A deficiency and night blindness. The aim of this study is to ...

  3. Vitamin A in Reproduction and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Clagett-Dame

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The requirement for vitamin A in reproduction was first recognized in the early 1900’s, and its importance in the eyes of developing embryos was realized shortly after. A greater understanding of the large number of developmental processes that require vitamin A emerged first from nutritional deficiency studies in rat embryos, and later from genetic studies in mice. It is now generally believed that all-trans retinoic acid (RA is the form of vitamin A that supports both male and female reproduction as well as embryonic development. This conclusion is based on the ability to reverse most reproductive and developmental blocks found in vitamin A deficiency induced either by nutritional or genetic means with RA, and the ability to recapitulate the majority of embryonic defects in retinoic acid receptor compound null mutants. The activity of the catabolic CYP26 enzymes in determining what tissues have access to RA has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism, and helps to explain why exogenous RA can rescue many vitamin A deficiency defects. In severely vitamin A-deficient (VAD female rats, reproduction fails prior to implantation, whereas in VAD pregnant rats given small amounts of carotene or supported on limiting quantities of RA early in organogenesis, embryos form but show a collection of defects called the vitamin A deficiency syndrome or late vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A is also essential for the maintenance of the male genital tract and spermatogenesis. Recent studies show that vitamin A participates in a signaling mechanism to initiate meiosis in the female gonad during embryogenesis, and in the male gonad postnatally. Both nutritional and genetic approaches are being used to elucidate the vitamin A-dependent pathways upon which these processes depend.

  4. Neonatal Vitamin A supplementation | Humphrey | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem throughout the developing world, affecting an estimated 124 million young children and accounting for more than 1 million child deaths each year.' A meta-analysis of eight controlled trials estimated that community-based vitamin A supplementation resulted in a 23% ...

  5. Vitamin A cassava in Nigeria: crop development and delivery | Ilona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biofortified vitamin A “yellow” cassava can help address the adverse health effects of vitamin A deficiency. By 2016, HarvestPlus and its partners had successfully developed and delivered vitamin A cassava varieties to more than one million farming households in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

  6. Serum vitamin A levels among malnourished children aged 6 - 59 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vitamin A levels. Children who had measles, persistent diarrhoea, low maternal educational levels and low social class were at a higher risk of having low serum vitamin A levels ... its environs and is the Primary Health Care outlet of. Ahmadu Bello ... eye changes of vitamin A deficiency,10 skin changes, hair changes and ...

  7. Skimmed milk as a determinant of vitamin A deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UHT) whole milk (3.5% fat) and UHT skimmed ... in advertisements in various newspapers and magazines. A .... controlled studies on consumption patterns of skimmed milk in ... of hypovitaminosis A. Another factor that may increase consumer.

  8. Culture, Environment, and Food to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Apports de la diplomatie de la santé mondiale aux systèmes de santé en Afrique subsaharienne - renforcement des capacités. La santé est en voie de s'imposer comme un élément incontournable des négociations mondiales, que celles-ci portent sur le commerce, la croissance économique ou le développement social.

  9. Serum and breast-milk vitamin A in women during lactation in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panpanich, Ratana; Vitsupakorn, Kannika; Harper, Gregory; Brabin, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency can occur during lactation and breast-milk vitamin A has been recommended for monitoring the vitamin A status of lactating women and their infants. This study aimed to investigate the vitamin A status of lactating women in relation to race, age, parity, duration of lactation and

  10. 维生素A缺乏对大鼠肾脏ABCA1介导的脂质外流途径的影响%Effect of vitamin A deficiency on ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux pathway in rat kidneys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳海平; 陈科; 张萱; 王莉; 李翠萃; 王莉佳; 李秋

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨维生素A缺乏(vitaminA deficiency,VAD)大鼠模型肾脏脂质代谢状况及相关分子机制.方法 从孕期开始,给予Wistar大鼠正常饮食(正常对照组,维生素A含量为4000 IU/kg的饲料), VAD饮食(VAD组,维生素A含量为400 IU/kg的饲料),持续至8周后VAD组继续补充维生素A (VAS组,维生素A含量为6500 IU/kg的饲料) 15 d,每组6只.免疫组化分析肾脏载脂蛋白B100 (Apo-B100)、三磷酸腺苷结合盒转运体A1(adenosine triphosphate binding cassette A1,ABCA1)表达,Real-time PCR技术检测肾脏ABCA1、过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α(PPARα)、肝X受体α(LXRα)、视黄醇X受体α/β (RXRα/β) mRNA水平. 结果免疫组化分析,第8周VAD组肾脏Apo-B100水平(14.27±0.05)明显高于正常对照组(8.25±0.49)(P0.05);以上改变随维生素A补充即恢复至正常水平.结论 VAD可致PPARα/RXRs-LXRα/RXRs-ABCA1介导的脂质外流途径受损而导致大鼠肾脏脂质沉积增多,但及时补充维生素A能有效使肾脏脂质代谢恢复正常.

  11. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  12. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  13. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultraviolet light from the sun. The body also needs vitamin E to boost its immune system so that ... important functions. How much vitamin E do I need? The amount of vitamin E you need each day depends on your ...

  14. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to address the vitamin A deficiency problem, nutrition and healthy planners should put more efforts on food fortification ... women and children under the age of five years. Methodology ..... mothers in rural than urban areas (Table 3). These.

  15. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifant, Catherine M; Shevill, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne B

    2014-05-14

    People with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency are at risk of fat soluble vitamin deficiency as these vitamins (A, D, E and K) are co-absorbed with fat. Thus, some cystic fibrosis centres routinely administer these vitamins as supplements but the centres vary in their approach of addressing the possible development of deficiencies in these vitamins. Vitamin A deficiency causes predominantly eye and skin problems while supplementation of vitamin A to excessive levels may cause harm to the respiratory and skeletal systems in children. Thus a systematic review on vitamin A supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis would help guide clinical practice. To determine if vitamin A supplementation in children and adults with cystic fibrosis:1. reduces the frequency of vitamin A deficiency disorders;2. improves general and respiratory health;3. increases the frequency of vitamin A toxicity. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 07 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all preparations of oral vitamin A used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose and for any duration, in children or adults with cystic fibrosis (defined by sweat tests or genetic testing) with and without pancreatic insufficiency. No relevant studies for inclusion were identified in the search. No studies were included in this review. As there were no randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials identified, we cannot draw any conclusions on the benefits (or otherwise) of regular administration of vitamin A in people with cystic fibrosis. Until further data are available, country or region specific guidelines on the use of

  16. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  17. Sugar as a potential vehicle for vitamin A fortification: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite measures put in place by the Uganda Government ten years ago to combat Vitamin A deficiency, the number of children suffering from this deficiency remains high. Objective: To determine whether sugar may be used as a vehicle for vitamin A fortification. Design: Cross - sectional descriptive study

  18. Provision of vitamin a through utilization of local food materials in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High prevalence and the negative consequences of the deficiencies resulting from inadequate intake of iron, iodine and vitamin A have resulted in focused global efforts to alleviate them. Vitamin A deficiency which has serious consequences can be prevented by consumption of vitamin A rich foods. This study was ...

  19. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role in ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds Leafy ...

  20. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thin, and brittle bones, a condition known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D ... the body. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, a condition in which the bones become soft ...

  1. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one ... building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis ...

  2. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your ... healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include ...

  3. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... values to calculate your total daily recommended amount. What foods provide vitamin C? Fruits and vegetables are the ... lessen cooking losses. Fortunately, many of the best food sources of vitamin C, ... raw. What kinds of vitamin C dietary supplements are available? ...

  4. [The vitamin A requirement and the vitamin A status of growing cattle. 1. Studies of calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, G; Wilk, H; Löhnert, H J; Ochrimenko, W I; Geinitz, D; Hennig, A

    1990-01-01

    Five experiments with 18 to 36 male calves each of the black and white dairy cattle breed (age: 14-21 days, initial live weight: approximately 45 kg per animal) were carried out in order to investigate the influence of various vitamin A supply (0-80,000 IU per 100 kg LW and day) on dry matter intake and weight gain as well as the vitamin A status of liver and blood plasma over 84 days. The calves consumed a diet free of carotene and vitamin A consisting of milk replacer, concentrate and chopped wheat straw. The calves were fed in three experiments for a longer time in order to observe the further vitamin A depletion. Nine animals consumed an unsupplemented ration, nine other one got 10,000 IU vitamin A per 100 kg LW and day. Biopsies of liver and plasma samples were taken from 4 animals per group every four weeks. The various vitamin A supplementation did not significantly influence the dry matter intake (Mean: 1.67; 1.48 to 1.80 kg DM per animal and day) and the weight gain of calves (Mean: 702, 599 to 770 g per animal and day). First vitamin A deficiency symptoms (reduced feed intake, decreased weight gain, diarrhoea etc.) were observed in animals of unsupplemented group after 100 days of experiments. After 84 days the vitamin A concentration of liver of animals of unsupplemented groups decreased to 1.3-32.2% compared with the begin of experiments (60.6-155.7 mumol/kg fresh matter). Up to 51% of initial concentration were found when 10,000 IU vitamin A per 100 kg LW and day were fed. About 25,000 IU vitamin A per 100 kg LW and day were required in order to keep the initial level of vitamin A concentration of liver. The plasma vitamin A concentration is unsuitable for estimation of vitamin A status of calves. The concentration of vitamin A of liver and plasma amounted to 114 mumol per kg and 0.25 mumol per litre at the begin of experiments. The vitamin A concentration of liver of unsupplemented group decreased to 20 mumol per kg, that of plasma increased to 0

  5. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seem to benefit older women who still have strong bones. Taking vitamin K1 seems to increase bone strength and might prevent fractures in older women. But it might not work as well in older men. Vitamin K1 doesn't seem to improve bone ...

  6. B Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid These ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, ...

  7. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Novica Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Nina Jančić; Nataša Đinđić

    2013-01-01

    Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E) or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K). Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solub...

  8. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carrots, and squash. Fruits, including cantaloupe, apricots, and mangos. Dairy products, which are among the major sources ... medicines might interfere with how your body absorbs, uses, or breaks down nutrients . Vitamin A and healthful ...

  9. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as the clotting vitamin, because without it blood would not clot. Some studies suggest that it helps maintain strong bones in the older adults. Food Sources The best way to get the daily ...

  10. Vitamin A and the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is essential for the early development and normal functioning of the brain throughout life. A deficiency of vitamin A is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and subclinical deficiency is probably present worldwide. The main active molecule in vitamin A is retinoic acid, which is involved in vision, the immune system, skin health, olfaction and cognition (learning, memory, spatial functions, olfaction, etc. through processes of neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. Vitamin A is involved in the regulation of about one-sixth of the human genome. It has non-genomic actions in protein translation and paracrine actions. Retinal vitamin A aldehyde is crucial for day and night vision. The best-known manifestation of hypovitaminosis A is night blindness but in more severe cases, it causes blindness. In the hypothalamus, vitamin A, with information from the retina, acts in circadian and seasonal regulation. Increased retinoic acid levels in the blood are associated with increased risk of depression, and lower levels have been connected with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cerebral ischemia, autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Higher doses and longer periods of treatment pose the threat of hypervitaminosis A. Vitamin A and its analogs are a promising new class of therapeutic agents in a wide spectrum of disorders, albeit with a narrow therapeutic window. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022

  11. Failure to thrive and its relationship to serum vitamin A levels and diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vitamin A status and infectious diseases, the prevalence of biochemical vitamin A deficiency .... diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory tract infections, including .... on the ages of these children, intake of breast-milk was. 200 ml or less,'6 it ...

  12. Vitamin A status affects the efficacy of iron repletion in rats with mild iron deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, A.J.C.; West, C.E.; Beynen, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    In populations with vitamin A deficiency, vitamin A administration in addition to supplemental iron has been shown to further improve blood indicators of iron status. To obtain clues to associated changes at the level of organ indicators of iron status, we have attempted to mimic previous human

  13. Biochemistry and immunological studies on vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elabbas, Lubna Elsheikh

    1999-07-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the major nutritional problems in the Sudan. The dose supplied for treatment should be carefully measured, as long as long-term excess, similar to vitamin deficiency, may cause impairment of the immune response. The present work was designed to study the effect of different vitamin A levels on the immune response (both humoral and cell-mediated)and some other biochemical and hematological values. A survey was also conducted to investigate vitamin A level of blood and milk of cows and goats, both intensive and open systems. In the first experiments, the animals were grouped into four groups receiving four different levels of dietary vitamin A as follows: very high dose, high dose, recommended daily requirement (as control) and a diet devoid of vitamin A. This program was continued for 45 days. Antibodies production was measured after immunization with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in freund's incomplete adjuvant. The phagocytic activity against Staphylococcus bacteria was measured. Serum total proteins, albumin and the total globulins together with the total leukocytes count and the differential count were examined weekly. The survey program included blood and milk samples collected from twenty cows and twenty goats and their vitamin A level was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The result revealed that both anti-BSA antibodies production and the phagocytic activity were greatly improved in animals which received high dose of vitamin of A. This was also true for serum total proteins, albumin, total WBCs count and lymphocytes percentage, since all these parameters were improved in high dose animals. On the other hand, all these parameters were greatly reduced in both groups of animals which received very high dose and decent diet in vitamin A. The survey results showed that vitamin A level of goats milk was higher than that of cows. Within the cows, it was higher in those from an intensive system compared to

  14. Two different doses of supplemental vitamin A did not affect mortality of normal-birth-weight neonates in Guinea-Bissau in a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte R; Balde, Ibraima

    2014-01-01

    Whether neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) should be policy in areas with vitamin A deficiency is debated. We observed that a smaller dose of vitamin A may decrease mortality more than a larger dose and conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau with th...

  15. Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Meremikwu, Martin M; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced vitamin A concentration increases the risk of blindness in children infected with the measles virus. Promoting vitamin A supplementation in children with measles contributes to the control of blindness in children, which is a high priority within the World Health Organization...... (WHO) VISION 2020 The Right to Sight Program. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2015, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1950 to December week 3, 2015), Embase...... (1974 to December 2015) and LILACS (1985 to December 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in well-nourished children diagnosed with measles but with no prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. DATA COLLECTION...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two categories of vitamins. ... vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D ( ...

  17. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body that produces vitamin D. As many of us spend more and more time on computers and game consoles, we're not outdoors as much as we once were. And, when we do spend time in the sun, more of us are making the wise decision to use sunscreen ...

  18. Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Shrestha, Prakash S; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Graybill, Lauren; Strand, Tor A

    2016-03-08

    Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B₆, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22%) was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD) plasma folate concentration was 73 (35) nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B₆ deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol importance of continued supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal.

  19. Consumption of vitamin a rich foods and dark adaptation threshold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: More than 7.2 million pregnant women in developing countries suffer from vitamin A deficiency. The objective of this study was to assess dark adaptation threshold of pregnant women and related socio-demographic factors in Damot Sore District, Wolayita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A ...

  20. Community Assessment of Natural Food Sources of Vitamin A

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this document. .... the revisions required from the field testing; following this, two external reviewers ... as one component of a multi-stranded strategy to reduce vitamin A deficiency. ...... as realistically and simply as possible, using colors appropriate to the area.

  1. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  2. Vitamin A supplementation for postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Menegozzo, Julicristie M; Bergamaschi, Denise P; Middleton, Philippa; East, Christine E

    2010-10-06

    In vitamin A deficient populations, the amount of vitamin A may be insufficient for maintenance of maternal health and levels in breast milk may be insufficient for breastfeeding infants' needs. To assess the effects of postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation on maternal and infant health. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2010), LILACS (1982 to July 2010), Web of Science (1945 to July 2010) and Biological Abstracts (1998 to July 2010). Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of postpartum maternal vitamin A supplementation. Two review authors assessed the studies independently. We included 12 trials at moderate risk of bias, enrolling 25,465 mother-baby pairs and comparing several postpartum doses (200,000-400,000 IU) of vitamin A or 7.8 mg daily beta-carotene, with placebo, iron or no supplement; or higher (400,000 IU) versus lower dose (200,000 IU). The majority of infants in all studies were at least partially breastfed for six months.Maternal: we observed no impact of vitamin A on maternal mortality (two trials of 9,126 women), morbidity (one trial of 50 women) or adverse effects (subset of 786 women in one trial). Vitamin A enhanced serum and breast milk retinol at three months in five trials, but these improvements were generally not sustained.Infant: we observed no significant differences for infant mortality RR 1.14 95% CI 0.84 to 1.57 (five trials (6,170 infants) or morbidity (three trials) except for fewer episodes of fever with vitamin A in one small trial. No significant differences in infant vitamin A status were seen with maternal vitamin A supplementation (five trials).No beneficial effects for maternal or infant health were associated with higher compared to lower doses of vitamin A in two trials. The lack of effect on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, with exception of some improved infant morbidity in one small study, and the improvement in maternal vitamin A status

  3. Vitamins and endurance training. Food for running or faddish claims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, E J

    1985-01-01

    The inter-relationship of food and physical performance, food is considered as a conglomerate of nutrients and man is depicted as a kind of organic pudding. This 'machine' concept of human performance in combination with the mysticism surrounding vitamins, has led to the faddish belief that additional vitamins are necessary to improve physical performance by means of supercharging the metabolic processes in the body. Various vitamins and their dietary recommendations as well as the indicators for vitamin status are discussed. It is concluded that a marginal or subclinical deficiency state can be defined as an intermediate between optimal vitamin status and frank clinical deficiency. Marginal deficiency is characterised by biochemical values deviating from statistically derived reference limits as well as the absence of clinical signs and symptoms of vitamin deficiency. Besides the static, mostly biochemical, indicators of vitamin status, more functional indicators are considered, among them work capacity. An extensive historical review on depletion studies, epidemiological surveys and supplementation studies is presented. It is concluded that a restricted intake of some B-complex vitamins-individually and in combination-of approximately less than 35 to 45% of the recommended dietary allowance may lead to decreased endurance capacity within a few weeks. Studies on ascorbic acid (vitamin C) depletion and fat-soluble vitamin A deficiency have noted no decrease of endurance capacity. However, in a few recent epidemiological surveys, biochemical vitamin C deficiency was actually shown to decrease aerobic power. Although the general conclusion is that a reduced water-soluble vitamin intake decreases endurance capacity, it is believed that further controlled experimentation is needed with B-complex vitamins and vitamin C individually. Furthermore, usually employed reference limits for vitamins need reappraisal translating them into impairment limits. With respect to the

  4. Facts about Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... milligrams of vitamin C every day. Three large strawberries provide 33 milligrams of vitamin C. Figure 1. ... and citrus fruit juices, sweet peppers, papayas, and strawberries. Table 2. Food sources of vitamin C. Food ...

  5. Maternal vitamin A supplementation and immunity to malaria in pregnancy in Ghanaian primigravids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Sharon E; Staalsoe, Trine; Arthur, Paul

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation is believed to enhance immune responses to infection but few studies have assessed its effects on anti-malarial immunity, especially during pregnancy when women are at increased risk from both vitamin A deficiency and pregnancy-associated malaria. The patholo......BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation is believed to enhance immune responses to infection but few studies have assessed its effects on anti-malarial immunity, especially during pregnancy when women are at increased risk from both vitamin A deficiency and pregnancy-associated malaria...... in vitro (anti-VSACSA IgG or anti-VSA IgG). Placental malarial infection was determined by placental blood smear and histology. RESULTS: Vitamin A supplementation was non-significantly associated with a decreased risk of active or chronic-active placental malarial infection compared to past, resolved...

  6. Serum Vitamin A Levels May Affect the Severity of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiefeng; Hu, Renjian; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoying; Jin, Xiuming

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. In our cases, the diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency was suspected for GVHD patients. Serum vitamin A measurements were conducted to confirm clinical suspicions. Our study revealed significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin A in chronic liver GVHD patients. Although there have been many studies evaluating ocular manifestations in patients with GVHD, the present study is, to our knowledge, the first to study the relationship between vitamin A and ocular manifestations of GVHD in humans. Our data suggest that vitamin A deficiency affects the severity of ocular GVHD in adults.

  7. Serum Vitamin A Levels May Affect the Severity of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Tong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. In our cases, the diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency was suspected for GVHD patients. Serum vitamin A measurements were conducted to confirm clinical suspicions. Our study revealed significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin A in chronic liver GVHD patients. Although there have been many studies evaluating ocular manifestations in patients with GVHD, the present study is, to our knowledge, the first to study the relationship between vitamin A and ocular manifestations of GVHD in humans. Our data suggest that vitamin A deficiency affects the severity of ocular GVHD in adults.

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, ... excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ...

  10. Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a pre...

  11. Biofortified Cassava with Pro-Vitamin A is sensory and culturally acceptable for consumption by primary school children in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.; Boonstra, A.; Kok, de B.P.H.; Mbera, G.N.K.; Mwangi, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the

  12. Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from 6 months to 5 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imdad, Aamer; Herzer, Kurt; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in low and middle income countries affecting 190 million children under 5. VAD can lead to many adverse health consequences, including death. Objectives To evaluate the effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for preventing

  13. Serum Vitamin A Levels in Patients with Chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekahmadi, Mohammad; Farrahi, Fereydoun; Tajdini, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    Chalazion is a chronic, localized lipogranulomatous inflammation of the sebaceous glands of the lids. Chalazion occurs often secondary to blockage of the sebaceous gland ducts. Some studies have reported vitamin A deficiency as a risk factor for chalazion. In this study, we determined the serum levels of vitamin A in patients with chalazion. The study involved a total of 107 subjects (52 patients with chalazion and 55 control healthy subjects). The study was conducted at the Ophthalmology Clinics of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahwaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran between September 2014 and February 2015. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: 7-12 years old, 13-19 years old, and more than 19 years old. Patients were further divided into four subgroups based on the type of chalazion: single, multiple, primary, and recurrent. Blood samples were collected and the serum was tested for levels of vitamin A using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The average serum vitamin A levels in patients with chalazion in the age groups of 7-12 and 13-19 years were significantly lower than in their control counterparts. Serum vitamin A levels in patients with recurrent, multiple chalazia were significantly lower than in patients with primary, multiple chalazia (P = 0.026) and patients with a recurrent, single chalazion (P = 0.029). In conclusion, chalazion could be one of the ocular presentations of vitamin A deficiency.

  14. Class switch recombination in selective IgA-deficient subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj; Ryder, L P; Nielsen, L K

    2006-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency is a common immunodeficiency in Caucasians, but the molecular basis of the disorder remains elusive. To address this issue we examined the molecular events leading to IgA production. Naive IgD positive B cells were purified from four donors with IgA deficiency and four...

  15. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  16. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  17. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  18. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K. Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solubile vitamins intake in athletes, as well as evidence that athletic performance may be improved due to fat-solubile vitamins supplementation. In a small number of studies, it was shown that an antioxidant effect of beta carotene and vitamin E can prevent muscle damage and facilitate recovery after exercise. Also, athletes who perform the exercises in the halls should be informed about the necessity of sun exposure, as vitamin D is synthesised in the skin. Most athletes are not familiar with their needs for vitamins and trace elements, and take these compounds as supplements without consulting a nutritionist. It is important to emphasize that liposulubile vitamins are deposited in the body and can cause hypervitaminosis and toxic effects if taken in excess. It is indisputable that the lack of any fat-soluble vitamin cause problems in normal physiological processes, but supplementation is generally not required in athlets who have a well-balanced diet.

  19. Vitamin A degradation in triglycerides varying by their saturation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccand, Cyril; Martin, Fréderic; Martiel, Isabelle; Gancel, Charlotte; Michel, Martin; Fries, Lennart; Sagalowicz, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has a widespread occurrence globally and is considered as one of the world's most serious health risk factors. Potential solutions to address this deficiency include dietary diversification or supplementation, but food fortification is generally accepted as the most cost-effective solution. The main issue with food fortification of this vitamin is related to its high instability in food matrices. Dilution of vitamin A in triglycerides is a natural and appropriate way to stabilize this compound. We show here that vitamin A palmitate stability increases with increasing concentration of triglycerides. Moreover, we found that vitamin A palmitate displays improved stability in more saturated oils. Using various temperatures, and Arrhenius plots of experiments performed at storage temperatures between 30°C and 60°C for oils varying by their saturation and crystallinity, we demonstrate that crystallization is not responsible for this phenomenon. Additionally, we show by centrifugation that vitamin A is preferably solubilized in the liquid phase compared to the crystalline phase, explaining that triglyceride crystallization does not stabilize vitamin A palmitate. It is proposed that unsaturated fats generate more oxidation products such as radicals and peroxides, leading to a quicker degradation of vitamin A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ophthalmic manifestations of vitamin A and D deficiency in two autistic teenagers: case reports and a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duignan, Emma

    2015-01-01

    We describe the cases of 2 autistic children with ophthalmic and systemic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency due to food faddism. Although vitamin A deficiency is common in the developing world, reports in developed societies are rare. Our patients presented over a 1-year period. The patients were 14 and 13 years old at the time of presentation and were both found to have marked features of vitamin A deficiency related to unusual dietary habits. Anterior segment signs of xerophthalmia were present in both patients. In addition, patient 1 showed evidence of a rod-predominant retinopathy, which resolved with vitamin A supplementation. Due to its rare occurrence, hypovitaminosis A must be highlighted and anticipated in this cohort.

  1. Vitamin A levels and human immunodeficiency virus load in injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, R D; Farzadegan, H; Vlahov, D

    1997-01-01

    Although low plasma vitamin A levels are associated with increased mortality and higher vertical transmission during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, it is unknown whether plasma low vitamin A levels are a marker for circulating HIV load. We conducted a cross-sectional study within a prospective cohort study of injection drug users in order to evaluate the relationship between plasma vitamin A levels and HIV viral load. Plasma vitamin A level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Infectious viral load was measured by quantitative microculture of serial fivefold dilutions of 10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A total of 284 HIV-infected adults (79 women, 205 men) were studied. Plasma vitamin A levels consistent with deficiency were found in 28.9% of adults. A total of 38.0% of women and 25.3% of men had vitamin A deficiency (P < 0.04). The median infectious viral load for the entire study population was 8 infectious units per million cells. No significant relationship between plasma vitamin A levels and infectious viral load was observed in these injection drug users. This study suggests that there is no correlation between HIV viral load and plasma vitamin A levels in injection drug users, and these variables may represent independent risk factors during HIV infection. HIV-infected adult women appear to be at higher risk of developing vitamin A deficiency. PMID:9008289

  2. Vitamin D and Anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Biricik, Ebru; Güneş, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a vitamin not only associated with calcium-phosphorus metabolism but also affects many organ systems. Because of its effect on the immune system in recent years, it has attracted much attention. Vitamin D deficiency is a clinical condition that can be widely observed in the society. Thus, patients with vitamin D deficiency are often seen in anaesthesia practice. In the absence of vitamin D, prolongation of intensive care unit stay, increase in mortality and morbidity and also ass...

  3. Marginal vitamin A deficiency in pigs experimentally infected with Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S; Saeed, I; Jensen, S K

    2001-01-01

    were marginally smaller (36.7 vs 40.2 mm; P = 0.08), more orally located (section 2.9 vs 3.9; P = 0.08) and had a higher proportion of males (0.58 vs 0.50; P = 0.08) whereas there were no effects of diet treatment on fecundity. The proportion of pigs with faecal T. suis egg excretion 12 weeks post...

  4. Vitamin A deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Jose O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se sabe que la deficiencia de vitamina A (DVA ha existido en América Latina y el Caribe desde mediados de los años sesenta. No obstante, si se exceptúan algunas iniciativas tempranas del Instituto de Nutrición de Centro América y Panamá, había escaso interés en controlarla debido a la detección infrecuente de signos clínicos. En época más reciente, las consecuencias de la DVA para la salud y la supervivencia infantiles ha suscitado gran interés en evaluar el problema y despertado un mayor empeño por controlarlo. La información que estaba disponible a mediados de 1997 sobre la frecuencia de la DVA en países de la Región se revisó minuciosamente. Se aplicaron métodos y puntos de corte aceptados mundialmente para la estimación de la prevalencia a fin de recopilar infomación obtenida de estudios alimentarios, bioqu��micos y clínicos efectuados entre 1985 y 1997 con muestras de 100 personas como mínimo. La DVA en la Región de América Latina y el Caribe es eminentemente subclínica. La prevalencia nacional de la forma subclínica de DVA (retinol sérico < 20 µg/dL en niños menores de 5 años oscila de 6% en Panamá a 36% en El Salvador. El problema es grave en cinco países, moderado en seis y leve en cuatro. No hay datos recientes para Chile, Haití, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela y el Caribe de habla inglesa. En total la población afectada se aproxima a 14,5 millones de niños menores de 5 años (25% de ese grupo de edad. Los escolares y las mujeres en edad adulta también pueden tener una frecuencia elevada de DVA. Las medidas que actualmente están en marcha para controlar la DVA incluyen, entre otras, a la suplementación dirigida a toda la población o a grupos particulares, con elevadas tasas de cobertura logradas durante los días en que se efectúan las inmunizaciones de alcance nacional en algunos países; b la fortificación del azúcar, que ya se ha instaurado en El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras (se ha observado un efecto notable en Guatemala y Honduras y que está en proceso de negociación en Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica (donde está pendiente de reestablecerse, Ecuador, Nicaragua y Perú; y c algunas actividades de diversificación alimentaria.

  5. Chapter 29: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: overview and fat-soluble vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    The vitamine doctrine: Although diseases resulting from vitamin deficiencies have been known for millennia, such disorders were generally attributed to toxic or infectious causes until the "vitamin doctrine" was developed in the early 20th century. In the late-19th century, a physiologically complete diet was believed to require only sufficient proteins, carbohydrates, fats, inorganic salts, and water. From 1880-1912, Lunin, Pekelharing, and Hopkins found that animals fed purified mixtures of known food components failed to grow or even lost weight and died, unless the diet was supplemented with small amounts of milk, suggesting that "accessory food factors" are required in trace amounts for normal growth. By this time, Funk suggested that deficiencies of trace dietary factors, which he labeled "vitamines" on the mistaken notion that they were "vital amines," were responsible for such diseases as beriberi, scurvy, rickets, and pellagra. Vitamin A deficiency eye disease: Night blindness was recognized by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, and many authorities from Galen onward advocated liver as a curative. Outbreaks of night blindness were linked to nutritional causes in the 18th and 19th centuries by von Bergen, Schwarz, and others. Corneal ulceration was reported in 1817 by Magendie among vitamin A-deficient dogs fed for several weeks on a diet limited to sugar and water, although he erroneously attributed this to a deficiency of dietary nitrogen (i.e. protein). Subsequently, corneal epithelial defects, often in association with night blindness, were recognized in malnourished individuals subsisting on diets now recognizable as deficient in vitamin A by Budd, Livingstone, von Hubbenet, Bitot, Mori, Ishihari, and others. During World War I, Bloch conducted a controlled clinical trial of different diets among malnourished Danish children with night blindness and keratomalacia and concluded that whole milk, butter, and cod-liver oil contain a fat-soluble substance

  6. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Verneuil's disease, innate immunity and vitamin D: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, A; Brocard, A; Bach Ngohou, K; Graveline, N; Leloup, A-G; Ali, D; Nguyen, J-M; Loirat, M-J; Chevalier, C; Khammari, A; Dreno, B

    2015-07-01

    Verneuil's disease is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of the follicles in apocrine glands rich area of the skin (axillary, inguinal, anogenital) and is associated with a deficient skin innate immunity. It is characterized by the occurrence of nodules, abscesses, fistulas, scars. Recently, vitamin D has been shown to stimulate skin innate immunity. The primary objective of the study was to assess whether Verneuil's disease was associated with vitamin D deficiency. The secondary objective was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation could improve inflammatory lesions. First, 25(OH) vitamin D3 serum levels in patients with Verneuil's disease followed at Nantes University Hospital were compared to those of healthy donors from the French Blood Bank. Then, a pilot study was conducted in 14 patients supplemented with vitamin D according to their vitamin D level at baseline at months 3 and 6. The endpoints at 6 months were decreased by at least 20% in the number of nodules and in the frequency of flare-ups. Twenty-two patients (100%) had vitamin D deficiency (level vitamin D deficiency (91%) of whom 14% were severely deficient. In 14 patients, the supplementation significantly decreased the number of nodules at 6 months (P = 0.01133), and the endpoints were achieved in 79% of these patients. A correlation between the therapeutic success and the importance of the increase in vitamin D level after supplementation was observed (P = 0.01099). Our study shows that Verneuil's disease is associated with a major vitamin D deficiency, correlated with the disease severity. It suggests that vitamin D could significantly improve the inflammatory nodules, probably by stimulating the skin innate immunity. A larger randomized study is needed to confirm these findings. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Low vitamin K1 intake in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Noale, Marianna; Tripepi, Giovanni; Plebani, Mario; Veronese, Nicola; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Rossini, Maurizio; Tarroni, Giovanni; Lucatello, Sandro; Vianello, Alberto; Santinello, Irene; Bonfante, Luciana; Fabris, Fabrizio; Sella, Stefania; Piccoli, Antonio; Naso, Agostino; Ciurlino, Daniele; Aghi, Andrea; Gallieni, Maurizio; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin K acts as a coenzyme in the γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and the growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein. Osteocalcin is a key factor for bone matrix formation. MGP is a local inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. GAS6 activity prevents the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Few data on vitamin K intake in chronic kidney disease patients and no data in patients on a Mediterranean diet are available. In the present study, we evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin K1 in a cohort of patients undergoing haemodialysis. In this multi-centre controlled observational study, data were collected from 91 patients aged >18 years on dialysis treatment for at least 12 months and from 85 age-matched control subjects with normal renal function. Participants completed a food journal of seven consecutive days for the estimation of dietary intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients (minerals and vitamins). Compared to controls, dialysis patients had a significant lower total energy intake, along with a lower dietary intake of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibres, and of all the examined minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu, and Mg). With the exception of vitamin B12, vitamins intake followed a similar pattern, with a lower intake in vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E, folates, K1 and PP. These finding were confirmed also when normalized for total energy intake or for body weight. In respect to the adequate intakes recommended in the literature, the prevalence of a deficient vitamin K intake was very high (70-90%) and roughly double than in controls. Multivariate logistic model identified vitamin A and iron intake as predictors of vitamin K deficiency. Haemodialysis patients had a significantly low intake in vitamin K1, which could contribute to increase the risk of bone fractures and vascular calcifications. Since the deficiency of vitamin K intake seems to be remarkable, dietary

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as over- ... including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ... magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, ... nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, ...

  14. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  15. Effect of dietary fat supplementation during late pregnancy and first six months of lactation on maternal and infant vitamin A status in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months

  16. The effect of dietary vitamin A on NO2 exposure on the hamster lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of dietary vitamin A and NO2 exposure on the hamster lung was evaluated by histopathology, electron microscopy, and thymidine uptake studies. Hamsters were maintained on deficient (0 micrograms), adequate (100 micrograms), and high (200 micrograms) dose levels of vitamin A while being exposed repeatedly to 10 ppm of NO2 for 5 hours once a week over an 8-week period. Hamsters of the deficient group exhibited clinical and morphologic changes characteristic of vitamin A deficiency. Animals maintained on adequate and high dose levels of vitamin A were not affected by vitamin A deficiency. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of the terminal bronchiolar alveolar region of lungs of adequately and highly dosed animals were greater than those observed in the deficient animals, when NO2 exposure was given. However, the extent of the lesions observed in all three groups was less than that seen in normal hamsters given a single, 5-hour NO2 exposure. Ultrastructural changes observed in vitamin A-deficient hamsters exposed to NO2 were hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bronchiolar epithelial cells, diffuse loss of cilia, membrane damage, and mitochondrial damage manifested by calcium deposition. Tritiated thymidine uptake studies of lungs of animals exposed repeatedly revealed a rather erratic cell renewal pattern following NO2 exposure in comparison to the group of animals exposed singly

  17. Role of Vitamin A/Retinoic Acid in Regulation of Embryonic and Adult Hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañete

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA, acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs, is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality. RA signaling appears to be essential for expression of genes involved in developmental hematopoiesis, regulating the endothelial/blood cells balance in the yolk sac, promoting the hemogenic program in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros area and stimulating eryrthropoiesis in fetal liver by activating the expression of erythropoietin. In adults, RA signaling regulates differentiation of granulocytes and enhances erythropoiesis. Vitamin A may facilitate iron absorption and metabolism to prevent anemia and plays a key role in mucosal immune responses, modulating the function of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, defective RA/RARα signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia due to a failure in differentiation of promyelocytes. This review focuses on the different roles played by vitamin A/RA signaling in physiological and pathological mouse hematopoiesis duddurring both, embryonic and adult life, and the consequences of vitamin A deficiency for the blood system.

  18. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  19. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  20. Facts about Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yolks. Table 2. Food sources of vitamin A Food Vitamin A (RAE*) Sweet potato, cooked, 1 medium 1,400 Spinach, frozen, boiled, ½ cup 580 Carrot, raw, ½ cup 460 Pumpkin, cooked, ½ cup 305 Cantaloupe, cubed, 1 cup ...

  1. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  2. Vitamin D Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. If your results show you have an excess of (too much) vitamin D, it is most likely due to taking ... 2 screens]. Available from: ... Merck & Co. Inc.; c2017. Vitamin D [cited 2017 Apr 10]; [about 2 screens]. ...

  3. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the body through the urine. Because B vitamins are water-soluble, only small amounts are stored by the body and they must be obtained from foods rich in B vitamins or from supplements on a regular basis. Severe ...

  4. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation is described of specified vitamin D 3 esters containing alkyl and hydroxy groups. They can be used, in particular, for preparing radiolabeled vitamin D 3 compounds of high specific activity. (U.K.)

  5. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to cyclo-vitamin intermediates of specified formula. They can be used, in particular, for preparing 26,27-isotopically labeled vitamin D 3 compounds of high specific activity. (author)

  6. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  7. Vitamin D – The Vitamin Hormone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a lot has changed, and vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is now a global public-health ... Open Access article distributed under the terms of the. Creative Commons ..... as excess vitamin D3 is destroyed by sunlight. Conclusion. It appears ...

  8. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and can be stored in your body. The water-soluble vitamins — C and the B-complex vitamins (such as vitamins B6, B12, niacin, riboflavin, and folate) — need to dissolve in water before your body can absorb them. Because of ...

  9. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  10. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pork Nuts Poultry Whole grains and fortified cereals Canned chickpeas Fortified breads and cereals may also contain vitamin B6. Fortified means that a vitamin or mineral has been added to the food. Side Effects Large doses of vitamin B6 can cause: Difficulty ...

  11. Use of stable isotopes in studies of vitamin A nutrition in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solon, F.S.; Ribaya-Mercado, J.D.; Russell, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is recognized as a public health problem in the Philippines as confirmed by the 1993 National Nutrition Survey which showed an increasing prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among school children. This proposed study aims to determine whether the intake of fruits and vegetables that are rich in provitamin A carotenoids will result in an improvement in vitamin A liver stores of 7- 10 year old children who are malnourished in vitamin A. To meet this objective, vitamin A malnourished children (serum retinol, < 25 μg/dL) in two villages (experimental and control) will be identified and enrolled. Deworming will be done one month before the start of the study. Vitamin A status measurements - the deuterated retinol dilution method, serum retinol, dietary vitamin A intake, and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) procedure - will be done at baseline. Then the experimental group (n = 25) will be fed with fruits/vegetables to provide 2.4 mg of β-carotene, i.e., 400 μg retinol equivalents (RE) daily, for five days a week for twelve weeks. The control group (n = 25) will be fed an equivalent amount of calories and no vitamin A or carotenes. At the end of the feeding period, all measurements for determining vitamin A status will be repeated. Other determinations before and after intervention, will include total blood haemoglobin, and serum ferritin, albumin, transthyretin, and C-reactive protein concentrations. The proposed study will provide information regarding the adequacy of vitamin A measures, and the efficacy of food-based intervention programs in improving the vitamin A status of malnourished populations. (author)

  12. Avaliação de políticas públicas de segurança alimentar e combate à fome no período 1995-2002. 3 - o Programa Nacional de Controle da Deficiência de Vitamina A Evaluation of public policies to promote food security and the fight against hunger, 1995-2002. 3 - the Brazilian National Program to Control Vitamin A Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Cruz Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição de vitamina A em Dias Nacionais de Vacinação ocorre desde 1983; o Brasil foi pioneiro nesse tipo de intervenção. O estudo avaliou o programa no período de 1995-2002 na perspectiva de estrutura-processo-resultado. A metodologia envolveu pesquisa documental, entrevistas com gestores e estudo de caso em 44 municípios da Bahia, resultando em 1.344 questionários domiciliares. Em relação à estrutura, o programa operou sem instrumento normativo a partir de 1998, decorrente da extinção do Instituto Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição. Melhorias nos processos de aquisição e distribuição do suplemento impactaram positivamente na sua cobertura; em 2002, foram distribuídas 3,5 milhões de cápsulas (cobertura 72%. Nas 2.546 crianças estudadas na Bahia, não houve regularidade na distribuição e a cobertura anual variou de 8% a 26%. As limitações de tempo e recursos humanos, informadas pelos gestores, corroboram a hipótese de que essa estratégia não contribui para esclarecer a população sobre a importância da vitamina. Os achados mostram ser necessária a articulação sistemática entre esferas de governo para que o programa seja executado e monitorado em sua plenitude.Vitamin A supplements have been distributed during National Immunization Days since 1983, and Brazil has been a pioneer in this kind of strategy. The current study evaluated the National Program from 1995 to 2002, from a structure-process-results perspective. The methodology involved document research, interviews with health services managers, and a case study in 44 municipalities in Bahia State, resulting in 1,344 household interviews. In relation to structure, from 1998 on the program operated without a normative instrument due to the extinction of the National Institute of Nutrition. Improvements in the processes of vitamin supply procurement and distribution had a positive impact on coverage, reaching 3.5 million capsules in 2002 (72

  13. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  14. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  15. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  16. [Vitamins in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, K

    2012-09-01

    Vitamins are organic substances essential to the maintenance of many physiological functions, and necessary for growth. They are subdivided into two groups: the fat soluble vitamins which include vitamins A, D, E and K and the water-soluble vitamins which include Group B vitamins and vitamin C. The recommendations for vitamins intake must be evaluated at regular intervals, and vary according to the different methods used and the different environments assessed. The shortcomings, but equally the measures of prevention must be taken into account. In industrialized countries, provided that the diet is balanced and in the absence of chronic disease, the majority of needs are covered. Vitamin requirements vary depending on age, sex, state of pregnancy, chronic disease or a specific diet. In industrialized countries, chronic alcoholics and malabsorption cases represent groups at risk of vitamin deficiency. Dietary anamnesis remains the best tool to assess needs and nutritional deficiencies. In infants fed exclusively on milk, the required intake is easy to deduce; on the other hand, the needs assessment becomes more difficult with dietary diversification. In industrialized countries, vitamin D should be administered throughout one's life, and vitamin K during the first three months of life for breast-fed new-borns. In developing countries, nutritional status is precarious and supplementation needs to be adapted accordingly.

  17. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  18. Hygienic risk assessment of children with somatic health problems associated with vitamin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Ustinova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the seasonal provision of children attending pre-school organizations that implement the standard artificial diet fortification with vitamins A, C, D, E, В 6 and B 12 was performed. It was found that 75–85 % of children have a yearround vitamin deficiency and 40 % cases have the status of polyhypovitaminose. In autumn and winter the provision of children with vitamins corresponds to the physiological needs, but in the spring months 70 % of children have a deficit in vitamin C, and 15 % – in vitamin A. Even in autumn, every third child has a deficiency in vitamin B6, and every tenth – in vitamin D; in the spring the number of children with insufficient provision of these vitamins increases in 1.8–6.3 times. Half of the children, who attend pre-school organizations, have year-round vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of vitamins up to 3 times increases the risk of developing disorders of physical development of children, dysfunction processes of vascular tone regulation and autonomic reactivity, and the incidence of chronic diseases of children is increased in 1.3–2.2 times.

  19. Red palm oil bean-stew improved serum vitamin A and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), anaemia, and parasitic infections are among the major nutritional and health problems confronting Ghanaian school children. This study assessed the impact of red palm oil bean-stew consumption on serum retinol and haemoglobin concentrations of Ghanaian school children in a ...

  20. Vitamin and Mineral Support in Children from Kharkiv Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Frolova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The mineral imbalance and hypovitaminosis significantly affect the level of a child’s health. The objective of the study: the analysis of vitamin and mineral supplementation of schoolchildren. 230 children aged 7 to 17 years underwent comprehensive examination with involvement of different specialty experts. Determination of vitamin content in the blood serum was conducted taking into account the analysis of actual nutrition by high performance liquid chromatography on Varian apparatus. The levels of macro- and microelements in the hair of children were evaluated by characteristic X-ray method on X-ray spectrometer X-Lab 2000. Analysis of the findings showed that nutrition of schoolchildren has 30–40 % energy deficit, which is associated with protein deficiency and excessive intake of carbohydrates (over 20 % due to simple sugars. The nutrition of all examined pupils had a significant deficiency of vitamins A, B, E, D, and vitamin C. The study of the content of vitamins in the blood serum showed that all children had a deficiency of at least one of the major vitamins, and 73.8 % of children had multivitamins deficiency. It was found that 78.8 % of children had mineral disturbances and imbalance in the ratio of major essential elements. It is established that 66.7 % of children with hypovitaminosis and mineral imbalance in the past medical history had a long period of recovery after acute diseases, and 23.1 % of children had various complications of these diseases.

  1. Vitamin A, endocrine tissues and hormones: interplay and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brossaud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (retinol is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids target the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas. In the thyroid, retinoids interfere with iodine metabolism and vitamin A deficiency aggravates thyroid dysfunction caused by iodine-deficient diets. Retinoids use in thyroid cancer appears less promising than expected. Recent and still controversial studies investigated the relations between retinoids and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, retinoids contribute to pancreatic development and modify fat and glucose metabolism. However, more detailed studies are needed before planning any therapeutic use. Finally, retinoids probably play more minor roles in adrenal and gonads development and function apart from their major effects on spermatogenesis.

  2. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Water-Soluble Vitamins Water-soluble vitamins include all the B vitamins and vitamin C. The body does not easily store water-soluble vitamins and flushes out the extra in the urine. ...

  3. Class switch recombination in selective IgA-deficient subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj; Ryder, L P; Nielsen, L K

    2006-01-01

    -beta in combination, induced IgA production, albeit lower than found in B cells from controls. The B cells from the IgA-deficient subjects were less effective in differentiating into CD138(+) X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1)(+) plasma cells when stimulated with TGF-beta, IFN-gamma or IL-10. Interestingly, when adding...

  4. Scurvy and Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Mayberry, Jason A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of scurvy and vitamin C. The first section of the paper outlines the science of vitamin C. The second discusses outlines the medical progression of vitamin C deficiency and scurvy. The third section gives a brief timeline of scurvy throughout human history. The fourth section discusses the conditions during the age of sail that combined to make scurvy the greatest killer of sailors. The final section follows the scientific drive to find a cure and eventual elim...

  5. The science behind vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The use of topically applied vitamins has become a ubiquitous part of clinical skin care. While a part of the skin's antioxidant system that assists in protecting it from oxidative damage, vitamins A, C, and E have also proven their ability to treat photoaging, acne, cutaneous inflammation, and hyperpigmentation ((Burgess, 2008). Understanding these vitamins' unique mechanisms of action and how they work in concert helps the clinician select the appropriate topicals for their patients.

  6. Vitamine K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal dit Sollier Claire

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subclasses of vitamin K, their origins, their differential characteristics of absorption and metabolism, their relative effects on gammacarboxylation of various proteins implicated in hemostasis andcoagulation, in bone calcification are not well known even by experts in these fields. These misunderstandings explain errors in recommendations for public and for patients. This review will not expose again the fundamentals on vitamins K as presented in the paper by Marc Guillaumont published in 2000 in this same journal. This 2011 review will try to update our actual knowledge and most of all will insist on their practical implications especially on the management of oral anticoagulant treatments since until recently vitamin K antagonist was the only available type of such a treatment. Several examples illustrate the need for a better understanding of this subject. The fear that diet vitamin K could deregulate the equilibrium of oral vitamin K antagonist treatment leads to recommend a quite total suppression of vitamin K containing components in the diet of anticoagulated patients. This leads to an opposite effect: a high sensitivity to vitamin K and to disequilibrium of the anticoagulant treatment while a comprehensivemoderate and regular diet intake of vitamin K first facilitates the food choice of the patients but also helps to stabilise the treatment of chronically anticoagulated patients. Vitamin K plays a role in bone calcification and in osteoporosis prevention. Until recently the food supplementation with vitamin K in view of preventing osteoporosis in general population was strongly limited due to fear to affect the treatment equilibrium in anticoagulated patients. While an understanding that the effects of moderate supplementation in vitamin K has no or limited effect on anticoagulation and on the long run could at the opposite help to stabilize the daily level of anticoagulation in patients chronically treated with vitamin K.

  7. Vitamin D and Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    PITTAS, ANASTASSIOS G.; DAWSON-HUGHES, BESS

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) effects on various mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of both types of diabetes, including pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, impaired insulin action and systemic inflammati...

  8. Development and application of isotopic techniques in studies of vitamin A nutrition in pregnant HIV infected women in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutsoudis, A.; Pillay, K.; Coovadia, H.M.; Moodely, D.; Moodely, J.; Green, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    HIV infected pregnant women have been shown to be at risk for vitamin A deficiency. Poor vitamin A status has been shown to be a risk factor for transmission of HIV virus from mother to infant. It is however, difficult to assess the vitamin A status in such women by conventional methods such as serum retinol because of the effect of the acute phase response on serum retinol and because of the haemodilution that occurs during pregnancy. This study therefore sets out to determine more accurately the vitamin A stores of HIV infected pregnant women by means of the stable isotope dilution method. In addition the stable isotope dilution method will be used to validate the usefulness of breast-milk retinol status as an indicator of vitamin A status and its correlation with the infant's vitamin A status. (author)

  9. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Malay; Wong-See, Denise; Katz, Tamarah; Gaskin, Kevin; Whitehead, Bruce; Jaffe, Adam; Coakley, John; Lochhead, Alistair

    2014-07-01

    Determine the prevalence of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) aged ≤18 years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of fat-soluble vitamin levels in children aged ≤18 years who lived in NSW and attended any of the three paediatric CF centres from 2007 to 2010. An audit of demographic and clinical data during the first vitamin level measurement of the study period was performed. Deficiency of one or more fat-soluble vitamins was present in 240/530 children (45%) on their first vitamin level test in the study period. The prevalence of vitamins D and E deficiency fell from 22.11% in 2007 to 15.54% in 2010, and 20.22% to 13.89%, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency increased from 11.17% to 13.13%. Low vitamin K was present in 29% in 2007, and prevalence of prolonged prothrombin time increased from 19.21% to 22.62%. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency is present in 10%-35% of children with pancreatic insufficiency, but only a very small proportion of children who are pancreatic-sufficient. This is one of few studies of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency in children with CF in Australia. Fat-soluble vitamin testing is essential to identify deficiency in pancreatic-insufficient children who may be non-compliant to supplementation or require a higher supplement dose, and pancreatic-sufficient children who may be progressing to insufficiency. Testing of vitamin K-dependent factors needs consideration. Further studies are needed to monitor rates of vitamin deficiency in the CF community. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body and are eliminated in the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers ... calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... toc Also, the AAFP lists the following side effects that are sometimes associated with taking too much ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin ... providers before combining or substituting them with other foods or medicines." Frankos adds, "Do not self-diagnose ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? ... good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as over-the-counter multivitamins. According to the American ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... Subscribe to FDA RSS feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on ...

  19. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and ... into the body with the use of bile acids, which are fluids used to absorb fat. The ...

  1. Pregnancy and Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Ingole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency is common in women across different races of childbearing age. It is being increasingly discovered that vitamin D has many important bodily functions apart from skeletal actions pertaining to Calcium homeostasis. Evidence suggests that the maternal risks due to vitamin D deficiency includes eclampsia, increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance; and fetal risks include risk of rickets, osteoporotic fracture in late adulthood. It may be prudent to include screening of all pregnant women for vitamin D level as a part of routine antenatal care and supplementation be given if found deficient.

  2. Vitamin E in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abid Keen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is an important fat-soluble antioxidant and has been in use for more than 50 years in dermatology. It is an important ingredient in many cosmetic products. It protects the skin from various deleterious effects due to solar radiation by acting as a free-radical scavenger. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin E has antitumorigenic and photoprotective properties. There is a paucity of controlled clinical studies providing a rationale for well-defined dosages and clinical indications of vitamin E usage in dermatological practice. The aim of this article is to review the cosmetic as well as clinical implications of vitamin E in dermatology.

  3. Vitamin C In Neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are necessary factors in human development and normal brain function. Vitamin C is a hydrosoluble compound that humans cannot produce; therefore, we are completely dependent on food intake for vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidative agent and is present in high concentrations in neurons and is also crucial for collagen synthesis throughout the body. Ascorbic acid has a role in modulating many essential neurotransmitters, enables neurogenesis in adult brain and protects cells against infection. While SVCT1 enables the absorption of vitamin C in the intestine, SVCT2 is primarily located in the brain.

  4. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Henrik; Schmedes, Anne; Horn, Peer

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin D for osteoporosis and fractures has been known for more than 40 years. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed by measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), which should be > 50 nmol/l year round. Recent research suggests that a number of severe diseases could be prevented...... by increasing 25-OHD to 80 nmol/l. Despite a strong focus on such increase, recommendations for intake of Vitamin D have not been changed and the present recommendations are too low even to ensure > 50 nmol/l. To achieve optimal concentrations > 80 nmol/l, we estimate that 50-70 microgram of vitamin D per day...

  5. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Nielsen, Lars Rejnmark; Larsen, Erik Roj

    2005-01-01

    During the last two decades, biochemical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been available, and based on plasma measurements various definitions of vitamin D deficiency have been suggested. Whereas severe vitamin D deficiency is usually recognised relatively easy, it has been more difficult to d......% and 47%, respectively. Thus, a suboptimal vitamin D status is common among Danes. It is therefore important to consider how their vitamin D status can be improved.......During the last two decades, biochemical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been available, and based on plasma measurements various definitions of vitamin D deficiency have been suggested. Whereas severe vitamin D deficiency is usually recognised relatively easy, it has been more difficult...... to delimit the more subtle forms of vitamin D insufficiency. Today, a suboptimal vitamin D status is considered to be when the plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is below 50 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiency is defined as a plasma concentration between 25 and 50 nmol/L, whereas the term deficiency is used...

  6. Vitamin D deficiency among northern Native Peoples: a real or apparent problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency seems to be common among northern Native peoples, notably Inuit and Amerindians. It has usually been attributed to: (1 higher latitudes that prevent vitamin D synthesis most of the year; (2 darker skin that blocks solar UVB; and (3 fewer dietary sources of vitamin D. Although vitamin D levels are clearly lower among northern Natives, it is less clear that these lower levels indicate a deficiency. The above factors predate European contact, yet pre-Columbian skeletons show few signs of rickets—the most visible sign of vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, because northern Natives have long inhabited high latitudes, natural selection should have progressively reduced their vitamin D requirements. There is in fact evidence that the Inuit have compensated for decreased production of vitamin D through increased conversion to its most active form and through receptors that bind more effectively. Thus, when diagnosing vitamin D deficiency in these populations, we should not use norms that were originally developed for European-descended populations who produce this vitamin more easily and have adapted accordingly.

  7. Vitamin D deficiency: a new risk factor for type 2 diabetes?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, T; Muscogiuri, G; Sorice, G P; Prioletta, A; Salomone, E; Pontecorvi, A; Giaccari, A

    2012-01-01

    Recent compelling evidence suggests a role of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and insulin secretion derangements, with a consequent possible interference with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of this link is incompletely understood. In fact, vitamin D deficiency is usually detected in obesity in which insulin resistance is also a common finding. The coexistence of insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency has generated several hypotheses. Some cross-sectional and prospective studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in worsening insulin resistance; others have identified obesity as a risk factor predisposing individuals to exhibit both vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance. The available data from intervention studies are largely confounded, and inadequate considerations of seasonal effects on 25(OH)D concentrations are also a common design flaw in many studies. On the contrary, there is strong evidence that obesity might cause both vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance, leaving open the possibility that vitamin D and diabetes are not related at all. Although it might seem premature to draw firm conclusions on the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing insulin resistance and preventing type 2 diabetes, this manuscript will review the circumstances leading to vitamin D deficiency and how such a deficiency can eventually independently affect insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Role of Fat-Soluble Vitamins A and D in the Pathogenesis of Influenza: A New Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced exposure to solar radiation, leading to a deficiency of vitamin D and hence impaired innate immunity, has been suggested as a trigger for influenza viral replication and as an explanation of seasonal influenza. Although this hypothesis accounts for many unexplained facts about the epidemiology of influenza, gaps remain in understanding the pathogenesis and manifestations of the disease. Several observations suggest a role for vitamin A compounds (retinoids) in the disease. This paper ...

  9. Effects of amaranth addition on the pro-vitamin A content, and physical and antioxidant properties of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswa, Daniso; Dlamini, Nomusa R; Amonsou, Eric O; Siwela, Muthulisi; Derera, John

    2016-01-15

    Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health-promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro-vitamin A content of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize varieties that were composited with amaranth leaf powder at 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. At higher amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, while their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may therefore need improvement. As amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro-vitamin A content. Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize with added amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro-vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in southern Africa; thus the current study serves as a baseline. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Disturbed Vitamin A Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saeed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A’s functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs and retinoid X receptors (RXRs.The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1 it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2 it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3 it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. In times of inadequate dietary intake, the liver maintains stable circulating retinol levels of approximately 2 μmol/L, sufficient to provide the body with this vitamin for months. Liver diseases, in particular those leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis, are associated with impaired vitamin A homeostasis and may lead to vitamin A deficiency. Liver injury triggers HSCs to transdifferentiate to myofibroblasts that produce excessive amounts of extracellular matrix, leading to fibrosis. HSCs lose the retinyl ester stores in this process, ultimately leading to vitamin A deficiency. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is a spectrum of conditions ranging from benign hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; it may progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. NASH is projected to be the main cause of liver failure in the near future. Retinoic acids are key regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver and adipose tissue, but it is unknown whether impaired vitamin A homeostasis contributes to or suppresses the development of NAFLD. A genetic variant of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3-I148M is the most prominent

  11. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You Need Eating During Pregnancy Sun Safety Figuring Out Food Labels Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Vitamin D Vitamins and Minerals ...

  12. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  13. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  14. Analysis of stable isotope data to estimate vitamin A body stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a serious public health problem in most developing countries. Because of the detrimental effects of vitamin A deficiency on human health, accurate assessment of vitamin A status is necessary to develop and evaluate intervention programmes. The IAEA is providing technical support to its Member States to use stable isotope dilution techniques to develop and evaluate programmes aimed at reducing vitamin A deficiency in populations. The stable isotope dilution technique, in contrast to other methods, have the potential to provide a quantitative estimate of vitamin A concentration across the continuum of status, from deficient to excess vitamin A body stores. In 2004 the IAEA, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and HarvestPlus initiated the Vitamin A Tracer Task Force, made up of international experts. HarvestPlus is a Global Challenge Program of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). It is coordinated by the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), a not-for-profit organization that conducts socially and environmentally progressive research aimed at reducing hunger and poverty and preserving natural resources in developing countries, located in Colombia, and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), located in the United States of America and whose mission is to provide policy solutions aimed at reducing hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. The role of the Vitamin A Tracer Task Force was to prepare three complementary publications on the use of stable isotope dilution techniques to assess vitamin A body stores. The first publication entitled 'Appropriate Use of Vitamin A Tracer (Stable Isotope) Methodology' was published in 2004 by USAID/International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) through the Micronutrient Global Leadership (MGL) project with co-sponsorship of IAEA and HarvestPlus. The second handbook is on 'Vitamin A Tracer Dilution

  15. MicroRNA-449a deficiency promotes colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Masanori; Nakajima, Kohei; Ishikawa, Daichi; Nishida, Jun; Ishifune, Chieko; Tsukumo, Shin-Ichi; Shimada, Mitsuo; Nagahiro, Shinji; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Yasutomo, Koji

    2017-09-06

    MicroRNAs have broad roles in tumorigenesis and cell differentiation through regulation of target genes. Notch signaling also controls cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms through which Notch mediates microRNA expression are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify microRNAs regulated by Notch signaling. Our analysis found that microRNA-449a (miR-449a) was indirectly regulated by Notch signaling. Although miR-449a-deficient mice did not show any Notch-dependent defects in immune cell development, treatment of miR-449a-deficient mice with azoxymethane (AOM) or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) increased the numbers and sizes of colon tumors. These effects were associated with an increase in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation following AOM/DSS treatment. In patients with colon cancer, miR-449a expression was inversely correlated with disease-free survival and histological scores and was positively correlated with the expression of MLH1 for which loss-of function mutations have been shown to be involved in colon cancer. Colon tissues of miR-449a-deficient mice showed reduced Mlh1 expression compared with those of wild-type mice. Thus, these data suggested that miR-449a acted as a key regulator of colon tumorigenesis by controlling the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, activation of miR-449a may represent an effective therapeutic strategy and prognostic marker in colon cancer.

  16. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  17. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults need it to keep their bones strong and healthy. If you don’t get enough vitamin D, and you’re more likely to break bones as you age. How Much Vitamin D Do You Need? Women and Men Under age 50 400-800 international units (IU) ...

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  19. Rediscovering vitamin D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... closely linked to that of the childhood bone disease rickets. Although the .... milk with vitamin D3, which resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of ... The overall effect of calcitriol on the adaptive immune system is ..... non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: vitamin. D as a possible ...

  20. Riboflavin : A multifunctional vitamin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza, ACS; Ferreira, CV; Juca, MB; Aoyama, H; Cavagis, ADM; Peppelenbosch, MP

    2005-01-01

    Riboflavin, a component of the B-2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated

  1. Vitamin D and Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    industrial absenteeism caused by colds and respiratory illness; days of missed work was reduced by 30%. (n=3031) Homes AD, et al. Industrial...greater than ~87nmol/L. Vitamin D from sunlight affects TB The 1903 Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery that vitamin D from sunlight could cure cutaneous TB….

  2. Vitamin D and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Overbergh, Lut; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2011-01-01

    directly thereby rendering them more resistant to the types of cellular stress encountered during T1D and T2D. This review evaluates the role of vitamin D signaling in the pathogenesis of T1D and T2D with a special emphasis on the direct effects of vitamin D on pancreatic beta cells.......Experimental evidence indicates that vitamin D may play a role in the defense against type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of both T1D and T2D, whereas early and long-term vitamin...

  3. Vitamin D – The vitamin hormone | Muntingh | South African Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin D supplements and specific foods can aid in maintaining sufficient levels of vitamin D, particularly in people at risk of deficiency. However, there is still a lot of uncertainty around what are “optimal” or “sufficient” levels, how much sunlight different people need to achieve a given level of vitamin D, and whether vitamin ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are ... Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More ...

  8. Assessment and food based intervention of vitamin A status in Chinese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shian Yin; Guangwen Tang

    1997-01-01

    To assess food based intervention of vitamin A status in children, this study will first identify a geographic area with vitamin A deficiency in a childhood population. After screening dietary intakes of vitamin A from 300 preschool children aged 4-6 years, a stable isotope labeled (non-radioactive) vitamin A dose will be ingested to those subjects with low dietary vitamin A intakes (n = 3D48) to determine their liver stores of vitamin A. Their blood sample will be collected 14 and 25 days after the administration of the dose. Foods rich in pro-vitamin A carotenoids low in retinoids will then be supplied to 24 subjects in one kindergarten and the regular food low in carotenoids and retinoids will be supplied to another 24 subjects in another kindergarten for 3 months. Two groups will take equal amounts of retinoids, protein and energy but carotenoids from their meals. At the end of the study (l0 weeks on supplementation), a second stable isotope labeled vitamin A will be given and blood samples will be taken. (author)

  9. Is vitamin D defiiency associated with using veil in female garment workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Yosephin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the determinant factors which are associated with the serum vitamin D status in the female garment workers. Methods: This study was a cross sectional design with a total of 154 childbearing female garment workers aging from 18 to 40 who worked at garment factory in Sukabumi, Indonesia and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Serum 25(OHD was determined using a chemiluminescence immunoassay method. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing serum vitamin D status. Results: The results of this study showed that on average serum 25(OHD of the workers was 31.6 nmol/L and only 5.2% of them had a sufficient status of vitamin D. There were no different proportion among body mass index, supplement consumption, energy, protein, calcium, and vitamin D adequacy level with the serum vitamin D status of the workers. The workers who wore veils had a higher proportion to have a deficient serum vitamin D compared to workers who did not use veils (P = 0.000. The women who wore veils had a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency than the women who did not wear any veil. Conclusions: A need of vitamin D can be obtained from sunlight. Therefore it is suggested that the garment provide an opportunity for the garment workers to do exercise in the morning so that the workers can get sunlight prior to working.

  10. Vitamin C revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Spoelstra-de Man, Angelique Me; de Waard, Monique C

    2014-08-06

    This narrative review summarizes the role of vitamin C in mitigating oxidative injury-induced microcirculatory impairment and associated organ failure in ischemia/reperfusion or sepsis. Preclinical studies show that high-dose vitamin C can prevent or restore microcirculatory flow impairment by inhibiting activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, augmenting tetrahydrobiopterin, preventing uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and decreasing the formation of superoxide and peroxynitrite, and by directly scavenging superoxide. Vitamin C can additionally restore vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictors, preserve endothelial barrier by maintaining cyclic guanylate phosphatase and occludin phosphorylation and preventing apoptosis. Finally, high-dose vitamin C can augment antibacterial defense. These protective effects against overwhelming oxidative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion, sepsis or burn seems to mitigate organ injury and dysfunction, and promote recovery after cardiac revascularization and in critically ill patients, in the latter partially in combination with other antioxidants. Of note, several questions remain to be solved, including optimal dose, timing and combination of vitamin C with other antioxidants. The combination obviously offers a synergistic effect and seems reasonable during sustained critical illness. High-dose vitamin C, however, provides a cheap, strong and multifaceted antioxidant, especially robust for resuscitation of the circulation. Vitamin C given as early as possible after the injurious event, or before if feasible, seems most effective. The latter could be considered at the start of cardiac surgery, organ transplant or major gastrointestinal surgery. Preoperative supplementation should consider the inhibiting effect of vitamin C on ischemic preconditioning. In critically ill patients, future research should focus on the use of short-term high-dose intravenous vitamin

  11. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproduct...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance....

  12. An investigation of the levels of vitamins A, D, and E in the serum of Chinese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Juan; Li, Zhan-Dong; Mao, Cui-Ying; Kang, Xu; Zhang, Shu-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Vitamins A, D (Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3) and E, play an important role during pregnancy. Sera were collected from 1056 normal pregnant women, who were between 18 and 40 years old, at seven different hospitals in northeastern China. The levels of Vitamin A and E in the sera samples were detected using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), and the level of vitamin D was measured by LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21. The mean levels of vitamin A, D and E in the 1056 sera samples were 0.39 mg/L (0.38-0.39), 20.44 μg/L (19.86-21.08) and 12.96 mg/L (12.70-13.25), respectively. The levels of vitamin A, D, and E deficiency were 17.05%, 0.19%, and 56.44%, respectively. The levels of vitamin A, D, and E of those between age 21 and 31 among the 1056 pregnant women were similar. The correlation of vitamin E and D was significant at the .01 level (two-tailed), and the correlation of vitamin A and age was significant at the .05 level (2-tailed). According to our finding, the levels of vitamin A, D, and E in the sera of pregnant women in northeastern China were affected by where they live and their age. Vitamin D deficiency was very serious, vitamin A deficiency was common, while vitamin E seems to be sufficient. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Malacoplakia associated with vesicoureteral reflux and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherington, R; Branan, W J; Wray, B B; Best, G K

    1984-11-01

    A case of malacoplakia involving the lower urinary tract of a young black boy, with associated bilateral vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency is reported. Reflux was caused by the malacoplakia. Reflux and hydronephrosis persisted despite elimination of bacterial infection and malacoplakia by drug therapy. These abnormalities were corrected by a conventional antireflux operation. Malacoplakia appears to be related to immunologic incompetence and diminished levels of intracellular cyclic 3',5' guanine monophosphate. Cholinergic agonists reverse or prevent the pathological changes of malacoplakia.

  14. Freshwater fish as a dietary source of vitamin A in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; Chamnan, Chhoun; Loeung, Deap

    2007-01-01

    determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in samples of raw, whole fish from 29 fish species and in raw, edible parts from 24 species. Replicate samples were analysed in seven selected species. Two species, Parachela siamensis and Rasbora tornieri had very high vitamin A contents >1500 RAE/100 g...... raw, whole fish, and six species (Barbodes altus, Barbodes gonionatus, Dermogenys pusilla, Puntioplites proctozysron and Thynnichthys thynnoides) had high contents of 500-1500RAE/100 g raw, whole fish. Two species, Puntioplites proctozysron and Thynnichthys thynnoides had high vitamin A contents...... of carotenoid bioefficacy for the control of vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. Journal of Nutrition, 132, 2920S-2926S]. Dehydroretinoids (vitamin A(2)) are not converted to all-trans-retinol but have similar metabolic functions. In this paper, RAE refers to the functional bioefficacy as defined...

  15. Synergistic cytotoxic action of vitamin C and vitamin K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Negoro, T; Satoh, K; Jiang, Y; Hashimoto, K; Kikuchi, H; Nishikawa, H; Miyata, T; Yamamoto, Y; Nakano, K; Yasumoto, E; Nakayachi, T; Mineno, K; Satoh, T; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the combination effect of sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) and menadione (vitamin K3) on the viability of various cultured cells. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2, HSC-3) and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were more sensitive to these vitamins as compared to normal cells (human gingival fibroblast HGF, human periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF, human pulp cell HPC). The combination of vitamin C and vitamin K3 produced synergistic cytotoxicity against all these 6 cell lines. Treatment with vitamin C or vitamin K3, or their combination, induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation only in HL-60 cells, but not in the oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSG). ESR spectroscopy showed that vitamins C and K3 produce radicals under alkaline conditions and that the combination of these two vitamins synergistically enhanced their respective radical intensities.

  16. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off the market in 1983 because they were running up expensive legal bills in defense of their ... effects and are not likely to increase the beneficial effects. Movement disorders (tardive dyskinesia).Taking vitamin B6 ...

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other diseases. In children, it can cause rickets. Rickets is a rare disease that causes the bones ... and children are at higher risk of getting rickets. In adults, severe vitamin D deficiency leads to ...

  18. Facts about Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national ... content in food (US Department of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture, 2015). Food Vitamin ...

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunscreen or sun avoidance also lowers the skin’s production of vitamin D. There has been much confusion ... treatment can improve bone, body composition (how much lean muscle mass an individual has), and quality of life in ...

  20. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Deficiência de vitamina d está associada com níveis aumentados de il-17 e tnfα em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca crônica La deficiencia de vitamina D está asociada a niveles aumentados de IL-17 y Tnfα en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca crónica Vitamin d deficiency is associated with increased il-17 and tnfα levels in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Milovanovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Estudos recentes revelaram uma forte associação entre o estado de vitamina D (VD e a insuficiência cardíaca crônica (ICC. Hoje, é normalmente aceito que a resposta imune pró-inflamatória é subjacente ao desenvolvimento de ICC. OBJETIVO: Uma vez que a VD possui propriedades anti-inflamatórias, pesquisamos o seu impacto sobre as citocinas envolvidas na ICC, como TNFα e IL-17, em pacientes portadores de ICC. MÉTODOS: Foi extraído sangue de quarenta pacientes com ICC secundária à hipertensão arterial e/ou doença coronariana. Os níveis de VD status, IL-17 e TNFαforam avaliados através de 25-hidroxi VD3 EIA e ELISA de citocinas. Também foram realizadas avaliação clínica e ecocardiograma. RESULTADOS: Pacientes idosos com ICC em Nis (Sudeste da Europa, latitude 43ºN apresentaram níveis de 25-hidroxi VD3 abaixo do normal. Nossos dados demonstraram que pacientes com ICC secundária à hipertensão arterial têm níveis significativamente menores de 25-hidroxi VD3, e maiores de TNFαe IL-17A, se comparados com os níveis de pacientes com ICC secundária à doença coronariana. CONCLUSÃO: É demonstrado aqui que, mesmo em regiões com muitos dias ensolarados a deficiência de VD é motivo de preocupação. Os dados sugerem que o déficit de VD contribui para os elevados níveis de IL-17 e TNFα e, assim, contribuir ao desenvolvimento de ICC.FUNDAMENTO: Estudios recientes revelaron una fuerte asociación entre el estado de la vitamina D (VD y la insuficiencia cardíaca crónica (ICC. Hoy, es normalmente aceptado que la respuesta inmune pro-inflamatoria es subyacente al desarrollo de ICC. OBJETIVO: Una vez que la VD posee propiedades antiinflamatorias, investigamos su impacto sobre las citocinas envueltas en la ICC, como TNFα y IL-17, en pacientes portadores de ICC. MÉTODOS: Fue extraída sangre de cuarenta pacientes con ICC secundaria a la hipertensión arterial y/o enfermedad coronaria. Los niveles de VD status, IL

  2. [Vitamin D-deficiency rickets: a case report from Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagna, Y; Ouédraogo, D-D; Dao, F; Diallo, O; Tiéno, H; Guira, O; Traoré, L O; Yanogo, A R D; Drabo, Y J

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency rickets results from a deficiency of vitamin D that is responsible for deficient calcium absorption, leading to failure of bone mineralization and cartilage bone growth, especially in children. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl who shows signs of rickets. Her family history, which includes similar malformations in several family members, led us to suggest vitamin D-resistant rickets, but all laboratory tests and response to treatment indicated deficiency rickets. Prophylaxis, at least for some very poor people, should be proposed for certain populations at risk, even in tropical zones.

  3. Absorption of Vitamin A and Carotenoids by the Enterocyte: Focus on Transport Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Reboul

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in most developing countries, especially in children and pregnant women. It is thus a priority in health policy to improve preformed vitamin A and/or provitamin A carotenoid status in these individuals. A more accurate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of intestinal vitamin A absorption is a key step in this direction. It was long thought that β-carotene (the main provitamin A carotenoid in human diet, and thus all carotenoids, were absorbed by a passive diffusion process, and that preformed vitamin A (retinol absorption occurred via an unidentified energy-dependent transporter. The discovery of proteins able to facilitate carotenoid uptake and secretion by the enterocyte during the past decade has challenged established assumptions, and the elucidation of the mechanisms of retinol intestinal absorption is in progress. After an overview of vitamin A and carotenoid fate during gastro-duodenal digestion, our focus will be directed to the putative or identified proteins participating in the intestinal membrane and cellular transport of vitamin A and carotenoids across the enterocyte (i.e., Scavenger Receptors or Cellular Retinol Binding Proteins, among others. Further progress in the identification of the proteins involved in intestinal transport of vitamin A and carotenoids across the enterocyte is of major importance for optimizing their bioavailability.

  4. Co-ordinated research programme on development and application of isotopic techniques in studies of vitamin A nutrition. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In Vitamin A nutrition, evaluations to ascertain the efficacy of intervention strategies are becoming increasingly important. However, state-of-the-art methods for evaluating vitamin A status often do not provide enough quantitative information on vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids, particularly in people with subclinical vitamin A deficiency. These limitations have had programmatic consequences. The principal reason the new Coordinated Research programme (CRP) was formulated was to improve techniques for measuring vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids to vitamin A with the expectation that the new methods could contribute meaningfully to field-based evaluations of the efficacy of intervention strategies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is sponsoring programmes to develop and transfer isotopic techniques to improve nutrition monitoring in developing countries. The New CRP ''Development and Application of Isotopic Techniques in Studies of Vitamin A Nutrition'' has seven teams, six of which are working to develop methods based on orally administered isotopically labelled retinol which will be a valid measure of whole body retinol (mostly hepatic reserves) and useful under typical field conditions, particularly in women and children with marginal vitamin A deficiency. The seventh team is biosynthesizing uniformly deuterated β-carotene by growing foods in deuterated water. This report summarizes the research to be undertaken, as presented at the first Research Co-ordination Meeting

  5. Co-ordinated research programme on development and application of isotopic techniques in studies of vitamin A nutrition. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In Vitamin A nutrition, evaluations to ascertain the efficacy of intervention strategies are becoming increasingly important. However, state-of-the-art methods for evaluating vitamin A status often do not provide enough quantitative information on vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids, particularly in people with subclinical vitamin A deficiency. These limitations have had programmatic consequences. The principal reason the new Coordinated Research programme (CRP) was formulated was to improve techniques for measuring vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids to vitamin A with the expectation that the new methods could contribute meaningfully to field-based evaluations of the efficacy of intervention strategies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is sponsoring programmes to develop and transfer isotopic techniques to improve nutrition monitoring in developing countries. The New CRP ``Development and Application of Isotopic Techniques in Studies of Vitamin A Nutrition`` has seven teams, six of which are working to develop methods based on orally administered isotopically labelled retinol which will be a valid measure of whole body retinol (mostly hepatic reserves) and useful under typical field conditions, particularly in women and children with marginal vitamin A deficiency. The seventh team is biosynthesizing uniformly deuterated {beta}-carotene by growing foods in deuterated water. This report summarizes the research to be undertaken, as presented at the first Research Co-ordination Meeting. Refs, figs, tabs.

  6. Serum levels of vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Paula Nogueira de Araújo BRANDÃO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity, but the surgery increases the risk of developing nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin A deficiency. In human metabolism, vitamin A plays a role in vision. OBJECTIVE To evaluate serum vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface of patients undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS A cross-sectional and analytical study was conduced with 28 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for at least 6 months. Ophthalmologic evaluation was done through color vision test, contrast sensitivity test, ocular surface tests and confocal microscopy, as well as vitamin A serum measurement. RESULTS Vertical sleeve gastrectomy was performed in seven (25.0% patients and Roux -en-Y gastric by-pass in 21 (75.0%. Mean serum vitamin A level was 1.7±0.5 µmoL/L. Most patients (60.7% had symptoms of dry eye. Five (17.9% patients had contrast sensitivity impairment and 18 (64.3% color vision changes. In the group of patients undergoing Roux -en-Y gastric by-pass , mean vitamin A levels were 1.8±0.6 µmoL/L, whereas they were 1.7±0.5 µmoL/L in patients submitted to the restrictive technique vertical sleeve gastrectomy . The analysis of the influence of serum levels of vitamin A in the visual function and ocular surface was performed by Pearson correlation test and there was no significant correlation between any of the variables and vitamin A. CONCLUSION There was no influence of the bariatric surgery technique used on serum vitamin A levels, on the visual function or on the ocular surface. Moreover, there was no correlation between serum levels of vitamin A and the visual function or the ocular surface changes.

  7. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... too good to be true, it probably is. Examples of false claims on product labels include: Quick ... may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve ... the Dietary guidelines include the following: Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two ... flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Today's dietary supplements are not only vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such ... dietary ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... limbs, which may cause numbness, trouble walking, and pain. C (ascorbic acid): Upset stomach, kidney stones, increased ...

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  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D ... a vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D (for ... may become pregnant, eat foods high in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or ...

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    Full Text Available ... the following tips before buying a dietary supplement: Think twice about chasing the latest headline. Sound health ... For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for ... a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the ...

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  6. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    Science.gov (United States)

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... follow any instructions for not eating before the test. ... This test is done to determine if you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood.

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., Director ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ... comes to purchasing dietary supplements, Vasilios Frankos, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Division of Dietary Supplement Programs, ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There ... Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by mouth that contain a " ...

  11. Hotspots for Vitamin-Steroid-Thyroid Hormone Response Elements Within Switch Regions of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Loci Predict a Direct Influence of Vitamins and Hormones on B Cell Class Switch Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Julia L; Penkert, Rhiannon R; Xu, Beisi; Fan, Yiping; Partridge, Janet F; Maul, Robert W; Gearhart, Patricia J

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiencies are common throughout the world and have a significant negative influence on immune protection against viral infections. Mouse models demonstrate that the production of IgA, a first line of defense against viruses at mucosal sites, is inhibited in the context of vitamin A deficiency. In vitro, the addition of vitamin A to activated B cells can enhance IgA expression, but downregulate IgE. Previous reports have demonstrated that vitamin A modifies cytokine patterns, and in so doing may influence antibody isotype expression by an indirect mechanism. However, we have now discovered hundreds of potential response elements among Sμ, Sɛ, and Sα switch sites within immunoglobulin heavy chain loci. These hotspots appear in both mouse and human loci and include targets for vitamin receptors and related proteins (e.g., estrogen receptors) in the nuclear receptor superfamily. Full response elements with direct repeats are relatively infrequent or absent in Sγ regions although half-sites are present. Based on these results, we pose a hypothesis that nuclear receptors have a direct effect on the immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination event. We propose that vitamin A may alter S site accessibility to activation-induced deaminase and nonhomologous end-joining machinery, thereby influencing the isotype switch, antibody production, and protection against viral infections at mucosal sites.

  12. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ... iron-absorption enhancer, such as foods high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body and are eliminated in the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for how they ...

  15. Too Much Vitamin C: Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too much of it. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that supports normal growth and development and helps ... Dec. 12, 2017. Pazirandeh S, et al. Overview of water-soluble vitamins. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Dec. ...

  16. Vitamin D and bone health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holick, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton for most land vertebrates including humans. Sunlight causes the photoproduction of vitamin D3 in the skin. Once formed, vitamin D3 is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological function of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is to keep the serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range to maintain essential cellular functions and to promote mineralization of the skeleton. Most foods do not contain any vitamin D. Foods fortified with vitamin D have a variable amount present and cannot be depended on as a sole source of vitamin D nutrition. Exposure to sunlight provides most humans with their vitamin D requirement. Aging, sunscreen use and the change in the zenith angle of the sun can dramatically affect the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency is now being recognized as a major cause of metabolic bone disease in the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency not only causes osteomalacia but can exacerbate osteoporosis. It is generally accepted that an increase in calcium intake to 1000-1500 mg/d along with an adequate source of vitamin D of at least 400 IU/d is important for maintaining good bone health

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of ... supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as ...

  18. Vitamin Excess and Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Liliane; Krebs, Nancy F

    2018-04-01

    The published literature supports the high prevalence of supplement use in children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatricians today are faced with questions from parents and patients about the benefits, safety, efficacy, and correct dose of vitamins and minerals. In this article, we review 7 vitamins with the most clinical relevance as judged by abundance in food, risks and symptoms of deficiency, and potential for toxicity. Specifically, we focus on possible clinical scenarios that can be indicative of nutritional deficiency. We synthesize and summarize guidelines from nutrition experts, various medical societies, the World Health Organization, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rossini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we observed an increasing number of publications about the vitamin D, due to its recognised therapeutic actions and to the widespread hypovitaminosis D. In addition to the well known skeletal benefits, vitamin D can have multiple effects on other tissues.Muscular apparatus: hypovitaminosis D is associated with myopathy, sarcopenia, muscular strength reduction and increased risk of falls. The vitamin D supplementation increases the muscle functionality indexes. Cardiovascular system: low levels of vitamin D are related to increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a decreased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a good vitamin D status is related to a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; a vitamin D supplementation in the early childhood reduces (nearly 30% the risk of having type 1 diabetes. Cancer: vitamin D deficit is associated with breast, colorectal cancer and melanoma relapses. Low and high levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD are related to a higher neoplastic mortality. Infectious diseases: hypovitaminosis D is associated with higher incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and worse interferon response in chronic hepatitis C. Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of having type A influence. Rheumatic diseases: in rheumatoid arthritis low serum levels of vitamin D metabolites are related to a higher disease activity, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a higher probability of remission or response to therapy and a lower degree of disability. Neurologic diseases: associations between vitamin D deficit and risk of multiple sclerosis, depression, cognitive deficits, and Parkinson’s disease have been reported.There is evidence of the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, but most derive from observational studies: clinical trials

  20. Vitamin A deficiency may lead to severe septicemia in germfree rats being colonized from birth with an Escherichia coli strain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, U.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hanson, L. A.; Kahu, H.; Dahlgren, U. I.

    1997-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (1997), s. A22 ISSN 0818-9641. [International Congress of Mucosal Immunology /9./. Sydney, 27.01.1997-31.01.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/96/1256; GA ČR GA311/97/0784 Impact factor: 0.909, year: 1997

  1. Shift of graft-versus-host-disease target organ tropism by dietary vitamin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Koenecke

    Full Text Available Gut-homing of donor T cells is causative for the development of intestinal GvHD in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Expression of the gut-specific homing receptors integrin-α4β7 and chemokine receptor CCR9 on T cells is imprinted in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT under the influence of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid. Here we addressed the role of vitamin A deficiency in HSCT-recipients for donor T cell migration in the course of experimental GvHD. Vitamin A-deficient (VAD mice were prepared by feeding them a vitamin A-depleted diet. Experiments were performed in a C57BL/6 into BALB/c model of acute GvHD. We found that expression of integrin-α4β7 and CCR9 in GALT was reduced in VAD recipients after HSCT. Competitive in vivo homing assays showed that allogeneic T cells primed in VAD mice did not home as efficiently to the intestine as T cells primed in mice fed with standard diet (STD. The course of GvHD was ameliorated in VAD HSCT-recipients and, consequently, their survival was prolonged compared to recipients receiving STD. However, VAD-recipients were not protected and died of clinical GvHD. We found reduced numbers of donor T cells in the intestine but increased cell counts and tissue damage in other organs of VAD-recipients. Furthermore, we observed high IFN-γ(+CD4(+ and low FoxP3(+CD4(+ frequencies of total donor CD4(+ T cells in VAD as compared to STD recipients. Taken together, these results indicate that dietary vitamin A deficiency in HSCT-recipients changed target organ tropism in GvHD but also resulted in fatal inflammation after HSCT.

  2. Vitamin d and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel S; McClung, James P; Kohen, Tal; Lieberman, Harris R

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D is an essential nutrient obtained from the diet and exposure to sunlight. Roles for vitamin D have been established in the function of the cardiovascular, immune, and musculoskeletal systems. An electronic database search was conducted using EMBASE (1967 to August 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to August 2012), SPORTDiscus™ (1975 to August 2012), and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) (1998 to August 2012) with no limits of language of publication. Articles that described vitamin D and performance were considered eligible for this review. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D maintains physical performance in athletes and other active populations, e.g., maximal oxygen consumption may be related to vitamin D status. Poor vitamin D status affects muscle strength, and vitamin D may participate in protein synthesis through the actions of the vitamin D receptor in muscle tissue. Vitamin D may protect against overuse injuries, such as stress fracture, through its well-documented role in calcium metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to review recent evidence regarding the importance of vitamin D for maintaining physical performance, and includes specific examples of how vitamin D supports the cardiovascular, immune, and musculoskeletal systems.

  3. Vitamin D and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Brinkley, D; Ali, Omair M; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Wang, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is principally known for its role in calcium homeostasis, but preclinical studies implicate multiple pathways through which vitamin D may affect cardiovascular function and influence risk for heart failure. Many adults with cardiovascular disease have low vitamin D status, making it a potential therapeutic target. We review the rationale and potential role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of chronic heart failure. Substantial observational evidence has associated low vitamin D status with the risk of heart failure, ventricular remodeling, and clinical outcomes in heart failure, including mortality. However, trials assessing the influence of vitamin D supplementation on surrogate markers and clinical outcomes in heart failure have generally been small and inconclusive. There are insufficient data to recommend routine assessment or supplementation of vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of chronic heart failure. Prospective trials powered for clinical outcomes are warranted.

  4. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  5. Vitamin D and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Minu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone is synthesized in response to sunlight. Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D may reduce the risk of cancer through regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as inhibition of angiogenesis. These anticancer properties have been attributed primarily to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH 2 D] (calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D. Extensive research has shown that cells, including cancer cells, express specific receptors (VDR for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. When bound to the VDR, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D regulates> 60 genes that exert prodifferentiating, antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects on cells, including effects on cell cycle. The amount of exposure to the sun has been found to correlate inversely with cancer mortality and survival in numerous epidemiological studies. An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Several ecological studies suggest that sunlight may protect against prostate, colon, rectal, female breast and ovarian cancer, all diseases that contribute to a substantially higher proportion of cancer mortality in the western industrialized world. Some analytical studies also suggest a protective association between circulating vitamin D in blood, which is largely derived from sunlight, or dietary vitamin D. Paricalcitol (calcitriol analogue is as effective as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in transactivating the prostatic VDR and in inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer cell lines and primary cultures of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Promising preclinical evaluations of calcitriol and analogues have appeared in prostate cancer animal models.

  6. Case report: Ribavirin and vitamin A in a severe case of measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichon, Amandine; Aubry, Camille; Benarous, Lucas; Drouet, Hortense; Zandotti, Christine; Parola, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Despite a vaccine being widely available, measles continues to occur frequently, with sometimes lethal consequences. The mortality rate reaches 35% and measles represents 44% of the 1.4 million deaths which are due to preventable diseases. Severe forms of measles are reported, mainly in young, unvaccinated adults, and in specific populations. The risk factors for severe measles include no or incomplete vaccination and vitamin A deficiency. Apart from secondary measles-related infections, severe measles is mainly represented by neurological, respiratory, and digestive symptoms. Strengthening the hypothesis that there is a link between vitamin A deficiency and severe measles in this paper we report the case of a 25-year-old unvaccinated man hospitalized for severe and complicated measles. The evolution was good after administration of intramuscular vitamin A as well as intravenous ribavirin. Measles remains a fatal and serious disease. The early use of ribavirin and vitamin A shows significant improvements regarding morbimortality and should be systematic in severe cases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Vitamin B12 levels in the patient population attending an urban health centre in Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero-Shelly, M

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin B 12 levels are usually measured in Primary Care when the patients have symptoms or risk factors associated with its deficiency, mostly in the elderly. However, no evidence has been found to support the recommendation of screening in the general population. The aim of this study is to assess the relevance of having extended the screening of vitamin B 12 deficiency to a younger population, after observing an increase in the prescription of this injected vitamin in a population under 65 years, by analysing the vitamin B 12 values obtained. A descriptive, retrospective, observational study was conducted on a sample consisting of 5,531 patients from Barajas Health Primary Centre, Madrid, between 2008 and 2012, and on whom a blood test was performed for any reason, with values of vitamin B 12 . A deficiency was found in 9.1% (SD 2.3) of the patients, of whom 49.4% were less than 65 years. The deficiencies were associated (P<.001, 95% CI) with age, dementia, changes in blood red cell counts, memory, and with the taking of metformin and proton pump inhibitors (P=.007). The prevalence of vitamin B 12 deficiency in our served population is similar in patients older and younger than 65 years. The extended screening was relevant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-06-21

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  9. Vitamin D, Homocysteine, and Folate in Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Caruso, Paola; Dal Ben, Matteo; Conti, Corrado; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a worldwide health problem which affects millions of patients; Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD) are the two most frequent forms of its presentation. As no definite therapeutic options have been discovered, different risk factors for cognitive impairment have been searched for potential therapies. This report focuses on the possible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and hyper-homocysteinemia can be considered as two important factors for the development or the progression of neurodegenerative or vascular pathologies. To this end, we assessed: the difference in vascular risk factors and vitamin D-OH25 levels among groups of sVAD, AD, and healthy age-matched controls; the association of folate, B12, homocysteine, and vitamin D with sVAD/AD and whether a deficiency of vitamin D and an increment in homocysteine levels may be related to neurodegenerative or vessel damages. The commonly-considered vascular risk factors were collected in 543 patients and compared with those obtained from a healthy old volunteer population. ANOVA group comparison showed that vitamin D deficiency was present in demented cases, as well as low levels of folate and high levels of homocysteine, more pronounced in sVAD cases. The statistical models we employed, with regression models built, and adjustments for biochemical, demographic and neuropsychiatric scores, confirmed the association between the three measures (folate decrease, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin D decrease) and dementia, more pronounced in sVAD than in AD.

  10. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  11. Vitamin D in Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helde-Frankling, Maria; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda

    2017-10-18

    Vitamin D is a hormone synthesized in the skin in the presence of sunlight. Like other hormones, vitamin D plays a role in a wide range of processes in the body. Here we review the possible role of vitamin D in nociceptive and inflammatory pain. In observational studies, low vitamin D levels have been associated with increased pain and higher opioid doses. Recent interventional studies have shown promising effects of vitamin D supplementation on cancer pain and muscular pain-but only in patients with insufficient levels of vitamin D when starting intervention. Possible mechanisms for vitamin D in pain management are the anti-inflammatory effects mediated by reduced cytokine and prostaglandin release and effects on T-cell responses. The recent finding of vitamin D-mediated inhibition of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is especially interesting and exhibits a credible mechanistic explanation. Having reviewed current literature, we suggest that patients with deficient levels defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels 50 nmol/L probably have little benefit from supplementation. Our conclusion is that vitamin D may constitute a safe, simple and potentially beneficial way to reduce pain among patients with vitamin D deficiency, but that more randomized and placebo-controlled studies are needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

  12. Vitamin D in allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a factor that plays a significant role in calcium-phosphate balance. It has an effect on bone metabolism and also has modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. It is claimed that vitamin D inhibits immunological reactions with Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. The influence of vitamin D on Th2 lymphocytes is not clear. The main effect of vitamin D is probably the activation of Treg lymphocytes. It was observed that vitamin D had a beneficial influence on diseases connected with excessive activation of Th1 lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific enteritis, diabetes type 1 or psoriasis. The role of vitamin D in allergic diseases, in which increased activation of Th2-dependent reactions are of great importance, is controversial. However, due to a wide range of vitamin D activity, this view seems to be simplified. A beneficial effect on the course of allergic diseases was observed in up-to-date studies although the role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis has not been explained yet. On the basis of recent studies and well-known mechanisms of vitamin D activity on particular elements of the immunological system, the influence of vitamin D on the course of chosen allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was presented considering the possibility of contribution of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  13. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D

  14. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, lung function and structure in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Isaac; Hanson, Corrine; Sayles, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP.......Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP....

  15. Estimating the impact of vitamin A-fortified vegetable oil in Bangladesh in the absence of dietary assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem in Bangladesh. The 2011-12 Bangladesh Micronutrient Survey found 76·8% of children of pre-school age were vitamin A deficient. In the absence of nationally representative, individual dietary assessment data, we use an alternative--household income and expenditure survey data--to estimate the potential impact of the introduction of vitamin A-fortified vegetable oil in Bangladesh. Items in the household income and expenditure survey were matched to food composition tables to estimate households' usual vitamin A intakes. Then, assuming (i) the intra-household distribution of food is in direct proportion to household members' share of the household's total adult male consumption equivalents, (ii) all vegetable oil that is made from other-than mustard seed and that is purchased is fortifiable and (iii) oil fortification standards are implemented, we modelled the additional vitamin A intake due to the new fortification initiative. Nationwide in Bangladesh. A weighted sample of 12,240 households comprised of 55,580 individuals. Ninety-nine per cent of the Bangladesh population consumes vegetable oil. The quantities consumed are sufficiently large and, varying little by socio-economic status, are able to provide an important, large-scale impact. At full implementation, vegetable oil fortification will reduce the number of persons with inadequate vitamin A intake from 115 million to 86 million and decrease the prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake from 80% to 60%. Vegetable oil is an ideal fortification vehicle in Bangladesh. Its fortification with vitamin A is an important public health intervention.

  16. Vitamin A nutritional status in high- and low-income postpartum women and its effect on colostrum and the requirements of the term newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Cristiane Santos Sânzio; Grilo, Evellyn C; Lira, Larissa Q; Assunção, Débora G F; Oliveira, Priscila G; Melo, Larisse R M de; de Medeiros, Silvia V; Pessanha, Luanna C; Dimenstein, Roberto; Lyra, Clélia O

    To evaluate the vitamin A status in serum and colostrum of postpartum women with different socioeconomic status, comparing the colostrum retinol supply with the vitamin A requirement of the newborn. Cross-sectional study conducted with 424 postpartum women. Vitamin A maternal dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Colostrum and serum retinol levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol concentrations <20μg/dL were indicative of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Vitamin A levels provided by colostrum <400μgRAE/day were considered as insufficient for term newborns. The mean maternal vitamin A intake during pregnancy was 872.2±639.2μgRAE/day in low-income women and 1169.2±695.2μgRAE/day for high-income women (p<0.005). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 6.9% (n=18) in the low-income group and 3.7% (n=6) in the high-income group. The estimated mean retinol intake by infants of the high- and low-income mothers were 343.3μgRAE/day (85.8% AI) and 427.2μgRAE/day (106.8% AI), respectively. Serum vitamin A deficiency was considered a mild public health problem in both populations; however, newborns of low-income women were more likely to receive lower retinol levels through colostrum when compared with newborns of high-income mothers. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiovascular Diseases and Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin D and Vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the associations between insufficiency of fat soluble vitamins and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported. Vitamin D affects the cardiovascular system via several pathways, such as suppression of parathyroid hormone, the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular endothelial growth and the immune system. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown the association between the concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), which is a vitamin D metabolite indicating nutritional vitamin D status, and hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure and CVD mortality. On the other hand, the association between vitamin K status and CVDs, especially vascular calcification, has been also reported. Cross-sectional and cohort studies show that high vitamin K status is associated with reduced coronary artery calcification, CVDs and mortality risk. Epidemiological and basic studies indicate that vitamin K possesses a benefit in the prevention of the progression of coronary artery calcification via activation of matrix-gla protein (MGP). While these data in epidemiological and basic studies suggest the protective role of vitamin D and K in CVDs, the benefits of supplementation of both vitamins have not been validated in randomized controlled trials. Further basic and interventional studies are needed to confirm the benefit of both vitamins in protection against CVDs.

  18. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  19. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, and risk of falling in older adults. Special consideration is given to the impact of both the starting 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the dose administered on the clinical response to supplemental vitamin D in older men and women. Based on available evidence, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D dose range of 800-1000 IU per day has been effective in many studies; lower doses have generally been ineffective and several doses above this range have increased the risk of falls. In conclusion, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-04-13

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  1. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L Trump

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  2. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  3. Vitamin K for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Louise; Clar, Christine; Ghannam, Obadah; Flowers, Nadine; Stranges, Saverio; Rees, Karen

    2015-09-21

    A deficiency in vitamin K has been associated with increased calcium deposition and coronary artery calcification, which may lead to cardiovascular disease. To determine the effectiveness of vitamin K supplementation as a single nutrient supplement for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 8 of 12, 2014); MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to September week 2 2014); EMBASE Classic + EMBASE (Ovid, 1947 to September 18 2014); Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Science (CPCI-S) (both 1990 to 17 September 2014) on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database (Issue 3 of 4, 2014). We searched trial registers and reference lists of reviews for further studies. We applied no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of vitamin K supplementation as a single nutrient supplement, lasting at least three months, and involving healthy adults or adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The comparison group was no intervention or placebo. The outcomes of interest were cardiovascular disease clinical events and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, abstracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. We included only one small trial (60 participants randomised) which overall was judged to be at low risk of bias. The study examined two doses of menaquinone (vitamin K2) over 3 months in healthy participants aged 40 to 65 years. The primary focus of the trial was to examine the effects of menaquinone (subtype MK7) on different matrix Gla proteins (MGP - vitamin K dependent proteins in the vessel wall) at different doses, but the authors also reported blood pressure and lipid levels. The trial did not report on our

  4. Differences in vitamin D concentration between metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese adults: associations with inflammatory and cardiometabolic markers in 4391 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, A; Aryan, Z; Esteghamati, A; Nakhjavani, M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to compare concentrations of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and inflammatory markers in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO), and to determine whether the relationship between vitamin D levels and both cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers differs between MHO and MUO. This cross-sectional study comprised 4391 obese subjects aged>18 years. A panel of cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers, including anthropometric variables, glycaemic indices, lipid profiles, liver enzymes, homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, was investigated. All cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in MHO and MUO as well as in vitamin D deficiency were compared. Prevalence of MHO was 41.9% in our obese subjects using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Considering insulin resistance and inflammation, the prevalence of MHO was 38.4%. Individuals with MHO had significantly higher vitamin D concentrations compared with MUO, and this difference in vitamin D status persisted after accounting for BMI and waist circumference. Subjects with MHO had significantly better metabolic status, lower liver enzymes, lower inflammatory markers and higher serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D than those with MUO. Associations between vitamin D levels and inflammatory and cardiometabolic markers differed according to MHO/MUO status. Among MUO subjects, vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher liver marker and homocysteine levels. Serum vitamin D was negatively associated with fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c in MHO only. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were lower in MUO vs MHO, and reduced vitamin D concentrations were more strongly associated with cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in MUO than in MHO subjects. These findings suggest that a deficiency in vitamin D could be a key component of MUO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  6. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  7. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Are ... you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your body needs ...

  8. Radioresponse of mice testes with or without vitamin-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, T.K.; Goyal, P.K.; Dev, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamins have generated a great deal of interest in recent years for a wide range of protective effects in biological systems. The present study is an attempt to assess the prophylactic use of Vitamin-E against radiation induced changes in the testicular cell counts of Swiss albino mice after exposure to low dose of gamma rays. Quantitative changes in different type of testicular cells of adult Swiss albino mice exposed to 1.6 Gy gamma rays after 7 days prior treatment of vitamin-E (as α-tocopherol), once a day, were studied. The results were compared with those obtained from animals irradiated with the same dose of gamma rays in the absence of Vitamin-E. It was found that the number of different cell counts declined in the testes after irradiation. A continuous depletion was found in the frequency of different spermatogonia types and primary spermatocytes from 6 h to 5 d after irradiation both with control and experimental groups. The counts of such testicular components started elevating from day 10, but remained below normal till 20 days post-irradiation. A progressive decline in the counts of spermatids was also observed from 6 h to the last autopsy interval. However, the experimental values were significantly higher than their corresponding controls at days 10 and 20 post-irradiation intervals. It appears that the higher surviving germ cells population and lesser testicular degeneration in Vitamin-E treated animals is the result of high degree of protection provided by Vitamin-E to the germ cells, which continue to retain their proliferative activities. (author)

  9. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis K; Hardacre, Allan; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Weber, Janet L; Brough, Louise; Coad, Jane

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa is high in spite of vitamin A supplementation programmes among children in most countries. Plant-based complementary foods remain the key source of nutrients in addition to breast milk for infants in lower income countries. Cereal-legume blends are superior in protein and energy densities compared with maize, millet or sorghum-only porridge. However, unfortified cereal-legume and cereal-only porridges are low in vitamin A. A household-level sweet potato-based infant food, rich in vitamin A, has been developed to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa. A composite flour containing sweet potato, soybean, soybean oil and fishmeal was processed as complementary food by oven toasting (denoted oven-toasted ComFa). The oven-toasted ComFa and enriched Weanimix (processed from dehulled maize, dehulled soybean, groundnut and fishmeal) were assessed for suitability as complementary food based on the nutrient composition using specifications in the Codex Standard (CS) as a reference. The sweet potato-based formulation and enriched Weanimix met the energy, protein, fructose and fat specifications but barely met the amino acid score as indicated in the CS. However, only the oven-toasted ComFa met the calcium and almost half the vitamin A levels as specified in the CS. Oven-toasted ComFa was slightly lower in energy, protein and fat by a difference not greater than 4.0% but was higher by more than 100% in fructose and vitamin A levels. Therefore, the sweet potato-based complementary food is likely to support vitamin A supplementation initiatives in low-income countries better than the cereal-based formulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were based on, for example, LC. Koontz et al. showed results of total folate concentrations measured by microbiological assay in a variety of foods. Samples were submitted in a routine manner to experienced laboratories that regularly perform folate analysis fee-for-service basis in the United States. Each laboratory reported the use of a microbiological method similar to the AOAC Official Method for the determination of folic acid. Striking was, the use of 3 different pH extraction conditions by 4 laboratories. Only one laboratory reported using a tri-enzyme extraction. Results were evaluated. Results for folic acid fortified foods had considerably lower between-laboratory variation, 9-11%, versus >45% for other foods. Mean total folate ranged from 14 to 279 microg/100 g for a mixed vegetable reference material, from 5 to 70 microg/100 g for strawberries, and from 28 to 81 microg/100 g for wholemeal flour. One should realize a large variation in results, which might be caused by slight modifications in the microbiological analysis of total folate in foods or the analysis in various (unfortified) food matrixes. Furthermore, optimal

  11. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma

    2011-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Biofortified cassava with pro-vitamin A is sensory and culturally acceptable for consumption by primary school children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Elise F; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; de Kok, Brenda P H; Mbera, Gloria N K; Mwangi, Alice M; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sensory and cultural acceptability of the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich cassava in order to identify key factors predicting the intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava by families with school-aged children in Eastern Kenya. Sensory acceptability was measured by replicated discrimination tests and paired preference tests among 30 children (7-12 yr) and 30 caretakers (18-45 yr) in three primary schools. Cultural acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire based on the combined model of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Health Belief Model in one primary school among 140 caretakers of children aged 6 to 12 years. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to determine associations between summed scores for model constructs. Caretakers and children perceived a significant difference in taste between white and pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Both preferred pro-vitamin A rich cassava over white cassava because of its soft texture, sweet taste and attractive color. Knowledge about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and it's relation to health ('Knowledge' ((β = 0.29, P = behavior identity'. Worries related to bitter taste and color ('Perceived barriers 1' (β = -0.21, P = .02)), the belief of the caretaker about having control to prepare cassava ('Control beliefs' (β = 0.18, P = .02)) and activities like information sessions about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and recommendations from health workers ('Cues to action'(β = 0.51, P = consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Pro-vitamin A rich cassava is well accepted by school children in our study population.

  13. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  14. Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.; Knipschild, P.; ter Riet, G.

    1989-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials of the effects of Vitamin E on complaints of intermittent claudication and angina pectoris are reviewed, and their methodological shortcomings are considered. Mechanisms by which Vitamin E might act in cardiovascular disease are discussed. The evidence about the possible

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. ... amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some supplement products may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body and are eliminated in the ...

  17. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D include these, among many others: • Some cancers • Heart disease • Diabetes (high blood sugar) • Obesity • Muscle weakness However, it is not clear if ... vitamin D can become “trapped” in body fat, obesity may cause low vitamin D. People ... heart disease, and stroke.) These diseases are even more likely ...

  18. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Hamilton, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  19. vitamin c - jf-f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impo

    delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) which peaks after. 24 - 48 hours and subsides after ... As the evidence regarding the effect of vitamin C (VC) supple- mentation on systemic ..... Pederson EW, Ostowski K, Ibfedt T, et al. Effect of vitamin ...

  20. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... product worth the money?'" Frankos advises. "Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some supplement products may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B ... Americans, many people consume more calories than they need without taking in ... nutrients—including vitamins—for which low dietary intake may be a ...

  3. Vitamin D for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, Anouk M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D has been identified as an important factor in healthy aging and is receiving growing attention in clinical research. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble molecule, which is synthesized by hepatic and renal or extra-renal hydroxylation into the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D).

  4. [Vitamin D and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Natielen Jacques; Garcia, Vivian Cristina; Martini, Ligia Araújo

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been worldwide reported in all age groups in recent years. It has been considered a Public Health matter since decreased levels of vitamin D has been related to several chronic diseases, as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and hypertension. Glucose intolerance and insulin secretion has been observed during vitamin D deficiency, both in animals and humans resulting in T2DM. The supposed mechanism underlying these findings is presence of vitamin D receptor in several tissues and cells, including pancreatic beta-cells, adipocyte and muscle cells. In obese individuals, the impaired vitamin D endocrine system, characterized by high levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could induce a negative feedback for the hepatic synthesis of 25(OH)D and also contribute to a higher intracellular calcium, which in turn secrete less insulin and deteriorate insulin sensitivity. In hypertension, vitamin D could act on renin-angiotensin system and also in vascular function. Administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could decreases renin gene expression and inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, prospective and intervention human studies that clearly demonstrates the benefits of vitamin D status adequacy in the prevention and treatment of endocrine metabolic diseases are lacking. Further research still necessary to assure the maximum benefit of vitamin D in such situations.

  5. Vitamin K and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Cheung, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K has been purported to play an important role in bone health. It is required for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone), making osteocalcin functional. There are 2 main forms (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), and they come from different sources and have different biological activities. Epidemiologic studies suggest a diet high in vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in aging men and women. However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation in white populations did not increase bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fractures, but the trials that examined fractures as an outcome have methodological limitations. Large well-designed trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures. We conclude that currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D and muscle trophicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Faria, Carla; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, discrepancies still exist about an enhancement or a decrease of muscle proliferation and differentiation by the vitamin D. Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. Finally, apart from its genomic and nongenomic effects, recent investigations have demonstrated a genetic contribution of vitamin D to muscle functioning. Recent studies support the importance of vitamin D in muscle health, and the impact of its deficiency in regard to muscle mass and function. These 'trophic' properties are of particular importance for some specific populations such as elderly persons and athletes, and in situations of loss of muscle mass or function, particularly in the context of chronic diseases.

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fat-soluble vitamins.” For some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that it recommends not be exceeded during any given day. (For more information, visit ... the AAFP lists the following side effects that are ...

  8. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  9. Vitamin D and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Potrokhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review discusses the effect of vitamin D on the tolerogenic modulation of an immune response, its relationship to cells of the monocyte-macrophage series, including dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, in the context of the impact of the expression of anti-inflammatory proinflammatory cytokines in some autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Crohn`s disease. It discusses the role of vitamin D in the development of innate and adaptive immunity. Despite some conflicting evidence, the immune regulatory function of vitamin D is generally directed toward inhibition of the components of innate and acquired immunity, which are responsible for the induction of autoimmune reactions; in this connection there are a growing number of publications devoted to the issues of vitamin D supplementation in patients with autoimmune diseases, the preventive effect of vitamin D intake on the risk of an abnormality and that of therapeutic doses of the vitamin on its course. The maintenance of the threshold value for serum 25(OHD3 at least 30 ng/ml, which is achieved by the intake of about 2000 IU of vitamin D, is shown to be required for its immune regulatory function. The data given raise the question as to whether it is necessity to revise the Russian recommended daily dietary allowances for vitamin D through its infant food fortification.

  10. [Osteomalacia and vitamin D deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, C P; Corsten, N; Rolf, O

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin D and calcium deficiency has a higher incidence in the orthopedic-trauma surgery patient population than generally supposed. In the long term this can result in osteomalacia, a form of altered bone mineralization in adults, in which the cartilaginous, non-calcified osteoid does not mature to hard bone. The current value of vitamin D and its importance for bones and other body cells are demonstrated. The causes of vitamin D deficiency are insufficient sunlight exposure, a lack of vitamin D3 and calcium, malabsorption, and rare alterations of VDR signaling and phosphate metabolism. The main symptoms are bone pain, fatigue fractures, muscular cramps, muscle pain, and gait disorders, with an increased incidence of falls in the elderly. Osteopathies induced by pharmaceuticals, tumors, rheumatism or osteoporosis have to be considered as the main differential diagnoses. In addition to the recording of symptoms and medical imaging, the diagnosis of osteomalacia should be ensured by laboratory parameters. Adequate treatment consists of the high-dose intake of vitamin D3 and the replacement of phosphate if deficient. Vitamin D is one of the important hormone-like vitamins and is required in all human cells. Deficiency of vitamin D has far-reaching consequences not only for bone, but also for other organ systems.

  11. Stability of β-carotene during baking of orange-fleshed sweet potato-wheat composite bread and estimated contribution to vitamin A requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzamwita, Madjaliwa; Duodu, Kwaku Gyebi; Minnaar, Amanda

    2017-08-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is known to be a rich source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and a potential tool for fighting vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. OFSP flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) substitution levels. The stability of β-carotene during baking and the contribution of OFSP-wheat composite breads to vitamin A requirements were evaluated. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene in breads containing 10, 20 and 30% OFSP flour was 62.7, 71.4 and 83% respectively, after baking. Breads containing 20% and 30% OFSP flour could be used for the eradication of vitamin A deficiency as they were found to meet 29 and 89.2% (100g portion) respectively, of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin A amongst children aged 3-10years. The latter would meet nearly a half of the RDA of vitamin A for pregnant and lactating women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Vitamin D: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, M; Alonso, G; García-Martín, A

    2014-10-01

    In recent years has been a growing interest by vitamin D, not only for its important role in the bone mineral metabolism, but also by the extra-osseous effects. Most of the scientific societies consider that deposits are sufficient if the serum concentration of 25-OH vitamin D is above 30ng/ml and are considered deficient if levels are below 20ng/ml. The majority of studies found that supplements of calcium plus vitamin D have a positive effect in reducing the risk of fracture and the risk of falls in the elderly, although several specifies that doses should be 700-1.000 IU daily. The treatment of the deficit can be performed with vitamin D2, D3 as well as calcidiol or the active metabolite calcitriol. In certain pathologies also selective vitamin D receptor activators can be used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of irradiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical process involving treatment of food with ionising radiation. Its main uses are reduction in spoilage and pathogenic organisms, inhibition of ripening and sprouting processes, and insect disinfestation. Chemical changes in the treated foods are small, and expert committees have concluded that they carry no special nutritional problems. Some vitamins are sensitive to irradiative degradation, however, and opponents of the process have claimed that extensive destruction will occur. Irradiation doses will, however, be limited by organoleptic changes, and maximum levels are being introduced into legislation for specific foods. Examination of the published literature shows that vitamins C and B 1 are the most sensitive water-soluble vitamins, and that E and A are the most sensitive fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin losses on irradiation of permitted foods in western countries will not be of nutritional importance. (Author)

  15. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  16. Vitamin D Status in Population of Bukovyna and Subcarpathia Depending on Residence above Sea Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-04-01

    ding on the residence above sea level. Objective: to determine the level of vitamin D in the blood serum of people, who live in different regions of the Subcarpathia and Bukovyna, depending on the location of the settlement above sea le-vel. Material and methods. In the cross-sectional study, we have examined 353 individuals, aged 18 to 86 years, permanently residing in different parts of the Subcarpathia (Kolomyia, Kosiv, Verhovyna districts and Bukovyna (Vyzhny-tsia district. Results. Only in 28 cases (7.9 %, the content of 25(OHD in the blood serum was in the normal range, and in other cases (92.1 %, there was a deficiency and a lack of vitamin D. The severe form of vitamin D deficiency has been detected in 7 (1.9 % patients. When comparing the performance of 25(OHD in the areas of inspection, it was found that the level of vitamin D in the blood serum was significantly higher in residents of Verkhovyna and Kosiv districts (located higher than 450 meters above sea level as compared with residents of Vyzhnytsia and Kolomyia. Conclusion. The average level of vitamin D in the blood serum of the adult population depends on residence and increases with height above sea level.

  17. Ciliated cells in vitamin A-deprived cultured hamster tracheal epithelium do divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, A.A.; Beems, R.B.; Wilmer, J.W.; Feron, V.J.

    1988-01-01

    The pseudostratified tracheal epithelium, composed of a heterogeneous phenotypically varying cell population, was studied with respect to the in vitro cell proliferative activity of differentiated epithelial cells. Ciliated tracheal epithelial cells so far have been considered to be terminally differentiated, nonproliferating cells. Tracheal organ cultures obtained from vitamin A-deprived Syrian Golden hamsters were cultured in a vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In vitamin A-deprived tracheal epithelium treated with physiologically active all-trans retinol and low cigarette-smoke condensate concentrations it is possible to stimulate the cell proliferation of both basal and columnar cells. Therefore, the probability of finding proliferating columnar cells was increased compared with the in vivo and the vitamin A-deprived situation in which cell proliferative activity is relatively low. In the presence of cigarette-smoke condensate in a noncytotoxic concentration, basal, small mucous granule, ciliated, and indifferent tracheal epithelial cells incorporated [methyl-3H]-thymidine into the DNA during the S phase. The finding that ciliated cells were labeled was supported by serial sections showing the same labeled ciliated cell in two section planes separated by 2 to 3 micron, without labeled epithelial cells next to the ciliated cell. Furthermore, a ciliated tracheal epithelial cell incorporating [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into DNA was also seen in tracheal cultures of vitamin A-deprived hamsters treated with all-trans retinol in a physiologic concentration

  18. Vitamin D Status in Chronic Kidney Disease - UVB Irradiation Is Superior to Oral Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rolfdieter; Roth, Heinz Jürgen; Kaase, Heinrich; Stange, Rainer; Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD) a deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is common. The aim of this review was to compare vitamin D status after oral supplementation of vitamin D3 to that of serial suberythemal irradiation in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. Ninety-five patients, with a mean age of 62 (range=35-82) years, were treated with a mean dose of 35,000 (20,000-60,000) IU vitamin D3 per week for a period of 18 months. Fourteen patients, with a mean age of 51 (range=41-57) years, were whole-body UVB irradiated for over 6 months. From 3 hemodialysis patients skin biopsies were performed. With oral supplementation 25(OH)D3 increased by 60%. With UV irradiation 25(OH)D3 increased by 400%. Gene expression analysis demonstrated an improvement in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) by 0.65 fold, in 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) by 1.0 fold, and in 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R) by 1.2 fold. Serial suberythemal UVB irradiation of patients with CKD on dialysis is capable to improve serum 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 by enhancing the skin's ability to activate vitamin D. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin D deficiency in Fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatty, S.A.; Shaikh, N.A.; Irfan, M.; Kashif, S.M.; Vaswani, A.S.; Sumbhai, A.; Gunpat

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To check the Vitamin D levels in patients diagnosed as fibromyagia in our population. Methods: Study was done at Medical OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi, from January to March 2009. Female patients diagnosed as Fibromyalgia according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and exclusion of systemic illness on examination, and normal reports of blood CP, ESR, serum calcium, phosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase, were asked to get Vitamin D levels in their serum. Vitamin D deficiency is defined as 30 ng/ml. Result: Forty female patients were included in the study. The mean age was 37.65 +- 11.5 years. Mean Vitamin D level was 17.41 +- 5.497 ng/ml. Thirty two (80%) of patients had Vitamin D deficiency, mean levels of 15.855 +- 4.918 ng/ml and 8(20%) had Vitamin D insufficiency, mean levels of 23.64 +- 2.39 ng/ml. Patients with vitamin D deficiency and age less than 45 years were 22 (68.75%), had mean vitamin D level 16.87 +- 4.48 ng/ml whereas in age ranging from 46-75 years were 10 (31.25%) had mean vitamin D level 16.09 +- 6.45 ng/ml. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently seen in patients diagnosed as fibromyalgia and nonspecific musculoskeletal pain in our population. Although the sample size of the study is small, but the figures are so alarming that it is an eye opener towards the need of a population based study, including normal population as well as those presenting with musculoskeletal pain. (author)

  20. Vitamin C and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitra C. Carr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day, which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.

  1. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    concentrations indicated vitamin A deficiency in 32% of the children at age 6 wk and in 16% at age 4 mo. VAS was not associated with higher RBP concentrations overall or in either sex. However, the effect of VAS varied with maternal education (P for interaction = 0.004): At age 6 wk, VAS was associated...... with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...... placebo-controlled trial of VAS, we obtained blood from 614 children at 6 wk of age and from 369 mother-infant pairs at 4 mo of age. We assessed vitamin A status on the basis of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) and measured serum C-reactive protein to monitor for concurrent infections. RESULTS: RBP...

  2. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  3. Effects of Antioxidants and Vitamins on the Proliferation of Human Diploid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaziza Dаnlybaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microelements, essential nutrients that are needed in small amounts including minerals such as calcium, zinc, iron and other vitamins (A, B, C, and etc., are macronutrients necessary for a healthy life. The role of micronutrients in vivo is well known, and there are several publications that have examined the effects of micronutrients on genomic stability. Furthermore, a number of vitamins and microelements are substrates and/or cofactors in metabolic pathways, which regulate DNA synthesis and/or repair and gene expression. A deficiency in such nutrients may result in disruption of genomic integrity and alterations in DNA methylation patterns, linking cellular nutrition with change in gene expression. For example, lack of vitamin C is known to cause increased DNA oxidation and chromosomal damage. Vitamin A, as well as other micronutrients, have a protective effect, whereas higher concentrations are associated with increased DNA damage. Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10 and dihydroquercetin are used in therapy as antioxidant compounds and electron carriers, which reduce lipid peroxidation of cell membranes. However, previous studies indicate that various ubiquinone analogs may cause a divergent effect on oxidative stress and oxidative phosphorylation. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of vitamins A and C, coenzyme Q10, and dihydroquercetin on the proliferative potential of cultured human embryonic diploid fibroblasts (M-22. Methods: In the first series of experiments, nontoxic concentrations of vitamins for the cells were identified using MTT assay. Results: Vitamins A and C, dihydroquercetin of 1µM, and coenzyme Q10 of 5µM were nontoxic for human skin fibroblasts. In the second series of experiments, cell cultivation was carried out with nontoxic concentrations. A vitamin C concentration of 1µM for 7 consecutive passages increased the proliferation index (PI compared to the control. Thus, the average PI in the

  4. Investigations of the Connection between Vitamin E Deficiency and the Selenium Content in Animal Organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duftschmid, K. E. [Reaktor-Zentrum Seibersdorf (Austria); Leibetseder, J. [Tierarztliche Hochschule, Vienna (Austria)

    1967-10-15

    The highly toxic effects of selenium have been well known for a long time. Just ten years ago, however, the important role of Se in the prophylaxis of certain pathological symptoms, e.g. in the exudative diathesis of chickens, was recognized. In particular, the connection between Se and vitamin E has attracted considerable attention. Detailed feeding experiments with laboratory animals have shown some relation between the symptoms of vitamin E deficiency and Se, but up to now the underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. To contribute to clearing up these questions we have used activation analysis to determine whether a deficiency of vitamin E alters the Se content of certain typical organs. For this purpose 40 Cobb's one-day-old chicks were bred in batteries. One group was fed with vitamin-E-free standard diet; the other group was given the same diet but with an additive of 30 ppm of vitamin E. The Se content was 5 ppm in both cases. At an age of three weeks the chicks were killed and preparations of blood, plasma, cerebrum, cerebellum, pectoral muscle, liver, kidney and gonads were taken. In order to assay the Se content of some 600 preparations in a reasonable time a fast method of analysis was chosen using the 17. 5-s {sup 77m}Se. In this way the following advantages were obtained: (i) the short half-life and high activation cross-section made possible a high sensitivity even after very short irradiation times (20 s); (ii) problems arising from the matrix activity (mainly {sup 24}Na) were minimized and a chemical separation was unnecessary. To eliminate the critical influence of the half-life, each sample was irradiated and measured simultaneously with a Se standard using a multichannel analyser with an input facility for two detectors. The statistical evaluation of the measurements showed various interesting results. It was established that the Se content of certain organs is influenced by the vitamin E supply. Thus, the muscle preparations from vitamin-E

  5. MicroRNA-146a Deficiency Protects against Listeria monocytogenes Infection by Modulating the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Tao Du

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota and microRNAs play important roles in the defense against infection. However, the role of miR-146a in L. monocytogenes infection and gut microbiota remains unclear. We tried to determine whether miR-146a controlled L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota. Wild-type and miR-146a-deficient mice or macrophages were used to characterize the impact of miR-146a on animal survival, cell death, bacterial clearance, and gut microbiota following L. monocytogenes challenge. We found that L. monocytogenes infection induced miR-146a expression both in vitro and in vivo. When compared to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice were more resistant to L. monocytogenes infection. MiR-146a deficiency in macrophages resulted in reduced invasion and intracellular survival of L. monocytogenes. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that the gut microbiota composition differed between miR-146a-deficient and wild-type mice. Relative to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice had decreased levels of the Proteobacteria phylum, Prevotellaceae family, and Parasutterella genus, and significantly increased short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, including the genera Alistipes, Blautia, Coprococcus_1, and Ruminococcus_1. Wild-type mice co-housed with miR-146a-deficient mice had increased resistance to L. monocytogenes, indicating that miR-146a deficiency guides the gut microbiota to alleviate infection. Together, these results suggest that miR-146a deficiency protects against L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota.

  6. MicroRNA-146a Deficiency Protects against Listeria monocytogenes Infection by Modulating the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chong-Tao; Gao, Wei; Ma, Ke; Yu, Shui-Xing; Li, Na; Yan, Shi-Qing; Zhou, Feng-Hua; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Lei, Lian-Cheng; Yang, Yong-Jun; Han, Wen-Yu

    2018-03-26

    The gut microbiota and microRNAs play important roles in the defense against infection. However, the role of miR-146a in L. monocytogenes infection and gut microbiota remains unclear. We tried to determine whether miR-146a controlled L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota. Wild-type and miR-146a-deficient mice or macrophages were used to characterize the impact of miR-146a on animal survival, cell death, bacterial clearance, and gut microbiota following L. monocytogenes challenge. We found that L. monocytogenes infection induced miR-146a expression both in vitro and in vivo. When compared to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice were more resistant to L. monocytogenes infection. MiR-146a deficiency in macrophages resulted in reduced invasion and intracellular survival of L. monocytogenes . High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that the gut microbiota composition differed between miR-146a-deficient and wild-type mice. Relative to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice had decreased levels of the Proteobacteria phylum, Prevotellaceae family, and Parasutterella genus, and significantly increased short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, including the genera Alistipes , Blautia , Coprococcus_1, and Ruminococcus_1 . Wild-type mice co-housed with miR-146a-deficient mice had increased resistance to L. monocytogenes , indicating that miR-146a deficiency guides the gut microbiota to alleviate infection. Together, these results suggest that miR-146a deficiency protects against L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota.

  7. C-Vitamin mod åreforkalkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme.......Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme....

  8. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  9. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel; Lanske, Beate; Juul, Anders; Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus of this review. Current evidence is primarily based on small human association studies and rodent models. This highlights the need for randomized clinical trials, but also functional animal and human in vitro studies, and larger, prospective cohort studies are warranted. Given the high number of men and women suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary plant food and socioeconomic determinants of vitamin A status : study in rural lactating woman during crisis in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sulchan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available For the Longer term food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, become increasingly important. A nutrition survailance system in Central-Java, Indonesia assessed vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentration of lactating women with a child ≤36 mo old during crisis. Median vitamin A intake was 319 RE/d and night blindness 0,34%. Serum retinol concentration (mean : 1,23 µmol/L was related to vitamin A intake in a dose-concentration manner. The multiple logistic regression model for predicting the chance for a serum retinol concentration > observed median of the population (≥1,27 µ mol/L included determinant factors, vitamin A intake from plant foods (OR [95% CI] per quartile, 1st : 1.00, 2nd: 1,63 [0,99-2,80], 3rd: 1,99 [1,58-2,99], and 4th: 2,62 [1,68-4,04], from, animal foods (1st and 2nd: 1,00. 3rd: 1,37 [0,89-2,09] and 4th: 2,86 [1,59-3,98] . Homegardening (no 1,00, yes 1,88 [1,08-2,68] and woman’s education level (≤ primary school : 1,00 ≥ secondary school : 1,46 [1,00-2,16] . Thus, although contributing 16 times more to total vitamin A intake plant foods were as important for vitamin A status as animal foods. Homegardening and woman’s education level seem to reflect longer-term consumption of plant and animal foods respectively. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:259-66Keywords: Vitamin A intake, plant foods, animal foods, vitamin A status, homegardening, socio-economic status, crisis, Indonesia

  11. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D status (which is involved in glucose homeostasis) is related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is characterized by increased resistance to and impaired secretion of insulin and results in higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including operative delivery......, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Women with GDM and their babies are at increased risk for developing type II diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: International definitions of vitamin D deficiency and normality are inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women particularly...

  12. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D...... is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to ensure vitamin D intakes that are protective against vitamin D deficiency...

  14. Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, D

    1989-01-01

    The results of supplementing crustacean feeds with vitamins are examined specifically from the standpoint of shrimp culture. Micro-nutrients selected for discussion include: water-soluble vitamins of the B-complex, choline and inositol, vitamin C and the fat-soluble group of vitamins: A, D, E and K. Ways in which utilization of vitamins and ultimately dietary demand are altered by physiological state, conditions of culture, as well as factors which impact on feed levels, are explored.

  15. Immunomodulation by vitamin D: implications for TB

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Rene F; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    TB remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of TB and other immune disorders. These observations suggest a role for vitamin D as a modulator of normal human immune function. This article will detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system and how vitamin D insufficiency may lead to immune dysregulation. The importance of vitamin D bioavailability as a mechanism for defining the ...

  16. Community assessment of availability, consumption, and cultural acceptability of food sources of (pro)vitamin A: Toward the development of a dietary intervention among preschool children in rural Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nana, C.P.; Brouwer, I.D.; Zagré, N.M.; Kok, F.J.; Traoré, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in the developing world. Dietary diversification is a promising strategy that needs to be explored to strengthen the country's ongoing supplementation program. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify

  17. Objective clinical examination of poultry as illustrated by the comparison of chickens with different vitamin A status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynen, A C; Sijtsma, S R; Kiepurski, A K; West, C E; Baumans, V; Van Herck, H; Stafleu, F R; Van Tintelen, G

    1989-10-01

    One day old pullets derived from marginally vitamin A deficient laying hens were fed diets containing either adequate or marginal amounts of vitamin A. At the age of 34 days, animals fed the diet low in vitamin A had group mean plasma concentrations of retinol which were one tenth the mean plasma concentrations of controls. When compared with their controls, the deficient animals displayed body weights which were on average 16% less. Of 20 pullets per dietary group one control animal and 9 deficient animals died by the age of 34 days. At the age of 29 days, control (n = 16) and deficient chickens (n = 11) were examined clinically by assigning scores to a number of parameters. Three assessors carried out the examination independently. The birds were presented for examination at random and their treatment groups were not disclosed to the assessors. Out of 26 parameters assessed quantitatively per individual animal, only three parameters discriminated between control and deficient chickens. Deficient animals grew poorly, had a hunched up posture and increased fluid content in faeces. Classical signs of chronic vitamin A deficiency in domestic fowl such as bone deformities, keratinization of the tongue and decreased transparency of the cornea were not observed.

  18. Influence of lifestyle on vitamin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Henk; van der Gaag, Martijn; Hendriks, Henk

    2002-01-01

    In this review the effects of lifestyle factors, especially alcohol consumption, on vitamin bioavailability are summarized and discussed. Alcohol effects are clearly dose-dependent. Excessive chronic alcohol intake is generally associated with vitamin deficiency (especially folate, thiamine, and vitamin B6) due to malnutrition, malabsorption, and ethanol toxicity. Effects of moderate alcohol use are mainly explained by a lower vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin A and beta-carotene, effects on post-absorptive (lipoprotein) metabolism have been demonstrated. In one diet-controlled crossover study, alcohol consumption resulted in an increase in the plasma vitamin B6 (PLP) content, especially after beer consumption (containing vitamin B6), but also after wine and spirit consumption (not containing vitamin B6). Smoking is also associated with a lower dietary vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin C, B12, folate, and beta-carotene, evidence has been presented for effects on postabsorptive metabolism, due to smoke-induced oxidative stress and/or vitamin inactivation. For vitamin E a direct effect of smoking on absorption has been demonstrated. There is no convincing evidence that low-fat diets negatively affect fat-soluble vitamin absorption, but cholesterol-lowering compounds (diets), or unabsorbable fat substitutes, may do so. Vitamin bioavailability may be compromised from certain vegetables (particularly raw), and/or from high-fiber foods, because of limited digestion and inefficient release of vitamins from the food matrix.

  19. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  20. The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Csapó J.; Albert Cs.; Prokisch J.

    2017-01-01

    Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for ... the individual's intake of food." She adds, "An important point made in the guidelines is that nutrient ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by mouth that contain a "dietary ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge ... for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... reduce risk for chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. They form the basis for federal food, ... vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. Report ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... manufacturers evaluate their products through testing identity, purity, strength, and composition. Risks of Overdoing It As is ... vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. Report ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There ... WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... include other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with ... ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... body stores these for use as needed. Practice Safety with Dietary Supplements When it comes to purchasing ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation ( ... Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline ... supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... problems if you eat a vegetarian or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts ... and to reduce risk for chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. They form the basis for ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body ... upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the limbs, which may cause numbness, ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health ... are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are ... published by the Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), provide ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... a vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... product worth the money?'" Frankos advises. "Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  17. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet Poor diet in infants Poor nutrition during pregnancy Certain health conditions can make it difficult for your body to absorb enough vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... If you believe that you are experiencing an adverse response to taking a vitamin or a dietary ... MedWatch program . Starting December 22, 2007, any serious adverse events reported to a dietary supplement manufacturer must ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... useful when they fill a specific identified nutrient gap that cannot or is not otherwise being met ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... useful when they fill a specific identified nutrient gap that cannot or is not otherwise being met ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health care providers before combining or substituting them with ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advises that nutrient needs be met ... with supplementation suggested for certain sensitive populations. These guidelines, published by the Department of Health and Human ...

  4. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  5. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janowsky, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our current work is to determine whether there are differences in blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D between women with breast cancer and two control groups of women without breast cancer...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as one of those recommended in the ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults ... Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  8. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the body when skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Both forms are converted to 25- ... through sunlight exposure. Dietary sources include a few foods that naturally contain vitamin D, such as fatty ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... activity. They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Health's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin ... in many forms. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 requires that all such products ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they ... adds, "Do not self-diagnose any health condition. Work with your health care providers to determine how ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Joint FDA/WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... protein. D (calciferol): Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, constipation, weakness, weight loss, confusion, heart rhythm problems, deposits of ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and ... 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline form, which is found in fortified foods or supplements. ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), provide science-based advice to promote health and to reduce ... some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins that are not needed. Fat- ... walking, and pain. C (ascorbic acid): Upset stomach, kidney stones, increased iron absorption. Folic Acid (folate): High ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... no-risk, money-back guarantees," and requirements for advance payment. "Also ask yourself, "Is the product worth ... to have an overall strategy for how they will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat ... high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant or ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

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    Full Text Available ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  20. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  1. Vitamin D and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino R Pérez-López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-López, Gonzalo Pérez-Roncero, María T López-BaenaGrupo de Investigación sobre Salud de la Mujer en Aragón (GRISAMAR, Universidad de Zaragoza, Hospital Clínico Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter–the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20–30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the

  2. A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Ängquist, Lars; Jacobsen, Ramune

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who......) and those with lower prenatal exposure (born 1 September 1959–31 December 1960) were followed up with regard to development of T2DM before 31 December 2012 in the Danish National Diabetes Registry and National Patient Register. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the risk of T2...... had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Individuals from birth cohorts with the higher prenatal vitamin A exposure (born 1 December 1962–31 March 1964...

  3. Photoprotection and vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springbett, Peter; Buglass, Surhi; Young, Antony R

    2010-11-03

    The adverse effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on the skin are well documented, especially in fair-skinned people. These can be ameliorated by photoprotection strategies advocated by many public health bodies and typically include sun avoidance, sunscreen use and clothing. The UVB waveband which is the main cause of all adverse effects investigated in the laboratory to date is also the waveband for vitamin D photosynthesis which is the only established benefit of solar exposure. This is especially important because solar UVB is the main source of vitamin D for most people. There is increasing evidence that vitamin D plays a much greater role in human health than was previously thought. This has given rise to concerns that photoprotection, especially sunscreen use, could adversely affect vitamin D status and human health. Furthermore, it is stated that people with heavily pigmented skins often have poor vitamin D status because of photoprotection by melanin. In this paper we review the effect of photoprotection strategies and pigmentation on vitamin D status. Clothing can clearly be very effective at inhibiting vitamin D synthesis. Sunscreens are effective in theory and some limited human studies support this. However, most studies show little or no effect and the most likely reason for this is that sunscreens have not been applied in the manner that was used to determine their labelled index of protection against sunburn. This could change in the future if public health campaigns and the sunscreen industry are successful in encouraging the public to apply sunscreens more liberally and/or use much higher levels of labelled protection. The role of melanin on vitamin D status is not clear and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Vitamin D and neurocognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Schlögl, Mathias; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Mathias Schlögl,1 Michael F Holick21University Center for Medicine of Aging Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: In recent years, emerging evidence has linked vitamin D not only to its known effects on calcium and bone metabolism, but also to many chronic illnesses involving neurocognitive decl...

  5. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, K.C.; Carrick, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  6. SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE FOR TARGETED VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION TO CHILDREN IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, presently Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is common amongst young children belonging to the underprivileged populations. The risk of deficiency is greatest   in children under three years   because their requirements are relatively higher and dietary intake is low.  Also, these have higher risk   of illnesses such as diarrhea, acute respiratory tract infection and measles, which deplete vitamin A reserves.   In India, Severe deficiency of VA with corneal involvement was an important cause of nutritional blindness in   sixties and early seventies children amongst children belonging to poor communities however presently, this is an extremely rare disease.

  7. Stable Isotopes: The Method of Choice to Assess Vitamin A Interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Janet R.

    2014-01-01

    The tragic consequences of vitamin A deficiency (blindness, illness, and premature death) have stimulated extensive efforts to prevent this deficiency. Perhaps most notable in scope and influence is the WHO’s recommendation since 1998 that high-potency supplements should be given every 4–6 months to children 6 to 59 months old who live in the affected regions of the world. The WHO estimates that 1.25 million deaths in 40 countries have been averted by this programme. Many of these countries have also addressed the problem by fortifying commonly consumed foods, such as cooking oil or sugar. Agricultural programmes have developed both biofortified and genetically modified foods with increased vitamin A content

  8. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. An evidence-based update on vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, K Kelly; Hume, Anne L

    2010-04-01

    American adults take many types of vitamin supplements, despite limited evidence of their efficacy, especially in preventing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Supplements contain significant amounts of vitamins when consumed from multiple sources. Excess consumption of some vitamins may have detrimental health effects. Use of MMVM products appears to be safe; however, clinical outcomes have not been established. Although vitamin D and preconception folic acid may be appropriate for self care, a health care provider should monitor other vitamin supplements for disease prevention, such as niacin. Beyond supplementation as treatment for vitamin deficiencies, evidence is lacking.

  10. Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended.

  11. [Clinical roles of vitamins in hematopoietic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Kanamaru, A

    1999-10-01

    Vitamins are essential organisms which promote various metabolisms and physiological systems. Several vitamins play important roles in hematopoietic system. Vitamin B12, C and folic acid are associated with DNA synthesis of erythroid nucleus, the deficiency of which causes the megaloblastic anemia. Some megaloblatic anemia and sideroblastic anemia might response to vitamin B1 and B6, respectively. Vitamin K participates in some coagulation factors in coagulation-fibrinogenolysis system. It has been reported that vitamins A, D and K potentially differentiate leukemic cells and then induce the apoptosis, suggesting that they would be new therapeutic agents in acute leukemia.

  12. [Vitamin and mineral supplements in the diet of military personnel: effect on the balance of iron, copper and manganese, immune reactivity and physical work-capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, I P; Nosolodin, V V; Zaĭtsev, O N; Gladkikh, I P; Koznienko, I V; Beliakov, R A; Arshinov, N P

    2012-03-01

    Conducted with the participation of 50 students of military educational study the effect of various vitamin and mineral complexes for the provision by the body naturally iron, copper and manganese on the immune and physical status. Found that diets enriched BMV was accompanied by a significant delay in the micro-elements, mainly iron, which indicates a deficiency of these bioelements in chickens Santo during the summer. Under the influence of vitamin-mineral complexes significantly increased rates of natural and specific immunity. As the delay increases significantly increased iron medical indicators of immunological reaction efficiency and physical performance.

  13. Vitamina A e diabetes gestacional Vitamin A and gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Queiroz de Lira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus (DM, patologia de caráter crônico e evolutivo, atualmente apresenta configuração de epidemia mundial. O diabetes gestacional, condição associada tanto à resistência à insulina quanto à diminuição da função das células-β, também caracteriza-se pela elevada incidência em diversas populações e grupos étnicos. Recentemente têm sido constatadas fortes evidências para o comprometimento dos níveis de retinol de gestantes com DM em resposta à evolução dessa patologia. Essa condição torna as gestantes diabéticas mais propensas a apresentar estado bioquímico marginal ou deficiente em vitamina A quando comparadas com as de gestação saudável. Dessa maneira, tendo conhecimento sobre o papel fisiológico da vitamina A e as consequências do DM na gestação, esta revisão visa esclarecer o impacto da instalação do DM sobre os níveis de retinol dessas gestantes, bem como, as consequências que o estado de deficiência em vitamina A poderá causar para essas mulheres e para seus lactantes.Diabetes mellitus (DM a pathology with chronic evolution, has now acquired a connotation of global epidemic. Gestational diabetes, a condition associated with insulin resistance and decreased β-cells function is also characterized by a high incidence in different populations and ethnic groups. Recently strong evidence has been found for involvement of retinol levels of pregnant women with DM due to the pathology’s evolution. This condition makes these diabetics prone to have a marginal biochemical profile or a vitamin A deficiency when compared to those of healthy pregnant women. Therefore, with an awareness of the physiological role of vitamin A and consequences of diabetes during pregnancy, this review intends to clarify the impact of DM on retinol levels of these pregnant women and the consequences that vitamin A deficiency may cause to these women and their infants.

  14. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Reid, Mary E.; Bogner, Paul N.; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C) (80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the % of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient +NTCU (DN), 22.7 % (p<0.05 compared to vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)); DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared to SN mice, DN mice exhibited a 3-fold increase (p <0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (p <0.05) increase in IL-6 levels, and a 4 -fold (p <0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  15. Vitamin A-rich porridge for Boarding Khalwa students with night blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swar, Mohamed Osman; Alhaj, Ishraga; Osman, Atika Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Khalwa is a non-governmental boarding school specialized in teaching Quran to Sudanese children. Food supply to Khalwa is completely dependent on donations. Students are fed on low cost and low nutritional value diet made of sorghum flour porridge and a stew made of dry okra, onion and oil. The incidence of night blindness among these students is reported by the Nutrition Department of the Federal Ministry of Health, Sudan, in 2005 as 0.9%. In this study we interviewed and examined 453 Khalwa students in Umbada area, however blood sampling for assay of vitamin A level was not acceptable by the Khalwa authorities. Thirty four students (7.5%) showed clinical evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD), 67.6% of them for a period of less than 6 months which was consistent with their stay in Khalwa. Vitamin A fortified sugar is used in Kenya, Zambia, South Africa and Honduras but it is costly and sugar-containing foods and drinks are not in common use by Khalwa students. To supply students with a good amount of vitamin A, we prepared a new porridge formed of sorghum flour; peeled, chopped and boiled pumpkins in addition to their traditional stew. One meal per student contained 250 grams of sorghum flour and 125 grams of pumpkin which supplies 611μg (10891 I.U.) of vitamin A according to the USDA SR-25 composition tables (>100% Daily Value). Compared to the old porridge, there was significant differences (P <0.05) in vitamin A, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, fat, ash and moisture contents. All students accepted the taste of the new porridge and 91.2% agreed that it is not difficult to prepare. We conclude that adding pumpkins to Khalwa porridge is cost effective and may help preventing VAD and its deleterious effects on vision and health.

  16. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegard, U; Johansson, I; Franzen, L; Ericson, T [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden) Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Umeaa (Sweden)

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.).

  17. Acute radiation effects on saliva composition in rats with different vitamin a levels in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funegard, U.; Johansson, I.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, T.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of the head and neck often causes loss of salivary gland function which may lead to severe oral discomfort. The effects of a single dose of 25 Gy given to rats with different serum levels of vitamin A were studied. The salivary secretion rate as well as concentrations of protein, hexosamine, amylase and electrolytes, and the activities of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequates of two antibacterial glycoproteins were measured. At an adequate level of vitamin A in the diet, irradiation significantly reduced whole saliva secretion rate, and decreased the concentration of salivary sodium, calcium and hexosamine as well as the activity of a glycoprotein agglutinating a serotype c strain of S. mutans. Peroxidase, amylase and potassium were not significantly affected. The reductions seen at an adequate level of vitamin A were not reduced by supplementation of excess dietary retinol. The damage caused by irradiation was enhanced by vitamin A deficiency as seen in the reduced protein and hexosamine concentrations. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of different formulations of vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.M.F.; Khalil, K.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD) is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases and vitamin D deficiency prevalence is frightening in most parts of the world including Pakistan. Therefore, supplementations of vitamin D are used in the population at high risk for the prevention and the treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D supplementation comes in various formulations both oral and intramuscular. Cholecalciferol is the most commonly used preparation which is given through these routes of administration. There is need to study the fact that how much vitamin D levels are raised after administration of these different formulations as this can be a pivotal factor in determining dosage and route of vitamin D3. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on 320 cases and compared the efficacy of various Vitamin D3 preparations in raising Vitamin D levels conducted in Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Services Hospital, Lahore from February to July, 2016. Blood serum was drawn for vitamin D level in the cases at the time of presentation and after treatment. Results: Three hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in study and divided into four groups (A, B, C, D). There was no significant difference between groups (A, B, C, D) in change in vitamin d levels after 3 months of treatment (p-Value 0.446). Conclusion: Different preparations of vitamin D are equally effective in raising vitamin D levels at 12 weeks. However, there is a need to conduct large scale studies to further validate these results. (author)

  19. Vitamin D: A millenium perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2003-02-01

    Vitamin D is one of the oldest hormones that have been made in the earliest life forms for over 750 million years. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and most plants and animals that are exposed to sunlight have the capacity to make vitamin D. Vitamin D is critically important for the development, growth, and maintenance of a healthy skeleton from birth until death. The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium homeostasis. It accomplishes this by increasing the efficiency of the intestine to absorb dietary calcium. When there is inadequate calcium in the diet to satisfy the body's calcium requirement, vitamin D communicates to the osteoblasts that signal osteoclast precursors to mature and dissolve the calcium stored in the bone. Vitamin D is metabolized in the liver and then in the kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]. 1,25(OH)(2)D receptors (VDR) are present not only in the intestine and bone, but in a wide variety of other tissues, including the brain, heart, stomach, pancreas, activated T and B lymphocytes, skin, gonads, etc. 1,25(OH)(2)D is one of the most potent substances to inhibit proliferation of both normal and hyperproliferative cells and induce them to mature. It is also recognized that a wide variety of tissues, including colon, prostate, breast, and skin have the enzymatic machinery to produce 1,25(OH)(2)D. 1,25(OH)(2)D and its analogs have been developed for treating the hyperproliferative disease psoriasis. Vitamin D deficiency is a major unrecognized health problem. Not only does it cause rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults, but may have long lasting effects. Chronic vitamin D deficiency may have serious adverse consequences, including increased risk of hypertension, multiple sclerosis, cancers of the colon, prostate, breast, and ovary, and type 1 diabetes. There needs to be a better appreciation of the importance of vitamin D for overall health and well being. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Impact of dietary vitamin A interventions on total body stores in Thai lactating women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasanwisut, E.; West, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem among pregnant and lactating women in developing countries. This proposed study will be a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of consuming provitamin A-rich foods in one prepared, on-site meal per weekday for 3 months on total body vitamin A stores and other aspects of vitamin A status in marginally nourished lactating women in rural Northeast Thailand. Approximately 400 lactating women, 2-18 months post-partum, will be screened in the population for marginal vitamin A status by a tier of indicators beginning from low intake or history of night blindness or impaired dark adaptability followed by low serum retinol. Assuming a prevalence of low serum retinol of ∼20%, 90 women will be identified and recruited, matched by serum retinol and month post-partum and randomized in a block fashion into three groups to receive daily cooked (fat-added) meal and snack with (1) dark green leafy and yellow/orange vegetables and fruits, (2) beta-carotene- enriched rice chips and (3) non-enriched rice chips. Groups 1 and 2 will receive ∼3.6 mg of beta-carotene per day. Prior to and following the intervention hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated by isotopic dilution techniques and other indicators of vitamin A status. In addition, serum C-reactive protein and maternal anthropometry will be measured. Food consumption data based on 24-hour recall for 3 randomized days will be collected every 2 weeks to assess routine intakes of vitamin A, fat and other nutrients. Morbidity will be monitored on a weekly basis throughout the study. Between-group comparisons will provide a basis for (1) estimating the adequacy of local diets to improve or maintain total body stores of vitamin A in women during lactation and (2) assessing the validity and responsiveness of widely used measures of vitamin A status in this high-risk group

  1. B-vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine in Austrian omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, D; Singer, I; Männer, M; Rust, P; Genser, D; Wagner, K-H; Elmadfa, I

    2006-01-01

    A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated. The evaluation was done using the functional parameters erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), glutathione reductase (EGR) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (EGOT) activation coefficients. Enzyme activity was measured photometrically. The quantity of vitamins B(1), B(2) and B(6) in urine and the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and homocysteine in plasma were determined by HPLC methods with fluorescence detection. Plasma concentration of vitamin B(12) and folic acid were measured with radioimmunoassay. Most of the subjects showed a satisfying vitamin B(1) status. Vegans presented a significantly lower mean plasma vitamin B(12) concentration than omnivores and vegetarians and deficiency in 2.4% of the volunteers but the highest mean value of plasma folate among the investigated groups. A deficient status of folate was found in 18% of omnivores and in approximately 10% of vegans and vegetarians. The status of riboflavin is considered to be deficient in about 10% of omnivores and vegetarians and in over 30% of vegans. According to the activation coefficient of GOT, approximately one third of all subjects showed vitamin B(6) deficiency. Elevated homocysteine concentration in plasma was observed in 66% of the vegans and about 45-50% of the omnivores and vegetarians. Vegan subjects had significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine levels than omnivores. Thiamin and folate need not be a problem in a well

  2. Maternal circulating vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition in healthy lactating women—A systematic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Jasmijn Y.; Pundir, Shikha; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Keijer, Jaap; Kussmann, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Colostrum is the first ingested sole nutritional source for the newborn infant. The vitamin profile of colostrum depends on the maternal vitamin status, which in turn is influenced by diet and lifestyle. Yet, the relationship between maternal vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition has

  3. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  4. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  5. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  6. Literatuuronderzoek HPLC-methoden voor vitamine E

    OpenAIRE

    Altena, A.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek is: het inventariseren van HPLC-methoden voor vitamine E, eventueel in combinatie met vitamine A, in levensmiddelen. Een overzicht van de in de literatuur beschreven HPLC-methoden vanaf ca. 1977 wordt gegeven.

  7. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  8. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  9. Vitamin D, light and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Mats B

    2010-11-03

    Vitamin D receptors and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are present in the central nervous system. Calcitriol (the active vitamin D hormone) affects numerous neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, relevant for mental disorders. In the case of depressive disorders, considerable evidence supports a role of suboptimal vitamin D levels. However, the data are not conclusive and further studies are necessary. Especially, the relative importance of the pineal-melatonin system versus the vitamin D-endocrine system for the pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorders is presently unresolved. Two diagnoses, schizophrenia and autism, have been hypothetically linked to developmental (prenatal) vitamin D deficiency, however, also in adult patients, low levels have been reported, supporting the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be a predisposing developmental factor but also relate to the adult patients' psychiatric state. Two cases are described, whose psychiatric improvement coincided with effective treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Facts about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Pediatrics, Vitamin K Ad Hoc Task Force. Controversies concerning vitamin K and the newborn. Pediatrics 1993; ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  11. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, P

    2010-07-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D status. Low serum levels of calcium and phosphate and an elevated level of alkaline phosphatase can also point to vitamin D deficiency. Usually, between 50% and 90% of vitamin D in the body is coming from the production in the skin and the remainder is from the diet. The production of vitamin D3 in the skin depends on sunshine exposure, latitude, skin-covering clothes, the use of sun block and skin pigmentation. In general, serum 25(OH)D is lower with higher latitudes and with darker skin types, but there are exceptions. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)DAmerica where vitamin D deficiency is uncommon but vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D between 25 and 50 nmol/l) is still common. In the United States and Canada milk is usually supplemented with vitamin D and the use of vitamin supplements is relatively common. Vitamin D status in Latin America usually is reasonable but there are exceptions and vitamin D insufficiency still occurs quite often. In Australia and New Zealand a poor vitamin D status was seen in the elderly who were often vitamin D deficient and also in immigrants from Asia. Vitamin D deficiency also occurred in children when the mother was vitamin D deficient. Within Europe, vitamin D status usually is better in the Nordic countries than around the Mediterranean. This may be due to a lighter skin and sun seeking behaviour and a high consumption of cod liver oil in the Northern countries while in Southern Europe people stay out of the sunshine and have a somewhat darker skin. A very poor vitamin D status was observed in non-western immigrants, especially in pregnant women. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are globally still very common

  12. Vitamin A and Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, John C

    2016-01-01

    Visual systems detect light by monitoring the effect of photoisomerization of a chromophore on the release of a neurotransmitter from sensory neurons, known as rod and cone photoreceptor cells in vertebrate retina. In all known visual systems, the chromophore is 11-cis-retinal complexed with a protein, called opsin, and photoisomerization produces all-trans-retinal. In mammals, regeneration of 11-cis-retinal following photoisomerization occurs by a thermally driven isomerization reaction. Additional reactions are required during regeneration to protect cells from the toxicity of aldehyde forms of vitamin A that are essential to the visual process. Photochemical and phototransduction reactions in rods and cones are identical; however, reactions of the rod and cone visual pigment regeneration cycles differ, and perplexingly, rod and cone regeneration cycles appear to use different mechanisms to overcome the energy barrier involved in converting all-trans- to 11-cis-retinoid. Abnormal processing of all-trans-retinal in the rod regeneration cycle leads to retinal degeneration, suggesting that excessive amounts of the retinoid itself or its derivatives are toxic. This line of reasoning led to the development of various approaches to modifying the activity of the rod visual cycle as a possible therapeutic approach to delay or prevent retinal degeneration in inherited retinal diseases and perhaps in the dry form of macular degeneration (geographic atrophy). In spite of great progress in understanding the functioning of rod and cone regeneration cycles at a molecular level, resolution of a number of remaining puzzling issues will offer insight into the amelioration of several blinding retinal diseases.

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.

    1991-01-01

    Vitamins are known to be sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation. Since most foods contain a large proportion of water, the most probable reaction of the ionizing radiation would be with water; and as vitamins are present in very small amounts compared with other substances in the food they will be affected indirectly by the radiation. This chapter discusses the effect of ionizing radiation on water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. (author)

  14. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by total...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is the...

  16. Experimental demyelination and axonal loss are reduced in MicroRNA-146a deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie A.; Molnar, Viktor; Szilagyi, Gabor T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The cuprizone (CPZ) model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) related to in vivo de- and remyelination. We further investigated the role of miR-146a in miR-146a-deficient (KO) mice: this miRNA is differentially expressed in MS lesions and promotes differ...

  17. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, J F [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and margarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0/sup 0/C instead of at ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80/sup 0/C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature.

  18. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, J F [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and magarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0/sup 0/C instead of ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80/sup 0/C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature.

  19. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and margarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0 0 C instead of at ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80 0 C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperture. (orig.) [de

  20. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and magarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0 0 C instead of ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80 0 C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature. (orig.) [de

  1. Pengaruh asupan Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dan vitamin C terhadap kadar hemoglobin pada remaja vegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Siallagan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegan has become a diet that started to be many people's choice. Low intake of iron and vitamin B12 is factors that can cause anemia in vegan. On the other side vegans often consume vegetables and fruits that contained high of vitamin A and vitamin C which helps the absorption of iron, that can help prevent anemia. Objective: The purpose of the research know the effect of the intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C on hemoglobin (Hblevels in young Buddhist vegan Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Method: This research uses cross-sectional design. The population in this study are all adolescent vegan in the Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Samples in this study were 31 peoples. Independent variable is an intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and vitamin C was obtained by SQ-FFQ, while the dependent variable was Hb with hemoglobin testing system quick-check set. Analysis of the data in this study using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: There is a relationship intake of iron (p=0,000, vitamin B12 (p=0,037, and vitamin C (p=0,000 to Hb level of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira, there is no relationship intake of vitamin A with a Hb level of adolescent vegan (p=0,220. The result of multivariate analysis using multiple regression analysis of the variables that most influence haemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan are the intake of iron and vitamin C. Each increase of 1 mg Fe intake will increase the Hb concentration as much as 0.013 g/dl and increase of 1 mg of vitamin C intake will increase Hb levels as much as 0.002 g/dl. Conclusion: Iron and vitamin C intake is the most influence factors to hemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira.

  2. Vitamine A voorziening van de Nederlandse bevolking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers PMCM; Feskens EJM; CVG

    2004-01-01

    In this report vitamin A intake is assessed. From these analyses, 17 to 30 per cent of the adults in our study were found to have an inadequate vitamin A intake to maintain sufficient vitamin A stores. A substantial proportion of these individuals had a level of intake greatly less than required.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    Vitamin D deficiency is present in the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and correcting a poor vitamin D status is recommended as a treatment of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular and clinical data on the role of vitamin D status for

  4. Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits.

  5. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. Vitamins in the prevention of human diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Wolfgang, Prof; Obeid, Rima

    2011-01-01

    ... in ancient Egypt. One-sided nutrition, smoking, alcohol, genetic factors, and even geographical origin interfere with our dietary intake of the vitamins. Insufficient vitamin intake can impact our health and contribute significantly to the development of diseases. This book offers expert reviews and judgements on the role of vitamins in health and ...

  7. Vitamin K, osteoarthritis, and joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of joint pain and lower extremity disability in older adults and there is no known cure. Vitamin K has been implicated on osteoarthritis because vitamin K dependent proteins are present in joint tissues, such as cartilage and bone. In order to function, vitamin K ...

  8. Fuzzy modeling for Vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; van Loon, S.L.M.; Boer, A.K.; Kaymak, U.; Scharnhorst, V.; Carvalho, J.; Lesot, M.J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.

    2016-01-01

    Blood vitamin B12 levels are not representative for actual vitamin B12 status in tissue. Instead plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels can be measured because MMA concentrations increase relatively early in the course of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, MMA levels in plasma may also be increased

  9. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2008-01-01

    Sun exposure has been associated with lower death rates for pancreatic cancer in ecological studies. Skin exposure to solar ultra-violet B radiation induces cutaneous production of precursors to 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D (D) and is considered the primary contributor to vitamin D status in most populations. Pancreatic islet and duct cells express 25-(OH) D3-1α-hydroxylase that generates the biologically active 1,25-dihydroxy(OH)2 D form. Thus, 25(OH)D concentrations could affect pancreatic fun...

  10. Bone health, vitamin D and lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa Gómez, Clara; Flores Robles, Bryan Josué; Andréu, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is high. This is likely due to photoprotection measures in addition to intrinsic factors of the disease. Low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of low bone mineral density and fracture. Vitamin D deficiency could also have undesirable effects on patients' immune response, enhancing mechanisms of loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Vitamin D levels should be periodically monitored and patients should be treated with the objective of reaching vitamin D levels higher than 30-40 ng/ml. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

  12. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal.

  13. Radioprotective effect of vitamins C and E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nahas, S.M.; Mohamed, A.A.; Mattar, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    Albino rats were treated with aqueous vitamin C solution and vitamin E solution dissolved in olive oil at two concentrations, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, for 6 months. Some of the animals where then subjected to whole-body irradiation. Chromosomal aberrations and mitotic activity in non-irradiated and irradiated groups were recorded. Both vitamins were found to be non-mutagenic. Vitamin C exerted a radioprotective effect but vitamin E was not radioprotective and it suppressed the radioprotection otherwise produced by olive oil. (author). 31 refs., 2 figs

  14. VITAMIN INTAKE: REAL NECESSARY OR DANGEROUS EXCESS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Torshkhoeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are biologically active substances, which regulate many biochemical processes within the human body. in modern conditions, peculiarities of the household and children's nourishment do not allow for complete satisfaction of the need in all the vitamins only thanks to the food. In relation to this, it's quite desirable to provide the additional inflow of the vitamins into the child's body, which may be performed through the individual intake of the children's multivitamin medications.Key words: vitamins, children, hypovitaminosis, vitamin and mineral complex.

  15. Vitamin A in pediatrics: An update from the Nutrition Committee of the French Society of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M; Rieu, D; Feillet, F; Bocquet, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Hankard, R; Rozé, J-C; Siméoni, U; Turck, D; Briend, A

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) fulfills multiple functions in vision, cell growth and differentiation, embryogenesis, the maintenance of epithelial barriers and immunity. A large number of enzymes, binding proteins and receptors facilitate its intestinal absorption, hepatic storage, secretion, and distribution to target cells. In addition to the preformed retinol of animal origin, some fruits and vegetables are rich in carotenoids with provitamin A precursors such as β-carotene: 6μg of β-carotene corresponds to 1μg retinol equivalent (RE). Carotenoids never cause hypervitaminosis A. Determination of liver retinol concentration, the most reliable marker of vitamin A status, cannot be used in practice. Despite its lack of sensitivity and specificity, the concentration of retinol in blood is used to assess vitamin A status. A blood vitamin A concentration below 0.70μmol/L (200μg/L) indicates insufficient intake. Levels above 1.05μmol/L (300μg/L) indicate an adequate vitamin A status. The recommended dietary intake increases from 250μg RE/day between 7 and 36 months of age to 750μg RE/day between 15 and 17 years of age, which is usually adequate in industrialized countries. However, intakes often exceed the recommended intake, or even the upper limit (600μg/day), in some non-breastfed infants. The new European regulation on infant and follow-on formulas (2015) will likely limit this excessive intake. In some developing countries, vitamin A deficiency is one of the main causes of blindness and remains a major public health problem. The impact of vitamin A deficiency on mortality was not confirmed by the most recent studies. Periodic supplementation with high doses of vitamin A is currently questioned and food diversification, fortification or low-dose regular supplementation seem preferable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2009-02-01

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification. This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers whether fortification would improve the status of deficient subgroups of the population. In large surveys in the United States and the United Kingdom, approximately 6% of those aged > or =60 y are vitamin B-12 deficient (plasma vitamin B-12 life. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Inadequate intake, due to low consumption of animal-source foods, is the main cause of low serum vitamin B-12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor populations worldwide; in most studies, serum vitamin B-12 concentration is correlated with intake of this vitamin. In older persons, food-bound cobalamin malabsorption becomes the predominant cause of deficiency, at least in part due to gastric atrophy, but it is likely that most elderly can absorb the vitamin from fortified food. Fortification of flour with vitamin B-12 is likely to improve the status of most persons with low stores of this vitamin. However, intervention studies are still needed to assess efficacy and functional benefits of increasing intake of the amounts likely to be consumed in flour, including in elderly persons with varying degrees of gastric atrophy.

  17. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 employing bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, N.; Fries, J.E.; Richards, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioassay for vitamin B-12 using the unknown quantity of non-radioactive vitamin B-12 released from serum mixed with the radioactivity of a known quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer. A solution of intrinsic factor having a binding capacity less than the quantity of serum vitamin B-12 and radioactive vitamin B-12 is used to bind a portion of the vitamin B-12 mixture. The vitamin B-12 not bound to intrinsic factor is removed by addition of a bentonite-containing tablet. The quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 bound to intrinsic factor is compared with standard values and the unknown serum vitamin B-12 obtained. In the steps of the procedure the acid assay medium is pre-combined with the radioactive tracer so that the radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer receives the same treatment as serum vitamin B-12. Certain of the other reagent solutions are pre-combined and the concentration of the components adjusted so that the volume used of each of these other reagent solutions is the same in different assay steps. Thus, fewer pipetting steps are necessary. 7 claims, 1 drawing figure

  18. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang

    2015-08-27

    B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = (0.30, 1.01)), while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations.

  19. Vitamin D in chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Caroline S; Volmer, Dietrich A; Grünhage, Frank; Lammert, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) and several related extrahepatic manifestations such as hepatic osteodystrophy are associated with deficiency of vitamin D, which has therefore been suggested as therapeutic target. Vitamin D undergoes hepatic 25-hydroxylation, rendering the liver critical to the metabolic activation of this vitamin. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in CLD patients, and vitamin D levels are inversely related to the severity of CLD. Declining levels of carrier proteins such as albumin and vitamin D-binding protein might also be critical in CLD. Intervention studies report improvements of CLD following supplementation, and benefits to health outcomes in particular with respect to hepatitis C virus infection have recently been documented. We discuss vitamin D sources, functions and metabolism with a focus on the inherent complications of analytical measurements, such as the interference of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D C-3 epimers. Global discrepancies in the definition of optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are covered, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in CLD is reviewed. We also address the functional mechanisms underlying this deficiency, and refer to associations between genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism and CLD. Lastly, we consider the health implications of a vitamin D deficiency in CLD and consider therapeutic options. Herein, we focus on the epidemiological and functional relationships between vitamin D deficiency and CLD, followed by a discussion of the potential implications for therapeutic interventions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Vitamin D and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atul; Bush, Andrew; Hawrylowicz, Catherine; Saglani, Sejal

    2012-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are increasingly being recognized in the general population, and have been largely attributed to lifestyle changes (reduced exposure to sunshine due to working indoors or the use of protective clothing and sunscreen; changes in diet) over the last few decades. The musculoskeletal consequences of severe vitamin D deficiency are well established, however, a number of other disorders have now been linked to vitamin D insufficiency, including asthma. There is growing appreciation of the likely importance of vitamin D as a pleiotrophic mediator that contributes to pulmonary health. Children with asthma appear to be at increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Epidemiologic data suggest that low serum vitamin D in children with asthma is associated with more symptoms, exacerbations, reduced lung function, increased medication usage and severe disease. In vitro studies have demonstrated that vitamin D enhances steroid responsiveness in adult asthmatics. Vitamin D may play an important role in pulmonary health by inhibiting inflammation, in part through maintaining regulatory T cells, and direct induction of innate antimicrobial mechanisms. More research is required to fully understand the role of vitamin D in the maintenance of airway homeostasis and address the diagnostic and therapeutic implications vitamin D may have in the future of asthma management. This review summarises the current understanding and uncertainties regarding the effect of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in children with asthma. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the Dietary guidelines include the following: Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At the same time, choose foods that limit the intake of saturated ...

  2. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Eschenmoser Approach to Vitamin B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. Eschenmoser Approach to Vitamin B12 by A/D Strategy: An Unexpected Journey. G Wayne Craig. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 624-640. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline form, which is found in fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicines." Frankos adds, "Do not self-diagnose any health condition. Work with your health care providers to determine how best to achieve ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults ... More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition ...

  7. Peranan Vitamin D Pada Pencegahan Penyakit Degeneratif: Persfektif Baru

    OpenAIRE

    Siagian, Albiner

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is one of the fat soluble vitamins. This vitamin is usually known as vitamin that takes apart in bone health thorough its role in increasing efficiency of calcium absorption in small intestine. Without vitamin D, human small intestine can only absorb calcium up to 15%. Vitamin D can increase efficiency of dietary calcium absorption up to 30%. Until 1980s, vitamin D was primarily known by its role in bone and tooth formation However, recent epidemiologic studies have revealed...

  8. The role of vitamin D in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Khanh vinh quoc; Nguyen, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2012-04-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are important immune-modulatory hormones and are able to suppress Th2-mediated allergic airway disease. Some genetic factors that may contribute to asthma are regulated by vitamin D, such as vitamin D receptor (VDR), human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA), human Toll-like receptors (TLR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloprotein-33 (ADAM-33), and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase- 1 (PARP-1). Vitamin D has also been implicated in asthma through its effects on the obesity, bacillus Calmettee Guérin (BCG) vaccination and high vitamin D level, vitamin D supplement, checkpoint protein kinase 1 (Chk1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and gamma delta T cells (gdT). Vitamin D plays a role in asthma and exerts its action through either genomic and/or non-genomic ways.

  9. Vitamin D and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wrzosek, Michał; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Matsumoto, Halina; Piątkiewicz, Paweł; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Wojnar, Marcin; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is formed in human epithelial cells via photochemical synthesis and is also acquired from dietary sources. The so-called classical effect of this vitamin involves the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Apart from this, non-classical effects of vitamin D have recently gained renewed attention. One important yet little known of the numerous functions of vitamin D is the regulation of nervous system development and function. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin D is associated with its influence on neurotrophin production and release, neuromediator synthesis, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and prevention of oxidative damage to nervous tissue. Clinical studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may lead to an increased risk of disease of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Adequate intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and the neonatal period seems to be crucial in terms of prevention of these diseases.

  10. Vitamin D content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, Susanna; Højskov, Carsten S; Møller, Ulla Kristine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents are advised to avoid the direct sun exposure of their newborns. Therefore, the vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed newborns is entirely dependent on the supply of vitamin D from breast milk. OBJECTIVES: We explored concentrations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2......) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) (vitamin D) and 25-hydroxivitamin D2 plus D3 (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) in foremilk and hindmilk during the first 9 mo of lactation and identified indexes of importance to the concentrations. DESIGN: We collected blood and breast-milk samples from mothers at 2 wk (n = 107), 4 mo......, (n = 90), and 9 mo (n = 48) postpartum. Blood samples from infants were collected 4 and 9 mo after birth. We measured concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in blood and milk samples with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Concentrations of vitamin D and 25(OH)D...

  11. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either...... vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium. Subjects and Methods: Through a systematic literature search, we identified 24 randomized controlled trials reporting data on mortality in which vitamin D was given either alone or with calcium. From a total of 13 trials with more than 1000 participants each......,528 randomized participants (86.8% females) with a median age of 70 (interquartile range, 62-77) yr. Vitamin D with or without calcium reduced mortality by 7% [hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-0.99]. However, vitamin D alone did not affect mortality, but risk of death was reduced if vitamin...

  12. Vitamin and water requirements of dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Bovera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the physiological role and the daily requirement of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, vitamin C  and water in dairy sheep. Regarding the vitamins, classical clinical symptoms and/or non-specific parameters, such as  lowered production and reproduction rates are associated with their deficiencies or excesses. Until the last decade,  these compounds were considered important only for the prevention of such alterations; currently, there is more  emphasis on their function as the vitamins can play a key role in optimising animal health. In this respect, of particu-  lar interest is the action of the antioxidant vitamins (especially vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in improving  the efficiency of the immune system. 

  13. Vitamin D: Is There a New Era?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amani

    2017-08-01

    Background: In recent decades, much interest has been focused on investigating new roles of vitamin D in human body beyond the mineral-ion homeostasis. Methods: By searching medical databases such as PubMed, over 16000 articles were found which have been published since 2000 on novel aspects of vitamin D in health and diseases. Results: Of great interest was the effects of vitamin D on decreasing the risk of several chronic illnesses, including common cancers, autoimmune, infectious, and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, the new roles of vitamin D that have recently been investigated were addressed. Conclusions: Due to the vast prevalence of vitamin D deficiency worldwide, it seems that time has come to conduct well-designed clinical trials and meta-analysis to explore the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in treatment of common diseases. Finally, the progression in cellular and molecular methods and technology will shed new lights on vitamin D roles in health and disease.

  14. Vitamin D Status in Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    A principal function of vitamin D is facilitation of intestinal calcium absorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. This is essential to several functions in the body, and vitamin D is believed to be particularly crucial during childhood growth as the requirement for calcium increases....... In addition to skeletal health, vitamin D has also been associated with several extra-skeletal conditions including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Evaluation of Vitamin D status is complex because it is modified by several factors and because the level of optimal vitamin D concentration...... is uncertain. The primary source of vitamin D in humans is believed to be the synthesis that occurs in the skin upon sun exposure while intake from diet, supplements, and potential fortified foods are secondary sources. Yet, synthesis of vitamin D from sun exposure is negligible during winter at northern...

  15. Comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on experimental arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyama, Y; Hayashi, M; Takegami, H; Usami, E

    1999-01-01

    The comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on aortic calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) levels in the aorta and the elastin fraction (fr.) were investigated in male rats after experimental arteriosclerosis was induced by vitamin D2 with atherogenic diet. Both vitamin K2 (100 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (40 mg/kg b.w.) inhibited the increase of Ca and P in the aorta and the elastin fr. from the arteriosclerotic rats. Vitamin K2 (50 mg/kg b.w.) also suppressed the deposition of Ca and P in the aorta, but there was no change due to vitamin K3 or geranylgeraniol (side chain of vitamin K2) administration. Both vitamin K2 and vitamin E showed lipid radical scavenging activity in the in vitro experiment. However, neither vitamin K3 nor geranylgeraniol exhibited anti-arteriosclerotic or radical scavenging activity under the above experimental conditions. It is suggested that vitamin K2 and vitamin E promoted an antiarteriosclerotic effect by radical scavenging activity. These actions of vitamin K2 are required in the structure of 2-methylnaphtoquinone and its side chain (geranylgeraniol).

  16. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  17. The level of orally ingested vitamin C affected the expression of vitamin C transporters and vitamin C accumulation in the livers of ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Yasuko; Ueta, Etsuko; Kodama, Satoru; Sannoumaru, Yasuko; Miyake, Noriko; Sone, Hirohito; Fujiwara, Yoko; Otsuka, Yuzuru; Kondo, Kazuo; Inagaki, Masahiro; Namba, Eiji; Kurata, Tadao; Suzuki, Emiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of vitamin C administration on vitamin C-specific transporters in ODS/ShiJcl-od/od rat livers. The vitamin C-specific transporter levels increased in the livers of the rats not administered vitamin C and decreased in the livers of those administered vitamin C at 100 mg/d, indicating that these transporter levels can be influenced by the amount of vitamin C administered.

  18. [Effect of vitamin beverages on vitamin sufficiency of the workers of Pskov Hydroelectric Power-Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiricheva, T V; Vrezhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Iudina, A V; Spirichev, V B

    2010-01-01

    The research of influence of vitamin complexes in the form of a drink or kissel on vitamin sufficiency of working persons has been carried out. Long inclusion (6,5 months) in a diet of vitamin drinks containing about 80% from recommended daily consumption of vitamins, was accompanied by trustworthy improvement of vitamins C and B6 sufficiency and prevention of seasonal deterioration of beta-carotene status. As initially surveyed have been well provided with vitamins A and E, their blood serum level increase had not occurred.

  19. Association between vitamin deficiency and metabolic disorders related to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Tostes, Maria das Graças V; Anunciação, Pamella C; da Silva, Bárbara P; Sant'Ana, Helena M Pinheiro

    2017-10-13

    Inappropriate food behavior contributes to obesity and leads to vitamin deficiency. This review discusses the nutritional status of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in obese subjects. We verified that most vitamins are deficient in obese individuals, especially the fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B 12 and vitamin C. However, some vitamins have been less evaluated in cases of obesity. The adipose tissue is considered a metabolic and endocrine organ, which in excess leads to changes in body homeostasis, as well as vitamin deficiency which can aggravate the pathological state. Therefore, the evaluation of vitamin status is of fundamental importance in obese individuals.

  20. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M

    1981-03-01

    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  1. Vitamin D status and childhood health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovi­ taminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25­hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter, insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (non­white, older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 μg of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents.

  2. Association between vitamin D status and hyperinsulinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Catherine; Leemaqz, Shalem; Furness, Denise; Dekker, Gustaaf; Roberts, Claire

    2018-06-08

    Some studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of first trimester miscarriages, others have suggested that it is associated with an increased risk of hyperinsulinism/insulin resistance and the development of gestational diabetes. Hyperinsulinism is also thought to increase miscarriages. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and hyperinsulinism in a cohort of recurrent miscarriage patients. Patients undergoing miscarriage investigations had insulin and vitamin D levels tested. Vitamin D levels were classified as: sufficient (≥75 nmol/L), insufficient (50-74.9 nmol/L) or deficient (D deficient group, 38.7% of the insufficient group, and 33.3% of the sufficient group (chi-square p = .034). There were no significant associations between BMI and vitamin D levels, or BMI and hyperinsulinism. Caucasians comprised 82% of the clinic, and 67% of these women had vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. Noncaucasians comprised 18% of the clinic but 89% of these patients had vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. We found that insufficient or deficient vitamin D levels were significantly associated with hyperinsulinism in these patients. Vitamin D deficiency is also thought to contribute to an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age gestational diabetes mellitus, and miscarriages. Larger level one trials are needed to establish if increasing serum vitamin D levels prior to conception or in early pregnancy improves adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry in lipophilic vitamins determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Sýs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution was to check if adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetry (AdSDPV is suitable tool for sensitive simultenous electrochemical detection of lipophilic vitamins. Retinol (vitamin A1, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3, α-tocopherol (vitamin E and phylloquinone (vitamin K1 were selected as representatives. All electrochemical measurements were performed in two separate steps due to the lipophilic character of the analytes. In the first step, an accumulation of lipophilic vitamin on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE was done by immersing working electrode into the aqueous‑acetonitrile solutions (50%, v/v of each vitamin (50.0 µmol.L-1 at 400 rpm for 5 min. In the second one, differential pulse voltammetry of accumulated vitamins was performed in 0.01 mol.L-1 acetate (pH 4.5 buffer at potential step (Estep 5 mV, potential of amplitude (Eampl 25 mV, interval time (t 0.1 s and scan rate (ν 50 mV.s-1. It was observed that electrochemical behaviour of lipophilic vitamins adsorbed on surface of solid GCE in the aqueous electrolyte was very similar to those performed in organic/aqueous electrolyte in literature. Due to reversible electrochemical behaviour of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone/phyllohydroquinone redox couple, it was possible to detect all lipophilic vitamins only in one analysis. Observed values of peak potentials (Ep were sufficiently different for their recognition which was confirmed by the analysis of real sample. The results obtained in this study showed that simultaneous determination of some lipophilic vitamins is possible requiring further optimization study. For this reason, it is necessary to understand this work as an initial step in simultaneous determination of lipophilic vitamins without application of any chromatographic technique.

  4. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sram, Radim J.; Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The ability of vitamin C to affect genetic damage was reviewed in human studies that used molecular epidemiology methods, including analysis of DNA adducts, DNA strand breakage (using the Comet assay), oxidative damage measured as levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, and the induction of DNA repair proteins. The protective effect of vitamin C was observed at plasma levels > 50 μmol/l. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in groups with insufficient dietary intake who were occupationally exposed to mutagens, and also decreased the sensitivity to mutagens as assessed using the bleomycin assay. High vitamin C levels in plasma decreased the frequency of genomic translocations in groups exposed to ionizing radiation or c-PAHs in polluted air. The frequency of micronuclei was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in smokers challenged with γ-irradiation, and higher vitamin C levels in plasma counteracted the damage induced by air pollution. The prevalence of DNA adducts inversely correlated with vitamin C levels in groups environmentally exposed to high concentrations of c-PAHs. Increased vitamin C levels decreased DNA strand breakage induced by air pollution. Oxidative damage (8-oxodG levels) was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in groups with plasma levels > 50 μmol/l exposed to PM2.5 and c-PAHs. Modulation of DNA repair by vitamin C supplementation was observed both in poorly nourished subjects and in groups with vitamin C plasma levels > 50 μmol/l exposed to higher concentrations of c-PAHs. It is possible that the impact of vitamin C on DNA damage depends both on background values of vitamin C in the individual as well as on the level of exposure to xenobiotics or oxidative stress.

  5. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J., E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2012-05-01

    The ability of vitamin C to affect genetic damage was reviewed in human studies that used molecular epidemiology methods, including analysis of DNA adducts, DNA strand breakage (using the Comet assay), oxidative damage measured as levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, and the induction of DNA repair proteins. The protective effect of vitamin C was observed at plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in groups with insufficient dietary intake who were occupationally exposed to mutagens, and also decreased the sensitivity to mutagens as assessed using the bleomycin assay. High vitamin C levels in plasma decreased the frequency of genomic translocations in groups exposed to ionizing radiation or c-PAHs in polluted air. The frequency of micronuclei was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in smokers challenged with {gamma}-irradiation, and higher vitamin C levels in plasma counteracted the damage induced by air pollution. The prevalence of DNA adducts inversely correlated with vitamin C levels in groups environmentally exposed to high concentrations of c-PAHs. Increased vitamin C levels decreased DNA strand breakage induced by air pollution. Oxidative damage (8-oxodG levels) was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in groups with plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to PM2.5 and c-PAHs. Modulation of DNA repair by vitamin C supplementation was observed both in poorly nourished subjects and in groups with vitamin C plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to higher concentrations of c-PAHs. It is possible that the impact of vitamin C on DNA damage depends both on background values of vitamin C in the individual as well as on the level of exposure to xenobiotics or oxidative stress.

  6. "Beneficial effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on blood pressure in Hyperandrogenic women "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotoudeh G

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperandrogenism affects 2-6% of all women. Hypertension is one of disturbances which is related to androgen excess. Higher intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E have been associated with lower blood pressure. Tho investigate the effect of these vitamin supplementation on blood pressure in hyperandrogenic women, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed on 56 women 18-54 years old. Women were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups: spironolactone plus vitamain C and viamin E (SCE, spironolactone plus vitamins placebo (SP, vitamin C plus vitamin E (CE, vitamins placebo (P. The treatment consisted of oral administration of 100 mg spironolactone, 1000 mg vitamin C and 900 mg vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate daily for about 3 months. Results indicated that compared to pretreatment, vitamins supplementation significantly lowered systolic (119.1±12.6 vs. 112.6±15.4 mmHg and mean blood pressure (97.4±11.5 vs. 92. ±12.1 mmHg SCE group (P<0.05, diastolic (87.3±12.7 vs. 80±12 mmHg and mean group (P<0.05. Blood levels of vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol increased in all SCE and CE subjects. In conclusion, vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation reduced blood pressure in hperandrogenic women who are at risk of hypertension.

  7. Biofortified cassava with pro-vitamin A is sensory and culturally acceptable for consumption by primary school children in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise F Talsma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sensory and cultural acceptability of the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich cassava in order to identify key factors predicting the intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava by families with school-aged children in Eastern Kenya. METHODS: Sensory acceptability was measured by replicated discrimination tests and paired preference tests among 30 children (7-12 yr and 30 caretakers (18-45 yr in three primary schools. Cultural acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire based on the combined model of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Health Belief Model in one primary school among 140 caretakers of children aged 6 to 12 years. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to determine associations between summed scores for model constructs. RESULTS: Caretakers and children perceived a significant difference in taste between white and pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Both preferred pro-vitamin A rich cassava over white cassava because of its soft texture, sweet taste and attractive color. Knowledge about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and it's relation to health ('Knowledge' ((β = 0.29, P = <.01 was a strong predictor of 'Health behavior identity'. Worries related to bitter taste and color ('Perceived barriers 1' (β = -0.21, P = .02, the belief of the caretaker about having control to prepare cassava ('Control beliefs' (β = 0.18, P = .02 and activities like information sessions about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and recommendations from health workers ('Cues to action'(β = 0.51, P = <.01 were the best predictors of intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava. CONCLUSIONS: Pro-vitamin A rich cassava is well

  8. Biofortified Cassava with Pro-Vitamin A Is Sensory and Culturally Acceptable for Consumption by Primary School Children in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Elise F.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; de Kok, Brenda P. H.; Mbera, Gloria N. K.; Mwangi, Alice M.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biofortification of cassava with pro-vitamin A can potentially reduce vitamin A deficiency in low-income countries. However, little is known about consumer acceptance of this deep yellow variety of cassava compared to the commonly available white varieties. We aimed to determine the sensory and cultural acceptability of the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich cassava in order to identify key factors predicting the intention to consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava by families with school-aged children in Eastern Kenya. Methods Sensory acceptability was measured by replicated discrimination tests and paired preference tests among 30 children (7–12 yr) and 30 caretakers (18–45 yr) in three primary schools. Cultural acceptability was assessed with a questionnaire based on the combined model of The Theory of Planned Behavior and The Health Belief Model in one primary school among 140 caretakers of children aged 6 to 12 years. Correlations and multivariate analyses were used to determine associations between summed scores for model constructs. Results Caretakers and children perceived a significant difference in taste between white and pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Both preferred pro-vitamin A rich cassava over white cassava because of its soft texture, sweet taste and attractive color. Knowledge about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and it's relation to health (‘Knowledge’ ((β = 0.29, P = behavior identity’. Worries related to bitter taste and color (‘Perceived barriers 1’ (β = −0.21, P = .02)), the belief of the caretaker about having control to prepare cassava (‘Control beliefs’ (β = 0.18, P = .02)) and activities like information sessions about pro-vitamin A rich cassava and recommendations from health workers (‘Cues to action’(β = 0.51, P = consume pro-vitamin A rich cassava. Conclusions Pro-vitamin A rich cassava is well accepted by school children in our study population. PMID:24023681

  9. The challenge of increasing vitamin C content in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2012-09-01

    The term "vitamin" is used to define a number of organic compounds that have to be obtained from different foods because the organism itself cannot synthesize them in the quantities needed to sustain life. Vitamin C is the common name for L-ascorbic acid. In humans, the principal role of this molecule is to scavenge reactive oxygen species, due to its antioxidant capacity, and to serve as cofactor for many enzymes. A deficiency of L-ascorbic acid is traditionally linked to human diseases such as scurvy. Plant foods are the principal source of L-ascorbic acid for humans. There is a high variability of L-ascorbic acid content in the various plant organs that are used for human consumption. This diversity is related to the specific functions played by L-ascorbic acid in the different plant tissues. The net content of L-ascorbic acid in plants is determined through a balance of the activities of different biosynthetic, recycling, and catabolic pathways. Here we review the importance of L-ascorbic acid for human health, the current knowledge on its metabolism and function in plants, and the efforts that have already been made by genetic modification to improve its content in plant organs used for human food. We provide a current and forward looking perspective of how plant science can contribute to improving the L-ascorbic acid content in crop species using gene transformation, quantitative trait loci and association mapping-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Recombinant human immunoglobulin (Ig)A1 and IgA2 anti-D used for detection of IgA deficiency and anti-IgA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Leif K; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA.......To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA....

  11. An improved vitamin A carrier for children 6 months-3 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifen, R.; Nussinuvitch, A.; Edris, M.

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD), is strongly linked to blindness in addition to presenting an increased risk of death and morbidity from gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases. An edible sponge, fulfilling the criteria as a viable micronutrient carrier, would answer and facilitate the delivery of a logical control to this situation. The authors propose creation of a new technology to be carried out in the Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. This novel and innovative approach will focus on hydrocolloid matrices to which oil has been added by homogenization followed by a gelation process. The ensuing gel will be freeze-dried to yield a crunchy chewable cellular solid (edible sponge), designed as packaging for vitamin A and minerals. The product will be studied for mechanical (textural) properties to allow customized, affordable stable packaging for minerals and vitamins together. In parallel, the two research teams will examine sponge digestibility, stability and efficiency through intake experiments on animals and children. The advantages of the proposed technology include containment of water and oil-soluble ingredients in one package, ease of production, low price and availability of raw materials in addition to the possible adaptability for different age groups. Since the sponge is fibrous, it is void of flavor, odor, and color. Hence, it is possible to control and incorporate these characteristics during processing, thus ensuring broad acceptance by the targeted subjects. The proposed methodology provides a fortified, stable and affordable food product successfully comprising more than one micronutrient. (author)

  12. [Effect of vitamine A on mice immune response induced by specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria-immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Jia; Liu, Hong-Li; DU, Li-Li; Toshihisa, Kawai

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamine-A deficiency on the induction of specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetetemcomitans(Aa) immunization. BALB/c mice were fed with vitamine A-depleted diet or control regular diet throughout the whole experiment period. After 2 weeks, immunized formalin-killed Aa to build immunized models, 6 weeks later, sacrificed to determine specific antibody-IgG, IgM and sub-class IgG antibody titers in serum, and concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and RANKL in T cell supernatant were measured by ELISA and T cell proliferation was measured by cintilography. SPSS 11.5 software package was used for statistical analysis. The levels of whole IgG and IgM antibody which were immunized by Aa significantly elevated, non-immune group was unable to produce any antibody. Compared with Aa immunized+RD group, the level of whole IgG in Aa immunized+VAD group was significantly higher (Pvitamin-A diet can increase the immunized mice's susceptibility to periodontal pathogenic bacteria and trigger or aggravate immune inflammatory response. Adequate vitamin A is an important factor in maintaining body health. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (Grant No.20092139) and Science and Technology Program of Shenyang Municipality (Grant No.F10-149-9-32).

  13. STUDI PENERIMAAN DAN PREFERENSI KONSUMEN TERHADAP MINYAK GORENG CURAH YANG DIFORTIFIKASI VITAMIN A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drajat Martianto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A fortification in unbranded palm oil is an alternative solution to overcome Vitamin A deficiency problem. It, however, needs further study to determine consumer acceptance and preference of the Vitamin Afortified unbranded palm oil in order to make the fortified oil is acceptable and consumed by consumer. This study was divided into two steps, they are field study, held in Barrang Lompo Island - Makassar and Babakan Village - Bogor, and laboratory study, held in Organoleptic Laboratory and Food Processing Laboratory in Department of Community Nutrition, Bogor Agricultural University. Percentage of panelist assessment and non-parametric statistical test (Kruskal- Wallis Test was used to measure consumer acceptance and preference of fortified unbranded palm oil. The result of this study indicated that the color and aroma of fortified unbranded palm oil is accepted by the consumer. The color, aroma, and taste of food that processed with fortified unbranded palm oil were also accepted by the consumer. The complaint during the usage of fortified unbranded palm oil were mainly caused by the way consumer used and storing the sample. Thus, it can be concluded that there were no change between fortified unbranded palm oil characteristics, both used in a controlled circumstances (laboratory and in an uncontrolled circumstances (household.

  14. Dreaming, fenfluramine, and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, A; Wilson, C W; Wilson, B P

    1977-01-08

    The effect of increasing doses of fenfluramine on dream patterns was studied in 20 patients receiving a reducing diet with or without a controlled dietary intake of vitamin C daily. The dream pattern was unchanged in six patients and dreams disappeared in another who normally dreamed often. In 13 patients dreams increased in frequency and intensity, and in five the dreams assumed frightening proportions. There was a significant straight-line relation between response and the size of the dose. When placebo tablets were given to four patients their dreams disappeared or assumed their pretreatment normal pattern. Absence of vitamin C from the diet did not significantly affect the dream pattern. That fenfluramine has dose-related cerebral effects should be remembered in patients with a history of mental illness.

  15. B-12 vitamin metabolism disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabriciova, K.; Bzduch, V.; Behulova, D.; Skodova, J.; Holesova, D.; Ostrozlikova, M.; Schmidtova, K.; Kozich, V.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 – cobalamin (Cbl) is a water soluble vitamin, which is synthesized by lower organisms. It cannot be synthesized by plants and higher organisms. Problem in the metabolic pathway of Cbl can be caused by its deficiency or by the deficiency of its last metabolites – adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Both reasons are presented by errors in the homocysteine and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A metabolism. Clinical symptoms of the Cbl metabolism disorders are: different neurological disorders, changes in haematological status (megaloblastic anemia, pancytopenia), symptoms of gastrointestinal tract (glossitis, loss of appetite, diarrhea) and changes in the immune system. In the article the authors describe the causes of Cbl metabolism disorders, its different diagnosis and treatment. They introduce the group of patients with these disorders, who were taken care of in the I st Paediatric Department of University Children Hospital for the last 5 years. (author)

  16. Shikonin, vitamin K3 and vitamin K5 inhibit multiple glycolytic enzymes in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hu, Xun; Cui, Jingjie

    2018-05-01

    Glycolysis is the most important source of energy for the production of anabolic building blocks in cancer cells. Therefore, glycolytic enzymes are regarded as potential targets for cancer treatment. Previously, naphthaquinones, including shikonin, vitamin K 3 and vitamin K 5 , have been proven to decrease the rate of glycolysis in cancer cells, which is partly due to suppressed pyruvate kinase activity. In the present study, enzymatic assays were performed using MCF-7 cell lysate in order to screen the profile of glycolytic enzymes in cancer cells inhibited by shikonin, vitamin K 3 and vitamin K 5 , in addition to pyruvate kinase. Results revealed that hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1, fructose bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase produced in the process of glycolysis were inhibited by shikonin, vitamin K 3 and vitamin K 5 . The results indicated that shikonin, vitamin K 3 and vitamin K 5 are chemical inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes in cancer cells and have potential uses in translational medical applications.

  17. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J C; Lewis, A

    1976-12-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting ..cap alpha..-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin.

  18. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Lewis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  19. Dietary reference values for vitamin K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for vitamin K. In this Opinion, the Panel considers vitamin K to comprise both phylloquinone and menaquinones. The Panel considers that none...... of the biomarkers of vitamin K intake or status is suitable by itself to derive DRVs for vitamin K. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin K intake were also considered but data could not be used to establish DRVs. The Panel considers that average requirements and population reference intakes...... for vitamin K cannot be derived for adults, infants and children, and therefore sets adequate intakes (AIs). The Panel considers that available evidence on occurrence, absorption, function and content in the body or organs of menaquinones is insufficient, and, therefore, sets AIs for phylloquinone only...

  20. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761