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Sample records for retinoic acid modulation

  1. Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity

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    Paulo Czarnewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs. Here, we focus on the role of retinoic acid in differentiation, trafficking and the functions of innate immune cells in health and inflammation associated disorders. Lastly, we discuss the potential involvement of atRA during the plausible crosstalk between DCs and ILCs.

  2. Retinoic Acid and Its Role in Modulating Intestinal Innate Immunity.

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    Czarnewski, Paulo; Das, Srustidhar; Parigi, Sara M; Villablanca, Eduardo J

    2017-01-13

    Vitamin A (VA) is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Here, we focus on the role of retinoic acid in differentiation, trafficking and the functions of innate immune cells in health and inflammation associated disorders. Lastly, we discuss the potential involvement of atRA during the plausible crosstalk between DCs and ILCs.

  3. All-trans retinoic acid modulates ORMDL3 expression via transcriptional regulation.

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    Li-Li Zhuang

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is an active metabolite of Vitamin A, it shows protective effects on asthma, including maintains airway epithelial integrity, inhibits asthma effector cells differentiation, modulates immune response, et al. However, the promoting effect of ATRA on Th2 response has restricted the clinical application of ATRA in asthma treatment. ORMDL3 is a candidate gene of childhood onset asthma, and high-transcript of ORMDL3 is associated with the development of asthma. Here we show that ATRA increases ORMDL3 production in vitro via inducing PKA-dependent CREB phosphorylation which in turn binds to the CRE element in promoter region of ORMDL3 and initiates ORMDL3 transcription. This finding is in consistent with the previous reports that ATRA could regulate target genes without the presence of retinoic acid response element (RARE in promoter region but through other signals such as PKA/CREB. Nevertheless, in the present study, the traditional signal pathway of ATRA, retinoic acid receptor (RAR signal transduction pathway, indirectly modulated ORMDL3 expression. RAR-α agonist (Am-80 increased ORMDL3 production even though there was no RARE in ORMDL3 promoter, introns or 3'-downstream region. Besides, the signal of RAR might differ from that of ATRA since Am-80 failed to induce CREB activation. In conclusion, our data indicate that ATRA facilitates ORMDL3 production probable through PKA/CREB, and this may be a starting point for more detailed mechanism researches on ATRA and asthma.

  4. Genetic selection for modulators of a retinoic-acid-responsive reporter in human cells.

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    Richards, Burt; Karpilow, Jon; Dunn, Christine; Peterson, Isaac; Maxfield, Andrew; Zharkikh, Ludmilla; Abedi, Majid; Hurlburt, Anthony; Hardman, Joshua; Hsu, Forrest; Li, Wenhua; Rebentisch, Matthew; Sandrock, Robert; Sandrock, Tanya; Kamb, Alexander; Teng, David H-F

    2003-03-01

    We used a genetic screening methodology, a human cell line bearing a retinoic-acid-responsive enhanced GFP reporter, and a flow sorter to recover dominant modulators of reporter expression. Four inducers and three suppressors that were fused to the C terminus of a protein scaffold for stability were isolated and their mechanisms of action studied. Mutagenesis experiments indicated that six of these dominant agents exerted their effects at the protein level. The single cDNA coding fragment that was isolated comprised the central 64-amino-acid section of human cyclophilin B, which contained its peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain; this cyclophilin fragment repressed expression of the retinoic-acid-responsive reporter. The remaining clones encoded peptides shorter than 30 amino acids unrelated to known gene open reading frames. Genetic epistasis studies between the strongest inducer, R3, and a dominant-negative mutant of RARalpha suggest that the two factors function in the same pathway. Transcript microarray analyses suggest that R3 induced a subset of the retinoid-responsive genes in melanoma cells. Finally, yeast two-hybrid assays and co-immunoprecipitation studies of human cell extracts identified PAT1 as a protein that interacts with R3.

  5. Retinoic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis Modulating C/EBPβ Phosphorylation and Down Regulating Srebf1a Expression.

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    Ayala-Sumuano, Jorge-Tonatiuh; Vélez-DelValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Beltrán-Langarica, Alicia; Hernández-Mosqueira, Claudia; Kuri-Harcuch, Walid

    2016-03-01

    Adipogenesis comprises a complex network of signaling pathways and transcriptional cascades; the GSK3β-C/EBPβ-srebf1a axis is a critical signaling pathway at early stages leading to the expression of PPARγ2, the master regulator of adipose differentiation. Previous work has demonstrated that retinoic acid inhibits adipogenesis affecting different signaling pathways. Here, we evaluated the anti-adipogenic effect of retinoic acid on the adipogenic transcriptional cascade, and the expression of adipogenic genes cebpb, srebf1a, srebf1c, pparg2, and cebpa. Our results demonstrate that retinoic acid blocks adipose differentiation during commitment, returning cells to an apparent non-committed state, since they have to be newly induced to adipose conversion after the retinoid is removed from the culture medium. Retinoic acid down regulates the expression of the adipogenic genes, srebf1a, srebf1c, pparg2, and cebpa; however, it did not down regulate the expression of cebpb, but it inhibited C/EBPβ phosphorylation at Thr188, a critical step for the progression of the adipogenic program. We also found that RA inhibition of adipogenesis did not increase the expression of dlk1, the gene encoding for Pref1, a well-known anti-adipogenic factor. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modulation of human stratum corneum properties by salicylic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid.

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    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Piérard, G E

    1998-01-01

    Topical all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) has been reported to decrease the in vivo skin response to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The converse was also shown with a synergistic effect of RA following prior applications of SLS. The reason for such effects is not clear. We employed measures of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), squamometry and sequential corneosurfametry to explore the protective activity of a 0.05% RA cream at the level of the stratum corneum. Nonionic oil-in-water emulsions with or without 5% salicylic acid (SA) served as test product references. Data indicated that the RA formulation was responsible for a stochastic impairment in the TEWL and for an increased intercorneocyte cohesion. SA and the unmedicated emulsion did not lead to similar TEWL changes. The squamometry test proved to be very sensitive to disclose the effects of SA and RA without, however, allowing to distinguish the difference in the physiological processes involved. The corneosurfametry bioassay did not show any protection or synergistic effect between RA or SA and SLS challenge on the stratum corneum. This is in contrast to a previous work showing a positive protective effect afforded by retinol against SLS. The combined effects of irritant compounds affecting the stratum corneum are complex. The precise reason for some of their biological consequences remains a conundrum. On balance, products such as SA and RA do not appear to afford protection or impairment to a surfactant challenge at the level of the stratum corneum.

  7. All-trans-retinoic Acid Modulates the Plasticity and Inhibits the Motility of Breast Cancer Cells

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    Zanetti, Adriana; Affatato, Roberta; Centritto, Floriana; Fratelli, Maddalena; Kurosaki, Mami; Barzago, Maria Monica; Bolis, Marco; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Paroni, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a natural compound proposed for the treatment/chemoprevention of breast cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that aberrant regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a determinant of the cancer cell invasive and metastatic behavior. The effects of ATRA on EMT are largely unknown. In HER2-positive SKBR3 and UACC812 cells, showing co-amplification of the ERBB2 and RARA genes, ATRA activates a RARα-dependent epithelial differentiation program. In SKBR3 cells, this causes the formation/reorganization of adherens and tight junctions. Epithelial differentiation and augmented cell-cell contacts underlie the anti-migratory action exerted by the retinoid in cells exposed to the EMT-inducing factors EGF and heregulin-β1. Down-regulation of NOTCH1, an emerging EMT modulator, is involved in the inhibition of motility by ATRA. Indeed, the retinoid blocks NOTCH1 up-regulation by EGF and/or heregulin-β1. Pharmacological inhibition of γ-secretase and NOTCH1 processing also abrogates SKBR3 cell migration. Stimulation of TGFβ contributes to the anti-migratory effect of ATRA. The retinoid switches TGFβ from an EMT-inducing and pro-migratory determinant to an anti-migratory mediator. Inhibition of the NOTCH1 pathway not only plays a role in the anti-migratory action of ATRA; it is relevant also for the anti-proliferative activity of the retinoid in HCC1599 breast cancer cells, which are addicted to NOTCH1 for growth/viability. This effect is enhanced by the combination of ATRA and the γ-secretase inhibitor N-(N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl)-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, supporting the concept that the two compounds act at the transcriptional and post-translational levels along the NOTCH1 pathway. PMID:26018078

  8. RXR agonist modulates TR: corepressor dissociation upon 9-cis retinoic acid treatment.

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    Fattori, Juliana; Campos, Jéssica L O; Doratioto, Tábata R; Assis, Lucas M; Vitorino, Mariela T; Polikarpov, Igor; Xavier-Neto, José; Figueira, Ana Carolina M

    2015-02-01

    Transcriptional regulation controlled by thyroid hormone receptor (TR) drives events such as development, differentiation, and metabolism. TRs may act either as homodimers or as heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR). Thyroid hormone T3 preferentially binds TR-RXR heterodimers, which activate transcription through coactivator recruitment. However, it is unclear whether TR-RXR heterodimers may also be responsive to the canonical RXR agonist 9-cis retinoic acid (9C) in the context of physiological gene regulation. New structural studies suggest that 9C promotes the displacement of bound coactivators from the heterodimer, modifying TR-RXR activity. To shed light on the molecular mechanisms that control TR-RXR function, we used biophysical approaches to characterize coregulator recruitment to TR-TR or to TR-RXR in the presence of T3 and/or 9C as well as cell-based assays to establish the functional significance of biophysical findings. Using cell-based and fluorescence assays with mutant and wild-type TR, we show that 9C does indeed have a function in the TR-RXR heterodimer context, in which it induces the release of corepressors. Furthermore, we show that 9C does not promote detectable conformational changes in the structure of the TR-RXR heterodimer and does not affect coactivator recruitment. Finally, our data support the view that DNA binding domain and Hinge regions are important to set up NR-coactivator binding interfaces. In summary, we showed that the RXR agonist 9C can regulate TR function through its modulation of corepressor dissociation.

  9. Cellular Retinoic Acid-Binding Protein 1 Modulates Stem Cell Proliferation to Affect Learning and Memory in Male Mice.

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    Lin, Yu-Lung; Persaud, Shawna D; Nhieu, Jennifer; Wei, Li-Na

    2017-09-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is the active ingredient of vitamin A. It exerts its canonical activity by binding to nuclear RA receptors (RARs) to regulate gene expression. Increasingly, RA is also known to elicit nongenomic RAR-independent activities, most widely detected in activating extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. This study validated the functional role of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (Crabp1) in mediating nongenomic activity in RA, specifically activating ERK1/2 to rapidly augment the cell cycle by expanding the growth 1 phase and slowing down embryonic stem cell and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. The study further uncovered the physiological activity of Crabp1 in modulating NSC proliferation and animal behavior. In the Crabp1 knockout mouse hippocampus, where Crabp1 is otherwise detected in the subgranular zone, neurogenesis and NSC proliferation increased and hippocampus-dependent brain functions such as learning and memory correspondingly improved. This study established the physiological role of Crabp1 in modulating stem cell proliferation and hippocampus-dependent brain activities such as learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  10. History of retinoic acid receptors.

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    Benbrook, Doris M; Chambon, Pierre; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Asson-Batres, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of retinoic acid receptors arose from research into how vitamins are essential for life. Early studies indicated that Vitamin A was metabolized into an active factor, retinoic acid (RA), which regulates RNA and protein expression in cells. Each step forward in our understanding of retinoic acid in human health was accomplished by the development and application of new technologies. Development cDNA cloning techniques and discovery of nuclear receptors for steroid hormones provided the basis for identification of two classes of retinoic acid receptors, RARs and RXRs, each of which has three isoforms, α, β and ɣ. DNA manipulation and crystallographic studies revealed that the receptors contain discrete functional domains responsible for binding to DNA, ligands and cofactors. Ligand binding was shown to induce conformational changes in the receptors that cause release of corepressors and recruitment of coactivators to create functional complexes that are bound to consensus promoter DNA sequences called retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) and that cause opening of chromatin and transcription of adjacent genes. Homologous recombination technology allowed the development of mice lacking expression of retinoic acid receptors, individually or in various combinations, which demonstrated that the receptors exhibit vital, but redundant, functions in fetal development and in vision, reproduction, and other functions required for maintenance of adult life. More recent advancements in sequencing and proteomic technologies reveal the complexity of retinoic acid receptor involvement in cellular function through regulation of gene expression and kinase activity. Future directions will require systems biology approaches to decipher how these integrated networks affect human stem cells, health, and disease.

  11. Retinoic acid modulates intrahippocampal levels of corticosterone in middle-aged mice: consequences on hippocampal plasticity and contextual memory.

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    Damien eBonhomme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is now established that vitamin A and its derivatives, retinoic acid (RA, are required for cognitive functions in adulthood. RA hyposignaling and hyperactivity of glucocorticoid (GC pathway appear concomitantly during ageing and would contribute to the deterioration of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and functions. Furthermore, recent data have evidenced counteracting effects of retinoids on GC signaling pathway. In the present study, we addressed the following issue: whether the stimulation of RA pathway could modulate intrahippocampal corticosterone (CORT levels in middle-aged mice and thereby impact on hippocampal plasticity and cognitive functions. We firstly investigated the effects of vitamin A supplementation and RA treatment in middle-aged mice, on contextual serial discrimination task (CSD, a paradigm which allows the detection of early signs of age-related hippocampal-dependent memory dysfunction. We then measured intrahippocampal CORT concentrations by microdialysis before and after a novelty-induced stress. Our results show that both RA treatment and vitamin A supplementation improve episodic-like memory in middle-aged mice but RA treatment appears to be more efficient. Moreover, we show that the beneficial effect of RA on memory is associated to an increase in hippocampal PSD-95 expression. In addition, intrahippocampal CORT levels are reduced after novelty-induced stress in RA treated animals. This effect cannot be related to a modulation of hippocampal 11β-HSD1 expression. In addition, RA treatment induces a modulation of retinoic acid receptors RARα and RARβ expression in middle-aged mice, a finding which has been correlated with the amplitude of intrahippocampal CORT levels after novelty-induced stress. Taken together, our results suggest that the preventive action of RA treatment on age-related memory deficits in middle-aged mice could be, at least in part, due to an inhibitory effect of retinoids on glucocorticoid

  12. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) modulates CD38 expression, absorbs retinoic acid and may perturb retinoid signalling.

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    Futrega, Kathryn; Yu, Jianshi; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; Lott, William B; Atkinson, Kerry; Doran, Michael R

    2016-04-21

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most commonly used material in the manufacture of customized cell culture devices. While there is concern that uncured PDMS oligomers may leach into culture medium and/or hydrophobic molecules may be absorbed into PDMS structures, there is no consensus on how or if PDMS influences cell behaviour. We observed that human umbilical cord blood (CB)-derived CD34(+) cells expanded in standard culture medium on PDMS exhibit reduced CD38 surface expression, relative to cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces CD38 expression, and we reasoned that this hydrophobic molecule might be absorbed by PDMS. Through a series of experiments we demonstrated that ATRA-mediated CD38 expression was attenuated when cultures were maintained on PDMS. Medium pre-incubated on PDMS for extended durations resulted in a time-dependant reduction of ATRA in the medium and increasingly attenuated CD38 expression. This indicated a time-dependent absorption of ATRA into the PDMS. To better understand how PDMS might generally influence cell behaviour, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to identify potential upstream regulators. This analysis was performed for differentially expressed genes in primary cells including CD34(+) haematopoietic progenitor cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), and keratinocytes, and cell lines including prostate cancer epithelial cells (LNCaP), breast cancer epithelial cells (MCF-7), and myeloid leukaemia cells (KG1a). IPA predicted that the most likely common upstream regulator of perturbed pathways was ATRA. We demonstrate here that ATRA is absorbed by PDMS in a time-dependent manner and results in the concomitant reduced expression of CD38 on the cell surface of CB-derived CD34(+) cells.

  13. Increasing the intracellular availability of all-trans retinoic acid in neuroblastoma cells

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    Armstrong, J. L.; Ruiz, M.; Boddy, A V; Redfern, C P F; Pearson, A D J; Veal, G J

    2005-01-01

    Recent data indicate that isomerisation to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis retinoic acid (13cisRA) in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is thought to contribute to resistance, and strategies to modulate this may increase the clinical efficacy of 13cisRA. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that retinoids, such as acitretin, which bind preferentially to cellular retinoic acid bi...

  14. Postbiotic Modulation of Retinoic Acid Imprinted Mucosal-like Dendritic Cells by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri 17938 In vitro

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    Yeneneh eHaileselassie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g. necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in individuals with a disturbed gut epithelial barrier. Here we studied how Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 cell free supernatant (L. reuteri-CFS influenced retinoic acid (RA-driven mucosal-like dendritic cells (DC and their subsequent effect on T regulatory cells (Treg in vitro. RA clearly imprinted a mucosal-like DC phenotype with higher IL10 production, increased CD103 and CD1d expression and a down-regulated mRNA expression of several inflammatory-associated genes (NFκB1, RELB and TNF. Treatment with L. reuteri-CFS further influenced the tolerogenic phenotype of RA-DC by down-regulating most genes involved in antigen uptake, antigen presentation and signal transduction as well as several chemokine receptors, while up regulating IL10 production. L. reuteri-CFS also augmented CCR7 expression on RA-DC. In co-cultures, RA-DC increased IL10 and FOXP3 expression in Treg, but pre-treatment with L. reuteri-CFS did not further influence the Treg phenotype. In conclusion, L. reuteri-CFS modulates the phenotype and function of mucosal-like DC, implicating its potential application as postbiotic.

  15. Postbiotic Modulation of Retinoic Acid Imprinted Mucosal-like Dendritic Cells by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri 17938 In Vitro.

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    Haileselassie, Yeneneh; Navis, Marit; Vu, Nam; Qazi, Khaleda Rahman; Rethi, Bence; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are widely used as probiotics with beneficial effects on infection-associated diarrhea, but also used in clinical trials of e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. The possibility of using probiotic metabolic products, so-called postbiotics, is desirable as it could prevent possible side effects of live bacteria in individuals with a disturbed gut epithelial barrier. Here, we studied how Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 cell-free supernatant (L. reuteri-CFS) influenced retinoic acid (RA)-driven mucosal-like dendritic cells (DC) and their subsequent effect on T regulatory cells (Treg) in vitro. RA clearly imprinted a mucosal-like DC phenotype with higher IL10 production, increased CD103 and CD1d expression, and a downregulated mRNA expression of several inflammatory-associated genes (NFκB1, RELB, and TNF). Treatment with L. reuteri-CFS further influenced the tolerogenic phenotype of RA-DC by downregulating most genes involved in antigen uptake, antigen presentation, and signal transduction as well as several chemokine receptors, while upregulating IL10 production. L. reuteri-CFS also augmented CCR7 expression on RA-DC. In cocultures, RA-DC increased IL10 and FOXP3 expression in Treg, but pre-treatment with L. reuteri-CFS did not further influence the Treg phenotype. In conclusion, L. reuteri-CFS modulates the phenotype and function of mucosal-like DC, implicating its potential application as postbiotic.

  16. Proteinuria Impairs Podocyte Regeneration by Sequestering Retinoic Acid

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    Peired, Anna; Angelotti, Maria Lucia; Ronconi, Elisa; la Marca, Giancarlo; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Sisti, Alessandro; Lombardi, Duccio; Giocaliere, Elisa; Della Bona, Marialuisa; Villanelli, Fabio; Parente, Eliana; Ballerini, Lara; Sagrinati, Costanza; Wanner, Nicola; Huber, Tobias B.; Liapis, Helen; Lazzeri, Elena; Lasagni, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In CKD, the risk of kidney failure and death depends on the severity of proteinuria, which correlates with the extent of podocyte loss and glomerular scarring. We investigated whether proteinuria contributes directly to progressive glomerulosclerosis through the suppression of podocyte regeneration and found that individual components of proteinuria exert distinct effects on renal progenitor survival and differentiation toward a podocyte lineage. In particular, albumin prevented podocyte differentiation from human renal progenitors in vitro by sequestering retinoic acid, thus impairing retinoic acid response element (RARE)-mediated transcription of podocyte-specific genes. In mice with Adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human FSGS, blocking endogenous retinoic acid synthesis increased proteinuria and exacerbated glomerulosclerosis. This effect was related to a reduction in podocyte number, as validated through genetic podocyte labeling in NPHS2.Cre;mT/mG transgenic mice. In RARE-lacZ transgenic mice, albuminuria reduced retinoic acid bioavailability and impaired RARE activation in renal progenitors, inhibiting their differentiation into podocytes. Treatment with retinoic acid restored RARE activity and induced the expression of podocyte markers in renal progenitors, decreasing proteinuria and increasing podocyte number, as demonstrated in serial biopsy specimens. These results suggest that albumin loss through the damaged filtration barrier impairs podocyte regeneration by sequestering retinoic acid and promotes the generation of FSGS lesions. Our findings may explain why reducing proteinuria delays CKD progression and provide a biologic rationale for the clinical use of pharmacologic modulators to induce regression of glomerular diseases. PMID:23949798

  17. Retinoic acid affects calcium signaling in adult molluscan neurons

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    Vesprini, Nicholas D.; Dawson, Taylor F.; Yuan, Ye; Bruce, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is important for nervous system development, regeneration, as well as cognitive functions of the adult central nervous system. These central nervous system functions are all highly dependent on neuronal activity. Retinoic acid has previously been shown to induce changes in the firing properties and action potential waveforms of adult molluscan neurons in a dose- and isomer-dependent manner. In this study, we aimed to determine the cellular pathways by which retinoic acid might exert such effects, by testing the involvement of pathways previously shown to be affected by retinoic acid. We demonstrated that the ability of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) to induce electrophysiological changes in cultured molluscan neurons was not prevented by inhibitors of protein synthesis, protein kinase A or phospholipase C. However, we showed that atRA was capable of rapidly reducing intracellular calcium levels in the same dose- and isomer-dependent manner as shown previously for changes in neuronal firing. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the transmembrane ion flux through voltage-gated calcium channels was rapidly modulated by retinoic acid. In particular, the peak current density was reduced and the inactivation rate was increased in the presence of atRA, over a similar time course as the changes in cell firing and reductions in intracellular calcium. These studies provide further evidence for the ability of atRA to induce rapid effects in mature neurons. PMID:25343782

  18. Exogenous Modulation of Retinoic Acid Signaling Affects Adult RGC Survival in the Frog Visual System after Optic Nerve Injury.

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    Mildred V Duprey-Díaz

    Full Text Available After lesions to the mammalian optic nerve, the great majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs die before their axons have even had a chance to regenerate. Frog RGCs, on the other hand, suffer only an approximately 50% cell loss, and we have previously investigated the mechanisms by which the application of growth factors can increase their survival rate. Retinoic acid (RA is a vitamin A-derived lipophilic molecule that plays major roles during development of the nervous system. The RA signaling pathway is also present in parts of the adult nervous system, and components of it are upregulated after injury in peripheral nerves but not in the CNS. Here we investigate whether RA signaling affects long-term RGC survival at 6 weeks after axotomy. Intraocular injection of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, the retinoic acid receptor (RAR type-α agonist AM80, the RARβ agonist CD2314, or the RARγ agonist CD1530, returned axotomized RGC numbers to almost normal levels. On the other hand, inhibition of RA synthesis with disulfiram, or of RAR receptors with the pan-RAR antagonist Ro-41-5253, or the RARβ antagonist LE135E, greatly reduced the survival of the axotomized neurons. Axotomy elicited a strong activation of the MAPK, STAT3 and AKT pathways; this activation was prevented by disulfiram or by RAR antagonists. Finally, addition of exogenous ATRA stimulated the activation of the first two of these pathways. Future experiments will investigate whether these strong survival-promoting effects of RA are mediated via the upregulation of neurotrophins.

  19. Retinoic acid modulates prolactin receptor expression and prolactin-induced STAT-5 activation in breast cancer cells in vitro

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    Widschwendter, M.; Widschwendter, A; Welte, T.; Daxenbichler, G.; Zeimet, A. G.; Bergant, A; Berger, J.(Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe, Germany); Peyrat, J-P; Michel, S.; Doppler, W; Marth, C.

    1999-01-01

    Two recent papers demonstrate that prolactin plays an important role in the induction and progression of mammary tumours. Retinoids have been shown to be potent inhibitors of breast carcinogenesis. We studied expression of prolactin receptor mRNA in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, SKBR-3, T47D and BT-20 treated with and without retinoids using Northern blot and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In all cell lines, all-trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acid, as well as the re...

  20. Effects of cytarabine on activation of human T cells - cytarabine has concentration-dependent effects that are modulated both by valproic acid and all-trans retinoic acid

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    Ersvær, Elisabeth; Brenner, Annette; Vetås, Kristin; Reikvam, Håkon; Bruserud, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytarabine is used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Low-dose cytarabine can be combined with valproic acid and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as AML-stabilizing treatment. We have investigated the possible risk of immunotoxicity by this combination. We examined the effects of cytarabine combined with valproic acid and ATRA on in vitro activated human T cells, and we tested cytarabine at concentrations reached during in vivo treatment with high doses, conventional d...

  1. Retinoic acid receptor alpha amplifications and retinoic acid sensitivity in breast cancers.

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    Alsafadi, Samar; Even, Caroline; Falet, Coralie; Goubar, Aicha; Commo, Frédéric; Scott, Véronique; Quidville, Virginie; Albiges, Laurence; Dieci, Maria-Vittoria; Guegan, Justine; Lazar, Vladimir; Ahomadegbe, Jean-Charles; Delaloge, Suzette; André, Fabrice

    2013-10-01

    Molecular segmentation of breast cancer allows identification of small groups of patients who present high sensitivity to targeted agents. A patient, with chemo- and trastuzumab-resistant HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, who presented concomitant acute promyelocytic leukemia, showed a response in her breast lesions to retinoic acid, arsenic, and aracytin. We therefore investigated whether RARA gene amplification could be associated with sensitivity to retinoic acid derivatives in breast cancers. Array comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression arrays were used to characterize RARA amplifications and expression in 103 breast cancer samples. In vitro activity of ATRA was characterized in T47D, SKBR3, and BT474 cell lines. Retinoic acid receptor alpha was gained or amplified in 27% of HER2-positive and 13% of HER2-negative breast cancer samples. Retinoic acid receptor alpha can be coamplified with HER2. Retinoic acid receptor alpha copy number changes could be correlated with messenger RNA expression. All-trans-retinoic acid reduced cell viability of RARA-amplified, but not RARA-normal, cell lines through apoptosis. Gene expression arrays showed that ATRA-induced apoptosis in RARA-amplified cell lines was related to an increase in CASP1 and IRF1. The results of this study suggest that breast cancers exhibiting RARA amplifications could be sensitive to retinoic acid. A phase II trial will evaluate this hypothesis in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The retinoic acid receptor-α modulators ATRA and Ro415253 reciprocally regulate human IL-5+ Th2 cell proliferation and cytokine expression.

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    Wansley, Daniel L; Yin, Yuzhi; Prussin, Calman

    2013-12-06

    Th2 cytokine responses are enhanced by all trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the bioavailable form of vitamin A. Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) is the high affinity receptor for ATRA that mediates these pro-Th2 effects. We have previously characterized two major human Th2 subpopulations: IL-5- Th2 (IL-5-, IL-4+, IL-13+) and IL-5+ Th2 cells (IL-5+, IL-4+, IL-13+), which represent less and more highly differentiated Th2 cells, respectively. We hypothesized that the pro-Th2 effects of ATRA may differentially affect these Th2 subpopulations. Specific cytokine producing Th2 subpopulations were identified using intracellular cytokine staining. Proliferation was measured using the Cell Trace Violet proliferation tracking dye. Apoptotic cells were identified using either annexin-V or active caspase 3 staining. Th2 gene expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. ATRA increased the output of Th2 cells from house dust mite allergen (HDM) specific short-term cell lines, and this enhancement was limited to the IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation. Conversely, the RARα antagonist Ro415253 decreased Th2 cell output from these cultures, and this effect was again limited to the IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation. ATRA and Ro415253 respectively augmented and inhibited Th2 cell proliferation, and this affect was more pronounced for the IL-5+ vs. IL-5- Th2 subpopulation. ATRA and Ro415253 respectively augmented and inhibited the expression of IL5 in a significant manner, which was not found for IL4 or IL13. We report that the reciprocal regulation of Th2 cytokine expression and proliferation by RARα modulators are largely limited to modulation of IL-5 gene expression and to proliferation of the highly differentiated IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation. These results suggest that RARα antagonism is a potential means to therapeutically target allergic inflammation. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01212016.

  3. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  4. Long-range regulation by shared retinoic acid response elements modulates dynamic expression of posterior Hoxb genes in CNS development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngwook; Mullan, Hillary E; Krumlauf, Robb

    2014-04-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays an important role in determining the anterior boundary of Hox gene expression in the neural tube during embryogenesis. In particular, RA signaling is implicated in a rostral expansion of the neural expression domain of 5׳ Hoxb genes (Hoxb9-Hoxb5) in mice. However, underlying mechanisms for this gene regulation have remained elusive due to the lack of RA responsive element (RARE) in the 5׳ half of the HoxB cluster. To identify cis-regulatory elements required for the rostral expansion, we developed a recombineering technology to serially label multiple genes with different reporters in a single bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector containing the mouse HoxB cluster. This allowed us to simultaneously monitor the expression of multiple genes. In contrast to plasmid-based reporters, transgenic BAC reporters faithfully recapitulated endogenous gene expression patterns of the Hoxb genes including the rostral expansion. Combined inactivation of two RAREs, DE-RARE and ENE-RARE, in the BAC completely abolished the rostral expansion of the 5׳ Hoxb genes. Knock-out of endogenous DE-RARE lead to significantly reduced expression of multiple Hoxb genes and attenuated Hox gene response to exogenous RA treatment in utero. Regulatory potential of DE-RARE was further demonstrated by its ability to anteriorize 5׳ Hoxa gene expression in the neural tube when inserted into a HoxA BAC reporter. Our data demonstrate that multiple RAREs cooperate to remotely regulate 5׳ Hoxb genes during CNS development, providing a new insight into the mechanisms for gene regulation within the Hox clusters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Retinoic acid modulation of thyroid dual oxidase activity in rats and its impact on thyroid iodine organification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbauer, Mônica; da Silva, Alba Cenélia Matos; Marassi, Michelle Porto; Lourenço, Alexandre Lopes; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2010-06-01

    The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) mediates iodide uptake into the thyrocytes, which is important for the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid disorders. Decreased ability to uptake iodide in thyroid carcinomas reduces the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, and retinoic acid (RA) treatment reinduces iodide uptake. The effectiveness of treatment depends not only on iodide uptake but also on the ability of thyrocytes to organify iodine, which is catalyzed by thyroperoxidase (TPO) in the presence of H(2)O(2). Our goal was to determine the influence of RA on thyroid iodide uptake, iodine organification, and TPO and dual oxidase (DuOx) activities. Normal rats were treated with all-trans-RA or 13-cis-RA (100 or 1500 microg/100 g body weight (b.w.), s.c.) for 14 and 28 days. The 2 h thyroid radioiodine content significantly decreased in rats treated with all-trans-RA (100 microg/100 g b.w.) for 14 days. In this group, NIS function and TPO activity were unchanged, whereas DuOx activity was significantly decreased, which might have contributed to the decrease in iodine organification. Both doses of 13-cis-RA for 28 days increased the 15 min thyroid radioiodine uptake, while the 2 h radioiodide uptake increased only in rats treated with the highest dose of 13-cis-RA. While TPO activity did not change, H(2)O(2) generation was increased in this group, and serum thyroxine levels were normal. Since radioiodine half-life in the thyroid gland is important for treatment efficacy, our results highlight the importance of correctly choosing the RA isomer, the time and the dose of treatment, in order to improve the efficacy of radioiodine therapy.

  6. All-trans-retinoic Acid Reduces BACE1 Expression under Inflammatory Conditions via Modulation of Nuclear Factor κB (NFκB) Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruishan; Chen, Shaoya; Liu, Yingchun; Diao, Shiyong; Xue, Yueqiang; You, Xiaoqing; Park, Edwards A.; Liao, Francesca-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance and neuroinflammation have emerged as two likely key contributors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), especially in those sporadic AD cases compromised by diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and its associated inflammatory response are hallmarks in sporadic AD brains. Elevated expression and activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1), the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the β-cleavage of amyloid precursor proteins to Aβ peptides, are also observed in sporadic AD brains. Previous studies have suggested that there is therapeutic potential for retinoic acid in treating neurodegeneration based on decreased Aβ. Here we discovered that BACE1 expression is elevated in the brains of both Tg2576 transgenic mice and mice on high fat diets. These conditions are associated with a neuroinflammatory response. We found that administration of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) down-regulated the expression of BACE1 in the brains of Tg2576 mice and in mice fed a high fat diet. Moreover, in LPS-treated mice and cultured neurons, BACE1 expression was repressed by the addition of atRA, correlating with the anti-inflammatory efficacy of atRA. Mutations of the NFκB binding site in BACE1 promoter abolished the suppressive effect of atRA. Furthermore, atRA disrupted LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NFκB and its binding to BACE1 promoter as well as promoting the recruitment of the corepressor NCoR. Our findings indicate that atRA represses BACE1 gene expression under inflammatory conditions via the modulation of NFκB signaling. PMID:26240147

  7. Retinoids, retinoic acid receptors, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Han; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2011-01-01

    Retinoids (i.e., vitamin A, all-trans retinoic acid, and related signaling molecules) induce the differentiation of various types of stem cells. Nuclear retinoic acid receptors mediate most but not all of the effects of retinoids. Retinoid signaling is often compromised early in carcinogenesis, which suggests that a reduction in retinoid signaling may be required for tumor development. Retinoids interact with other signaling pathways, including estrogen signaling in breast cancer. Retinoids are used to treat cancer, in part because of their ability to induce differentiation and arrest proliferation. Delivery of retinoids to patients is challenging because of the rapid metabolism of some retinoids and because epigenetic changes can render cells retinoid resistant. Successful cancer therapy with retinoids is likely to require combination therapy with drugs that regulate the epigenome, such as DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors, as well as classical chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, retinoid research benefits both cancer prevention and cancer treatment.

  8. Retinol oxidation to retinoic acid in human thyroid glandular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, Gennaro; Gueli, Maria Concetta; Nicotra, Concetta M A; Cocciadiferro, Letizia; Carruba, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Retinoic acid is regarded as the retinol metabolite that controls proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) in retinoic acid biosynthesis in human thyroid glandular cells (HTGC). In particular, we observed that cellular retinoids binding proteins (CRBPs) are also implicated in the biosynthetic pathway leading to retinoic acid formation in primary cultures of HTGC, as we have already reported for human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). After partial protein purification, the enzyme responsible for retinoic acid biosynthesis was identified and quantified as XDH by immunoassay, by its ability to oxidize xanthine to uric acid and its sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of oxypurinol. The evidence of XDH-driven formation of retinoic acid in HTGC cultures further corroborates the potential role of XDH in retinoic acid biosynthesis in the epithelia.

  9. Retinoic Acid Signaling during Early Spinal Cord Development

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    Ruth Diez del Corral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid signaling is required at several steps during the development of the spinal cord, from the specification of generic properties to the final acquisition of neuronal subtype identities, including its role in trunk neural crest development. These functions are associated with the production of retinoic acid in specific tissues and are highly dependent on context. Here, we review the defects associated with retinoic acid signaling manipulations, mostly in chick and mouse models, trying to separate the different processes where retinoic acid signaling is involved and to highlight common features, such as its ability to promote transitions along the neuronal differentiation cascade.

  10. Effects of cytarabine on activation of human T cells - cytarabine has concentration-dependent effects that are modulated both by valproic acid and all-trans retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersvaer, Elisabeth; Brenner, Annette K; Vetås, Kristin; Reikvam, Håkon; Bruserud, Øystein

    2015-05-02

    Cytarabine is used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Low-dose cytarabine can be combined with valproic acid and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as AML-stabilizing treatment. We have investigated the possible risk of immunotoxicity by this combination. We examined the effects of cytarabine combined with valproic acid and ATRA on in vitro activated human T cells, and we tested cytarabine at concentrations reached during in vivo treatment with high doses, conventional doses and low doses. T cells derived from blood donors were activated in vitro in cell culture medium alone or supplemented with ATRA (1 μM), valproic acid (500 or 1000 μM) or cytarabine (0.01-44 μM). Cell characteristics were assessed by flow cytometry. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokines by ELISA or Luminex. Effects on primary human AML cell viability and proliferation of low-dose cytarabine (0.01-0.5 μM) were also assessed. Statistical tests include ANOVA and Cluster analyses. Only cytarabine 44 μM had both antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Additionally, this concentration increased the CD4:CD8 T cell ratio, prolonged the expression of the CD69 activation marker, inhibited CD95L and heat shock protein (HSP) 90 release, and decreased the release of several cytokines. In contrast, the lowest concentrations (0.35 and 0.01 μM) did not have or showed minor antiproliferative or cytotoxic effects, did not alter activation marker expression (CD38, CD69) or the release of CD95L and HSP90, but inhibited the release of certain T cell cytokines. Even when these lower cytarabine concentrations were combined with ATRA and/or valproic acid there was still no or minor effects on T cell viability. However, these combinations had strong antiproliferative effects, the expression of both CD38 and CD69 was altered and there was a stronger inhibition of the release of FasL, HSP90 as well as several cytokines. Cytarabine (0.01-0.05 μM) showed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on

  11. The neurobiology of retinoic acid in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J Douglas; McCaffery, Peter

    2008-02-15

    Current models of affective disorders implicate alterations in norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and CRF/cortisol; however treatments targeted at these neurotransmitters or hormones have led to imperfect resolution of symptoms, suggesting that the neurobiology of affective disorders is incompletely understood. Until now retinoids have not been considered as possible contributors to affective disorders. Retinoids represent a family of compounds derived from vitamin A that perform a large number of functions, many via the vitamin A product, retinoic acid. This signaling molecule binds to specific retinoic acid receptors in the brain which, like the glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors, are part of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulate gene transcription. Research in the field of retinoic acid in the CNS has focused on the developing brain, in part stimulated by the observation that isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid), an isomer of retinoic acid used in the treatment of acne, is highly teratogenic for the CNS. More recent work has suggested that retinoic acid may influence the adult brain; animal studies indicated that the administration of isotretinoin is associated with alterations in behavior as well as inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Clinical evidence for an association between retinoids and depression includes case reports in the literature, studies of health care databases, and other sources. A preliminary PET study in human subjects showed that isotretinoin was associated with a decrease in orbitofrontal metabolism. Several studies have shown that the molecular components required for retinoic acid signaling are expressed in the adult brain; the overlap of brain areas implicated in retinoic acid function and stress and depression suggest that retinoids could play a role in affective disorders. This report reviews the evidence in this area and describes several systems that may be targets of retinoic acid and which contribute to

  12. Retinoic acid synthesis and functions in early embryonic development

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    Kam Richard Kin Ting

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoic acid (RA is a morphogen derived from retinol (vitamin A that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and organogenesis. The production of RA from retinol requires two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by different sets of dehydrogenases. The retinol is first oxidized into retinal, which is then oxidized into RA. The RA interacts with retinoic acid receptor (RAR and retinoic acid X receptor (RXR which then regulate the target gene expression. In this review, we have discussed the metabolism of RA and the important components of RA signaling pathway, and highlighted current understanding of the functions of RA during early embryonic development.

  13. Retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors: interactions with endogenous retinoic acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Allenby, G; Bocquel, M T; Saunders, M.; Kazmer, S; Speck, J; Rosenberger, M.; Lovey, A; Kastner, P; Grippo, J F; Chambon, P

    1993-01-01

    The binding of endogenous retinoids and stereoisomers of retinoic acid (RA) to the retinoid nuclear receptors, RA receptor (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), was characterized using nucleosol preparations from transiently transfected COS-1 cells. Among several stereoisomers of RA tested, including 7-cis-, 9-cis-, 11-cis-, 13-cis-, and all-trans-RA, only 9-cis-RA effectively competes with 9-cis-[3H]RA binding to the RXRs. Additionally, the endogenous retinoid trans-didehydro-RA (t-ddRA) d...

  14. Retinoic acid signaling in axonal regeneration

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    Radhika ePuttagunta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an acute central nervous system injury, axonal regeneration and functional recovery are extremely limited. This is due to an extrinsic inhibitory growth environment and the lack of intrinsic growth competence. Retinoic acid (RA signaling, essential in developmental dorsoventral patterning and specification of spinal motor neurons, has been shown through its receptor, the transcription factor RA receptor β2 (RARß2, to induce axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI. Recently, it has been shown that in dorsal root ganglia neurons, cAMP levels were greatly increased by lentiviral RARβ2 expression and contributed to neurite outgrowth. Moreover, RARβ agonists, in cerebellar granule neurons and in the brain in vivo, induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase dependent phosphorylation of AKT that was involved in RARβ-dependent neurite outgrowth. More recently, RA-RARß pathways were shown to directly transcriptionally repress a member of the inhibitory Nogo receptor complex, Lingo-1, under an axonal growth inhibitory environment in vitro as well as following spinal injury in vivo. This perspective focuses on these newly discovered molecular mechanisms and future directions in the field.

  15. All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Enhances Mitochondrial Function in Models of Human Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Sasmita; Chapman, John D.; Han, Chang Y; Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Arnold, Samuel L. M.; Onken, Jennifer; Kent, Travis; Goodlett, David R.; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A. The liver is the main storage organ of vitamin A, but activation of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in mouse liver and in human liver cell lines has also been shown. Although atRA treatment improves mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle in rodents, its role in modulating mitochondrial function in the liver is controversial, and little data are available regarding the human liver. The aim of this study was to determin...

  16. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle

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    Jinpu Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10 and normal control group (n = 10. HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8 was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  17. Differences in metabolism and isomerization of all-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid between human endothelial cells and hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, M; van Bennekum, A M; Blaner, W S; Kooistra, T

    1997-07-15

    Retinoic acid stimulates the expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in vascular endothelial cells in vitro and enhances t-PA levels in plasma and tissues in vivo. Compared with the in vivo situation, high retinoic acid concentrations are required to induce optimally t-PA expression in vitro. These findings led us to study retinoic acid metabolism in cultured human endothelial cells. For comparison, these studies were also performed in the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, and key experiments were repeated with human primary hepatocytes. Both hepatocyte cultures gave very similar results. Human endothelial cells were shown to possess an active retinoic acid metabolizing capacity, which is quantitatively comparable to that of hepatocytes, but different from that of hepatocytes in several qualitative aspects. Our results demonstrate that all-trans-retinoic acid is quickly metabolized by both endothelial cells and hepatocytes. All-trans-retinoic acid induces its own metabolism in endothelial cells but not in hepatocytes. 9-cis-Retinoic acid is degraded slowly by endothelial cells, whereas hepatocytes metabolize 9-cis-retinoic acid very quickly. Furthermore, our data show that hepatocytes, but not endothelial cells, detectably isomerise all-trans-retinoic acid to 9-cis-retinoic acid and vice versa. In both endothelial cells and hepatocytes all-trans-retinoic acid metabolism was inhibitable by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors liarozole (10 microM) and ketoconazole (10 microM), albeit to different extents and with different specificities. In the presence of the most potent retinoic acid metabolism inhibitor in endothelial cells, liarozole, at least 10-fold lower all-trans-retinoic acid concentrations were required than in the absence of the inhibitor to obtain the same induction of t-PA. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrate that all-trans-retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid are actively but differently metabolized and isomerised by human

  18. Single and combined effect of retinoic acid and rapamycin modulate the generation, activity and homing potential of induced human regulatory T cells.

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    Enzo Candia

    Full Text Available Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells has been successfully utilized to treat graft versus host disease and represents a promising strategy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA and rapamycin (RAPA on the number, phenotype, homing markers expression, DNA methylation, and function of induced human Treg cells in short-term cultures. Naive T cells were polyclonally stimulated and cultured for five days in the presence of different combinations of IL-2, TGF-β1, atRA and RAPA. The resulting cells were characterized by the expression of FOXP3, activation, surface and homing markers. Methylation of the Conserved Non-coding Sequence 2 was also evaluated. Functional comparison of the different culture conditions was performed by suppression assays in vitro. Culturing naive human T cells with IL-2/TGFβ1 resulted in the generation of 54.2% of Treg cells (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ whereas the addition of 100 nM atRA increased the yield of Treg cells to 66% (p = 0.0088. The addition of RAPA did not increase the number of Treg cells in any of these settings. Treg cells generated in the presence of atRA had an increased expression of the β7 integrin to nearly 100% of the generated Treg cells, while RAPA treated cells showed enhanced expression of CXCR4. The differential expression of homing molecules highlights the possibility of inducing Treg cells with differential organ-specific homing properties. Neither atRA nor RAPA had an effect on the highly methylated CNS2 sites, supporting reports that their contribution to the lineage stability of Treg cells is not mediated by methylation changes in this locus. Treg cells generated in the presence of RAPA show the most potent suppression effect on the proliferation of effector cells.

  19. Photoisomerization of retinoic acids in ethanol under room light: a warning for cell biological study of geometrical isomers of retinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, A; Suzuki, T; Matsui, M

    1997-04-01

    Photoisomerization of all-trans-retinoic acid and the geometrical isomers [9-cis-retinoic acid, 11-cis-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid and 9,13-di-cis-retinoic acid] in ethanol and their biological effects on F9 teratocarcinoma cells were analyzed. The rates of photoisomerization of the retinoic acids illuminated by fluorescent lamps (1,200 lx) increased in inverse proportion to their concentrations. When the ethanolic solution of all-trans-retinoic acid (10(-5) M) was kept under illuminated condition, the equilibrium mixture of the geometrical isomers of retinoic acid [all-trans-retinoic acid 25%, 9-cis-retinoic acid 10%, 11-cis-retinoic acid 10%, 13-cis-retinoic acid 30%, 9,13-di-cis-retinoic acid 5% and unidentified compound 20%] formed at around 30 min. The apparent velocity of the photoisomerization was approximately 8 x 10(-7) mol/L.min. Equilibrium mixtures with similar compositions were obtained by the photoisomerization of other geometrical isomers. The geometrical isomers produced by the photoisomerization possessed significantly different biological effects in the induction of differentiation of F9 cells into parietal endoderm-like cells: activities of 9-cis-retinoic acid (ED50, 8 x 10(-7) M), 11-cis-retinoic acid (ED50, 8 x 10(-7) M), and 13-cis-retinoic acid (ED50, 8 x 10(-7) M) were approximately 1/10 of all-trans-retinoic acid (ED50, 8 x 10(-8) M), and activity of 9,13-di-cis-retinoic acid (ED50, 1 x 10(-5) M) was 1/100 of the level of all-trans-retinoic acid. Further, the retinoic acids acted with each other additively on F9 cells.

  20. Expression of Ski can act as a negative feedback mechanism on retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melling, Meaghan A; Friendship, Charlotte R C; Shepherd, Trevor G; Drysdale, Thomas A

    2013-06-01

    Retinoic acid signaling is essential for many aspects of early development in vertebrates. To control the levels of signaling, several retinoic acid target genes have been identified that act to suppress retinoic acid signaling in a negative feedback loop. The nuclear protein Ski has been extensively studied for its ability to suppress transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling but has also been implicated in the repression of retinoic acid signaling. We demonstrate that ski expression is up-regulated in response to retinoic acid in both early Xenopus embryos and in human cell lines. Blocking retinoic acid signaling using a retinoic acid antagonist results in a corresponding decrease in the levels of ski mRNA. Finally, overexpression of SKI in human cells results in reduced levels of CYP26A1 mRNA, a known target of retinoic acid signaling. Our results, coupled with the known ability of Ski to repress retinoic acid signaling, demonstrate that Ski expression is a novel negative feedback mechanism acting on retinoic acid signaling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. All-trans retinoic acid is increased in the acute phase-related hyporetinemia during Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Merris, V; Meyer, E; Duchateau, L; Blum, J; Burvenich, C

    2004-04-01

    Blood vitamin A profiles, including concentrations of retinol and its active metabolite retinoic acid, were assessed during the peripartum period and during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in heifers. Serum retinol decreased in all animals in the immediate postpartum period and normalized within 1 wk after parturition. No significant changes were detectable in the concentrations of retinoic acid isomers during puerperium. Following intramammary E. coli infusion, all cows showed moderate symptoms of systemic disease besides the local signs of inflammation. The presence of a systemic acute-phase reaction was documented by fever, increase in serum amyloid A, and decrease in serum albumin. Retinol concentration in serum also decreased spectacularly during coliform mastitis, and the decline was clearly related to the timing of the acute-phase response. Moreover, a significant increase of all-trans retinoic acid, mirrored by a lowering of 13-cis retinoic acid, was detected during the same time period. The 9-cis isomer of retinoic acid was present in all samples, but it remained below the quantification limit. Results confirmed the decrease in serum retinol during the peripartum period of dairy cows. Furthermore, the study established that profound changes in vitamin A metabolism occur during the acute-phase reaction of coliform mastitis in heifers. The bovine infection model reproduced the acute phase-related hyporetinemia, as previously observed in humans and rats. In addition, all-trans retinoic acid was found to be the most abundant circulating acid isomer during mastitis, providing an indication for a possible key role of all-trans retinoic acid in the modulation of the immune response.

  2. Retinoic acid signalling in thymocytes regulates T cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Kotarsky, Knut

    The Vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) has emerged as an important regulator of peripheral T cell responses. However, whether there is endogenous retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling in developing thymocytes and the potential impact of such signals in thymocyte development remains unclear...... further enhanced in recently generated CD69+ CD4+ SP cells. To address the potential biological significance of RA signaling in developing thymocytes, we evaluated T cell development in CD4Cre-dnRAR mice, where RA signaling is blocked in thymocytes from the CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) stage onwards due...... of this cell subset. Collectively, our data suggest a direct role for RA signaling in regulating thymocyte homeostasis and T cell development....

  3. Endogenous retinoic acid activity in principal cells and intercalated cells of mouse collecting duct system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Fei Wong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid is the bioactive derivative of vitamin A, which plays an indispensible role in kidney development by activating retinoic acid receptors. Although the location, concentration and roles of endogenous retinoic acid in post-natal kidneys are poorly defined, there is accumulating evidence linking post-natal vitamin A deficiency to impaired renal concentrating and acidifying capacity associated with increased susceptibility to urolithiasis, renal inflammation and scarring. The aim of this study is to examine the presence and the detailed localization of endogenous retinoic acid activity in neonatal, young and adult mouse kidneys, to establish a fundamental ground for further research into potential target genes, as well as physiological and pathophysiological roles of endogenous retinoic acid in the post-natal kidneys.RARE-hsp68-lacZ transgenic mice were employed as a reporter for endogenous retinoic acid activity that was determined by X-gal assay and immunostaining of the reporter gene product, β-galactosidase. Double immunostaining was performed for β-galactosidase and markers of kidney tubules to localize retinoic acid activity. Distinct pattern of retinoic acid activity was observed in kidneys, which is higher in neonatal and 1- to 3-week-old mice than that in 5- and 8-week-old mice. The activity was present specifically in the principal cells and the intercalated cells of the collecting duct system in all age groups, but was absent from the glomeruli, proximal tubules, thin limbs of Henle's loop and distal tubules.Endogenous retinoic acid activity exists in principal cells and intercalated cells of the mouse collecting duct system after birth and persists into adulthood. This observation provides novel insights into potential roles for endogenous retinoic acid beyond nephrogenesis and warrants further studies to investigate target genes and functions of endogenous retinoic acid in the kidney after birth, particularly in the

  4. Retinoic acid is a potential dorsalising signal in the late embryonic chick hindbrain

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    Maden Malcolm

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human retinoic acid teratogenesis results in malformations of dorsally derived hindbrain structures such as the cerebellum, noradrenergic hindbrain neurons and the precerebellar system. These structures originate from the rhombic lip and adjacent dorsal precursor pools that border the fourth ventricle roofplate. While retinoic acid synthesis is known to occur in the meninges that blanket the hindbrain, the particular sensitivity of only dorsal structures to disruptions in retinoid signalling is puzzling. We therefore looked for evidence within the neural tube for more spatiotemporally specific signalling pathways using an in situ hybridisation screen of known retinoic acid pathway transcripts. Results We find that there are highly restricted domains of retinoic acid synthesis and breakdown within specific hindbrain nuclei as well as the ventricular layer and roofplate. Intriguingly, transcripts of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 are always found at the interface between dividing and post-mitotic cells. By contrast to earlier stages of development, domains of synthesis and breakdown in post-mitotic neurons are co-localised. At the rhombic lip, expression of the mRNA for retinoic acid synthesising and catabolising enzymes is spatially highly organised with respect to the Cath1-positive precursors of migratory precerebellar neurons. Conclusion The late developing hindbrain shows patterns of retinoic acid synthesis and use that are distinct from the well characterised phase of rostrocaudal patterning. Selected post-mitotic populations, such as the locus coeruleus, appear to both make and break down retinoic acid suggesting that a requirement for an autocrine, or at least a highly localised paracrine signalling network, might explain its acute sensitivity to retinoic acid disruption. At the rhombic lip, retinoic acid is likely to act as a dorsalising factor in parallel with other roofplate signalling pathways. While its

  5. Retinoic acid and affective disorders: the evidence for an association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J Douglas; Shearer, Kirsty D; McCaffery, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid), approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acne, carries a black box warning related to the risk of depression, suicide, and psychosis. Retinoic acid, the active form of vitamin A, regulates gene expression in the brain, and isotretinoin is its 13-cis isomer. Retinoids represent a group of compounds derived from vitamin A that perform a large variety of functions in many systems, in particular the central nervous system, and abnormal retinoid levels can have neurologic effects. Although infrequent, proper recognition and treatment of psychiatric side effects in acne patients is critical given the risk of death and disability. This article reviews the evidence for isotretinoin's relationships with depression and suicidality. The PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and PubMed searchable database indexes were searched for articles published in the English language from 1960 to June 2010 using the key words isotretinoin, retinoids, retinoic acid, depression, depressive disorders, and vitamin A. Evidence examined includes (1) case reports; (2) temporal association between onset of depression and exposure to the drug; (3) challenge-rechallenge cases; (4) class effect (other compounds in the same class, like vitamin A, having similar neuropsychiatric effects); (5) dose response; and (6) biologically plausible mechanisms. All articles in the literature related to isotretinoin, depression, and suicide were reviewed, as well as articles related to class effect, dose response, and biologic plausibility. Information from individual articles in the literature was extracted, including number of episodes of depression, suicidality, suicide, psychosis, violence and aggression, past psychiatric history, time of onset in relation to isotretinoin usage, medication dosage, duration of treatment, and dechallenge and challenge history. The literature reviewed is consistent with associations of isotretinoin administration with depression and

  6. Retinoic Acid and Immune Homeostasis: A Balancing Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkelens, Martje N; Mebius, Reina E

    2017-03-01

    In the immune system, the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) is known for its role in inducing gut-homing molecules in T and B cells, inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs), and promoting tolerance. However, it was suggested that RA can have a broad spectrum of effector functions depending on the local microenvironment. Under specific conditions, RA can also promote an inflammatory environment. We discuss the dual role of RA in immune responses and how this might be regulated. Furthermore, we focus on the role of RA in autoimmune diseases and whether RA might be used as a therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Maternal Retinoic Acid Administration on Lung Angiogenesis in Oligohydramnios-Exposed Fetal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ming Chen

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Maternal retinoic acid treatment did not increase lung VEGF expression or enhance lung development in oligohydramnios-exposed fetal rats. These results do not support the use of maternal retinoic acid to prevent oligohydramnios-induced pulmonary hypoplasia in the pseudoglandular stage.

  8. All-trans-retinoic acid-induced pseudotumor cerebri in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All-trans-retinoic acid is an integral part in the treatment strategy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. Here we describe a case of pseudotumor cerebri associated with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA during the induction therapy in an adult with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL.

  9. Retinoic Acid-Induced Epidermal Transdifferentiation in Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Akimoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids function as important regulatory signaling molecules during development, acting in cellular growth and differentiation both during embryogenesis and in the adult animal. In 1953, Fell and Mellanby first found that excess vitamin A can induce transdifferentiation of chick embryonic epidermis to a mucous epithelium (Fell, H.B.; Mellanby, E. Metaplasia produced in cultures of chick ectoderm by high vitamin A. J. Physiol. 1953, 119, 470–488. However, the molecular mechanism of this transdifferentiation process was unknown for a long time. Recent studies demonstrated that Gbx1, a divergent homeobox gene, is one of the target genes of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA for this transdifferentiation. Furthermore, it was found that ATRA can induce the epidermal transdifferentiation into a mucosal epithelium in mammalian embryonic skin, as well as in chick embryonic skin. In the mammalian embryonic skin, the co-expression of Tgm2 and Gbx1 in the epidermis and an increase in TGF-β2 expression elicited by ATRA in the dermis are required for the mucosal transdifferentiation, which occurs through epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Not only does retinoic acid (RA play an important role in mucosal transdifferentiation, periderm desquamation, and barrier formation in the developing mammalian skin, but it is also involved in hair follicle downgrowth and bending by its effect on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and on members of the Runx, Fox, and Sox transcription factor families.

  10. Retinoic acid signalling in thymocytes regulates T cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Kotarsky, Knut

    The Vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) works as a ligand for a family of nuclearRA receptors (RARα, RARβ and RARγ) which form heterodimers with retinoid Xreceptors (RXR). These complexes function as ligand-activated transcription factors,recognizing specific RA responsive elements in the reg......The Vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) works as a ligand for a family of nuclearRA receptors (RARα, RARβ and RARγ) which form heterodimers with retinoid Xreceptors (RXR). These complexes function as ligand-activated transcription factors,recognizing specific RA responsive elements...... in the regulatory regions of targetgenes. RA has been reported to play a direct role in regulating multiple aspects of peripheralT cell responses1, but whether endogenous RA signalling occurs in developingthymocytes and the potential impact of such signals in regulating T cell developmentremains unclear. To address......RARα. This blocks RA signalling in developing thymocytes from the DN3/4 stageonwards and thus allows us to study the role of RA in T cell development...

  11. Effects of retinoic acid signaling on extraocular muscle myogenic precursor cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Sadie L; Fitzpatrick, Krysta R; McConnell, Samantha A; Cucak, Anja; Yuan, Ching; McLoon, Linda K

    2017-12-01

    One major difference between limb and extraocular muscles (EOM) is the presence of an enriched population of Pitx2-positive myogenic precursor cells in EOM compared to limb muscle. We hypothesize that retinoic acid regulates Pitx2 expression in EOM myogenic precursor cells and that its effects would differ in leg muscle. The two muscle groups expressed differential retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) levels. RXR co-localized with the Pitx2-positive cells but not with those expressing Pax7. EOM-derived and LEG-derived EECD34 cells were treated with vehicle, retinoic acid, the RXR agonist bexarotene, the RAR inverse agonist BMS493, or the RXR antagonist UVI 3003. In vitro, fewer EOM-derived EECD34 cells expressed desmin and fused, while more LEG-derived cells expressed desmin and fused when treated with retinoic acid compared to vehicle. Both EOM and LEG-derived EECD34 cells exposed to retinoic acid showed a higher percentage of cells expressing Pitx2 compared to vehicle, supporting the hypothesis that retinoic acid plays a role in maintaining Pitx2 expression. We hypothesize that retinoic acid signaling aids in the maintenance of large numbers of undifferentiated myogenic precursor cells in the EOM, which would be required to maintain EOM normalcy throughout a lifetime of myonuclear turnover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Competition between ethanol clearance and retinoic acid biosynthesis in the induction of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Yehuda; Fainsod, Abraham

    2017-10-05

    Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Retinoic acid is one of the biologically-active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol) and regulates numerous embryonic and differentiation processes. The developmental malformations characteristic of FASD resemble those observed in vitamin A deficiency syndrome, and inhibition of retinoic acid biosynthesis or signaling in experimental models. There is extensive biochemical and enzymatic overlap between ethanol clearance and retinoic acid biosynthesis. Several lines of evidence suggest that in the embryo the competition takes place between acetaldehyde and retinaldehyde for the aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. In adults, this competition also involves the alcohol dehydrogenase activity. The ethanol-induced developmental defects can be rescued by increasing the levels of retinol, retinaldehyde or retinaldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde inhibits the production of retinoic acid by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase further supporting the competition model. All the evidence supports the reduction of retinoic acid signaling as the etiological trigger in the induction of FASD.

  13. Tolerability and Efficacy of Retinoic Acid Given after Full-face Peel Treatment of Photodamaged Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Judy Y.; Biron, Julie A.; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Oresajo, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: All-trans retinoic acid is a well-established topical treatment of photodamaged skin. This study assessed the tolerance and efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid after full-face treatment with a chemical peel. Design: This was a split-face, randomized study. One side of each face was treated with peel and the other side with peel and all-trans retinoic acid (3%). Four treatments were given during the 10-week study period. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Fifteen female subjects 39 to 55 years of age. Measurements: Results were evaluated at Baseline; Weeks 4, 7, and 10; and at a 13-week follow-up visit by dermal grading of visual symptoms of irritation, subjective experiences of irritation, clinical grading of skin condition, and self-assessment questionnaires. Results: Both peel and peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatments achieved significant improvement in fine lines, radiance, roughness, skin tone clarity, skin tone evenness, and hyperpigmentation appearance. Improvement in wrinkles and firmness was not observed in the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid arm, while pore appearance failed to improve in either treatment arm. Improvement in overall facial appearance was greater in the peel alone arm. Peel alone and the addition of all-trans retinoic acid did not cause dryness, edema, or peeling, and the frequency of peel-induced erythema did not increase with the addition of all-trans retinoic acid. Subject-perceived improvements with the peel treatment did not differ significantly from subject-perceived improvements of the peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatment. Adverse events requiring intervention or discontinuing treatment were not observed in either treatment arm. Conclusion: The addition of all-trans retinoic acid after peel treatment does not significantly enhance peel-induced improvement in photoaging parameters, peel-induced adverse effects, and subject-perceived improvements. PMID:22010055

  14. The role of retinoic acid signaling in thymic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna; Kotarsky, Knut

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A metabolite and member of the large family of retinoids that have been used in treatment of various forms of cancer and skin disorders. Also, vitamin A deficiency is associated with impaired ability to fight infections and RA has been shown to shape peripheral immune...... responses. However, little is known about the role of RA in the development of immune cells. We are currently investigating the role of RA signaling in thymic function. In the thymus, thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are providing the specialized microenvironment that supports T cell development and proper TEC...... maturation and homeostasis is required for the generation of a functional T cell pool. TEC development and differenti-ation is dependent on crosstalk with immune and stromal cells in the thymus and previous work of our group has suggested RA as a potential key player in this process. To study the role of RA...

  15. Retinoic acid from the meninges regulates cortical neuron generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Julie A.; Ashique, Amir M.; Zarbalis, Konstantinos; Patterson, Katelin P.; Hecht, Jonathan H.; Kane, Maureen A.; Folias, Alexandra E.; Choe, Youngshik; May, Scott R.; Kume, Tsutomu; Napoli, Joseph L.; Peterson, Andrew S.; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Extrinsic signals controlling generation of neocortical neurons during embryonic life have been difficult to identify. In this study we demonstrate that the dorsal forebrain meninges communicate with the adjacent radial glial endfeet and influence cortical development. We took advantage of Foxc1 mutant mice with defects in forebrain meningeal formation. Foxc1 dosage and loss of meninges correlated with a dramatic reduction in both neuron and intermediate progenitor production and elongation of the neuroepithelium. Several types of experiments demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is the key component of this secreted activity. In addition, Rdh10 and Raldh2 expressing cells in the dorsal meninges were either reduced or absent in the Foxc1 mutants and Rdh10 mutants had a cortical phenotype similar to the Foxc1-null mutants. Lastly, in utero RA treatment rescued the cortical phenotype in Foxc1 mutants. These results establish RA as a potent, meningeal-derived cue required for successful corticogenesis. PMID:19879845

  16. Dominant negative retinoic acid receptor initiates tumor formation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Eduardo F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinoic acid suppresses cell growth and promotes cell differentiation, and pharmacological retinoic acid receptor (RAR activation is anti-tumorigenic. This begs the question of whether chronic physiological RAR activation by endogenous retinoids is likewise anti-tumorigenic. Results To address this question, we generated transgenic mice in which expression of a ligand binding defective dominant negative RARα (RARαG303E was under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV promoter. The transgene was expressed in the lymphoid compartment and in the mammary epithelium. Observation of aging mice revealed that transgenic mice, unlike their wild type littermates, developed B cell lymphomas at high penetrance, with a median latency of 40 weeks. MMTV-RARαG303E lymphomas were high grade Pax-5+, surface H+L Ig negative, CD69+ and BCL6- and cytologically and phenotypically resembled human adult high grade (Burkitt's or lymphoblastic lymphomas. We postulated that mammary tumors might arise after a long latency period as seen in other transgenic models of breast cancer. We tested this idea by transplanting transgenic epithelium into the cleared fat pads of wild type hosts, thus bypassing lymphomagenesis. At 17 months post-transplantation, a metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma developed in one of four transplanted glands whereas no tumors developed in sixteen of sixteen endogenous glands with wild type epithelium. Conclusion These findings suggest that physiological RAR activity may normally suppress B lymphocyte and mammary epithelial cell growth and that global RAR inactivation is sufficient to initiate a stochastic process of tumor development requiring multiple transforming events. Our work makes available to the research community a new animal resource that should prove useful as an experimental model of aggressive sporadic lymphoma in immunologically uncompromised hosts. We anticipate that it may also prove useful as a

  17. Retinoic acid-induced expression of CD38 antigen in myeloid cells is mediated through retinoic acid receptor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach, J; McQueen, T; Engel, H; Andreeff, M; Robertson, K A; Collins, S J; Malavasi, F; Mehta, K

    1994-04-01

    CD38 is a leukocyte differentiation antigen that has been thought to be a phenotypic marker of different subpopulations of T- and B-lymphocytes. In myeloid cells, CD38 is expressed during early stages of differentiation. Virtually no information is available on regulation and functions of CD38. Recently we reported that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a potent and highly specific inducer of CD38 expression in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Here we report that ATRA-induced expression of CD38 antigen in myeloid cells is mediated through retinoic acid-alpha receptor (RAR alpha). ATRA failed to induce CD38 expression in a mutant subclone of the HL-60 myeloid leukemia cell line (designated HL-60R) that is relatively resistant to ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation. Retroviral vector-mediated transduction of RA receptor (RAR alpha) into this HL-60R subclone completely restored the sensitivity of these cells to ATRA in terms of their ability to express CD38. In contrast, CD38 expression was not inducible by ATRA in HL-60R cells, transfected with a functional RAR beta, RAR gamma, or RXR alpha receptor. Induction of CD38 in acute promyelocytic and acute myeloblastic leukemia cells was independent of ATRA-induced cytodifferentiation. Following culture with ATRA, increased CD38 protein levels were also observed in normal CD34+ bone marrow cells, but not on normal circulating granulocytes. From these results, we conclude that CD38 is ATRA inducible in myeloid leukemia cells and normal CD34+ bone marrow cells. This effect is independent of differentiation and is mediated by RAR alpha in HL-60 cells, suggesting a similar role for RAR alpha in CD38 expression in other hematopoietic cells.

  18. Involvement of neurons and retinoic acid in lymphatic development: new insights in increased nuchal translucency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, N.B.; Stuurman, K.E.; Kok, E.; Konijn, T.; Schooneman, D.; Niederreither, K.; Coles, M.; Agace, W.W.; Christoffels, V.M.; Mebius, R.E.; Pavert, S.A. van de; Bekker, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased nuchal translucency originates from disturbed lymphatic development. Abnormal neural crest cell (NCC) migration may be involved in lymphatic development. Because both neuronal and lymphatic development share retinoic acid (RA) as a common factor, this study investigated the

  19. Effects of retinoic acids on the dendritic morphology of cultured hippocampal neurons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Ying; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Junko; Hirano, Hitoshi; Matsukuma, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kazuko; Nakamura, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    ...: retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). High doses of 13‐ cis ‐RA and all‐ trans ‐RA exerted a negative effect on the cultured hippocampal neurons, while a low dose of 13...

  20. Retinoic acid synthesis in the somatic cells of rat seminiferous tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzini, D; Galdieri, M; Ottonello, S

    1996-08-28

    At physiological plasma concentrations, retinoic acid (RA) cannot cross the blood-testis barrier formed by Sertoli and peritubular cells, and it is thought to be mainly synthesized in situ through the oxidation of retinol. We have thus examined the in vitro RA biosynthetic capacity of cultured Sertoli and peritubular cells isolated from the seminiferous tubules of prepubertal rats, using holo-cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP) as a substrate. Although both somatic cell types contain CRBP and retinoic acid nuclear receptors, RA synthesis was only detected with Sertoli cell subcellular fractions. Most of the RA synthesizing activity of these cells is contributed by a microsomal-cytosolic system that shares many functional similarities with a RA biosynthetic pathway originally identified in rat liver. RA synthesis is maximal at a time of postnatal life (20 days) preceding meiotic cell accumulation and remains nearly constant thereafter. The unique ability of Sertoli cell subcellular fractions to support RA formation from holoCRBP, along with the observed age-dependent modulation of this activity, indicate that Sertoli cells represent the main site of intratubular RA production and that they may play a key role in controlling RA-dependent processes within the seminiferous tubule.

  1. Reversible Symptomatic Myocarditis Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid Administration during Induction Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Rare Cardiac Manifestation as a Retinoic Acid Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seonghoon; Kim, Hyeong-Su; Jung, Chang-Soo; Jung, Seong-Woong; Lee, Yun-Ja; Rheu, Jin-Kyeong; Jo, Jung-Rae; Lee, Nam-Ho

    2011-06-01

    Treatment by All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) followed by anthracycline-AraC chemotherapy has improved the outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia. ATRA is usually well tolerated, but a few major side effects can be observed. Retinoic acid syndrome (RAS) often occurs during the induction chemotherapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia. A pericardial effusion is a common cardiac manifestation but myocarditis has been rarely documented. Here we reports a very rare case of fully recovered myocarditis as a result of RAS related to ATRA administration during induction treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia which documented by echocardiographic evidence.

  2. Retinoic acid suppresses intestinal mucus production and exacerbates experimental enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. Oehlers

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to retinoids for the treatment of acne has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The intestinal mucus layer is an important structural barrier that is disrupted in IBD. Retinoid-induced alteration of mucus physiology has been postulated as a mechanism linking retinoid treatment to IBD; however, there is little direct evidence for this interaction. The zebrafish larva is an emerging model system for investigating the pathogenesis of IBD. Importantly, this system allows components of the innate immune system, including mucus physiology, to be studied in isolation from the adaptive immune system. This study reports the characterization of a novel zebrafish larval model of IBD-like enterocolitis induced by exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. The DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to recapitulate several aspects of the zebrafish trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid (TNBS-induced enterocolitis model, including neutrophilic inflammation that was microbiota-dependent and responsive to pharmacological intervention. Furthermore, the DSS-induced enterocolitis model was found to be a tractable model of stress-induced mucus production and was subsequently used to identify a role for retinoic acid (RA in suppressing both physiological and pathological intestinal mucin production. Suppression of mucin production by RA increased the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to enterocolitis when challenged with enterocolitic agents. This study illustrates a direct effect of retinoid administration on intestinal mucus physiology and, subsequently, on the progression of intestinal inflammation.

  3. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    OpenAIRE

    B S Chandrashekar; K R Ashwini; Vani Vasanth; Shreya Navale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoi...

  4. Retinoic acid activates two pathways required for meiosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Koubova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In all sexually reproducing organisms, cells of the germ line must transition from mitosis to meiosis. In mice, retinoic acid (RA, the extrinsic signal for meiotic initiation, activates transcription of Stra8, which is required for meiotic DNA replication and the subsequent processes of meiotic prophase. Here we report that RA also activates transcription of Rec8, which encodes a component of the cohesin complex that accumulates during meiotic S phase, and which is essential for chromosome synapsis and segregation. This RA induction of Rec8 occurs in parallel with the induction of Stra8, and independently of Stra8 function, and it is conserved between the sexes. Further, RA induction of Rec8, like that of Stra8, requires the germ-cell-intrinsic competence factor Dazl. Our findings strengthen the importance of RA and Dazl in the meiotic transition, provide important details about the Stra8 pathway, and open avenues to investigate early meiosis through analysis of Rec8 induction and function.

  5. Retinoic acid regulates hematopoietic development from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Roger E; Guibentif, Carolina; Moraghebi, Roksana; Chaves, Patricia; Saxena, Shobhit; Garcia, Bradley; Woods, Niels-Bjarne

    2015-02-10

    The functions of retinoic acid (RA), a potent morphogen with crucial roles in embryogenesis including developmental hematopoiesis, have not been thoroughly investigated in the human setting. Using an in vitro model of human hematopoietic development, we evaluated the effects of RA signaling on the development of blood and on generated hematopoietic progenitors. Decreased RA signaling increases the generation of cells with a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like phenotype, capable of differentiation into myeloid and lymphoid lineages, through two separate mechanisms: by increasing the commitment of pluripotent stem cells toward the hematopoietic lineage during the developmental process and by decreasing the differentiation of generated blood progenitors. Our results demonstrate that controlled low-level RA signaling is a requirement in human blood development, and we propose a new interpretation of RA as a regulatory factor, where appropriate control of RA signaling enables increased generation of hematopoietic progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular targeting of retinoic acid metabolism in neuroblastoma: the role of the CYP26 inhibitor R116010 in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, J. L.; Taylor, G A; Thomas, H.D.; Boddy, A V; Redfern, C P F; Veal, G J

    2007-01-01

    Isomerisation to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is widely accepted as the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cisRA). As intracellular metabolism of ATRA by CYP26 may result in clinical resistance to 13cisRA, an increase in efficacy may be achieved through modulation of this metabolic pathway. We have evaluated the effect of the CYP26 inhibitor R116010 on retinoid metabolism in neuroblastoma cell lines and a xenograft model. In neuroblastoma ...

  7. Stimulation of tissue-type plasminogen activator expression by retinoic acid in human endothelial cells requires retinoic acid receptor β2 induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, M.; Kooistra, T.

    1996-01-01

    We previously showed the involvement of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) in the induction of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) synthesis by RA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the rather slow onset of this induction of t-PA synthesis suggested an indirect role of

  8. Expressions of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins I and retinoic acid receptor-β in the guinea pig eyes with experimental myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Qu, Xiao-Mei; Chu, Ren-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (RA) is the only extrinsic biochemical candidate known to date that could act as a growth controller, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression cellular retinoic acid binding proteins I (CRABP-I) and retinoic acid receptor-β (RAR-β) in retina of the guinea pig eyes with experimental myopia. Ninety guinea pigs aged 14 days were equally and randomly divided into three groups: form deprivation (FD), -5D lens, and control. The diffusers for FD were white translucent hemispheres, and -5D lenses were used to introduce hyperopic defocus. Refraction was measured with streak retinoscopy after cycloplegia, and axial length was calculated with Cinescan A/B ultrasonography. Retina harvested at different time points were used to measure RA level with HPLC and expressions of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins I (CRABP-I) and RA receptor-β (RAR-β) were assayed with Western blot and Real-time PCR. SPSS13.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Up-regulations of CRABP-I and RAR-β in ocular tissues correlated with changes in the refractive status and growth rate of the guinea pig eye (Ppig eye with experimental myopia. During the progression of experimental myopia, the retinal RA level increased rapidly, and there might be a positive feedback between the increase of RA and up-regulation of RAR-β.

  9. Effects of all Trans Retinoic Acid Combined with Cisplatin on Survival of Gastric Cancer Cell Line (AGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Najafzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: All-trans retinoic acid, a derivative of retinoids, is widely used to in-duce prolifferation, differentiation and apoptosis in normal, precancareous and cancerous cells. Cisplatin, an effective drug for cancer treatment, induces apoptosis via cross-linking to DNA. Previous studies on ovarian and melanoma cancer cells have showed synergistic ef-fects of cisplatin and retinoic acid. Our aim is to study such synergistic effect on gastric de-rived cell line, AGS. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study gastric cancer cell line was cultured with dif-ferent concentration of retinoic acid and cisplatin and their combination. The cell death was evaluated with clonogenic assay and Acridine Orange/ Ethidium Bromide staining. Results: The results showed that all-trans retinoic acid had not significant effect on cell death in gastric cancer. The results showed that high doses of retinoic acid and cisplatin can cause cell death via necrosis and early apoptosis, respectively. The plates were treated with the combination of 10 µM retinoic acid and 5, 10 µg cisplatin, and more cell death were ob-served (P<0.001. It seems that, suseptability of this cell line to retinoic acid is dose depend-ent. Conclusion: In this study, we concluded that the combination of retinoic acid and cisplatin was more effective on cell death than cisplatin and retinoic acid alone. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:207-214

  10. The Retinoic Acid Receptor-α mediates human T-cell activation and Th2 cytokine and chemokine production

    OpenAIRE

    Key Michael; Pyle Robert; Collins Gary; Dawson Harry D; Taub Dennis D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-γ and TNF-α expression by activated human T cells and reduces the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated that the observed effects using ATRA and 9-cis RA are shared with the clinically useful RAR ligand, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), and the retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α)-sel...

  11. Stimulation of Phospholipid Scrambling of the Erythrocyte Membrane by 9-Cis-Retinoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Abed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The endogenous retinoid 9-cis-retinoic acid has previously been shown to trigger apoptosis in a wide variety of cells including several tumor cells and has thus been suggested for the treatment of malignancy. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms participating in the accomplishment of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i and formation of ceramide. The present study explored, whether 9-cis-retinoic acid induces eryptosis and whether the effect involves Ca2+ and/or ceramide. Methods: Flow cytometry was employed to estimate erythrocyte volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface from annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Hemolysis was quantified from hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to 9-cis-retinoic acid (≥ 0.5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells and significantly decreased forward scatter. Exposure to 9-cis-retinoic acid (≥ 0.5 µg/ml significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence, and the effect of 9-cis-retinoic acid on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Exposure to 9-cis-retinoic acid (1 µg/ml further significantly increased the ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface and significantly increased hemolysis. Conclusions: 9-cis-retinoic acid triggers phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+ and ceramide.

  12. A conformationally defined 6-s-trans-retinoic acid isomer: synthesis, chemopreventive activity, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, M F; Alam, M; Sani, B P; Rogers, T S; Simpson-Herren, L; Wille, J J; Hill, D L; Doran, T I; Brouillette, W J; Muccio, D D

    1994-12-23

    A conformationally defined retinoic acid analog (1) which contains a dimethylene bridge to maintain the 6-s-trans orientation for two terminal double bonds in the polyene chain was synthesized. A Reformatsky reaction was utilized to extend the polyene chain of the starting enone, which provided exclusively the 9Z-configuration for the intermediate aldehyde. A Horners-Emmons condensation with this aldehyde then produced retinoic acid analogs with both 9Z- and 9Z,13Z-configurations. An I2-catalyzed isomerization of the intermediate 9Z-aldehyde yielded the all-E-aldehyde, which was olefinated as above to yield the (all-E)- and (13Z)-retinoic acid analogs of 1. Each configurational isomer of 1 was evaluated for its ability to inhibit the binding of retinoic acid to CRABP (chick skin) and to inhibit the chemical induction of ornithine decarboxylase in mouse skin. In each assay (all-E)-1 was the most active isomer, and this activity was comparable to or better than that for (all-E)-retinoic acid. (all-E)-1 and (13Z)-1 were both shown to be equally effective as (13Z)-retinoic acid in suppressing the proliferation of human sebaceous cells in vitro. (all-E)-1 was further evaluated for its ability to prevent the induction of mouse skin papillomas and to induce signs of vitamin A toxicity in mice. The cancer chemopreventive activity of (all-E)-1 was comparable to that of (all-E)-retinoic acid, and the toxicity was comparable to or slightly better than that of the natural vitamin.

  13. Identification of insulin as a novel retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α target gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jiangying; Hou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2014-03-18

    Insulin plays an important role in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα) modulates physiopathological processes such as dyslipidemia and diabetes. In this study, we found overexpression of RORα in INS1 cells resulted in increased expression and secretion of insulin. Suppression of endogenous RORα caused a decrease of insulin expression. Luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) assays demonstrated that RORα activated insulin transcription via direct binding to its promoter. RORα was also observed to regulate BETA2 expression, which is one of the insulin active transfactors. In vivo analyses showed that the insulin transcription is increased by the synthetic RORα agonist SR1078. These findings identify RORα as a transcriptional activator of insulin and suggest novel therapeutic opportunities for management of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Enhances Mitochondrial Function in Models of Human Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sasmita; Chapman, John D; Han, Chang Y; Hogarth, Cathryn A; Arnold, Samuel L.M.; Onken, Jennifer; Kent, Travis; Goodlett, David R

    2016-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A. The liver is the main storage organ of vitamin A, but activation of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in mouse liver and in human liver cell lines has also been shown. Although atRA treatment improves mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle in rodents, its role in modulating mitochondrial function in the liver is controversial, and little data are available regarding the human liver. The aim of this study was to determine whether atRA regulates hepatic mitochondrial activity. atRA treatment increased the mRNA and protein expression of multiple components of mitochondrial β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and respiratory chain. Additionally, atRA increased mitochondrial biogenesis in human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells with and without lipid loading based on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α and 1β and nuclear respiratory factor 1 mRNA and mitochondrial DNA quantification. atRA also increased β-oxidation and ATP production in HepG2 cells and in human hepatocytes. Knockdown studies of RARα, RARβ, and PPARδ revealed that the enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis and β-oxidation by atRA requires peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta. In vivo in mice, atRA treatment increased mitochondrial biogenesis markers after an overnight fast. Inhibition of atRA metabolism by talarozole, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 26 specific inhibitor, increased the effects of atRA on mitochondrial biogenesis markers in HepG2 cells and in vivo in mice. These studies show that atRA regulates mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism and that increasing atRA concentrations in human liver via CYP26 inhibition may increase mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation and provide therapeutic benefit in diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26921399

  15. Depletion of retinoic acid receptors initiates a novel positive feedback mechanism that promotes teratogenic increases in retinoic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico D'Aniello

    Full Text Available Normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis require precise levels of retinoic acid (RA signaling. Despite the importance of appropriate embryonic RA signaling levels, the mechanisms underlying congenital defects due to perturbations of RA signaling are not completely understood. Here, we report that zebrafish embryos deficient for RA receptor αb1 (RARαb1, a conserved RAR splice variant, have enlarged hearts with increased cardiomyocyte (CM specification, which are surprisingly the consequence of increased RA signaling. Importantly, depletion of RARαb2 or concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and RARαb2 also results in increased RA signaling, suggesting this effect is a broader consequence of RAR depletion. Concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and Cyp26a1, an enzyme that facilitates degradation of RA, and employment of a novel transgenic RA sensor line support the hypothesis that the increases in RA signaling in RAR deficient embryos are the result of increased embryonic RA coupled with compensatory RAR expression. Our results support an intriguing novel mechanism by which depletion of RARs elicits a previously unrecognized positive feedback loop that can result in developmental defects due to teratogenic increases in embryonic RA.

  16. Targeting neuroblastoma stem cells with retinoic acid and proteasome inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hämmerle

    Full Text Available Neuroblastma cell lines contain a side-population of cells which express stemness markers. These stem-like cells may represent the potential underlying mechanism for resistance to conventional therapy and recurrence of neuroblastoma in patients.To develop novel strategies for targeting the side-population of neurobastomas, we analyzed the effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA combined with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The short-term action of the treatment was compared with effects after a 5-day recovery period during which both chemicals were withdrawn. RA induced growth arrest and differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2 neuroblastoma cell lines. Inhibition of the proteasome caused apoptosis in both cell lines, thus, revealing the critical role of this pathway in the regulated degradation of proteins involved in neuroblastoma proliferation and survival. The combination of RA with MG132 induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, in addition to promoting G2/M arrest in treated cultures. Interestingly, expression of stem cell markers such as Nestin, Sox2, and Oct4 were reduced after the recovery period of combined treatment as compared with untreated cells or treated cells with either compound alone. Consistent with this, neurosphere formation was significantly impaired by the combined treatment of RA and MG132.Given that stem-like cells are associated with resistant to conventional therapy and are thought to be responsible for relapse, our results suggest that dual therapy of RA and proteasome inhibitor might be beneficial for targeting the side-population of cells associated residual disease in high-risk neuroblastoma.

  17. Thyroid hormone activation of retinoic acid synthesis in hypothalamic tanycytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Patrick N.; Helfer, Gisela; Rodrigues, Diana; Morgan, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for adult brain function and its actions include several key roles in the hypothalamus. Although TH controls gene expression via specific TH receptors of the nuclear receptor class, surprisingly few genes have been demonstrated to be directly regulated by TH in the hypothalamus, or the adult brain as a whole. This study explored the rapid induction by TH of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Raldh1), encoding a retinoic acid (RA)‐synthesizing enzyme, as a gene specifically expressed in hypothalamic tanycytes, cells that mediate a number of actions of TH in the hypothalamus. The resulting increase in RA may then regulate gene expression via the RA receptors, also of the nuclear receptor class. In vivo exposure of the rat to TH led to a significant and rapid increase in hypothalamic Raldh1 within 4 hours. That this may lead to an in vivo increase in RA is suggested by the later induction by TH of the RA‐responsive gene Cyp26b1. To explore the actions of RA in the hypothalamus as a potential mediator of TH control of gene regulation, an ex vivo hypothalamic rat slice culture method was developed in which the Raldh1‐expressing tanycytes were maintained. These slice cultures confirmed that TH did not act on genes regulating energy balance but could induce Raldh1. RA has the potential to upregulate expression of genes involved in growth and appetite, Ghrh and Agrp. This regulation is acutely sensitive to epigenetic changes, as has been shown for TH action in vivo. These results indicate that sequential triggering of two nuclear receptor signalling systems has the capability to mediate some of the functions of TH in the hypothalamus. GLIA 2016;64:425–439 PMID:26527258

  18. Calcineurin mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating retinoic acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Kristin L; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ganesan, Subhashree; Hintze, Maik; Shin, Maggie M; Tang, Yitai; Cho, Ahryon; Graef, Isabella A; Chen, Lu

    2015-10-20

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a form of non-Hebbian plasticity that maintains stability of the network and fidelity for information processing in response to prolonged perturbation of network and synaptic activity. Prolonged blockade of synaptic activity decreases resting Ca(2+) levels in neurons, thereby inducing retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity; however, the signal transduction pathway that links reduced Ca(2+)-levels to RA synthesis remains unknown. Here we identify the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) as a key regulator for RA synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Prolonged inhibition of CaN activity promotes RA synthesis in neurons, and leads to increased excitatory and decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of CaN inhibitors on synaptic transmission are blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis or acute genetic deletion of the RA receptor RARα. Thus, CaN, acting upstream of RA, plays a critical role in gating RA signaling pathway in response to synaptic activity. Moreover, activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity is absent in CaN knockout neurons, demonstrating the essential role of CaN in RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, in GluA1 S831A and S845A knockin mice, CaN inhibitor- and RA-induced regulation of synaptic transmission is intact, suggesting that phosphorylation of GluA1 C-terminal serine residues S831 and S845 is not required for CaN inhibitor- or RA-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Thus, our study uncovers an unforeseen role of CaN in postsynaptic signaling, and defines CaN as the Ca(2+)-sensing signaling molecule that mediates RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity.

  19. Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARalpha, beta, gamma, and RXRalpha, beta, gamma) expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the mo...... and that in some patients life style (e.g. smoking and alcohol consumption) may be a critical component in the alteration of retinoic acid receptor levels in esophagus.......BACKGROUND: Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARalpha, beta, gamma, and RXRalpha, beta, gamma) expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most...... common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors...

  20. Neutrophils are immune cells preferentially targeted by retinoic acid in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minet-Quinard Régine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune system gradually deteriorates with age and nutritional status is a major factor in immunosenescence. Of the many nutritional factors implicated in age-related immune dysfunction, vitamin A may be a good candidate, since vitamin A concentrations classically decrease during aging whereas it may possess important immunomodulatory properties via its active metabolites, the retinoic acids. This prompted us to investigate the immune response induced by retinoids in adults and elderly healthy subjects. Before and after oral supplementation with 13cis retinoic acid (0.5 mg/kg/day during 28 days, whole blood cells were phenotyped, and functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN were investigated by flow cytometry and ELISA tests. Results In both young adults (n = 20, 25 ± 4 years and older subjects (n = 20, 65 ± 4 years, retinoic acid supplementation had no effect on the distribution of leukocyte subpopulations or on the functions of PBMC (Il-2 and sIl-2R production, membrane expression of CD25. Concerning PMN, retinoic acid induced an increase in both spontaneous migration and cell surface expression of CD11b in the two different age populations, whereas bactericidal activity and phagocytosis remained unchanged. Conclusions We demonstrated that retinoic acid induces the same intensity of immune response between adult and older subjects, and more specifically affects PMN functions, i.e. adhesion and migration, than PBMC functions.

  1. Complete remission of t(11;17) positive acute promyelocytic leukemia induced by all-trans retinoic acid and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Jansen (Joop); M.C. de Breems-de Ridder (Marleen); W.M. Geertsma; C.A.J. Erpelinck (Claudia); K. van Lom (Kirsten); R. Slater (Rosalyn); B.A. van der Reijden (Bert); G.E. de Greef (Georgine); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); B. Löwenberg (Bob); E.M.E. Smit (Elisabeth)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe combined use of retinoic acid and chemotherapy has led to an important improvement of cure rates in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Retinoic acid forces terminal maturation of the malignant cells and this application represents the first generally accepted

  2. Docking simulations suggest that all- trans retinoic acid could bind to retinoid X receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are ligand-controlled transcription factors which heterodimerize with other nuclear receptors to regulate gene transcriptions associated with crucial biological events. 9- cis retinoic acid (9cRA), which transactivates RXRs, is believed to be an endogenous RXR ligand. All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a natural ligand for retinoic acid receptors (RARs), which heterodimerize with RXRs. Although the concentration of 9cRA in tissues is very low, ATRA is relatively abundant and some reports show that ATRA activates RXRs. We computationally studied the possibility of ATRA binding to RXRs using two different docking methods with our developed programs to assess the binding affinities of naturally occurring retinoids. The simulations showed good correlations to the reported binding affinities of these molecules for RXRs and RARs.

  3. Isomerization of all-(E)-Retinoic Acid Mediated by Carbodiimide Activation - Synthesis of ATRA Ether Lipid Conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Stochkendahl; Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of the lysolipid 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine with all-(E)-retinoic acid, DCC and DMAP resulted in poor acylation and caused (Z)/(E) isomerization of the alpha-beta double bond. In the presence of a proton source, the carbodiimide-activated all-(E)-retinoic acid undergoes fast...... to phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol etherlipids....

  4. Effect of retinoic acid on proteoglycan turnover in bovine articular cartilage cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.A.; Handley, C.J.

    1987-10-01

    This paper describes proteoglycan catabolism by adult bovine articular cartilage treated with retinoic acid as a means of stimulating the loss of this macromolecule from the extracellular matrix of cartilage. Addition of retinoic acid (10(-12)-10(-6) M) to adult bovine articular cartilage which had been labeled with (/sup 35/S)sulfate for 6 h after 5 days in culture, resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the rate of loss of /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycans from the matrix of the tissue. Concomitant with this loss was a decrease in the proteoglycan content of the tissue. Incubation of cultures treated with 1 microM retinoic acid, at 4 degrees C, or with 0.5 mM cycloheximide, resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of retinoic acid-induced loss of proteoglycans and demonstrated cellular involvement in this process. Analysis of the /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycans remaining in the matrix showed that the percentage of radioactivity associated with the small proteoglycan species extracted from the matrix of articular cartilage explants labeled with (/sup 35/S)sulfate after 5 days in culture was 15% and this increased to 22% in tissue maintained in medium alone. In tissue treated with 1 microM retinoic acid for 6 days, the percentage of radioactivity associated with the small proteoglycan was 58%. Approximately 93% of the /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycans released into the medium of control and retinoic acid-treated cultures was recovered in high density fractions after CsCl gradient centrifugation and eluted on Sepharose CL-2B as a broad peak with a Kav of 0.30-0.37. Less than 17% of these proteoglycans was capable of aggregating with hyaluronate. These results indicate that in both control and retinoic acid-treated cultures the larger proteoglycan species is lost to the medium at a greater rate than the small proteoglycan species. The effect of retinoic acid on proteoglycan turnover was shown to be reversible.

  5. Sex difference in cellular retinol- and retinoic acid-binding proteins in human colon adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Duttagupta, C; Romney, S L

    1980-12-01

    Human colon adenocarcinomas and adjacent non-cancerous, normal colon from the same patient were assayed for the presence and amounts of cellular binding proteins for retinol (CRBP) and retinoic acid (CRABP) by sucrose gradient analysis. In male patients, the mean concentrations of both CRBP and CRABP in the colon cancers were statistically significantly higher than in the adjacent normal colon. By contrast, in female colon cancers, the mean levels for both binding proteins were reduced approximately 2-fold, compared to the concentrations in the adjacent normal colon. These findings reveal an unexpected sex difference in the binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid in human colon malignancies.

  6. Comparative effects of retinoic acid or glycolic acid vehiculated in different topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Gonçalves, Gisele Mara Silva; Pereira, Lúcia Helena Terenciane Rodrigues; Semprini, Marisa; Lopes, Ruberval Armando

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids and hydroxy acids have been widely used due to their effects in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of epithelial cells. However, besides their similar indication, they have different mechanisms of action and thus they may have different effects on the skin; in addition, since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, the ingredients of the formulation could alter their effects. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and glycolic acid (GA) treatment on the hairless mouse epidermis thickness and horny layer renewal when added in gel, gel cream, or cream formulations. For this, gel, gel cream, and cream formulations (with or without 6% GA or 0.05% RA) were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. After that, the skin was analyzed by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic techniques. It was observed that the effects of RA occurred independently from the vehicle, while GA had better results when added in the gel cream and cream. Retinoic acid was more effective when compared to glycolic acid, mainly in the cell renewal and the exfoliation process because it decreased the horny layer thickness.

  7. Comparative Effects of Retinoic Acid or Glycolic Acid Vehiculated in Different Topical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids and hydroxy acids have been widely used due to their effects in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of epithelial cells. However, besides their similar indication, they have different mechanisms of action and thus they may have different effects on the skin; in addition, since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, the ingredients of the formulation could alter their effects. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the effects of retinoic acid (RA and glycolic acid (GA treatment on the hairless mouse epidermis thickness and horny layer renewal when added in gel, gel cream, or cream formulations. For this, gel, gel cream, and cream formulations (with or without 6% GA or 0.05% RA were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. After that, the skin was analyzed by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic techniques. It was observed that the effects of RA occurred independently from the vehicle, while GA had better results when added in the gel cream and cream. Retinoic acid was more effective when compared to glycolic acid, mainly in the cell renewal and the exfoliation process because it decreased the horny layer thickness.

  8. Comparative Effects of Retinoic Acid or Glycolic Acid Vehiculated in Different Topical Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Gonçalves, Gisele Mara Silva; Pereira, Lúcia Helena Terenciane Rodrigues; Semprini, Marisa; Lopes, Ruberval Armando

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids and hydroxy acids have been widely used due to their effects in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of epithelial cells. However, besides their similar indication, they have different mechanisms of action and thus they may have different effects on the skin; in addition, since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, the ingredients of the formulation could alter their effects. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and glycolic acid (GA) treatment on the hairless mouse epidermis thickness and horny layer renewal when added in gel, gel cream, or cream formulations. For this, gel, gel cream, and cream formulations (with or without 6% GA or 0.05% RA) were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. After that, the skin was analyzed by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic techniques. It was observed that the effects of RA occurred independently from the vehicle, while GA had better results when added in the gel cream and cream. Retinoic acid was more effective when compared to glycolic acid, mainly in the cell renewal and the exfoliation process because it decreased the horny layer thickness. PMID:25632398

  9. Novel cosmetic patches for wrinkle improvement: retinyl retinoate- and ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; Yang, H; Kim, H; Jung, H; Jung, H

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate wrinkle improvement and safety of a novel cosmetic dissolving microneedle patches loaded with two active compounds with different hydrophilicities, namely ascorbic acid and retinyl retinoate. Clinical studies were performed on 24 Korean women for 12 weeks. Patients in group A were treated with retinyl retinoate-loaded dissolving microneedle patches on the left eye crow's feet area, and patients in group B were treated with ascorbic acidloaded patches on the right eye crow's feet area twice daily. Wrinkle improvement was evaluated by skin Visiometer SV 600. Both the retinyl retinoate- and ascorbic acid-loaded dissolving microneedle patches demonstrated statistically significant differences in all Visiometer R-values (P cosmetic patches. These novel patches can be used efficiently in cosmetics given their patient usability, safety and effectiveness in wrinkle improvement.

  10. CHIR99021 combined with retinoic acid promotes the differentiation of primordial germ cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tingting; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yao, Guidong; He, Jiahuan; Wang, Fang; Kong, Huijuan; Xin, Hang; Wang, Huiwen; Jin, Meng; Gong, Bing; Gu, Lei; Yang, Zhiguang; Wu, Yanyun; Ji, Guangju; Sun, Yingpu

    2017-01-31

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent as a desirable experimental model as well as a potential strategy for treating male infertility. Here, we developed a simple and feasible method for differentiation of PGCs from hESCs by using CHIR99021 (an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3) and retinoic acid (RA). We firstly found that the deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) protein can be detected in 3 d CHIR99021 plus 9 d retinoic acid treated cultures and 12 d CHIR99021 plus retinoic acid co-treated cultures, but not expressed in single CHIR99021 treated cultures, single retinoic acid treated cultures, as well as 3 d retinoic acid plus 9 d CHIR99021 treated cultures. Next, we showed that several PGCs' markers were expressed in the 12 d CHIR99021 and retinoic acid co-treated cultures or 3 d CHIR99021 plus 9 d retinoic acid treated cultures. Moreover, meiosis was initiated in CHIR99021 and retinoic acid co-treated cultures as evidenced by a significant expression of the punctate synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3). Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that a small percentage of putative 1N populations were formed. Mechanically, we found that β-catenin relocated into nucleus after the treatment of 3 d CHIR99021 suggesting that Wnt signaling pathway was activated. Furthermore, blockade of Wnt signaling pathway by IWR-1 can reverse CHIR99021 and retinoic acid mediated-effects. Taken together, our results indicate that CHIR99021 combined with retinoic acid can effectively differentiate hESCs into PGCs via activating Wnt signaling pathway.

  11. All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) mediated modulation of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and Kruppel like factor 11 (KLF11) expressions in the mitigation of ethanol induced alterations in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Saritha S; Prathibha, P; Syam Das, S; Kavitha, S; Indira, M

    2015-01-01

    Damaging effects that chronic ethanol exposure causes to the brain and the neurons are well documented. Ethanol and its toxic metabolites increase the oxidative stress in brain. Chronic exposure to ethanol leads to upregulation of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and also activates Kruppel like factor 11 (KLF11) mediated death cascade and thereby neurodegeneration. Ethanol depletes vitamin A stores. But supplementation of vitamin A exacerbates ethanol induced toxicity since alcohol and its metabolites are competitive inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of vitamin A. Hence, in this study we investigated the impact of co-administration of ethanol and all trans retinoic acid (ATRA), active metabolite of vitamin A, on ethanol induced alterations to the brain. Male Sprague Dawley rats, adolescent, were grouped as follows and maintained for 90 days. I - Control, II - Ethanol (4 g/kg b.w.), III - ATRA (100 µg/kg b.w.), IV - Ethanol (4 g/kg b.w.), +ATRA (100 µg/kg b.w.). Oxidative stress and the mRNA expression of various receptors for the neurotransmitter involved in glutamergic, serotonergic and gabaergic pathways were studied in the brain homogenate. Ethanol treatment was shown to decrease brain weight and it was increased on ATRA treatment. Increase in oxidative stress due to ethanol treatment was also brought down on ATRA administration. Ethanol induced upregulation of NMDAR and KLF11 was also downregulated on ATRA supplementation. The alterations in the levels of neurotransmitters and the expression of their receptors due to ethanol treatment also were ameliorated on ATRA supplementation. Our results show that ATRA supplementation mitigates the ethanol induced alterations in the brain by reducing oxidative stress in the brain with concurrent suppression of NMDAR and KLF11 expression leading to enhanced catabolism of neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 through Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Cultured ARPE-19 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Gao

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA plays an important role in ocular development. Previous studies found that retinoic acid could influence the metabolism of scleral remodeling by promoting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells to secrete secondary signaling factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinoic acid affected secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 and to explore the signaling pathway of retinoic acid in cultured acute retinal pigment epithelial 19 (ARPE-19 cells.The effects of ATRA (concentrations from 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l on the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RARs in ARPE-19 cells were examined at the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. The effects of treating ARPE-19 cells with ATRA concentrations ranging from 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l for 24 h and 48 h or with 10-6mol/l ATRA at different times ranging from 6h to 72h were assessed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The contribution of RARβ-induced activation of ARPE-19 cells was confirmed using LE135, an antagonist of RARβ.RARβ mRNA levels significantly increased in the ARPE-19 cells treated with ATRA for 24h and 48h. These increases in RARβ mRNA levels were dose dependent (at concentrations of 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l with a maximum effect observed at 10-6 mol/l. There were no significant changes in the mRNA levels of RARα and RARγ. Western blot assay revealed that RARβ protein levels were increased significantly in a time-dependent manner in ARPE-19 cells treated with 10-6 mol/l ATRA from 12 h to 72 h, with a marked increase observed at 24 h and 48 h. The upregulation of RARβ and the ATRA-induced secretion in ARPE-19 cells could be inhibited by the RARβ antagonist LE135.ATRA induced upregulation of RARβ in ARPE-19 cells and stimulated these cells to secrete BMP-2 and MMP-2.

  13. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, B S; Ashwini, K R; Vasanth, Vani; Navale, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA) combination remains unexplored. The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron's global scarring grading system (GSGS), before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars.

  14. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron′s global scarring grading system (GSGS, before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars.

  15. Preparation of N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan-functionalized retinoic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Retinoic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (R-SLNs) were prepared using homogenization followed by sonication. R-SLN surfaces were functionalized electrostatically with trimethyl chitosan as a nanocarrier (TR-SLNs) with enhanced anti-cancer activity. They were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), ...

  16. The effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the expression of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retinoic acid is effective in inhibiting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in some cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of ATRA on the expression of VEGF and its receptors in LoVo cells, and its possible mechanisms. LoVo cells were treated with ATRA at different concentrations for different ...

  17. Retinoic acid signalling in the development of the epidermis, the limbs and the secondary palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mammadova, A.; Zhou, H.; Carels, C.E.L.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, is one of the major regulators of embryonic development, including the development of the epidermis, the limbs and the secondary palate. In the embryo, RA levels are tightly regulated by the activity of RA synthesizing and degrading enzymes.

  18. Chronic retinoic acid treatment suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in close correlation with depressive-like behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Pu; Wang, Yu; Liu, Ji; Meng, Fan-Tao; Qi, Xin-Rui; Chen, Lin; van Dam, Anne-Marie; Joëls, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    Clinical studies have highlighted an association between retinoid treatment and depressive symptoms. As we had shown before that chronic application of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) potently activated the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, we here questioned whether RA also induced

  19. Chronic retinoic acid treatment suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in close correlation with depressive-like behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, P.; Wang, Y.; Liu, J.; Meng, F.T; Qi, X.R.; Chen, L.; van Dam, A.M.; Joëls, M.; Lucassen, P.J.; Zhou, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have highlighted an association between retinoid treatment and depressive symptoms. As we had shown before that chronic application of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) potently activated the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, we here questioned whether RA also induced

  20. The effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the expression of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was found to inhibit cell growth, induce differentiation and enhance apoptosis in a ... ATRA on the expression of VEGF and its receptors in LoVo cells, and its possible mechanisms. LoVo cells were ..... differentiation of myeloid cells and immune response in cancer patients.

  1. Novel retinoic acid receptor alpha agonists for treatment of kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Zhong

    Full Text Available Development of pharmacologic agents that protect podocytes from injury is a critical strategy for the treatment of kidney glomerular diseases. Retinoic acid reduces proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in multiple animal models of kidney diseases. However, clinical studies are limited because of significant side effects of retinoic acid. Animal studies suggest that all trans retinoic acid (ATRA attenuates proteinuria by protecting podocytes from injury. The physiological actions of ATRA are mediated by binding to all three isoforms of the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs: RARα, RARβ, and RARγ. We have previously shown that ATRA exerts its renal protective effects mainly through the agonism of RARα. Here, we designed and synthesized a novel boron-containing derivative of the RARα-specific agonist Am580. This new derivative, BD4, binds to RARα receptor specifically and is predicted to have less toxicity based on its structure. We confirmed experimentally that BD4 binds to RARα with a higher affinity and exhibits less cellular toxicity than Am580 and ATRA. BD4 induces the expression of podocyte differentiation markers (synaptopodin, nephrin, and WT-1 in cultured podocytes. Finally, we confirmed that BD4 reduces proteinuria and improves kidney injury in HIV-1 transgenic mice, a model for HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN. Mice treated with BD4 did not develop any obvious toxicity or side effect. Our data suggest that BD4 is a novel RARα agonist, which could be used as a potential therapy for patients with kidney disease such as HIVAN.

  2. Acute effects of all-trans-retinoic acid in ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a vitamin A derivative that is important in neuronal patterning, survival, and neurite outgrowth. We investigated the relatively acute effects of ATRA (100 nM and 1 µM) on cell swelling in ischemic injury and on key features hypothesized to contribute to cell swelli...

  3. Regulation of retinoid receptors by retinoic acid and axonal contact in Schwann cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesus Latasa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schwann cells (SCs are the cell type responsible for the formation of the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system (PNS. As retinoic acid (RA and other retinoids have a profound effect as regulators of the myelination program, we sought to investigate how their nuclear receptors levels were regulated in this cell type. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, by using Schwann cells primary cultures from neonatal Wistar rat pups, as well as myelinating cocultures of Schwann cells with embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons, we have found that sustained expression of RXR-γ depends on the continuous presence of a labile activator, while axonal contact mimickers produced an increase in RXR-γ mRNA and protein levels, increment that could be prevented by RA. The upregulation by axonal contact mimickers and the transcriptional downregulation by RA were dependent on de novo protein synthesis and did not involve changes in mRNA stability. On the other hand, RAR-β mRNA levels were only slightly modulated by axonal contact mimickers, while RA produced a strong transcriptional upregulation that was independent of de novo protein synthesis without changes in mRNA stability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All together, our results show that retinoid receptors are regulated in a complex manner in Schwann cells, suggesting that they could have a prominent role as regulators of Schwann cell physiology.

  4. Specification of GnRH-1 neurons by antagonistic FGF and retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabado, Virginie; Barraud, Perrine; Baker, Clare V H; Streit, Andrea

    2012-02-15

    A small population of neuroendocrine cells in the rostral hypothalamus and basal forebrain is the key regulator of vertebrate reproduction. They secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-1), communicate with many areas of the brain and integrate multiple inputs to control gonad maturation, puberty and sexual behavior. In humans, disruption of the GnRH-1 system leads to hypogonadotropic gonadism and Kallmann syndrome. Unlike other neurons in the central nervous system, GnRH-1 neurons arise in the periphery, however their embryonic origin is controversial, and the molecular mechanisms that control their initial specification are not clear. Here, we provide evidence that in chick GnRH-1 neurons originate in the olfactory placode, where they are specified shortly after olfactory sensory neurons. FGF signaling is required and sufficient to induce GnRH-1 neurons, while retinoic acid represses their formation. Both pathways regulate and antagonize each other and our results suggest that the timing of signaling is critical for normal GnRH-1 neuron formation. While Kallmann's syndrome has generally been attributed to a failure of GnRH-1 neuron migration due to impaired FGF signaling, our findings suggest that in at least some Kallmann patients these neurons may never be specified. In addition, this study highlights the intimate embryonic relationship between GnRH-1 neurons and their targets and modulators in the adult. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Strategy for M2 Microglial Polarization Using Retinoic Acid-Loaded Nanoparticles

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    Marta Machado-Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory mechanisms triggered by microglial cells are involved in the pathophysiology of several brain disorders, hindering repair. Herein, we propose the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (RA-NP as a means to modulate microglia response towards an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective phenotype (M2. RA-NP were first confirmed to be internalized by N9 microglial cells; nanoparticles did not affect cell survival at concentrations below 100 μg/mL. Then, immunocytochemical studies were performed to assess the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Our results show that RA-NP inhibited LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and promoted arginase-1 and interleukin-4 production. Additionally, RA-NP induced a ramified microglia morphology (indicative of M2 state, promoting tissue viability, particularly neuronal survival, and restored the expression of postsynaptic protein-95 in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to an inflammatory challenge. RA-NP also proved to be more efficient than the free equivalent RA concentration. Altogether, our data indicate that RA-NP may be envisioned as a promising therapeutic agent for brain inflammatory diseases.

  6. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Raftery, Tara D. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M. [Division of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Volz, David C., E-mail: volz@mailbox.sc.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Triphenyl phosphate-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos is enhanced in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate uptake or metabolism within zebrafish embryos is not altered in the presence of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist. • Triphenyl phosphate decreases expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 in zebrafish embryos. • Triphenyl phosphate inhibits retinoic acid-induced activation of human retinoic acid receptors. - Abstract: Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5–72 h post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite – were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may

  7. Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergheim I

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARα, β, γ, and RXRα, β, γ expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC, which is the most common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors (i.e. RARα, β, γ, and RXRβ in esophageal SCC and surrounding normal tissue of patients with untreated SCC and controls. Methods All study participants completed a questionnaire concerning smoking and alcohol drinking habits as well as anthropometrical parameters. Protein levels of RARα, β, γ, and RXRβ were determined by Western Blot in normal esophageal tissue and tissue obtained from SCC of 21 patients with newly diagnosed esophageal SCC and normal esophageal tissue of 10 controls. Results Protein levels of RARγ were significantly lower by ~68% in SCC compared to normal surrounding tissue in patients with SCC that smoked and/or consumed elevated amounts of alcohol. Furthermore, RARα protein levels were significantly lower (~- 45% in SCC in comparison to normal esophageal mucosa in patients with elevated alcohol intake. When comparing protein levels of retinoic acid receptors between normal tissue of patients with SCC and controls, RARγ protein levels were found to be significantly higher (~2.7-fold in normal esophageal tissue of SCC patients than in esophageal tissue obtained from controls. No differences were found for RARα, β, and RXRβ protein levels between normal esophageal tissue of patients and that of controls. Conclusion In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that alterations of retinoic acid receptors protein may contribute

  8. Reversible effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on AML12 hepatocyte proliferation and cell cycle progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation is well documented. Numerous studies have established the cancer preventive propertiesofatRAwhichfunctionstoregulate levels ofcellcycleproteinsessentialfortheGliS transition...

  9. Predictive factors of all-trans-retinoic acid related complications during induction therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeddi, Ramzi; Kacem, Karima; Ben Neji, Hend; Mnif, Samia; Gouider, Emna; Aissaoui, Lamia; Ben Amor, Ramzi; Ben Lakhal, Raihane; Ben Abid, Hela; Belhadjali, Zaher; Meddeb, Balkis

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a highly curable leukemia. However, several complications are reported with this treatment the most serious and life threatening being Retinoic Acid Syndrome (RAS). We aimed at identifying factors that could predict complications caused by ATRA during induction treatment of APL. PATIENTS: Forty-two patients with confirmed APL (by t(15;17) and/or PML/RARA) treated at our i...

  10. All-trans retinoic acid is increased in the acute phase-related hyporetinemia during Escherichia coli mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    VAN MERRIS, V; Meyer, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Blum, J; Burvenich, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Blood vitamin A profiles, including concentrations of retinol and its active metabolite retinoic acid, were assessed during the peripartum period and during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis in heifers. Serum retinol decreased in all animals in the immediate postpartum period and normalized within 1 wk after parturition. No significant changes were detectable in the concentrations of retinoic acid isomers during puerperium. Following intramammary E. coli infusion, all cows show...

  11. ISX is a retinoic acid-sensitive gatekeeper that controls intestinal β,β-carotene absorption and vitamin A production

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Glenn P.; Hessel, Susanne; Eichinger, Anne; Noy, Noa; Moise, Alexander R.; Wyss, Adrian; Palczewski, Krzysztof; von Lintig, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of dietary lipids from the small intestine is a complex process that depends on the activities of specific membrane receptors with yet unknown regulatory mechanisms. Using both mouse models and human cell lines, we show here that intestinal lipid absorption by the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI) is subject to control by retinoid signaling. Retinoic acid via retinoic acid receptors induced expression of the intestinal transcription factor ISX. ISX then repressed the expres...

  12. Knockdown of SALL4 Protein Enhances All-trans Retinoic Acid-induced Cellular Differentiation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Liu, Liang; Leung, Lai-Han; Cooney, Austin J.; Chen, Changyi; Rosengart, Todd K.; Ma, Yupo; Yang, Jianchang

    2015-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a differentiation agent that revolutionized the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, it has not been useful for other types of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we explored the effect of SALL4, a stem cell factor, on ATRA-induced AML differentiation in both ATRA-sensitive and ATRA-resistant AML cells. Aberrant SALL4 expression has been found in nearly all human AML cases, whereas, in normal bone marrow and peripheral blood cells, its expression is only restricted to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We reason that, in AMLs, SALL4 activation may prevent cell differentiation and/or protect self-renewal that is seen in normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Indeed, our studies show that ATRA-mediated myeloid differentiation can be largely blocked by exogenous expression of SALL4, whereas ATRA plus SALL4 knockdown causes significantly increased AML differentiation and cell death. Mechanistic studies indicate that SALL4 directly associates with retinoic acid receptor α and modulates ATRA target gene expression. SALL4 is shown to recruit lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) to target genes and alter the histone methylation status. Furthermore, coinhibition of LSD1 and SALL4 plus ATRA treatment exhibited the strongest anti-AML effect. These findings suggest that SALL4 plays an unfavorable role in ATRA-based regimes, highlighting an important aspect of leukemia therapy. PMID:25737450

  13. Comparative evaluation of retinoic acid, benzoyl peroxide and erythromycin lotion in acne vulgarils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety three patients suffering from acne vulgaris were treated with 0.05% retinoic acid (23 patients, 10% benzyoyl peroxide (24 patients, 2% erythromycin lotin (25 patients and 50% glycerine in methylated spirit (21 patients used as a control, for a period of 6 weeks. The patients were evaluated at 2 weeks and 6 weeks by spot counting of the lesions and diagrammatic representations. Good to excellent results were obtained in 69.6% of patients of erythromycin lotion. Retinoic acid was more effective in reducing noninflammatory lesions (75.2% whereas inflammatory lesions showed better response (73.6% with erythromycin lotion and benzoyl peroxide was almost equally effective in both types of lesions.

  14. Ultrastructure and Development of Vitrified/Warmed Bovine Oocytes Matured with 9-cis Retinoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Aida; Gómez, Enrique; Antolín, Isaac; Duque, Paloma; Hidalgo, C.O. (Carlos); Alonso, Cristina; Tamargo, Carolina; Fernández, Lina; Carbajo, Maite; Facal, Nieves; Caamaño, J.N. (José); Díez, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In this work we analyze the effects of vitrification on the ultrastructure and developmental ability of bovine oocytes matured in the presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA). Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in a basic medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 9-cis-RA or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Mature oocytes were vitrified using the Open Pulled Straw method with minor modifications. A group of fresh and vitrified/warmed COCs was fixed for ultrastructural analysis, wh...

  15. Expression and Regulation of the Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Gene in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Kramer, A., Dimery, I.W., Skipper, P., and Strong, S. 13-cis-Retinoic acid in the treatment of oral leukoplakia . N. Engl. J. Med., 315: 1501-105, 1986...respond and to overcome the transforming, aberrant protein. Recently it was demonstrated that in treatment of patients with "premalignant" oral ... oral lesions and its up- regulation by isotretinoin. New Eng. J. Med. 3 3 2:1405-1410, 1995. 9. Caliaro, M.J., C. Margouget, S. Guichard, P. Mazars

  16. Energy Metabolism Regulates Retinoic Acid Synthesis and Homeostasis in Physiological Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Obrochta, Kristin Marie

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports a regulated and reciprocal relationship between retinoid homeostasis and energy metabolism, with a physiologically relevant consequence of disrupted energy balance. This research was motivated by an observation that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), and biosynthetic precursors, were responsive to acute shifts in energy status, in wild type animals with normal body weight and glucose tolerance, i.e. not consequent to metabolic syndrome. My dissertation was designed to ...

  17. The Effects of Quercetin and Retinoic acid on Skeletal System of Rat Embryos in Prenatal Period

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Gohari-Behbahani; Mahmood Khaksary-Mahabady; Reza Ranjbar; Hossein Najafzadeh-Varzi; Babak Mohammadian3. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Cha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal rat embryo exposure to retinoid induces some malformations in various organs, the most active and teratogenic metablolite is all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA). The teratogenic effects of some drugs can be prevented by the application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Also, quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid has excellent antioxidant properties. Therefore, in this study, the prophylactic effect of quercetin on teratogenic effects of a...

  18. Retinoic acid effects on nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) administration during in vitro maturation (IVM) on bovine oocytes maturation was determined. Concentrations of t-RA (RA; 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μM) and 0.1% ethanol (vehicle) were included in the maturation medium. Ovaries collected from the local abattoir were ...

  19. Minimal concentrations of retinoic acid induce stimulation by retinoic acid 8 and promote entry into meiosis in isolated pregonadal and gonadal mouse primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Marianna; Desimio, Maria Giovanna; Klinger, Francesca Gioia; De Felici, Massimo; Farini, Donatella

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate that minimal concentrations (≤ 1 nM) of retinoic acid (RA), equivalent to the quantity contaminating serum-containing culture medium, are sufficient to promote meiotic entry and progression through meiotic prophase I (MPI) stages in isolated 12.5-days postcoitum (dpc) XX and XY mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) in culture. Similarly, we found that the same low RA concentration up-regulated or induced stimulation by retinoic acid 8 (Stra8) in such cells, both at mRNA and protein level. In preleptotene/leptotene germ cells, STRA8 was localized in nuclear dots that disappeared at later MPI stages. In addition to Stra8, other meiotic genes such as Dmc1 and Rec8 appeared stimulated by RA directly in PGCs with similar concentration-dependent trends. Finally, we found that RA induced Stra8, Sycp3, Dmc1, and Rec8 transcripts, promoting meiotic entry in culture also in pregonadal 10.5-dpc PGCs of both sexes. When cultured isolated from somatic cells, such PGCs, however, were unable to progress through MPI stages, while after entering meiosis, they progressed through MPI when cultured within aorta/gonad/mesonephros tissues. We conclude that besides RA, germ cell intrinsic factors and other exogenous signals from the surrounding somatic cells are probably necessary for meiotic entry and progression in mouse PGCs.

  20. ATRA (all-trans-retinoic acid) syndrome in acute promyelocytic leukemia: clinical and radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keon Ha; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Chung, Myung Jin; Do, Kyung Hyun; Park, Seon Yang [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom [Gachon Univ. Medical School, Gil Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    To describe the clinical and radiologic findings of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) syndrome in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Among 21 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia who were treated with all-trans-retinoic acid between 1995 and 1998, we retrospectively evaluated the cases of four with ATRA syndrome. Two were male and two were female, and their mean age was 58 years. The clinical and radiologic findings of chest radiography (n=4) and HRCT (n=1) were analyzed. Between seven and 13 days after ATRA treatment, dry cough, dyspnea and high fever developed in all patients. The WBC count in peripheral blood was significantly higher [2.9-25.3(mean, 10.8)-fold] than before ATRA treatment, and in all patients, chest radiography revealed ill-defined consolidation and pleural effusion. Kerley's B line (n=3) and hilar enlargement (n=3) were also seen, and in one patient, HRCT demonstrated septal line thickening. Among four patients treated with prednisolone and Ara-C, three recovered and one died. In acute promyelocytic patients treated with all-trans-retinoic acid, radiologic findings of ill-de-fined consolidation, pleural effusion, hilar prominence and Kerley's B line may suggest ATRA syndrome. The early diagnosis of this will improve the patients' prognosis.

  1. The effect of perinatal hormonal imprinting with 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) on the thymic glucocorticoid receptors of female and testosterone level of male adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, G; Gaál, A; Inczefi-Gonda, A

    1999-09-01

    In earlier experiments, the long-term effect of perinatal treatment (hormonal imprinting) with all-trans-retinol and all-trans-retinoic acid on the thymic glucocorticoid and uterine estrogen receptors was studied and was found effective. In the present experiments, the imprinting effect of four retinoids (13-cis-retinaldehyde, 13-cis-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinaldehyde and 9-cis-retinoic acid) was investigated, using receptor kinetic analysis and sexual hormone (testosterone and progesterone) level determinations. Exclusively 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) had an effect, significantly decreasing glucocorticoid receptor affinity and increasing serum testosterone level. Relationships with RAR-RXR receptor binding and teratogenicity is discussed.

  2. Role of retinoic acid metabolizing cytochrome P450s, CYP26, in inflammation and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Faith; Jing, Jing; Tripathy, Sasmita; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) and its active metabolite, all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), play critical roles in regulating the differentiation, growth and migration of immune cells. Similarly, as critical signaling molecules in the regulation of the cell cycle, retinoids are important in cancers. Concentrations of atRA are tightly regulated in tissues, predominantly by the availability of retinol, synthesis of atRA by ALDH1A enzymes and metabolism and clearance of atRA by CYP26 enzymes. The ALDH1A and CYP26 enzymes are expressed in several cell types in the immune system and in cancer cells. In the immune system the ALDH1A and CYP26 enzymes appear to modulate RA concentrations. Consequently, alterations in the activity of ALDH1A and CYP26 enzymes are expected to change disease outcomes in inflammation. There is increasing evidence from various disease models of intestinal and skin inflammation that treatment with atRA has a positive effect on disease markers. However, whether aberrant atRA concentrations or atRA synthesis and metabolism play a role in inflammatory disease development and progression is not well understood. In cancers, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia and neuroblastoma, increasing intracellular concentrations of atRA appears to provide clinical benefit. Inhibition of the CYP26 enzymes to increase atRA concentrations and combat therapy resistance has been pursued as a drug target in these cancers. This chapter covers the current knowledge of how atRA and retinol regulate the immune system and inflammation, how retinol and atRA metabolism is altered in inflammation and cancer and what roles atRA metabolizing enzymes have in immune responses and cancers. PMID:26233912

  3. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In rodents, retinoic acid (RA) treatment favors loss of body fat mass and the acquisition of brown fat features in white fat depots. In this work, we sought to examine to what extent these RA effects are cell autonomous or dependent on systemic factors. METHODS: Parameters of lipid......), and to an increased expression of proteins favoring fat oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 2, fasting-induced adipose factor, enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation). These changes paralleled inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein and were...

  4. Simultaneous quantification of retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid isomers by high-performance liquid chromatography with a simple gradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, M; Yokoyama, H; Shiraishi, H; Matsumoto, M; Ishii, H

    2001-06-15

    A new method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to quantify isomers of retinol, retinal and retinoic acid simultaneously was established. The HPLC system consisted of a silica gel absorption column and a linear gradient with two kinds of solvents containing n-Hexane, 2-propanol, and glacial acetic acid in different ratios. It separated six retinoic acid isomers (13-cis, 9-cis, all-trans, all-trans-4-oxo, 9-cis-4-oxo, 13-cis-4-oxo), three retinal isomers (13-cis-, 9-cis-, and all-trans) and two retinol isomers (13-cis- and all-trans). Human serum samples were subjected to this HPLC analysis and at least, all-trans retinol, 13-cis retinol, and all-trans retinoic acid were detectable. This HPLC system is useful for evaluating retinoic acid formation from retinol via a two-step oxidation pathway. Moreover, it could be applied to monitoring the concentrations of various retinoids, including all-trans retinoic acid in human sera.

  5. Impaired development of left anterior heart field by ectopic retinoic acid causes transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narematsu, Mayu; Kamimura, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Toshiyuki; Fukui, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Yuji

    2015-04-30

    Transposition of the great arteries is one of the most commonly diagnosed conotruncal heart defects at birth, but its etiology is largely unknown. The anterior heart field (AHF) that resides in the anterior pharyngeal arches contributes to conotruncal development, during which heart progenitors that originated from the left and right AHF migrate to form distinct conotruncal regions. The aim of this study is to identify abnormal AHF development that causes the morphology of transposition of the great arteries. We placed a retinoic acid-soaked bead on the left or the right or on both sides of the AHF of stage 12 to 14 chick embryos and examined the conotruncal heart defect at stage 34. Transposition of the great arteries was diagnosed at high incidence in embryos for which a retinoic acid-soaked bead had been placed in the left AHF at stage 12. Fluorescent dye tracing showed that AHF exposed to retinoic acid failed to contribute to conotruncus development. FGF8 and Isl1 expression were downregulated in retinoic acid-exposed AHF, and differentiation and expansion of cardiomyocytes were suppressed in cultured AHF in medium supplemented with retinoic acid. The left AHF at the early looped heart stage, corresponding to Carnegie stages 10 to 11 (28 to 29 days after fertilization) in human embryos, is the region of the impediment that causes the morphology of transposition of the great arteries. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. [Acne conglobata: unusual course in 13-cis-retinoic acid therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, A

    1986-01-01

    Four weeks after the introduction of a therapeutic regimen with 80 mg 13-cis-retinoic acid/day, a 16-year-old male patient developed oozing hypergranulation with vulnerable masses within acne lesions. These local symptoms were accompanied by fever, fatigue, weight loss, polyarthralgia and myalgia, similar to acne fulminans. In spite of these unusual reactions treatment was continued. Local steroid ointments were additionally applied. Within a short period of time regression of granulations and normalization of the general health condition was observed. After 4 months, therapy was discontinued. The patient's acne had totally healed and did not relapse within an observation period of 2 years.

  7. Identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of retinoid X and retinoic acid receptors via quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of a ligand is an important issue in the field of drug discovery. Using a combination of classical molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical calculations, this report assesses the receptor subtype selectivity for the human retinoid X receptor (hRXR) and retinoic acid receptor (hRAR) ligand-binding domains (LBDs) complexed with retinoid ligands. The calculated energies show good correlation with the experimentally reported binding affinities. The technique proposed here is a promising method as it reveals the origin of the receptor subtype selectivity of selective ligands.

  8. Generation and transcriptional programming of intestinal dendritic cells: essential role of retinoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, R.; Bscheider, M; Lahl, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    he vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) regulates adaptive immunity in the intestines, with well-characterized effects on IgA responses, Treg induction, and gut trafficking of T- and B-effector cells. It also controls the generation of conventional dendritic cell (cDC) precursors in the bone...... marrow and regulates cDC subset representation, but its roles in the specialization of intestinal cDC subsets are understudied. Here we show that RA acts cell intrinsically in developing gut-tropic pre-mucosal dendritic cell (pre-μDC) to effect the differentiation and drive the specialization...

  9. Molecular Control of Interdigital Cell Death and Cell Differentiation by Retinoic Acid during Digit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Díaz-Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The precise coordination of cell death and cell differentiation during the formation of developing digits is essential for generating properly shaped limbs. Retinoic acid (RA has a fundamental role in digit development; it promotes or inhibits the molecular expression of several critical genes. This control of gene expression establishes molecular cascades that enable both the commencement of cell death and the inhibition of cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on the antagonistic functions between RA and fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling in the control of cell death and between RA and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling in the control of cell differentiation.

  10. Role of retinoic acid metabolizing cytochrome P450s, CYP26, in inflammation and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stevison, Faith; Jing, Jing; Tripathy, Sasmita; Isoherranen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) and its active metabolite, all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), play critical roles in regulating the differentiation, growth and migration of immune cells. Similarly, as critical signaling molecules in the regulation of the cell cycle, retinoids are important in cancers. Concentrations of atRA are tightly regulated in tissues, predominantly by the availability of retinol, synthesis of atRA by ALDH1A enzymes and metabolism and clearance of atRA by CYP26 enzymes. The ALDH1A and ...

  11. Retinoic acid signalling is activated in the postischemic heart and may influence remodelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Bilbija

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-trans retinoic acid (atRA, an active derivative of vitamin A, regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and cardiac morphogenesis via transcriptional activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs acting on retinoic acid response elements (RARE. We hypothesized that the retinoic acid (RA signalling pathway is activated in myocardial ischemia and postischemic remodelling. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Myocardial infarction was induced through ligating the left coronary artery in mice. In vivo cardiac activation of the RARs was measured by imaging RARE-luciferase reporter mice, and analysing expression of RAR target genes and proteins by real time RT-PCR and western blot. Endogenous retinoids in postinfarcted hearts were analysed by triple-stage liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Cardiomyocytes (CM and cardiofibroblasts (CF were isolated from infarcted and sham operated RARE luciferase reporter hearts and monitored for RAR activity and expression of target genes. The effect of atRA on CF proliferation was evaluated by EdU incorporation. Myocardial infarction increased thoracic RAR activity in vivo (p<0.001, which was ascribed to the heart through ex vivo imaging (p = 0.002 with the largest signal 1 week postinfarct. This was accompanied by increased cardiac gene and protein expression of the RAR target genes retinol binding protein 1 (p = 0.01 for RNA, p = 0,006 for protein and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (p = 0.04 for RNA, p = 0,014 for protein, while gene expression of cytochrome P450 26B1 was downregulated (p = 0.007. Concomitantly, retinol accumulated in the infarcted zone (p = 0.02. CM and CF isolated from infarcted hearts had higher luminescence than those from sham operated hearts (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008. AtRA inhibited CF proliferation in vitro (p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: The RA signalling pathway is activated in postischemic hearts and may play a role in regulation of damage and

  12. Potential role of nuclear receptor ligand all-trans retinoic acids in the treatment of fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yan Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal keratitis (FK is a worldwide visual impairment disease. This infectious fungus initiates the primary innate immune response and, later the adaptive immune response. The inflammatory process is related to a variety of immune cells, including macrophages, helper T cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and Treg cells, and is associated with proinflammatory, chemotactic and regulatory cytokines. All-trans retinoic acids (ATRA have diverse immunomodulatory actions in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. These retinoids regulate the transcriptional levels of target genes through the activation of nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid receptor α (RAR α, retinoic acid receptor γ (RAR γ, and retinoid X receptor α (RXR α are expressed in the cornea and immune cells. This paper summarizes new findings regarding ATRA in immune and inflammatory diseases and analyzes the perspective application of ATRA in FK.

  13. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2–24 hours post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16–24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2–24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16–24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. PMID:25541501

  14. Transepidermal retinoic acid delivery using ablative fractional radiofrequency associated with acoustic pressure ultrasound for stretch marks treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Maria Cláudia Almeida; de Britto Pereira Kassuga, Luiza Erthal; Chevrand, Natalia Stroligo; do Nascimento Barbosa, Livia; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Pantaleão, Luciana; Vilar, Enoi Guedes; Rochael, Mayra Carrijo

    2013-02-01

    Striae distensae (SD) treatment still remains a therapeutic challenge to dermatologists. Ablative fractional laser and radiofrequency (RF) enhance skin-drug permeability for SD treatment. To clinically evaluate the efficacy and safety as well as patient's satisfaction in relation to a method using ablative fractional RF associated with retinoic acid 0.05% cream and an acoustic pressure wave ultrasound (US) in patients with alba-type SD on the breast. Eight patients with alba-type SD on the breast were treated with three step procedure: (1) fractional ablative RF for skin perforation; (2) topical application of retinoic acid 0.05% on the perforated skin; and (3) US was applied to enhance the retinoic acid penetration into the skin. Other eight patients with alba-type SD on the abdominal area were submitted to RF treatment isolated without retinoic acid or US. Three of them were submitted to skin biopsies. Three patients with SD on the breast area improved from "severe" to "moderate;" two patients improved from "severe" to "mild;" two patients from "moderate" to "mild;" one patient from "marked" to "mild." Clinical assessment demonstrated significant improvement in the appearance of SD in all patients treated with RF associated with retinoic acid 0.05% cream and US (P = 0.008), with low incidence of side effects and high level of patient's satisfaction. Among the patients treated only with RF, two patients improved from "severe" to "marked;" one patient from "marked" to "moderate;" and one patient improved from "marked" to "mild." Four patients did not show any sort of improvement. Clinical assessment demonstrated no significant improvement in the appearance of SD treated with RF isolated with low incidence of side effects, but low-level of patient's satisfaction. Ablative fractional RF and acoustic pressure US associated with retinoic acid 0.05% cream is safe and effective for alba-type SD treatment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Retinoic acid specifically activates an oleate-dependent phospholipase D in the nuclei of LA-N-1 neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pierre; Kanfer, Julian N; Freysz, Louis

    2003-04-24

    Earlier studies showed that treatment of LA-N-1 cells with TPA, a tumoral promoter, leads to the stimulation of a G protein-regulated phospholipase D (PLD) in the nuclei. Now we demonstrate that retinoic acid, a cellular differentiation inducing agent, activates a nuclear oleate-dependent PLD in LA-N-1 cells. Treatment of the nuclei with retinoic acid induces the breakdown of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Our results indicate that PLD is regulated differentially depending on the nature of the stimulatory agent. These results strongly suggest the existence of two nuclear PLD isoforms in LA-N-1 nuclei that hydrolyze PtdCho.

  16. Macrophages are targets of retinoic acid signaling during the wound-healing process after thulium laser resection of the prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Dian-Jun; Wang, Xing-Jie; Shi, Yun-Feng; Jiang, Chen-Yi; Zhao, Rui-Zhe; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Chen, Li; Yang, Yuan-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The wound-healing process is very important for reducing complications after thulium laser resection of the prostate (TmLRP). The retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway has been well studied in the wound-healing process of the skin and other organs. The goals of this study were to identify the role of RA signaling in the repair of the prostate after TmLRP and to investigate the molecular mechanism of this process. RESULTS Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) were present in the prostate, a...

  17. The oncogene EVI1 enhances transcriptional and biological responses of human myeloid cells to all-trans retinoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Birgit; Hackl, Hubert; Slabáková, Eva; Schwarzinger, Ilse; Smějová, Monika; Spittler, Andreas; Arbesu, Itziar; Shehata, Medhat; Souček, Karel; Wieser, Rotraud

    2014-01-01

    The product of the ecotropic virus integration site 1 (EVI1) gene, whose overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis in myeloid leukemias and some epithelial tumors, regulates gene transcription both through direct DNA binding and through modulation of the activity of other sequence specific transcription factors. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that EVI1 influenced transcription regulation in response to the myeloid differentiation inducing agent, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), in a dual manner: it enhanced ATRA induced transcription of the RARβ gene, but repressed the ATRA induction of the EVI1 gene itself. In the present study, we asked whether EVI1 would modulate the ATRA regulation of a larger number of genes, as well as biological responses to this agent, in human myeloid cells. U937 and HL-60 cells ectopically expressing EVI1 through retroviral transduction were subjected to microarray based gene expression analysis, and to assays measuring cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. These experiments showed that EVI1 modulated the ATRA response of several dozens of genes, and in fact reinforced it in the vast majority of cases. A particularly strong synergy between EVI1 and ATRA was observed for GDF15, which codes for a member of the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines. In line with the gene expression results, EVI1 enhanced cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in response to ATRA, and knockdown of GDF15 counteracted some of these effects. The potential clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25486480

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid control of neurogenesis induced by retinoic acid during early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Carnicero, E; Bueno, D; Gato, A

    2011-07-01

    Embryonic-cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) plays crucial roles in early brain development including the control of neurogenesis. Although FGF2 and lipoproteins present in the E-CSF have previously been shown to be involved in neurogenesis, the main factor triggering this process remains unknown. E-CSF contains all-trans-retinol and retinol-binding protein involved in the synthesis of retinoic acid (RA), a neurogenesis inducer. In early chick embryo brain, only the mesencephalic-rombencephalic isthmus (IsO) is able to synthesize RA. Here we show that in chick embryo brain development: (1) E-CSF helps to control RA synthesis in the IsO by means of the RBP and all-trans-retinol it contains; (2) E-CSF has retinoic acid activity, which suggests it may act as a diffusion pathway for RA; and (3) the influence of E-CSF on embryonic brain neurogenesis is to a large extent due to its involvement in RA synthesis. These data help to understand neurogenesis from neural progenitor cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The ancestral retinoic acid receptor was a low-affinity sensor triggering neuronal differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Handberg-Thorsager, Mette

    2018-02-22

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important intercellular signaling molecule in vertebrate development, with a well-established role in the regulation of hox genes during hindbrain patterning and in neurogenesis. However, the evolutionary origin of the RA signaling pathway remains elusive. To elucidate the evolution of the RA signaling system, we characterized RA metabolism and signaling in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, a powerful model for evolution, development, and neurobiology. Binding assays and crystal structure analyses show that the annelid retinoic acid receptor (RAR) binds RA and activates transcription just as vertebrate RARs, yet with a different ligand-binding pocket and lower binding affinity, suggesting a permissive rather than instructive role of RA signaling. RAR knockdown and RA treatment of swimming annelid larvae further reveal that the RA signal is locally received in the medial neuroectoderm, where it controls neurogenesis and axon outgrowth, whereas the spatial colinear hox gene expression in the neuroectoderm remains unaffected. These findings suggest that one early role of the new RAR in bilaterian evolution was to control the spatially restricted onset of motor and interneuron differentiation in the developing ventral nerve cord and to indicate that the regulation of hox-controlled anterior-posterior patterning arose only at the base of the chordates, concomitant with a high-affinity RAR needed for the interpretation of a complex RA gradient.

  20. Tbx1 and Brn4 regulate retinoic acid metabolic genes during cochlear morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braunstein Evan M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vertebrates, the inner ear is comprised of the cochlea and vestibular system, which develop from the otic vesicle. This process is regulated via inductive interactions from surrounding tissues. Tbx1, the gene responsible for velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome in humans, is required for ear development in mice. Tbx1 is expressed in the otic epithelium and adjacent periotic mesenchyme (POM, and both of these domains are required for inner ear formation. To study the function of Tbx1 in the POM, we have conditionally inactivated Tbx1 in the mesoderm while keeping expression in the otic vesicle intact. Results Conditional mutants (TCre-KO displayed malformed inner ears, including a hypoplastic otic vesicle and a severely shortened cochlear duct, indicating that Tbx1 expression in the POM is necessary for proper inner ear formation. Expression of the mesenchyme marker Brn4 was also lost in the TCre-KO. Brn4-;Tbx1+/-embryos displayed defects in growth of the distal cochlea. To identify a potential signal from the POM to the otic epithelium, expression of retinoic acid (RA catabolizing genes was examined in both mutants. Cyp26a1 expression was altered in the TCre-KO, while Cyp26c1 showed reduced expression in both TCre-KO and Brn4-;Tbx1+/- embryos. Conclusion These results indicate that Tbx1 expression in the POM regulates cochlear outgrowth potentially via control of local retinoic acid activity.

  1. The influence of retinoic acid on the human oligodendrocyte precursor cells by RNA-sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun young Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA, a metabolite of vitamin A, has been found to influence regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS. There may be an effect of RA in the recovery/repair in multiple sclerosis (MS, an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the CNS. We hypothesized that RA is a regulator of the further differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs – cells key to the remyelination process in MS. We conducted studies utilizing RNA-sequencing in human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs and OPCs so as to understand the role of transcriptional regulators during transition from both ESCs to NSCs and NSCs to OPCs. We identified that expression of retinoic acid receptors β and γ (RARβ and RARγ was significantly increased following the transition from NSCs to OPCs. We also demonstrated that long term in vitro culture of hESC-derived OPC with different isoforms of RA led to the significant up-regulation of two known transcriptional inhibitors of oligodendrocyte differentiation: Hes5 following prolonged treatment with all-trans-RA, 9-cis RA and 13-cis RA; and Id4 following treatment with 13cisRA. These results suggest that long term exposure to certain RA isoforms may impact the continued differentiation of this population.

  2. Retinoic acid receptor antagonist inhibits CD38 antigen expression on human hematopoietic cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, Eugenia; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Fibach, Eitan

    2004-05-01

    The CD34+ CD38- subset of human hematopoietic stem cells are crucial for long-term ex-vivo expansion; conditions that decreased this specific sub-population reduced the self-renewal capacity and shortened the duration of the proliferative phase of the culture. Retinoids, such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), have been shown to induce CD38 expression. ATRA present in serum may be responsible for the high CD38 of cells grown in serum-containing medium. In the present study we analyzed the effects of AGN 194310, a retinoic acid receptor pan-antagonist, on CD38 expression of human hematopoietic cells. Normal cells (cord blood derived CD34+ cells) and abnormal cells (myeloid leukemic lines) were studied when grown in either serum-containing or serum-free media. The results showed that both serum and ATRA enhanced differentiation and, thereby, reduced the proportion of CD34+ CD38- cells and total CD34+ cell expansion. AGN reversed these effects of serum and ATRA: it delayed differentiation and increased CD34+ CD38- cells. These results suggest that physiological ATRA levels in serum may prevent efficient cell expansion. AGN, by neutralizing ATRA, improves cell expansion in serum-containing cultures, thus making AGN a useful agent for ex vivo expansion of stem cells and other specific sub-populations for research and clinical use.

  3. SIGNALLING THROUGH RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS IN CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT: DOING THE RIGHT THINGS AT THE RIGHT TIMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier-Neto, José; Costa, Ângela M. Sousa; Figueira, Ana Carolina M.; Caiaffa, Carlo Donato; do Amaral, Fabio Neves; Peres, Lara Maldanis Cerqueira; da Silva, Bárbara Santos Pires; Santos, Luana Nunes; Moise, Alexander R.; Castillo, Hozana Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a terpenoid that is synthesized from Vitamin A/retinol (ROL) and binds to the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) to control multiple developmental processes in vertebrates. The available clinic and experimental data provide uncontested evidence for the pleiotropic roles of RA signalling in development of multiple embryonic structures and organs such eyes, central nervous system, gonads, lungs and heart. The development of any of these above-mentioned embryonic organ systems can be effectively utilized to showcase the many strategies utilized by RA signalling. However, it is very likely that the strategies employed to transfer RA signals during cardiac development comprise the majority of the relevant and sophisticated ways through which retinoid signals can be conveyed in a complex biological system. Here, we provide the reader with arguments indicating that RA signalling is exquisitely regulated according to specific phases of cardiac development and that RA signalling itself is one of the major regulators of the timing of cardiac morphogenesis and differentiation. We will focus on the role of signalling by RA receptors (RARs) in early phases of heart development. PMID:25134739

  4. Stimulation of tissue-type plasminogen activator expression by retinoic acid in human endothelial cells requires retinoic acid receptor beta 2 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, M; Kooistra, T

    1996-07-15

    We previously showed the involvement of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) in the induction of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) synthesis by RA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the rather slow onset of this induction of t-PA synthesis suggested an indirect role of RAR alpha. Here, we show that the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide completely blocks the induction of t-PA by RA, which points to the need of an intermediary protein in t-PA stimulation. This intermediary protein is likely to be RAR beta 2 on the basis of the following findings: (1) the induction of RAR beta by RA exactly precedes that of t-PA; (2) HUVECs with elevated RAR beta mRNA levels show an undelayed t-PA induction on stimulation with RA, and this response can be almost completely inhibited with an RAR antagonist; and (3) an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against the translation initiation site of RAR beta 2 mRNA greatly reduces the t-PA induction by RA. Thus, induction of t-PA by RA in HUVECs involves a 2-step mechanism requiring induction of RAR beta 2 via RAR alpha, followed by induction of t-PA synthesis via RAR beta 2. Each of these steps is shown to have a different activation profile with RA and 9 cis RA.

  5. Loss of Trim24 (Tif1alpha) gene function confers oncogenic activity to retinoic acid receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetchoumian, Konstantin; Teletin, Marius; Tisserand, Johan; Mark, Manuel; Herquel, Benjamin; Ignat, Mihaela; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Cammas, Florence; Lerouge, Thierry; Thibault, Christelle; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Losson, Régine

    2007-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Here, we provide evidence that the ligand-dependent nuclear receptor co-regulator Trim24 (also known as Tif1alpha) functions in mice as a liver-specific tumor suppressor. In Trim24-null mice, hepatocytes fail to execute proper cell cycle withdrawal during the neonatal-to-adult transition and continue to cycle in adult livers, becoming prone to a continuum of cellular alterations that progress toward metastatic HCC. Using pharmacological approaches, we show that inhibition of retinoic acid signaling markedly reduces hepatocyte proliferation in Trim24-/- mice. We further show that deletion of a single retinoic acid receptor alpha (Rara) allele in a Trim24-null background suppresses HCC development and restores wild-type expression of retinoic acid-responsive genes in the liver, thus demonstrating that in this genetic background Rara expresses an oncogenic activity correlating with a dysregulation of the retinoic acid signaling pathway. Our results not only provide genetic evidence that Trim24 and Rara co-regulate hepatocarcinogenesis in an antagonistic manner but also suggest that aberrant activation of Rara is deleterious to liver homeostasis.

  6. A CYCLIC-AMP RESPONSE ELEMENT IS INVOLVED IN RETINOIC ACID-DEPENDENT RAR-BETA-2 PROMOTER ACTIVATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUYT, FAE; FOLKERS, G; VANDENBRINK, CE; VANDERSAAG, PT; Kruyt, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Activation of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta2 promoter is known to be mediated by a RA response element located in the proximity of the TATA-box. By deletion studies in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells we have analyzed the RARbeta2 promoter for the presence of additional regulatory elements. We

  7. Effects of retinoic acid on proliferation and gene expression of cleft and non-cleft palatal keratinocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mammadova, A.; Ackermans, M.M.; Bloemen, M.; Oostendorp, C.; Zhou, H.; Carels, C.E.L.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid (RA) is a key regulator of embryonic development and linked to several birth defects including cleft lip and palate (CLP). The aim was to investigate the effects of RA on proliferation and gene expression of human palatal keratinocytes (KCs) in vitro. METHODS: KCs

  8. The Retinoic Acid Receptor-α mediates human T-cell activation and Th2 cytokine and chemokine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Harry D; Collins, Gary; Pyle, Robert; Key, Michael; Taub, Dennis D

    2008-01-01

    Background We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-γ and TNF-α expression by activated human T cells and reduces the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated that the observed effects using ATRA and 9-cis RA are shared with the clinically useful RAR ligand, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), and the retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α)-selective agonist, AM580 but not with the RAR-β/γ ligand, 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4-HPR). Results The increase in type 2 cytokine production by these retinoids correlated with the expression of the T cell activation markers, CD69 and CD38. The RAR-α-selective agonist, AM580 recapitulated all of the T cell activation and type 2 cytokine-inducing effects of ATRA and 9-cis-RA, while the RAR-α-selective antagonist, RO 41–5253, inhibited these effects. Conclusion These results strongly support a role for RAR-α engagement in the regulation of genes and proteins involved with human T cell activation and type 2 cytokine production. PMID:18416830

  9. The Retinoic Acid Receptor-alpha mediates human T-cell activation and Th2 cytokine and chemokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Harry D; Collins, Gary; Pyle, Robert; Key, Michael; Taub, Dennis D

    2008-04-16

    We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha expression by activated human T cells and reduces the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated that the observed effects using ATRA and 9-cis RA are shared with the clinically useful RAR ligand, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), and the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha)-selective agonist, AM580 but not with the RAR-beta/gamma ligand, 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4-HPR). The increase in type 2 cytokine production by these retinoids correlated with the expression of the T cell activation markers, CD69 and CD38. The RAR-alpha-selective agonist, AM580 recapitulated all of the T cell activation and type 2 cytokine-inducing effects of ATRA and 9-cis-RA, while the RAR-alpha-selective antagonist, RO 41-5253, inhibited these effects. These results strongly support a role for RAR-alpha engagement in the regulation of genes and proteins involved with human T cell activation and type 2 cytokine production.

  10. The Retinoic Acid Receptor-α mediates human T-cell activation and Th2 cytokine and chemokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Key Michael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-γ and TNF-α expression by activated human T cells and reduces the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated that the observed effects using ATRA and 9-cis RA are shared with the clinically useful RAR ligand, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA, and the retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α-selective agonist, AM580 but not with the RAR-β/γ ligand, 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4-HPR. Results The increase in type 2 cytokine production by these retinoids correlated with the expression of the T cell activation markers, CD69 and CD38. The RAR-α-selective agonist, AM580 recapitulated all of the T cell activation and type 2 cytokine-inducing effects of ATRA and 9-cis-RA, while the RAR-α-selective antagonist, RO 41–5253, inhibited these effects. Conclusion These results strongly support a role for RAR-α engagement in the regulation of genes and proteins involved with human T cell activation and type 2 cytokine production.

  11. Beneficial effects of retinoic acid on extracellular matrix degradation and attachment behaviour in follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, B.; Schröder van der Elst, J. P.; van der Pluijm, G.; Goslings, B. M.; Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with metastasised follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is limited, necessitating the search for new treatment options. Beneficial effects of retinoids have been suggested in thyroid cancer and the present study was performed to investigate the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on

  12. The effect of retinoic acid on radiosensitivity analyzed by linear-quadratic model and apoptosis in head and neck squamous carcinoma cell lines

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    Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Bum Hyun; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on radiosensitivity and radiation-induced apoptosis in NHOK, HEp-2 and FaDu cell lines. We measured the changes in survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2), {alpha} and {beta} after treatment of retinoic acid (1 {mu}M) prior to irradiation with doses of 2, 4, 6 and 10 Gy and correlated the radiosensitizing effect of retinoic acid with them. Also, apoptosis indention was assayed with the flow cytometry on days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 after irradiation (2, 10 and 20 Gy) combined with retinoic acid. SF2 values for NHOK, HEp-2 and FaDu cell lines were 0.54, 0.64 and 0.41, respectively and the cell line of FaDu was the most radiosensitive. For cell lines of NHOK and HEp-2, pretreatment of cells with retinoic acid resulted in a significant decrease of the SF2 values. The {alpha}/{beta} ratios of x-ray survival curve were 8.714 (NHOK), 4.098 (HEp-2) and 11.79 (FaDu). The {alpha}/{beta} radio for NHOK decreased on pretreatment with retinoic acid, whereas those for HEp-2 and FaDu increased. Radiation induced apoptosis in all cell lines but, retinoic acid did not affect the apoptosis.

  13. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-05

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The histone demethylase PHF8 governs retinoic acid response in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arteaga, Maria Francisca; Mikesch, Jan-Henrik; Qiu, Jihui

    2013-01-01

    While all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been the paradigm of targeted therapy for oncogenic transcription factors, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, and a significant number of patients still relapse and become ATRA resistant. We...... identified the histone demethylase PHF8 as a coactivator that is specifically recruited by RARα fusions to activate expression of their downstream targets upon ATRA treatment. Forced expression of PHF8 resensitizes ATRA-resistant APL cells, whereas its downregulation confers resistance. ATRA sensitivity...... depends on the enzymatic activity and phosphorylation status of PHF8, which can be pharmacologically manipulated to resurrect ATRA sensitivity to resistant cells. These findings provide important molecular insights into ATRA response and a promising avenue for overcoming ATRA resistance....

  15. Retinol dehydrogenase-10 regulates pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation via paracrine retinoic acid signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arregi, Igor; Climent, Maria; Iliev, Dobromir

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh......10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme. Rdh10 null mutant mouse embryos exhibited dorsal pancreas agenesis...... glucagon(+) and insulin(+) cells. During the secondary transition, the reduction of Neurogenin3(+) endocrine progenitors in the mutant dorsal pancreas accounted for fewer α- and β-cells. Changes in the expression of α- and β-cell-specific transcription factors indicated that Rdh10 might also participate...

  16. Retinoic Acid 4-Hydroxylase Inducibility and Clinical Response to Isotretinoin in Acne Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frank; Kwak, Heh Shin R.; Elbuluk, Nada; Kaczmarek, Anya L.; Hamilton, Ted; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.; Kang, Sewon

    2011-01-01

    Background The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP26 (retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase) initiates the catabolism of all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) and limits the effects of tRA. The CYP26 enzyme acts on tRA, but not 13-cis RA (isotretinoin), a retinoid used to treat severe acne. However, 13-cis RA can isomerize to tRA, which can then be metabolized by CYP26. Objective In healthy subjects, we assessed the variability of CYP26 enzymatic activity. We then investigated whether response to oral 13-cis RA among acne patients correlates with variability in CYP26 expression. Methods In healthy subjects, we isolated microsomal fractions from the epidermis of keratome biopsies and measured CYP26 enzymatic activity in untreated skin and skin treated with tRA. Enzymatic activity was determined based on rate of formation of 4-hydroxy RA (pg/min) per mg microsomal protein. Using real-time PCR we quantified CYP26 mRNA induction after tRA application in acne patients who responded or did not respond to one course of 13-cis RA. Results In normal skin (N=118), CYP26 enzymatic activity was widely variable (1–180 pg/min per mg microsomal fraction; mean 42.7 ± 3.5). Furthermore, CYP26 enzymatic activity was inducible in a dose-dependent manner in normal skin following tRA application, but not correlated with age or sex (N=29). In acne patients, CYP26 mRNA induction following 0.1% tRA application did not differ (P>0.05) between subjects who responded (N=8, 587±325 fold) or did not respond (N=8, 657±227 fold) to one course of 13-cis RA. Limitations The small number of acne patients treated with 13-cis RA was a major limitation. Conclusion Factors other than CYP26 activity may determine response to isotretinoin in acne. PMID:19525031

  17. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  18. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: potential role of the retinoic acid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isales, Gregory M; Hipszer, Rachel A; Raftery, Tara D; Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M; Volz, David C

    2015-04-01

    Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) - a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant - results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) - a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis - in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5-72h post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) - a primary TPP metabolite - were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) - a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish - and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may interact with human RARs, we then exposed Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with chimeric human RARα-, RARβ-, or RARγ to TPP in the presence of RA, and found that TPP significantly inhibited RA-induced luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our findings suggest that zebrafish RARs may be involved in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity, a mechanism of action that may have relevance to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Retinoic acids potentiate BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, BMP9 is one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Retinoic acid (RA signaling is known to play an important role in development, differentiation and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigate the effect of RA signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs.Both primary MPCs and MPC line are used for BMP9 and RA stimulation. Recombinant adenoviruses are used to deliver BMP9, RARalpha and RXRalpha into MPCs. The in vitro osteogenic differentiation is monitored by determining the early and late osteogenic markers and matrix mineralization. Mouse perinatal limb explants and in vivo MPC implantation experiments are carried out to assess bone formation. We find that both 9CRA and ATRA effectively induce early osteogenic marker, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and late osteogenic markers, such as osteopontin (OPN and osteocalcin (OC. BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization is synergistically enhanced by 9CRA and ATRA in vitro. 9CRA and ATRA are shown to induce BMP9 expression and activate BMPR Smad-mediated transcription activity. Using mouse perinatal limb explants, we find that BMP9 and RAs act together to promote the expansion of hypertrophic chondrocyte zone at growth plate. Progenitor cell implantation studies reveal that co-expression of BMP9 and RXRalpha or RARalpha significantly increases trabecular bone and osteoid matrix formation.Our results strongly suggest that retinoid signaling may synergize with BMP9 activity in promoting osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. This knowledge should expand our understanding about how BMP9 cross-talks with other signaling pathways. Furthermore, a combination of BMP9 and retinoic acid (or its agonists may be explored as effective bone regeneration therapeutics to treat large segmental bony defects, non-union fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture.

  20. Fungistatic activity of all-trans retinoic acid against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Elena Campione,1 Roberta Gaziano,2 Daniele Marino,2 Augusto Orlandi3 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy Purpose: Fungal infections are a major complication in hematologic and neoplastic patients causing severe morbidity and mortality. Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are among the most invasive opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients, and classic antifungal drugs are frequently unsuccessful in these patients. Recent reports hypothesize that the antifungal efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is mainly related to its strong capacity to stimulate monocyte-mediated immunity, but no consideration was given to its potential direct fungistatic activity. Moreover, ATRA offers the opportunity for systemic therapy. Methods and results: We investigated the efficacy of ATRA at different concentrations for its antifungal activity against opportunistic A. fumigatus and C. albicans obtained from clinical samples according to standard protocols. A fungistatic activity of ATRA on A. fumigatus and C. albicans at 0.5–1 mM concentration was documented up to 7 days. Conclusion: This is the first evidence of a direct and strong fungistatic activity of ATRA against A. fumigatus and C. albicans. The potential adjuvant therapeutic application of ATRA might be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of systemic mycoses in immunocompromised patients. The discovery of a direct fungistatic activity, in association with its reported immunomodulatory properties, makes ATRA an excellent candidate for new combined antifungal strategies for systemic mycoses in immunocompromised and cancer patients. Keywords: all-trans retinoic acid, fungistatic activity, fungal infections

  1. Moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formationviaelevating retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhixiu; de Avila, Jeanene M; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Zhang, Faya; Gomez, Noe Alberto; Zhao, Liang; Tian, Qiyu; Zhao, Junxing; Maricelli, Joseph; Zhang, Hui; Rodgers, Buel D; Du, Min

    2017-10-01

    Clinically, low and moderate alcohol intake improves human health with protection against metabolic syndromes, including type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms that are associated with these effects remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake on thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the entire process. C57BL6 male mice were supplemented with 8% (w/v) alcohol in water for 1 or 4 mo. Alcohol intake prevented body weight gain, induced the formation of uncoupling protein 1-positive beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue, and increased thermogenesis in mice, which is associated with decreased serum glucose and triacylglycerol levels. Mechanistically, alcohol intake increased RA levels in serum and adipose tissue, which was associated with increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 subfamily A1 ( Aldh1a1 ). When RA receptor-α signaling was conditionally blocked in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive adipose progenitors, the effects of alcohol on beige adipogenesis were largely abolished. Finally, moderate alcohol prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. In conclusion, moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and promotes glucose and lipid oxidation via elevation of RA signaling.-Wang, B., Wang, Z., de Avila, J. M., Zhu, M.-J., Zhang, F., Gomez, N. A., Zhao, L., Tian, Q., Zhao, J., Maricelli, J., Zhang, H., Rodgers, B. D., Du, M. Moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation via elevating retinoic acid signaling. © FASEB.

  2. Retinoic acid receptor signalling directly regulates osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.C. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Kocovski, P.; Jovic, T.; Walia, M.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Chandraratna, R.A.S. [IO Therapeutics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA 92705 (United States); Martin, T.J.; Baker, E.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Purton, L.E., E-mail: lpurton@svi.edu.au [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2017-01-01

    Low and high serum retinol levels are associated with increased fracture risk and poor bone health. We recently showed retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Here we show RARs are also negative regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. The pan-RAR agonist, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), directly inhibited differentiation and mineralisation of early osteoprogenitors and impaired the differentiation of more mature osteoblast populations. In contrast, the pan-RAR antagonist, IRX4310, accelerated differentiation of early osteoprogenitors. These effects predominantly occurred via RARγ and were further enhanced by an RARα agonist or antagonist, respectively. RAR agonists similarly impaired adipogenesis in osteogenic cultures. RAR agonist treatment resulted in significant upregulation of the Wnt antagonist, Sfrp4. This accompanied reduced nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin protein and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2, suggesting impaired Wnt/β-catenin signalling. To determine the effect of RAR inhibition in post-natal mice, IRX4310 was administered to male mice for 10 days and bones were assessed by µCT. No change to trabecular bone volume was observed, however, radial bone growth was impaired. These studies show RARs directly influence osteoblast and adipocyte formation from mesenchymal cells, and inhibition of RAR signalling in vivo impairs radial bone growth in post-natal mice. - Graphical abstract: Schematic shows RAR ligand regulation of osteoblast differentiation in vitro. RARγ antagonists±RARα antagonists promote osteoblast differentiation. RARγ and RARα agonists alone or in combination block osteoblast differentiation, which correlates with upregulation of Sfrp4, and downregulation of nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2. Red arrows indicate effects of RAR agonists on mediators of Wnt signalling.

  3. Regional differentiation of retinoic acid-induced human pluripotent embryonic carcinoma stem cell neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis E Coyle

    Full Text Available The NTERA2 cl D1 (NT2 cell line, derived from human teratocarcinoma, exhibits similar properties as embryonic stem (ES cells or very early neuroepithelial progenitors. NT2 cells can be induced to become postmitotic central nervous system neurons (NT2N with retinoic acid. Although neurons derived from pluripotent cells, such as NT2N, have been characterized for their neurotransmitter phenotypes, their potential suitability as a donor source for neural transplantation also depends on their ability to respond to localized environmental cues from a specific region of the CNS. Therefore, our study aimed to characterize the regional transcription factors that define the rostocaudal and dorsoventral identity of NT2N derived from a monolayer differentiation paradigm using quantitative PCR (qPCR. Purified NT2N mainly expressed both GABAergic and glutamatergic phenotypes and were electrically active but did not form functional synapses. The presence of immature astrocytes and possible radial glial cells was noted. The NT2N expressed a regional transcription factor code consistent with forebrain, hindbrain and spinal cord neural progenitors but showed minimal expression of midbrain phenotypes. In the dorsoventral plane NT2N expressed both dorsal and ventral neural progenitors. Of major interest was that even under the influence of retinoic acid, a known caudalization factor, the NT2N population maintained a rostral phenotype subpopulation which expressed cortical regional transcription factors. It is proposed that understanding the regional differentiation bias of neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells will facilitate their successful integration into existing neuronal networks within the CNS.

  4. MicroRNA mediates DNA demethylation events triggered by retinoic acid during neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudipto; Foley, Niamh; Bryan, Kenneth; Watters, Karen M; Bray, Isabella; Murphy, Derek M; Buckley, Patrick G; Stallings, Raymond L

    2010-10-15

    Neuroblastoma is an often fatal pediatric cancer arising from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. 13-Cis retinoic acid is included in the treatment regimen for patients with high-risk disease, and a similar derivative, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), causes neuroblastoma cell lines to undergo differentiation. The molecular signaling pathways involved with ATRA-induced differentiation are complex, and the role that DNA methylation changes might play are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genome-wide effects of ATRA on DNA methylation using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation applied to microarrays representing all known promoter and CpG islands. Four hundred and two gene promoters became demethylated, whereas 88 were hypermethylated post-ATRA. mRNA expression microarrays revealed that 82 of the demethylated genes were overexpressed by >2-fold, whereas 13 of the hypermethylated genes were underexpressed. Gene ontology analysis indicated that demethylated and re-expressed genes were enriched for signal transduction pathways, including NOS1, which is required for neural cell differentiation. As a potential mechanism for the DNA methylation changes, we show the downregulation of methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3B, along with the upregulation of endogenous microRNAs targeting them. Ectopic overexpression of miR-152, targeting DNMT1, also negatively affected cell invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth, contributing in part to the differentiated phenotype. We conclude that functionally important, miRNA-mediated DNA demethylation changes contribute to the process of ATRA-induced differentiation resulting in the activation of NOS1, a critical determinant of neural cell differentiation. Our findings illustrate the plasticity and dynamic nature of the epigenome during cancer cell differentiation.

  5. Differential expression of components of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in the adult mouse olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Carolyn E; Jang, Woochan; Dräger, Ursula C; Schwob, James E

    2012-11-01

    Position within a tissue often correlates with cellular phenotype, for example, differential expression of odorant receptors and cell adhesion molecules across the olfactory mucosa (OM). The association between position and phenotype is often paralleled by gradations in the concentration of retinoic acid (RA), caused by differential expression of the RA synthetic enzymes, the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH). We show here that RALDH-1, -2, and -3 are enriched in the sustentacular cells, deep fibroblasts of the lamina propria, and the superficial fibroblasts, respectively, of the ventral and lateral OM as compared to the dorsomedial OM. The shift from high to low expression of the RALDHs matches the boundary defined by the differential expression of OCAM/mamFasII. Further, we found that RA-binding proteins are expressed in the epithelium overlying the RALDH-3 expressing fibroblasts of the lamina propria. Both findings suggest that local alterations in RA concentration may be more important than a gradient of RA across the epithelial plane, per se. In addition, RALDH-3 is found in a small population of basal cells in the ventral and lateral epithelium, which expand and contribute to the neuronal lineage following MeBr lesion. Indeed, transduction with a retrovirus expressing a dominant negative form of retinoic acid receptor type alpha blocks the reappearance of mature, olfactory marker protein (OMP) (+) olfactory neurons as compared to empty vector. These results support the notion of a potential role for RA, both in maintaining the spatial organization of the normal olfactory epithelium and in reestablishing the neuronal population during regeneration after injury. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Phase 2 trial of paclitaxel, 13-cis retinoic acid, and interferon alfa-2b in the treatment of advanced stage or recurrent cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mihae; DiPaola, Robert S; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M; Gibbon, Darlene G; Hellmann, Mira; Nieves-Neira, Wilberto; Vaidya, Ami; Wagreich, Allison R; Shih, Weichung J; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2014-11-01

    Overexpression of bcl-2 is a mechanism of drug resistance in cervical cancer. Agents that down-regulate bcl-2 may decrease tumor cell threshold and sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapy. The objective of this multi-institutional phase 2 trial was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of paclitaxel and bcl-2 modulators (13-cis retinoic acid and interferon alfa-2b) in patients with advanced-stage or recurrent cervical cancer. Patients had biopsy-proven metastatic, first relapse, or persistent cervical cancer with no prior chemotherapy except for chemosensitizing agents. The treatment consisted of oral 13-cis retinoic acid, 1 mg/kg, and subcutaneous interferon alfa-2b, 6 mU/m, days 1 to 4, and intravenous paclitaxel, 175 mg/m, day 4 until disease progression or adverse events prohibited treatment. The primary endpoint was overall response rate. Thirty-three patients were enrolled between March 2001 and June 2009. Thirty-one patients were eligible for evaluation of treatment response. Twenty-seven patients (82%) received prior concurrent chemoradiation or radiotherapy alone before study enrollment. The overall response rate was 30% (6 complete responses and 4 partial responses). Furthermore, 7 patients (21%) had stable disease. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events included neutropenia (n =16 [48%]), febrile neutropenia (n = 1 [3%]), and anemia (n = 1 [3%]). There were no treatment-related deaths. The median progression-free survival was 3.4 months (95% confidence interval, 2.0-7.4 months), and overall survival was 11.2 months (95% confidence interval, 7.5-26.2 months). Of 6 patients with complete responses, 5 patients survived more than 2 years. Combination therapy with paclitaxel, 13-cis retinoic acid, and interferon alfa-2b is feasible and safe in treating patients with advanced and recurrent cervical cancer.

  7. All-Trans Retinoic Acid plus Arsenic Trioxide versus All-Trans Retinoic Acid plus Chemotherapy for Newly Diagnosed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafang Ma

    Full Text Available Recently, the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA plus arsenic trioxide (ATO protocol has become a promising first-line therapeutic approach in patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL, but its benefits compared with standard ATRA plus chemotherapy regimen needs to be proven. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of ATRA plus ATO with ATRA plus chemotherapy for adult patients with newly diagnosed APL.We systematically searched biomedical electronic databases and conference proceedings through February 2016. Two reviewers independently assessed all studies for relevance and validity.Overall, three studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis, which included a total of 585 patients, with 317 in ATRA plus ATO group and 268 in ATRA plus chemotherapy group. Compared with patients who received ATRA and chemotherapy, patients who received ATRA plus ATO had a significantly better event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.67, p = 0.009, overall survival (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.82, p = 0.009, complete remission rate (relative risk [RR] = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.10; p = 0.03. There were no significant differences in early mortality (RR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.22-1.05; p = 0.07.Thus, this analysis indicated that ATRA plus ATO protocol may be preferred to standard ATRA plus chemotherapy protocol, particularly in low-to-intermediate risk APL patients. Further larger trials were needed to provide more evidence in high-risk APL patients.

  8. Short-term retinoic acid treatment sustains pluripotency and suppresses differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria Teresa; Parrotta, Elvira Immacolata; Santamaria, Gianluca; Cuda, Giovanni

    2018-01-05

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from blastocyst and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated from somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined transcriptional factors, have both the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all cell types. Here we explored the two antagonistic effects of retinoic acid (RA) on hiPSCs. Although RA has been widely described as a pharmacological agent with a critical role in initiating differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, we demonstrate that short-term RA exposure not only antagonizes cell differentiation and sustains pluripotency of hiPSCs, but it also boosts and improves their properties and characteristics. To shed light on the mechanistic insights involved in the resistance to differentiation of hiPSCs cultured in RA conditions, as well as their improved pluripotency state, we focused our attention on the Wnt pathway. Our findings show that RA inhibits the Wnt canonical pathway and positively modulates the Akt/mTOR signaling, explaining why such perturbations, under our experimental conditions, do not lead to hiPSCs differentiation. Altogether, these data uncover a novel role for RA in favouring the maintenance of ground-state pluripotency, supporting its bivalent role, dose- and time-dependent, for hiPSCs differentiation and self-renewal processes.

  9. Oroxylin A inhibits ATRA-induced IL-6 expression involved in retinoic acid syndrome by down-regulating CHOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hui; Yang, Hao; Dai, Qinsheng; Wang, Qian; Yao, Jing; Zhao, Kai; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2014-11-10

    Production of IL-6 constituted the major cause of death in the ATRA trial called retinoic acid syndrome (RAS). LAP and LIP are active and inactive isoforms of C/EBPβ, respectively. Inactive LIP dimerized with LAP to eliminate its activity. Following treatment with ATRA, CHOP expression was increased and dimerized with LIP more preferentially than LAP to rescue function of LAP. Oroxylin A has been reported to activate CHOP, a key mediator of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, and resulted in apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that low concentration of oroxylin A (≦ 40 μM) showed no apoptosis effect on NB4 and HL-60 cells and decreased the CHOP protein level via promoting its degradation. MG132 was utilized to conform the effect of oroxylin A on degrading CHOP. Our results showed that oroxylin A decreased the level of IL-6 secretion of NB4 cells with or without ATRA treatment while the effect was eliminated by C/EBPβ siRNA. We conclude that oroxylin A possessed abilities of inhibiting the ATRA-induced IL-6 production via modulation of LAP/LIP/CHOP in leukemia cell lines, which could providing a therapeutic strategy for RAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered retinoic acid metabolism in diabetic mouse kidney identified by O isotopic labeling and 2D mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Starkey

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous metabolic pathways have been implicated in diabetes-induced renal injury, yet few studies have utilized unbiased systems biology approaches for mapping the interconnectivity of diabetes-dysregulated proteins that are involved. We utilized a global, quantitative, differential proteomic approach to identify a novel retinoic acid hub in renal cortical protein networks dysregulated by type 2 diabetes.Total proteins were extracted from renal cortex of control and db/db mice at 20 weeks of age (after 12 weeks of hyperglycemia in the diabetic mice. Following trypsinization, (18O- and (16O-labeled control and diabetic peptides, respectively, were pooled and separated by two dimensional liquid chromatography (strong cation exchange creating 60 fractions further separated by nano-HPLC, followed by peptide identification and quantification using mass spectrometry. Proteomic analysis identified 53 proteins with fold change >or=1.5 and pretinoic acid as a key signaling hub that was altered in the diabetic renal cortical proteome. Western blotting and real-time PCR confirmed diabetes-induced upregulation of RALDH1, which was localized by immunofluorescence predominantly to the proximal tubule in the diabetic renal cortex, while PCR confirmed the downregulation of ADH identified with mass spectrometry. Despite increased renal cortical tissue levels of retinol and RALDH1 in db/db versus control mice, all-trans-retinoic acid was significantly decreased in association with a significant decrease in PPARbeta/delta mRNA.Our results indicate that retinoic acid metabolism is significantly dysregulated in diabetic kidneys, and suggest that a shift in all-trans-retinoic acid metabolism is a novel feature in type 2 diabetic renal disease. Our

  11. Lycopene-derived bioactive retinoic acid receptors/retinoid-X receptors-activating metabolites may be relevant for lycopene's anti-cancer potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Gamze; Kasiri, Yasamin; Birta, Eszter; Béke, Gabriella; Garcia, Ada L; Bartók, Emőke-Márta; Rühl, Ralph

    2013-05-01

    Dietary consumption of tomato products and especially the red tomato pigment lycopene has been associated with lower risk of cancer. New evidence is emerging toward metabolic pathways mediating the anti-cancer activities of lycopene. In this review, we explore associations between tomatoes and lycopene intake and cancer and relate this to the metabolic activation pathways of lycopene via carotene oxygenases and further carotenoid/retinoid-metabolizing enzymes to apo-lycopenoids. Several of these apo-lycopenoids have already been identified but up to date no direct connection between lycopene metabolism and apo-lycopenoids mediated receptor activation pathways has been established. Retinoic acid receptors/retinoid-X receptors activation pathways in particular, may be mediated via lycopene metabolites that are related to retinoic acids. Various studies have shown an association between lower concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 upon lycopene treatment, cancer incidences, and retinoid-mediated signaling. In this review, we interrelate tomato/lycopene ingestion and cancer incidence, with metabolic activation of lycopene and retinoid-mediated signaling. The aim is to discuss a potential mechanism to explain lycopene related anti-cancer activities by modulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations via lycopene metabolite activation of retinoid-mediated signaling. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. ISX is a retinoic acid-sensitive gatekeeper that controls intestinal β,β-carotene absorption and vitamin A production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Glenn P.; Hessel, Susanne; Eichinger, Anne; Noy, Noa; Moise, Alexander R.; Wyss, Adrian; Palczewski, Krzysztof; von Lintig, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The uptake of dietary lipids from the small intestine is a complex process that depends on the activities of specific membrane receptors with yet unknown regulatory mechanisms. Using both mouse models and human cell lines, we show here that intestinal lipid absorption by the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI) is subject to control by retinoid signaling. Retinoic acid via retinoic acid receptors induced expression of the intestinal transcription factor ISX. ISX then repressed the expression of SR-B1 and the carotenoid-15,15′-oxygenase Bcmo1. BCMO1 acts downstream of SR-BI and converts absorbed β,β-carotene to the retinoic acid precursor, retinaldehyde. Using BCMO1-knockout mice, we demonstrated increased intestinal SR-BI expression and systemic β,β-carotene accumulation. SR-BI-dependent accumulation of β,β-carotene was prevented by dietary retinoids that induced ISX expression. Thus, our study revealed a diet-responsive regulatory network that controls β,β-carotene absorption and vitamin A production by negative feedback regulation. The role of SR-BI in the intestinal absorption of other dietary lipids, including cholesterol, fatty acids, and tocopherols, implicates retinoid signaling in the regulation of lipid absorption more generally and has clinical implications for diseases associated with dyslipidemia.—Lobo, G. P., Hessel, S., Eichinger, A., Noy, N., Moise, A. R., Wyss, A., Palczewski, K., von Lintig, J. ISX is a retinoic acid-sensitive gatekeeper that controls intestinal β,β-carotene absorption and vitamin A production. PMID:20061533

  13. Genital Ulcer Development in Patients with Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia Treated with All-Trans Retinoic Acid: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Huneini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here four cases of genital ulcers that developed after the administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. Between October 2007 and March 2010, three males and one female (age range 19-35 years were identified to have genital ulcers after being prescribed all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA as a part of chemotherapy for APL. This is the first series of cases describing genital ulcers, as a unique and rare complication of ATRA used for treatment of APL in these patients, with no other cause identified. Following temporary cessation of ATRA for a few days in these three cases, improvement of the ulcers was noted.

  14. Activation of retinoic acid receptor signaling coordinates lineage commitment of spontaneously differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandi, Zoltan; Balint, Balint Laszlo; Poliska, Szilard; Ruhl, Ralph; Nagy, Laszlo

    2010-07-16

    Retinoid signaling has been implicated in embryonic stem cell differentiation. Here we present a systematic analysis of gene expression changes in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), during their spontaneous differentiation into embryoid bodies and the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on this process. We show that retinoic acid is present in the serum and is sufficient to activate retinoid signaling at a basal level in undifferentiated mESCs. This signal disappears during embryoid body formation. However exogenously added ATRA resets the spontaneous differentiation programs in embryoid bodies and initiates a distinct genetic program. These data suggest that retinoid signaling not only promotes a particular pathway but also acts as a context dependent general coordinator of the differentiation states in embryonic stem cells. Copyright 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct protein-protein interactions and substrate channelling between cellular retinoic acid binding proteins and CYP26B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cara H; Peng, Chi-Chi; Lutz, Justin D.; Yeung, Catherine K.; Zelter, Alex; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABPs) bind all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) tightly. This study aimed to determine whether atRA is channeled directly to cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP26B1 by CRABPs, and whether CRABPs interact directly with CYP26B1. atRA bound to CRABPs (holo-CRABP) was efficiently metabolized by CYP26B1. Isotope dilution experiments showed that delivery of atRA to CYP26B1 in solution was similar with or without CRABP. Holo-CRABPs had higher affinity for CYP26B1 than free atRA, but both apo-CRABPs inhibited the formation of 4-OH-RA by CYP26B1. Similar protein-protein interactions between soluble binding proteins and CYPs may be important for other lipophilic CYP substrates. PMID:27416800

  16. Identification of COUP-TFII Orphan Nuclear Receptor as a Retinoic Acid-Activated Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Schoen W; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Zhou, X Edward; Kretschman, Jennifer E; Reynolds, Ross; Vonrhein, Clemens; Xu, Yong; Wang, Liliang; Tsai, Sophia Y; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Xu, H Eric [Baylor; (Van Andel); (Globel Phasing); (Grand Valley)

    2010-01-12

    The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors (COUP-TFI and II) make up the most conserved subfamily of nuclear receptors that play key roles in angiogenesis, neuronal development, organogenesis, cell fate determination, and metabolic homeostasis. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFs have been studied extensively, little is known of their structural features or aspects of ligand regulation. Here we report the ligand-free 1.48 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human COUP-TFII ligand-binding domain. The structure reveals an autorepressed conformation of the receptor, where helix {alpha}10 is bent into the ligand-binding pocket and the activation function-2 helix is folded into the cofactor binding site, thus preventing the recruitment of coactivators. In contrast, in multiple cell lines, COUP-TFII exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, and ligand binding, substantially reduce the COUP-TFII transcriptional activity. Importantly, retinoid acids are able to promote COUP-TFII to recruit coactivators and activate a COUP-TF reporter construct. Although the concentration needed is higher than the physiological levels of retinoic acids, these findings demonstrate that COUP-TFII is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, in which ligands activate the receptor by releasing it from the autorepressed conformation.

  17. Delayed translocation of NGFI-B/RXR in glutamate stimulated neurons allows late protection by 9-cis retinoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathisen, Gro H.; Fallgren, Asa B.; Strom, Bjorn O.; Boldingh Debernard, Karen A.; Mohebi, Beata U. [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Paulsen, Ragnhild E., E-mail: r.e.paulsen@farmasi.uio.no [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} NGFI-B and RXR translocate out of the nucleus after glutamate treatment. {yields} Arresting NGFI-B/RXR in the nucleus protects neurons from excitotoxicity. {yields} Late protection by 9-cis RA is possible due to a delayed translocation of NGFI-B/RXR. -- Abstract: Nuclear receptor and apoptosis inducer NGFI-B translocates out of the nucleus as a heterodimer with RXR in response to different apoptosis stimuli, and therefore represents a potential pharmacological target. We found that the cytosolic levels of NGFI-B and RXR{alpha} were increased in cultures of cerebellar granule neurons 2 h after treatment with glutamate (excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, involved in stroke). To find a time-window for potential intervention the neurons were transfected with gfp-tagged expressor plasmids for NGFI-B and RXR. The default localization of NGFI-Bgfp and RXRgfp was nuclear, however, translocation out of the nucleus was observed 2-3 h after glutamate treatment. We therefore hypothesized that the time-window between treatment and translocation would allow late protection against neuronal death. The RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid was used to arrest NGFI-B and RXR in the nucleus. Addition of 9-cis retinoic acid 1 h after treatment with glutamate reduced the cytosolic translocation of NGFI-B and RXR{alpha}, the cytosolic translocation of NGFI-Bgfp observed in live neurons, as well as the neuronal death. However, the reduced translocation and the reduced cell death were not observed when 9-cis retinoic acid was added after 3 h. Thus, late protection from glutamate induced death by addition of 9-cis retinoic acid is possible in a time-window after apoptosis induction.

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of testosterone evaluated in all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, granulocytes, and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Alex; Moesby, Lise; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The sex hormones are known to affect innate immunity in humans. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of testosterone in a model system comprising of all-trans retinoic acid differentiated HL-60 cells, and confirmed the results in human granulocytes and monocytes. Results showed...... species and interleukin-8 in human granulocytes and monocytes, respectively, to a similar extent as observed in differentiated HL-60 cells....

  19. Proliferation in culture of primordial germ cells derived from embryonic stem cell: induction by retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoolati, Zohreh; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Forouzandeh-Moghadam, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    An in vitro system that supports primordial germ cells (PGCs) survival and proliferation is useful for enhancement of these cells and efficient transplantation in infertility disorders. One approach is cultivation of PGCs under proper conditions that allow self-renewal and proliferation of PGCs. For this purpose, we compared the effects of different concentrations of retinoic acid (RA), and the effect of PGCs co-culture (Co-C) with SIM mouse embryo-derived thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant (STO) cells on the proliferation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived PGCs. One-day-old embryoid body (EB) was cultured for 4 days in simple culture system in the presence of 5 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) (SCB group) for PGC induction. For PGC enrichment, ESCs-derived germ cells were cultured for 7 days in the presence of different doses (0-5  μM) of RA, both in the simple and STO Co-C systems. At the end of the culture period, viability and proliferation rates were assessed and expression of mouse vasa homologue (Mvh),  α6 integrin,  β1 integrin, stimulated by retinoic acid 8 (Stra8) and piwi (Drosophila)-like 2 (Piwil2) was evaluated using quantitative PCR. Also, the inductive effects were investigated immunocytochemically with Mvh and cadherin1 (CDH1) on the selected groups. Immunocytochemistry/PCR results showed higher expression of Mvh, the PGC-specific marker, in 3  μM RA concentrations on the top of the STO feeder layer. Meanwhile, assessment of the Stra8 mRNA and CDH1 protein, the specific makers for spermatogonia, showed no significant differences between groups. Based on the results, it seems that in the presence of 3 μM RA on top of the STO feeder layer cells, the majority of the cells transdifferentiated into germ cells were PGCs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Retinoic acid therapy resistance progresses from unilineage to bilineage in HL-60 leukemic blasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly A Jensen

    Full Text Available Emergent resistance can be progressive and driven by global signaling aberrations. All-trans retinoic acid (RA is the standard therapeutic agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia, but 10-20% of patients are not responsive, and initially responsive patients relapse and develop retinoic acid resistance. The patient-derived, lineage-bipotent acute myeloblastic leukemia (FAB M2 HL-60 cell line is a potent tool for characterizing differentiation-induction therapy responsiveness and resistance in t(15;17-negative cells. Wild-type (WT HL-60 cells undergo RA-induced granulocytic differentiation, or monocytic differentiation in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3. Two sequentially emergent RA-resistant HL-60 cell lines, R38+ and R38-, distinguishable by RA-inducible CD38 expression, do not arrest in G1/G0 and fail to upregulate CD11b and the myeloid-associated signaling factors Vav1, c-Cbl, Lyn, Fgr, and c-Raf after RA treatment. Here, we show that the R38+ and R38- HL-60 cell lines display a progressive reduced response to D3-induced differentiation therapy. Exploiting the biphasic dynamic of induced HL-60 differentiation, we examined if resistance-related defects occurred during the first 24 h (the early or "precommitment" phase or subsequently (the late or "lineage-commitment" phase. HL-60 were treated with RA or D3 for 24 h, washed and retreated with either the same, different, or no differentiation agent. Using flow cytometry, D3 was able to induce CD38, CD11b and CD14 expression, and G1/G0 arrest when present during the lineage-commitment stage in R38+ cells, and to a lesser degree in R38- cells. Clustering analysis of cytometry and quantified Western blot data indicated that WT, R38+ and R38- HL-60 cells exhibited decreasing correlation between phenotypic markers and signaling factor expression. Thus differentiation induction therapy resistance can develop in stages, with initial partial RA resistance and moderate vitamin D3 responsiveness

  1. Retinoic acid and TGF-β signalling cooperate to overcome MYCN-induced retinoid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, David J; Krstic, Aleksandar; Halasz, Melinda; Schwarzl, Thomas; Konietzny, Anja; Iljin, Kristiina; Higgins, Desmond G; Kolch, Walter

    2017-02-10

    Retinoid therapy is widely employed in clinical oncology to differentiate malignant cells into their more benign counterparts. However, certain high-risk cohorts, such as patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma, are innately resistant to retinoid therapy. Therefore, we employed a precision medicine approach to globally profile the retinoid signalling response and to determine how an excess of cellular MYCN antagonises these signalling events to prevent differentiation and confer resistance. We applied RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and interaction proteomics coupled with network-based systems level analysis to identify targetable vulnerabilities of MYCN-mediated retinoid resistance. We altered MYCN expression levels in a MYCN-inducible neuroblastoma cell line to facilitate or block retinoic acid (RA)-mediated neuronal differentiation. The relevance of differentially expressed genes and transcriptional regulators for neuroblastoma outcome were then confirmed using existing patient microarray datasets. We determined the signalling networks through which RA mediates neuroblastoma differentiation and the inhibitory perturbations to these networks upon MYCN overexpression. We revealed opposing regulation of RA and MYCN on a number of differentiation-relevant genes, including LMO4, CYP26A1, ASCL1, RET, FZD7 and DKK1. Furthermore, we revealed a broad network of transcriptional regulators involved in regulating retinoid responsiveness, such as Neurotrophin, PI3K, Wnt and MAPK, and epigenetic signalling. Of these regulators, we functionally confirmed that MYCN-driven inhibition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling is a vulnerable node of the MYCN network and that multiple levels of cross-talk exist between MYCN and TGF-β. Co-targeting of the retinoic acid and TGF-β pathways, through RA and kartogenin (KGN; a TGF-β signalling activating small molecule) combination treatment, induced the loss of viability of MYCN-amplified retinoid-resistant neuroblastoma

  2. Retinoic acids and trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induce human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Sook; Huang, Boli; Ho Jeoung, Nam; Wu, Pengfei; Steussy, Calvin N; Harris, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) conserves glucose and substrates for gluconeogenesis and thereby helps regulate blood glucose levels during starvation. We report here that retinoic acids (RA) as well as Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), regulate PDK4 gene expression. Two retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) to which retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) bind and activate transcription are present in the human PDK4 (hPDK4) proximal promoter. Sp1 and CCAAT box binding factor (CBF) bind to the region between two RAREs. Mutation of either the Sp1 or the CBF site significantly decreases basal expression, transactivation by RXRalpha/RARalpha/RA, and the ability of TSA to stimulate hPDK4 gene transcription. By the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, RA and TSA increase acetylation of histones bound to the proximal promoter as well as occupancy of CBP and Sp1. Interaction of p300/CBP with E1A completely prevented hPDK4 gene activation by RXRalpha/RARalpha/RA and TSA. The p300/CBP may enhance acetylation of histones bound to the hPDK4 promoter and cooperate with Sp1 and CBF to stimulate transcription of the hPDK4 gene in response to RA and TSA.

  3. Vitamin A increases nerve growth factor and retinoic acid receptor beta and improves diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Granados-Soto, Vinicio; Ordoñez, Graciela; Pineda, Benjamin; Rangel-López, Edgar; Salazar-Ramiro, Aleli; Arrieta, Oscar; Sotelo, Julio

    2014-09-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) promotes the endogenous expression of both nerve growth factor (NGF) and retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-β). We have previously shown that the administration of ATRA partly reverts the damage induced by diabetic neuropathy (DN). In this investigation, we evaluated the effects of vitamin A, a commercial, inexpensive compound of retinoic acid, on the therapy of DN. A total of 70 rats were randomized into 4 groups. Group A was the control, and groups B, C, and D received a total dose of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin intraperitoneally. When signs of DN developed, groups C and D were treated either with vitamin A (20,000 IU) or with ATRA 25 mg/kg for 60 days. Plasma glucose, contents of NGF, thermal and nociceptive tests, and RAR-β expression were evaluated. All diabetic rats developed neuropathy. The treatment with vitamin A and ATRA reverted similarly the sensorial disturbances, which was associated with increased contents of NGF and RAR-β expression. Our results indicate that the administration of vitamin A has the same therapeutic effect as ATRA on peripheral neuropathy and suggest its potential therapeutic use in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined Effects of Retinoic Acid and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rosa Damascena Mill on Wound in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Amir Zargar, Ashraf; Meamar, Zakiaeh

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid and Rosa damascena are compounds that have considerable effects in the cellular proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix. The present study was designed to assess the combined effects of retinoic acid and Rosa damascena mill on wound in diabetic rats. Seventy-two rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. Kg(-1)). Then, a full thickness wound was created on dorsal surface of all animals. After that, rats were divided, into three groups; control (normal saline), positive control (Phenytoin), and  case (combined of 0.1% Tretinoein lotion and hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena mill). Afterward, wounds were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically on days 5, 10 and 15. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) of wounds in case group on 5(th) and 10(th) days when compared to positive control and control groups. The combination of Retinoic acid and hydro-alcholic extract of Rosa damascena mill can accelerate wound healing in diabetic rats.

  5. MicroRNA networks regulated by all-trans retinoic acid and Lapatinib control the growth, survival and motility of breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Mami; Paroni, Gabriela; Zanetti, Adriana; Gianni, Maurizio; Bolis, Marco; Lupi, Monica; Tsykin, Anna; Goodall, Gregory J.; Garattini, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    SKBR3-cells, characterized by ERBB2/RARA co-amplification, represent a subgroup of HER2+ breast-cancers sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and Lapatinib. In this model, the two agents alone or in combination modulate the expression of 174 microRNAs (miRs). These miRs and predicted target-transcripts are organized in four interconnected modules (Module-1 to -4). Module-1 and Module-3 consist of ATRA/Lapatinib up-regulated and potentially anti-oncogenic miRs, while Module-2 contains ATRA/Lapatinib down-regulated and potentially pro-oncogenic miRs. Consistent with this, the expression levels of Module-1/-3 and Module-2 miRs are higher and lower, respectively, in normal mammary tissues relative to ductal-carcinoma-in-situ, invasive-ductal-carcinoma and metastases. This indicates associations between tumor-progression and the expression profiles of Module-1 to -3 miRs. Similar associations are observed with tumor proliferation-scores, staging, size and overall-survival using TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data. Forced expression of Module-1 miRs, (miR-29a-3p; miR-874-3p) inhibit SKBR3-cell growth and Module-3 miRs (miR-575; miR-1225-5p) reduce growth and motility. Module-2 miRs (miR-125a; miR-193; miR-210) increase SKBR3 cell growth, survival and motility. Some of these effects are of general significance, being replicated in other breast cancer cell lines representing the heterogeneity of this disease. Finally, our study demonstrates that HIPK2-kinase and the PLCXD1-phospholipase-C are novel targets of miR-193a-5p/miR-210-3p and miR-575/miR-1225-5p, respectively. PMID:25961594

  6. A novel retinoic acid chalcone reverses epithelial‑mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the effect of retinoic acid fluoro chalcone (RAFC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in PC3 and CWR22rv1 prostate cell lines. Lipo-polysaccharide (LPS was used to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate carcinoma cell lines. The results revealed that treatment of PC3 and CWR22rv1 cells with LPS resulted in significant changes in the morphological features of the EMT. The mesenchymal marker, vimentin expression was significantly increased whereas the expression level of E‑cadherin was markedly decreased after the treatment. We also observed increased cell motility and higher level of transcription factor glioma‑associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1 expression on LPS treatment. Treatment of prostate cells with RAFC reversed the morphological changes induced by LPS in prostate cells. RAFC also reduced the expression of EMT markers induced by LPS and suppressed the Gli1 expression. The resultant effect of these changes was the suppression of motility and invasiveness of the prostrate cells. Thus, RAFC exhibited anti‑invasive effect on prostrate cells by inhibition of the EMT process via Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  7. Aldose Reductase Acts as a Selective Derepressor of PPARγ and the Retinoic Acid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Thiagarajan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3, a chromatin-modifying enzyme, requires association with the deacetylase-containing domain (DAD of the nuclear receptor corepressors NCOR1 and SMRT for its stability and activity. Here, we show that aldose reductase (AR, the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway, competes with HDAC3 to bind the NCOR1/SMRT DAD. Increased AR expression leads to HDAC3 degradation followed by increased PPARγ signaling, resulting in lipid accumulation in the heart. AR also downregulates expression of nuclear corepressor complex cofactors including Gps2 and Tblr1, thus affecting activity of the nuclear corepressor complex itself. Though AR reduces HDAC3-corepressor complex formation, it specifically derepresses the retinoic acid receptor (RAR, but not other nuclear receptors such as the thyroid receptor (TR and liver X receptor (LXR. In summary, this work defines a distinct role for AR in lipid and retinoid metabolism through HDAC3 regulation and consequent derepression of PPARγ and RAR.

  8. The search for non-chordate retinoic acid signaling: lessons from chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Costa, Marcos S; Azambuja, Ana Paula; Xavier-Neto, José

    2008-01-15

    Signaling by retinoic acid (RA) is an important pathway in the development and homeostasis of vertebrate and invertebrate chordates, with a critical role in mesoderm patterning. Classical studies on the distribution of nuclear receptors of animals suggested that the family of RA receptors (RARs/NR1B) was restricted to chordates, while the family of RA X receptors (RXR/NR2B) was distributed from cnidarians to chordates. However, the accumulation of data from genome projects and studies in non-model species is questioning this traditional view. Here we discuss the evidence for non-chordate RA signaling systems in the light of recent advances in our understanding of carotene (pro-Vitamin A) metabolism and of the identification of potential RARs and members of the NR1 family in echinoderms and lophotrochozoan trematodes, respectively. We conclude, as have others before (Bertrand et al., 2004. Mol Biol Evol 21(10):1923-1937), that signaling by RA is more likely an ancestral feature of bilaterians than a chordate innovation.

  9. Retinoic acid induces nuclear accumulation of Raf1 during differentiation of HL-60 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James; Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Reiterer, Gudrun [Department of Biomedical Sciences, T4-008 VRT, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Coder, David; George, Thaddeus [Amnis Corporation, Seattle, Washington (United States); Asaly, Michael [Department of Biomedical Sciences, T4-008 VRT, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yen, Andrew, E-mail: ay13@cornell.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, T4-008 VRT, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    All trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a standard therapeutic agent used in differentiation induction therapy treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). RA and its metabolites use a diverse set of signal transduction pathways during the differentiation program. In addition to the direct transcriptional targets of the nuclear RAR and RXR receptors, signals derived from membrane receptors and the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway are required. Raf1 phosphorylation and the prolonged activation of Raf1 persisting during the entire differentiation process are required for RA-dependent differentiation of HL-60 cells. Here we identify a nuclear redistribution of Raf1 during the RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. In addition, the nuclear accumulation of Raf1 correlates with an increase in Raf1 phosphorylated at serine 621. The serine 621 phosphorylated Raf1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus. The RA-dependent nuclear accumulation of Raf1 suggests a novel nuclear role for Raf1 during the differentiation process.

  10. NPM and BRG1 Mediate Transcriptional Resistance to Retinoic Acid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

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    Nichol, Jessica N; Galbraith, Matthew D; Kleinman, Claudia L; Espinosa, Joaquín M; Miller, Wilson H

    2016-03-29

    Perturbation in the transcriptional control of genes driving differentiation is an established paradigm whereby oncogenic fusion proteins promote leukemia. From a retinoic acid (RA)-sensitive acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line, we derived an RA-resistant clone characterized by a block in transcription initiation, despite maintaining wild-type PML/RARA expression. We uncovered an aberrant interaction among PML/RARA, nucleophosmin (NPM), and topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B). Surprisingly, RA stimulation in these cells results in enhanced chromatin association of the nucleosome remodeler BRG1. Inhibition of NPM or TOP2B abrogated BRG1 recruitment. Furthermore, NPM inhibition and targeting BRG1 restored differentiation when combined with RA. Here, we demonstrate a role for NPM and BRG1 in obstructing RA differentiation and implicate chromatin remodeling in mediating therapeutic resistance in malignancies. NPM mutations are the most common genetic change in patients with acute leukemia (AML); therefore, our model may be applicable to other more common leukemias driven by NPM. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

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    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  12. Mechanism of retinoic acid-induced transcription: histone code, DNA oxidation and formation of chromatin loops.

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    Zuchegna, Candida; Aceto, Fabiana; Bertoni, Alessandra; Romano, Antonella; Perillo, Bruno; Laccetti, Paolo; Gottesman, Max E; Avvedimento, Enrico V; Porcellini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Histone methylation changes and formation of chromatin loops involving enhancers, promoters and 3' end regions of genes have been variously associated with active transcription in eukaryotes. We have studied the effect of activation of the retinoic A receptor, at the RARE-promoter chromatin of CASP9 and CYP26A1 genes, 15 and 45 min following RA exposure, and we found that histone H3 lysines 4 and 9 are demethylated by the lysine-specific demethylase, LSD1 and by the JMJ-domain containing demethylase, D2A. The action of the oxidase (LSD1) and a dioxygenase (JMJD2A) in the presence of Fe++ elicits an oxidation wave that locally modifies the DNA and recruits the enzymes involved in base and nucleotide excision repair (BER and NER). These events are essential for the formation of chromatin loop(s) that juxtapose the RARE element with the 5' transcription start site and the 3' end of the genes. The RARE bound-receptor governs the 5' and 3' end selection and directs the productive transcription cycle of RNA polymerase. These data mechanistically link chromatin loops, histone methylation changes and localized DNA repair with transcription. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Topical retinoic acid (tretinoin) for melasma in black patients. A vehicle-controlled clinical trial.

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    Kimbrough-Green, C K; Griffiths, C E; Finkel, L J; Hamilton, T A; Bulengo-Ransby, S M; Ellis, C N; Voorhees, J J

    1994-06-01

    Melasma is an acquired, masklike, facial hyperpigmentation. The pathogenesis and treatment of melasma in black (African-American) patients is poorly understood. We investigated the efficacy of topical 0.1% all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) in the treatment of melasma in black patients. Twenty-eight of 30 black patients with melasma completed a 10-month, randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial in which they applied either 0.1% tretinoin or vehicle cream daily to the entire face. They were evaluated clinically (using our Melasma Area and Severity Index), colorimetrically, and histologically. After 40 weeks, there was a 32% improvement in the Melasma Area and Severity Index score in the tretinoin treatment group compared with a 10% improvement in the vehicle group. Colorimetric measurements showed lightening of melasma after 40 weeks of tretinoin treatment vs vehicle. Lightening of melasma, as determined clinically, correlated well with colorimetric measurements. Histologic examination of involved skin revealed a significant decrease in epidermal pigmentation in the tretinoin group compared with the vehicle group. Side effects were limited to a mild "retinoid dermatitis" occurring in 67% of tretinoin-treated patients. Among the patients in this study in comparison with comparably recruited white patients, melasma was reported to have begun at a later age and was more likely to be in a malar distribution. This controlled study demonstrates that topical 0.1% tretinoin lightens melasma in black patients, with only mild side effects.

  14. Retinol Dehydrogenase-10 Regulates Pancreas Organogenesis and Endocrine Cell Differentiation via Paracrine Retinoic Acid Signaling.

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    Arregi, Igor; Climent, Maria; Iliev, Dobromir; Strasser, Jürgen; Gouignard, Nadège; Johansson, Jenny K; Singh, Tania; Mazur, Magdalena; Semb, Henrik; Artner, Isabella; Minichiello, Liliana; Pera, Edgar M

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here, we show that retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme. Rdh10 null mutant mouse embryos exhibited dorsal pancreas agenesis and a hypoplastic ventral pancreas with retarded tubulogenesis and branching. Conditional disruption of Rdh10 from the endoderm caused increased mortality, reduced body weight, and lowered blood glucose levels after birth. Endodermal Rdh10 deficiency led to a smaller dorsal pancreas with a reduced density of early glucagon(+) and insulin(+) cells. During the secondary transition, the reduction of Neurogenin3(+) endocrine progenitors in the mutant dorsal pancreas accounted for fewer α- and β-cells. Changes in the expression of α- and β-cell-specific transcription factors indicated that Rdh10 might also participate in the terminal differentiation of endocrine cells. Together, our results highlight the importance of both mesenchymal and epithelial Rdh10 for pancreogenesis and the first wave of endocrine cell differentiation. We further propose a model in which the Rdh10-expressing exocrine tissue acts as an essential source of RA signals in the second wave of endocrine cell differentiation.

  15. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

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    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  16. Retinoic Acid Is Sufficient for the In Vitro Induction of Mouse Spermatocytes

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    Si Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is the key step in gametogenesis. However, the mechanism of mammalian meiosis remains poorly understood due to the lack of an in vitro model. Here, we report that retinoic acid (RA is sufficient for inducing leptotene/zygotene spermatocytes from cultured mouse spermatogonial stem cells. Multiple genes regulated by RA were identified by RNA sequencing. RA in combination with pup Sertoli cell co-culture resulted in a higher induction efficiency of 28%. Comparisons in the transcriptomic profiles of the induced spermatogenic cells and the isolated ones revealed the progressive induction of the germ cells. Using this model, we showed that Stra8, Agpat3, Fam57a, Wdr91, and Sox30 contributed to the proliferation and meiosis initiation differentially. In conclusion, we have efficiently generated spermatocytes using an RA/pup Sertoli cell-based in vitro model and provided proof-of-concept evidence for its application in identifying genes involved in mammalian meiosis.

  17. Terpene composited lipid nanoparticles for enhanced dermal delivery of all-trans-retinoic acids.

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    Charoenputtakun, Ponwanit; Pamornpathomkul, Boonnada; Opanasopit, Praneet; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, terpene composited lipid nanoparticles and lipid nanoparticles were developed and evaluated for dermal delivery of all-trans-retinoic acids (ATRA). Terpene composited lipid nanoparticles and lipid nanoparticles were investigated for size, size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, photostability, and cytotoxicity. In vitro skin permeation of ATRA lipid formulations were also evaluated. To explore the ability of lipid nanocarriers to target the skin, the distribution of rhodamine B base in the skin was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicated that the physicochemical characteristics of terpene composited lipid nanoparticles influenced skin permeability. All lipid nanocarriers significantly protected ATRA from photodegradation and were non-toxic to normal human foreskin fibroblast cells in vitro. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing 10% limonene (10% L-SLN) had the highest ATRA skin permeability. Terpene composited SLN and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) showed higher epidermal permeation of rhodamine B across the skin based on CLSM image analysis. Our study suggests that terpene composited SLN and NLC can be potentially used as dermal drug delivery carriers for ATRA.

  18. Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells through Cdk5 Overactivation

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    Mei-Chih Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA has been believed to be an anticancer drug for a long history. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA actions on cancer cells remain diverse. In this study, the dose-dependent inhibition of RA on DU145 cell proliferation was identified. Interestingly, RA treatment triggered p35 cleavage (p25 formation and Cdk5 overactivation, and all could be blocked by Calpain inhibitor, Calpeptin (CP. Subsequently, RA-triggered DU145 apoptosis detected by sub-G1 phase accumulation and Annexin V staining could also be blocked by CP treatment. Furthermore, RA-triggered caspase 3 activation and following Cdk5 over-activation were destroyed by treatments of both CP and Cdk5 knockdown. In conclusion, we report a new mechanism in which RA could cause apoptosis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through p35 cleavage and Cdk5 over-activation. This finding may contribute to constructing a clearer image of RA function and bring RA as a valuable chemoprevention agent for prostate cancer patients.

  19. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement.

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    Marrs, James A; Clendenon, Sherry G; Ratcliffe, Don R; Fielding, Stephen M; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid (RA) signaling caused by embryonic ethanol exposure. RA deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with RA at a low concentration (10(-9)M) and 100mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100mM ethanol alone. The rescued phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10(-9)M RA alone (RA toxicity) than to untreated or 100mM ethanol-treated embryos. RA rescued defects caused by 100mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation, and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e.g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by RA supplement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Retinoic acid induces HL-60 cell differentiation via the upregulation of miR-663

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    Zhuan Zhou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell line HL-60 can be induced by all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA; however, the mechanism regulating this process has not been fully characterized. Methods Using bioinformatics and in vitro experiments, we identified the microRNA gene expression profile of HL-60 cells during ATRA induced granulocytic differentiation. Results Six microRNAs were upregulated by ATRA treatment, miR-663, miR-494, miR-145, miR-22, miR-363* and miR-223; and three microRNAs were downregulated, miR-10a, miR-181 and miR-612. Additionally, miR-663 expression was regulated by ATRA. We used a lentivirus (LV backbone incorporating the spleen focus forming virus (SFFV-F promoter to drive miR-663 expression, as the CMV (Cytomegalovirus promoter is ineffective in some lymphocyte cells. Transfection of LV-miR-663 induced significant HL-60 cell differentiation in vitro. Conclusions Our results show miR-663 may play an important role in ATRA induced HL-60 cell differentiation. Lentivirus delivery of miR-663 could potentially be used directly as an anticancer treatment in hematological malignancies

  1. Effect of retinoic acid on expression of LINGO-1 and neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia.

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    Xing, Hong-yi; Meng, Er-yan; Xia, Yuan-peng; Peng, Hai

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the expression of LINGO-1 after cerebral ischemia, investigate the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the expression of LINGO-1 and GAP-43, and the number of synapses, and to emplore the repressive effect of LINGO-1 on neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia. The model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia was established by the modified suture method of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The expression of LINGO-1 was detected by Western blotting and that of GAP-43 by immunohistochemistry. The number of synapses was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The SD rats were divided into three groups: sham operation (sham) group, cerebral ischemia (CI) group and RA treatment (RA) group. The results showed that the expression level of LINGO-1 at 7th day after MCAO in sham, CI and RA groups was 0.266 ± 0.019, 1.215 ± 0.063 and 0.702 ± 0.081, respectively (PLINGO-1 expression is up-regulated after cerebral ischemia, and RA inhibits the expression of LINGO-1, promotes the expression of GAP-43 and increases the number of synapses. It suggests that LINGO-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, which may provide an experimenal basis for LINGO-1 antogonist, RA, for the treatment of cerebral ischemia.

  2. All-trans retinoic acid influences viability, migration and adhesion of U251 glioblastoma cells

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    Marjanović-Vićentić Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is one of the most aggressive and deadly forms of cancer. Literature data reveals that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA has anticancer effects on different types of tumor cells. However, data about the effects of ATRA on glioblastoma cells are contradictory. In this study, we examined whether ATRA treatment affects features of human glioblastoma U251 cells. To that end, the cells were treated with different concentrations of ATRA. Results obtained by MTT and the crystal violet assays imply that ATRA affected the viability of U251 glioblastoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Fluorescence staining of microtubule cytoskeleton protein α-tubulin revealed that ATRA induced changes in cell morphology. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR we found that the expression of SOX3 and GFAP genes, as markers of neural differentiation, was not changed upon ATRA treatment. Thus, the observed changes in cell morphology after ATRA treatment are not associated with neural differentiation of U251 glioblastoma cells. The scratch-wound healing assay revealed that ATRA changed the mode of U251 cell migration from collective to single cell motility. The cell-matrix adhesion assay demonstrated that the pharmacologically relevant concentration of ATRA lowered the cell-matrix adhesion capability of U251 cells. In conclusion, our results imply that further studies are needed before ATRA could be considered for the treatment of glioblastoma. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173051

  3. Dexamethasone, all trans retinoic acid and interferon alpha 2a in patients with refractory multiple myeloma.

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    Avilés, A; Rosas, A; Huerta-Guzmán, J; Talavera, A; Cleto, S

    1999-02-01

    Few effective regimen are available for patients with refractory multiple myeloma (RMM). Generally, responses are scarce and disease free survival is very short. We developed a new therapeutic option in these patients using dexamethasone (40 mg/m2, i.v., daily, days 1 to 4), all-trans retinoic acid (45 mg/m2, po, daily, days 5 to 14) and interferon alpha 2a (9.0 MU, daily, subcutaneously, days 5 to 14). The treatment was administered every 21 days for 6 cycles. In a pilot study, 12 patients, heavily treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and in some cases with interferon, were allocated to receive the afore mentioned treatment. Response was observed in 10 patients (83%). With a median follow-up of 36.1 months (range 27 to 41), seven patients remain alive and disease-free without any treatment. Two patients were failures and have died due to tumor progression. Toxicity was mild and all patients received treatment according to the planned doses of drugs. The use of biological modifiers in combination with dexamethasone offer a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with refractory multiple myeloma. More studies are warranted to define the role of this type of treatment.

  4. Chronic administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid increases depression-related behavior in mice.

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    O'Reilly, Kally C; Shumake, Jason; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Lane, Michelle A; Bailey, Sarah J

    2006-09-01

    Retinoid signaling plays a well-established role in neuronal differentiation, neurite outgrowth, and the patterning of the anteroposterior axis of the developing neural tube. However, there is increasing evidence that nutritional vitamin A status and retinoid signaling play an important role in the function of the adult brain. 13-Cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) (isotretinoin or Accutane), a synthetic retinoid that is an effective oral treatment for severe nodular acne, has been linked with depression and suicide in patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic administration of 13-cis-RA would lead to depression-related behaviors in mice. Young, adult male mice received 13-cis-RA (1 mg/kg) by daily intraperitoneal injection for 6 weeks. This treatment paradigm produced plasma levels of 13-cis-RA that are comparable to those reported in human patients taking Accutane. In both the forced swim test and the tail suspension test, we found that 13-cis-RA-treated mice spent significantly more time immobile compared to vehicle-treated controls. In the open field test, there was no change in anxiety-related behavior in 13-cis-RA-treated mice. Furthermore, chronic administration of 13-cis-RA did not impair locomotion in either the open field or the rotarod test. Taken together, these results suggest that administration of 13-cis-RA increases depression-related behaviors in mice.

  5. Evaluation of immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in solid tumor bearing mice.

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    Siddikuzzaman; Berlin, Grace V M

    2013-02-01

    Natural or synthetic agents can modify the immune system and, in some cases, impart a therapeutic benefit. Cancer, a disease of uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells, is a major cause of death. The Vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its other active derivatives are potent modulators of cell growth and differentiation, and because it has an influence on cancer, it can be used as a chemotherapeutic and -preventive agent. To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of ATRA, the impact of treatment on various parameters, e.g. delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), bone marrow cellularity, hematology, and levels of esterase-positive cells, was assessed in Balb/c mice. To evaluate antitumor effects of ATRA, tumor volume and host survival rate were monitored in B16F10 melanoma cell-injected mice. The results showed that administration of ATRA (0.60 mg/kg/dose, IP) caused a decrease in DTH (footpad thickness) in response to challenge with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in SRBC-sensitized hosts. ATRA also caused increases in WBC counts and bone marrow cell numbers. In tumor-inoculated mice, ATRA caused tumor growth suppression and gave rise to a heightened survival rate. It was also found that ATRA had differential effects on serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) was reduced in serum. Based on these results, we conclude that ATRA has a potent immunomodulatory potential but also could significantly impact upon solid tumor growth and prolong host survival.

  6. The Effects of Quercetin and Retinoic acid on Skeletal System of Rat Embryos in Prenatal Period

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    Nahid Gohari-Behbahani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal rat embryo exposure to retinoid induces some malformations in various organs, the most active and teratogenic metablolite is all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA. The teratogenic effects of some drugs can be prevented by the application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of the maternal immune system. Also, quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid has excellent antioxidant properties. Therefore, in this study, the prophylactic effect of quercetin on teratogenic effects of atRA was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 pregnant rats were divided into 7 groups. Control group received normal saline and test groups received dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, quercetin (75 mg/kg, quercetin (200 mg/kg, atRA (25 mg/kg, atRA (25 mg/kg plus quercetin (75 mg/kg and atRA (25 mg/kg plus quercetin (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally at 8-10th days of gestation. Fetuses were collected at 20th day of gestation and after determination of weight and length; they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. Results: Cleft palate, exencephaly and spina bifida incidence were 30.76%, 61.53% and 30.76% range in group which received only atRA. Cleft palate, exencephaly and spina bifida incidence were 11.11%, 16.66% and 5.55% in group which received atRA plus quercetin (75 mg/kg. However, cleft palate, exencephaly and spina bifida incidence were 10.52%, 10.52% and 0% in group which received atRA plus quercetin (200 mg/kg. The means of weight and length of fetuses from rat that received atRA plus quercetin (75 mg/kg were significantly greater than those received only atRA. Conclusion: It is concluded that quercetin decreased teratogenicity induced by atRA, but this subject needs more detailed evaluation.

  7. Redifferentiation of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas by retinoic acid; Redifferenzierung von entdifferenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinomen durch Retinsaeure

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    Koerber, C.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Simon, D. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Bethesda Gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Duisburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Allgemein- und Viszeralchirurgie; Schmutzler, C.; Koehrle, J. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Poliklinik, Abt. Molekulare Innere Medizin

    2001-12-01

    In a pilot study patients with advanced thyroid cancer and without therapeutic options were treated with 13-cis-retinoic acid at a dosage of 1.5 mg/kg BW/day over 5 weeks before radioiodine therapy. Parameters of the therapeutic effect were serum thyroglobulin levels, radioiodide uptake, and tumor size prior to and after retinoid treatment. In total a response was seen in 19 out of 50 fully evaluated patients (38%). Response to retinoid therapy did not always correlate with increased radioiodide uptake so that other direct antiproliferative effects have to be assumed. The encouraging results of the study and the low rate of side effects with good tolerability of retinoids suggest and justify a further study with altered inclusion criteria such as repeated radioiodine therapies with a constant or increasing tumor maker level and stable or decreasing radioiodine uptake as well as a mixed radioiodine uptake with a sufficient uptake in some tumor lesions and lacking in others. (orig.) [German] In einer Therapiepilotstudie wurden Patienten mit fortgeschrittenem Schilddruesenkarzinom ohne weitere therapeutische Option mit 13-cis-Retinsaeure in einer Dosierung von 1,5 mg/kg KG/Tag ueber 5 Wochen vor einer Radiojodtherapie vorbehandelt. Als Parameter fuer einen Therapieeffekt galten der Thyreoglobulinspiegel sowie die Radiojodaufnahme und Tumorgroesse vor und nach Retinsaeurebehandlung. Bei insgesamt 19 von insgesamt 50 auswertbaren Patienten (38%) konnte ein Ansprechen auf die Therapie festgestellt werden. Dabei wies ein Therapieeffekt nicht immer eine Korrelation mit einer Zunahme des Radiojod-Uptakes auf, sodass direkte antiproliferative Effekte der Retinsaeure angenommen werden muessen. Die ermutigenden Ergebnisse der Studie und die geringe Nebenwirkungsrate der Retinoide ermoeglichen und rechtfertigen eine weitere Studie mit geaenderten Einschlusskriterien wie wiederholte Radiojodtherapien bei im Verlauf konstantem oder ansteigendem Tumormarkerspiegel und stabilem

  8. Retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: current perspectives

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    McCulloch, Derek; Brown, Christina; Iland, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a unique morphological appearance, associated coagulopathy and canonical balanced translocation of genetic material between chromosomes 15 and 17. APL was first described as a distinct subtype of AML in 1957 by Dr Leif Hillestad who recognized the pattern of an acute leukemia associated with fibrinolysis, hypofibrinogenemia and catastrophic hemorrhage. In the intervening years, the characteristic morphology of APL has been described fully with both classical hypergranular and variant microgranular forms. Both are characterized by a balanced translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 15 and 17, [t(15;17)(q24;q21)], giving rise to a unique fusion gene PML-RARA and an abnormal chimeric transcription factor (PML-RARA), which disrupts normal myeloid differentiation programs. The success of current treatments for APL is in marked contrast to the vast majority of patients with non-promyelocytic AML. The overall prognosis in non-promyelocytic AML is poor, and although there has been an improvement in overall survival in patients aged <60 years, only 30%–40% of younger patients are still alive 5 years after diagnosis. APL therapy has diverged from standard AML therapy through the empirical discovery of two agents that directly target the molecular basis of the disease. The evolution of treatment over the last 4 decades to include all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide, with chemotherapy limited to patients with high-risk disease, has led to complete remission in 90%–100% of patients in trials and rates of overall survival between 86% and 97%. PMID:28352191

  9. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

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    Ionta, M. [Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas MG (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Rosa, M.C.; Almeida, R.B.; Freitas, V.M.; Rezende-Teixeira, P.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA) is a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM) and cAMP (1 mM), an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC) and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3β) and liver differentiation [E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26), and connexin 32 (Cx32)]. RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3β (inactive form) expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3β (active form) and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  10. Retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: current perspectives

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    McCulloch D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Derek McCulloch, Christina Brown, Harry Iland Institute of Hematology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia Abstract: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML with a unique morphological appearance, associated coagulopathy and canonical balanced translocation of genetic material between chromosomes 15 and 17. APL was first described as a distinct subtype of AML in 1957 by Dr Leif Hillestad who recognized the pattern of an acute leukemia associated with fibrinolysis, hypofibrinogenemia and catastrophic hemorrhage. In the intervening years, the characteristic morphology of APL has been described fully with both classical hypergranular and variant microgranular forms. Both are characterized by a balanced translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 15 and 17, [t(15;17(q24;q21], giving rise to a unique fusion gene PML-RARA and an abnormal chimeric transcription factor (PML-RARA, which disrupts normal myeloid differentiation programs. The success of current treatments for APL is in marked contrast to the vast majority of patients with non-promyelocytic AML. The overall prognosis in non-promyelocytic AML is poor, and although there has been an improvement in overall survival in patients aged <60 years, only 30%–40% of younger patients are still alive 5 years after diagnosis. APL therapy has diverged from standard AML therapy through the empirical discovery of two agents that directly target the molecular basis of the disease. The evolution of treatment over the last 4 decades to include all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide, with chemotherapy limited to patients with high-risk disease, has led to complete remission in 90%–100% of patients in trials and rates of overall survival between 86% and 97%. Keywords: acute promyelocytic leukemia, ATRA, arsenic trioxide

  11. Thioredoxin Reductase Mediates Cell Death Effects of the Combination of Beta Interferon and Retinoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Edward R.; Boyanapalli, Madanamohan; Lindner, Daniel J.; Weihua, Xiao; Hassel, Bret A.; Jagus, Rosemary; Gutierrez, Peter L.; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.

    1998-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) and retinoids are potent biological response modifiers. By using JAK-STAT pathways, IFNs regulate the expression of genes involved in antiviral, antitumor, and immunomodulatory actions. Retinoids exert their cell growth-regulatory effects via nuclear receptors, which also function as transcription factors. Although these ligands act through distinct mechanisms, several studies have shown that the combination of IFNs and retinoids synergistically inhibits cell growth. We have previously reported that IFN-β–all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) combination is a more potent growth suppressor of human tumor xenografts in vivo than either agent alone. Furthermore, the IFN-RA combination causes cell death in several tumor cell lines in vitro. However, the molecular basis for these growth-suppressive actions is unknown. It has been suggested that certain gene products, which mediate the antiviral actions of IFNs, are also responsible for the antitumor actions of the IFN-RA combination. However, we did not find a correlation between their activities and cell death. Therefore, we have used an antisense knockout approach to directly identify the gene products that mediate cell death and have isolated several genes associated with retinoid-IFN-induced mortality (GRIM). In this investigation, we characterized one of the GRIM cDNAs, GRIM-12. Sequence analysis suggests that the GRIM-12 product is identical to human thioredoxin reductase (TR). TR is posttranscriptionally induced by the IFN-RA combination in human breast carcinoma cells. Overexpression of GRIM-12 causes a small amount of cell death and further enhances the susceptibility of cells to IFN-RA-induced death. Dominant negative inhibitors directed against TR inhibit its cell death-inducing functions. Interference with TR enzymatic activity led to growth promotion in the presence of the IFN-RA combination. Thus, these studies identify a novel function for TR in cell growth regulation. PMID:9774665

  12. Quantification of endogenous retinoic acid in limited biological samples by LC/MS/MS.

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    Kane, Maureen A; Chen, Na; Sparks, Susan; Napoli, Joseph L

    2005-05-15

    We report a sensitive LC (liquid chromatography)/MS/MS assay using selected reaction monitoring to quantify RA (retinoic acid), which is applicable to biological samples of limited size (10-20 mg of tissue wet weight), requires no sample derivatization, provides mass identification and resolves atRA (all-trans-RA) from its geometric isomers. The assay quantifies over a linear range of 20 fmol to 10 pmol, and has a 10 fmol limit of detection at a signal/noise ratio of 3. Coefficients of variation are: instrumental, 0.5-2.9%; intra-assay, 5.4+/-0.4%; inter-assay 8.9+/-1.0%. An internal standard (all-trans-4,4-dimethyl-RA) improves accuracy by confirming extraction efficiency and revealing handling-induced isomerization. Tissues of 2-4-month-old C57BL/6 male mice had atRA concentrations of 7-9.6 pmol/g and serum atRA of 1.9+/-0.6 pmol/ml (+/-S.E.M.). Tissue 13-cis-RA ranged from 2.9 to 4.2 pmol/g, and serum 13-cis-RA was 1.2+/-0.3 pmol/ml. CRBP (cellular retinol-binding protein)-null mouse liver had atRA approximately 30% lower than wild-type (Pquantification of atRA in animal brain and in CRBP-null mice. Direct measurements of endogenous RA should have a substantial impact on investigating target tissues of RA, mechanisms of RA action, and the relationship between RA and chronic disease.

  13. Quantitative profiling of endogenous retinoic acid in vivo and in vitro by tandem mass spectrometry.

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    Kane, Maureen A; Folias, Alexandra E; Wang, Chao; Napoli, Joseph L

    2008-03-01

    We report an improved tandem mass spectrometric assay for retinoic acid (RA) applicable to in vitro and in vivo biological samples. This liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) assay for direct RA quantification is the most sensitive to date, with a 62.5 attomol lower limit of detection and a linear range spanning greater than 4 orders of magnitude (from 250 attomol to 10 pmol). This assay resolves all-trans-RA (atRA) from its endogenous geometric isomers, is applicable to samples of limited size (10-20 mg of tissue), and functions with complex biological matrixes. Coefficients of variation are as follows: instrumental, quantification of endogenous RA and RA production (from retinol) in primary cultured astrocytes. Quantification of endogenous atRA and its geometric isomers in 129SV mouse serum and tissues (liver, kidney, adipose, muscle, spleen, testis, and brain) reveals in vivo utility of the assay. The ability to discriminate spatial concentrations of RA in vivo is illustrated with C57BL/6 mouse brain loci (hippocampus, cortex, olfactory bulb, thalamus, cerebellum, and striatum), as well as with Lewis rat proximal/distal mammary gland regions during various morphological stages: virgin, early pregnancy (e7), late pregnancy (e20), lactating (day 4), involuting day 1, and involuting day 11. This assay provides the sensitivity necessary for direct, endogenous RA quantification necessary to elucidate RA function, e.g., in neurogenesis, morphogenesis, and the contribution of altered RA homeostasis to diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer.

  14. DNA ploidy changes in rhino mouse skin induced by all-trans retinoic acid and retinol.

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    González, S; Alcaraz, M V; Díaz, F; Flotte, T J; Pérez de Vargas, I; Anderson, R R; Kollias, N

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the proliferative changes induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and retinol (ROL), we have carried out a study of the DNA content of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes after epicutaneous application on the rhino mouse. Skin sections were analyzed stereologically and cytophotometrically using the Feulgen technique. The diploid DNA value (2C) was obtained from hepatocyte nuclei of control animals. Whereas cells in phase G0-G1 will show a 2C content, cells during phase S and in phase G2-M will show DNA values ranging from 2C to 4C and 4C, respectively. Although epidermal thickness (ET) increased significantly in all treated animals, surface density only increased in animals treated with all-trans RA. Quantification of DNA content of basal keratinocytes showed reduction of 2C and 2C-4C populations with a commensurate increase in proportions of cells with 4C and > 4C in the animals treated with 0.025% all-trans RA and ROL. Suprabasal keratinocytes of mice treated with 0.025% all-trans showed a decrease of the 2C population and an increased proportion of cells with 4C. Whereas 0.025% all-trans RA induced an increase of both basal and suprabasal DNA indices, ROL enhanced only the basal DNA index significantly. Animals treated with 0.025% ROL showed a significant increase in the basal proliferative index (PI) while the suprabasal PI remained constant; treatment with 0.025% all-trans RA produced a significant increase of both basal and suprabasal PIs and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis probably due to incomplete differentiation.

  15. Retinoic Acid Improves Morphology of Cultured Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells from Patients Undergoing Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana, Carmen; Sanchez, Elsa I.; Gonzalez, Sirenia; Perez-Lopez, Alejandro; Cruz, Armando; Lagunas-Munoz, Jesus; Alfaro-Cruz, Carmen; Vital-Flores, Socorro; Reyes, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are classified according to their peritoneal permeability as low transporter (low solute permeability) or High transporter (high solute permeability). Factors that determine the differences in permeability between them have not been fully disclosed. We investigated morphological features of cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells from low or high transporter patients and its response to All trans retinoic Acid (ATRA, vitamin A active metabolite), as compared to non-uremic human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Control cells were isolated from human omentum. High or low transporter cells were obtained from dialysis effluents. Cells were cultured in media containing ATRA (0, 50, 100 or 200 nM). We studied length and distribution of microvilli and cilia (scanning electron microscopy), epithelial (cytokeratin, claudin-1, ZO-1 and occludin) and mesenchymal (vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin) transition markers by immunofluorescence and Western blot, and transforming growth factor β1 expression by Western blot. Low and high transporter exhibited hypertrophic cells, reduction in claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, cytokeratin and vimentin disorganization and positive α-smooth muscle actin label. Vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor- β1 were overexpressed in low transporter. Ciliated cells were diminished in low and high transporters. Microvilli number and length were severely reduced in high transporter. ATRA reduced hypertrophic cells number in low transporter. It also improved cytokeratin and vimentin organization, decreased vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin expression, and increased claudin 1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, in low and high transporter. In low transporter, ATRA reduced transforming growth factor-β1 expression. ATRA augmented percentage of ciliated cells in low and high transporter. It also augmented cilia length in high transporter. Alterations in

  16. [Beneficial effects of retinoic acid on in vitro invasiveness of human thyroid carcinoma cell lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ling; Cui, Dai; Luo, Yong; Shi, Bing-yin; Deng, Li-li; Zhang, Guo-ying; Deng, Wei; Wang, Hong

    2010-09-14

    To investigate the anti metastatic potential of retinoic acid as an important determinant of metastatic behavior in thyroid carcinoma and understand the role of invasion associated proteins. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and XTC.UC1, anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines C643 and HTH74 were studied. All cell lines were cultured with all-trans-RA (ATRA) or solvent ethanol. The in vitro invasion and adhesion potency were studied by transwell experiment and short-term adhesion assay. The functions of invasion associated proteins, urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), MMP2 and E-cadherin were investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. In vitro invasion assay revealed that ATRA treatment could reduce the invasive potency in all the thyroid cancer cell lines. On Day 5 of ATRA treatment, the numbers of cells that migrated through extracellular matrix were as follows, in contrast to control group, FTC-133: 91±9 vs 118±10, C643: 92±17 vs 164±21, HTH74: 87±18 vs 169±15, and XTC.UC1: 95±23 vs 136±15, respectively (all PXTC.UC1. RT-PCR and Western blot both revealed diminished expression of uPAR in all four carcinoma cell lines. In C643 and HTH74 cell lines, the expression of uPA was reduced and the expression of E-Cadherin was increased; whereas the MMP2 expression was not significantly down-regulated in ATRA treated group. In ATRA treated FTC-133 and XTC.UC1 cell lines, MMP2 expression was decreased, but no significant changes in uPA and E-Cadherin expression were observed. The present study demonstrates the influence of ATRA on two important determinants of metastatic behavior ("de adhesion" and proteolysis) in thyroid carcinoma cell lines.

  17. Efficient differentiation of embryonic stem cells into mesodermal precursors by BMP, retinoic acid and Notch signalling.

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    Josema Torres

    Full Text Available The ability to direct differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells into specific lineages not only provides new insights into the pathways that regulate lineage selection but also has translational applications, for example in drug discovery. We set out to develop a method of differentiating ES cells into mesodermal cells at high efficiency without first having to induce embryoid body formation. ES cells were plated on a feeder layer of PA6 cells, which have membrane-associated stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA, the molecular basis of which is currently unknown. Stimulation of ES/PA6 co-cultures with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 both favoured self-renewal of ES cells and induced differentiation into a Desmin and Nestin double positive cell population. Combined stimulation with BMP4 and all-trans Retinoic Acid (RA inhibited self-renewal and resulted in 90% of cells expressing Desmin and Nestin. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analysis confirmed that the cells were of mesodermal origin and expressed markers of mesenchymal and smooth muscle cells. BMP4 activation of a MAD-homolog (Smad-dependent reporter in undifferentiated ES cells was attenuated by co-stimulation with RA and co-culture with PA6 cells. The Notch ligand Jag1 was expressed in PA6 cells and inhibition of Notch signalling blocked the differentiation inducing activity of PA6 cells. Our data suggest that mesodermal differentiation is regulated by the level of Smad activity as a result of inputs from BMP4, RA and the Notch pathway.

  18. Fenretinide-induced apoptosis of Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma is retinoic acid receptor β dependent

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    Wan Yu-Jui

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinoids are used to treat several types of cancer; however, their effects on liver cancer have not been fully characterized. To investigate the therapeutic potential of retinoids on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, the present study evaluates the apoptotic effect of a panel of natural and synthetic retinoids in three human HCC cell lines as well as explores the underlying mechanisms. Methods Apoptosis was determined by caspase-3 cleavage using western blot, DNA double-strand breaks using TUNEL assay, and phosphatidylserine translocation using flow cytometry analysis. Gene expression of nuclear receptors was assessed by real-time PCR. Transactivation assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP were conducted to evaluate the activation of RXRα/RARβ pathway by fenretinide. Knockdown of RARβ mRNA expression was achieved by siRNA transfection. Results Our data revealed that fenretinide effectively induces apoptosis in Huh-7 and Hep3B cells. Gene expression analysis of nuclear receptors revealed that the basal and inducibility of retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ expression positively correlate with the susceptibility of HCC cells to fenretinide treatment. Furthermore, fenretinide transactivates the RXRα/RARβ-mediated pathway and directly increases the transcriptional activity of RARβ. Knockdown of RARβ mRNA expression significantly impairs fenretinide-induced apoptosis in Huh-7 cells. Conclusion Our findings reveal that endogenous expression of retinoids receptor RARβ gene determines the susceptibility of HCC cells to fenretinide-induced apoptosis. Our results also demonstrate fenretinide directly activates RARβ and induces apoptosis in Huh-7 cells in a RARβ-dependent manner. These findings suggest a novel role of RARβ as a tumor suppressor by mediating the signals of certain chemotherapeutic agents.

  19. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ionta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA is a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM and cAMP (1 mM, an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3β and liver differentiation (E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26, and Cx32. RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3β (inactive form expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3β (active form and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  20. Identification and characterization of retinoic acid-responsive genes in mouse kidney development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Mami; Miyatake, Koichi; Nishida, Eisuke

    2014-08-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) signaling regulates a variety of developmental processes through controlling the expression of numerous genes. Here, we have identified and characterized RA-responsive genes in mouse kidney development. Analysis of isolated embryonic kidneys cultured in the presence and absence of RA identified 33 candidates of RA-responsive genes. Most of these candidate genes were down-regulated by treatment with the RA receptor antagonist. Many of them have potential binding sites for Elf5, one of the RA-responsive genes, in their promoter region. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that specific expression of Elf5 in the ureteric trunk depends on RA. RA-dependent expression in the ureteric trunk was also showed for the sodium channel subunit Scnn1b, which has been shown to be the marker gene of the collecting duct. In contrast, the expression of Ecm1, Tnfsf13b and IL-33 was detected in the stromal mesenchymal cells. Both Tnfsf13b and IL-33 were previously shown to cause nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. We have showed that the inhibition of NF-κB signaling with specific inhibitors suppresses branching morphogenesis of the ureteric bud. Our study thus identifies and characterizes RA-dependent up-regulated genes in kidney development, and suggests an involvement of NF-κB signaling in the branching morphogenesis. © 2014 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF ALDO-KETO REDUCTASES IN RETINOIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS AND SIGNALING

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    F. Xavier eRuiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Several aldo-keto reductase (AKR enzymes from subfamilies 1B and 1C show retinaldehyde reductase activity, having low Km and kcat values. Only AKR1B10 and 1B12, with all-trans-retinaldehyde, and AKR1C3, with 9-cis-retinaldehyde, display high catalytic efficiency. Major structural determinants for retinaldehyde isomer specificity are located in the external loops (A and C for AKR1B10, and B for AKR1C3, as assessed by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Cellular models have shown that AKR1B and 1C enzymes are well suited to work in vivo as retinaldehyde reductases and to regulate retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis at hormone pre-receptor level. An additional physiological role for the retinaldehyde reductase activity of these enzymes, consistent with their tissue localization, is their participation in β-carotene absorption. Retinaldehyde metabolism may be subjected to subcellular compartmentalization, based on enzyme localization. While retinaldehyde oxidation to RA takes place in the cytosol, reduction to retinol could take place in the cytosol by AKRs or in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum by microsomal retinaldehyde reductases. Upregulation of some AKR1 enzymes in different cancer types may be linked to their induction by oxidative stress and to their participation in different signaling pathways related to cell proliferation. AKR1B10 and AKR1C3, through their retinaldehyde reductase activity, trigger a decrease in the RA biosynthesis flow, resulting in RA deprivation and consequently lower differentiation, with an increased cancer risk in target tissues. Rational design of selective AKR inhibitors could lead to development of novel drugs for cancer treatment as well as reduction of chemotherapeutic drug resistance.

  2. All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Craniofacial Malformation Model: A Prenatal and Postnatal Morphological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weicai; Jian, Yutao; Cai, Bin; Wang, Miao; Chen, Mu; Huang, Hongzhang

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the prenatal and postnatal craniofacial bone development in mouse model of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) exposure at different ages by a quantitative and morphological analysis of skull morphology. Pregnant mice were exposed to ATRA at embryonic day 10 (E10) and 13 (E13) by oral gavage. Skulls of mice embryos at E19.5 and adult mice at postnatal day 35 (P35) were collected for high-resolution microcomputed tomography (microCT) imaging scanning and section HE staining. Reconstruction and measurement of mouse skulls were performed for prenatal and postnatal analysis of the control and ATRA-exposed mice. Craniofacial malformations in mouse models caused by ATRA exposure were age dependent. ATRA exposure at E10 induced cleft palate in 81.8% of the fetuses, whereas the palatine bone of E13-exposed mice was intact. Inhibitions of maxilla and mandible development with craniofacial asymmetry induced were observed at E19.5 and P35. Compared with control and E13-exposed mice, the palatine bones of E10-exposed mice were not elevated and were smaller in dimension. Some E10-exposed mice exhibited other craniofacial abnormalities, including premature fusion of mandibular symphysis with a missing mandibular incisor and a smaller mandible. Severe deviated snouts and amorphous craniofacial suture were detected in E13-exposed mice at P35. These morphological variations in E10- and E13-exposed mice suggested that ATRA was teratogenic in craniofacial bone development in mice and the effect was age dependent.

  3. Wt1 controls retinoic acid signalling in embryonic epicardium through transcriptional activation of Raldh2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadix, Juan Antonio; Ruiz-Villalba, Adrián; Lettice, Laura; Velecela, Victor; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Pérez-Pomares, José María; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Epicardial-derived signals are key regulators of cardiac embryonic development. An important part of these signals is known to relate to a retinoic acid (RA) receptor-dependent mechanism. RA is a potent morphogen synthesised by Raldh enzymes, Raldh2 being the predominant one in mesodermal tissues. Despite the importance of epicardial retinoid signalling in the heart, the molecular mechanisms controlling cardiac Raldh2 transcription remain unknown. In the current study, we show that Wt1-null epicardial cells display decreased expression of Raldh2 both in vivo and in vitro. Using a RA-responsive reporter, we have confirmed that Wt1-null epicardial cells actually show reduced synthesis of RA. We also demonstrate that Raldh2 is a direct transcriptional target of Wt1 in epicardial cells. A secondary objective of this study was to identify the status of RA-related receptors previously reported to be critical to epicardial biology (PDGFRα,β; RXRα). PDGFRα and PDGFRβ mRNA and protein levels are downregulated in the absence of Wt1, but only Pdgfra expression is rescued by the addition of RA to Wt1-null epicardial cells. RXRα mRNA levels are not affected in Wt1-null epicardial cells. Taken together, our results indicate that Wt1 critically regulates epicardial RA signalling via direct activation of the Raldh2 gene, and identify a role for Wt1 in the regulation of morphogen receptors involved in the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of epicardial and epicardially-derived cells (EPDC). PMID:21343363

  4. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Reducing Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoran; Yang, Ke; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Fengru; Shen, Weifeng; Zhang, Ruiyan

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury interferes with the restoration of blood flow to ischemic myocardium. Oxidative stress-elicited apoptosis has been reported to contribute to I/R injury. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has anti-apoptotic activity as previously reported. Here, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of action of ATRA on myocardial I/R injury both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, ATRA reduced the size of the infarcted area (17.81±1.05% vs. 24.41±1.03%, PATRA on myocardial I/R injury was related to its anti-apoptotic effects. The anti-apoptotic effects of ATRA were associated with partial inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and significantly less phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including p38, JNK, and ERK. Western blot analysis also revealed that ATRA pre-treatment increased a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10) expression (0.65 ± 0.20 vs. 0.41±0.02 in vivo) and reduced the level of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) (0.38 ± 0.17 vs. 0.52 ± 0.11 in vivo). Concomitantly, the protective role of ATRA on I/R injury was not observed in RAGE-KO mice. The current results indicated that ATRA could prevent myocardial injury and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis after I/R effectively. One possible mechanism underlying these effects is that ATRA could increase ADAM10 expression and thus cleave RAGE, which is the main receptor up-stream of MAPKs in myocardial I/R injury, resulting in the down-regulation of MAPK signaling and protective role on myocardial I/R injury. PMID:26186635

  5. Retinoic acid-treated pluripotent stem cells undergoing neurogenesis present increased aneuploidy and micronuclei formation.

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    Rafaela C Sartore

    Full Text Available The existence of loss and gain of chromosomes, known as aneuploidy, has been previously described within the central nervous system. During development, at least one-third of neural progenitor cells (NPCs are aneuploid. Notably, aneuploid NPCs may survive and functionally integrate into the mature neural circuitry. Given the unanswered significance of this phenomenon, we tested the hypothesis that neural differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA in pluripotent stem cells is accompanied by increased levels of aneuploidy, as previously described for cortical NPCs in vivo. In this work we used embryonal carcinoma (EC cells, embryonic stem (ES cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells undergoing differentiation into NPCs. Ploidy analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in the rate of aneuploidy, with the prevalence of chromosome loss in RA primed stem cells when compared to naïve cells. In an attempt to understand the basis of neurogenic aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin expression was assessed in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA. RA increased micronuclei occurrence by almost 2-fold while decreased survivin expression by 50%, indicating possible mechanisms by which stem cells lose their chromosomes during neural differentiation. DNA fragmentation analysis demonstrated no increase in apoptosis on embryoid bodies treated with RA, indicating that cell death is not the mandatory fate of aneuploid NPCs derived from pluripotent cells. In order to exclude that the increase in aneuploidy was a spurious consequence of RA treatment, not related to neurogenesis, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with RA under the same conditions and no alterations in chromosome gain or loss were observed. These findings indicate a correlation amongst neural differentiation, aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin downregulation in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA, providing evidence that somatically generated chromosomal

  6. Levels of the retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A2 are lower in testicular tissue from men with infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K; Arnold, Samuel; Lardone, María C; Piottante, Antonio; Ebensperger, Mauricio; Isoherranen, Nina; Muller, Charles H; Walsh, Thomas; Castro, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether decreased testicular levels of enzymes necessary for retinoic acid biosynthesis were associated with male infertility, as retinoic acid is known to be necessary for spermatogenesis. Observational analysis of testicular tissue samples, sperm indices, and serum hormone concentrations. Two infertility centers in Chile. 32 infertile men and 11 control men. Measurement of the three enzymes necessary for retinoic acid biosynthesis, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A1, 1A2, and 1A3, in testicular tissue by a novel liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) peptide assay. ALDH isozyme levels compared by type of infertility and correlated with testicular germ cell numbers, sperm parameters, and serum and intratesticular hormone concentrations. Men with infertility had statistically significantly reduced levels of ALDH1A2 but not ALDH1A1 or ALDH1A3 in their testicular tissue compared with men with normal spermatogenesis. The ALDH1A2 protein levels were strongly correlated with the number of germ cells found via testicular biopsy. These findings suggest that ALDH1A2 is the enzyme involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis in human germ cells. Further study of the relationship between intratesticular ALDH1A2 and male infertility is warranted to determine whether men with infertility have a reduced ability to synthesize retinoic acid within their germ cells that could impair spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NR4A orphan nuclear receptors influence retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid signaling via up-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 5

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    Volakakis, Nikolaos; Joodmardi, Eliza [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Perlmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.perlmann@licr.ki.se [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); The Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-25

    The orphan nuclear receptor (NR) Nurr1 is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system and is also induced as an immediate early gene in a variety of cell types. In silico analysis of human promoters identified fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), a protein shown to enhance retinoic acid-mediated PPAR{beta}/{delta} signaling, as a potential Nurr1 target gene. Nurr1 has previously been implicated in retinoid signaling via its heterodimerization partner RXR. Since NRs are commonly involved in cross-regulatory control we decided to further investigate the regulatory relationship between Nurr1 and FABP5. FABP5 expression was up-regulated by Nurr1 and other NR4A NRs in HEK293 cells, and Nurr1 was shown to activate and bind to the FABP5 promoter, supporting that FABP5 is a direct downstream target of NR4A NRs. We also show that the RXR ligand docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can induce nuclear translocation of FABP5. Moreover, via up-regulation of FABP5 Nurr1 can enhance retinoic acid-induced signaling of PPAR{beta}/{delta} and DHA-induced activation of RXR. We also found that other members of the NR4A orphan NRs can up-regulate FABP5. Thus, our findings suggest that NR4A orphan NRs can influence signaling events of other NRs via control of FABP5 expression levels.

  8. Nanomedicine-based combination of gambogic acid and retinoic acid chlorochalcone for enhanced anticancer efficacy in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Qi, Xiao-Jun; Zhong, Zhao-Kun; Zhang, En-Ning

    2016-10-01

    In this study, gambogic acid (GA) and retinoic acid chlorochalcone (RACC) co-loaded glycol chitosan nanoparticle was successfully developed and studied for its therapeutic efficacy against osteosarcoma cancer cells. The GA/RACC loaded glycol chitosan nanoparticles (RGNP) was nanosized and exhibited a controlled release of drug in either pH 7.4 and pH 5.0. Owing to the strong positive charge on the RGNP surface, efficiency cellular uptake was observed in cancer cells. Moreover, a synergistic combination of GA and RACC were effectively suppressed the tumor growth progression. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in MG63 cells were 0.89μg/ml and 0.35μg/ml for GA and RGNP after 24h. The results clearly suggest the synergist effect of GA and RACC in effectively inhibiting the cancer cell proliferation. The RGNP as expected induced a remarkably higher apoptosis of cancer cells with ∼28%. Overall, combination of GA and RACC encapsulated in a nanocarrier could be an effective strategy to treat osteosarcoma. Future studies will focus on the in vivo evaluation of GA/RACC-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Widespread Alu repeat-driven expansion of consensus DR2 retinoic acid response elements during primate evolution

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    Wang Tian-Tian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear receptors are hormone-regulated transcription factors whose signaling controls numerous aspects of development and physiology. Many receptors recognize DNA hormone response elements formed by direct repeats of RGKTCA motifs separated by 1 to 5 bp (DR1-DR5. Although many known such response elements are conserved in the mouse and human genomes, it is unclear to which extent transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors has evolved specifically in primates. Results We have mapped the positions of all consensus DR-type hormone response elements in the human genome, and found that DR2 motifs, recognized by retinoic acid receptors (RARs, are heavily overrepresented (108,582 elements. 90% of these are present in Alu repeats, which also contain lesser numbers of other consensus DRs, including 50% of consensus DR4 motifs. Few DR2s are in potentially mobile AluY elements and the vast majority are also present in chimp and macaque. 95.5% of Alu-DR2s are distributed throughout subclasses of AluS repeats, and arose largely through deamination of a methylated CpG dinucleotide in a non-consensus motif present in AluS sequences. We find that Alu-DR2 motifs are located adjacent to numerous known retinoic acid target genes, and show by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in squamous carcinoma cells that several of these elements recruit RARs in vivo. These findings are supported by ChIP-on-chip data from retinoic acid-treated HL60 cells revealing RAR binding to several Alu-DR2 motifs. Conclusion These data provide strong support for the notion that Alu-mediated expansion of DR elements contributed to the evolution of gene regulation by RARs and other nuclear receptors in primates and humans.

  10. Treatment of Symptomatic Geographic Tongue with Triamcinolone Acetonide Alone and in Combination with Retinoic Acid: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Shamsolmoulouk Najafi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Geographic tongue or migratory glossitis is an inflammatory disorder with unknown etiology. Considering the accompanied burning pain, taste dysfunction, and lack of definite cure, it is important to treat this condition symptomatically. The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of a combination of 0.05% retinoic acid and 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide with that of triamcinolone acetonide alone for treatment of symptomatic geographic tongue.Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial was performed on 28 patients with symptomatic geographic tongue, who were referred to two dental clinics. Participants were randomly divided into two groups and treated with triamcinolone alone or retinoic acid plus triamcinolone for 10 days. Patients were assessed for the level of pain, burning sensation and size of lesion at the beginning and at the end of the study. Participants were followed up for two months after cessation of treatment (at the end of each month. SPSS 11 was applied to compare the two therapeutic modalities.Results: Twenty-eight participants with a mean age of 40 years were evaluated including Seven (25% males and 21(75% females. There was a positive family history of geographic tongue in 21 patients. Despite the diminished pain and burning sensation as well as smaller size of lesions following treatment (P<0.05, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (P> 0.05. No side effect was reported. Conclusion: The combination of triamcinolone and retinoic acid was not more effective than triamcinolone alone for symptomatic treatment of geographic tongue.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of Tal2 gene by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) in P19 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanobu; Suzuki, Masayo; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kino, Katsuhito; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Miyazawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    TAL2 is a transcription factor required in the normal development of mouse brain. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the expression of Tal2 gene is induced by the complex of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) in mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. atRA is also known to be important in inducing P19 cells to differentiate into the neural lineage. Therefore, we believe that the function of TAL2 in neural differentiation may be clarified by utilizing P19 cells. As the atRA-RARα complex induced the expression of Tal2, we focused on the regulatory region that is involved in its transcription. The atRA-RARα complex occupies a characteristic retinoic acid response element (RARE) located in the promoter of target genes. Therefore, we searched for RARE on the mouse Tal2 and found that a RARE-like element was located in the intron. We also found that a TATA-box-like element was located in the 5'-region of Tal2. Involvement between transcriptional activity and the TATA-box-like element was confirmed in the luciferase assay, and TATA-box binding protein was bound to this element upstream of Tal2 in P19 cells. atRA signaling activated the transcription through the RARE-like element, and RARα was bound to this element on Tal2 in P19 cells. In addition, the interaction between these elements on Tal2 was shown in the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These results suggest that the transcription of Tal2 is coordinately mediated by two distal regulatory elements.

  12. Induction of retinoic acid receptor-alpha by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human myeloid leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T; Takeda, K

    2000-08-15

    We reported previously that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces differentiation of human myeloblastic leukemia ML-1 cells to granulocytes, whereas treatment with ATRA alone induces practically no differentiation of these cells. To investigate the mechanism of the synergistic effect of these factors, we examined the effect of GM-CSF on retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) in ML-1 cells. We reveal that GM-CSF induces the expression of RAR alpha mRNA and protein and stimulates the binding of nuclear proteins to direct repeat 5, a consensus sequence with high affinity for RAR-RXR heterodimers. Furthermore, expression of CD38 mRNA mediated through RAR alpha is induced synergistically by treatment with ATRA + GM-CSF. These results suggest that GM-CSF stimulates transcriptional activity mediated via RAR alpha in ML-1 cells. The induction of RAR alpha by GM-CSF may therefore be a mechanism for stimulation by GM-CSF. The induction of RAR alpha by GM-CSF was also detected in other myeloid leukemia cell lines (THP-1 and KG-1) that showed a synergistic effect similar to that seen in ML-1 cells in response to ATRA + GM-CSF. We also found that GM-CSF induced the expression of RAR alpha in blood cells obtained from patients with acute myeloid leukemia. This activity of GM-CSF may serve as a useful adjunct to differentiation therapy for retinoic acid-nonresponsive leukemias.

  13. Activation of RAS/ERK alone is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete retinoic acid in hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ai-Guo, E-mail: wangaiguotl@hotmail.com; Song, Ya-Nan; Chen, Jun; Li, Hui-Ling; Dong, Jian-Yi; Cui, Hai-Peng; Yao, Liang; Li, Xue-Feng; Gao, Wen-Ting; Qiu, Ze-Wen; Wang, Fu-Jin; Wang, Jing-Yu, E-mail: wangjingyus@163.com

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • The activation of RAS/ERK is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete RA. • The retinoid metabolism-related genes are down-regulated by ras oncogene. • The atRA has no effect on preventing hepatic tumorigenesis or curing the developed hepatic nodules. - Abstract: Activation of RAS/ERK signaling pathway, depletion of retinoid, and phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) are frequent events found in liver tumors and thought to play important roles in hepatic tumorigenesis. However, the relationships among them still remained to be elucidated. By exploring the transgenic mouse model of hepatic tumorigenesis induced by liver-specific expression of H-ras12V oncogene, the activation of RAS/ERK, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes, the contents of retinoid metabolites, and phosphorylation of RXRα were determined. RAS/ERK signaling pathway was gradually and significantly activated in hepatic tumor adjacent normal liver tissues (P) and hepatic tumor tissues (T) of H-ras12V transgenic mice compared with normal liver tissues (Wt) of wild type mice. On the contrary, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes were significantly reduced in P and T compared with Wt. Interestingly, the retinoid metabolites 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the well known ligands for nuclear transcription factor RXR and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), were significantly decreased only in T compared with Wt and P, although the oxidized polar metabolite of atRA, 4-keto-all-trans-retinoic-acid (4-keto-RA) was significantly decreased in both P and T compared with Wt. To our surprise, the functions of RXRα were significantly blocked only in T compared with Wt and P. Namely, the total protein levels of RXRα were significantly reduced and the phosphorylation levels of RXRα were significantly increased only in T compared with Wt and P. Treatment of H-ras12V transgenic mice at 5-week

  14. Normalizing microbiota-induced retinoic acid deficiency stimulates protective CD8+ T-cell-mediated immunity in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Nupur; Yuan, Robert; Prestwood, Tyler R.; Penny, Hweixian Leong; DiMaio, Michael A.; Reticker-Flynn, Nathan E.; Krois, Charles R.; Kenkel, Justin A.; Pham, Tho D.; Carmi, Yaron; Tolentino, Lorna; Choi, Okmi; Hulett, Reyna; Wang, Jinshan; Winer, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is a key regulator of intestinal immunity, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. We found that mice with colitis-associated CRC had a marked deficiency in colonic atRA due to alterations in atRA metabolism mediated by microbiota-induced intestinal inflammation. Human ulcerative colitis (UC), UC-associated CRC, and sporadic CRC specimens have similar alterations in atRA metabolic enzymes, consistent with reduced colonic atRA. Inhibition of atRA...

  15. Pharmacological inhibition of ALDH1A in mice decreases all-trans retinoic acid concentrations in a tissue specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Samuel L. M.; Kent, Travis; Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Griswold, Michael D.; Amory, John K.; Isoherranen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, is an essential signaling molecule. Specifically the concentrations of atRA are spatiotemporally controlled in target tissues such as the liver and the testes. While the enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A family (ALDH1A) are believed to control the synthesis of atRA, a direct relationship between altered ALDH1A activity and tissue atRA concentrations has never been shown. To test whether inhibition of ALDH1A enzymes dec...

  16. Ectopic expression of retinoic acid receptors and change of myocardial structure in the offspring heart with vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Yu, Ya-mei; Yin, Min-zhi; Hong, Li; Cai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A is a key micronutrient required during crucial stages of embryonic development and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) results in embryonic heart malformation. The pleiotropic functions of vitamin A are mediated by specific nuclear receptors: the retinoic acid receptors (RARα, -β, and -γ) and the retinoic X receptors (RXRα, -β, and -γ). The action of nuclear receptors has been implicated in controlling of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and the expressions of these receptor genes are regulated by retinoic acid levels during the early stages of embryonic development. GATA-4 is one of the earliest transcription factors expressed in developing cardiac cells. However, the functional links of specific nuclear receptors to heart development in VAD embryos are not clearly understood. In our study, weaning female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a modified diet containing different concentrations of vitamin A according to the American Institute of Nutrition 93 Growth Purified Diet. After 10-wk feeding, the female rats were mated with normal male rats, and a portion of them were transferred to a diet with enough added vitamin A for the pregnancy cycle. The embryo hearts were dissected out at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) to study the expression of RARs, RXRs and GATA-4. The embryo hearts from E18.5 were for observation of ultrastructural changes. In comparison to vitamin A supplemented groups, the embryo hearts from vitamin A insufficient groups exhibited ultrastructural changes and significantly lower expression of GATA-4, RARα, and -γ, and higher expression of RXRα and -β. Our findings suggest that the down-regulation of RARs and the up-regulation of RXRs resulted from VAD affected GATA-4 gene expression, which resulted in ultrastructural changes in embryo hearts due to maternal insufficiency of vitamin A during pregnancy.

  17. Retinoic acid metabolic genes, meiosis, and gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodríguez-Marí

    Full Text Available To help understand the elusive mechanisms of zebrafish sex determination, we studied the genetic machinery regulating production and breakdown of retinoic acid (RA during the onset of meiosis in gonadogenesis. Results uncovered unexpected mechanistic differences between zebrafish and mammals. Conserved synteny and expression analyses revealed that cyp26a1 in zebrafish and its paralog Cyp26b1 in tetrapods independently became the primary genes encoding enzymes available for gonadal RA-degradation, showing lineage-specific subfunctionalization of vertebrate genome duplication (VGD paralogs. Experiments showed that zebrafish express aldh1a2, which encodes an RA-synthesizing enzyme, in the gonad rather than in the mesonephros as in mouse. Germ cells in bipotential gonads of all zebrafish analyzed were labeled by the early meiotic marker sycp3, suggesting that in zebrafish, the onset of meiosis is not sexually dimorphic as it is in mouse and is independent of Stra8, which is required in mouse but was lost in teleosts. Analysis of dead-end knockdown zebrafish depleted of germ cells revealed the germ cell-independent onset and maintenance of gonadal aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 expression. After meiosis initiated, somatic cell expression of cyp26a1 became sexually dimorphic: up-regulated in testes but not ovaries. Meiotic germ cells expressing the synaptonemal complex gene sycp3 occupied islands of somatic cells that lacked cyp26a1 expression, as predicted by the hypothesis that Cyp26a1 acts as a meiosis-inhibiting factor. Consistent with this hypothesis, females up-regulated cyp26a1 in oocytes that entered prophase-I meiotic arrest, and down-regulated cyp26a1 in oocytes resuming meiosis. Co-expression of cyp26a1 and the pluripotent germ cell stem cell marker pou5f1(oct4 in meiotically arrested oocytes was consistent with roles in mouse to promote germ cell survival and to prevent apoptosis, mechanisms that are central for tipping the sexual fate of gonads

  18. Inhibitory effects of retinoic acid on invasiveness of human thyroid carcinoma cell lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L; Cui, D; Luo, Y; Shi, B Y; Deng, L L; Zhang, G Y; Wang, H

    2009-10-01

    The prognosis of patients with metastasized thyroid carcinoma is not optimistic, necessitating the search for new treatment options. Beneficial effects of retinoic acid (RA) have been suggested in thyroid cancer differentiation and the present study was performed to investigate the anti-metastatic potential of RA in respect of important determinants of metastatic behavior in thyroid carcinoma, focusing on the role of invasion-associated proteins. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC- 133 and XTC.UC1, and anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines C643 and HTH74 were studied. All cell lines were cultured with alltrans- RA (ATRA) or the solvent ethanol. Invasion and adhesion potency in vitro was studied by transwell experiment and short-term adhesion assay. The involvement of invasion-associated proteins, urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and E-cadherin, were investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. In vitro invasion assay revealed that ATRA treatment could reduce the invasive potency in all the thyroid cancer cell lines, with the most significant effect in anaplastic cancer cells. Short-term adhesion assay suggested that ATRA increases cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) in C643, HTH74 and XTC.UC1, probably through a transcriptional and translational regulation of some attachment molecules. RT-PCR andWestern blot both revealed diminished expression of uPAR in all four carcinoma cell lines. In C643 and HTH74 cell lines, the expression of uPA was reduced and the expression of E-cadherin was increased, whereas the MMP-2 expression was not significantly down-regulated in ATRA-treated group. In ATRA-treated FTC-133 and XTC.UC1 cell lines, MMP-2 expression was decreased, but no significant changes in uPA and E-cadherin expression were observed. The present study demonstrates the influence of ATRA on both important determinants of metastatic behavior ("de-adhesion" and

  19. All trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induces re-differentiation of early transformed breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisi, Maria F; Starker, Rebecca A; Addya, Sankar; Huang, Yong; Fernandez, Sandra V

    2014-06-01

    Retinoids have been used as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents because of their differentiative, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) at different stages of the neoplastic transformation using an in vitro model of breast cancer progression. This model was previously developed by treating the MCF-10F human normal breast epithelial cells with high dose of estradiol and consists of four cell lines which show a progressive neoplastic transformation: MCF-10F, normal stage; trMCF, transformed MCF-10F; bsMCF, invasive stage; and caMCF, tumorigenic stage. In 3D cultures, MCF-10F cells form tubules resembling the structures in the normal mammary gland. After treatment with estradiol, these cells formed tubules and spherical masses which are indicative of transformation. Cells that only formed spherical masses in collagen were isolated (trMCF clone 11) and treated with ATRA. After treatment with 10 or 1 µM ATRA, the trMCF clone 11 cells showed tubules in collagen; 10 and 43% of the structures were tubules in cells treated with 10 and 1 µM ATRA, respectively. Gene expression studies showed that 207 genes upregulated in transformed trMCF clone 11 cells were downregulated after 1 µM ATRA treatment to levels comparable to those found in the normal breast epithelial cells MCF-10F. Furthermore, 236 genes that were downregulated in trMCF clone 11 were upregulated after 1 µM ATRA treatment to similar levels shown in normal epithelial cells. These 443 genes defined a signature of the ATRA re-programming effect. Our results showed that 1 µM ATRA was able to re-differentiate transformed cells at early stages of the neoplastic process and antagonistically regulate breast cancer associated genes. The invasive and tumorigenic cells did not show any changes in morphology after ATRA treatment. These results suggest that ATRA could be used as a chemopreventive agent to

  20. Retinoic acid signaling plays a restrictive role in zebrafish primitive myelopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liang

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA is known to regulate definitive myelopoiesis but its role in vertebrate primitive myelopoiesis remains unclear. Here we report that zebrafish primitive myelopoiesis is restricted by RA in a dose dependent manner mainly before 11 hpf (hours post fertilization when anterior hemangioblasts are initiated to form. RA treatment significantly reduces expressions of anterior hemangioblast markers scl, lmo2, gata2 and etsrp in the rostral end of ALPM (anterior lateral plate mesoderm of the embryos. The result indicates that RA restricts primitive myelopoiesis by suppressing formation of anterior hemangioblasts. Analyses of ALPM formation suggest that the defective primitive myelopoiesis resulting from RA treatment before late gastrulation may be secondary to global loss of cells for ALPM fate whereas the developmental defect resulting from RA treatment during 10-11 hpf should be due to ALPM patterning shift. Overexpressions of scl and lmo2 partially rescue the block of primitive myelopoiesis in the embryos treated with 250 nM RA during 10-11 hpf, suggesting RA acts upstream of scl to control primitive myelopoiesis. However, the RA treatment blocks the increased primitive myelopoiesis caused by overexpressing gata4/6 whereas the abolished primitive myelopoiesis in gata4/5/6 depleted embryos is well rescued by 4-diethylamino-benzaldehyde, a retinal dehydrogenase inhibitor, or partially rescued by knocking down aldh1a2, the major retinal dehydrogenase gene that is responsible for RA synthesis during early development. Consistently, overexpressing gata4/6 inhibits aldh1a2 expression whereas depleting gata4/5/6 increases aldh1a2 expression. The results reveal that RA signaling acts downstream of gata4/5/6 to control primitive myelopoiesis. But, 4-diethylamino-benzaldehyde fails to rescue the defective primitive myelopoiesis in either cloche embryos or lycat morphants. Taken together, our results demonstrate that RA signaling restricts

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of 13-cis retinoic acid in Indian high-risk neuroblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, Vikram; Chinnaswamy, Girish; Vora, Tushar; Rath, Sanhita; Yadav, Akanksha; Gurjar, Murari; Veal, Gareth; Kurkure, Purna

    2016-10-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetics of 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cisRA) between Indian and UK neuroblastoma patients receiving comparable treatment, alongside measures of toxicity and response. 13-cisRA (160 mg/m(2)/day) was administered to 36 patients ≤16 years in two divided doses. Plasma 13-cisRA concentrations were determined on days 1 and 14 of cycles 1 and 4 of treatment. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-6h) was estimated using non-compartment modelling. Patients were genotyped for UGT2B7, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A7*2 and *2, *3 and *4 variants of CYP2C8. Marked inter-patient variability in 13-cisRA pharmacokinetics was observed. There was a trend towards a higher AUC0-6h on day 1 versus day 14 for both treatment cycles studied. Children who swallowed 13-cisRA capsules (n = 18) achieved higher AUC0-6h values compared to those who could not (n = 16) (Mean AUC 21.53 vs. 9.35 µM h, P < 0.05). Patients who were event free at 1 year tended to have higher AUC0-6h on C1D1 compared to those patients who progressed, although this did not reach significance with the number of patients studied (P = 0.08). Similarly, patients who achieved a 13-cisRA C max of ≥2 µM on C1D1 tended to have higher median EFS compared to those who did not (17.0 vs. 8.1 months). UGT2B7, CYP2C8*2/*3/*4 or CYP3A5*3 genotype did not have any effect on 13-cisRA pharmacokinetics. Method of administration markedly affects 13-cisRA pharmacokinetics in Indian neuroblastoma patients, supporting similar findings in UK patients. An appropriate oral liquid formulation of 13-cisRA that can be administered to all children with neuroblastoma is urgently needed on an international level.

  2. Restricted expression and retinoic acid-induced downregulation of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) gene during mouse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederreither, K; McCaffery, P; Dräger, U C; Chambon, P; Dollé, P

    1997-02-01

    Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) was identified as a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the expression domains of the RALDH-2 gene during mouse embryogenesis, which are likely to indicate regions of endogenous retinoic acid (RA) synthesis. During early gastrulation, RALDH-2 is expressed in the mesoderm adjacent to the node and primitive streak. At the headfold stage, mesodermal expression is restricted to posterior regions up to the base of the headfolds. Later, RALDH-2 is transiently expressed in the undifferentiated somites and the optic vesicles, and more persistently along the lateral walls of the intraembryonic coelom and around the hindgut diverticulum. The RALDH-2 expression domains in differentiating limbs, which include presumptive interdigital regions, coincide with, but slightly precede, those of the RA-inducible RAR beta gene. The RALDH-2 gene is also expressed in specific regions of the developing head, including the tooth buds, inner ear, meninges and pituitary gland, and in several viscera. Administration of a teratogenic dose of RA at embryonic day 8.5 results in downregulation of RALDH-2 transcript levels in caudal regions of the embryo, and may reflect a mechanism of negative feedback regulation of RA synthesis.

  3. Tendon-muscle crosstalk controls muscle bellies morphogenesis, which is mediated by cell death and retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Guzman, Maria; Montero, Juan A; Santesteban, Elena; Gañan, Yolanda; Macias, Domingo; Hurle, Juan M

    2007-02-01

    Vertebrate muscle morphogenesis is a complex developmental process, which remains quite yet unexplored at cellular and molecular level. In this work, we have found that sculpturing programmed cell death is a key morphogenetic process responsible for the formation of individual foot muscles in the developing avian limb. Muscle fibers are produced in excess in the precursor dorsal and ventral muscle masses of the limb bud and myofibers lacking junctions with digital tendons are eliminated via apoptosis. Microsurgical experiments to isolate the developing muscles from their specific tendons are consistent with a role for tendons in regulating survival of myogenic cells. Analysis of the expression of Raldh2 and local treatments with retinoic acid indicate that this signaling pathway mediates apoptosis in myogenic cells, appearing also involved in tendon maturation. Retinoic acid inhibition experiments led to defects in muscle belly segmentation and myotendinous junction formation. It is proposed that heterogeneous local distribution of retinoids controlled through Raldh2 and Cyp26A1 is responsible for matching the fleshy and the tendinous components of each muscle belly.

  4. Impact of Triple Combinations of Retinoic Acid, Mold Spores and Citral on the F344 Rat Lung Tissue Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Holt-Gray, Carlene; Cameron, Joseph A; Tucci, Michelle; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2016-04-01

    The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) and Mold spores (MLD) in the development of lung pathology and in vivo tissue remodeling have not been well established in the literature. In addition, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in animal studies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Mold (MLD) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that Citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse, ameliorate or improve the associated pathological damage to lung tissues. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=40). Animals were exposed to seven different treatments including untreated control, MLD, ATRA, Citrals (C1 and C2) and their MLD combinations (MLD+ ATRA+ C1, and MLD+ ATRA+ C2) by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight and blood data were collected on Days 1 and 21, all animals were sacrificed on day 21, and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Results from weight and blood data (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as from histopathological analyses supported the findings that exposure of F344 rats to MLD combinations with ATRA and Citrals showed various levels of lung tissue damage that were impacted by either C1 or C2 exposure. This promising study showed impressive responses on the interaction of MLD, Citrals, and ATRA as related to their impact on associated lung tissue pathologies.

  5. Retinoic acid is required and Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling inhibit posterior lateral line placode induction in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Masataka; Navajas Acedo, Joaquin; Hatta, Kohei; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2017-11-15

    The lateral line system is a mechanosensory systems present in aquatic animals. The anterior and posterior lateral lines develop from anterior and posterior lateral line placodes (aLLp and pLLp), respectively. Although signaling molecules required for the induction of other cranial placodes have been well studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying formation of the lateral line placodes are unknown. In this study we tested the requirement of multiple signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Bmp Fgf, and Retinoic Acid for aLLp and pLLp induction. We determined that aLLp specification requires Fgf signaling, whilst pLLp specification requires retinoic acid which inhibits Fgf signaling. pLLp induction is also independent of Wnt and Bmp activities, even though these pathways limit the boundaries of the pLLp. This is the first report that the aLLp and pLLp depend on different inductive mechanisms and that pLLp induction requires the inhibition of Fgf, Wnt and Bmp signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Macrophages are targets of retinoic acid signaling during the wound-healing process after thulium laser resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dian-Jun; Wang, Xing-Jie; Shi, Yun-Feng; Jiang, Chen-Yi; Zhao, Rui-Zhe; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Chen, Li; Yang, Yuan-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2017-09-22

    The wound-healing process is very important for reducing complications after thulium laser resection of the prostate (TmLRP). The retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway has been well studied in the wound-healing process of the skin and other organs. The goals of this study were to identify the role of RA signaling in the repair of the prostate after TmLRP and to investigate the molecular mechanism of this process. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) were present in the prostate, and their expression was increased after TmLRP. RARβ was expressed in the macrophages and may be related to the role of stromal cells in the wound-healing process. In vitro, RA enhanced the function of anti-inflammatory macrophages and promoted stromal cell activation and angiogenesis. Arg1 was also increased via RARβ after treatment with RA. The expression of RARs was analyzed in vivo by immunohistochemistry (IHC), real time qPCR, and western blot analysis. THP-1 cells were co-treated with or without RA and stimulating factor and then assessed by ELISA and qPCR. The supernatants from these cells were cultured with stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells, and the effects on these cells were analyzed. We found that RA signaling was involved in the wound-healing process of the prostate after TmLRP. RA treated macrophages activated stromal cells and promoted angiogenesis. RARβ was the key isoform in this process.

  7. Molecular characterization and chromosomal assignment of equine cartilage derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP)/melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Lise Charlotte; Mata, Xavier; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage-derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP) also known as melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has already been established as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation and a number of cancerous condition sin humans. Studies have also shown that CD-RAP/MIA is a potential marker of joint...... to the human gene is 90% for the translated region. The upstream sequence includes regulatory elements and putative transcription factor binding sites previously described in the human and murine promoter regions. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 130 aa including a signal peptide of 23 aa, and has...... a 91% identity to the human protein. Using radiation hybrid mapping, the CD-RAP/MIA gene was localized to the p arm of equine chromosome 10 (ECA10p), which is in accordance with prediction based on the current human-equine comparative map. Gene expression studies showed expression of CD-RAP/MIA m...

  8. Co-delivery of all-trans-retinoic acid enhances the anti-metastasis effect of albumin-bound paclitaxel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Shi, Hongdong; Liu, Jing; Min, Yuanzeng; Wang, Yucai; Wang, Andrew Z; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yangzhong

    2016-12-20

    Co-delivery of all-trans-retinoic acid and paclitaxel using albumin-bound nanoparticles demonstrated a significantly improved anti-metastatic effect to breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, the co-delivery nanoparticles exhibited more pronounced therapeutic effects than the combination of two free drugs or two HSA loaded single drugs.

  9. Differentiation syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all- trans retinoic acid and anthracycline chemotherapy: Characteristics, outcome, and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Montesinos (Pau); J.M. Bergua (Juan Miguel); E. Vellenga (Edo); C. Rayón (Chelo); R. Parody (Ricardo); J. de Serna (Javier); A. León (Angel); J. Esteve (Jordi); G. Milone (Gustavo); G. Debén (Guillermo); C. Rivas (Concha); M. González (Marcos); M. Tormo (Mar); D.M. Joaquín; J.D. González (José David); S. Negri (Silvia); E. Amutio (Elena); S. Brunet (Salut); B. Löwenberg (Bob); M.A. Sanz (Miguel Angel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDifferentiation syndrome (DS) can be a life-threatening complication in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) undergoing induction therapy with all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Detailed knowl- edge about DS has remained limited. We present an analysis of the incidence, char-

  10. Prognostic value of FLT3 mutations in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragan, Eva; Montesinos, Pau; Camos, Mireia; Gonzalez, Marcos; Calasanz, Maria J.; Roman-Gomez, Jose; Gomez-Casares, Maria T.; Ayala, Rosa; Lopez, Javier; Fuster, Oscar; Colomer, Dolors; Chillon, Carmen; Larrayoz, Maria J.; Sanchez-Godoy, Pedro; Gonzalez-Campos, Jose; Manso, Felix; Amador, Maria L.; Vellenga, Edo; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene mutations are frequent in acute promyelocytic leukemia but their prognostic value is not well established. Design and Methods We evaluated FLT3-internal tandem duplication and FLT3-D835 mutations in patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid and

  11. Differentiation syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline chemotherapy : characteristics, outcome, and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, Pau; Bergua, Juan M.; Vellenga, Edo; Rayon, Chelo; Parody, Ricardo; de la Serna, Javier; Leon, Angel; Esteve, Jordi; Milone, Gustavo; Deben, Guillermo; Rivas, Concha; Gonzalez, Marcos; Tormo, Mar; Diaz-Mediavilla, Joaquin; Gonzalez, Jose D.; Negri, Silvia; Amutio, Elena; Brunet, Salut; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Differentiation syndrome (DS) can be a life-threatening complication in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) undergoing induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid ( ATRA). Detailed knowledge about DS has remained limited. We present an analysis of the incidence, characteristics,

  12. Mutual exclusivity analysis of genetic and epigenetic drivers in melanoma identifies a link between p14ARF and retinoic acid receptor β signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christina; Christensen, Claus; Jonsson, Goran

    2013-01-01

    patterns. We found statistically significant mutual exclusivity among components of each of the p16INK4A-CDK4-RB, RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT pathways. In addition, we found an inverse correlation between promoter hypermethylation of RARB (encoding retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ)) and CDKN2A alterations...

  13. Synergistic effect of all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide on growth inhibition and apoptosis in human hepatoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Le-Min; Li, Bao-Xin; Xiao, Jian-Bing; Lin, Dan-Hua; Yang, Bao-Feng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced apoptosis of human hepatoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer cells in an attempt to find a better combination therapy for solid tumors.

  14. ENHANCEMENT OF CISPLATIN AND ETOPOSIDE CYTOTOXICITY AFTER ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC-ACID-INDUCED CELLULAR-DIFFERENTIATION OF A MURINE EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELL-LINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GUCHELAAR, HL; TIMMERBOSSCHA, H; DAMMEIRING, A; UGES, DRA; OOSTERHUIS, JW; DEVRIES, EGE; MULDER, NH

    1993-01-01

    The potential of a combination of differentiation induction and chemotherapy was analyzed. Treatment of the murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line PCC4 in vitro with all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) was followed by exposure to cisplatin (CDDP) or etoposide (VP-16). The expression of EC-cell-specific

  15. ID1 and ID2 are retinoic acid responsive genes and induce a G0/G1 accumulation in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigten, J.; Ridder, M.C. de; Erpelinck-Verschueren, C.A.; Nikoloski, G.; Reijden, B.A. van der; Wageningen, S. van; Hennik, P.B. van; Witte, T.J.M. de; Lowenberg, B.; Jansen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is uniquely sensitive to treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which results in the expression of genes that induce the terminal granulocytic differentiation of the leukemic blasts. Here we report the identification of two ATRA responsive genes in APL

  16. Antagonistic and synergistic effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 and all-trans retinoic acid on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bi, W.; Gu, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Wang, L.; Guo, J.; Wu, G.

    2013-01-01

    The osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is of paramount importance for the repair of large-size bone defects, which may be compromised by the dietary-accumulated all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We have shown that heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 (BMP2/7) could induce bone

  17. PRAME-induced inhibition of retinoic acid receptor signaling-mediated differentiation--a possible target for ATRA response in AML without t(15;17).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Lars; Schlenk, Richard F; Götz, Marlies; Botzenhardt, Ursula; Hofmann, Susanne; Russ, Annika C; Babiak, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Schneider, Vanessa; Döhner, Konstanze; Schmitt, Michael; Döhner, Hartmut; Greiner, Jochen

    2013-05-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) without retinoic acid receptor (RAR) rearrangement, the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is still poorly understood despite an association of NPM1 mutation and ATRA response. Recently, preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) has been shown to be a dominant repressor of RAR signaling. Thus, we further investigated ATRA response mechanisms, especially the impact of PRAME expression on ATRA responsiveness. We profiled gene expression in diagnostic samples derived from our AML HD98B trial, in which ATRA was administered in addition to intensive chemotherapy. Our data revealed a PRAME expression-associated gene pattern to be significantly enriched for genes involved in the retinoic acid metabolic process. In leukemia cell line models, we could show that retinoic acid-regulated cell proliferation and differentiation are impacted by PRAME expression. In patients with primary AML, repressor activity of high-PRAME levels might be overcome by the addition of ATRA as indicated by better outcome in 2 independent studies (P = 0.029). PRAME seems to impair differentiation and to increase proliferation likely via blocking RAR signaling, which might be reversed by ATRA. PRAME therefore represents a promising target for both ATRA treatment and possibly future immunotherapeutic approaches in AML. ©2013 AACR.

  18. Retinoid metabolism and all-trans retinoic acid-induced growth inhibition in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Klaassen, I.; Leede, B.M. van der; Cloos, J.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Copper, M.P.; Teerlink, T.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Saag, P.T. van der; Snow, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    Retinoids can reverse potentially premalignant lesions and prevent second primary tumours in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Furthermore, it has been reported that acquired resistance to all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in leukaemia is associated with decreased plasma peak

  19. Embryonic delivered dose of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) and its metabolites in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, C; Willhite, C C

    1997-09-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA) is required in normal embryogenesis and both deficiency and excess are teratogenic. Isotretinoin (13-cis-RA) is teratogenic in all species examined; based on administered dose, humans appear most sensitive, followed by (in order or decreasing sensitivity) monkey, rabbit, hamster, mouse, and rat. Identification of the teratogenic threshold in these species is difficult because RAs are normal physiologic constituents. The rabbit no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) administered doses (3 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively, on gestation Days 8-11) are less than the corresponding values in hamster (7.5 and 37.5 mg/kg/day, respectively, on gestation Days 7 and 8), but drawing conclusions from administered dose alone ignores differences in absorbed, metabolized, and embryonic delivered dose. Therefore, distribution and metabolism studies of 13-cis-RA at the NOAEL and LOAEL in pregnant hamsters were performed and plasma and tissue concentrations of parent compound and metabolites were compared to those found in rabbits. Metabolites of 13-cis-RA common to all species include three RAs (all-trans-RA, all-trans-4-oxoRA, 13-cis-4-oxoRA) and the glucuronide conjugate of 13-cis-RA (13-cis-RAG). As in rabbits, we found 13-cis-4-oxoRA also to be the major metabolite of 13-cis-RA in hamster plasma, peripheral tissues, and embryo. Of maternal tissues, peak 13-cis-RA concentrations were highest in liver. Total concentration of RA (13-cis-RA + 13-cis-4-oxoRA + all-trans-RA + all-trans-4-oxoRA) per gram of wet tissue was greatest in maternal liver, followed by that in lung, adipose tissue, muscle, kidney, and brain. At the NOAEL, total RA plasma Cmax in hamster was 6 times that in rabbit; at the LOAEL, hamster plasma total RA Cmax was 4 times that in rabbit. Hamster absorbed and metabolized dose (as AUC of plasma total RA) at the NOAEL and LOAEL was 2.6 and 2.4 times that in rabbit, respectively. In

  20. Incidence of secondary neoplasms in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid plus chemotherapy or with all-trans retinoic acid plus arsenic trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedar, Alireza; Rodriguez, Ildefonso; Kantarjian, Hagop; O'Brien, Susan; Daver, Naval; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kadia, Tapan; Pierce, Sherry; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad

    2015-05-01

    The incidence and pattern of secondary neoplasms in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-containing regimens is not well described. We compared 160 patients with APL treated with ATRA plus idarubicin (n = 54) or ATRA plus arsenic trioxide (ATO) (n = 106) for the incidence of secondary cancers per unit time of follow-up. Median follow-up times for the two cohorts were 136 and 29 months, respectively. Nine patients developed secondary cancers in the chemotherapy group. These included two breast cancers, three myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia, one vulvar cancer, one prostate cancer, one colon cancer and one soft tissue sarcoma. A melanoma and one pancreatic cancer developed in the ATO group. We conclude that treatment of patients with APL using the non-chemotherapy regimen of ATRA plus ATO is not associated with a higher incidence of secondary cancers (p = 0.29) adjusted for unit time of exposure.

  1. Induction of CYP26A1 by Metabolites of Retinoic Acid: Evidence That CYP26A1 Is an Important Enzyme in the Elimination of Active Retinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topletz, Ariel R.; Tripathy, Sasmita; Foti, Robert S.; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Nelson, Wendel L.

    2015-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, induces gene transcription via binding to nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs). The primary hydroxylated metabolites formed from atRA by CYP26A1, and the subsequent metabolite 4-oxo-atRA, bind to RARs and potentially have biologic activity. Hence, CYP26A1, the main atRA hydroxylase, may function either to deplete bioactive retinoids or to form active metabolites. This study aimed to determine the role of CYP26A1 in modulating RAR activation via formation and elimination of active retinoids. After treatment of HepG2 cells with atRA, (4S)-OH-atRA, (4R)-OH-atRA, 4-oxo-atRA, and 18-OH-atRA, mRNAs of CYP26A1 and RARβ were increased 300- to 3000-fold, with 4-oxo-atRA and atRA being the most potent inducers. However, >60% of the 4-OH-atRA enantiomers were converted to 4-oxo-atRA in the first 12 hours of treatment, suggesting that the activity of the 4-OH-atRA was due to 4-oxo-atRA. In human hepatocytes, atRA, 4-OH-atRA, and 4-oxo-atRA induced CYP26A1 and 4-oxo-atRA formation was observed from 4-OH-atRA. In HepG2 cells, 4-oxo-atRA formation was observed even in the absence of CYP26A1 activity and this formation was not inhibited by ketoconazole. In human liver microsomes, 4-oxo-atRA formation was supported by NAD+, suggesting that 4-oxo-atRA formation is mediated by a microsomal alcohol dehydrogenase. Although 4-oxo-atRA was not formed by CYP26A1, it was depleted by CYP26A1 (Km = 63 nM and intrinsic clearance = 90 μl/min per pmol). Similarly, CYP26A1 depleted 18-OH-atRA and the 4-OH-atRA enantiomers. These data support the role of CYP26A1 to clear bioactive retinoids, and suggest that the enzyme forming active 4-oxo-atRA may be important in modulating retinoid action. PMID:25492813

  2. Coordinated Role of Toll-Like Receptor-3 and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I in the Innate Response of Bovine Endometrial Cells to Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C. Carneiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infect the uterus of cattle, often resulting in reduced fertility, or abortion of the fetus, respectively. Here, exposure of primary bovine endometrial cells to BoHV-4 or BVDV modulated the production of inflammatory mediators. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs are detected via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs. However, the relative contribution of specific PRRs to innate immunity, during viral infection of the uterus, is unclear. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells constitutively express the PRR Toll-like receptor (TLR-3, but, the status of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a sensor of cytosolic nucleic acids, is unknown. Primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells had low expression of RIG-I, which was increased in stromal cells after 12 h transfection with the TLR3 ligand Poly(I:C, a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, short interfering RNA targeting TLR3, or interferon (IFN regulatory transcription factor 3, an inducer of type I IFN transcription, reduced Poly(I:C-induced RIG-I protein expression and reduced inflammatory mediator secretion from stromal cells. We conclude that antiviral defense of endometrial stromal cells requires coordinated recognition of PAMPs, initially via TLR3 and later via inducible RIG-I.

  3. The Aldo-Keto Reductase AKR1B10 Is Up-Regulated in Keloid Epidermis, Implicating Retinoic Acid Pathway Dysregulation in the Pathogenesis of Keloid Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, Natalie; Hodgkinson, Tom; Arscott, Guyan; Har-Shai, Yaron; Paus, Ralf; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2016-07-01

    Keloid disease is a recurrent fibroproliferative cutaneous tumor of unknown pathogenesis for which clinical management remains unsatisfactory. To obtain new insights into hitherto underappreciated aspects of keloid pathobiology, we took a laser capture microdissection-based, whole-genome microarray analysis approach to identify distinct keloid disease-associated gene expression patterns within defined keloid regions. Identification of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme AKR1B10 as highly up-regulated in keloid epidermis suggested that an imbalance of retinoic acid metabolism is likely associated with keloid disease. Here, we show that AKR1B10 transfection into normal human keratinocytes reproduced the abnormal retinoic acid pathway expression pattern we had identified in keloid epidermis. Cotransfection of AKR1B10 with a luciferase reporter plasmid showed reduced retinoic acid response element activity, supporting the hypothesis of retinoic acid synthesis deficiency in keloid epidermis. Paracrine signals released by AKR1B10-overexpressing keratinocytes into conditioned medium resulted in up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β1, transforming growth factor-β2, and collagens I and III in both keloid and normal skin fibroblasts, mimicking the typical profibrotic keloid profile. Our study results suggest that insufficient retinoic acid synthesis by keloid epidermal keratinocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of keloid disease. We refocus attention on the role of injured epithelium in keloid disease and identify AKR1B10 as a potential new target in future management of keloid disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. All-trans retinoic acid enhances bystander effect of suicide gene therapy in the treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Heng; Liu, Xia; Yang, Liucheng; Qi, Ke; Zhang, Haoyun; Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Zonghai; Wang, Hongxian

    2016-03-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to enhance the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and the bystander effect (BSE) in suicide gene therapy. These in turn improve effects of suicide gene therapies for several tumor types. However, whether ATRA can improve BSE remains unclear in suicide gene therapy for breast cancer. In the present study, MCF-7, human breast cancer cells were treated with ATRA in combination with a VEGFP-TK/CD gene suicide system developed by our group. We found that this combination enhances the efficiency of cell killing and apoptosis of breast cancer by strengthening the BSE in vitro. ATRA also promotes gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in MCF-7 cells by upregulation of the connexin 43 mRNA and protein in MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that enhancement of GJIC by ATRA in suicide gene system might serve as an attractive and cost-effective strategy of therapy for breast cancer cells.

  5. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation, amyloidogenesis and memory impairment in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behairi, Nassima; Belkhelfa, Mourad; Rafa, Hayet; Labsi, Moussa; Deghbar, Nahla; Bouzid, Nora; Mesbah-Amroun, Hamida; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2016-11-15

    We aimed to investigate preventive effects of All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced aged neuroinflammation model. We analyzed behavior, systemic nitric oxide (NO) production, cerebral NO synthase (NOS2) and β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42 expression and tissue integrity in the neuroinflammation model pretreated with ATRA (150μg/ml/rat/day) for 30days. Our results showed that LPS treatment (500μg/kg/day) for 7days disturbed memory, enhanced systemic NO production, NOS2 and Aβ 1-42 cerebral expression and generated an Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuronal degeneration. Interestingly, ATRA pretreatment prevented the LPS-induced deleterious effects. ATRA could be a potent preventive approach in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A newborn lethal defect due to inactivation of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 3 is prevented by maternal retinoic acid treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupé, Valérie; Matt, Nicolas; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Chambon, Pierre; Mark, Manuel; Ghyselinck, Norbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The retinoic acid (RA) signal, produced locally from vitamin A by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) and transduced by the nuclear receptors for retinoids (RA receptor and 9-cis-RA receptor), is indispensable for ontogenesis and homeostasis of numerous tissues. We demonstrate that Raldh3 knockout in mouse suppresses RA synthesis and causes malformations restricted to ocular and nasal regions, which are similar to those observed in vitamin A-deficient fetuses and/or in retinoid receptor mutants. Raldh3 knockout notably causes choanal atresia (CA), which is responsible for respiratory distress and death of Raldh3-null mutants at birth. CA is due to persistence of nasal fins, whose rupture normally allows the communication between nasal and oral cavities. This malformation, which is similar to isolated congenital CA in humans and may result from impaired RA-controlled down-regulation of Fgf8 expression in nasal fins, can be prevented by a simple maternal treatment with RA. PMID:14623956

  7. Retinoic acid combined with spermatogonial stem cell conditions facilitate the generation of mouse germ-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Guoyi; Shang, Zhouchun; Liu, Longqi

    2017-01-01

    Spermatogenic lineage has been directly generated in spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) conditions from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, it remains unknown whether mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can directly differentiate into advanced male germ cell lineage in the same conditions. Here......, we showed rather low efficiency of germ-like cell generation from mouse ESCs in SSC conditions. Interestingly, addition of retinoic acid (RA) into SSC conditions enabled efficient differentiation of mouse ESCs into germ-like cells, as shown by the activation of spermatogenesis-associated genes...... such as Mvh, Dazl, Prdm14, Stella, Scp1, Scp3, Stra8 and Rec8. In contrast, for cells cultured in control medium, the activation of the above genes barely occurred. In addition, RA with SSC conditions yielded colonies of Acrosin-expressing cells and the positive ratio reached a peak at day 6. Our work thus...

  8. A human induced pluripotent stem cell-based in vitro assay predicts developmental toxicity through a retinoic acid receptor-mediated pathway for a series of related retinoid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jessica A; Smith, Alan M; Egnash, Laura A; Colwell, Michael R; Donley, Elizabeth L R; Kirchner, Fred R; Burrier, Robert E

    2017-07-23

    The relative developmental toxicity potency of a series of retinoid analogues was evaluated using a human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell assay that measures changes in the biomarkers ornithine and cystine. Analogue potency was predicted, based on the assay endpoint of the ornithine/cystine (o/c) ratio, to be all-trans-retinoic acid>TTNPB>13-cis-retinoic acid≈9-cis-retinoic acid>acitretin>etretinate>retinol. These rankings correlate with in vivo data and demonstrate successful application of the assay to rank a series of related toxic and non-toxic compounds. The retinoic acid receptor α (RARα)-selective antagonist Ro 41-5253 inhibited the cystine perturbation caused by all-trans-retinoic acid, TTNPB, 13-cis-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and acitretin. Ornithine was altered independent of RARα in all retinoids except acitretin. These results suggest a role for an RARα-mediated mechanism in retinoid-induced developmental toxicity through altered cystine metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol impairs activation of retinoic acid receptors in cerebellar granule cells in a rodent model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ambrish; Singh, Chandra K; DiPette, Donald D; Singh, Ugra S

    2010-05-01

    Ethanol is the main addictive and neurotoxic constituent of alcohol. Ethanol exposure during embryonic development causes dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) and leads to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The cerebellum is one of the CNS regions that are particularly vulnerable to ethanol toxic effects. Retinoic acid (RA) is a physiologically active metabolite of vitamin A that is locally synthesized in the cerebellum. Studies have shown that RA is required for neuronal development, but it remains unknown if ethanol impairs RA signaling and thus induces neuronal malformations. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol impairs the expression and activation of RA receptors in cerebellum and in cerebellar granule cells. The cerebellum of ethanol unexposed and exposed pups was used to study the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RARs or RXRs) by immunohistochemistry and by Western blot analysis. We also studied the effect of ethanol on expression of RA receptors in the cerebellar granule cells. Activation of RA receptors (DNA-binding activities) in response to high-dose ethanol was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. Findings from these studies demonstrated that ethanol exposure reduced the expression of RARalpha/gamma while it increased the expression of RXRalpha/gamma in the cerebellum and in cerebellar granule neurons. Immuno-histological studies further strengthened the expression pattern of RA receptors in response to ethanol. The DNA-binding activity of RARs was reduced, while DNA-binding activity of RXRs was increased in response to ethanol exposure. For the first time, our studies have demonstrated that high-dose ethanol affects the expression and activation of RA receptors, which could impair the signaling events and induce harmful effects on the survival and differentiation of cerebellar granule cells. Taken together, these findings could provide insight into the treatment options for brain defects

  10. Retinoic acid mediates long-paced oscillations in retinoid receptor activity: evidence for a potential role for RIP140.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C Heim

    Full Text Available Mechanisms that underlie oscillatory transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors (NRs are incompletely understood. Evidence exists for rapid, cyclic recruitment of coregulatory complexes upon activation of nuclear receptors. RIP140 is a NR coregulator that represses the transactivation of agonist-bound nuclear receptors. Previously, we showed that RIP140 is inducible by all-trans retinoic acid (RA and mediates limiting, negative-feedback regulation of retinoid signaling.Here we report that in the continued presence of RA, long-paced oscillations of retinoic acid receptor (RAR activity occur with a period ranging from 24 to 35 hours. Endogenous expression of RIP140 and other RA-target genes also oscillate in the presence of RA. Cyclic retinoid receptor transactivation is ablated by constitutive overexpression of RIP140. Further, depletion of RIP140 disrupts cyclic expression of the RA target gene HOXA5. Evidence is provided that RIP140 may limit RAR signaling in a selective, non-redundant manner in contrast to the classic NR coregulators NCoR1 and SRC1 that are not RA-inducible, do not cycle, and may be partially redundant in limiting RAR activity. Finally, evidence is provided that RIP140 can repress and be induced by other nuclear receptors in a manner that suggests potential participation in other NR oscillations.We provide evidence for novel, long-paced oscillatory retinoid receptor activity and hypothesize that this may be paced in part, by RIP140. Oscillatory NR activity may be involved in mediating hormone actions of physiological and pathological importance.

  11. Cleft lip with or without cleft palate: Associations with transforming growth factor alpha and retinoic acid receptor loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenevix-Trench, G.; Jones, K. (Queensland Inst. of Medical Research (Australia) Univ. of Queensland (Australia)); Green, A.C.; Duffy, D.L.; Martin, N.G. (Queensland Inst. of Medical Research (Australia))

    1992-12-01

    The first association study of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), with candidate genes, found an association with the transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) locus. This finding has since been replicated, in whole or in part, in three independent studies. Here the authors extend their original analysis of the TGFA TaqI RFLP to two other TGFA RFLPs and seven other RFLPs at five candidate genes in 117 nonsyndromic cases of CL/P and 113 controls. The other candidate genes were the retinoic acid receptor (RARA), the bcl-2 oncogene, and the homeobox genes 2F, 2G, and EN2. Significant associations with the TGFA TaqI and BamHI RFLPs were confirmed, although associations of clefting with previously reported haplotypes did not reach significance. Of particular interest, in view of the known teratogenic role of retinoic acid, was a significant association with the RARA PstI RFLP (P = .016; not corrected for multiple testing). The effect on risk of the A2 allele appears to be additive, and although the A2A2 homozygote only has an odds ratio of about 2 and recurrence risk to first-degree relatives ([lambda][sub 1]) of 1.06, because it is so common it may account for as much as a third of the attributable risk of clefting. There is no evidence of interaction between the TGFA and RARA polymorphisms on risk, and jointly they appear to account for almost half the attributable risk of clefting. 43 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Detection of retinoic acid receptor antagonist contamination in the aquatic environment of the Kinki region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Sawada, Kazuko; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

    2016-10-15

    Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonists are potential toxic compounds that can cause teratogenesis in vertebrates. This study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of RAR antagonist contamination in aquatic environments and identify its potential sources in detail. To accomplish this, the RAR antagonistic activities of surface waters of two rivers (the Yodo River and the Ina River) and influents and effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Kinki region of Japan were investigated using a yeast two-hybrid assay. In the investigated rivers, remarkable RAR antagonistic activities were detected relatively consistently in specific regions, although the levels varied with time, and tended to increase downstream of municipal WWTPs. Investigations of WWTPs also revealed that RAR antagonists were present at remarkably high levels in municipal wastewater, and that RAR antagonist contamination remained in effluent after activated sludge treatments. Comparison of the concentration factors that reduced 50% of the RAR agonistic activity of 10(-7) M all-trans retinoic acid (IC50) for selected river water and WWTP effluent samples revealed that the contamination levels were greater in effluent (IC50: concentration factors of 92-313) than river water (IC50: concentration factors of 10.2-68.9). These results indicate that municipal WWTPs could be an important source of RAR antagonist contamination in the receiving rivers. Fractionations with high-performance liquid chromatography directed by the bioassay indicated that there were multiple RAR antagonists in municipal wastewater. Although a trial to identify the causative compounds in municipal wastewater was not completed, multiple bioactive peaks that should be studied further were isolated. This study clarified the occurrence of novel endocrine disrupting chemicals (i.e., RAR antagonists) in the aquatic environment at the watershed level and identified their possible source for the first time, which

  13. Nicotinamide attenuates aquaporin 3 overexpression induced by retinoic acid through inhibition of EGFR/ERK in cultured human skin keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiuzu; Xu, Aie; Pan, Wei; Wallin, Brittany; Kivlin, Rebecca; Lu, Shan; Cao, Cong; Bi, Zhigang; Wan, Yinsheng

    2008-08-01

    The most common adverse effects that are related to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment are irritation and dryness of the skin. atRA therapy is reported to impair barrier function as achieved by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatment with nicotinamide prior to initiation of atRA therapy provides additional barrier protection and thus reduces susceptibility of retinoic acid. Our previous studies showed that atRA upregulates aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in cultured human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Others have demonstrated that in atopic dermatitis, overexpression of AQP3 is linked to elevated TEWL and that nicotinamide treatment reduces skin TEWL. In this study, we observed that while atRA upregulates AQP3 expression in cultured human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), nicotinamide attenuates the effect of atRA in a concentration-dependent manner. atRA treatment induces EGFR and ERK activation. PD153035, an EGFR inhibitor, and U0126, an ERK inhibitor, inhibit atRA-induced upregulation of AQP3. Nicotinamide also inhibits atRA-induced activation of EGFR/ERK signal transduction and decreases water permeability by downregulating AQP3 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that the effect of atRA on AQP3 expression is at least partly mediated by EGFR/ERK signaling in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Nicotinamide attenuates atRA-induced AQP3 expression through inhibition of EGFR/ERK signal transduction and eventually decreases water permeability and water loss. Our study provides insights into the molecular mechanism through which nicotinamide reverses the side effects of dryness in human skin after treatment with atRA.

  14. Phosphorylation of the retinoic acid receptor alpha induces a mechanical allosteric regulation and changes in internal dynamics.

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    Yassmine Chebaro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor proteins constitute a superfamily of proteins that function as ligand dependent transcription factors. They are implicated in the transcriptional cascades underlying many physiological phenomena, such as embryogenesis, cell growth and differentiation, and apoptosis, making them one of the major signal transduction paradigms in metazoans. Regulation of these receptors occurs through the binding of hormones, and in the case of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR, through the binding of retinoic acid (RA. In addition to this canonical scenario of RAR activity, recent discoveries have shown that RAR regulation also occurs as a result of phosphorylation. In fact, RA induces non-genomic effects, such as the activation of kinase signaling pathways, resulting in the phosphorylation of several targets including RARs themselves. In the case of RARα, phosphorylation of Ser369 located in loop L9-10 of the ligand-binding domain leads to an increase in the affinity for the protein cyclin H, which is part of the Cdk-activating kinase complex of the general transcription factor TFIIH. The cyclin H binding site in RARα is situated more than 40 Å from the phosphorylated serine. Using molecular dynamics simulations of the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of the receptor RARα, we analyzed the structural implications of receptor phosphorylation, which led to the identification of a structural mechanism for the allosteric coupling between the two remote sites of interest. The results show that phosphorylation leads to a reorganization of a local salt bridge network, which induces changes in helix extension and orientation that affects the cyclin H binding site. This results in changes in conformation and flexibility of the latter. The high conservation of the residues implicated in this signal transduction suggests a mechanism that could be applied to other nuclear receptor proteins.

  15. All-trans retinoic acid upregulates reduced CD38 transcription in lymphoblastoid cell lines from Autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebold, Mathias; Mankuta, David; Lerer, Elad; Israel, Salomon; Zhong, Songfa; Nemanov, Luba; Monakhov, Mikhail V; Levi, Shlomit; Yirmiya, Nurit; Yaari, Maya; Malavasi, Fabio; Ebstein, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in social behavior in mice lacking the CD38 gene have been attributed to impaired secretion of oxytocin. In humans, similar deficits in social behavior are associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), for which genetic variants of CD38 have been pinpointed as provisional risk factors. We sought to explore, in an in vitro model, the feasibility of the theory that restoring the level of CD38 in ASD patients could be of potential clinical benefit. CD38 transcription is highly sensitive to several cytokines and vitamins. One of these, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a known inducer of CD38, was added during cell culture and tested on a large sample of N = 120 lymphoblastoid cell (LBC) lines from ASD patients and their parents. Analysis of CD38 mRNA levels shows that ATRA has an upmodulatory potential on LBC derived from ASD patients as well as from their parents. The next crucial issue addressed in our study was the relationship between levels of CD38 expression and psychological parameters. The results obtained indicate a positive correlation between CD38 expression levels and patient scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. In addition, analysis of the role of genetic polymorphisms in the dynamics of the molecule revealed that the genotype of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs6449182; C>G variation) in the CpG island of intron 1, harboring the retinoic-acid response element, exerts differential roles in CD38 expression in ASD and in parental LBC. In conclusion, our results provide an empirical basis for the development of a pharmacological ASD treatment strategy based on retinoids.

  16. Effects of retinoic acid and hydrogen peroxide on sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a activation during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eldaim, Mabrouk A. Abd; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Terao, Akira; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Both retinoic acid (RA) and oxidative stress (H2O2) increased transcription and cleavage of membrane-bound sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, leading to enhanced transcription of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in hepatoma cells. On the other hand, RA and H2O2 decreased and increased lipogenesis in adipocytes, respectively, although roles of SREBP-1 activation in these effects remain to be elucidated. To elucidate its involvement, we examined the activation of SREBP...

  17. The role of retinoic acid receptors and their cognate ligands in reproduction in a context of triorganotin based endocrine disrupting chemicals

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    Macejova Dana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA, an active form of vitamin A, regulates the embryonic development, male and female reproduction and induces important effects on the cell development, proliferation, and differentiation. These effects are mediated by the retinoid (RAR and rexinoid nuclear receptors (RXR, which are considered to be a ligand-activated, DNA-binding, trans-acting, and transcription-modulating proteins, involved in a general molecular mechanism responsible for the transcriptional responses in target genes. Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine disrupting substances. They may affect processes of reproductive system in mammals, predominantly via nuclear receptor signaling pathways. Triorganotins, such as tributyltin chloride (TBTCl and triphenyltin chloride (TPTCl, are capable to bind to RXR molecules, and thus represent potent agonists of RXR subtypes of nuclear receptors not sharing any structural characteristics with endogenous ligands of nuclear receptors. Th is article summarizes selected effects of biologically active retinoids and rexinoids on both male and female reproduction and also deals with the effects of organotin compounds evoking endocrine disrupting actions in reproduction.

  18. Realgar-induced apoptosis and differentiation in all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-sensitive NB4 and ATRA-resistant MR2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Fang, Yi; Ma, Liheng; Liu, Shanxi; Li, Xinmin

    2012-04-01

    Realgar has been used in Western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine since ancient times, and its promising anticancer activity has attracted much attention in recent years, especially for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the therapeutic action of realgar treatment for APL remains to be fully elucidated. Cellular cytotoxicity, proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation were comprehensively investigated in realgar-treated cell lines derived from PML-RARα+ APL patient, including the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-sensitive NB4 and ATRA-resistant MR2 cell lines. For analysis of key regulators of apoptosis and differentiation, gene expression profiles were performed in NB4 cells. Realgar was found to induce apoptosis and differentiation in both cell lines, and these effects were exerted simultaneously. Gene expression profiles indicated that genes influenced by realgar treatment were involved in the modulation of signal transduction, translation, transcription, metabolism and the immune response. Given its low toxicity, realgar is a promising alternative reagent for the therapy of APL. Our data contribute to an understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for the therapeutic effects of realgar in the clinical treatment of APL.

  19. In vitro induction and differentiation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neuron-like cells by all-trans retinoic acid

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    Wei Jin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the optimal concentration for inducing the differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs into neuron-like cells, although it is understood that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA regulates cell proliferation in the nervous system by modulating the balance between mitosis and apoptosis. METHODS: The abilities of ATRA to promote apoptosis as well as neural differentiation were assessed in cultured hUC-MSCs by morphological observation, MTT assay, annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: The data showed that low concentrations of ATRA (0.5 µmol, 0.25 µmol had no effect on the number of cells. However, treatment with 1.0 µmol or 2.0 µmol ATRA induced a 24.16% and 52.67% reduction in cell number, respectively, compared with vehicle-treated cultures. Further, 4.0 µmol ATRA had a potent effect on cell number, with almost no adherent cells recovered after 24h. We further showed that 0.5 µmol ATRA caused these cells to express characteristic markers of neuronal progenitor cells. CONCLUSION: Taken together, we conclude that ATRA has a dose-dependent influence on the neural differentiation and apoptosis of hUC-MSCs. These findings have implications on the use of ATRA-differentiated hUC-MSCs for the study of neural degeneration diseases.

  20. A Possible Mechanism of Zika Virus Associated Microcephaly: Imperative Role of Retinoic Acid Response Element (RARE Consensus Sequence Repeats in the Viral Genome.

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    Ashutosh Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the reports of microcephaly as a consistent outcome in the foetuses of pregnant women infected with ZIKV in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV - microcephaly etiomechanistic relationship has recently been implicated. Researchers, however, are still struggling to establish an embryological basis for this interesting causal handcuff. The present study reveals robust evidence in favour of a plausible ZIKV-microcephaly cause-effect liaison. The rationale is based on: (1 sequence homology between ZIKV genome and the response element of an early neural tube developmental marker ‘retinoic acid’ in human DNA and (2 comprehensive similarities between the details of brain defects in ZIKV-microcephaly and retinoic acid embryopathy. Retinoic acid is considered as the earliest factor for regulating anteroposterior axis of neural tube and positioning of structures in developing brain through retinoic acid response elements (RARE consensus sequence (5′–AGGTCA–3′ in promoter regions of retinoic acid-dependent genes. We screened genomic sequences of already reported virulent ZIKV strains (including those linked to microcephaly and other viruses available in National Institute of Health genetic sequence database (GenBank for the RARE consensus repeats and obtained results strongly bolstering our hypothesis that ZIKV strains associated with microcephaly may act through precipitation of dysregulation in retinoic acid-dependent genes by introducing extra stretches of RARE consensus sequence repeats in the genome of developing brain cells. Additional support to our hypothesis comes from our findings that screening of other viruses for RARE consensus sequence repeats is positive only for those known to display neurotropism and cause foetal brain defects (for which maternal-foetal transmission during developing stage may be required. The numbers of RARE sequence repeats appeared to match with the virulence of screened positive viruses. Although bioinformatic

  1. Further evidence of a relationship between the retinoic acid receptor alpha locus and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL [+-] P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, D.; Field, L. (Univ. of Calgary (Canada)); Ray, A. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada)); Marazita, M. (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Chenevix-Trench et al. (1992) reported a significant difference between nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL [+-] P) cases and unrelated controls in the frequency of alleles at the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) PstI RFLP located at 17q21.1. They also observed borderline significant (P = .055) differences between allele frequencies in subjects with cleft lip and palate (CL + P) compared with those with cleft lip only (CL). Retinoic acid (RA) is a known teratogen capable of producing cleft palate in rodents (Abbott and Birnbaum 1990). Chenevix-Tench et al. (1992) hypothesized that variation in susceptibility to the effects of RA in humans may result from alterations at the RARA locus. We have investigated association and linkage between CL [+-] P and a microsatellite marker (D17S579) located at 17q21 (Hall et al. 1992), selected for its proximity to RARA, in 14 extended multiplex families from rural West Bengal, India.

  2. Regulation of expression of citrate synthase by the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα.

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    Christine Crumbley

    Full Text Available The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors that plays an important role in regulation of the circadian rhythm and metabolism. Mice lacking a functional RORα display a range of metabolic abnormalities including decreased serum cholesterol and plasma triglycerides. Citrate synthase (CS is a key enzyme of the citric acid cycle that provides energy for cellular function. Additionally, CS plays a critical role in providing citrate derived acetyl-CoA for lipogenesis and cholesterologenesis. Here, we identified a functional RORα response element (RORE in the promoter of the CS gene. ChIP analysis demonstrates RORα occupancy of the CS promoter and a putative RORE binds to RORα effectively in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and confers RORα responsiveness to a reporter gene in a cotransfection assay. We also observed a decrease in CS gene expression and CS enzymatic activity in the staggerer mouse, which has a mutation of in the Rora gene resulting in nonfunctional RORα protein. Furthermore, we found that SR1001 a RORα inverse agonist eliminated the circadian pattern of expression of CS mRNA in mice. These data suggest that CS is a direct RORα target gene and one mechanism by which RORα regulates lipid metabolism is via regulation of CS expression.

  3. Use of Magnetic Folate-Dextran-Retinoic Acid Micelles for Dual Targeting of Doxorubicin in Breast Cancer

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    J. Varshosaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic copolymer of folate-conjugated dextran/retinoic acid (FA/DEX-RA was self-assembled into micelles by direct dissolution method. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs coated with oleic acid (OA were prepared by hydrothermal method and encapsulated within the micelles. Doxorubicin HCl was loaded in the magnetic micelles. The characteristics of the magnetic micelles were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The crystalline state of OA-coated MNPs and their heat capacity were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods, respectively. The iron content of magnetic micelles was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Bovine serum albumin (BSA was used to test the protein binding of magnetic micelles. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin loaded magnetic micelles was studied on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells using MTT assay and their quantitative cellular uptake by fluorimetry method. TEM results showed the MNPs in the hydrophobic core of the micelles. TGA results confirmed the presence of OA and FA/DEX-RA copolymer on the surface of MNPs and micelles, respectively. The magnetic micelles showed no significant protein bonding and reduced the IC50 of the drug to about 10 times lower than the free drug.

  4. Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with tributyrin as an alternative to improve anticancer activity of all-trans retinoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; Caetano, Priscila Albuquerque; Costa, Daniel Ferreira; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Gomes, Dawidson Assis; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Objectives All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is one of the most successful examples of differentiation agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as tributyrin (TB), are known for their antitumor activity and potentiating action of drugs such as ATRA. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) represent a promising alternative to the encapsulation of lipophilic drugs such as ATRA. This study aimed to develop, characterize, and evaluate the cytotoxicity of ATRA-TB-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for cancer treatment. Methods The influence of in situ formation of an ion pairing between ATRA and a lipophilic amine (benethamine; BNT) on the characteristics of NLC (size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency) was evaluated. Tributyrin (TB), a butyric acid donor, was used as a component of the lipid matrix. In vitro activity on cell viability and distribution of cell cycle phases were evaluated for MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HL-60, and Jurkat cell lines. Results The presence of the amine significantly increased the encapsulation efficiency of ATRA in NLC. Inhibition of cell viability by TB-ATRA-loaded NLC was more pronounced than the free drug. Analysis of the distribution of cell cycle phases also showed increased activity for TB-ATRA-loaded NLC, with the clear effect of cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase transition. The presence of TB played an important role in the activity of the formulation. Conclusion Taken together, these findings suggest that TB-ATRA-loaded NLC represent a promising alternative to intravenous administration of ATRA in cancer treatment. PMID:25611812

  5. Retinoid Homeostatic Gene Expression in Liver, Lung and Kidney: Ontogeny and Response to Vitamin A-Retinoic Acid (VARA) Supplementation from Birth to Adult Age

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu, Sarah A.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA, retinol) metabolism is homeostatically controlled, but little is known of its regulation in the postnatal period. Here, we determined the postnatal trajectory of VA storage and metabolism in major compartments of VA metabolism-plasma, liver, lung, and kidney from postnatal (P) day 1 to adulthood. We also investigated the response to supplementation with VARA, a combination of VA and 10% all-trans-retinoic acid that previously was shown to synergistically increase retinol uptake...

  6. Retinoic Acid Therapy Attenuates the Severity of Tuberculosis While Altering Lymphocyte and Macrophage Numbers and Cytokine Expression in Rats Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis1,2,3

    OpenAIRE

    YAMADA, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Satoru; Ross, A. Catharine; Sugawara, Isamu

    2007-01-01

    Because retinoic acid (RA) exerts a stimulatory effect on macrophages and tubercle bacilli target alveolar macrophages, the therapeutic potential of RA was examined in rats with tuberculosis. In the main study, 15 rats were randomized to treatment with oil (control) or RA,100 µg/100 g body weight per dose, given 3 times weekly for 3 and 5 wk after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. There was a significant difference in the severity of tuberculosis histopathology between c...

  7. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) enhances maintenance of primitive human hematopoietic progenitors and skews them towards myeloid differentiation in a stroma-noncontact culture system

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Anskar Y. H.; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have previously shown that hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from umbilical cord blood (UCB) can be maintained in a cytokine-supplemented stroma-noncontact (SNC) system. Here, we tested if all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), known to improve expansion of murine hematopoietic stem cells, would enhance human HPC maintenance in a SNC culture system. METHODS: CD34+CD38-Lin- cells from UCB were cultured in transwells above AFT024 in the presence of Flt-3 ligand (FLT) and thrombopoiet...

  8. Trichoplax adhaerens reveals a network of nuclear receptors sensitive to 9-cis-retinoic acid at the base of metazoan evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, J.F.; Chughtai, A.A.; Kostrouchová, M.; Kostrouchová, V.; Kostrouch, D.; Kaššák, F.; Kaňa, Radek; Schierwater, B.; Kostrouchová, M.; Kostrouch, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, SEP 29 (2017), s. 1-29, č. článku e3789. ISSN 2167-8359 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-10088S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/19.0392 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Trichoplax adhaerens * RXR * 9-cis retinoic acid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  9. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I.

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    Seung Bum Park

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV actively evades host interferon (IFN responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP and poly(IC. The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity.

  10. Impact of preconditioning with retinoic acid during early development on morphological and functional characteristics of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons

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    Sandra Horschitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are a suitable tool to study basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment. The directed differentiation of hiPSCs via the generation of a self-renewable neuronal precursor cell line allows the standardization of defined differentiation protocols. Here, we have investigated whether preconditioning with retinoic acid during early neural induction impacts on morphological and functional characteristics of the neuronal culture after terminal differentiation. For this purpose we have analyzed neuronal and glial cell markers, neuronal outgrowth, soma size, depolarization-induced distal shifts of the axon initial segment as well as glutamate-evoked calcium influx. Retinoic acid preconditioning led to a higher yield of neurons vs. glia cells and longer axons than unconditioned controls. In contrast, glutamatergic activation and depolarization induced structural plasticity were unchanged. Our results show that the treatment of neuroectodermal cells with retinoic acid during early development, i.e. during the neurulation phase, increases the yield of neuronal phenotypes, but does not impact on the functionality of terminally differentiated neuronal cells.

  11. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) enhances maintenance of primitive human hematopoietic progenitors and skews them towards myeloid differentiation in a stroma-noncontact culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anskar Y H; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2005-04-01

    We have previously shown that hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from umbilical cord blood (UCB) can be maintained in a cytokine-supplemented stroma-noncontact (SNC) system. Here, we tested if all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), known to improve expansion of murine hematopoietic stem cells, would enhance human HPC maintenance in a SNC culture system. CD34+CD38-Lin- cells from UCB were cultured in transwells above AFT024 in the presence of Flt-3 ligand (FLT) and thrombopoietin (TPO), with or without ATRA. Total nucleated cells (TNC), colony-forming units (CFUs), long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs), myeloid-lymphoid initiating cells (ML-ICs) and SCID repopulating cells (SRCs) were evaluated 1 to 5 weeks after culture. All-trans retinoic acid (1 mumol/L) reduced expansion of CD34+CD38-Lin- TNC and CFUs after 2 to 5 weeks of culture. However, it significantly increased LTC-IC expansion after 1 to 3 and, even more so, 5 weeks of culture. ATRA also increased recovery of more primitive ML-ICs and SRCs. Increased HPC recovery appeared dependent on the presence of stromal cells, as LTC-IC expansion was significantly reduced when ATRA was added to stroma-free cultures. All-trans retinoic acid increases expansion of early HPCs in a stromal cell-dependent fashion.

  12. All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Improves Cholestasis in α-Naphthylisothiocyanate–Treated Rats and Mdr2−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennone, Albert; Soroka, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cholestasis results in liver injury and eventually liver failure. Although ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) showed limited benefits in primary biliary cirrhosis, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapy for chronic cholestatic disorders. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent suppressor of CYP7A1, the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis. atRA also repressed the expression of tumor growth factor-β and collagen 1A1 in activated primary human stellate cells and LX2 cells. When administered together with UDCA to bile duct–ligated rats, this combined therapy significantly reduced the bile acid pool size and improved liver conditions. To further examine whether atRA alone or in combination with UDCA has greater beneficial effects than UDCA treatment alone, we assessed this treatment in two additional chronic cholestatic rodent models: α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)–treated rats and the Mdr2−/− (Abcb4−/−) knockout mouse. atRA alone significantly reduced bile duct proliferation, inflammation, and hydroxyproline levels in ANIT-treated rats, whereas the combination of atRA and UDCA significantly reduced plasma bile salt level compared with UDCA treatment. atRA alone or in combination with UDCA significantly reduced plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and bile salts in 12-week-old Mdr2−/− mice. Reduced bile duct proliferation and inflammation were also observed in the livers of these mice. Together, atRA alone or in combination with UDCA significantly reduced the severity of liver injury in these two animal models, further supporting the combination treatment of atRA and UDCA as a potential new therapy for patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease who have not responded fully to UDCA. PMID:24492652

  13. Neuroprotective properties of ciliary neurotrophic factor on retinoic acid (RA)-predifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Huang, Biao; Zhu, Lan; Zhu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurocytokine, which could promote survival and/or differentiation in many cell types. In this study, the biological effects of CNTF on retinoic acid (RA)-predifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanism of this effect were investigated for the first time. The results showed that RA was able to increase cells susceptibility to CNTF via regulating the expression levels of CNTF receptors. A further study revealed that CNTF could induce phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt and ERK1/2 in RA-predifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, while the promoting activity of CNTF on survival and neurite growth of cells was attenuated by co-treatment with JAK2 inhibitor AG490 (25 μM), STAT3 inhibitor Curcumin (50 μM), PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 (50 µM), but not by co-treatment with MEK inhibitor PD98059 (50 μM). These findings suggested that JAK2/STAT3, as well as PI3K/Akt, play important roles in mediating the survival and neurite growth response of RA-predifferentiated cells to CNTF. Our study may be useful to further understand the functional role of CNTF and offer a convenient model to explore the therapeutic potential of CNTF in neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. All-trans retinoic acid upregulates the expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Di; Wang, Lu-Lu; Zhou, Lan-Bo; Bin, Wei; Bao, Tian-Ping; Zhang, Yi; Shu, Jin; Yang, Wei-Xia; Hui, Liang-Liang; Jin, Rui; Zhuang, Li-Li; Zhou, Guo-Ping

    2017-06-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity, a leading cause of visual impairment in low birth-weight infants, remains a crucial therapeutic challenge. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that promotes rod and cone photoreceptor survival and cone outer segment regeneration in the degenerating retina. Ciliary neurotrophic factor expression is regulated by many factors such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). In this study, we found that ATRA increased CNTF expression in mouse retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and PKA signaling pathway is necessary for ATRA-induced CNTF upregulation. Furthermore, we showed that ATRA promoted CNTF expression through CREB binding to its promoter region. In addition, CNTF levels were decreased in serum of retinopathy of prematurity children and in retinal tissue of oxygen-induced retinopathy mice. In mouse RPE cells cultured with high oxygen, CNTF expression and secretion were decreased, but could be recovered after treatment with ATRA. In conclusion, our data suggest that ATRA administration upregulates CNTF expression in RPE cells. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Col1a1+ perivascular cells in the brain are a source of retinoic acid following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen K; MacPherson, Amber M; Grewal, Himmat; Strnad, Frank; Jones, Jace W; Yu, Jianshi; Pierzchalski, Keely; Kane, Maureen A; Herson, Paco S; Siegenthaler, Julie A

    2016-07-15

    Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) are a recently identified cell type that comprises a small percentage of the platelet derived growth factor receptor-β+ cells within the CNS perivascular space. PSCs are activated following injury to the brain or spinal cord, expand in number and contribute to fibrotic scar formation within the injury site. Beyond fibrosis, their high density in the lesion core makes them a potential significant source of signals that act on neural cells adjacent to the lesion site. Our developmental analysis of PSCs, defined by expression of Collagen1a1 in the maturing brain, revealed that PSCs first appear postnatally and may originate from the meninges. PSCs express many of the same markers as meningeal fibroblasts, including expression of the retinoic acid (RA) synthesis proteins Raldh1 and Raldh2. Using a focal brain ischemia injury model to induce PSC activation and expansion, we show a substantial increase in Raldh1+/Raldh2+ PSCs and Raldh1+ activated macrophages in the lesion core. We find that RA levels are significantly elevated in the ischemic hemisphere and induce signaling in astrocytes and neurons in the peri-infarct region. This study highlights a dual role for activated, non-neural cells where PSCs deposit fibrotic ECM proteins and, along with macrophages, act as a potentially important source of RA, a potent signaling molecule that could influence recovery events in a neuroprotective fashion following brain injury.

  16. Do tetracyclines and erythromycin exert anti-acne effects by inhibition of P450-mediated degradation of retinoic acid?

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    Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Herzog, Irmelin; Fischer, Norina; Heuser, Isabella; Regen, Francesca

    2014-04-01

    For decades, retinoic acid (RA) is known as the most potent therapeutic option in the therapy of acne and altered homeostasis of endogenous retinoids has been discussed in the context of acne pathogenesis. Besides retinoids, antibiotics such as tetracyclines or erythromycin are well established in acne pharmacotherapy. Accumulating evidence points towards common molecular pathways being targeted by both RA and anti-acne antibiotics; however, a precise 'common denominator' connecting these chemically diverse anti-acne agents has not yet been identified. Interestingly, tetracyclines are associated with the occurrence of pseudotumor cerebri, a rare neurological side effect otherwise associated with retinoid intoxication or RA exposure. This association at the clinical level suggests an interaction between tetracyclines and endogenous RA signalling. As erythromycin does not cross the blood brain barrier, CNS side effects are not to be expected, yet not precluding a possible local interaction of erythromycin with endogenous RA metabolism in the skin. We hypothesize tetracyclines and erythromycin to locally inhibit endogenous RA metabolism in the skin and thus mimic therapeutic action of RA. This readily testable hypothesis suggests inhibition of endogenous RA metabolism and amplification of endogenous RA signalling as a mechanism underlying the biochemical actions of antibiotics in acne therapy. Elucidation of such interactions may ultimately enhance our understanding of acne therapy and pathogenesis and may yield a sound, scientific basis for hypothesis-driven development of novel therapeutic compounds. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Temperature-controlled continuous production of all-trans retinoic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles using static mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyao; Yan, Mengwen; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Yuqing; Xiao, Zongyuan

    2017-04-01

    This work aims to develop a temperature-controlled continuous solvent emulsification-diffusion process to synthesize all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using static mixers. ATRA-loaded SLNs of around 200 nm were obtained when the flow rates of the organic and aqueous phases were 50 ml min-1 and 500 ml min-1, respectively. It was found that the lipid concentration played a dominant role in the size of the obtained SLNs, and higher drug concentration resulted in relatively low entrapment efficiency. The encapsulation of ATRA in the SLNs was effective in improving its stability according to the photo-degradation test. The in vitro release of SLN was slow without an initial burst. This study demonstrates that the solvent emulsification-diffusion technique with static mixing is an effective method of producing SLNs, and could easily be scaled up for industrial applications. Highlights Higher lipid concentration leads to larger SLNs. SLN transformation occurs due to Ostwald ripening. The ATRA-loaded SLNs around 200 nm were successfully produced with static mixers. ATRA-loaded SLNs show better stability towards sunlight. ATRA in SLNs exhibited a relatively slow release rate without a significant initial burst.

  18. Expression of cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein during healing of the rat tooth-extraction socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyng, Y C; Devlin, H; Riccardi, D; Sloan, P

    1999-09-01

    Cartilage-derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP) is a recently described, cartilage-specific protein. During early healing of the tooth-extraction socket, cells express both chondrogenic and osteogenic cell markers, but no cartilage is formed. Cartilaginous collagen type II protein, a major constituent of hyaline cartilage, has not been detected in the healing socket, although type IX collagen, which coats these fibres, has been detected transiently in early socket healing. This study investigated the spatial and temporal expression of CD-RAP and various osteoblast cell markers, i.e., alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteonectin and osteocalcin, during healing. Immunolocalization of these proteins was determined in the rat tooth socket at 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 14 days after extraction. CD-RAP was expressed by preosteoblast cells maximally at 6, 7, and 8 days after extraction. Fully differentiated osteoblasts expressed osteocalcin, a specific osteoblast marker. Preosteoblasts and fibroblasts did not express osteocalcin. On double immunofluorescent staining, some preosteoblasts coexpressed CD-RAP (indicative of chondrogenic differentiation), and either alkaline phosphatase or osteopontin (markers of osteogenic stem-cell maturation). There was no colocalization between osteopontin and osteonectin. CD-RAP was unique amongst the cell markers used in that it was expressed by preosteoblasts, but not by osteoblasts lining the newly formed trabeculae. CD-RAP may have an important role in osteoblast cell differentiation during bone healing.

  19. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the murine lamina propria requires retinoic acid-dependent and independent mechanisms.

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    Patrycja Konieczna

    Full Text Available Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103(+ dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH(+ dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP. Foxp3(+ lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103(+RALDH(+ dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3(+ lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH(+ dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH(+ dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103(+RALDH(+ LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation.

  20. Retinoic acid and rapamycin differentially affect and synergistically promote the ex vivo expansion of natural human T regulatory cells.

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    Tatiana N Golovina

    Full Text Available Natural T regulatory cells (Tregs are challenging to expand ex vivo, and this has severely hindered in vivo evaluation of their therapeutic potential. All trans retinoic acid (ATRA plays an important role in mediating immune homeostasis in vivo, and we investigated whether ATRA could be used to promote the ex vivo expansion of Tregs purified from adult human peripheral blood. We found that ATRA helped maintain FOXP3 expression during the expansion process, but this effect was transient and serum-dependent. Furthermore, natural Tregs treated with rapamycin, but not with ATRA, suppressed cytokine production in co-cultured effector T cells. This suppressive activity correlated with the ability of expanded Tregs to induce FOXP3 expression in non-Treg cell populations. Examination of CD45RA+ and CD45RA- Treg subsets revealed that ATRA failed to maintain suppressive activity in either population, but interestingly, Tregs expanded in the presence of both rapamycin and ATRA displayed more suppressive activity and had a more favorable epigenetic status of the FOXP3 gene than Tregs expanded in the presence of rapamycin only. We conclude that while the use of ATRA as a single agent to expand Tregs for human therapy is not warranted, its use in combination with rapamycin may have benefit.

  1. Gene Interaction Network Suggests Dioxin Induces a Significant Linkage between Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Sone, Hideko; Parham, Frederick M.; Walker, Nigel J.; Martinez, Jeanelle; Portier, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    Gene expression arrays (gene chips) have enabled researchers to roughly quantify the level of mRNA expression for a large number of genes in a single sample. Several methods have been developed for the analysis of gene array data including clustering, outlier detection, and correlation studies. Most of these analyses are aimed at a qualitative identification of what is different between two samples and/or the relationship between two genes. We propose a quantitative, statistically sound methodology for the analysis of gene regulatory networks using gene expression data sets. The method is based on Bayesian networks for direct quantification of gene expression networks. Using the gene expression changes in HPL1A lung airway epithelial cells after exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin at levels of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 nM for 24 hr, a gene expression network was hypothesized and analyzed. The method clearly demonstrates support for the assumed network and the hypothesis linking the usual dioxin expression changes to the retinoic acid receptor system. Simulation studies demonstrated the method works well, even for small samples. PMID:15345368

  2. Phenotypic chemical screening using a zebrafish neural crest EMT reporter identifies retinoic acid as an inhibitor of epithelial morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Laura; Wang, Jindong; Morrison, Monique A; Whatcott, Clifford; Soh, Katherine K; Warner, Steven; Bearss, David; Jette, Cicely A; Stewart, Rodney A

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved morphogenetic program essential for embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer metastasis. In cancer cells, EMT also triggers cellular reprogramming and chemoresistance, which underlie disease relapse and decreased survival. Hence, identifying compounds that block EMT is essential to prevent or eradicate disseminated tumor cells. Here, we establish a whole-animal-based EMT reporter in zebrafish for rapid drug screening, calledTg(snai1b:GFP), which labels epithelial cells undergoing EMT to producesox10-positive neural crest (NC) cells. Time-lapse and lineage analysis ofTg(snai1b:GFP)embryos reveal that cranial NC cells delaminate from two regions: an early population delaminates adjacent to the neural plate, whereas a later population delaminates from within the dorsal neural tube. TreatingTg(snai1b:GFP)embryos with candidate small-molecule EMT-inhibiting compounds identified TP-0903, a multi-kinase inhibitor that blocked cranial NC cell delamination in both the lateral and medial populations. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis and chemical rescue experiments show that TP-0903 acts through stimulating retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis and RA-dependent transcription. These studies identify TP-0903 as a new therapeutic for activating RAin vivoand raise the possibility that RA-dependent inhibition of EMT contributes to its prior success in eliminating disseminated cancer cells. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and retinoic acid trigger bovine VASA homolog expression in differentiating bovine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Sumer, Huseyin; Jain, Kanika; Verma, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest identifiable and completely committed progenitors of female and male gametes. They are obvious targets for genome editing because they assure the transmission of desirable or introduced traits to future generations. PGCs are established at the earliest stages of embryo development and are difficult to propagate in vitro--two characteristics that pose a problem for their practical application. One alternative method to enrich for PGCs in vitro is to differentiate them from pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues. Here, we establish a reporter system for germ cell identification in bovine pluripotent stem cells based on green fluorescent protein expression driven by the minimal essential promoter of the bovine Vasa homolog (BVH) gene, whose regulatory elements were identified by orthologous modelling of regulatory units. We then evaluated the potential of bovine induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSC) lines carrying the reporter construct to differentiate toward the germ cell lineage. Our results showed that biPSCs undergo differentiation as embryoid bodies, and a fraction of the differentiating cells expressed BVH. The rate of differentiation towards BVH-positive cells increased up to tenfold in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 4 or retinoic acid. Finally, we determined that the expression of key PGC genes, such as BVH or SOX2, can be modified by pre-differentiation cell culture conditions, although this increase is not necessarily mirrored by an increase in the rate of differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) therapy for hyperpigmented lesions caused by inflammation of the skin in black patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulengo-Ransby, S M; Griffiths, C E; Kimbrough-Green, C K; Finkel, L J; Hamilton, T A; Ellis, C N; Voorhees, J J

    1993-05-20

    Irregular disfiguring skin hyperpigmentation due to inflammation may develop in black persons. We investigated the treatment of this hyperpigmentation with topical tretinoin (0.1 percent retinoic acid cream). Fifty-four subjects completed a 40-week randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. Twenty-four subjects applied tretinoin daily to the face, arms, or both areas, and 30 subjects applied vehicle cream. At base line and after 40 weeks of treatment, each subject's post-inflammatory hyperpigmented lesions and normal skin were assessed by clinical and colorimetric evaluations and by analysis of biopsy specimens. The facial post-inflammatory hyperpigmented lesions of the tretinoin-treated subjects were significantly lighter after the 40 weeks of therapy than those of the vehicle-treated subjects (P lightening of the lesions toward normal skin color in the tretinoin-treated lesions, as compared with an 18 percent lightening in vehicle-treated lesions (P = 0.05). The epidermal melanin content in the lesions decreased by 23 percent with tretinoin and by 3 percent with vehicle (P = 0.24). Normal skin was minimally lightened by tretinoin as compared with vehicle, according to both clinical evaluation (0.1 vs. -0.1 unit change on an 8-point scale; P = 0.055) and colorimetry (P lightens post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and, to a clinically minimal but statistically significant degree, lightens normal skin in black persons.

  5. Interleukin-33-Activated Islet-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote Insulin Secretion through Myeloid Cell Retinoic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmas, Elise; Lehmann, Frank M; Dror, Erez; Wueest, Stephan; Thienel, Constanze; Borsigova, Marcela; Stawiski, Marc; Traunecker, Emmanuel; Lucchini, Fabrizio C; Dapito, Dianne H; Kallert, Sandra M; Guigas, Bruno; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Maechler, Pierre; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Konrad, Daniel; Wolfrum, Christian; Böni-Schnetzler, Marianne; Finke, Daniela; Donath, Marc Y

    2017-11-21

    Pancreatic-islet inflammation contributes to the failure of β cell insulin secretion during obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the nature and function of resident immune cells in this context or in homeostasis. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-33 was produced by islet mesenchymal cells and enhanced by a diabetes milieu (glucose, IL-1β, and palmitate). IL-33 promoted β cell function through islet-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that elicited retinoic acid (RA)-producing capacities in macrophages and dendritic cells via the secretion of IL-13 and colony-stimulating factor 2. In turn, local RA signaled to the β cells to increase insulin secretion. This IL-33-ILC2 axis was activated after acute β cell stress but was defective during chronic obesity. Accordingly, IL-33 injections rescued islet function in obese mice. Our findings provide evidence that an immunometabolic crosstalk between islet-derived IL-33, ILC2s, and myeloid cells fosters insulin secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular mechanism of 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

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    Sagara, Chiaki; Takahashi, Katsuhiko [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan); Kagechika, Hiroyuki [School of Biomedical Science, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Takahashi, Noriko, E-mail: t-noriko@hoshi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8501 (Japan)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► We examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1. ► 9-cis-RA inhibited lipid accumulation in adipogenetically-induced 3T3-L1 cells. ► A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed the inhibitory effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis. ► This antagonist had no effects on RXRα and PPARγ levels in 9-cis-RA-treated cells. ► 9-cis-RA-induced decrease in both RXRα and PPARγ was independent of RXR activation. -- Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is mediated by specific nuclear hormone receptors. Here we examined the effects of 9-cis-RA on adipogenesis in mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. 9-cis-RA inhibits the lipid accumulation of adipogenetically induced 3T3-L1 cells. The complex of retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a major transcription factor in the process of adipogenesis, and the levels of these molecules were decreased by 9-cis-RA treatment. A RXR pan-antagonist suppressed 9-cis-RA’s inhibitory effects on adipogenesis, but not on the intracellular levels of both RXRα and PPARγ. These results suggest that 9-cis-RA could inhibit adipogenesis by activating RXR, and decrease both RXR and PPARγs levels in a RXR activation-independent manner.

  7. Novel protective role of the circadian nuclear receptor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-α in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yichao; Xu, Longwei; Ding, Song; Lin, Nan; Ji, Qingqi; Gao, Lingchen; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Ben; Pu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major complication that significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in diabetics with few therapies. Moreover, antidiabetic drugs reported inconsistent or even adverse cardiovascular effects, suggesting that it is important to exploit novel therapeutic targets against diabetic cardiomyopathy. Here, we observed that the nuclear melatonin receptor, the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-α (RORα), was downregulated in diabetic hearts. By utilizing a mouse line with RORα disruption, we demonstrated that RORα deficiency led to significantly augmented diastolic dysfunction and cardiac remodeling induced by diabetes. Microscopic and molecular analyses further indicated that the detrimental effects of RORα deficiency were associated with aggravated myocardial apoptosis, autophagy dysfunction, and oxidative stress by disrupting antioxidant gene expression. By contrast, restoration of cardiac RORα levels in transgenic mice significantly improved cardiac functional and structural parameters at 8 weeks after diabetes induction. Consistent with genetic manipulation, pharmacological activation of RORα by melatonin and SR1078 (a synthetic agonist) showed beneficial effects against diabetic cardiomyopathy, while the RORα inhibitor SR3335 significantly exacerbated cardiac impairments in diabetic mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that cardiac-targeted manipulation of nuclear melatonin receptor RORα may hold promise for delaying diabetic cardiomyopathy development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mutant Hoxd13 induces extra digits in a mouse model of synpolydactyly directly and by decreasing retinoic acid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Pia; Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Witte, Florian; Klose, Joachim; Albrecht, Andrea N.; Seemann, Petra; Hecht, Jochen; Mundlos, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with the birth defect synpolydactyly (SPD) have 1 or more digit duplicated and 2 or more digits fused together. One form of SPD is caused by polyalanine expansions in homeobox d13 (Hoxd13). Here we have used the naturally occurring mouse mutant that has the same mutation, the SPD homolog (Spdh) allele, and a similar phenotype, to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of SPD. A transgenic approach and crossing experiments showed that the Spdh allele is a combination of loss and gain of function. Here we identify retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2), the rate-limiting enzyme for retinoic acid (RA) synthesis in the limb, as a direct Hoxd13 target and show decreased RA production in limbs from Spdh/Spdh mice. Intrauterine treatment with RA restored pentadactyly in Spdh/Spdh mice. We further show that RA and WT Hoxd13 suppress chondrogenesis in mesenchymal progenitor cells, whereas Hoxd13 encoded by Spdh promotes cartilage formation in primary cells isolated from Spdh/Spdh limbs, and that this was associated with increased expression of Sox6/9. Increased Sox9 expression and ectopic cartilage formation in the interdigital mesenchyme of limbs from Spdh/Spdh mice suggest uncontrolled differentiation of these cells into the chondrocytic lineage. Thus, we propose that mutated Hoxd13 causes polydactyly in SPD by inducing extraneous interdigital chondrogenesis, both directly and indirectly, via a reduction in RA levels. PMID:19075394

  9. DNA methylation-independent removable insulator controls chromatin remodeling at the HOXA locus via retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Ko; Nakamoto, Masafumi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-12-15

    Chromatin insulators partition the genome into functional units to control gene expression, particularly in complex chromosomal regions. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an insulator-binding protein that functions in transcriptional regulation and higher-order chromatin formation. Variable CTCF-binding sites have been identified to be cell type-specific partly due to differential DNA methylation. Here, we show that DNA methylation-independent removable CTCF insulator is responsible for retinoic acid (RA)-mediated higher-order chromatin remodeling in the human HOXA gene locus. Detailed chromatin analysis characterized multiple CTCF-enriched sites and RA-responsive enhancers at this locus. These regulatory elements and transcriptionally silent HOXA genes are closely positioned under basal conditions. Notably, upon RA signaling, the RAR/RXR transcription factor induced loss of adjacent CTCF binding and changed the higher-order chromatin conformation of the overall locus. Targeted disruption of a CTCF site by genome editing with zinc finger nucleases and CRISPR/Cas9 system showed that the site is required for chromatin conformations that maintain the initial associations among insulators, enhancers and promoters. The results indicate that the initial chromatin conformation affects subsequent RA-induced HOXA gene activation. Our study uncovers that a removable insulator spatiotemporally switches higher-order chromatin and multiple gene activities via cooperation of CTCF and key transcription factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme Cyp26b1 regulates CD4 T cell differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Chenery

    Full Text Available The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA has potent immunomodulatory properties that affect T cell differentiation, migration and function. However, the precise role of RA metabolism in T cells remains unclear. Catabolism of RA is mediated by the Cyp26 family of cytochrome P450 oxidases. We examined the role of Cyp26b1, the T cell-specific family member, in CD4(+ T cells. Mice with a conditional knockout of Cyp26b1 in T cells (Cyp26b1 (-/- mice displayed normal lymphoid development but showed an increased sensitivity to serum retinoids, which led to increased differentiation under both inducible regulatory T (iTreg cell- and TH17 cell-polarizing conditions in vitro. Further, Cyp26b1 expression was differentially regulated in iTreg and TH17 cells. Transfer of naïve Cyp26b1 (-/- CD4(+ T cells into Rag1 (-/- mice resulted in significantly reduced disease in a model of T cell-dependent colitis. Our results show that T cell-specific expression of Cyp26b1 is required for the development of T cell-mediated colitis and may be applicable to the development of therapeutics that target Cyp26b1 for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Retinoic Acid Receptors Control Spermatogonia Cell-Fate and Induce Expression of the SALL4A Transcription Factor.

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    Aurore Gely-Pernot

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is instrumental to male germ cell differentiation, but its mechanism of action remains elusive. To address this question, we have analyzed the phenotypes of mice lacking, in spermatogonia, all rexinoid receptors (RXRA, RXRB and RXRG or all ATRA receptors (RARA, RARB and RARG. We demonstrate that the combined ablation of RXRA and RXRB in spermatogonia recapitulates the set of defects observed both upon ablation of RAR in spermatogonia. We also show that ATRA activates RAR and RXR bound to a conserved regulatory region to increase expression of the SALL4A transcription factor in spermatogonia. Our results reveal that this major pluripotency gene is a target of ATRA signaling and that RAR/RXR heterodimers are the functional units driving its expression in spermatogonia. They add to the mechanisms through which ATRA promote expression of the KIT tyrosine kinase receptor to trigger a critical step in spermatogonia differentiation. Importantly, they indicate also that meiosis eventually occurs in the absence of a RAR/RXR pathway within germ cells and suggest that instructing this process is either ATRA-independent or requires an ATRA signal originating from Sertoli cells.

  12. Normalizing Microbiota-Induced Retinoic Acid Deficiency Stimulates Protective CD8(+) T Cell-Mediated Immunity in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Nupur; Yuan, Robert; Prestwood, Tyler R; Penny, Hweixian Leong; DiMaio, Michael A; Reticker-Flynn, Nathan E; Krois, Charles R; Kenkel, Justin A; Pham, Tho D; Carmi, Yaron; Tolentino, Lorna; Choi, Okmi; Hulett, Reyna; Wang, Jinshan; Winer, Daniel A; Napoli, Joseph L; Engleman, Edgar G

    2016-09-20

    Although all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a key regulator of intestinal immunity, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. We found that mice with colitis-associated CRC had a marked deficiency in colonic atRA due to alterations in atRA metabolism mediated by microbiota-induced intestinal inflammation. Human ulcerative colitis (UC), UC-associated CRC, and sporadic CRC specimens have similar alterations in atRA metabolic enzymes, consistent with reduced colonic atRA. Inhibition of atRA signaling promoted tumorigenesis, whereas atRA supplementation reduced tumor burden. The benefit of atRA treatment was mediated by cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, which were activated due to MHCI upregulation on tumor cells. Consistent with these findings, increased colonic expression of the atRA-catabolizing enzyme, CYP26A1, correlated with reduced frequencies of tumoral cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and with worse disease prognosis in human CRC. These results reveal a mechanism by which microbiota drive colon carcinogenesis and highlight atRA metabolism as a therapeutic target for CRC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Activity in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Role of Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Expression by the Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng; Alonso, Salvador; Jones, Jace W.; Yu, Jianshi; Kane, Maureen A.; Jones, Richard J.; Ghiaur, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has markedly improved outcome in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but has had little clinical impact in other AML sub-types. Cell intrinsic mechanisms of resistance have been previously reported, yet the majority of AML blasts are sensitive to atRA in vitro. Even in APL, single agent atRA induces remission without cure. The microenvironment expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)26, a retinoid-metabolizing enzyme was shown to determine normal hematopoietic stem cell fate. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment is responsible for difference between in vitro sensitivity and in vivo resistance of AML to atRA-induced differentiation. We observed that the pro-differentiation effects of atRA on APL and non-APL AML cells as well as on leukemia stem cells from clinical specimens were blocked by BM stroma. In addition, BM stroma produced a precipitous drop in atRA levels. Inhibition of CYP26 rescued atRA levels and AML cell sensitivity in the presence of stroma. Our data suggest that stromal CYP26 activity creates retinoid low sanctuaries in the BM that protect AML cells from systemic atRA therapy. Inhibition of CYP26 provides new opportunities to expand the clinical activity of atRA in both APL and non-APL AML. PMID:26047326

  14. Active Pin1 is a key target of all-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuo; Kozono, Shingo; Kats, Lev; Nechama, Morris; Li, Wenzong; Guarnerio, Jlenia; Luo, Manli; You, Mi-Hyeon; Yao, Yandan; Kondo, Asami; Hu, Hai; Bozkurt, Gunes; Moerke, Nathan J.; Cao, Shugeng; Reschke, Markus; Chen, Chun-Hau; Rego, Eduardo M.; LoCoco, Francesco; Cantley, Lewis; Lee, Tae Ho; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

    2015-01-01

    A common key regulator of oncogenic signaling pathways in multiple tumor types is the unique isomerase Pin1. However, available Pin1 inhibitors lack the required specificity and potency. Using mechanism-based screening, here we find that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)--a therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) that is considered the first example of targeted therapy in cancer, but its drug target remains elusive--inhibits and degrades active Pin1 selectively in cancer cells by directly binding to the substrate phosphate- and proline-binding pockets in the Pin1 active site. ATRA-induced Pin1 ablation degrades the fusion oncogene PML-RARα and treats APL in cell and animal models and human patients. ATRA-induced Pin1 ablation also inhibits triple negative breast cancer cell growth in human cells and in animal models by acting on many Pin1 substrate oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Thus, ATRA simultaneously blocks multiple Pin1-regulated cancer-driving pathways, an attractive property for treating aggressive and drug-resistant tumors. PMID:25849135

  15. Upregulation of CD38 expression on multiple myeloma cells by all-trans retinoic acid improves the efficacy of daratumumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, I S; Groen, R W J; Lokhorst, H M; van Kessel, B; Bloem, A C; van Velzen, J; de Jong-Korlaar, R; Yuan, H; Noort, W A; Klein, S K; Martens, A C M; Doshi, P; Sasser, K; Mutis, T; van de Donk, N W C J

    2015-10-01

    Daratumumab is an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody with lytic activity against multiple myeloma (MM) cells, including ADCC (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity) and CDC (complement-dependent cytotoxicity). Owing to a marked heterogeneity of response to daratumumab therapy in MM, we investigated determinants of the sensitivity of MM cells toward daratumumab-mediated ADCC and CDC. In bone marrow samples from 144 MM patients, we observed no difference in daratumumab-mediated lysis between newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory patients. However, we discovered, next to an expected effect of effector (natural killer cells/monocytes) to target (MM cells) ratio on ADCC, a significant association between CD38 expression and daratumumab-mediated ADCC (127 patients), as well as CDC (56 patients). Similarly, experiments with isogenic MM cell lines expressing different levels of CD38 revealed that the level of CD38 expression is an important determinant of daratumumab-mediated ADCC and CDC. Importantly, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increased CD38 expression levels but also reduced expression of the complement-inhibitory proteins CD55 and CD59 in both cell lines and primary MM samples. This resulted in a significant enhancement of the activity of daratumumab in vitro and in a humanized MM mouse model as well. Our results provide the preclinical rationale for further evaluation of daratumumab combined with ATRA in MM patients.

  16. Effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erquan; Jiang, Baohua; Yokochi, Ayumu; Maruyama, Junko; Mitani, Yoshihide; Ma, Ning; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-08-01

    An earlier study showed that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) prevents the development of monocrotalin-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of ATRA on another model of chronic hypoxia-induced PH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 30 mg/kg ATRA or vehicle only by gavage once daily for 14 days during hypobaric hypoxic exposure. Chronic hypoxic exposure induced PH, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), and hypertensive pulmonary vascular changes. Quantitative morphometry of the pulmonary arteries showed that ATRA treatment significantly reduced the percentage of muscularized arteries in peripheral pulmonary arteries only with an external diameter between 15 and 50 microm. ATRA treatment also significantly reduced the medial wall thickness in small muscular arteries only with an external diameter between 50 and 100 microm. Unfortunately, these reductions did not accompany the lowering of pulmonary artery pressure nor decrease in RVH. Chronic hypoxia-induced PH rats with ATRA had a loss in body weight. Chronic hypoxia increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the lung on western blotting and immunohistochemistry, in which ATRA treatment had no effect. The administration of ATRA might not have a therapeutic role in preventing the development of chronic hypoxia-induced PH, because of body weight loss and the subtle preventable effects of vascular changes.

  17. Endogenous Retinoic Acid Required to Maintain the Epidermis Following Ultraviolet Light Exposure in SKH-1 Hairless Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, Katherine L; Duncan, F Jason; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M; La Perle, Krista M; Everts, Helen B

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet light B (UVB) exposure induces cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), one of the most prevalent human cancers. Reoccurrence of cSCC in high-risk patients is prevented by oral retinoids. But oral retinoid treatment causes significant side effects; and patients develop retinoid resistance. Exactly how retinoids prevent UVB-induced cSCC is currently not well understood. Retinoid resistance blocks mechanistic studies in the leading mouse model of cSCC, the UVB-exposed SKH-1 hairless mouse. To begin to understand the role of retinoids in UVB-induced cSCC we first examined the localization pattern of key retinoid metabolism proteins by immunohistochemistry 48 h after UVB treatment of female SKH-1 mice. We next inhibited retinoic acid (RA) synthesis immediately after UVB exposure. Acute UVB increased RA synthesis, signaling and degradation proteins in the stratum granulosum. Some of these proteins changed their localization; while other proteins just increased in intensity. In contrast, acute UVB reduced the retinoid storage protein lectin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) in the epidermis. Inhibiting RA synthesis disrupted the epidermis and impaired differentiation. These data suggest that repair of the epidermis after acute UVB exposure requires endogenous RA synthesis. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. All-trans-Retinoic Acid Ameliorated High Fat Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits by Inhibiting Platelet Activation and Inflammation

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    Birong Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA is effective for many proliferative diseases. We investigated the protective effects of atRA against atherosclerosis. Methods. Rabbits were randomly allocated to receive basal diet or an HFD for 4 weeks. HFD group then received rosuvastatin (3 mg/day, atRA (5 mg/kg/day, or the same volume of vehicle, respectively, for next 8 weeks. Results. HFD group showed increases in plasma lipids and aortic plaque formation. P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding on platelets or deposition on the intima of the aorta also increased significantly as did the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and fibrinogen in plasma. After 8 weeks of treatment with atRA, there was a significant decrease in plasma lipids and improvement in aortic lesions. AtRA also inhibited the expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen binding on platelets and deposition on the intima of the aorta. Conclusion. AtRA can ameliorate HFD-induced AS in rabbits by inhibiting platelet activation and inflammation.

  19. All-trans retinoic acid promotes neural lineage entry by pluripotent embryonic stem cells via multiple pathways

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    Fang Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All-trans retinoic acid (RA is one of the most important morphogens with pleiotropic actions. Its embryonic distribution correlates with neural differentiation in the developing central nervous system. To explore the precise effects of RA on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, we detected expression of RA nuclear receptors and RA-metabolizing enzymes in mouse ESCs and investigated the roles of RA in adherent monolayer culture. Results Upon addition of RA, cell differentiation was directed rapidly and exclusively into the neural lineage. Conversely, pharmacological interference with RA signaling suppressed this neural differentiation. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling did not suppress significantly neural differentiation in RA-treated cultures. Pharmacological interference with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway or activation of Wnt pathway effectively blocked the RA-promoted neural specification. ERK phosphorylation was enhanced in RA-treated cultures at the early stage of differentiation. Conclusion RA can promote neural lineage entry by ESCs in adherent monolayer culture systems. This effect depends on RA signaling and its crosstalk with the ERK and Wnt pathways.

  20. Abnormal neural crest innervation in Sox10-Venus mice with all-trans retinoic acid-induced anorectal malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryota; Miyahara, Katsumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Doi, Takashi; Lane, Geoffrey J; Mabuchi, Yo; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Akazawa, Chihiro

    2014-02-01

    Despite technical advances in the surgical/medical care of anorectal malformation (ARM), persistent unsatisfactory postoperative bowel habit has been attributed to histopathologic abnormalities of the distal rectum/pouch (DRP) and hypoplasia of anal sphincter muscles (ASM). We used Sox10-Venus mice with ARM induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to investigate neural crest cell (NCC) innervation in the DRP and ASM. Pregnant Sox10-Venus mice were administered single doses of 50, 70, or 100 mg/kg of ATRA on embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) then sacrificed on either E16.5 or E19.5. Bowel specimens comprising the anorectum were examined using fluorescence microscopy without immunohistochemical staining (FMIS). Anti-PGP9.5 was used to delineate ganglion cells and anti-SMA for smooth muscles. The appropriate dose of ATRA for inducing ARM was 50 mg/kg. Under FMIS, all ARM embryos (n = 5; all high type; 3 male:2 female) had less NCC innervation with thick Venus-positive nerve fibers in the DRP compared with normal embryos (n = 8); there was abnormal NCC innervation in the DRP and absent ASM in ARM mice. We are the first to delineate abnormal enteric nervous system innervation in the DRP of ARM mice without using immunohistochemical staining techniques thus allowing specimens to be examined without any distortion.

  1. Retinoic acid promotes the generation of pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells and their further differentiation into beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oström

    Full Text Available The identification of secreted factors that can selectively stimulate the generation of insulin producing beta-cells from stem and/or progenitor cells represent a significant step in the development of stem cell-based beta-cell replacement therapy. By elucidating the molecular mechanisms that regulate the generation of beta-cells during normal pancreatic development such putative factors may be identified. In the mouse, beta-cells increase markedly in numbers from embryonic day (e 14.5 and onwards, but the extra-cellular signal(s that promotes the selective generation of beta-cells at these stages remains to be identified. Here we show that the retinoic acid (RA synthesizing enzyme Raldh1 is expressed in developing mouse and human pancreas at stages when beta-cells are generated. We also provide evidence that RA induces the generation of Ngn3(+ endocrine progenitor cells and stimulates their further differentiation into beta-cells by activating a program of cell differentiation that recapitulates the normal temporal program of beta-cell differentiation.

  2. Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) alters learning and memory, but not anxiety-like behavior, in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopheide, Marsha M; Morgan, Russell E

    2008-12-01

    Isotretinoin (ISO, 13-cis-retinoic acid) is commonly prescribed as Accutane for the treatment of acne. ISO is a known teratogen and the physical side effects of the drug have been well documented. However, possible psychological risks associated with the drug have yet to be determined. Retinoid receptors are abundant in the striatum and hippocampus, brain structures involved in implicit and explicit memory processes, respectively. The current study examined whether ISO influenced implicit or explicit memory processes using a two-stage radial-arm maze (RAM) task. The two stages were identical, except for the method of presenting arm choices to the rats: one at a time (Stage 1) or in pairs (Stage 2). Male rats (n=12/group) were tested on both stages of the RAM during chronic oral treatment with ISO (0, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg/day). Performance indicated that ISO impaired explicit memory in Stage 2, but retention tests one month after ISO exposure ended, indicated recovery from this explicit memory impairment and evidence of enhanced implicit memory in the 10 mg and 15 mg ISO rats. These data indicate extensive, enduring memory effects from oral ISO treatment at doses likely to produce serum levels within the range typically used to treat acne in humans.

  3. Treatment of conjunctival and corneal epithelial neoplasia with retinoic acid and topical interferon alfa-2b: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilis, Matthew; Tsang, Hughie; Coroneo, Minas

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the long-term recurrence rate of conjunctival and corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) treated with retinoic acid and topical interferon alfa-2b. Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. A total of 89 eyes of 89 patients from 1 institution who were treated between September 2003 and February 2010 for CIN lesions used topical interferon alfa 1 million IU/ml drops 4 times daily and retinoic acid 0.01% once every second day. Diagnosis was made by biopsy and impression cytology. Patients' notes and clinical photographs were reviewed, and data were analyzed. All eyes were monitored for the possibility of recurrence with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up from the time of documented clinical resolution. All eyes were monitored for the possibility of recurrence with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up from the time of documented clinical resolution. Complete clinical resolution of the CIN lesions was achieved in 87 of the 89 eyes treated (97.75%). Two of the 89 eyes treated (2.25%) had only a partial response to treatment; of these 2 patients, 1 was taking cyclosporine for keratitis sicca. For the 87 eyes with complete response, resolution occurred after a mean of 1.69 months (range, 19 days to 6.5 months). Mean follow-up after clinical resolution (tumor-free period) was 51.5 months (range, 11-84 months). Four of the 87 patients with complete response developed a mild allergic papillary conjunctivitis that settled on halving the interferon dose to 0.5 million IU drops and reducing the frequency to 3 times daily. Side effects were limited to 1 case of epithelial microcysts and 1 case of marginal keratitis. In this group of patients observed with CIN lesions, combination treatment of topical retinoic acid and interferon alfa-2b was effective in treating lesions with minimal self-limited side effects with faster and greater resolution and a longer tumor-free period compared with studies using interferon alfa-2b alone. We hypothesize that topical

  4. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia patients: results of a Brazilian center

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    B.C. de-Medeiros

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-seven patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA. Patients received 45 mg m-2 day-1 po of ATRA until complete remission (CR was achieved, defined as: a presence of less than 5% blasts in the bone marrow, with b white blood cells >103/mm3, c platelets >105/mm3 and d hemoglobin concentration >8 g/dl, with no blood or platelet transfusions. Thirty-one (83.7% patients achieved CR by day 50, and 75% of these before day 30. Correction of the coagulopathy, achieved between days 2 and 10 (mean, 3 days, was the first evidence of response to treatment. Only one patient had been previously treated with chemotherapy and three had the microgranular variant M3 form. Dryness of skin and mucosae was the most common side effect observed in 82% of the patients. Thrombosis, hepatotoxicity and retinoid acid syndrome (RAS were observed in 7 (19%, 6 (16% and 4 (11% patients, respectively. Thirteen (35% patients had to be submitted to chemotherapy due to hyperleukocytosis (above 40 x 103/mm3 and six of these presented with new signs of coagulopathy after chemotherapy. Four (11% patients died secondarily to intracerebral hemorrhage (IH and two (5.4% dropped out of the protocol due to severe ATRA side effects (one RAS and one hepatotoxicity. RAS and IH were related strictly to hyperleukocytosis. The reduced use of platelets and fresh frozen plasma probably lowered the total cost of treatment. We conclude that ATRA is an effective agent for inducing complete remission in APL patients.

  5. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells

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    Niu Chao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA on the proliferation and differentiation of brain tumor stem cells(BTSCs in vitro. Methods Limiting dilution and clonogenic assay were used to isolate and screen BTSCs from the fresh specimen of human brain glioblastoma. The obtained BTSCs, which were cultured in serum-free medium, were classified into four groups in accordance with the composition of the different treatments. The proliferation of the BTSCs was evaluated by MTT assay. The BTSCs were induced to differentiate in serum-containing medium, and classified into the ATRA group and control group. On the 10th day of induction, the expressions of CD133 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in the differentiated BTSCs were detected by immunofluorescence. The differentiated BTSCs were cultured in serum-free medium, the percentage and the time required for formation of brain tumor spheres (BTS were observed. Results BTSCs obtained by limiting dilution were all identified as CD133-positive by immunofluorescence. In serum-free medium, the proliferation of BTSCs in the ATRA group was observed significantly faster than that in the control group, but slower than that in the growth factor group and ATRA/growth factor group, and the size of the BTS in the ATRA group was smaller than that in the latter two groups(P P P P Conclusion ATRA can promote the proliferation and induce the differentiation of BTSCs, but the differentiation is incomplete, terminal differentiation cannot be achieved and BTSs can be formed again.

  6. Knockdown of FABP3 Impairs Cardiac Development in Zebrafish through the Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway

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    Xuejie Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family, and is primarily expressed in cardiac muscle tissue. Previously, we found that FABP3 is highly expressed in patients with ventricular-septal defects and is often used as a plasma biomarker in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and may play a significant role in the development of these defects in humans. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of FABP3 in the embryonic development of the zebrafish heart, and specifically how morpholino (MO mediated knockdown of FABP3 would affect heart development in this species. Our results revealed that knockdown of FABP3 caused significant impairment of cardiac development observed, including developmental delay, pericardial edema, a linear heart tube phenotype, incomplete cardiac loop formation, abnormal positioning of the ventricles and atria, downregulated expression of cardiac-specific markers and decreased heart rate. Mechanistically, our data showed that the retinoic acid (RA catabolizing enzyme Cyp26a1 was upregulated in FABP3-MO zebrafish, as indicated by in situ hybridization and real-time PCR. On the other hand, the expression level of the RA synthesizing enzyme Raldh2 did not significantly change in FABP3-MO injected zebrafish. Collectively, our results indicated that FABP3 knockdown had significant effects on cardiac development, and that dysregulated RA signaling was one of the mechanisms underlying this effect. As a result, these studies identify FABP3 as a candidate gene underlying the etiology of congenital heart defects.

  7. Inhibitory effects of azole-type fungicides on interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Jetten, Anton M.; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. However, it remains unclear whether environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have agonistic and/or antagonistic activity against RORα/γ. In this study, we investigated the RORα/γ activity of several azole-type fungicides, and the effects of these fungicides on the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In the ROR-reporter gene assays, five azole-type fungicides (imibenconazole, triflumizole, hexaconazole, tetraconazole and imazalil) suppressed RORα- and/or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity as did benzenesulphonamide T0901317, a ROR inverse agonist and a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. In particular, imibenconazole, triflumizole and hexaconazole showed RORγ inverse agonistic activity at concentrations of 10−6 M. However, unlike T0901317, these fungicides failed to show any LXRα/β agonistic activity. Next, five azole-type fungicides, showing ROR inverse agonist activity, were tested on IL-17 mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that these fungicides suppressed the expression of IL-17 mRNA without effecting RORα and RORγ mRNA levels. In addition, the inhibitory effect of imibenconazole as well as that of T0901317 was absorbed in RORα/γ-knocked down EL4 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that some azole-type fungicides inhibit IL-17 production via RORα/γ. This also provides the first evidence that environmental chemicals can act as modulators of IL-17 expression in immune cells. PMID:22289359

  8. All-trans retinoic acid attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via downregulating EphA2-EphrinA1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Ah Young; Shin, Mi Hwa; Douglas, Ivor S; Song, Joo Han; Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Chang, Joon; Kim, Young Sam; Park, Moo Suk

    2017-09-23

    The role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in pulmonary fibrosis is relatively unknown, although this metabolite modulates cell differentiation, proliferation, and development. We aimed to evaluate the role of ATRA in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and whether the mechanism involves EphA2-EphrinA1 and PI3K-Akt signaling. We evaluated three groups of mice: a control group (intraperitoneal DMSO injection 3 times weekly after PBS instillation), bleomycin group (intraperitoneal DMSO injection 3 times weekly after bleomycin instillation), and bleomycin + ATRA group (intraperitoneal ATRA injection 3 times weekly after bleomycin instillation). The cell counts and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), changes in histopathology, Ashcroft score, hydroxyproline assay, expression of several signal pathway proteins including EphA2-EphrinA1, and PI3K-Akt, and cytokine levels were compared among the groups. We found that bleomycin significantly increased the protein concentration in the BALF, Ashcroft score in lung tissue, and hydroxyproline contents in lung lysates. Furthermore, bleomycin upregulated EphA2, EphrinA1, PI3K 110γ, Akt, IL-6 and TNF-α. However, administration of ATRA attenuated the upregulation of EphA2-EphrinA1 and PI3K-Akt after bleomycin instillation, and decreased pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, ATRA suppressed IL-6 and TNF-α production induced by bleomycin-induced injury. Collectively, these data suggest that ATRA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating EphA2-EphrinA1 and PI3K-Akt signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. All-trans-retinoic Acid Increases SLC26A3 DRA (Down-regulated in Adenoma) Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via HNF-1β*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada, Shubha; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N.; Gujral, Tarunmeet; Borthakur, Alip; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is an active vitamin A derivative known to modulate a number of physiological processes, including growth and development, differentiation, and gene transcription. The protective effect of ATRA in gut inflammation and diarrheal diseases has been documented. In this regard, down-regulated in adenoma (DRA, a key luminal membrane Cl− transporter involved in NaCl absorption) has been shown to be suppressed in intestinal inflammation. This suppression of DRA is associated with diarrheal phenotype. Therefore, current studies were undertaken to examine the effects of ATRA on DRA expression. DRA mRNA levels were significantly elevated (∼4-fold) in response to ATRA with induction starting as early as 8 h of incubation. Similarly, ATRA increased DRA protein expression by ∼50%. Furthermore, DRA promoter activity was significantly increased in response to ATRA indicating transcriptional activation. ATRA effects on DRA expression appeared to be mediated via the RAR-β receptor subtype, as ATRA remarkably induced RAR-β mRNA levels, whereas RAR-β knockdown substantially attenuated the ability of ATRA to increase DRA expression. Results obtained from agonist (CH-55) and antagonist (LE-135) studies further confirmed that ATRA exerts its effects through RAR-β. Furthermore, ATRA treatment resulted in a significant increase in HNF-1β mRNA levels. The ability of ATRA to induce DRA expression was inhibited in the presence of HNF-1β siRNA indicative of its involvement in ATRA-induced effects on DRA expression. In conclusion, ATRA may act as an antidiarrheal agent by increasing DRA expression via the RAR-β/HNF-1β-dependent pathway. PMID:25887398

  10. Stress-induced NF-κB activation differentiates promyelocytic leukemia cells to macrophages in response to all-trans-retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Park, Joon Seong; Lim, In Kyoung

    2015-03-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) has been known as a choice of treatment for inducing differentiation of promyelocytic leukemia cells to granulocytes. NF-κB plays a crucial role in inflammation and immunity and its activation is an important event for macrophage differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. We report here that NF-κB activation is critical for determining ATRA-induced lineage specific differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Our data revealed that ATRA treatment to HL-60 cells enhanced IκBα degradation and NF-κB nuclear translocation and the activated NF-κB potentiated the ability of ATRA for differentiation and switched differentiation to macrophages instead of granulocytes. Serum withdrawal and LPS treatment dampened IκBα expression via MAPK activation and reactive oxygen species generation leading to NF-κB nuclear translocation and ATRA treatment further corroborated these effects in myeloid leukemia cells. Activated NF-κB enhanced the degree of ATRA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells to macrophages, rather than granulocytes, as assessed by morphologic examination and expressions of differentiation markers such as CD11b, CD38, CD68, MMP9 and Btg2. Employing LLnL or dominant negative IκBα attenuated NF-κB associated enhanced cell maturation and differentiation switch thus suggesting NF-κB as one of the factors that determines ATRA induced lineage specificity of myeloid leukemia cells. Furthermore, MAPK activation was observed to be central both for the differentiation of promyelocytic cells to macrophages or granulocytes regulating NF-κB or C/EBPα expressions, respectively; however, MAPK-mediated signals are modulated under various conditions affecting lineage specificity. In summary, our present data demonstrate that activation of NF-κB directly affects differentiation program of promyelocytes to macrophages, rather than granulocyte, in response to ATRA treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. All-trans-retinoic acid up-regulates CD38 but not c-Kit antigens on human marrow CD34+ cells without recruitment into cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herault, O; Domenech, J; Degenne, M; Bremond, J L; Sensebe, L; Bernard, M C; Binet, C; Colombat, P

    1998-11-01

    Retinoids, especially all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), are well known for their differentiating activity on HL-60 cells. Moreover ATRA induces CD38 antigen overexpression on these cells. In this study we examined the effects of ATRA on purified normal CD34+ cells from adult human marrows incubated with ATRA (1 microM) or stem cell factor (SCF) after 7 d liquid cultures in serum-deprived medium. Before and after the incubation, CD34+ cells were studied by flow cytometry to evaluate the cell-surface expression of CD38 and c-Kit antigens and the cycle status of these cells using high-resolution analysis (DNA content v Ki-67 antigen expression) to clarify the functional meaning of antigenic variations. When compared with control cultures, ATRA-treated cells displayed changes in their immunophenotypic profile. Particularly relevant was the up-regulation of CD38 antigen with a mean (+/-SEM) fold increase of 21 +/- 0.1 (P=0.028) for geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI), without modulation of c-Kit expression. SCF only down-regulated expression of c-Kit with a fold decrease of 4.6 +/- 0.9 for GMFI (P=0.043). Unlike SCF, ATRA did not induce CD34+ cells to entry into cell cycle despite increased levels of surface CD38 antigen. Moreover morphological and functional assays did not argue for an ATRA-induced maturation process. Contrary to steady-state cells, CD34+ cells treated with pharmacological doses of ATRA alone displayed CD38 over-expression without change in c-Kit levels and cycle status, suggesting an absence of maturation pressure.

  12. The proteosome inhibitor MG132 attenuates Retinoic Acid Receptor trans-activation and enhances trans-repression of Nuclear Factor κB. Potential relevance to chemo-preventive interventions with retinoids

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    Rosier Randy N

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB is a pro-malignant transcription factor with reciprocal effects on pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic gene expression. Interestingly, NFκB blockade results in the reciprocal induction of retinoic acid receptors (RARs. Given the established property of RARs as negative regulators of malignant progression, we postulated that reciprocal interactions between NFκB and RARs constitute a signaling module in metastatic gene expression and malignant progression. Using Line 1 tumor cells as a model for signal regulation of metastatic gene expression, we investigated the reciprocal interactions between NFκB and RARs in response to the pan-RAR agonist, all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA and the pan-RAR antagonist, AGN193109. Results At-RA [0.1–1 μM] dose-dependently activated RAR and coordinately trans-repressed NFκB, while AGN193109 [1–10 μM] dose-dependently antagonized the effects of at-RA. At-RA and AGN193109 reciprocally regulate pro-metastatic matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP 9 and its endogenous inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (TIMP 1, in a manner consistent with the putative roles of NFκB and RAR in malignant progression. Activation of RAR concurs with its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Accordingly, the proteosome inhibitor, MG132 [5 μM], blocked RAR degradation, quelled RAR trans-activation and enhanced RAR trans-repression of NFκB. Conclusion We conclude that reciprocal interactions between NFκB and RARs constitute a signaling module in metastatic gene expression and malignant progression and propose that the dissociative effect of proteosome inhibitors could be harnessed towards enhancing the anticancer activity of retinoids.

  13. Mechanisms of all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation of acute ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysing gene expression profiles in APL cells before and after ATRA treatment represents a useful approach to identify genes whose functions are involved in this new cancer treatment. A chronologically well coordinated modulation of ATRA-regulated genes has thus been revealed which seems to constitute a balanced ...

  14. A PU.1 suppressive target gene, metallothionein 1G, inhibits retinoic acid-induced NB4 cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hirako

    Full Text Available We recently revealed that myeloid master regulator SPI1/PU.1 directly represses metallothionein (MT 1G through its epigenetic activity of PU.1, but the functions of MT1G in myeloid differentiation remain unknown. To clarify this, we established MT1G-overexpressing acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 (NB4MTOE cells, and investigated whether MT1G functionally contributes to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that the inductions of CD11b and CD11c and reductions in myeloperoxidase and c-myc by ATRA were significantly attenuated in NB4MTOE cells. Morphological examination revealed that the percentages of differentiated cells induced by ATRA were reduced in NB4MTOE cells. Since G1 arrest is a hallmark of ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation, we observed a decrease in G1 accumulation, as well as decreases in p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 inductions, by ATRA in NB4MTOE cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction assays revealed that the proportions of NBT-positive cells were decreased in NB4MTOE cells in the presence of ATRA. Microarray analyses showed that the changes in expression of several myeloid differentiation-related genes (GATA2, azurocidin 1, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, matrix metallopeptidase -8, S100 calcium-binding protein A12, neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 and oncostatin M induced by ATRA were disturbed in NB4MTOE cells. Collectively, overexpression of MT1G inhibits the proper differentiation of myeloid cells.

  15. Retinoic acid influences anteroposterior positioning of epidermal sensory neurons and their gene expression in a developing chordate (amphioxus)

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    Schubert, Michael; Holland, Nicholas D.; Escriva, Hector; Holland, Linda Z.; Laudet, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In developing chordates, retinoic acid (RA) signaling patterns the rostrocaudal body axis globally and affects gene expression locally in some differentiating cell populations. Here we focus on development of epidermal sensory neurons in an invertebrate chordate (amphioxus) to determine how RA signaling influences their rostrocaudal distribution and gene expression (for AmphiCoe, a neural precursor gene; for amphioxus islet and AmphiERR, two neural differentiation genes; and for AmphiHox1, -3, -4, and -6). Treatments with RA or an RA antagonist (BMS009) shift the distribution of developing epidermal neurons anteriorly or posteriorly, respectively. These treatments also affect gene expression patterns in the epidermal neurons, suggesting that RA levels may influence specification of neuronal subtypes. Although colinear expression of Hox genes is well known for the amphioxus central nervous system, we find an unexpected comparable colinearity for AmphiHox1, -3, -4, and -6 in the developing epidermis; moreover, RA levels affect the anteroposterior extent of these Hox expression domains, suggesting that RA signaling controls a colinear Hox code for anteroposterior patterning of the amphioxus epidermis. Thus, in amphioxus, the developing peripheral nervous system appears to be structured by mechanisms parallel to those that structure the central nervous system. One can speculate that, during evolution, an ancestral deuterostome that structured its panepidermal nervous system with an RA-influenced Hox code gave rise to chordates in which this patterning mechanism persisted within the epidermal elements of the peripheral nervous system and was transferred to the neuroectoderm as the central nervous system condensed dorsally. PMID:15226493

  16. Combined therapy with {sup 131}I and retinoic acid in Korean patients with radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, So Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seung-hwan; Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Cheon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University WCU Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of redifferentiation therapy using retinoic acid (RA) in combination with {sup 131}I therapy, and to identify biological parameters that predict therapeutic response in Korean patients with radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 47 patients (13 men, 34 women; age 54.2 {+-} 13.6 years) with radioiodine-refractory PTC underwent therapy consisting of consecutive treatment with {sup 131}I and RA. Each {sup 131}I/RA treatment cycle involved the administration of oral isotretinoin for 6 weeks at 1-1.5 mg/kg daily followed by a single oral dose of {sup 131}I (range 5.5-16.7 GBq). Therapeutic responses were determined using serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and the change in tumour size 6 months after completing the {sup 131}I/RA therapy. Biological parameters and pathological parameters before and after combined therapy were compared. After completing {sup 131}I/RA therapy, 1 patient showed a complete response, 9 partial response, 9 stable disease, and 28 progressive disease, representing an overall response rate of 21.3%. Univariate analysis revealed that an age of <45 years and a persistently high serum Tg level were related to a good response. No clinical response was achieved when metastases showing no iodine uptake were present. Multivariate regression analysis showed that an age of <45 years was significantly associated with a good response. Of the 24 patients with well-differentiated carcinoma, 5 (20.8%) responded to {sup 131}I/RA therapy, whereas all 6 patients with poorly differentiated carcinoma failed to respond. {sup 131}I/RA therapy was found to elicit a response rate of 21.3% among patients with radioiodine-refractory PTC, and an age of <45 years was found to be significantly associated with a good response. (orig.)

  17. Retinoid X Receptor Agonists Upregulate Genes Responsible for the Biosynthesis of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Wu

    Full Text Available UAB30 is an RXR selective agonist that has been shown to have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity, it is currently being evaluated in human Phase I clinical trials by the National Cancer Institute. While UAB30 shows promise as a low toxicity chemopreventive drug, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of UAB30 on gene expression in human organotypic skin raft cultures and mouse epidermis. The results of this study indicate that treatment with UAB30 results in upregulation of genes responsible for the uptake and metabolism of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, the natural agonist of RAR nuclear receptors. Consistent with the increased expression of these genes, the steady-state levels of ATRA are elevated in human skin rafts. In ultraviolet B (UVB irradiated mouse skin, the expression of ATRA target genes is found to be reduced. A reduced expression of ATRA sensitive genes is also observed in epidermis of mouse models of UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinomas. However, treatment of mouse skin with UAB30 prior to UVB irradiation prevents the UVB-induced decrease in expression of some of the ATRA-responsive genes. Considering its positive effects on ATRA signaling in the epidermis and its low toxicity, UAB30 could be used as a chemoprophylactic agent in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly in organ transplant recipients and other high risk populations.

  18. Impact of retinoic acid exposure on midfacial shape variation and manifestation of holoprosencephaly in Twsg1 mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Billington

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly (HPE is a developmental anomaly characterized by inadequate or absent midline division of the embryonic forebrain and midline facial defects. It is believed that interactions between genes and the environment play a role in the widely variable penetrance and expressivity of HPE, although direct investigation of such effects has been limited. The goal of this study was to examine whether mice carrying a mutation in a gene encoding the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP antagonist twisted gastrulation (Twsg1, which is associated with a low penetrance of HPE, are sensitized to retinoic acid (RA teratogenesis. Pregnant Twsg1+/− dams were treated by gavage with a low dose of all-trans RA (3.75 mg/kg of body weight. Embryos were analyzed between embryonic day (E9.5 and E11.5 by microscopy and geometric morphometric analysis by micro-computed tomography. P19 embryonal carcinoma cells were used to examine potential mechanisms mediating the combined effects of increased BMP and retinoid signaling. Although only 7% of wild-type embryos exposed to RA showed overt HPE or neural tube defects (NTDs, 100% of Twsg1−/− mutants exposed to RA manifested severe HPE compared to 17% without RA. Remarkably, up to 30% of Twsg1+/− mutants also showed HPE (23% or NTDs (7%. The majority of shape variation among Twsg1+/− mutants was associated with narrowing of the midface. In P19 cells, RA induced the expression of Bmp2, acted in concert with BMP2 to increase p53 expression, caspase activation and oxidative stress. This study provides direct evidence for modifying effects of the environment in a genetic mouse model carrying a predisposing mutation for HPE in the Twsg1 gene. Further study of the mechanisms underlying these gene-environment interactions in vivo will contribute to better understanding of the pathogenesis of birth defects and present an opportunity to explore potential preventive interventions.

  19. Expression of the retinoic acid catabolic enzyme CYP26B1 in the human brain to maintain signaling homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, Patrick N; Fragoso, Yara D; Saeed, Reem Bu; Ashton, Anna; Goodman, Timothy; Simons, Claire; Gomaa, Mohamed S; Sementilli, Angelo; Sementilli, Leonardo; Ross, Alexander W; Morgan, Peter J; McCaffery, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a potent regulator of gene transcription via its activation of a set of nuclear receptors controlling transcriptional activation. Precise maintenance of where and when RA is generated is essential and achieved by local expression of synthetic and catabolic enzymes. The catabolic enzymes Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1 have been studied in detail in the embryo, where they limit gradients of RA that form patterns of gene expression, crucial for morphogenesis. This paracrine role of RA has been assumed to occur in most tissues and that the RA synthetic enzymes release RA at a site distant from the catabolic enzymes. In contrast to the embryonic CNS, relatively little is known about RA metabolism in the adult brain. This study investigated the distribution of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1 transcripts in the rat brain, identifying several novel regions of expression, including the cerebral cortex for both enzymes and striatum for Cyp26b1. In vivo use of a new and potent inhibitor of the Cyp26 enzymes, ser 2-7, demonstrated a function for endogenous Cyp26 in the brain and that hippocampal RA levels can be raised by ser 2-7, altering the effect of RA on differential patterning of cell proliferation in the hippocampal region of neurogenesis, the subgranular zone. The expression of CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 was also investigated in the adult human brain and colocalization of CYP26A1 and the RA synthetic enzyme RALDH2 indicated a different, autocrine role for RA in human hippocampal neurons. Studies with the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line implied that the co-expression of RA synthetic and catabolic enzymes maintains retinoid homeostasis within neurons. This presents a novel view of RA in human neurons as part of an autocrine, intracellular signaling system.

  20. 13-Cis retinoic acid can enhance the antitumor activity of non-replicating Sendai virus particle against neuroblastoma.

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    Nomura, Motonari; Shimbo, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yasuhide; Fukuzawa, Masahiro; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2013-02-01

    Hemagglutinating virus of Japan-envelope (HVJ-E) is a drug delivery vector based on inactivated Sendai virus. Recently, antitumor activities were found for HVJ-E itself and clinical trials of HVJ-E for some malignant tumors are now ongoing. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of HVJ-E against neuroblastoma, which is one of the most common malignant solid tumors in childhood. The sensitivity of human neuroblastoma cell lines to HVJ-E correlated with the expression level of gangliosides, Sialylparagloboside (SPG) and GD1a, receptors for HVJ. Among the cell lines, SK-N-SH was the most sensitive to HVJ-E in vitro and total SPG and GD1a expression was the highest. Complete eradication of subcutaneous tumors derived from SK-N-SH cells was achieved by intratumoral injection of HVJ-E in SCID mice and no recurrence was observed for more than 300 days after HVJ-E inoculation. In contrast, NB1 cells expressed the lowest amount of GD1a and SPG and were resistant to HVJ-E in vitro. The expression of GD1a increased by 13-cis retinoic acid (13cRA), which is a therapeutic drug for high risk neuroblastoma, thus leading to an improved sensitivity to HVJ-E in vitro. Only growth inhibition of the subcutaneous tumors derived from NB1 cells was achieved by HVJ-E in the SCID mice, but the combination of 13cRA and HVJ-E could achieve partial eradication of the xenograft and also lead to an improved prognosis. In conclusion, HVJ-E is a promising therapeutic modality for neuroblastoma and 13cRA can be used as an adjuvant to HVJ-E. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.

  1. Migratory properties of ex vivo expanded regulatory T cells: Influence of all-trans retinoic acid and rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, J L; Thiesler, C T; Dringenberg, U; Alter, C; Kuhs, S; Velaga, S; Ukena, S N; Franzke, A

    2017-12-01

    Adoptively transferred regulatory T-cells represent a promising therapeutic approach for tolerance induction in autoimmunity and transplantation medicine. However, a major hurdle for clinical application is the manufacturing of sufficient Treg cell numbers with respect to the low frequency of naturally occurring Tregs in the peripheral blood. Therefore, ex vivo large-scale expansion is mandatory for most of the clinical conditions. Besides the Treg cell number other parameters of the cell product are of high relevance for safe and efficient clinical Treg cell application like Treg cell purity, suppressive capacity and genetic stability of the Treg cell phenotype. Moreover, migratory properties of ex vivo expanded Tregs should be defined very clearly in order to predict their migration to secondary lymphoid organs as sites of antigen-specific activation, in vivo proliferation and subsequent trafficking to affected target organs. Therefore, we studied different cell culture conditions for Treg large-cell expansion using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and/or rapamycin (Rapa) with focus on their migratory properties. The tested culture conditions revealed comparable chemokine receptor expression profiles (CXCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR7) and functional migration capabilities (IP10 and CCL19) with respect to Th1 and Th2 inflammatory conditions. However, the most striking difference was detected for the expansion capacity, suppressive potency and genetic stability likely predisposing large-scale expansion with ATRA and/or Rapa for therapeutic intervention in acute GvHD and without supplementation for chronic GvHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. All-trans retinoic acid-triggered antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on NPC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, Matthew; Kim, Elliot W; Inkeles, Megan S; De Leon, Avelino; Pellegrini, Matteo; Krutzik, Stephan R; Liu, Philip T

    2014-03-01

    A role for vitamin A in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been suggested through epidemiological and in vitro studies; however, the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that vitamin A-triggered antimicrobial activity against M. tuberculosis requires expression of NPC2. Comparison of monocytes stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), the biologically active forms of vitamin A and vitamin D, respectively, indicates that ATRA and 1,25D3 induce mechanistically distinct antimicrobial activities. Stimulation of primary human monocytes with ATRA did not result in expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, which is required for 1,25D3 antimicrobial activity. In contrast, ATRA triggered a reduction in the total cellular cholesterol concentration, whereas 1,25D3 did not. Blocking ATRA-induced cellular cholesterol reduction inhibits antimicrobial activity as well. Bioinformatic analysis of ATRA- and 1,25D3-induced gene profiles suggests that NPC2 is a key gene in ATRA-induced cholesterol regulation. Knockdown experiments demonstrate that ATRA-mediated decrease in total cellular cholesterol content and increase in lysosomal acidification are both dependent upon expression of NPC2. Expression of NPC2 was lower in caseous tuberculosis granulomas and M. tuberculosis-infected monocytes compared with normal lung and uninfected cells, respectively. Loss of NPC2 expression ablated ATRA-induced antimicrobial activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the vitamin A-mediated antimicrobial mechanism against M. tuberculosis requires NPC2-dependent expression and function, indicating a key role for cellular cholesterol regulation in the innate immune response.

  3. Long-term outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans-retinoic acid, arsenic trioxide, and gemtuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Yasmin; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Estey, Elihu; Borthakur, Gautam; Jabbour, Elias; Faderl, Stefan; O'Brien, Susan; Wierda, William; Pierce, Sherry; Brandt, Mark; McCue, Deborah; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Patel, Keyur; Kornblau, Steven; Kadia, Tapan; Daver, Naval; DiNardo, Courtney; Jain, Nitin; Verstovsek, Srdan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina; Estrov, Zeev; Foudray, Maria; McCue, David; Cortes, Jorge; Ravandi, Farhad

    2017-03-09

    The combination of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been shown to be superior to ATRA plus chemotherapy in the treatment of standard-risk patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). A recent study demonstrated the efficacy of this regimen with added gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) in high-risk patients. We examined the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed APL treated at our institution on 3 consecutive prospective clinical trials, using the combination of ATRA and ATO, with or without GO. For induction, all patients received ATRA (45 mg/m2 daily) and ATO (0.15 mg/kg daily) with a dose of GO (9 mg/m2 on day 1) added to high-risk patients (white blood cell count, >10 × 109/L), as well as low-risk patients who experienced leukocytosis during induction. Once in complete remission, patients received 4 cycles of ATRA plus ATO consolidation. One hundred eighty-seven patients, including 54 with high-risk and 133 with low-risk disease, have been treated. The complete remission rate was 96% (52 of 54 in high-risk and 127 of 133 in low-risk patients). Induction mortality was 4%, with only 7 relapses. Among low-risk patients, 60 patients (45%) required either GO or idarubicin for leukocytosis. Median duration of follow-up was 47.6 months. The 5-year event-free, disease-free, and overall survival rates are 85%, 96%, and 88%, respectively. Late hematological relapses beyond 1 year occurred in 3 patients. Fourteen deaths occurred beyond 1 year; 12 were related to other causes. This study confirms the durability of responses with this regimen. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Hyaluronan Mixed Esters of Butyric and Retinoic Acid Affording Myocardial Survival and Repair without Stem Cell Transplantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Cantoni, Silvia; Cavallini, Claudia; Bianchi, Francesca; Valente, Sabrina; Frascari, Irene; Olivi, Elena; Aquaro, Giovanni D.; Bonavita, Francesca; Scarlata, Ignazio; Maioli, Margherita; Vaccari, Valentina; Tassinari, Riccardo; Bartoli, Antonietta; Recchia, Fabio A.; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Ventura, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Possible cardiac repair by adult stem cell transplantation is currently hampered by poor cell viability and delivery efficiency, uncertain differentiating fate in vivo, the needs of ex vivo cell expansion, and consequent delay in transplantation after the onset of heart attack. By the aid of magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and immunohistochemistry, we show that injection of a hyaluronan mixed ester of butyric and retinoic acid (HBR) into infarcted rat hearts afforded substantial cardiovascular repair and recovery of myocardial performance. HBR restored cardiac [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and increased capillary density and led to the recruitment of endogenous Stro-1-positive stem cells. A terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay demonstrated that HBR-treated hearts exhibited a decrease in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes and Stro-1 stem cells, HBR enhanced the transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, kdr, akt, and pim-1. HBR also increased the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor, suggesting that the mixed ester may have recruited both myocardial and Stro-1 cells also. An increase in capillarogenesis was induced in vitro with medium obtained from HBR-exposed cells. In the infarcted myocardium, HBR injection increased histone H4 acetylation significantly. Acetyl-H4 immunoreactivity increased in rat cardiomyocytes and Stro-1 cells exposed to HBR, compared with untreated cells. In conclusion, efficient cardiac regenerative therapy can be afforded by HBR without the need of stem cell transplantation or vector-mediated gene delivery. PMID:20097747

  5. Retinoic acid signaling and mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation: Cross talk between genomic and non-genomic effects of RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette-Egly, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, a fat-soluble vitamin, plays key roles in cell growth and differentiation by activating nuclear receptors, RARs (α, β and γ), which are ligand dependent regulators of transcription. The past years highlighted several novelties in the field that increased the complexity of RA effects. Indeed, in addition to its classical genomic effects, RA also has extranuclear and non-transcriptional effects. RA induces the rapid and transient activation of kinase cascades, which are integrated in the nucleus via the phosphorylation of RARs at a conserved serine residue located in the N-terminal domain and their coregulators. In order to investigate the relevance of RARs' phosphorylation in cell differentiation, mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells were used as a model. When treated with RA, these pluripotent cells give rise to neuronal cells. Cells invalidated for each RAR were generated as well as stable rescue lines expressing RARs mutated in phosphor acceptor sites. Such a strategy revealed that RA-induced neuronal differentiation involves the RARγ2 subtype and requires RARγ2 phosphorylation. Moreover, in gene expression profiling experiments, the phosphorylated form of RARγ2 was found to regulate a small subset of genes through binding a novel RA response element consisting of two direct repeats with a 7 base pair spacer. These new findings suggest an important role for RAR phosphorylation during cell differentiation, and pave the way for further investigations with other cell types and during embryonic development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Linking transcription to physiology in lipodomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Retinoic acid signal pathway regulation of zebra fish tooth development through manipulation of the differentiation of neural crest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Huang, Xing; Xu, Zhiyun; Yang, Deqin

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the mechanism of retinoic acid (RA) signal in dental evolution, RA is used to explore the influence of the mechanism on neural crest's migration during the early stage of zebra fish embryos. We divided embryos of wild type and transgenic line zebra fish into three groups. 1 x 10(-7) to 6 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1) RA and 1 x 10(-7) mo x L(-1) 4-diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) were added into egg water at 24 hpf for 9 h. Dimethyl sulfoxid (DMSO) with the concentration was used as control group. Then, antisense probes of dlx2a, dlx2b, and barxl were formulated to perform whole-mount in situ hybridization to check the expressions of the genes in 48 hpf to 72 hpf embryos. We observed fluorescence of transgenic line in 4 dpf embryos. We obtained three mRNA probes successfully. Compared with DMSO control group, a low concentration (1 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1)) of RA could up-regulate the expression of mRNA (barx1, dlx2a) in neural crest. Obvious migration trend was observed toward the pharyngeal arch in which teeth adhered. Transgenic fish had spreading fluorescence tendency in pharyngeal arch. However, a high concentration (4 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1)) of RA malformed the embryos and killed them after treatment. One third of the embryos of middle concentration (3 x 10(-7) mo x L(-1)) exhibited delayed development. DEAB resulted in neural crest dysplasia. The expression of barxl and dlx2a were suppressed, and the appearance of dlx2b in tooth was delayed. RA signal pathway can regulate the progenitors of tooth by controlling the growth of the neural crest and manipulating tooth development

  7. Retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles enhance vascular regulation of neural stem cell survival and differentiation after ischaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, M. C.; Santos, T.; Sargento-Freitas, J.; Tjeng, R.; Paiva, F.; Castelo-Branco, M.; Ferreira, L. S.; Bernardino, L.

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. However, current therapies only reach a small percentage of patients and may cause serious side effects. We propose the therapeutic use of retinoic acid-loaded nanoparticles (RA-NP) to safely and efficiently repair the ischaemic brain by creating a favourable pro-angiogenic environment that enhances neurogenesis and neuronal restitution. Our data showed that RA-NP enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and tubule network formation and protected against ischaemia-induced death. To evaluate the effect of RA-NP on vascular regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) survival and differentiation, endothelial cell-conditioned media (EC-CM) were collected. EC-CM from healthy RA-NP-treated cells reduced NSC death and promoted proliferation while EC-CM from ischaemic RA-NP-treated cells decreased cell death, increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In parallel, human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC), which are part of the endogenous repair response to vascular injury, were collected from ischaemic stroke patients. hEPC treated with RA-NP had significantly higher proliferation, which further highlights the therapeutic potential of this formulation. To conclude, RA-NP protected endothelial cells from ischaemic death and stimulated the release of pro-survival, proliferation-stimulating factors and differentiation cues for NSC. RA-NP were shown to be up to 83-fold more efficient than free RA and to enhance hEPC proliferation. These data serve as a stepping stone to use RA-NP as vasculotrophic and neurogenic agents for vascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases with compromised vasculature.

  8. All‐trans retinoic acid protects against doxorubicin‐induced cardiotoxicity by activating the ERK2 signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Luo, Cheng; Chen, Cong; Wang, Xun; Shi, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Doxorubicin is a powerful antineoplastic agent for treating a wide range of cancers. However, doxorubicin cardiotoxicity of the heart has largely limited its clinical use. All‐trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plays an important role in many cardiac biological processes, but its protective effects on doxorubicin‐induced cardiotoxicity remain unknown. Here, we studied the effect of ATRA on doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. Experimental Approaches Cellular viability assays, Western blotting and mitochondrial respiration analyses were employed to evaluate the cellular response to ATRA in H9c2 cells and primary cardiomyocytes. Quantitative PCR and gene knockdown were performed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of ATRA's effects on doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Key Results ATRA significantly inhibited doxorubicin‐induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and primary cardiomyocytes. ATRA was more effective against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity than resveratrol and dexrazoxane. ATRA also suppressed reactive oxygen species generation and restored expression levels of mRNA and proteins in the phase II detoxifying enzyme system: nuclear factor‐E2‐related factor 2, manganese superoxide dismutase, haem oxygenase‐1, and mitochondrial function (mitochondrial membrane integrity, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and mitochondrial respiration capacity, biogenesis and dynamics). Both a ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and ERK2 siRNA, but not ERK1 siRNA, abolished the protective effect of ATRA against doxorubicin‐induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Remarkably, ATRA did not compromise the anticancer efficacy of doxorubicin in gastric carcinoma cells. Conclusions and Implications ATRA protected cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin‐induced toxicity, by activating the ERK2 pathway, without compromising its anticancer efficacy. Therefore, ATRA is a promising candidate as a cardioprotective agent against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. PMID:26507774

  9. Cellular and molecular determinants of all-trans retinoic acid sensitivity in breast cancer: Luminal phenotype and RARα expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centritto, Floriana; Paroni, Gabriela; Bolis, Marco; Garattini, Silvio Ken; Kurosaki, Mami; Barzago, Maria Monica; Zanetti, Adriana; Fisher, James Neil; Scott, Mark Francis; Pattini, Linda; Lupi, Monica; Ubezio, Paolo; Piccotti, Francesca; Zambelli, Alberto; Rizzo, Paola; Gianni', Maurizio; Fratelli, Maddalena; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Forty-two cell lines recapitulating mammary carcinoma heterogeneity were profiled for all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) sensitivity. Luminal and ER+ (estrogen-receptor-positive) cell lines are generally sensitive to ATRA, while refractoriness/low sensitivity is associated with a Basal phenotype and HER2 positivity. Indeed, only 2 Basal cell lines (MDA-MB157 and HCC-1599) are highly sensitive to the retinoid. Sensitivity of HCC-1599 cells is confirmed in xenotransplanted mice. Short-term tissue-slice cultures of surgical samples validate the cell-line results and support the concept that a high proportion of Luminal/ER+ carcinomas are ATRA sensitive, while triple-negative (Basal) and HER2-positive tumors tend to be retinoid resistant. Pathway-oriented analysis of the constitutive gene-expression profiles in the cell lines identifies RARα as the member of the retinoid pathway directly associated with a Luminal phenotype, estrogen positivity and ATRA sensitivity. RARα3 is the major transcript in ATRA-sensitive cells and tumors. Studies in selected cell lines with agonists/antagonists confirm that RARα is the principal mediator of ATRA responsiveness. RARα over-expression sensitizes retinoid-resistant MDA-MB453 cells to ATRA anti-proliferative action. Conversely, silencing of RARα in retinoid-sensitive SKBR3 cells abrogates ATRA responsiveness. All this is paralleled by similar effects on ATRA-dependent inhibition of cell motility, indicating that RARα may mediate also ATRA anti-metastatic effects. We define gene sets of predictive potential which are associated with ATRA sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines and validate them in short-term tissue cultures of Luminal/ER+ and triple-negative tumors. In these last models, we determine the perturbations in the transcriptomic profiles afforded by ATRA. The study provides fundamental information for the development of retinoid-based therapeutic strategies aimed at the stratified treatment of breast cancer subtypes

  10. Induction of Chemoresistance by All-Trans Retinoic Acid via a Noncanonical Signaling in Multiple Myeloma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kesheng; Huang, Qiaoli; Chen, Yicheng; Qian, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Despite the successful application of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in multiple myeloma treatment, ATRA-induced chemoresistance in the myeloma patients is very common in clinic. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ATRA on the expression of apurinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (Ape/Ref-1) in the U266 and RPMI-8226 myeloma cells to explore the chemoresistance mechanism involved. ATRA treatment induced upregulation of Ape/Ref-1 via a noncanonical signaling pathway, leading to enhanced pro-survival activity counteracting melphalan (an alkylating agent). ATRA rapidly activated p38-MSK (mitogen- and stress activated protein kinase) cascade to phosphorylate cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Phosphorylated CREB was recruited to the Ape/Ref-1 promoter to evoke the gene expression. The stimulation of ATRA on Ape/Ref-1 expression was attenuated by either p38-MSK inhibitors or overexpression of dominant-negative MSK1 mutants. Moreover, ATRA-mediated Ape/Ref-1 upregulation was correlated with histone modification and activation of CBP/p300, an important cofactors for CREB transcriptional activity. C646, a competitive CBP/p300 inhibitor, abolished the upregulation of Ape/Ref-1 induced by ATRA. Intriguingly, CBP rather than p300 played a dominant role in the expression of Ape/Ref-1. Hence, our study suggests the existence of a noncanonical mechanism involving p38-MSK-CREB cascade and CBP induction to mediate ATRA-induced Ape/Ref-1 expression and acquired chemoresistance in myeloma cells. PMID:24416428

  11. Liposome encapsulated all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has enhanced immunomodulatory and inflammation reducing activities in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, V M Berlin; Siddikuzzaman; Rimashree, B

    2015-01-01

    The all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is found to have a promising regulatory effect on immune system and inflammatory responses in experimental research. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this therapeutic efficiency of ATRA could be enhanced by encapsulating into a liposome formulation composed of Distearoyl-L-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and cholesterol utilizing a well-established mice model. The humoral antibody titer (HA), delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), bone marrow cellularity, hematology, and levels of α- esterase-positive cells, were taken as parameters to assess the level of immunomodulation in the sheep red blood cells (SRBC) immunized and challenged BALB/c mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of encapsulated ATRA was evaluated by the size changes in the induced inflammation edema in the mice paw as well as its histopathology. The results showed a significant immunostimulatory effect for both the free and encapsulated ATRA as indicated by the increase in the levels of total leukocyte, bone marrow and α-esterase positive cells and decreased Hb level respectively. We have also observed an enhanced specific antibody hemagglutinin titre value and the DTH response developed in response to SRBC challenge in these treatments. Both the immunostimulatory as well as inflammation reducing property were significantly higher in encapsulated ATRA treated group of mice over that of in free ATRA treated group of mice. Based on these results, we conclude that the encapsulated ATRA has a higher potency over free ATRA in its immunomodulatory activity and also has a significant impact on reducing inflammation in BALB/c mice model.

  12. Hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic acid affording myocardial survival and repair without stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Cantoni, Silvia; Cavallini, Claudia; Bianchi, Francesca; Valente, Sabrina; Frascari, Irene; Olivi, Elena; Aquaro, Giovanni D; Bonavita, Francesca; Scarlata, Ignazio; Maioli, Margherita; Vaccari, Valentina; Tassinari, Riccardo; Bartoli, Antonietta; Recchia, Fabio A; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Ventura, Carlo

    2010-03-26

    Possible cardiac repair by adult stem cell transplantation is currently hampered by poor cell viability and delivery efficiency, uncertain differentiating fate in vivo, the needs of ex vivo cell expansion, and consequent delay in transplantation after the onset of heart attack. By the aid of magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and immunohistochemistry, we show that injection of a hyaluronan mixed ester of butyric and retinoic acid (HBR) into infarcted rat hearts afforded substantial cardiovascular repair and recovery of myocardial performance. HBR restored cardiac [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and increased capillary density and led to the recruitment of endogenous Stro-1-positive stem cells. A terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay demonstrated that HBR-treated hearts exhibited a decrease in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes and Stro-1 stem cells, HBR enhanced the transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, kdr, akt, and pim-1. HBR also increased the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor, suggesting that the mixed ester may have recruited both myocardial and Stro-1 cells also. An increase in capillarogenesis was induced in vitro with medium obtained from HBR-exposed cells. In the infarcted myocardium, HBR injection increased histone H4 acetylation significantly. Acetyl-H4 immunoreactivity increased in rat cardiomyocytes and Stro-1 cells exposed to HBR, compared with untreated cells. In conclusion, efficient cardiac regenerative therapy can be afforded by HBR without the need of stem cell transplantation or vector-mediated gene delivery.

  13. Retinoid X Receptor Agonists Upregulate Genes Responsible for the Biosynthesis of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Human Epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lizhi; Chaudhary, Sandeep C; Atigadda, Venkatram R; Belyaeva, Olga V; Harville, Steven R; Elmets, Craig A; Muccio, Donald D; Athar, Mohammad; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2016-01-01

    UAB30 is an RXR selective agonist that has been shown to have potential cancer chemopreventive properties. Due to high efficacy and low toxicity, it is currently being evaluated in human Phase I clinical trials by the National Cancer Institute. While UAB30 shows promise as a low toxicity chemopreventive drug, the mechanism of its action is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of UAB30 on gene expression in human organotypic skin raft cultures and mouse epidermis. The results of this study indicate that treatment with UAB30 results in upregulation of genes responsible for the uptake and metabolism of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the natural agonist of RAR nuclear receptors. Consistent with the increased expression of these genes, the steady-state levels of ATRA are elevated in human skin rafts. In ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiated mouse skin, the expression of ATRA target genes is found to be reduced. A reduced expression of ATRA sensitive genes is also observed in epidermis of mouse models of UVB-induced squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinomas. However, treatment of mouse skin with UAB30 prior to UVB irradiation prevents the UVB-induced decrease in expression of some of the ATRA-responsive genes. Considering its positive effects on ATRA signaling in the epidermis and its low toxicity, UAB30 could be used as a chemoprophylactic agent in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, particularly in organ transplant recipients and other high risk populations.

  14. Involvement of retinoic acid receptor alpha in the stimulation of tissue-type plasminogen-activator gene expression in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, T; Lansink, M; Arts, J; Sitter, T; Toet, K

    1995-09-01

    Retinoids stimulate tissue-type plasminogen-activator (t-PA) gene expression in human endothelial cells, and are likely to do so by binding to one or more nuclear retinoid receptors. The present study was initiated to identify the retinoid receptor(s) involved in this process. Expression and regulation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) were analyzed by Northern-blot analysis of total or poly(A)-rich RNA prepared from cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Prior to any exposure to retinoids, HUVEC express two transcripts for RAR-alpha (3.6 kb and 2.8 kb), and low levels of transcripts for RAR-beta (3.4 kb and 3.2 kb) and RAR-gamma (3.3 kb and 3.1 kb). Two RXR subtypes were identified, RXR-alpha (4.8 kb) and, at a much lower concentration, RXR-beta (2.4 kb); no evidence for the presence of RXR-gamma was found. Furthermore, HUVEC express cellular retinol-binding protein I (CRBP-I) and cellular retinoic-acid-binding protein I (CRABP-I) mRNA. Exposure of HUVEC to 1 microM retinoic acid or the retinobenzoic acid, Ch55, led to the induction of the two RAR-beta mRNAs, RXR-alpha mRNA and CRBP-I mRNA, whereas the expression of the other receptor and CRABP-I transcripts did not change appreciably. Using retinoid analogues that bind preferentially to one of the RAR or RXR subtypes, we found evidence that RAR-alpha is involved in the retinoid-induced t-PA expression in HUVEC. This conclusion was strengthened by experiments in which blocking of RAR-alpha with a specific RAR-alpha antagonist, Ro 41-5253, was demonstrated to suppress the induction of t-PA by retinoids.

  15. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    ), and to an increased expression of proteins favoring fat oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 2, fasting-induced adipose factor, enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation). These changes paralleled inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein and were...

  16. Determinants of Cytochrome P450 2C8 Substrate Binding: Structures of Complexes With Montelukast, Troglitazone, Felodipine And 9-CIS-Retinoic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, G.A.; Yano, J.K.; Dansette, P.M.; Stout, C.D.; Johnson, E.F.

    2009-05-27

    Although a crystal structure and a pharmacophore model are available for cytochrome P450 2C8, the role of protein flexibility and specific ligand-protein interactions that govern substrate binding are poorly understood. X-ray crystal structures of P450 2C8 complexed with montelukast (2.8 {angstrom}), troglitazone (2.7 {angstrom}), felodipine (2.3 {angstrom}), and 9-cis-retinoic acid (2.6 {angstrom}) were determined to examine ligand-protein interactions for these chemically diverse compounds. Montelukast is a relatively large anionic inhibitor that exhibits a tripartite structure and complements the size and shape of the active-site cavity. The inhibitor troglitazone occupies the upper portion of the active-site cavity, leaving a substantial part of the cavity unoccupied. The smaller neutral felodipine molecule is sequestered with its dichlorophenyl group positioned close to the heme iron, and water molecules fill the distal portion of the cavity. The structure of the 9-cis-retinoic acid complex reveals that two substrate molecules bind simultaneously in the active site of P450 2C8. A second molecule of 9-cis-retinoic acid is located above the proximal molecule and can restrain the position of the latter for more efficient oxygenation. Solution binding studies do not discriminate between cooperative and noncooperative models for multiple substrate binding. The complexes with structurally distinct ligands further demonstrate the conformational adaptability of active site-constituting residues, especially Arg-241, that can reorient in the active-site cavity to stabilize a negatively charged functional group and define two spatially distinct binding sites for anionic moieties of substrates.

  17. DLG1 influences distal ureter maturation via a non-epithelial cell autonomous mechanism involving reduced retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Tae; Ahn, Sun-Young; Swat, Wojciech; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2014-06-15

    The absence of Discs-large 1 (DLG1), the mouse ortholog of the Drosophila discs-large tumor suppressor, results in congenital hydronephrosis characterized by urinary tract abnormalities, reduced ureteric bud branching, and delayed disconnection of the ureter from the common nephric duct (CND). To define the specific cellular requirements for Dlg1 expression during urogenital development, we used a floxed Dlg1 allele and Pax2-Cre, Pax3-Cre, Six2-Cre, and HoxB7-Cre transgenes to generate cell type-restricted Dlg1 mutants. In addition, we used Ret(GFP) knockin and retinoic acid response element-lacZ transgenic mice to determine the effects of Dlg1 mutation on the respective morphogenetic signaling pathways. Mutation of Dlg1 in urothelium and collecting ducts (via HoxB7-Cre or Pax2-Cre) and in nephron precursors (via Pax2-Cre and Six2-Cre) resulted in no apparent abnormalities in ureteric bud branching or in distal ureter maturation, and no hydronephrosis. Mutation in nephrons, ureteric smooth muscle, and mesenchyme surrounding the lower urinary tract (via the Pax3-Cre transgene) resulted in congenital hydronephrosis accompanied by reduced branching, abnormal distal ureter maturation and insertion, and smooth muscle orientation defects, phenotypes very similar to those in Dlg1 null mice. Dlg1 null mice showed reduced Ret expression and apoptosis during ureter maturation and evidence of reduced retinoic acid signaling in the kidney. Taken together, these results suggest that Dlg1 expression in ureter and CND-associated mesenchymal cells is essential for ensuring distal ureter maturation by facilitating retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis of the urothelium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and the regulation of adhesion molecules in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noto, R; Lo Pardo, C; Schiavone, E M; Ferrara, F; Manzo, C; Vacca, C; Del Vecchio, L

    1996-04-01

    A review of recent information on the expression and the ATRA-driven modulation of cell surface adhesion molecules of acute myelogenous leukemia blast cells is presented. Cytofluorometric studies on fresh blast cells have demonstrated that CD11a, CD11b CD11c, CD15, CD45RO and CD54 expression is significantly lower in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) than is acute myeloid leukemia of other subtypes (AML). In vitro treatment with ATRA dramatically modifies the adhesion phenotype of APL blast cells, promoting a consistently striking up-regulation of CD11b, CD11c, CD15, CD65, CD54, and CD38. Which is in general, poorly demonstrable in AML. The behaviour of CD15s is variable and fully independent from CD15 and CD65 in induction experiments, suggesting a differential enzyme regulation within the selectin ligand system. ATRA is capable, in both APL and AML, of producing a switch from the high- (RA) to the low- (RO) molecular weight isoform of CD54, Moreover, treatment with this retinoid exerts a negative regulation of the membrane expression of CD49e, CD58 and CD11a in APL as well as in AML. Of particular interest is the fact that the negative effect on CD1 1a expression generates an asynchronous phenotype in APL (CD11a-, CD11b+, CD15+), undetectable on normal maturing myeloid cells. In the last part of this review the possible implications of adhesion molecule modulation in the pathogenesis of ATRA syndrome are discussed.

  19. Combination Therapy of All-Trans Retinoic Acid With Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Human Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, David N; Abdelghany, Osama; Cai, Shi-Ying; Gossard, Andrea A; Eaton, John E; Keach, Jill C; Deng, Yanhong; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Ciarleglio, Maria; Lindor, Keith D; Boyer, James L

    2017-02-01

    To perform an exploratory pilot study of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) combined with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). PSC is a progressive disorder for which there is no accepted therapy. Studies in human hepatocyte cultures and in animal models of cholestasis indicate that ATRA might have beneficial effects in cholestatic disorders. ATRA (45 mg/m/d, divided and given twice daily) was combined with moderate-dose UDCA in patients with PSC who had incomplete response to UDCA monotherapy. The combination was administered for 12 weeks, followed by a 12-week washout in which patients returned to UDCA monotherapy. We measured alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acids, and the bile acid intermediate 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) at baseline, week 12, and after washout. Fifteen patients completed 12 weeks of therapy. The addition of ATRA to UDCA reduced the median serum ALP levels (277±211 to 243±225 U/L, P=0.09) although this, the primary endpoint, did not reach significance. In contrast, median serum ALT (76±55 to 46±32 U/L, P=0.001) and C4 (9.8±19 to 7.9±11 ng/mL, P=0.03) levels significantly decreased. After washout, ALP and C4 levels nonsignificantly increased, whereas ALT levels significantly increased (46±32 to 74±74, P=0.0006), returning to baseline. In this human pilot study, the combination of ATRA and UDCA did not achieve the primary endpoint (ALP); however, it significantly reduced ALT and the bile acid intermediate C4. ATRA appears to inhibit bile acid synthesis and reduce markers of inflammation, making it a potential candidate for further study in PSC (NCT 01456468).

  20. Results of the APML3 trial incorporating all-trans-retinoic acid and idarubicin in both induction and consolidation as initial therapy for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iland, Harry; Bradstock, Ken; Seymour, John; Hertzberg, Mark; Grigg, Andrew; Taylor, Kerry; Catalano, John; Cannell, Paul; Horvath, Noemi; Deveridge, Sandra; Browett, Peter; Brighton, Tim; Chong, Li; Springall, Francisca; Ayling, Juliet; Catalano, Alberto; Supple, Shane; Collins, Marnie; Di Iulio, Juliana; Reynolds, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Initial therapy for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia most often involves the combination of all-trans-retinoic acid with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The role of non-anthracycline drugs in induction and consolidation is less well-established and varies widely between different cooperative group protocols. Design and Methods In an attempt to minimize relapse and maximize survival for patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia, the Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group utilized all-trans-retinoic acid and idarubicin as anti-leukemic therapy for both induction and consolidation. The protocol (known as APML3) was subsequently amended to incorporate maintenance with all-trans-retinoic acid, methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine. Results Eight (8%) of 101 patients died within 30 days, and 91 (90%) achieved complete remission. With a median estimated potential follow-up of 4.6 years, 4-year overall survival was 84%, and 71% of the patients remained in remission at 4 years. The cumulative incidence of all relapses was 28.1%, with 15 of the 25 relapses initially identified as an isolated molecular relapse. Both FLT3 mutations (internal tandem duplications and codon 835/836 kinase domain mutations) and increased white cell count at diagnosis were associated with inferior overall survival, but in multivariate analyses only FLT3 mutations remained significant (hazard ratio 6.647, P=0.005). Maintenance therapy was significantly associated with improved remission duration (hazard ratio 0.281, P<0.001) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio 0.290, P<0.001). Conclusions The combination of all-trans-retinoic acid and just two cycles of idarubicin followed by triple maintenance produced durable remissions in most patients, but patients with high-risk disease, especially those with FLT3 mutations, require additional agents or alternative treatment approaches. The significant reduction in relapse seen after the addition of maintenance to the

  1. RAR?2 and PML-RAR similarities in the control of basal and retinoic acid induced myeloid maturation of acute myeloid leukemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni, M; Fratelli, M.; Bolis, M.; Kurosaki, M; Zanetti, A.; Paroni, G.; Rambaldi, A; Borleri, G.; Rochette-Egly, C; Terao, M; Garattini, E

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the first example of targeted therapy. In fact, the oncogenic fusion-protein (PML-RAR) typical of this leukemia contains the retinoid-nuclear-receptor RAR?. PML-RAR is responsible for the differentiation block of the leukemic blast. Besides PML-RAR, two endogenous RAR? proteins are present in APL blasts, i.e. RAR?1 and RAR?2. We developed different cell populations characterized by PML-RAR, RAR?2 and RAR?1 ...

  2. Anti-metastatic study of liposome-encapsulated all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in B16F10 melanoma cells-implanted C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddikuzzaman; Grace, V M Berlin

    2014-12-01

    B16F10 cells-induced C57BL/6 mice were divided into several groups and the free all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and liposome-encapsulated ATRA were given for 21 days. The encapsulated ATRA treatment lowered the oxidative stress and lipid profile near to the normal level in the drug-treated mice. Encapsulated ATRA treatment showed substantial decrease in serum cytokines and increase in lifespan when compared with free ATRA treatment. These results imply that the liposome-encapsulated ATRA may help to achieve a higher level of ATRA in comparison with free ATRA treatment and helps to enhance anticancer drug delivery in liposome-encapsulated ATRA treatment.

  3. Development and characterization of novel and selective inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP26A1, the human liver retinoic acid hydroxylase

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Philippe; Huang, Weize; Keyari, Charles M.; Buttrick, Brian; Price, Lauren; Guilloteau, Nicolas; Tripathy, Sasmita; Sperandio, Vanessa G.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Astruc-Diaz, Fanny; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP26 enzymes are responsible for all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) clearance. Inhibition of CYP26 enzymes will increase endogenous atRA concentrations and is an attractive therapeutic target. However, the selectivity and potency of the existing atRA metabolism inhibitors towards CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 is unknown, and no selective CYP26A1 or CYP26B1 inhibitors have been developed. Here the synthesis and potent inhibitory activity of the first CYP26A1 selective inhibitors is reported...

  4. Phosphorylation of c-Cbl and p85 PI3K Driven by All-trans Retinoic Acid and CD38 Depends on Lyn Kinase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Congleton, Johanna; Shen, Miaoqing; Macdonald, Robert; Malavasi, Fabio; Yen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The leukocyte antigen CD38 is expressed after all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment in HL-60 myelogenous leukemia cells and promotes induced myeloid differentiation when overexpressed. We found that Vav1 and SLP-76 associate with CD38 in two cell lines, and that these proteins complex with Lyn, a Src family kinase (SFK) upregulated by ATRA. SFK inhibitors PP2 and dasatinib, which enhance ATRA-induced differentiation, were used to evaluate the involvement of Lyn kinase activity in CD38-driv...

  5. Inhibitory effects of azole-type fungicides on interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: kojima@iph.pref.hokkaido.jp [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-19, Nishi-12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Takeuchi, Shinji [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-19, Nishi-12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Takeda, Yukimasa; Jetten, Anton M. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Matsuda, Tadashi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. However, it remains unclear whether environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have agonistic and/or antagonistic activity against RORα/γ. In this study, we investigated the RORα/γ activity of several azole-type fungicides, and the effects of these fungicides on the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In the ROR-reporter gene assays, five azole-type fungicides (imibenconazole, triflumizole, hexaconazole, tetraconazole and imazalil) suppressed RORα- and/or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity as did benzenesulphonamide T0901317, a ROR inverse agonist and a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. In particular, imibenconazole, triflumizole and hexaconazole showed RORγ inverse agonistic activity at concentrations of 10{sup −6} M. However, unlike T0901317, these fungicides failed to show any LXRα/β agonistic activity. Next, five azole-type fungicides, showing ROR inverse agonist activity, were tested on IL-17 mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that these fungicides suppressed the expression of IL-17 mRNA without effecting RORα and RORγ mRNA levels. In addition, the inhibitory effect of imibenconazole as well as that of T0901317 was absorbed in RORα/γ-knocked down EL4 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that some azole-type fungicides inhibit IL-17 production via RORα/γ. This also provides the first evidence that environmental chemicals can act as modulators of IL-17 expression in immune cells. -- Highlights: ► Nuclear receptors, RORα and RORγ, are key regulators of Th17 cell differentiation. ► Five azole-type fungicides act as RORα/γ inverse agonists. ► These fungicides

  6. PRMT1 and PRMT8 regulate retinoic acid-dependent neuronal differentiation with implications to neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandi, Zoltan; Czipa, Erik; Horvath, Attila; Koszeghy, Aron; Bordas, Csilla; Póliska, Szilárd; Juhász, István; Imre, László; Szabó, Gábor; Dezso, Balazs; Barta, Endre; Sauer, Sascha; Karolyi, Katalin; Kovacs, Ilona; Hutóczki, Gábor; Bognár, László; Klekner, Álmos; Szucs, Peter; Bálint, Bálint L; Nagy, Laszlo

    2015-03-01

    Retinoids are morphogens and have been implicated in cell fate commitment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to neurons. Their effects are mediated by RAR and RXR nuclear receptors. However, transcriptional cofactors required for cell and gene-specific retinoid signaling are not known. Here we show that protein arginine methyl transferase (PRMT) 1 and 8 have key roles in determining retinoid regulated gene expression and cellular specification in a multistage neuronal differentiation model of murine ESCs. PRMT1 acts as a selective modulator, providing the cells with a mechanism to reduce the potency of retinoid signals on regulatory "hotspots." PRMT8 is a retinoid receptor target gene itself and acts as a cell type specific transcriptional coactivator of retinoid signaling at later stages of differentiation. Lack of either of them leads to reduced nuclear arginine methylation, dysregulated neuronal gene expression, and altered neuronal activity. Importantly, depletion of PRMT8 results in altered expression of a distinct set of genes, including markers of gliomagenesis. PRMT8 is almost entirely absent in human glioblastoma tissues. We propose that PRMT1 and PRMT8 serve as a rheostat of retinoid signaling to determine neuronal cell specification in a context-dependent manner and might also be relevant in the development of human brain malignancy. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Combination of arsenicum trioxide and all trans retinoic acid in the treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Sokolov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From 2001 to 2013 eleven patients with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL (median age – 30 years received arsenicum trioxide (ATO. ATO was administered as a 2nd line relapse therapy in 9 patients, as 1st line relapse therapy in 2 patients. ATO was administered in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg in 7 patients, 0.15 mg/kg – in 4 patients. The induction duration was 14 days in 3 patients, 24–35 days in 2 patients, 60 days in 6 patients. From the 1st day of ATO patients received 45 mg/m2 all trans retinoic acid (ATRA (1 patient – from day 29 of ATO therapy. Maintenance therapy ATO + ATRA (10–14 days courses, every four weeks patients were receiving during 10–15 months. 2 from 3 patients with molecular relapses achieved remission lasting 57 and 89 months after the 14-day ATO courses. 1 from 2 patients with bone marrow relapse achieved remission lasting 27 months after the 24–35-day ATO courses. 60-day courses were effective in 5 of 6 patients: in 4 of which remission are retained during 16, 19, 27, 57 months; 1 patient was relapsed after 12 months; 1 patient did not achieve molecular remission. 3 patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT, 2 of which alive in remission. 1 patient received autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the 2nd molecular remission (alive in remission. 4 patients died: 1 – in the 3rd relapse (duration of 2nd remission – 9 months, 1 – in remission from complications after alloHSCT, 1 – from APL progression, 1 – sudden death in 2nd remission lasting 72 months. ATO + ATRA for 60 days with supportive therapy are more effective than chemotherapy in the treatment of APL relapse. Interferon α + ATRA are inappropriate treatment of APL molecular and cytogenetic relapse. Using autologous HSCT in 2nd molecular remission will improve the results of APL relapse treatment.

  8. All-trans retinoic acid protects against arsenic-induced uterine toxicity in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, A.; Chatterji, U., E-mail: urmichatterji@gmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Background and purpose: Arsenic exposure frequently leads to reproductive failures by disrupting the rat uterine histology, hormonal integrity and estrogen signaling components of the rat uterus, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was assessed as a prospective therapeutic agent for reversing reproductive disorders. Experimental approach: Rats exposed to arsenic for 28 days were allowed to either recover naturally or were treated simultaneously with ATRA for 28 days or treatment continued up to 56 days. Hematoxylin-eosin double staining was used to evaluate changes in the uterine histology. Serum gonadotropins and estradiol were assayed by ELISA. Expression of the estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}), an estrogen responsive gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, was assessed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Key results: ATRA ameliorated sodium arsenite-induced decrease in circulating estradiol and gonadotropin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, along with recovery of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands. Concomitant up regulation of ER{alpha}, VEGF, cyclin D1, CDK4 and Ki-67 was also observed to be more prominent for ATRA-treated rats as compared to the rats that were allowed to recover naturally for 56 days. Conclusions and implications: Collectively, the results reveal that ATRA reverses arsenic-induced disruption of the circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol, and degeneration of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands of the rat uterus, indicating resumption of their functional status. Since structural and functional maintenance of the pubertal uterus is under the influence of estradiol, ATRA consequently up regulated the estrogen receptor and resumed cellular proliferation, possibly by an antioxidant therapeutic approach against arsenic toxicity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic

  9. All-trans-retinoic acid inhibits chondrogenesis of rat embryo hindlimb bud mesenchymal cells by downregulating p53 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, TAO-GEN; LI, XUE-DONG; YU, GUO-YONG; XIE, PENG; WANG, YUN-GUO; LIU, ZHAO-YONG; HONG, QUAN; LIU, DE-ZHONG; DU, SHI-XIN

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-established role of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in congenital clubfoot (CCF)-like deformities in in vivo models, the essential cellular and molecular targets and the signaling mechanisms for ATRA-induced CCF-like deformities remain to be elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that p53 and p21, expressed in the hindlimb bud mesenchyme, regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation, contributing to a significant proportion of embryonic CCF-like abnormalities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms for ATRA-induced CCF, by assessing ATRA-regulated chondrogenesis in rat embryo hindlimb bud mesenchymal cells (rEHBMCs) in vitro. The experimental study was based on varying concentrations of ATRA exposure on embryonic day 12.5 rEHBMCs in vitro. The present study demonstrated that ATRA inhibited the proliferation of cells by stimulating apoptotic cell death of rEHBMCs. It was also observed that ATRA induced a dose-dependent reduction of cartilage nodules compared with the control group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of cartilage-specific molecules, including aggrecan, Sox9 and collagen, type II, α 1 (Col2a1), were downregulated by ATRA in a dose-dependent manner; the mRNA levels of p53 and p21 were dose-dependently upregulated from 16 to 20 h of incubation with ATRA, but dose-dependently downregulated from 24 to 48 h. Of note, p53 and p21 were regulated at the translational level in parallel with the transcription with rEHBMCs treated with ATRA. Furthermore, the immunofluorescent microscopy assays indicated that proteins of p53 and p21 were predominantly expressed in the cartilage nodules. The present study demonstrated that ATRA decreases the chondrogenesis of rEHBMCs by inhibiting cartilage-specific molecules, including aggrecan, Sox9 and Col2al, via regulating the expression of p53 and p21. PMID:25738595

  10. All-trans retinoic acid induces different immunophenotypic changes on human HL60 and NB4 myeloid leukaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicole; Belov, Larissa; Christopherson, Richard I

    2008-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is used to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), inducing APL cells to differentiate into abnormal neutrophils. To investigate the possible relationship between the chromosome translocation t(15;17) found in APL and ATRA treatment, the human myeloid leukaemia cell lines HL60 and NB4, that are PML-RARalpha negative and positive, respectively, were treated with ATRA and immunophenotyped using a CD antibody microarray. For HL60 cells, ATRA induced major increases in descending order of CD38, CD11b, CD45RO, CD11c, CD54 and CD36 with repression of CD117 and CD44. For NB4 cells, ATRA induced major increases in descending order of CD11c, CD54, CD11a, CD11b, CD53, CD65, CD138, CD66c and T-cell receptor alpha/beta (TCRalpha/beta), with repression of CD38 and CD9. The induction of a number of these CD antigens is consistent with the known differentiation of these leukaemias to abnormal neutrophils. Approximately half of the antigens up-regulated by ATRA on NB4 cells were adhesion molecules, including CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD54, CD66c and CD138, consistent with the increased adhesiveness of leukaemia cells observed for APL patients treated with ATRA. On HL60 cells, ATRA induced expression of CD38, CD43 and CD45RO and repressed CD117, while the converse was true on NB4 cells that contain chimeric PML-RARalpha. For NB4 cells, ATRA induced some remarkable increases in CD antigens not seen for HL60: CD14 (16.6-fold), CD32 (27.8), CD53 (20.5), CD65 (139), CD66c (79.7), CD126 (15.1), and CD138 (57.6). The expression of these antigens may be regulated by PML-RARalpha in the presence of ATRA. Such CD antigens could be targets for synergistic treatment of APL with therapeutic antibodies following ATRA treatment.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INDUCTION OF LUNG DAMAGE IN THE F344 RAT UPON EXPOSURE TO CITRAL, RETINOIC ACID (ATRA), OVALBUMIN AND MOLD SPORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt-Gray, Carlene; Cameron, Joseph A.; Tucci, Michelle; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    The experimental impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA), citrals, ovalbumin and mold spores in the development of lung pathology and tissue remodeling are not well established in the literature. As well, the role of these agents in lung pathology was not ascertained under an in vivo setting. Therefore, it is hypothesized that citrals, ATRA, ovalbumin and mold-spore exposure will sensitize lung tissues and will lead to the development of lung tissue pathology in these animals. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=30). Mold spores were applied to animals by intra-tracheal route whereas vehicle, ovalbumin, C1, C2 and ATRA were administered by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight data and blood were collected on Days 1 and 21. All animals were sacrificed on day 21 and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Evidence from weights and blood (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as histopatholgical analysis supported the findings that exposure of these animals to C1, C2, ATRA, ovalbumin and mold spores showed different levels of lung tissue damage representing environmental exposure to these agents. This promising study showed variable lung tissue responses to the administration of ATRA, ovalbumin, citrals, and mold spores in the development of various levels of lung tissue pathologies. PMID:25405452

  12. The Negative Impact of Combining Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Mold Spores on F344 Rat Lung and Improvement of Tissue Pathology by Citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Holt-Gray, Carlene; Cameron, Joseph A; Tucci, Michelle; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) and Mold spores (MLD) in the development of lung pathology and in vivo tissue remodeling have not been well established in the literature. In addition, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in animal studies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Mold (MLD) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that Citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse, ameliorate or improve the associated pathological damage to lung tissues. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=40). Animals were exposed to eight different treatments including vehicle, MLD, ATRA, Citrals (C1 and C2) and their MLD combinations (MLD+ ATRA, MLD+ C1, and MLD+ C2) by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight and blood data were collected on Days 1 and 21, all animals were sacrificed on day 21, and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Results from weight and blood data (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as from histopathological analyses supported the findings that exposure of F344 rats to MLD combinations with ATRA and Citrals showed various levels of lung tissue damage that were impacted by either C1 or C2. This promising study showed impressive responses on the interaction of MLD, Citrals, and ATRA as related to their impact on associated lung tissue pathologies.

  13. IMPACT OF PAIRED COMBINATIONS OF RETINOIC ACID (ATRA) AND OVALBUMIN ON F344 RAT LUNG TISSUES AND IMPROVEMENT OF RELATED PATHOLOGY BY CITRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O.; Holt-Gray, Carlene; Cameron, Joseph A.; Tucci, Michelle; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of lung pathology and tissue remodeling are not well established in the literature. As well, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology was not ascertained under an in vivo setting. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and ovalbumin exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse or ameliorate the related pathological damage to lung tissues. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=40). Animals were exposed to 8 different treatments including vehicle, OVA, ATRA, citrals (C1 and C2) and their ovalbumin combinations (OVA+ ATRA, OVA+ C1, and OVA+ C2) by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight data and blood were collected on Days 1 and 21, all animals were sacrificed on day 21 and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Results from weights and blood (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as from the histopatholgical analysis supported the findings that exposure of F344 rats to OVA combinations with ATRA and citrals showed various levels of lung tissue damage that was improved or worsened by either C1 or C2. This promising study showed variable responses on the interaction of ovalbumin, citrals, and ATRA as related to their damage/improvement of related lung tissue pathologies. PMID:25405454

  14. Cellular retinoic-acid-binding-protein and retinol-binding-protein mRNA expression in the cells of the rat seminiferous tubules and their regulation by retinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraonio, R; Galdieri, M; Colantuoni, V

    1993-02-01

    The levels of the mRNA corresponding to the intracellular binding proteins for retinoic acid and retinol (CRABP1 and CRBP1, respectively) were studied in primary cultures of somatic and germ cells of the rat seminiferous tubules. We show that the CRABP1 mRNA is expressed in Sertoli and germ cells and a single molecular species of mRNA is detected. CRBP1 mRNA is detected in Sertoli and peritubular cells. The regulation of the expression of both genes by retinoids was studied in Sertoli cells. CRABP1 mRNA levels are not affected by either retinoic acid or retinol, whereas both compounds positively regulate CRBP1 mRNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. A fivefold increase in CRBP1 mRNA levels was observed 32-48 h after addition of either agent. These results demonstrate that in Sertoli cells the expression of CRABP1 is not affected by retinoids, similar to the situation observed in vivo and in other in-vitro cultures. CRBP1-gene expression is, instead, induced and the variations in CRBP1-mRNA levels may regulate the intracellular concentrations of retinoids, as a response to changes in the vitamin-A nutritional status.

  15. Nanosecond pulsed electric field suppresses development of eyes and germ cells through blocking synthesis of retinoic acid in Medaka (Oryzias latipes.

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    Eri Shiraishi

    Full Text Available Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs has attracted rising attention in various scientific fields including medical, pharmacological, and biological sciences, although its effects and molecular mechanisms leading to the effects remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a single, high-intensity (10-30 kV/cm, 60-ns PEF exposure affects gene expression and impairs development of eyes and germ cells in medaka (Oryzias latipes. Exposure of early blastula stage embryos to nsPEF down-regulated the expression of several transcription factors which are essential for eye development, causing abnormal eye formation. Moreover, the majority of the exposed genetic female embryos showed a fewer number of germ cells similar to that of the control (unexposed genetic male at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf. However, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA treatment following the exposure rescued proliferation of germ cells and resumption of normal eye development, suggesting that the phenotypes induced by nsPEF are caused by a decrease of retinoic acid levels. These results confirm that nsPEFs induce novel effects during embryogenesis in medaka.

  16. All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Pseudotumor Cerebri during Induction Therapy for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Holmes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, a derivative of vitamin A, is an essential component in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL. Though considered to be a relatively safe drug, use of ATRA can lead to several side effects such as retinoic acid syndrome and pseudotumor cerebri (PC. PC is a rare disorder characterized by neurologic and ocular signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid composition and normal brain imaging. Most of the previous studies suggest that PC, as a complication of ATRA therapy, occurs predominantly in the pediatric age group. Herein, we report a rare case of ATRA-induced PC in a 38-year-old woman undergoing induction treatment for APL. Symptoms improved with discontinuation of ATRA and treatment with acetazolamide. Concomitant administration of medications such as triazole antifungals which influence the cytochrome P-450 system can exacerbate this potential complication of ATRA. In this paper, we also review the current literature, provide a descriptive analysis of clinical features, and discuss the principles of management of ATRA-induced PC.

  17. All-trans retinoic acid promotes wound healing of primary amniocytes through the induction of LOXL4, a member of the lysyl oxidase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzaire, Marion; Comptour, Aurélie; Belville, Corinne; Bouvier, Damien; Clairefond, Gaël; Ponelle, Flora; Sapin, Vincent; Gallot, Denis; Blanchon, Loïc

    2016-12-01

    Thirty percent of preterm births directly result from preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes (PPROM). Clinical management currently proposes using a collagen plug to mechanically stop loss of amniotic fluid. Vitamin A and its active metabolite (retinoic acid) have well-known pro-healing properties and could thus make good candidates as a proposable adjuvant to this mechanical approach. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the pro-healing properties of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) in fetal membranes via an approach using an in vitro primary amniocyte wound model and transcriptomics. The results demonstrate that atRA promotes migration in primary amniocytes, improving wound healing in vitro by up to 90%. This effect is mediated by the induction of LOXL4, which plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the extracellular matrix by regulating collagen reticulation. This new insight into how atRA exerts its pro-healing properties prompts us to propose using atRA as a candidate strategy to help prevent future PPROM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Negative Impact of Combining Retinoic Acid (ATRA) and Mold Spores on F344 Rat Lung and Improvement of Tissue Pathology by Citral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O.; Holt-Gray, Carlene; Cameron, Joseph A.; Tucci, Michelle; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) and Mold spores (MLD) in the development of lung pathology and in vivo tissue remodeling have not been well established in the literature. In addition, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in animal studies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Mold (MLD) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that Citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse, ameliorate or improve the associated pathological damage to lung tissues. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=40). Animals were exposed to eight different treatments including vehicle, MLD, ATRA, Citrals (C1 and C2) and their MLD combinations (MLD+ ATRA, MLD+ C1, and MLD+ C2) by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight and blood data were collected on Days 1 and 21, all animals were sacrificed on day 21, and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Results from weight and blood data (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as from histopathological analyses supported the findings that exposure of F344 rats to MLD combinations with ATRA and Citrals showed various levels of lung tissue damage that were impacted by either C1 or C2. This promising study showed impressive responses on the interaction of MLD, Citrals, and ATRA as related to their impact on associated lung tissue pathologies PMID:25996741

  19. Profiling of the transcriptional response to all-trans retinoic acid in breast cancer cells reveals RARE-independent mechanisms of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Krysta Mila; Maxwell, Selena; Thomas, Margaret Lois; Marcato, Paola

    2017-11-30

    Retinoids, derivatives of vitamin A, are key physiological molecules with regulatory effects on cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. As a result, they are of interest for cancer therapy. Specifically, models of breast cancer have varied responses to manipulations of retinoid signaling. This study characterizes the transcriptional response of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells to retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 (ALDH1A3) and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). We demonstrate limited overlap between ALDH1A3-induced gene expression and atRA-induced gene expression in both cell lines, suggesting that the function of ALDH1A3 in breast cancer progression extends beyond its role as a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase. Our data reveals divergent transcriptional responses to atRA, which are largely independent of genomic retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) and consistent with the opposing responses of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 to in vivo atRA treatment. We identify transcription factors associated with each gene set. Manipulation of the IRF1 transcription factor demonstrates that it is the level of atRA-inducible and epigenetically regulated transcription factors that determine expression of target genes (e.g. CTSS, cathepsin S). This study provides a paradigm for complex responses of breast cancer models to atRA treatment, and illustrates the need to characterize RARE-independent responses to atRA in a variety of models.

  20. Retinoic acid evoked-differentiation of neuroblastoma cells predominates over growth factor stimulation: an automated image capture and quantitation approach to neuritogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, P B; Bacha, J I; Palfreyman, E L; Woollacott, A J; McKernan, R M; Kerby, J

    2001-11-15

    To facilitate the characterization of compounds that have positive growth factor mimetic effects on neuritogenesis, we have implemented a high-throughput functional assay which measures, in a multiparametric manner, the proliferation and differentiation characteristics of cells in a microtiter plate. Conditions were established using chronic incubation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with retinoic acid (RA) and/or nerve growth factor (NGF) in which discernible alterations in proliferation, growth, and differentiation of cells were induced. SH-SY5Y cells were fixed and labeled by immunocytochemistry, and an automated image acquisition and analysis package on Cellomics ArrayScanII was utilized to quantify the effects of these treatments on cell characteristics. NGF and retinoic acid were found to increase multiple parameters of SH-SY5Y differentiation, including an increased proportion of cells having neurites and increased extent of branching. However, marked differences in the effects of these compounds on SH-SY5Y growth and differentiation were also detected: whereas NGF increased cell number, RA treatment decreased cell number, and RA but not NGF caused significant elongation of neurites. This study quantifies and characterizes the effects of differentiating and proliferating agents on a human-derived neuroblastoma cell line. The high-content, rapid-throughput nature of this assay makes it ideal for functional identification and characterization of compounds regulating cell behavior.

  1. Pseudotumour cerebri in acute promyelocytic leukemia on treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) - an experience from a tertiary care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Tali, Manzoor; Bashir, Yasir; Bhat, Shuaeb; Manzoor, Fahim; Bashir, Nusrat; Geelani, Sajad; Rasool, Javid; Waheed Mir, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is considered to be sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) which acts as a differentiating agent. ATRA is considered to be a well-tolerated agent and is known to achieve complete remission in acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, a few cases on long term all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) use can develop pseudotumor cerebri. Out of 32 patients with APML who were treated in our Centre over a 4-year-period, we encountered 6 patients who developed ATRA-related pseudotumor cerebri while on maintenance treatment. The patients ranged from 12 to 40 years of age. 3 patients complained of unbearable headache, 2 of diplopia and 1 of gross reduction in visual acuity. CT scans and MRI did not reveal any intracranial lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination was normal with CSF manometry revealing a high CSF pressure (average of 345mmH2O). Fundoscopy revealed papilledema in 5 patients and optic atrophy in 1 patient. The patients were successfully managed with decrease dose/discontinuation of ATRA, use of acetazolamide, corticosteroids and therapeutic CSF drainage.

  2. Impact of paired combinations of retinoic Acid (atra) and ovalbumin on f344 rat lung tissues and improvement of related pathology by citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Holt Gray, Charlene; Cameron, Joseph A; Tucci, Michelle A; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of lung pathology and tissue remodeling are not well established in the literature. As well, the role of citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology was not ascertained under an in vivo setting. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and ovalbumin exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse or ameliorate the related pathological damage to lung tissues. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=40). Animals were exposed to 8 different treatments including vehicle, OVA, ATRA, citrals (C1 and C2) and their ovalbumin combinations (OVA+ ATRA, OVA+ C1, and OVA+ C2) by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight data and blood were collected on Days 1 and 21, all animals were sacrificed on day 21 and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Results from weights and blood (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as from the histopatholgical analysis supported the findings that exposure of F344 rats to OVA combinations with ATRA and citrals showed various levels of lung tissue damage that was improved or worsened by either C1 or C2. This promising study showed variable responses on the interaction of ovalbumin, citrals, and ATRA as related to their damage/improvement of related lung tissue pathologies.

  3. Experimental induction of lung damage in the f344 rat upon exposure to citral, retinoic Acid (atra), ovalbumin and mold spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Holt Gray, Carlene; Cameron, Joseph A; Tucci, Michelle A; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed A

    2014-01-01

    The experimental impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA), citrals, ovalbumin and mold spores in the development of lung pathology and tissue remodeling are not well established in the literature. As well, the role of these agents in lung pathology was not ascertained under an in vivo setting. Therefore, it is hypothesized that citrals, ATRA, ovalbumin and mold-spore exposure will sensitize lung tissues and will lead to the development of lung tissue pathology in these animals. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=30). Mold spores were applied to animals by intra-tracheal route whereas vehicle, ovalbumin, C1, C2 and ATRA were administered by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight data and blood were collected on Days 1 and 21. All animals were sacrificed on day 21 and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Evidence from weights and blood (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as histopatholgical analysis supported the findings that exposure of these animals to C1, C2, ATRA, ovalbumin and mold spores showed different levels of lung tissue damage representing environmental exposure to these agents. This promising study showed variable lung tissue responses to the administration of ATRA, ovalbumin, citrals, and mold spores in the development of various levels of lung tissue pathologies.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases are involved in the all-trans retinoic acid-induced upregulation of CD38 antigen on human haematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Daniel; Linassier, Claude; Iochmann, Sophie; Degenne, Michel; Domenech, Jorge; Colombat, Philippe; Binet, Christian; Hérault, Olivier

    2002-08-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a specific inducer of CD38 antigen on marrow CD34+ cells as well as on blast cells in acute promyelocytic and myeloblastic leukaemia. The CD38 antigen contributes to the control of blast cell proliferation, and the upregulation of CD38 might constitute an element in the pathogenesis of retinoic acid syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine whether phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) is involved in the modification of CD38 antigen expression on myeloid cells, as PI3-K plays a major role in the ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells. We evaluated the effects of PI3-K inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002) on the levels of CD38 antigen and mRNA in HL-60 and normal marrow CD34+ cells exposed to ATRA (1 micromol/l). The inhibitors prevented increase in CD38 mRNA expression and the overexpression of membrane CD38 antigen, without modification of the cytoplasmic level of this antigen. Interestingly, PI3-K activity was also necessary for CD38 expression on normal marrow CD34+ cells and for the ATRA-induced upregulation of CD157, a CD38-related antigen. In conclusion, PI3-K activity plays an essential role in the regulation of CD38 expression on human haematopoietic cells, and might constitute an interesting therapeutic target in haematological disorders involving CD38 overexpression.

  5. New ligands of the Cellular Retinoic Acid-Binding Protein 2 (CRABP2 suggest a role for this protein in chromatin remodeling

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    Daniella de Barros Rossetto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA regulates the transcription of a series of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis by binding to the RA Receptor (RAR and Retinoid X Receptor (RXR heterodimers. The cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2 is involved in the transport of RA from the cytosol to specific RA receptors in the nucleus, acting as a coactivator of nuclear retinoid receptors. In order to have a better understanding of the role of CRABP2 in RA signaling, we used the yeast two-hybrid system as a tool for the identification of physical protein-protein interactions. Twenty-three putative CRABP2-interacting proteins were identified by screening in the presence of RA, five of which are related to transcription regulation or, more specifically, to the process of chromatin remodeling: t-complex 1 (TCP1; H3 histone, family 3A (H3F3A; H3 histone, family 3B (H3F3B; β-tubulin (TUBB and SR-related CTD-associated factor 1 (SCAF1. These results suggest a more direct role for CRABP2 in chromatin remodeling and may be a starting point for the elucidation of the fine-tuning control of transcription by RA receptors.

  6. Hif1α down-regulation is associated with transposition of great arteries in mice treated with a retinoic acid antagonist

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    Amati Francesca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital heart defect (CHD account for 25% of all human congenital abnormalities. However, very few CHD-causing genes have been identified so far. A promising approach for the identification of essential cardiac regulators whose mutations may be linked to human CHD, is the molecular and genetic analysis of heart development. With the use of a triple retinoic acid competitive antagonist (BMS189453 we previously developed a mouse model of congenital heart defects (81%, thymic abnormalities (98% and neural tube defects (20%. D-TGA (D-transposition of great arteries was the most prevalent cardiac defect observed (61%. Recently we were able to partially rescue this abnormal phenotype (CHD were reduced to 64.8%, p = 0.05, by oral administration of folic acid (FA. Now we have performed a microarray analysis in our mouse models to discover genes/transcripts potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of this CHD. Results We analysed mouse embryos (8.5 dpc treated with BMS189453 alone and with BMS189453 plus folic acid (FA by microarray and qRT-PCR. By selecting a fold change (FC ≥ ± 1.5, we detected 447 genes that were differentially expressed in BMS-treated embryos vs. untreated control embryos, while 239 genes were differentially expressed in BMS-treated embryos whose mothers had also received FA supplementation vs. BMS-treated embryos. On the basis of microarray and qRT-PCR results, we further analysed the Hif1α gene. In fact Hif1α is down-regulated in BMS-treated embryos vs. untreated controls (FCmicro = -1.79; FCqRT-PCR = -1.76; p = 0.005 and its expression level is increased in BMS+FA-treated embryos compared to BMS-treated embryos (FCmicro = +1.17; FCqRT-PCR = +1.28: p = 0.005. Immunofluorescence experiments confirmed the under-expression of Hif1α protein in BMS-treated embryos compared to untreated and BMS+FA-treated embryos and, moreover, we demonstrated that at 8.5 dpc, Hif1α is mainly expressed in the embryo heart

  7. Dose-dependent stimulation of hepatic retinoic acid hydroxylation/oxidation and glucuronidation in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, after exposure to 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, P.M.; Ndayibagira, A.; Spear, P.A.

    2000-03-01

    Extremely low stores of vitamin A have been reported in fish and birds inhabiting regions contaminated by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organochlorines, suggesting many possible effects on retinoid biochemical pathways. Metabolic imbalances associated with biologically active retinoids (e.g., retinoic acid) could be associated with tetratogenesis, edema, growth inhibition, reproductive impairment, immunosuppression, and susceptibility to cancer. Sexually mature brook trout were injected imtraperitoneally with the coplanar PCB 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) and again 4 weeks later. At 8 weeks, retinoic acid metabolism was measured in liver microsomes. To the authors' knowledge, retinoic acid conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase is described here for the first time in fish. A substantial rate of glucuronidation was detected in the microsomes from control brook trout, which tended to increase over the dose range of TCBP. Glucuronidation was significantly greater in fish receiving the 10 {micro}g/g body weight dose level. Metabolism through the cytochrome P450 system was also dose-dependent, resulting in significantly greater production of 4-hydroxyretinoic acid at the 10 {micro}g/g dose level. In contrast, subsequent oxidation to 4-oxo-retinoic acid was greatest at the 1 {micro}g/g dose level and did not increase further at higher doses. Liver stores of dehydroretinyl palmitate/oleate were significantly decreased at the 5 and 10 {micro}g/g dose levels.

  8. Potentiation of the teratogenic effects induced by coadministration of retinoic acid or phytanic acid/phytol with synthetic retinoid receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmazar, M M A; Nau, H

    2004-11-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory identified retinoid-induced defects that are mediated by RAR-RXR heterodimerization using interaction of synthetic ligands selective for the retinoid receptors RAR and RXR in mice (Elmazar et al. 1997, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 146:21-28; Elmazar et al. 2001, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 170:2-9; Nau and Elmazar 1999, Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 139, Retinoids, Springer-Verlag, pp 465-487). The present study was designed to investigate whether these RAR-RXR heterodimer-mediated defects can be also induced by interactions of natural and synthetic ligands for retinoid receptors. A non-teratogenic dose of the natural RXR agonist phytanic acid (100 mg/kg orally) or its precursor phytol (500 mg/kg orally) was coadministered with a synthetic RARalpha-agonist (Am580; 5 mg/kg orally) to NMRI mice on day 8.25 of gestation (GD8.25). Furthermore, a non-teratogenic dose of the synthetic RXR agonist LGD1069 (20 mg/kg orally) was also coadministered with the natural RAR agonist, all- trans-retinoic acid (atRA, 20 mg/kg orally) or its precursor retinol (ROH, 50 mg/kg orally) to NMRI mice on GD8.25. The teratogenic outcome was scored in day-18 fetuses. The incidence of Am580-induced resorptions, spina bifida aperta, micrognathia, anotia, kidney hypoplasia, dilated bladder, undescended testis, atresia ani, short and absent tail, fused ribs and fetal weight retardation were potentiated by coadministration of phytanic acid or its precursor phytol. Am580-induced exencephaly and cleft palate, which were not potentiated by coadministration with the synthetic RXR agonists, were also not potentiated by coadministration with either phytanic acid or its precursor phytol. LGD1069 potentiated atRA- and ROH-induced resorption, exencephaly, spina bifida, aperta, ear anotia and microtia, macroglossia, kidney hypoplasia, undescended testis, atresia ani, tail defects and fetal weight retardation, but not cleft palate. These results suggest that synergistic

  9. All-trans retinoic acid with daunorubicin or idarubicin for risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia : a matched-pair analysis of the PETHEMA LPA-2005 and IC-APL studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, Miguel A.; Montesinos, Pau; Kim, Haesook T.; Ruiz-Argueelles, Guillermo J.; Undurraga, Maria S.; Uriarte, Maria R.; Martinez, Lem; Jacomo, Rafael H.; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Homero; Melo, Raul A. M.; Bittencourt, Rosane; Pasquini, Ricardo; Pagnano, Katia; Fagundes, Evandro M.; Vellenga, Edo; Holowiecka, Alexandra; Gonzalez-Huerta, Ana J.; Fernandez, Pascual; De la Serna, Javier; Brunet, Salut; De Lisa, Elena; Gonzalez-Campos, Jose; Ribera, Jose M.; Krsnik, Isabel; Ganser, Arnold; Berliner, Nancy; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Lowenberg, Bob; Rego, Eduardo M.

    Front-line treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) consists of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline-based chemotherapy. In this setting, a comparison of idarubicin and daunorubicin has never been carried out. Two similar clinical trials using ATRA and chemotherapy for newly

  10. Risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy : long-term outcome of the LPA 99 multicenter study by the PETHEMA Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, Miguel A.; Montesinos, Pau; Vellenga, Edo; Rayon, Consuelo; de la Serna, Javier; Parody, Ricardo; Bergua, Juan M.; Leon, Angel; Negri, Silvia; Gonzalez, Marcos; Rivas, Concha; Esteve, Jordi; Milone, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Jose D.; Amutio, Elena; Brunet, Salut; Garcia-Larana, J.; Colomer, Dolors; Calasanz, Maria J.; Chillon, Carmen; Barragan, Eva; Bolufer, Pascual; Lowenberg, Bob

    2008-01-01

    A previous report of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatias Malignas (PETHEMA) Group showed that a risk-adapted strategy combining all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline monochemotherapy for induction and consolidation in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia

  11. Risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy: Long-term outcome of the LPA 99 multicenter study by the PETHEMA Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Sanz (Miguel Angel); P. Montesinos (Pau); E. Vellenga (Edo); C. Rayón (Consuelo); J. de Serna (Javier); R. Parody (Ricardo); J.M. Bergua (Juan Miguel); A. León (Angel); S. Negri (Silvia); M. González (Marcos); C. Rivas (Concha); J. Esteve (Jordi); G. Milone (Gustavo); E. Amutio (Elena); S. Brunet (Salut); J. García-Laraña; D. Colomer (Dolors); M.J. Calasanz (Maria); C. Chillón (Carmen); E. Barragán (Eva); P. Bolufer (Pascual); B. Löwenberg (Bob)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA previous report of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatfas Malignas (PETHEMA) Group showed that a risk-adapted strategy combining all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline monochemotherapy for induction and consolidation in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic

  12. Risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia based on all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline with addition of cytarabine in consolidation therapy for high-risk patients: Further improvements in treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Sanz (Miguel Angel); P. Montesinos (Pau); C. Rayón (Chelo); A. Holowiecka (Aleksandra); J. De La Serna (Javier); G. Milone (Gustavo); E. de Lisa (Elena); S. Brunet (Salut); V. Rybio (Vicente); J.M. Ribera (Josep Maria); C. Rivas (Concha); I. Krsnik (Isabel); J.M. Bergua (Juan Miguel); J.D. González (José David); J. Díaz-Mediavilla (Joaquín); R. Rojas (Rafael); F. Manso (Félix); G.J. Ossenkoppele (Gert); B. Löwenberg (Bob)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA risk-adapted strategy based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline monochemotherapy (PETHEMALPA99 trial) has demonstrated a high antileukemic efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukemia. We designed a new trial (LPA2005) with the objective of achieving stepwise improvements

  13. DNA vaccination with all-trans retinoic acid treatment induces long-term survival and elicits specific immune responses requiring CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation in an acute promyelocytic leukemia mouse model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furugaki, K.; Pokorná, Kateřina; le Pogam, C.; Aoki, M.; Reboul, M.; Bajzik, V.; Krief, P.; Janin, A.; Noguera, M.-E.; West, R.; Charron, D.; Chomienne, C.; Pla, M.; Moins-Teisserenc, H.; Padua, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 3 (2010), s. 653-656 ISSN 0006-4971 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 94308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : all-trans retinoic acid * DNA vaccination * protective immunity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.558, year: 2010

  14. Selective Recognition of H3.1K36 Dimethylation/H4K16 Acetylation Facilitates the Regulation of All-trans-retinoic Acid (ATRA)-responsive Genes by Putative Chromatin Reader ZMYND8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Santanu; Sanyal, Sulagna; Basu, Moitri; Sengupta, Isha; Sen, Sabyasachi; Srivastava, Dushyant Kumar; Roy, Siddhartha; Das, Chandrima

    2016-02-05

    ZMYND8 (zinc finger MYND (Myeloid, Nervy and DEAF-1)-type containing 8), a newly identified component of the transcriptional coregulator network, was found to interact with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex. Previous reports have shown that ZMYND8 is instrumental in recruiting the NuRD complex to damaged chromatin for repressing transcription and promoting double strand break repair by homologous recombination. However, the mode of transcription regulation by ZMYND8 has remained elusive. Here, we report that through its specific key residues present in its conserved chromatin-binding modules, ZMYND8 interacts with the selective epigenetic marks H3.1K36Me2/H4K16Ac. Furthermore, ZMYND8 shows a clear preference for canonical histone H3.1 over variant H3.3. Interestingly, ZMYND8 was found to be recruited to several developmental genes, including the all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-responsive ones, through its modified histone-binding ability. Being itself inducible by ATRA, this zinc finger transcription factor is involved in modulating other ATRA-inducible genes. We found that ZMYND8 interacts with transcription initiation-competent RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at Ser-5 in a DNA template-dependent manner and can alter the global gene transcription. Overall, our study identifies that ZMYND8 has CHD4-independent functions in regulating gene expression through its modified histone-binding ability. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads: manipulation of meiosis signalling by retinoic acid treatment disrupts testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J E; Perlman, S; Lundvall, L; Mitchell, R T; Juul, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2015-10-01

    What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal phenotype in fetal testis cultures. One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA-treatment mediates initiation of meiosis in human fetal ovary ex vivo. This was a controlled ex vivo study of human fetal gonads treated with RA in 'hanging-drop' tissue cultures. The applied experimental set-up preserves germ cell-somatic niche interactions and the investigated outcomes included tissue integrity and morphology, cell proliferation and survival and the expression of markers of meiosis and sex differentiation. Tissue from 24 first trimester human fetuses was included in this study, all from elective terminations at gestational week (GW) 7-12. Gonads were cultured for 2 weeks with and without addition of 1 µM RA. Samples were subsequently formalin-fixed and investigated by immunohistochemistry and cell counting. Proteins investigated and quantified included; octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), transcription factor AP-2 gamma (AP2γ) (embryonic germ cell markers), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) (immature Sertoli cell markers), COUP transcription factor 2 (COUP-TFII) (marker of interstitial cells), forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) (granulosa cell marker), H2A histone family, member X (γH2AX) (meiosis marker), doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) (meiosis regulator), cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved Caspase 3 (apoptosis markers) and Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67) (proliferation marker). Also, proliferation was determined using a 5'-bromo-2

  16. Mechanisms of action and resistance to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O 3) in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akihiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2013-06-01

    Since the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the overall survival rate has improved dramatically. However, relapse/refractory patients showing resistance to ATRA and/or As2O3 are recognized as a clinically significant problem. Genetic mutations resulting in amino acid substitution in the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) ligand binding domain (LBD) and the PML-B2 domain of PML-RARα, respectively, have been reported as molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to ATRA and As2O3. In the LBD mutation, ATRA binding with LBD is generally impaired, and ligand-dependent co-repressor dissociation and degradation of PML-RARα by the proteasome pathway, leading to cell differentiation, are inhibited. The PML-B2 mutation interferes with the direct binding of As2O3 with PML-B2, and PML-RARα SUMOylation with As2O3 followed by multimerization and degradation is impaired. To overcome ATRA resistance, utilization of As2O3 provides a preferable outcome, and recently, a synthetic retinoid Am80, which has a higher binding affinity with PML-RARα than ATRA, has been tested in the clinical setting. However, no strategy attempted to date has been successful in overcoming As2O3 resistance. Detailed genomic analyses using patient samples harvested repeatedly may help in predicting the prognosis, selecting the effective targeting drugs, and designing new sophisticated strategies for the treatment of APL.

  17. 13-cis-Retinoic acid alters intracellular serotonin, increases 5-HT1A receptor, and serotonin reuptake transporter levels in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kally C; Trent, Simon; Bailey, Sarah J; Lane, Michelle A

    2007-10-01

    In addition to their established role in nervous system development, vitamin A and related retinoids are emerging as regulators of adult brain function. Accutane (13-cis-retinoic acid, isotretinoin) treatment has been reported to increase depression in humans. Recently, we showed that chronic administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) to adolescent male mice increased depression-related behaviors. Here, we have examined whether 13-cis-RA regulates components involved in serotonergic neurotransmission in vitro. We used the RN46A-B14 cell line, derived from rat embryonic raphe nuclei. This cell line synthesizes serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and expresses the 5-HT(1A) receptor and the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT). Cells were treated with 0, 2.5, or 10 microM 13-cis-RA for 48 or 96 hrs, and the levels of 5-HT; its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA); 5-HT(1A) receptor; and SERT were determined. Treatment with 13-cis-RA for 96 hrs increased the intracellular levels of 5-HT and tended to increase intra-cellular 5HIAA levels. Furthermore, 48 hrs of treatment with 2.5 and 10 microM 13-cis-RA significantly increased 5-HT(1A) protein to 168.5 +/- 20.0% and 148.7 +/- 2.2% of control respectively. SERT protein levels were significantly increased to 142.5 +/- 11.1% and 119.2 +/- 3.6% of control by 48 hrs of treatment with 2.5 and 10 microM of 13-cis-RA respectively. Increases in both 5-HT(1A) receptor and SERT proteins may lead to decreased serotonin availability at synapses. Such an effect of 13-cis-RA could contribute to the increased depression-related behaviors we have shown in mice.

  18. Promoter hypermethylation of the retinoic acid receptor beta2 gene is frequent in acute myeloid leukaemia and associated with the presence of CBFβ-MYH11 fusion transcripts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rethmeier, Anita; Aggerholm, Anni; Olesen, Lene Hyldahl

    2006-01-01

    Silencing of the putative tumour suppressor gene retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2) caused by aberrant promoter hypermethylation has been identified in several solid tumours. In order to evaluate the extent of RARbeta2 hypermethylation and transcription in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML...... was unmethylated in 10/10 bone marrow and 7/7 blood samples from healthy individuals, the gene was hypermethylated in 43% of the AML patients. The RARbeta2 degree of promoter methylation differed between and within individuals, and the mRNA transcription levels of the gene varied inter-individually by a factor...... of 4000. A significant inverse correlation between promoter hypermethylation and gene expression could be established (t-test, P = 0.019). Comparison of methylation data with a series of other molecular alterations in the same patient materials revealed a correlation between hypermethylation...

  19. A Complicated Case of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy Successfully Treated with All-trans-Retinoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old female at 26-week gestation was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL after an abnormal prenatal lab workup showed pancytopenia. She was treated with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, idarubicin, and dexamethasone. After day one of treatment, she developed differentiation syndrome, which was treated with dexamethasone. At 30-week gestation, she had preterm premature rupture of membranes and delivered by cesarean section because of the fetus’ breech presentation. Despite ATRA’s potential for teratogenicity, a viable infant was born without apparent anomalies. Postpartum, she underwent consolidation treatment with ATRA and arsenic trioxide (ATO. The patient continued ATRA therapy after delivery and is currently in remission.

  20. Morphogenetic and neuronal characterization of human neuroblastoma multicellular spheroids cultured under undifferentiated and all-trans-retinoic acid-differentiated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwon-Soo Jung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to compare the morphogenetic andneuronal characteristics between monolayer cells andspheroids. For this purpose, we established spheroid formationby growing SH-SY5Y cells on the hydrophobic surfaces ofthermally-collapsed elastin-like polypeptide. After 4 days ofculture, the relative proliferation of the cells within spheroidswas approximately 92% of the values for monolayer cultures.As measured by quantitative assays for mRNA and proteinexpressions, the production of synaptophysin and neuronspecificenolase (NSE as well as the contents of cell adhesionmolecules (CAMs and extracellular matrix (ECM proteins aremuch higher in spheroids than in monolayer cells. Under theall-trans-retinoic acid (RA-induced differentiation condition,spheroids extended neurites and further up-regulated theexpression of synaptophysin, NSE, CAMs, and ECM proteins.Our data indicate that RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y neurospheroidsare functionally matured neuronal architectures. [BMBReports 2013; 46(5: 276-281

  1. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naïve T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  2. Synthesis of (11)C-labeled retinoic acid, [(11)C]ATRA, via an alkenylboron precursor by Pd(0)-mediated rapid C-[(11)C]methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Takashima-Hirano, Misato; Ishii, Hideki; Watanabe, Chika; Sumi, Kengo; Koyama, Hiroko; Doi, Hisashi

    2014-08-01

    Retinoids are a class of chemical compounds which include both natural dietary vitamin A (retinol) metabolites and active synthetic analogs. Both experimental and clinical studies have revealed that retinoids regulate a wide variety of essential biological processes. In this study, we synthesized (11)C-labeled all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the most potent biologically active metabolite of retinol and used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The synthesis of (11)C-labeled ATRA was accomplished by a combination of rapid Pd(0)-mediated C-[(11)C]methylation of the corresponding pinacol borate precursor prepared by 8 steps and hydrolysis. [(11)C]ATRA will prove useful as a PET imaging agent, particularly for elucidating the improved therapeutic activity of ATRA (natural retinoid) for acute promyelocytic leukemia by comparing with the corresponding PET probe [(11)C]Tamibarotene (artificial retinoid). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exogenous PML/RARα Fusion Gene Responds to All-trans Retinoic Acid Results in Differentiation of the Human B Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumimoto, Y; Maeda, Y; Naiki, Y; Sono, H; Miyatake, J; Sakaguchi, M; Matsuda, M; Kanamaru, A

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of an exogenous PML/RARα fusion gene, associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia, with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was examined in B-lymphoid cell lines. RPMI8866 cells were transfected with PML/RARα cDNA in the expression vector pGD and two stable transformants (RPMI8866Y-4 and RPMI8866Y-17) were established by selection with G418. ATRA inhibited the growth of those stable transformants, as assessed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, but had no effect on the growth of control cells stably transformed with neomycin resistant gene alone. ATRA also increased expression of CD38 and immunoglobulin production in RPMI8866Y-4 cells but not in control cells. When these results are taken together, it can be observed that the exogenous PML/RARα fusion gene responds to ATRA, which results in cell differentiation of the human B cell line.

  4. Disease-stabilizing treatment based on all-trans retinoic acid and valproic acid in acute myeloid leukemia - identification of responders by gene expression profiling of pretreatment leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikvam, Håkon; Hovland, Randi; Forthun, Rakel Brendsdal; Erdal, Sigrid; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Fredly, Hanne; Bruserud, Øystein

    2017-09-06

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy only cured by intensive therapy. However, many elderly and unfit patients cannot receive such treatment due to an unacceptable risk of treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Disease-stabilizing therapy is then the only possible strategy, one alternative being treatment based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) combined with the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid and possibly low-toxicity conventional chemotherapy. Primary AML cells were derived from 43 patients included in two clinical studies of treatment based on ATRA, valproic acid and theophyllamine; low toxicity chemotherapy (low-dose cytarabine, hydroxyurea, 6-mercaptopurin) was also allowed. Pretreatment leukemic cells were analyzed by mutation profiling of 54 genes frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies and by global gene expression profiling before and during in vivo treatment. Patients were classified as responders and non-responders to the treatment, however response to treatment showed no significant associations with karyotype or mutational profiles. Significance analysis of microarray (SAM) showed that responders and non-responders significantly differed with regard to the expression of 179 different genes. The differentially expressed genes encoding proteins with a known function were further classified based on the PANTHER (protein annotation through evolutionary relationship) classification system. The identified genes encoded proteins that are involved in several important biological functions, but a main subset of the genes were important for transcriptional regulation. These pretherapy differences in gene expression were largely maintained during treatment. Our analyses of primary AML cells during in vivo treatment suggest that ATRA modulates HOX activity (i.e. decreased expression of HOXA3, HOXA4 and HOXA5 and their regulator PBX3), but altered function of DNA methyl transferase 3A (DNMT3A) and G-protein coupled receptor

  5. An Unexpected Mode Of Binding Defines BMS948 as A Full Retinoic Acid Receptor β (RARβ, NR1B2 Selective Agonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswarkumar Nadendla

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid is an important regulator of cell differentiation which plays major roles in embryonic development and tissue remodeling. The biological action of retinoic acid is mediated by three nuclear receptors denoted RARα, β and γ. Multiple studies support that RARβ possesses functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor and indeed, its expression is frequently lost in neoplastic tissues. However, it has been recently reported that RARβ could also play a role in mammary gland tumorigenesis, thus demonstrating the important but yet incompletely understood function of this receptor in cancer development. As a consequence, there is a great need for RARβ-selective agonists and antagonists as tools to facilitate the pharmacological analysis of this protein in vitro and in vivo as well as for potential therapeutic interventions. Here we provide experimental evidences that the novel synthetic retinoid BMS948 is an RARβ-selective ligand exhibiting a full transcriptional agonistic activity and activating RARβ as efficiently as the reference agonist TTNPB. In addition, we solved the crystal structures of the RARβ ligand-binding domain in complex with BMS948 and two related compounds, BMS641 and BMS411. These structures provided a rationale to explain how a single retinoid can be at the same time an RARα antagonist and an RARβ full agonist, and revealed the structural basis of partial agonism. Finally, in addition to revealing that a flip by 180° of the amide linker, that usually confers RARα selectivity, accounts for the RARβ selectivity of BMS948, the structural analysis uncovers guidelines for the rational design of RARβ-selective antagonists.

  6. Enhancement of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II (moderate dysplasia) with topically applied all-trans-retinoic acid: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyskens, F L; Surwit, E; Moon, T E; Childers, J M; Davis, J R; Dorr, R T; Johnson, C S; Alberts, D S

    1994-04-06

    Retinoids enhance differentiation of most epithelial tissues. Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse relationship between dietary intake or serum levels of vitamin A and the development of cervical dysplasia and/or cervical cancer. Pilot and phase I investigations demonstrated the feasibility of the local delivery of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) to the cervix using a collagen sponge insert and cervical cap. A phase II trial produced a clinical complete response rate of 50%. This randomized phase III trial was designed to determine whether topically applied RA reversed moderate cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or severe CIN. Analyses were based on 301 women with CIN (moderate dysplasia, 151 women; severe dysplasia, 150 women), evaluated by serial colposcopy, Papanicolaou cytology, and cervical biopsy. Cervical caps with sponges containing either 1.0 mL of 0.372% beta-trans-RA or a placebo were inserted daily for 4 days when women entered the trial, and for 2 days at months 3 and 6. Patients receiving treatment and those receiving placebo were similar with respect to age, ethnicity, birth-control methods, histologic features of the endocervical biopsy specimen and koilocytotic atypia, and percentage of involvement of the cervix at study. Treatment effects were compared using Fisher's exact test and logistic regression methods. Side effects were recorded, and differences were compared using Fisher's exact test. RA increased the complete histologic regression rate of CIN II from 27% in the placebo group to 43% in the retinoic acid treatment group (P = .041). No treatment difference between the two arms was evident in the severe dysplasia group. More vaginal and vulvar side effects were seen in the patients receiving RA, but these effects were mild and reversible. A short course of locally applied RA can reverse CIN II, but not more advanced dysplasia, with acceptable local side effects. A derivative of vitamin A can reverse or suppress an epithelial

  7. Coordinate regulation of RARgamma2, TBP, and TAFII135 by targeted proteolysis during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Lucie

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma cells with all-trans retinoic acid (T-RA induces differentiation into primitive endodermal type cells. Differentiation requires the action of the receptors for all trans, and 9cis-retinoic acid (RAR and RXR, respectively and is accompanied by growth inhibition, changes in cell morphology, increased apoptosis, proteolytic degradation of the RARγ2 receptor, and induction of target genes. Results We show that the RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIID subunits TBP and TAFII135 are selectively depleted in extracts from differentiated F9 cells. In contrast, TBP and TAFII135 are readily detected in extracts from differentiated F9 cells treated with proteasome inhibitors showing that their disappearance is due to targeted proteolysis. This regulatory pathway is not limited to F9 cells as it is also seen when C2C12 myoblasts differentiate into myotubes. Targeting of TBP and TAFII135 for proteolysis in F9 cells takes place coordinately with that previously reported for the RARγ2 receptor and is delayed or does not take place in RAR mutant F9 cells where differentiation is known to be impaired or abolished. Moreover, ectopic expression of TAFII135 delays proteolysis of the RARγ2 receptor and impairs primitive endoderm differentiation at an early stage as evidenced by cell morphology, induction of marker genes and apoptotic response. In addition, enhanced TAFII135 expression induces a novel differentiation pathway characterised by the appearance of cells with an atypical elongated morphology which are cAMP resistant. Conclusions These observations indicate that appropriately timed proteolysis of TBP and TAFII135 is required for normal F9 cell differentiation. Hence, in addition to transactivators, targeted proteolysis of basal transcription factors also plays an important role in gene regulation in response to physiological stimuli.

  8. Health Impact of Retinoic Acid (ATRA) on Ovalbumin-Sensitized F344 Rat Lung and Improvement of Tissue Pathology by Citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Holt-Gray, Carlene; Cameron, Joseph A; Tucci, Michelle; Cason, Zelma; Benghuzzi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The health impact of retinoic acid (All Trans Retinoic Acid; ATRA) in the development of lung pathology and tissue remodeling has not been well established in the literature. Equally, the role of Citral (inhibitor of retinoid function) in the improvement of lung pathology has not been ascertained in vivo. Therefore, it is hypothesized that ATRA and Ovalbumin (Egg albumin; OVA) exposure will sensitize lung tissues leading to lung tissue pathology and that citrals (C1 and C2) will reverse or ameliorate the related pathological damage to lung tissues. The study used an IACUC approved between-subject in vivo randomized split plot factorial design (F344 rat model; N=35). Animals were sensitized to OVA and then exposed to six different treatments; negative control (-ve), ATRA, Citrals (C1 and C2) and their triple combinations (OVA+ ATRA + C1, OVA+ ATRA + C2), by intra-peritoneal route. Rat weight data and blood were collected on Days 1 and 21, all animals were sacrificed on day 21, and lung tissues were processed for histopathology. Results from rat weights and blood (ANOVA and Duncan) as well as from the histopathological analysis of exposing the F344 rats to OVA in combinations with ATRA and citrals, revealed various levels of lung tissue damage that was impacted by exposure to citral. We conclude that OVA+ATRA+C1 combination treatment did improve lung pathology as compared to single individual treatments. However, the OVA+ATRA+C2 combination not only failed to improve these parameters, but even worsened the lung pathology of this model. This promising study showed variable responses on the interaction of Ovalbumin, citrals, and ATRA as related to their damage/improvement of related lung tissue pathologies.

  9. The all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-regulated gene Calmin (Clmn) regulates cell cycle exit and neurite outgrowth in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro2a) cells

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    Marzinke, Mark A. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1544 (United States); Clagett-Dame, Margaret, E-mail: dame@biochem.wisc.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1544 (United States); Pharmaceutical Science Division, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705-2222 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) functions in nervous system development and regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. Neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y and Neuro2a or N2A) exposed to atRA undergo growth inhibition and neuronal differentiation, both of which are preceded by an increase in Clmn mRNA. Treatment of N2A cells with atRA produces a reduction in phosphohistone 3 immunostaining and BrdU incorporation, both indicators of a reduction in cell proliferation. These effects are nearly eliminated in atRA-treated shClmn knockdown cells. Loss of Clmn in the mouse N2A cell line also results in a significant reduction of atRA-mediated neurite outgrowth, a response that can be rescued by reintroduction of the Clmn sequence. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of Clmn produces an increase in the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21{sup Cip1}, a decrease in cyclin D1 protein and an increase in hypophosphorylated Rb, showing that Clmn participates in G{sub 1}/S arrest. Clmn overexpression alone is sufficient to inhibit N2A cell proliferation, whereas both Clmn and atRA must be present to induce neurite outgrowth. This study shows that the atRA-responsive gene Clmn promotes exit from the cell cycle, a requisite event for neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin is a retinoic acid-responsive gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin promotes cell cycle exit in N2A cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin overexpression increases p21Cip1 and decreases cyclin D1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calmin is required for RA-induced growth inhibition and neurite outgrowth.

  10. Epigenetic priming of AML blasts for all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation by the HDAC class-I selective inhibitor entinostat.

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    Nadja Blagitko-Dorfs

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA has only limited single agent activity in AML without the PML-RARα fusion (non-M3 AML. In search of a sensitizing strategy to overcome this relative ATRA resistance, we investigated the potency of the HDAC class-I selective inhibitor entinostat in AML cell lines Kasumi-1 and HL-60 and primary AML blasts. Entinostat alone induced robust differentiation of both cell lines, which was enhanced by the combination with ATRA. This "priming" effect on ATRA-induced differentiation was at least equivalent to that achieved with the DNA hypomethylating agent decitabine, and could overall be recapitulated in primary AML blasts treated ex vivo. Moreover, entinostat treatment established the activating chromatin marks acH3, acH3K9, acH4 and H3K4me3 at the promoter of the RARβ2 gene, an essential mediator of retinoic acid (RA signaling in different solid tumor models. Similarly, RARβ2 promoter hypermethylation (which in primary blasts from 90 AML/MDS patients was surprisingly infrequent could be partially reversed by decitabine in the two cell lines. Re-induction of the epigenetically silenced RARβ2 gene was achieved only when entinostat or decitabine were given prior to ATRA treatment. Thus in this model, reactivation of RARβ2 was not necessarily required for the differentiation effect, and pharmacological RARβ2 promoter demethylation may be a bystander phenomenon rather than an essential prerequisite for the cellular effects of decitabine when combined with ATRA. In conclusion, as a "priming" agent for non-M3 AML blasts to the differentiation-inducing effects of ATRA, entinostat is at least as active as decitabine, and both act in part independently from RARβ2. Further investigation of this treatment combination in non-M3 AML patients is therefore warranted, independently of RARβ2 gene silencing by DNA methylation.

  11. In vitro studies on the role of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin in the context of retinoic acid mediated APL differentiation syndrome.

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    Kojima, Shinsuke; Nishioka, Chie; Chi, SungGi; Yokoyama, Akihito; Ikezoe, Takayuki

    2017-10-18

    Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) is a newly developed anti-coagulant approved for treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in Japan. rTM exerts anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions via its lectin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains, respectively. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the treatment of 21 consecutive patients with coagulopathy, complicated by acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with or without combination with rTM. Surprisingly, none of the 14 rTM-treated patients developed retinoic acid (RA)-related differentiation syndrome (DS). The co-culture of vascular endothelial cell-derived EA.hy926 and APL-derived NB4 cells in the presence of RA increased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in culture media, in parallel with activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased levels of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) in EA.hy926 cells. This was also associated with increased levels of the phosphorylated forms of VE-cadherin and enhanced vascular permeability of EA.hy926 monolayers. Importantly, addition of rTM to this co-culture system inhibited the RA-induced phosphorylation of p38 and VE-cadherin and decreased ICAM1 and vascular permeability in EA.hy926 cells, without a decrease inthe levels of TNF-α. Taken together, use of rTM may be a promising treatment strategy to prevent DS in APL patients who receive ATRA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. β-Transducin Repeat-containing Protein 1 (β-TrCP1)-mediated Silencing Mediator of Retinoic Acid and Thyroid Hormone Receptor (SMRT) Protein Degradation Promotes Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα)-induced Inflammatory Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Sheng; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine modulation of the endothelium is considered an important contributor to the inflammation response. TNFα is an early response gene during the initiation of inflammation. However, the detailed mechanism by which TNFα induces proinflammatory gene expression is not completely understood. In this report, we demonstrate that silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) represses the expression of a subset of TNFα target genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Upon TNFα stimulation, we observed an increase in the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP1 and a decrease in SMRT protein levels. We show that β-TrCP1 interacts with SMRT in a phosphorylation-independent manner and cooperates with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D2 to promote ubiquitination-dependent SMRT degradation. Knockdown of β-TrCP1 increases SMRT protein accumulation, increases SMRT association with its targeted promoters, and decreases SMRT target gene expression. Taken together, our results support a model in which TNFα-induced β-TrCP1 accumulation promotes SMRT degradation and the subsequent induction of proinflammatory gene expression. PMID:23861398

  13. β-Transducin repeat-containing protein 1 (β-TrCP1)-mediated silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) protein degradation promotes tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced inflammatory gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Sheng; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2013-08-30

    Cytokine modulation of the endothelium is considered an important contributor to the inflammation response. TNFα is an early response gene during the initiation of inflammation. However, the detailed mechanism by which TNFα induces proinflammatory gene expression is not completely understood. In this report, we demonstrate that silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) represses the expression of a subset of TNFα target genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Upon TNFα stimulation, we observed an increase in the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP1 and a decrease in SMRT protein levels. We show that β-TrCP1 interacts with SMRT in a phosphorylation-independent manner and cooperates with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D2 to promote ubiquitination-dependent SMRT degradation. Knockdown of β-TrCP1 increases SMRT protein accumulation, increases SMRT association with its targeted promoters, and decreases SMRT target gene expression. Taken together, our results support a model in which TNFα-induced β-TrCP1 accumulation promotes SMRT degradation and the subsequent induction of proinflammatory gene expression.

  14. Whole-Exome Sequencing in a South American Cohort Links ALDH1A3, FOXN1 and Retinoic Acid Regulation Pathways to Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramos, Oscar A; Olivares, Ana María; Haider, Neena B; de Autismo, Liga Colombiana; Lattig, María Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a range of complex neurodevelopmental conditions principally characterized by dysfunctions linked to mental development. Previous studies have shown that there are more than 1000 genes likely involved in ASD, expressed mainly in brain and highly interconnected among them. We applied whole exome sequencing in Colombian-South American trios. Two missense novel SNVs were found in the same child: ALDH1A3 (RefSeq NM_000693: c.1514T>C (p.I505T)) and FOXN1 (RefSeq NM_003593: c.146C>T (p.S49L)). Gene expression studies reveal that Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 are expressed in ~E13.5 mouse embryonic brain, as well as in adult piriform cortex (PC; ~P30). Conserved Retinoic Acid Response Elements (RAREs) upstream of human ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 and in mouse Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 genes were revealed using bioinformatic approximation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay using Retinoid Acid Receptor B (Rarb) as the immunoprecipitation target suggests RA regulation of Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 in mice. Our results frame a possible link of RA regulation in brain to ASD etiology, and a feasible non-additive effect of two apparently unrelated variants in ALDH1A3 and FOXN1 recognizing that every result given by next generation sequencing should be cautiously analyzed, as it might be an incidental finding.

  15. Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial of Radiation Therapy Plus Concurrent Interferon-Alpha and Retinoic Acid Versus Cisplatin for Stage III Cervical Carcinoma

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    Basu, Partha, E-mail: BasuP@iarc.fr [Screening Group, Early Detection and Prevention Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Jenson, Alfred Bennett [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Majhi, Tapas; Choudhury, Prabir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata (India); Mandal, Ranajit; Banerjee, Dipanwita [Department of Gynecological Oncology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata (India); Biswas, Jaydip [Department of Surgical Oncology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, Kolkata (India); Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh Nath; Ghim, Shin je; Miller, Donald [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Because a combination of retinoic acid, interferon-alpha, and radiation therapy demonstrated synergistic action and effectiveness to treat advanced cervical cancers in earlier studies, we designed this randomized phase 2 open-label trial to assess efficacy and safety of interferon alpha-2b (IFN) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA) administered concomitantly with radiation therapy (IFN-RA-radiation) to treat stage III cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Stage III cervical cancer patients were randomized to study and control groups in a 1:1 ratio. All patients were treated with radiation therapy; study arm patients received IFN (3 × 10{sup 6} IU subcutaneously) 3 times a week for 4 weeks and daily RA (40 mg orally) for 30 days starting on day 1 of radiation, whereas control arm patients received weekly cisplatinum (40 mg/m{sup 2}) for 5 weeks during radiation. Patients were followed for 3 years. The primary endpoint was overall survival at 3 years. Results: Patients in the study (n=104) and control (n=105) groups were comparable for clinicopathological characteristics, radiation therapy–related variables and treatment response. Proportions of disease-free patients in the study and control groups were 38.5% and 44.8%, respectively, after median follow-up of 29.2 months. Hazard ratios were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-1.01) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.44-1.06) for overall and disease-fee survival, respectively, comparing the study group to control, and demonstrated an inferior outcome with RA-IFN-radiation, although differences were statistically nonsignificant. Kaplan-Meier curves of disease-free and overall survival probabilities also showed inferior survival in the study group compared to those in the control. Acute toxicities of chemoradiation were significantly higher with 2 acute toxicity-related deaths. Conclusions: Treatment with RA-IFN-radiation did not demonstrate survival advantage over chemoradiation despite being less toxic. The

  16. Retinoic acid protects human breast cancer cells against etoposide-induced apoptosis by NF-kappaB-dependent but cIAP2-independent mechanisms

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    Gronemeyer Hinrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinoids, through their cognate nuclear receptors, exert potent effects on cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis, and have significant promise for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. These ligands can determine the ultimate fate of target cells by stimulating or repressing gene expression directly, or indirectly through crosstalking with other signal transducers. Results Using different breast cancer cell models, we show here that depending on the cellular context retinoids can signal either towards cell death or cell survival. Indeed, retinoids can induce the expression of pro-apoptotic (i.e. TRAIL, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand, Apo2L/TNFSF10 and anti-apoptotic (i.e. cIAP2, inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 genes. Promoter mapping, gel retardation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that retinoids induce the expression of this gene mainly through crosstalk with NF-kappaB. Supporting this crosstalk, the activation of NF-kappaB by retinoids in T47D cells antagonizes the apoptosis triggered by the chemotherapeutic drugs etoposide, camptothecin or doxorubicin. Notably apoptosis induced by death ligands (i.e. TRAIL or antiFAS is not antagonized by retinoids. That knockdown of cIAP2 expression by small interfering RNA does not alter the inhibition of etoposide-induced apoptosis by retinoids in T47D cells reveals that stimulation of cIAP2 expression is not the cause of their anti-apoptotic action. However, ectopic overexpression of a NF-kappaB repressor increases apoptosis by retinoids moderately and abrogates almost completely the retinoid-dependent inhibition of etoposide-induced apoptosis. Our data exclude cIAP2 and suggest that retinoids target other regulator(s of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway to induce resistance to etoposide on certain breast cancer cells. Conclusions This study shows an important role for the NF-kappaB pathway in retinoic acid signaling and retinoic acid-mediated resistance to

  17. PLZF-RAR[alpha] fusion proteins generated from the variant t(11; 17)(q23; q21) translocation in acute promyelocytic leukemia inhibit ligand-dependent transactivation of wild-type retinoic acid receptors

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    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Sai-Juan; Wang, Zhen-Yi (Shanghai Second Medical Univ. (China)); Guidez, F.; Rousselot, P.; Agadir, A.; Degos, L.; Chomienne, C. (Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire Hematopoietique, Paris (France)); Zelent, A. (Institute for Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)); Waxman, S. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Recently, the authors described a recurrent variant translocation, t(11;17)(q23;q21), in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) which juxtaposes PLZF, a gene encoding a zinc finger protein, to RARA, encoding retinoic acid receptor [alpha] (RAR[alpha]). They have now cloned cDNAs encoding PLZF-RAR[alpha] chimeric proteins and studied their transactivating activities. In transient-expression assays, both the PLZF(A)-RAR[alpha] and PLZF(B)-RAR[alpha] fusion proteins like the PML-RAR[alpha] protein resulting from the well-known t(15;17) translocation in APL, antagonized endogenous and transfected wild-type RAR[alpha] in the presence of retinoic acid. Cotransfection assays showed that a significant repression of RAR[alpha] transactivation activity was obtained even with a very low PLZF-RAR[alpha]-expressing plasmid concentration. A [open quotes]dominant negative[close quotes] effect was observed with vectors expressing RAR[alpha] and retinoid X receptor [alpha] (RXR[alpha]). These abnormal transactivation properties observed in retinoic acid-sensitive myeloid cells strongly implicate the PLZF-RAR[alpha] fusion proteins in the molecular pathogenesis of APL.

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION THE MASS OF CELLULAR RETINOIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    type cellular retinoic acid binding protein I (wt*-CRABP I) with a stabilizing mutation R131Q, a protein whose molecular mass up to 17 kDa utilizing 13C depletion combined FT-ICR MS technology. EXPERIMENTAL. The synthesis of 13C depleted wt*-CRABP I was based on an adaptation of a previously published method ...

  19. Mumps virus induces innate immune responses in mouse ovarian granulosa cells through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wu, Han; Cheng, Lijing; Yan, Keqin; Shi, Lili; Zhao, Xiang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Fei; Chen, Yongmei; Li, Qihan; Han, Daishu

    2016-11-15

    Mumps virus (MuV) infection may lead to oophoritis and perturb ovarian function. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of innate immune responses to MuV infection in the ovary have not been investigated. This study showed that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) cooperatively initiate innate immune responses to MuV infection in mouse ovarian granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells infected with MuV significantly produced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and type 1 interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β). Knockdown of RIG-I significantly decreased MuV-induced cytokine expression. TLR2 deficiency reduced the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 but did not affect the expression of IFN-α and IFN-β in granulosa cells after infection with MuV. Intraperitoneal injection of MuV induced the ovarian innate immune responses in vivo, which suppressed estradiol synthesis and induced granulosa cell apoptosis. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying MuV-induced innate immune responses in the mouse ovary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of retinoic acid on cell-cell adhesiveness in cloned BHK21/C13 cells which form piling-up colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, H

    1983-10-01

    The effect was studied of retinoic acid (RA) on cell-cell adhesiveness in Ag8-1 cells, which are piling-up colony-forming cells cloned from a Syrian hamster kidney fibroblastic cell line BHK21/C13. From the piled-up part of the colonies grown with RA (10 microM), many cells were dissociated by mere shaking or pipetting. The dissociated cells soon adhered to and spread on plastic surfaces in the presence of RA. The number of cells per colony increased almost at the same rate in the presence or absence of RA. The effect of RA on the appearance of cells dissociable from colonies was noticeable above 0.1 microM, prominent from 1 to 10 microM, greater when added in the earlier stages of colony formation and negligible when added just before the dissociation assay. Single cells from the monolayer culture grown with RA (10 microM) had less tendency to aggregate than did those from the control culture. Cells from the colonies grown with RA adhered to and spread on a plastic dish for bacterial use, but control cells seldom adhered. These results indicate that RA decreases the cell-cell adhesiveness or suppresses the development of it but increases cell-substratum adhesiveness.

  1. In vitro optimization of retinoic acid-induced neuritogenesis and TH endogenous expression in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by the antioxidant Trolox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Frota Junior, Mario Luiz Conte; Pires, André Simões; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Bristot, Ivi Juliana; Lopes, Fernanda M; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Klamt, Fabio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2011-12-01

    Though, it is quite well-known how retinoic acid (RA) is able to induce neuritogenesis in different in vitro models, the putative role exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during this process still need to be further studied. For such purpose, we used a neuronal-like cell line (SH-SY5Y cells) in order to investigate whether the antioxidant Trolox (a hydrophilic analog of alpha-tocopherol) could have any effect on the number of RA-induced neurites, and how significant changes in cellular redox homeostasis may affect the cellular endogenous expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Our results show a significant enhancement of RA (10 μM)-induced neuritogenesis and TH endogenous expression, when cells were co-treated with Trolox (100 μM) for 7 days. Moreover, this effect was associated with an improvement in cellular viability. The mechanism seems to mainly involve PI3 K/Akt rather than MEK signaling pathway. Therefore, our data demonstrate that concomitant decreases in basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production could exert a positive effect on the neuritogenic process of RA-treated SH-SY5Y cells.

  2. Regulating Chondrogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with a Retinoic Acid Receptor-Beta Inhibitor: Differential Sensitivity of Chondral Versus Osteochondral Development

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    Solvig Diederichs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Main objective was to investigate whether the synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR-β antagonist LE135 is able to drive in vitro chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs or improve differentiation by suppressing hypertrophic chondrocyte development. Methods: Chondrogenesis of human bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSCs was induced in micromass pellet culture for six weeks. Effects of LE135 alone and in combinatorial treatment with TGF-β on deposition of cartilaginous matrix including collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans, on deposition of non-hyaline cartilage collagens type I and X, and on hypertrophy markers including alkaline phosphatase (ALP, indian hedghehog (IHH and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 were assessed. Results: LE135 was no inducer of chondrogenesis and failed to stimulate deposition of collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans. Moreover, addition of LE135 to TGF-β-treated pellets inhibited cartilaginous matrix deposition and gene expression of COL2A1. In contrast, non-hyaline cartilage collagens were less sensitive to LE135 and hypertrophy markers remained unaffected. Conclusion: This demonstrates a differential sensitivity of chondral versus endochondral differentiation pathways to RARβ signaling; however, opposite to the desired direction. The relevance of trans-activating versus trans-repressing RAR signaling, including effects on activator protein (AP-1 is discussed and implications for overcoming current limits of hMSC chondrogenesis are considered.

  3. [Adams-Stokes attack due to complete atrioventricular block in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia during remission induction therapy using all-trans retinoic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takahiro; Arai, Hajime; Taga, Masahiro; Amaya, Naoki; Lee, Jong-Dae; Ueda, Takanori

    2005-03-01

    We describe a case of Adams-Stokes syncope due to complete atrioventricular block which occurred in a leukemic patient receiving all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Remission induction therapy was performed for a 46-year-old Japanese man with acute promyelocytic leukemia using ATRA (45 mg/m2), enocitabine (170 mg/m2, 5 days), and mitoxantrone (4 mg/m2, 3 days). On the 25th day of chemotherapy, syncope suddenly occurred. Electrocardiography revealed a complete atrioventricular block, and a temporary pacemaker was inserted on the following day. The block was persistent and the cardiac rhythm was dependent on the pacemaker. ATRA was discontinued on the 29th day because the arrhythmia was believed to be an adverse reaction to the ATRA regimen. The normal sinus rhythm was restored 15 days thereafter, and the patient eventually reached remission. He subsequently received 4 courses of consolidation therapy without any cardiovascular complications. Although ATRA sometimes induces arrhythmias, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of such a critical ATRA-related arrhythmia.

  4. Retinoic acid-related orphan receptors (ROR α and γ: key regulators of lipid/glucose metabolism, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity

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    Anton M Jetten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-related orphan receptors RORα and RORγ play a regulatory role in lipid/glucose homeostasis and various immune functions, and have been implicated in metabolic syndrome and several inflammatory diseases. RORα-deficient mice are protected against age- and diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. The resistance to hepatosteatosis in RORα-deficient mice is related to the reduced expression of several genes regulating lipid synthesis, transport, and storage. Adipose tissue-associated inflammation, which plays a critical role in the development of insulin resistance, is considerably diminished in RORα-deficient mice as indicated by the reduced infiltration of M1 macrophages and decreased expression of many pro-inflammatory genes. Deficiency in RORγ also protects against diet-induced insulin resistance by a mechanism that appears different from that in RORα deficiency. Recent studies indicated that RORs provide an important link between the circadian clock machinery and its regulation of metabolic genes and metabolic syndrome. As ligand-dependent transcription factors, RORs may provide novel therapeutic targets in the management of obesity and associated metabolic diseases, including hepatosteatosis, adipose tissue-associated inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  5. Cloning and expression of a retinoic acid receptor β2 subtype from the adult newt: evidence for an early role in tail and caudal spinal cord regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christopher; Clark, Alysen; Spencer, Gaynor; Carlone, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARβ2) has been proposed as an important receptor mediating retinoid-induced axonal growth and regeneration in developing mammalian spinal cord and brain. In urodele amphibians, organisms capable of extensive central nervous system (CNS) regeneration as adults, this receptor had not been isolated, nor had its function been characterized. We have cloned a full-length RARβ2 cDNA from adult newt CNS. This receptor, NvRARβ2, is expressed in various adult organs capable of regeneration, including the spinal cord. Interestingly, both the NvRARβ2 mRNA and protein are up-regulated during the first 2 weeks after amputation of the tail, primarily in the ependymoglial and meningeal tissues near the rostral cut surface of the cord. Treatment with LE135, a RARβ-selective antagonist, caused a significant inhibition of ependymal outgrowth and a decrease in tail regenerate length. These data support an early role for this receptor in caudal spinal cord and tail regeneration in this amphibian. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Retinoic acid promotes the proliferation of primordial germ cell-like cells differentiated from mouse skin-derived stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Wang, Jun-Jie; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Ge, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Rui; Li, Lan; Li, Bo; Shen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) have the potential to differentiate into gametes and are a potential resource for research and clinical applications. Sufficient amount of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is an important requirement for successful differentiation of SDSCs into gametes in vitro. Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A-derived small lipophilic molecule, promotes the growth of PGCs in vivo; however, the role of RA on the proliferation of PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) derived from SDSCs remains unknown. In this study, SDSCs were induced to differentiate into the embryoid body and cocultured with mouse fibroblasts to form PGCLCs. The proliferation of PGCLCs with the presence of various concentrations of RA was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that the 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine-positive ratio of PGCLCs was increased after the cells were treated with 5-μM RA, and flow cytometry results showed that the number of cells in the S phase was increased significantly. The messenger RNA expression levels of cell cycle-related genes, CCND1 and CDK2, were also increased. Furthermore, RA effectively promoted the external proliferation of endogenous PGCs when 11.5-days postcoitum fetal mouse genital ridges were cultured in vitro. In conclusion, 5-μM RA promoted the proliferation of SDSCs-derived PGCLCs and endogenous PGCs. Our study will provide a valuable model system for studying the differentiation of stem cells into gametes in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel All Trans-Retinoic Acid Derivatives: Cytotoxicity, Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression and Induction of Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cell Lines

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    Ebtesam Saad Al-Sheddi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the pharmacological potential of ATRA (all trans-retinoic acid, a series of retinamides and a 1-(retinoyl-1,3-dicyclohexylurea compound were prepared by reacting ATRA with long chain alkyl or alkenyl fatty amines by using a 4-demethylaminopyridine (DMAP-catalyzed N,N¢-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC coupling. The successful synthesis of the target compounds was demonstrated using a range of spectroscopic techniques. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was measured along with their ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast cancer and HepG2 (liver cancer and normal human cell line HEK293 (embryonic kidney. The results of cytotoxicity and flow cytometry data showed that the compounds had a moderate to strong effect against MCF-7 and HepG2 cells and were less toxic to HEK293 cells. N-oleyl-retinamide was found to be the most potent anticancer agent and was more effective against MCF-7 cells than HepG2 cells.

  8. Retinoic acid is involved in the metamorphosis of the anal fin into an intromittent organ, the gonopodium, in the green swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii.

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    Nils Offen

    Full Text Available In poeciliid fish the male anal fin has been transformed into a gonopodium, an intromittent organ required for internal fertilization. Elevated testosterone levels induce metamorphosis of a subset of anal fin rays to grow and form the specialized terminal structures of the gonopodium. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether retinoic acid (RA signaling is involved in gonopodium development in the swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii. We showed that aldh1a2, a RA synthesizing enzyme, and the RA receptors, rar-ga and rar-gb, are expressed in anal fins during metamorphosis. aldh1a2 expression is regulated by testosterone in a concentration-dependent manner and is up-regulated in both hormone-induced and naturally developing gonopodia. Androgen receptor (ar, a putative regulator of gonopodial development, is co-expressed with aldh1a2 and the RA receptors in gonopodial rays. Importantly, experimental increase of RA signaling promoted growth of the gonopodium and increased the number of new segments. Based on gene expression analyses and pharmacological manipulation of gonopodium development, we show that the RA signaling pathway is activated in response to androgen signaling and promotes fin ray growth and development during the metamorphosis of the anal fin into the gonopodium.

  9. Resveratrol prevents impairment in activation of retinoic acid receptors and MAP kinases in the embryos of a rodent model of diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Kumar, Ambrish; LaVoie, Holly A; DiPette, Donald J; Singh, Ugra S

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes induces impairments in gene expression during embryonic development that leads to premature and improper tissue specialization. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs and retinoid X receptor [RXRs]) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play crucial roles during embryonic development, and their suppression or activation has been shown as a determinant of the fate of embryonic organogenesis. We studied the activation of RARs and MAPKs in embryonic day 12 (E12) in embryos of rats under normal, diabetic, and diabetic treated with resveratrol ([RSV]; 100 mg/kg body weight) conditions. We found downregulation of RARs and RXRs expressions as well as their DNA-binding activities in the embryos exhibiting developmental delays due to diabetes. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was decreased and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and p38 was increased. Interestingly, embryos of diabetic rats treated with RSV showed normalized patterns of RARs, RXRs, neuronal markers, and ERK, JNK and p38 phosphorylation.

  10. Cerebrovascular defects in Foxc1 mutants correlate with aberrant WNT and VEGF-A pathways downstream of retinoic acid from the meninges

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    Mishra, Swati; Choe, Youngshik; Pleasure, Samuel J.; Siegenthaler, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and maturation of the cerebrovasculature is a vital event in neocortical development however mechanisms that control cerebrovascular development remain poorly understood. Mutations in or deletions that include the FOXC1 gene are associated with congenital cerebrovascular anomalies and increased stroke risk in patients. Foxc1 mutant mice display severe cerebrovascular hemorrhage at late gestational ages. While these data demonstrate Foxc1 is required for cerebrovascular development, its broad expression in the brain vasculature combined with Foxc1 mutant’s complex developmental defects have made it difficult to pinpoint its function(s). Using global and conditional Foxc1 mutants, we find 1) significant cerebrovascular growth defects precede cerebral hemorrhage and 2) expression of Foxc1 in neural crest-derived meninges and brain pericytes, though not endothelial cells, is required for normal cerebrovascular development. We provide evidence that reduced levels of meninges-derived retinoic acid (RA), caused by defects in meninges formation in Foxc1 mutants, is a major contributing factor to the cerebrovascular growth defects in Foxc1 mutants. We provide data that suggests that meninges-derived RA ensures adequate growth of the neocortical vasculature via regulating expression of WNT pathway proteins and neural progenitor derived-VEGF-A. Our findings offer the first evidence for a role of the meninges in brain vascular development and provide new insight into potential causes of cerebrovascular defects in patients with FOXC1 mutations. PMID:27671872

  11. Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) cooperates with All Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) to enhance MAPK activation and differentiation in Human Myeloblastic Leukemia (HL-60) cells

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    Nayak, Satyaprakash; Shen, Miaoqing; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Yen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) synergistically promotes retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells, a PML-RARα negative cell line. In PML-RARα positive myeloid leukemia cells, ATO is known to cause degradation of PML-RARα with subsequent induced myeloid differentiation. We find now that ATO by itself does not cause differentiation of the PML-RARα negative HL-60 cells, but enhances RA’s capability to cause differentiation. RA-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells is known to be propelled by an induced hyperactive/persistent MAPK signal. ATO augmented RA induced RAF/MEK/ERK axis signaling and expression of CD11b, an integrin receptor that is a myeloid differentiation marker. p47PHOX, a component of the respiratory burst machinery and inducible oxidative metabolism, functional differentiation marker were also enhanced. However, ATO did not enhance RA-induced CD38 expression, an early cell surface differentiation marker. ATO enhanced RA-induced population growth retardation without evidence of apoptosis or an enhanced G1/0 growth arrest. But compared to RA, ATO plus RA showed reduced pAKT, suggesting that an overall biosynthetic/metabolic retardation was seminal to the apparent enhanced growth retardation due to ATO. In sum, our results indicate that ATO can augment action of RA in causing differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells through promoting MAPK signaling and independent of PML-RARα. PMID:20615082

  12. All-trans retinoic acid enhances cytotoxic effect of T cells with an anti-CD38 chimeric antigen receptor in acute myeloid leukemia.

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    Yoshida, Tetsumi; Mihara, Keichiro; Takei, Yoshifumi; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Kubo, Takanori; Bhattacharyya, Joyeeta; Imai, Chihaya; Mino, Tatsuji; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Ichinohe, Tatsuo

    2016-12-01

    We reported that T cells with anti-CD38-chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) eliminated B-cell lymphoma cells expressing CD38. To employ anti-CD38-CAR against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts not expressing CD38, it is necessary to induce or increase the intensity of CD38 expression. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-releasing assay and flow cytometry showed that anti-CD38-CAR T cells were cytotoxic against AML lines (THP-1 and CMK) expressing high CD38 levels (>99%), in time- and number of effector-dependent manners. In other AML lines (KG1, U937 and HL60) partially expressing CD38, CD38(+) AML cells were killed by CD38-specific T cells, but CD38(-) AML cells remained survived. Intriguingly, 10 nM all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) augmented CD38 expression in KG1, U937 and HL60 cells and primary leukemic cells from AML patients. Moreover, the withdrawal of ATRA from the medium decreased CD38 expression in AML cells. Killing effects of anti-CD38-CAR T cells against AML lines and AML cells were limited without ATRA, whereas CD38-specific T cells enhanced cytotoxicity on AML cells by ATRA in association with enhanced CD38 expression. These results indicate that anti-CD38-CAR T cells eliminate AML cells through CD38 expression induced by ATRA.

  13. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Improves the Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis: An In Vitro Study

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    Deng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the immunosuppressive effects of both all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. The present study aimed to assess the immunoregulatory effects of ATRA on MSCs in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS. Bone marrow-derived MSCs from healthy donors were pretreated with ATRA and cocultured with CD3/28-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from AS patients. Frequencies of Th17 and regulatory T (Treg cells were analyzed using flow cytometry. The secretion and the mRNA level of key cytokines were measured with cytometric bead array and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. ATRA pretreatment increased interleukin-6 (IL-6 secretion of MSCs. Th17 and Treg subset populations were increased and reduced by ATRA-pretreated MSCs, respectively. ATRA-pretreated MSCs significantly decreased not only the vital pathogenic cytokine in AS, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, but also AS-boosting factors interleukin-17 (IL-17A and interferon-γ (IFN-γ. These results indicated that IL-6 may be a potential protective factor in AS and highlighted the promising role of ATRA in improving the efficacy of MSC-based treatment of AS.

  14. Arsenic trioxide and all-trans-retinoic acid selectively exert synergistic cytotoxicity against FLT3-ITD AML cells via co-inhibition of FLT3 signaling pathways.

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    Wang, Li-Na; Tang, Yan-Lai; Zhang, Yin-Chuan; Zhang, Zu-Han; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Ke, Zhi-Yong; Li, Yu; Tan, Hui-Zhen; Huang, Li-Bin; Luo, Xue-Qun

    2017-10-01

    FLT3-ITD mutations occur in approximately 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with a poor outcome. Currently available FLT3 inhibitors have in vitro but limited clinical activity in FLT3-ITD AML. Reports have shown that an arsenic trioxide (ATO)/all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) combination improves prognosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia, especially with FLT3-ITD, and ATO or ATRA alone enhances apoptosis in FLT3-ITD AML cells treated with FLT3 inhibitors, providing a rationale to investigate the role of ATO/ATRA in FLT3-ITD AML. Here, we demonstrate that an ATO/ATRA combination selectively exerts synergistic cytotoxicity against FLT3-ITD AML cell lines (MV4;11/MOLM-13). The signaling pathways affected by ATO/ATRA include FLT3/STAT5/MYC, FLT3/STAT5/E2F1, FLT3/ERK/ATF5 and FLT3/AKT/ATF5.ATF5 may function as an oncogene in FLT3-ITD AML. Our findings provide experimental evidence that supports further exploration of ATO/ATRA in FLT3-ITD AML in vivo and warrants a clinical evaluation of regimens comprising an ATO/ATRA combination.

  15. Promyelocytic Leukemia with No Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Abnormality but with RUNX1T1 Insertion to Chromosome 7q: A Classification and Management Dilemma

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    Kathleen Overholt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL with RUNX1T1 insertion to 7q is described and compared to reported cases of APL with negative retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA abnormality. In this report, we describe the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with bone pain and was found to have pancytopenia. Bone marrow examination showed morphologic and immunophenotypic findings typical of APL, but conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR showed no evidence of RARA rearrangements. The only cytogenetic abnormality found was a small insertion in 7q, and three copies of RUNX1T1. Gene sequencing results became available after initiating therapy but were not informative. We describe the rarity of such cases and discuss how the typical morphologic and immunophenotypic findings of APL, coupled with the definite absence of RARA rearrangement (by FISH and RT-PCR, present a diagnostic and classification dilemma, raising the possibility of an unknown alternative mechanism for the leukemogenesis and maturation arrest seen in other APL variants. The diagnostic challenges and urgent management issues this unusual case raises may justify including it, along with similar cases, in a separate subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML in future classifications.

  16. All-trans retinoic acid restores gap junctional intercellular communication between oral cancer cells with upregulation of Cx32 and Cx43 expressions in vitro.

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    Wang, Juan; Dai, Yaohui; Huang, Yulei; Chen, Xiaohua; Wang, Hong; Hong, Yun; Xia, Juan; Cheng, Bin

    2013-07-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth by restoration of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) via upregulation of connexin (Cx) expression in some solid tumors. However, the relationship between ATRA and GJIC remains unclear in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ATRA on the GJIC function of OSCC. We measured the effects of ATRA on the viability and cell cycle distribution of SCC9 and Tca8113 OSCC cells. The GJIC function was observed using the scrape-loading dye transfer technique, and the mRNA and protein levels of Cx32 and Cx43 were detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. ATRA inhibited the growth of OSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P <0.05) and caused cell cycle arrest. ATRA-treated cells showed a 2.69-fold and 2.06-fold enhancement of GJIC in SCC9 and Tca8113 cells, respectively (P <0.05). Moreover, ATRA induced upregulation of Cx32 and Cx43 at both the mRNA and protein levels in OSCC cells. Our results indicated that restoration of GJIC via enhanced Cx32 and Cx43 expression might serve as a novel mechanism for the anti-tumor effect of ATRA in OSCC.

  17. Simultaneous determination of all-trans, 9-cis, 13-cis retinoic acid and retinol in rat prostate using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

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    Wang, Y; Chang, W Y; Prins, G S; van Breemen, R B

    2001-08-01

    Since retinoic acid (RA) and RA receptors are key developmental regulators during organogenesis, they might participate in the abnormal development of the prostate caused by early estrogen exposure. In order to test this assumption, a sensitive analytical method that can differentiate 9-cis, 13-cis, and all-trans RA in small tissue samples ( approximately 8 mg) is required. Since retinol is the metabolic precursor to RA, simultaneous quantification of retinol would also provide valuable information. Here, we report a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of retinol and 9-cis, 13-cis, and all-trans RA in rat prostate. Mass spectrometric signal responses for RA were compared using positive ion atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray, as well as positive ion and negative ion APCI. Positive ion APCI was selected for all subsequent analysis for its better sensitivity, and to provide simultaneous determination of retinol and RA. Ventral prostate tissue samples were homogenized and extracted following simple protein precipitation without derivatization. Baseline separation of 9-cis, 13-cis, and all-trans RA standards was obtained by using a non-porous silica C18 column. Selected ion monitoring of the ions m/z 301 and m/z 269 was carried out for mass spectrometric quantitative analysis. The ion of m/z 301 corresponded to the protonated molecule of RA, whereas the ion of m/z 269 corresponded to loss of water or acetic acid from the protonated molecule of retinol or the internal standard retinyl acetate respectively. The method has a linear response over a concentration range of at least three orders of magnitude. The limit of quantitation was determined to be 702 fmol all-trans RA injected on-column. The method showed excellent intra- and inter-assay reproducibility and good recovery, and is suitable for analyzing RA and retinol in small tissue samples (approximately 8 mg). Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons

  18. Effect of differentiating agents (all-trans retinoic acid and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate on drug sensitivity of HL60 and NB4 cells in vitro.

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    Jadwiga Mirecka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies have shown that human myeloid leukemia cell lines: HL60 and NB4 can be stimulated to differentiation by various agents, for example, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differentiation of HL60 and NB4 leukemia cell lines induced by ATRA and PMA alters their drug sensitivity. The differentiation along the neutrophil lineage (upon stimulation with ATRA and along the monocyte/macrophage lineage (upon stimulation with PMA was proved by decreased proliferative potential of cells, changes in their morphology, increased ability for NBT reduction and increased expression of CD11b and CD14 cell surface markers. The effect of drugs: cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin, mitoxantrone and etoposide was examined by Alamar Blue test (proliferation and survival rates, as well as by evaluation of cell smears stained with Hoechst 33342 (apoptotic index. Differentiation resulted in the change of drug sensitivity in both cell lines: the differentiation along the neutrophil pathway (after stimulation with ATRA increased sensitivity to cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone but decreased sensitivity to etoposide; the differentiation along the monocyte/macrophage pathway (induced by PMA resulted in the decreased sensitivity of both cell lines to all drugs tested. In conclusion, we have shown that ATRA- and PMA-mediated differentiation of HL60 and NB4 cell lines results in the changes of their drug sensitivity. Our data may provide a contribution to a strategy aimed at a rational combination of differentiating agents and conventional anticancer drugs.

  19. Vitamin A deficiency impairs spatial learning and memory: the mechanism of abnormal CBP-dependent histone acetylation regulated by retinoic acid receptor alpha.

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    Hou, Nali; Ren, Lan; Gong, Min; Bi, Yang; Gu, Yan; Dong, Zhifang; Liu, Youxue; Chen, Jie; Li, Tingyu

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin A (VA) is an essential micronutrient. Numerous studies have confirmed that VA deficiency (VAD) leads to a decline in learning and memory function. Our previous studies have demonstrated that retinoic acid nuclear receptor α (RARα) in the hippocampus plays a crucial role in learning and memory, but the exact mechanism for this process is unclear. Epigenetic modifications, particularly histone acetylation, are involved in nervous system development, learning and memory function, and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), such as CREB-binding protein (CBP), E1A-binding protein p300 (p300), and p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), are critical for regulating memory function. The current study uses RARα and CBP as examples to study the connections between the RA signaling pathway and histone acetylation modification and to reveal the epigenetic mechanism in VAD-induced learning and memory impairment. This study examined the expression of RARα, HATs, acetylated histone H3/H4, and memory-related genes (Zif268, cFos, FosB), as well as the interaction of RARα and CBP in the hippocampus of 8-week-old rats. Additionally, the changes shown in vivo were further assessed in primary cultured neurons with the inhibition or overexpression of RARα. We found significantly lower levels of histone acetylation in the VAD rats. Furthermore, this downregulation, which impairs learning and memory, is induced by the dysregulation of CBP-dependent histone acetylation that is mediated by RARα. This work provides a solid theoretical foundation and experimental basis for the importance of ensuring sufficient nutritional VA during pregnancy and early life to prevent impairments of learning and memory in adulthood.

  20. Validation of a Molecular Risk Score for Prognosis of Patients With Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Treated With All-trans Retinoic Acid and Chemotherapy-containing Regimens.

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    Hecht, Anna; Doll, Seraphina; Altmann, Heidi; Nowak, Daniel; Lengfelder, Eva; Röllig, Christoph; Ehninger, Gerhard; Spiekermann, Karsten; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Weiß, Christel; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Nolte, Florian; Platzbecker, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    Although treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has evolved dramatically during the past decades, especially with the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid, risk stratification remains an important issue. To date, relapse risk can be predicted by leukocyte and platelet counts only. In the present report, we present a validation study on 3 candidate genes and a newly developed molecular risk score for APL in 2 independent patient cohorts. An integrative risk score combining the expression levels of BAALC, ERG, and WT1 was calculated for 79 de novo APL patients from the original cohort and 76 de novo APL patients from a validation cohort. Gene expression analysis was executed the same for both cohorts, and the results regarding the effect on patient outcomes were compared. The expression levels of BAALC, ERG, and WT1 were similar in both cohorts compared with the healthy controls. The relapse and survival rates were not different between the low- and high-risk patients according to the Sanz score. However, application of the molecular risk score on the validation cohort distinctly discriminated patients according to their risk of relapse and death just as in the original APL cohort, although single gene analyses could not reproduce the negative prognostic impact. The analysis clearly validated the prognostic effect of the integrative risk score on the outcome in APL patients. The value was further empowered because the single gene analyses did not show similar results. Whether the integrative risk score retains its prognostic power in the chemotherapy-free setting should be investigated further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) corepressor is required for full estrogen receptor alpha transcriptional activity.

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    Peterson, Theresa J; Karmakar, Sudipan; Pace, Margaret C; Gao, Tong; Smith, Carolyn L

    2007-09-01

    Multiple factors influence estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) transcriptional activity. Current models suggest that the silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) corepressor functions within a histone deactylase-containing protein complex that binds to antiestrogen-bound ERalpha and contributes to negative regulation of gene expression. In this report, we demonstrate that SMRT is required for full agonist-dependent ERalpha activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that SMRT, like ERalpha and the SRC-3 coactivator, is recruited to an estrogen-responsive promoter in estrogen-treated MCF-7 cells. Depletion of SMRT, but not histone deacetylases 1 or 3, negatively impacts estradiol-stimulated ERalpha transcriptional activity, while exogenous expression of SMRT's receptor interaction domains blocks ERalpha activity, indicating a functional interaction between this corepressor and agonist-bound ERalpha. Stimulation of estradiol-induced ERalpha activity by SMRT overexpression occurred in HeLa and MCF-7 cells, but not HepG2 cells, indicating that these positive effects are cell type specific. Similarly, the ability of SMRT depletion to promote the agonist activity of tamoxifen was observed for HeLa but not MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, impairment of agonist-stimulated activity by SMRT depletion is specific to ERalpha and not observed for receptors for vitamin D, androgen, or thyroid hormone. Nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) depletion increased the transcriptional activity of all four tested receptors. SMRT is required for full expression of the ERalpha target genes cyclin D1, BCL-2, and progesterone receptor but not pS2, and its depletion significantly attenuated estrogen-dependent proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Taken together, these data indicate that SMRT, in conjunction with gene-specific and cell-dependent factors, is required for positively regulating agonist-dependent ERalpha transcriptional activity.

  2. Nuclear receptor corepressors Ncor1 and Ncor2 (Smrt) are required for retinoic acid-dependent repression of Fgf8 during somitogenesis.

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    Kumar, Sandeep; Cunningham, Thomas J; Duester, Gregg

    2016-10-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) repression of Fgf8 is required for many different aspects of organogenesis, however relatively little is known about how endogenous RA controls gene repression as opposed to gene activation. Here, we show that nuclear receptor corepressors NCOR1 and NCOR2 (SMRT) redundantly mediate the ability of RA to repress Fgf8. Ncor1;Ncor2 double mutants generated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing exhibited a small somite and distended heart phenotype similar to that of RA-deficient Raldh2-/- embryos, associated with increased Fgf8 expression and FGF signaling in caudal progenitors and heart progenitors. Embryo chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that NCOR1/2 but not coactivators are recruited to the Fgf8 RA response element (RARE) in an RA-dependent manner, whereas coactivators but not NCOR1/2 are recruited RA-dependently to a RARE near Rarb that is activated by RA. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletion of the Fgf8 RARE in mouse embryos often resulted in a small somite defect with Fgf8 derepression caudally, but no defect was observed in heart development or heart Fgf8 expression. This suggests the existence of another DNA element whose function overlaps with the Fgf8 RARE to mediate Fgf8 repression by RA and NCOR1/2. Our studies support a model in which NCOR1/2 mediates direct RA-dependent repression of Fgf8 in caudal progenitors in order to control somitogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Retinoic acid signaling in the brain marks formation of optic projections, maturation of the dorsal telencephalon, and function of limbic sites.

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    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Grün, Felix; Dräger, Ursula C

    2004-03-08

    As retinoic acid (RA) is known to regulate the expression of many neuronal proteins, it is likely to influence overall development and function of the brain; few particulars, however, are available about its role in neurobiological contexts due mainly to problems in RA detection. To ask whether the function of RA in the rostral brain is concentrated in particular neurobiological systems, we compared sites of RA synthesis and actions, as detected by RA signaling in reporter mice, for embryonic and adult ages. We found that most sites of RA actions in the forebrain do not colocalize with RA synthesis, consistent with a dominant RA supply by diffusion and the circulation. The changing RA patterns distinguish preferentially two complex functional schemes. (1) Within the visual system when the first optic axons grow toward their targets, RA signaling delineates the topographical adjustment of the retinal map, which is encoded in the coordinates of the visual world, to central visual maps, which are formed in the segmental brain coordinates. (2) The second scheme begins early in forebrain morphogenesis as a distinction of the dorsal telencephalon. With progressing development, and in the adult, the RA patterns then focus on widely distributed structures, most of which belong to the limbic system. These are sites in which emotional perception is combined with higher cognitive processes and in which normal function requires ongoing remodeling of synaptic connections, indicating that the developmental role of RA in promotion of neuronal differentiation programs continues in the adult brain for highly flexible neural circuits. J. Comp. Neurol. 470:297-316, 2004. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Identification and characterization of nucleolin as a COUP-TFII coactivator of retinoic acid receptor β transcription in breast cancer cells.

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    Lacey M Litchfield

    Full Text Available The orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFII plays an undefined role in breast cancer. Previously we reported lower COUP-TFII expression in tamoxifen/endocrine-resistant versus sensitive breast cancer cell lines. The identification of COUP-TFII-interacting proteins will help to elucidate its mechanism of action as a transcriptional regulator in breast cancer.FLAG-affinity purification and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT identified nucleolin among the proteins interacting with COUP-TFII in MCF-7 tamoxifen-sensitive breast cancer cells. Interaction of COUP-TFII and nucleolin was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of endogenous proteins in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells. In vitro studies revealed that COUP-TFII interacts with the C-terminal arginine-glycine repeat (RGG domain of nucleolin. Functional interaction between COUP-TFII and nucleolin was indicated by studies showing that siRNA knockdown of nucleolin and an oligonucleotide aptamer that targets nucleolin, AS1411, inhibited endogenous COUP-TFII-stimulated RARB2 expression in MCF-7 and T47D cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed COUP-TFII occupancy of the RARB2 promoter was increased by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA. RARβ2 regulated gene RRIG1 was increased by atRA and COUP-TFII transfection and inhibited by siCOUP-TFII. Immunohistochemical staining of breast tumor microarrays showed nuclear COUP-TFII and nucleolin staining was correlated in invasive ductal carcinomas. COUP-TFII staining correlated with ERα, SRC-1, AIB1, Pea3, MMP2, and phospho-Src and was reduced with increased tumor grade.Our data indicate that nucleolin plays a coregulatory role in transcriptional regulation of the tumor suppressor RARB2 by COUP-TFII.

  5. A Zebrafish Model of Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Reveals That pitx2 Regulation by Retinoic Acid Is Essential for Ocular and Craniofacial Development

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    Bohnsack, Brenda L.; Kasprick, Daniel S.; Kish, Phillip E.; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The homeobox transcription factor PITX2 is a known regulator of mammalian ocular development, and human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS). However, the treatment of patients with ARS remains mostly supportive and palliative. Methods. The authors used molecular genetic, pharmacologic, and embryologic techniques to study the biology of ARS in a zebrafish model that uses transgenes to mark neural crest and muscle cells in the head. Results. The authors demonstrated in vivo that pitx2 is a key downstream target of retinoic acid (RA) in craniofacial development, and this pathway is required for coordinating neural crest, mesoderm, and ocular development. pitx2a knockdown using morpholino oligonucleotides disrupts jaw and pharyngeal arch formation and recapitulates ocular characteristics of ARS, including corneal and iris stroma maldevelopment. These phenotypes could be rescued with human PITX2A mRNA, demonstrating the specificity of the knockdown and evolutionary conservation of pitx2a function. Expression of the ARS dominant negative human PITX2A K50E allele also caused ARS-like phenotypes. Similarly, inhibition of RA synthesis in the developing eye (genetic or pharmacologic) disrupted craniofacial and ocular development, and human PITX2A mRNA partially rescued these defects. Conclusions. RA regulation of pitx2 is essential for coordinating interactions among neural crest, mesoderm, and developing eye. The marked evolutionary conservation of Pitx2 function in eye and craniofacial development makes zebrafish a potentially powerful model of ARS, amenable to in vivo experimentation and development of potential therapies. PMID:22125274

  6. All-trans retinoic acid stimulates gene expression of the cardioprotective natriuretic peptide system and prevents fibrosis and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of obese ob/ob mice.

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    Manolescu, Daniel-Constantin; Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan A; Wang, Donghao; Broderick, Tom L; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2014-10-01

    In hypertensive rodents, retinoic acid (RA) prevents adverse cardiac remodelling and improves myocardial infarction outcome, but its role in obesity-related changes of cardiac tissue are unclear. We hypothesized that all-trans RA (ATRA) treatment will improve the cardioprotective oxytocin-natriuretic peptides (OT-NP) system, preventing apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice, a mouse model of obesity and insulin resistance. Female 9-week-old B6.V-Lep/J ob/ob mice (n = 16) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) treated with 100 μg of ATRA dissolved in 100 μL of corn oil (vehicle) delivered daily (∼2 μg·g body weight(-1)·day(-1)) by stomach intubation for 16 days, and 1 group (n = 8) that received the vehicle alone. A group of nonobese littermate mice (n = 9) served as controls. Ob/ob mice exhibited obesity, hyperglycaemia, and downregulation of the cardiac OT-NP system, including the mRNA for the transcription factor GATA4, OT receptor and brain NP, and the protein expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Hearts from ob/ob mice also demonstrated increased apoptosis and collagen accumulation. ATRA treatment induced weight loss and decreased adipocytes diameter in the visceral fat, thus reducing visceral obesity, which is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. RA treatment was associated with a reduction in hyperglycemia and a normalization of the OT-NP system's expression in the hearts of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, ATRA treatment prevented apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice. The present study indicates that ATRA treatment was effective in restoring the cardioprotective OT-NP system and in preventing abnormal cardiac remodelling in the ob/ob mice.

  7. Retinoid Homeostatic Gene Expression in Liver, Lung and Kidney: Ontogeny and Response to Vitamin A-Retinoic Acid (VARA) Supplementation from Birth to Adult Age.

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    Owusu, Sarah A; Ross, A Catharine

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA, retinol) metabolism is homeostatically controlled, but little is known of its regulation in the postnatal period. Here, we determined the postnatal trajectory of VA storage and metabolism in major compartments of VA metabolism-plasma, liver, lung, and kidney from postnatal (P) day 1 to adulthood. We also investigated the response to supplementation with VARA, a combination of VA and 10% all-trans-retinoic acid that previously was shown to synergistically increase retinol uptake and storage in lung. Nursling pups of dams fed a VA-marginal diet received an oral dose of oil (placebo) or VARA on each of four neonatal days: P1, P4, P7, and P10; and again as adults. Tissues were collected 6 h after the final dosing on P1, P4, P10, and at adult age. Gene transcripts for Lrat and Rbp4 in liver and Raldh-1 and Raldh-3 in lung, did not differ in the neonatal period but were higher, Psupplementation increased total retinol in plasma, liver and lung, with a dose-by-dose accumulation in neonatal liver and lung, while transcripts for Lrat in liver, megalin in kidney, Cyp26A1/B1 in liver and lung, respectively, and Stra6 in lung, were all increased, suggesting pathways of VA uptake, storage and RA oxidation were each augmented after VARA. VARA decreased hepatic expression of Rbp4, responsible for VA trafficking from liver to plasma, and, in lung, of Raldh-1 and Raldh-2, which function in RA production. Our results define retinoid homeostatic gene expression from neonatal and adult age and show that while supplementation with VARA acutely alters retinol content and retinoid homeostatic gene expression in neonatal and adult lung, liver and kidney, VARA supplementation of neonates increased adult-age VA content only in the liver.

  8. PKCδ Regulates Translation Initiation through PKR and eIF2α in Response to Retinoic Acid in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

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    Bulent Ozpolat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation initiation and activity of eukaryotic initiation factor-alpha (eIF2α, the rate-limiting step of translation initiation, is often overactivated in malignant cells. Here, we investigated the regulation and role of eIF2α in acute promyelocytic (APL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells in response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and arsenic trioxide (ATO, the front-line therapies in APL. ATRA and ATO induce Ser-51 phosphorylation (inactivation of eIF2α, through the induction of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ and PKR, but not other eIF2α kinases, such as GCN2 and PERK in APL (NB4 and AML cells (HL60, U937, and THP-1. Inhibition of eIF2α reduced the expression of cellular proteins that are involved in apoptosis (DAP5/p97, cell cycle (p21Waf1/Cip1, differentiation (TG2 and induced those regulating proliferation (c-myc and survival (p70S6K. PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is involved in regulation of eIF2α through PKCδ/PKR axis. PKCδ and p-eIF2α protein expression levels revealed a significant association between the reduced levels of PKCδ (P=0.0378 and peIF2 (P=0.0041 and relapses in AML patients (n=47. In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that PKCδ regulates/inhibits eIF2α through induction of PKR in AML cells and reveals a novel signaling mechanism regulating translation initiation.

  9. Economic evaluation of arsenic trioxide compared to all-trans retinoic acid + conventional chemotherapy for treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaine, Jean; Mathurin, Karine; Barakat, Stéphane; Couban, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an uncommon type of acute leukemia characterized by high early mortality. Current first-line treatments include all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), anthracyclines, and other conventional chemotherapies (CTs). Although APL is generally associated with a good prognosis, about 20% of patients who achieve remission subsequently relapse and are resistant to the previously administrated treatment. The objective of this study was to assess, from a Canadian perspective, the economic impact of arsenic trioxide (ATO) compared to ATRA+CT for treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory APL. The cost-effectiveness of ATO compared to ATRA+CT for treating patients with relapsed/refractory APL was assessed over a lifetime horizon using a Markov model. The model considers five health states: induction, second remission, treatment failure or relapse, postfailure, and death. Markov cycle length was 1 month for the first 24 months and 1 yr thereafter. The model also takes into account the incidence of grade 3-4 adverse events reported in clinical trials. Analyses were conducted from a Canadian Ministry of Health (MoH) and a societal perspective. Compared to ATRA+CT, ATO was associated with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $ 20,551/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) from a MoH perspective and $ 22,219/QALY from a societal perspective. Results of the probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that ATO is a cost-effective strategy in 99.27% and 98.98% of the simulations from a MoH and a societal perspective, respectively. This economic evaluation demonstrates that ATO is a cost-effective strategy compared to ATRA+CT for treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory APL in Canada. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Abnormal CD161+ immune cells and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt-mediate enhanced IL-17F expression in the setting of genetic hypertension.

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    Singh, Madhu V; Cicha, Michael Z; Kumar, Santosh; Meyerholz, David K; Irani, Kaikobad; Chapleau, Mark W; Abboud, François M

    2017-09-01

    Hypertension is considered an immunologic disorder. However, the role of the IL-17 family in genetic hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced TH17 programming and IL-17 expression in abundant CD161+ immune cells in SHRs represent an abnormal proinflammatory adaptive immune response. Furthermore, we propose that this response is driven by the master regulator retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) and a nicotinic proinflammatory innate immune response. We measured expression of the CD161 surface marker on splenocytes in SHRs and normotensive control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats from birth to adulthood. We compared expression of IL-17A and IL-17F in splenic cells under different conditions. We then determined the functional effect of these cytokines on vascular reactivity. Finally, we tested whether pharmacologic inhibition of RORγt can attenuate hypertension in SHRs. SHRs exhibited an abnormally large population of CD161+ cells at birth that increased with age, reaching more than 30% of the splenocyte population at 38 weeks. The SHR splenocytes constitutively expressed more RORγt than those of WKY rats and produced more IL-17F on induction. Exposure of WKY rat aortas to IL-17F impaired endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, whereas IL-17A did not. Moreover, in vivo inhibition of RORγt by digoxin decreased systolic blood pressure in SHRs. SHRs have a markedly enhanced potential for RORγt-driven expression of proinflammatory and prohypertensive IL-17F in response to innate immune activation. Increased RORγt and IL-17F levels contribute to SHR hypertension and might be therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA against expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in model mice (Rattus norvegicus periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Soraya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is a condition of inflammation of the tooth supporting tissues generally caused by bacteria Phorphyromonas gingivalis (Pg. and is usually characterized by the occurrence of the alveolar bone resorption. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is an enzyme that plays an important role in inflammatory conditions. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is a metabolite of vitamin A which plays a role in healing the inflamed tissue and maintain the immune system. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ATRA on the expression of MMP-2 in mouse models Rattus norvegicus of periodontitis. Methods: Experimental laboratory by using post test only with control group design. This study used 25 male Wistar mice (Rattus norvegicus that divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (G1 is a group of healthy mice, group 2 (G2 is a group of sick mice as induced periodontitis without treatment, group 3 (G3 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 5 mg/kg dose of ATRA, group 4 (G4 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 10 mg/kg dose of ATRA, group 5 (G5 is a group of periodontitis mice treated with 20 mg/kg dose of ATRA. Periodontitis induction was induced by Pg. bacteria every 3 days for 28 days and followed by administration of ATRA for 7 days. Expression of MMP-2 from gingival tissues and periodontal ligament was obtained by immunohistochemical methods. Results were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk Test and Mann-Whitney Test. Results: The results showed there were significant differences in the positive area of MMP-2 and MMP-2 color intensity (p < 0.05 between groups. Conclusion: ATRA dose of 20 mg/kg is the most effective dose in inhibiting the expression of MMP-2 in mice models of periodontitis when compared with the dose on other groups.

  12. Impact of suppressing retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROR)γt in ameliorating central nervous system autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Winger, R C; Lee, P W; Nuro-Gyina, P K; Minc, A; Larson, M; Liu, Y; Pei, W; Rieser, E; Racke, M K; Lovett-Racke, A E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated chronic central nervous system (CNS) disease affecting more than 400 000 people in the United States. Myelin-reactive CD4 T cells play critical roles in the formation of acute inflammatory lesions and disease progression in MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a well-defined mouse model for MS. Current MS therapies are only partially effective, making it necessary to develop more effective therapies that specifically target pathogenic myelin-specific CD4 T cells for MS treatment. While suppressing T-bet, the key transcription factor in T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, has been demonstrated to be beneficial in prevention and treatment of EAE, the therapeutic potential of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROR)γt, the key transcription factor for Th17 cells, has not been well-characterized. In this study, we characterized the correlation between RORγt expression and other factors affecting T cell encephalitogenicity and evaluated the therapeutic potential of targeting RORγt by siRNA inhibition of RORγt. Our data showed that RORγt expression correlates with interleukin (IL)-17 production, but not with the encephalitogenicity of myelin-specific CD4 T cells. IL-23, a cytokine that enhances encephalitogenicity, does not enhance RORγt expression significantly. Additionally, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) levels, which correlate with the encephalitogenicity of different myelin-specific CD4 T cell populations, do not correlate with RORγt. More importantly, inhibiting RORγt expression in myelin-specific CD4 T cells with an siRNA does not reduce disease severity significantly in adoptively transferred EAE. Thus, RORγt is unlikely to be a more effective therapeutic target for ameliorating pathogenicity of encephalitogenic CD4 T cells. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Growth inhibition of Tax-activated human Jurkat leukemia T cells by all-trans retinoic acid requires JNK-1 inhibition.

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    Parra, Eduardo; Gutiérrez, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids, including vitamin A (retinol) and its analogues, are critical for a variety of biological functions. In this study, we report that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) decreases Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK-1) activity, antagonizing the effect of the Tax protein in Jurkat leukemia T cells transiently transfected for expressing the Tax protein. The Tax protein is one of the products of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) which is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive neoplasia of CD4+ T cells. The decrease in JNK-1 activity was followed by a marked decrease in the expression of interleukin (IL)-2 and a weak increase in interferon (IFN)-γ in Jurkat cells treated with ATRA in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a correlation between the expression of JNK-1 and the activity of the Tax protein. However, the expression levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were enhanced in cells transfected with Tax, compared with the levels in untransfected cells, but the expression levels were not affected following ATRA treatment. In transfection studies using a luciferase reporter construct expressing the IL-2 promoter or a tandem repeat of AP-1 or NF-κB, the inhibitory effect of ATRA on the IL-2 promoter and AP-1 construct was confirmed at the transcriptional level. However, the inhibitory effect in the NF-κB reporter construct was only marginal. In addition, our data demonstrated that JNK-1 is constitutively activated in Jurkat leukemia T cells expressing the Tax protein, suggesting that JNK-1 is required for Tax-induced proliferation of Jurkat leukemia cells.

  14. Trichoplax adhaerens reveals a network of nuclear receptors sensitive to 9-cis-retinoic acid at the base of metazoan evolution

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    Jan Philipp Novotný

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichoplax adhaerens, the only known species of Placozoa is likely to be closely related to an early metazoan that preceded branching of Cnidaria and Bilateria. This animal species is surprisingly well adapted to free life in the World Ocean inhabiting tidal costal zones of oceans and seas with warm to moderate temperatures and shallow waters. The genome of T. adhaerens (sp. Grell includes four nuclear receptors, namely orthologue of RXR (NR2B, HNF4 (NR2A, COUP-TF (NR2F and ERR (NR3B that show a high degree of similarity with human orthologues. In the case of RXR, the sequence identity to human RXR alpha reaches 81% in the DNA binding domain and 70% in the ligand binding domain. We show that T. adhaerens RXR (TaRXR binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis-RA with high affinity, as well as high specificity and that exposure of T. adhaerens to 9-cis-RA regulates the expression of the putative T. adhaerens orthologue of vertebrate L-malate-NADP+ oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.40 which in vertebrates is regulated by a heterodimer of RXR and thyroid hormone receptor. Treatment by 9-cis-RA alters the relative expression profile of T. adhaerens nuclear receptors, suggesting the existence of natural ligands. Keeping with this, algal food composition has a profound effect on T. adhaerens growth and appearance. We show that nanomolar concentrations of 9-cis-RA interfere with T. adhaerens growth response to specific algal food and causes growth arrest. Our results uncover an endocrine-like network of nuclear receptors sensitive to 9-cis-RA in T. adhaerens and support the existence of a ligand-sensitive network of nuclear receptors at the base of metazoan evolution.