WorldWideScience

Sample records for retinal image restoration

  1. Retinal image restoration by means of blind deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo, Andrés G.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip; Millán, María S.

    2011-11-01

    Retinal imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of ophthalmologic disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Because of the acquisition process, retinal images often suffer from blurring and uneven illumination. This problem may seriously affect disease diagnosis and progression assessment. Here we present a method for color retinal image restoration by means of multichannel blind deconvolution. The method is applied to a pair of retinal images acquired within a lapse of time, ranging from several minutes to months. It consists of a series of preprocessing steps to adjust the images so they comply with the considered degradation model, followed by the estimation of the point-spread function and, ultimately, image deconvolution. The preprocessing is mainly composed of image registration, uneven illumination compensation, and segmentation of areas with structural changes. In addition, we have developed a procedure for the detection and visualization of structural changes. This enables the identification of subtle developments in the retina not caused by variation in illumination or blur. The method was tested on synthetic and real images. Encouraging experimental results show that the method is capable of significant restoration of degraded retinal images.

  2. Retinal image restoration by means of blind deconvolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip; Millan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 11 (2011), 116016-1-116016-11 ISSN 1083-3668 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind deconvolution * image restoration * retinal image * deblurring Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/ZOI/sorel-0366061.pdf

  3. Restoration of retinal images with space-variant blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2014), 016023-1-016023-12 ISSN 1083-3668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind deconvolution * space-variant restoration * retinal image Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.859, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/sorel-0424586.pdf

  4. Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world that includes age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, the review is devoted to retinal imaging and image analysis methods and their clinical implications. Methods for 2-D fundus imaging and techniques for 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are reviewed. Special attention is given to quantitative techniques for analysis of fundus photographs with a focus on clinically relevant assessment of retinal vasculature, identification of retinal lesions, assessment of optic nerve head (ONH) shape, building retinal atlases, and to automated methods for population screening for retinal diseases. A separate section is devoted to 3-D analysis of OCT images, describing methods for segmentation and analysis of retinal layers, retinal vasculature, and 2-D/3-D detection of symptomatic exudate-associated derangements, as well as to OCT-based analysis of ONH morphology and shape. Throughout the paper, aspects of image acquisition, image analysis, and clinical relevance are treated together considering their mutually interlinked relationships. PMID:22275207

  5. Retinal imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of

  6. Advances in Retinal Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxiu Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinal imaging has undergone a revolution in the past 50 years to allow for better understanding of the eye in health and disease. Significant improvements have occurred both in hardware such as lasers and optics in addition to software image analysis. Optical imaging modalities include optical coherence tomography (OCT, OCT angiography (OCTA, photoacoustic microscopy (PAM, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, adaptive optics (AO, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, and molecular imaging (MI. These imaging modalities have enabled improved visualization of retinal pathophysiology and have had a substantial impact on basic and translational medical research. These improvements in technology have translated into early disease detection, more accurate diagnosis, and improved management of numerous chorioretinal diseases. This article summarizes recent advances and applications of retinal optical imaging techniques, discusses current clinical challenges, and predicts future directions in retinal optical imaging.

  7. Retinal image quality during accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Norberto; Martin, Jesson; Liu, Tao; Bradley, Arthur; Díaz-Muñoz, David; Thibos, Larry N

    2013-07-01

    We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552 nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye's higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced visual function may be a useful

  8. Retinal Image Preprocessing: Background and Noise Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Akram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal images are used for the automated screening and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The retinal image quality must be improved for the detection of features and abnormalities and for this purpose preprocessing of retinal images is vital. In this paper, we present a novel automated approach for preprocessing of colored retinal images. The proposed technique improves the quality of input retinal image by separating the background and noisy area from the overall image. It contains coarse segmentation and fine segmentation. Standard retinal images databases Diaretdb0, Diaretdb1, DRIVE and STARE are used to test the validation of our preprocessing technique. The experimental results show the validity of proposed preprocessing technique.

  9. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy.

  10. Automatic Vessel Segmentation on Retinal Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yuan Yu; Chia-Jen Chang; Yen-Ju Yao; Shyr-Shen Yu

    2014-01-01

    Several features of retinal vessels can be used to monitor the progression of diseases. Changes in vascular structures, for example, vessel caliber, branching angle, and tortuosity, are portents of many diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and arterial hyper-tension. This paper proposes an automatic retinal vessel segmentation method based on morphological closing and multi-scale line detection. First, an illumination correction is performed on the green band retinal image. Next, the morphological closing and subtraction processing are applied to obtain the crude retinal vessel image. Then, the multi-scale line detection is used to fine the vessel image. Finally, the binary vasculature is extracted by the Otsu algorithm. In this paper, for improving the drawbacks of multi-scale line detection, only the line detectors at 4 scales are used. The experimental results show that the accuracy is 0.939 for DRIVE (digital retinal images for vessel extraction) retinal database, which is much better than other methods.

  11. Image restoration, uncertainty, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F T

    1969-01-01

    Some of the physical interpretations about image restoration are discussed. From the theory of information the unrealizability of an inverse filter can be explained by degradation of information, which is due to distortion on the recorded image. The image restoration is a time and space problem, which can be recognized from the theory of relativity (the problem of image restoration is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics). A detailed discussion of the relationship between information and energy is given. Two general results may be stated: (1) the restoration of the image from the distorted signal is possible only if it satisfies the detectability condition. However, the restored image, at the best, can only approach to the maximum allowable time criterion. (2) The restoration of an image by superimposing the distorted signal (due to smearing) is a physically unrealizable method. However, this restoration procedure may be achieved by the expenditure of an infinite amount of energy.

  12. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabai, Andrea; Veritti, Daniele; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications. PMID:26139802

  13. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gabai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundus autofluorescence (FAF is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications.

  14. Transplantation of adult mouse iPS cell-derived photoreceptor precursors restores retinal structure and function in degenerative mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd A Tucker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine whether adult mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, could be used to produce retinal precursors and subsequently photoreceptor cells for retinal transplantation to restore retinal function in degenerative hosts. iPSCs were generated using adult dsRed mouse dermal fibroblasts via retroviral induction of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, KLF4 and c-Myc. As with normal mouse ES cells, adult dsRed iPSCs expressed the pluripotency genes SSEA1, Oct4, Sox2, KLF4, c-Myc and Nanog. Following transplantation into the eye of immune-compromised retinal degenerative mice these cells proceeded to form teratomas containing tissue comprising all three germ layers. At 33 days post-differentiation a large proportion of the cells expressed the retinal progenitor cell marker Pax6 and went on to express the photoreceptor markers, CRX, recoverin, and rhodopsin. When tested using calcium imaging these cells were shown to exhibit characteristics of normal retinal physiology, responding to delivery of neurotransmitters. Following subretinal transplantation into degenerative hosts differentiated iPSCs took up residence in the retinal outer nuclear layer and gave rise to increased electro retinal function as determined by ERG and functional anatomy. As such, adult fibroblast-derived iPSCs provide a viable source for the production of retinal precursors to be used for transplantation and treatment of retinal degenerative disease.

  15. Meaning of visualizing retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Julie; Paques, Michel; Krivosic, Valérie; Dupas, Bénédicte; Couturier, Aude; Kulcsar, Caroline; Tadayoni, Ramin; Massin, Pascale; Gaudric, Alain

    2015-01-01

    To explore the anatomic correlation of the retinal cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. Retrospective nonconsecutive observational case series. A retrospective review of the multimodal imaging charts of 6 patients with focal alteration of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics was performed. Retinal diseases included acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (n = 1), hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (n = 1), and macular telangiectasia type 2 (n = 4). High-resolution retinal images were obtained using a flood-illumination adaptive optics camera. Images were recorded using standard imaging modalities: color and red-free fundus camera photography; infrared reflectance scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. On OCT, in the marginal zone of the lesions, a disappearance of the interdigitation zone was observed, while the ellipsoid zone was preserved. Image recording demonstrated that such attenuation of the interdigitation zone co-localized with the disappearance of the cone mosaic on adaptive optics images. In 1 case, the restoration of the interdigitation zone paralleled that of the cone mosaic after a 2-month follow-up. Our results suggest that the interdigitation zone could contribute substantially to the reflectance of the cone photoreceptor mosaic. The absence of cones on adaptive optics images does not necessarily mean photoreceptor cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  17. Adaptive optics imaging of inherited retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Michalis; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Patterson, Emily J; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-11-15

    Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy allows for non-invasive retinal phenotyping on a microscopic scale, thereby helping to improve our understanding of retinal diseases. An increasing number of natural history studies and ongoing/planned interventional clinical trials exploit AO ophthalmoscopy both for participant selection, stratification and monitoring treatment safety and efficacy. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of AO ophthalmoscopy, recent developments and its application to a broad range of inherited retinal diseases, including Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa and achromatopsia. Finally, we describe the impact of this in vivo microscopic imaging on our understanding of disease pathogenesis, clinical trial design and outcome metrics, while recognising the limitation of the small cohorts reported to date. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Retinal Imaging Techniques for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James Kang Hao; Cheung, Carol Y.; Sim, Shaun Sebastian; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, demand for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening platforms is steeply increasing. Early detection and treatment of DR are key public health interventions that can greatly reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Current DR screening programs typically employ retinal fundus photography, which relies on skilled readers for manual DR assessment. However, this is labor-intensive and suffers from inconsistency across sites. Hence, there has been a recent proliferation of automated retinal image analysis software that may potentially alleviate this burden cost-effectively. Furthermore, current screening programs based on 2-dimensional fundus photography do not effectively screen for diabetic macular edema (DME). Optical coherence tomography is becoming increasingly recognized as the reference standard for DME assessment and can potentially provide a cost-effective solution for improving DME detection in large-scale DR screening programs. Current screening techniques are also unable to image the peripheral retina and require pharmacological pupil dilation; ultra-widefield imaging and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, which address these drawbacks, possess great potential. In this review, we summarize the current DR screening methods using various retinal imaging techniques, and also outline future possibilities. Advances in retinal imaging techniques can potentially transform the management of patients with diabetes, providing savings in health care costs and resources. PMID:26830491

  19. Image restoration and processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    This review will stress the importance of using image restoration techniques that deal with incomplete, inconsistent, and noisy data and do not introduce spurious features into the processed image. No single image is equally suitable for both the resolution of detail and the accurate measurement of intensities. A good general purpose technique is the maximum entropy method and the basis and use of this will be explained. (orig.)

  20. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Desjardins

    Full Text Available In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE. Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, increased histone deacetylase (HDAC activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA, suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro and fluid transport (in vivo. Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina.

  1. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  2. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc....

  3. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  4. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis Linda

    2006-01-01

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for the salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  5. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the re...

  6. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  7. Brain-inspired algorithms for retinal image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar Romeny, B.M.; Bekkers, E.J.; Zhang, J.; Abbasi-Sureshjani, S.; Huang, F.; Duits, R.; Dasht Bozorg, Behdad; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Smit-Ockeloen, I.; Eppenhof, K.A.J.; Feng, J.; Hannink, J.; Schouten, J.; Tong, M.; Wu, H.; van Triest, J.W.; Zhu, S.; Chen, D.; He, W.; Xu, L.; Han, P.; Kang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal image analysis is a challenging problem due to the precise quantification required and the huge numbers of images produced in screening programs. This paper describes a series of innovative brain-inspired algorithms for automated retinal image analysis, recently developed for the RetinaCheck

  8. Autonomous algorithms for image restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Griniasty , Meir

    1994-01-01

    We describe a general theoretical framework for algorithms that adaptively tune all their parameters during the restoration of a noisy image. The adaptation procedure is based on a mean field approach which is known as ``Deterministic Annealing'', and is reminiscent of the ``Deterministic Bolzmann Machiné'. The algorithm is less time consuming in comparison with its simulated annealing alternative. We apply the theory to several architectures and compare their performances.

  9. Retinal image quality assessment based on image clarity and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Lamiaa; El-Rafei, Ahmed; El-Ramly, Salwa; Michelson, Georg; Hornegger, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Retinal image quality assessment (RIQA) is an essential step in automated screening systems to avoid misdiagnosis caused by processing poor quality retinal images. A no-reference transform-based RIQA algorithm is introduced that assesses images based on five clarity and content quality issues: sharpness, illumination, homogeneity, field definition, and content. Transform-based RIQA algorithms have the advantage of considering retinal structures while being computationally inexpensive. Wavelet-based features are proposed to evaluate the sharpness and overall illumination of the images. A retinal saturation channel is designed and used along with wavelet-based features for homogeneity assessment. The presented sharpness and illumination features are utilized to assure adequate field definition, whereas color information is used to exclude nonretinal images. Several publicly available datasets of varying quality grades are utilized to evaluate the feature sets resulting in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve above 0.99 for each of the individual feature sets. The overall quality is assessed by a classifier that uses the collective features as an input vector. The classification results show superior performance of the algorithm in comparison to other methods from literature. Moreover, the algorithm addresses efficiently and comprehensively various quality issues and is suitable for automatic screening systems.

  10. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  11. BAYESIAN IMAGE RESTORATION, USING CONFIGURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thordis Linda Thorarinsdottir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a Bayesian procedure for removing noise from images that can be viewed as noisy realisations of random sets in the plane. The procedure utilises recent advances in configuration theory for noise free random sets, where the probabilities of observing the different boundary configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed in detail for 3 X 3 and 5 X 5 configurations and examples of the performance of the procedure are given.

  12. End-to-End Adversarial Retinal Image Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Galdran, Adrian; Meyer, Maria Ines; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abramoff, Michael; Mendonca, Ana Maria; Campilho, Aurelio

    2018-03-01

    In medical image analysis applications, the availability of the large amounts of annotated data is becoming increasingly critical. However, annotated medical data is often scarce and costly to obtain. In this paper, we address the problem of synthesizing retinal color images by applying recent techniques based on adversarial learning. In this setting, a generative model is trained to maximize a loss function provided by a second model attempting to classify its output into real or synthetic. In particular, we propose to implement an adversarial autoencoder for the task of retinal vessel network synthesis. We use the generated vessel trees as an intermediate stage for the generation of color retinal images, which is accomplished with a generative adversarial network. Both models require the optimization of almost everywhere differentiable loss functions, which allows us to train them jointly. The resulting model offers an end-to-end retinal image synthesis system capable of generating as many retinal images as the user requires, with their corresponding vessel networks, by sampling from a simple probability distribution that we impose to the associated latent space. We show that the learned latent space contains a well-defined semantic structure, implying that we can perform calculations in the space of retinal images, e.g., smoothly interpolating new data points between two retinal images. Visual and quantitative results demonstrate that the synthesized images are substantially different from those in the training set, while being also anatomically consistent and displaying a reasonable visual quality.

  13. The Edge Detectors Suitable for Retinal OCT Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal layer thickness measurement offers important information for reliable diagnosis of retinal diseases and for the evaluation of disease development and medical treatment responses. This task critically depends on the accurate edge detection of the retinal layers in OCT images. Here, we intended to search for the most suitable edge detectors for the retinal OCT image segmentation task. The three most promising edge detection algorithms were identified in the related literature: Canny edge detector, the two-pass method, and the EdgeFlow technique. The quantitative evaluation results show that the two-pass method outperforms consistently the Canny detector and the EdgeFlow technique in delineating the retinal layer boundaries in the OCT images. In addition, the mean localization deviation metrics show that the two-pass method caused the smallest edge shifting problem. These findings suggest that the two-pass method is the best among the three algorithms for detecting retinal layer boundaries. The overall better performance of Canny and two-pass methods over EdgeFlow technique implies that the OCT images contain more intensity gradient information than texture changes along the retinal layer boundaries. The results will guide our future efforts in the quantitative analysis of retinal OCT images for the effective use of OCT technologies in the field of ophthalmology.

  14. Spectrally optimal illuminations for diabetic retinopathy detection in retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, Piotr; Fält, Pauli; Penttinen, Niko; Ylitepsa, Pasi; Laaksonen, Lauri; Lensu, Lasse; Hauta-Kasari, Markku; Uusitalo, Hannu

    2017-04-01

    Retinal photography is a standard method for recording retinal diseases for subsequent analysis and diagnosis. However, the currently used white light or red-free retinal imaging does not necessarily provide the best possible visibility of different types of retinal lesions, important when developing diagnostic tools for handheld devices, such as smartphones. Using specifically designed illumination, the visibility and contrast of retinal lesions could be improved. In this study, spectrally optimal illuminations for diabetic retinopathy lesion visualization are implemented using a spectrally tunable light source based on digital micromirror device. The applicability of this method was tested in vivo by taking retinal monochrome images from the eyes of five diabetic volunteers and two non-diabetic control subjects. For comparison to existing methods, we evaluated the contrast of retinal images taken with our method and red-free illumination. The preliminary results show that the use of optimal illuminations improved the contrast of diabetic lesions in retinal images by 30-70%, compared to the traditional red-free illumination imaging.

  15. A method for volumetric retinal tissue oxygen tension imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Anthony E; Wanek, Justin; Teng, Pang-Yu; Blair, Norman P; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate retinal oxygenation occurs in many vision-threatening retinal diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusions, and age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, techniques that assess retinal oxygenation are necessary to understand retinal physiology in health and disease. The purpose of the current study is to report a method for the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of retinal tissue oxygen tension (tPO 2 ) in rats. Imaging was performed in Long Evans pigmented rats under systemic normoxia (N = 6) or hypoxia (N = 3). A vertical laser line was horizontally scanned on the retina and a series of optical section phase-delayed phosphorescence images were acquired. From these images, phosphorescence volumes at each phase delay were constructed and a 3D retinal tPO 2 volume was generated. Retinal tPO 2 volumes were quantitatively analyzed by generating retinal depth profiles of mean tPO 2 (M tPO2 ) and the spatial variation of tPO 2 (SV tPO2 ). The effects of systemic condition (normoxia/hypoxia) and retinal depth on M tPO2 and SV tPO2 were determined by mixed linear model. Each 3D retinal tPO 2 volume was approximately 500 × 750 × 200 μm (horizontal × vertical × depth) and consisted of 45 en face tPO 2 images through the retinal depth. M tPO2 at the chorioretinal interface was significantly correlated with systemic arterial oxygen tension (P = 0.007; N = 9). There were significant effects of both systemic condition and retinal depth on M tPO2 and SV tPO2 , such that both were lower under hypoxia than normoxia and higher in the outer retina than inner retina (P < 0.001). For the first time, 3D imaging of retinal tPO 2 was demonstrated, with potential future application for assessment of physiological alterations in animal models of retinal diseases.

  16. Automatic segmentation of blood vessels from retinal fundus images ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The retinal blood vessels were segmented through color space conversion and color channel .... Retinal blood vessel segmentation was also attempted through multi-scale operators. A few works in this ... fundus camera at 35 degrees field of view. The image ... vessel segmentation is available from two human observers.

  17. COMPARISON OF RETINAL PATHOLOGY VISUALIZATION IN MULTISPECTRAL SCANNING LASER IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshi, Amit; Lin, Tiezhu; Dans, Kunny; Chen, Kevin C; Amador, Manuel; Hasenstab, Kyle; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Nudleman, Eric; Chao, Daniel; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Freeman, William R

    2018-03-16

    To compare retinal pathology visualization in multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging between the Spectralis and Optos devices. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 42 eyes from 30 patients with age-related macular degeneration (19 eyes), diabetic retinopathy (10 eyes), and epiretinal membrane (13 eyes). All patients underwent retinal imaging with a color fundus camera (broad-spectrum white light), the Spectralis HRA-2 system (3-color monochromatic lasers), and the Optos P200 system (2-color monochromatic lasers). The Optos image was cropped to a similar size as the Spectralis image. Seven masked graders marked retinal pathologies in each image within a 5 × 5 grid that included the macula. The average area with detected retinal pathology in all eyes was larger in the Spectralis images compared with Optos images (32.4% larger, P < 0.0001), mainly because of better visualization of epiretinal membrane and retinal hemorrhage. The average detection rate of age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy pathologies was similar across the three modalities, whereas epiretinal membrane detection rate was significantly higher in the Spectralis images. Spectralis tricolor multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging had higher rate of pathology detection primarily because of better epiretinal membrane and retinal hemorrhage visualization compared with Optos bicolor multispectral scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging.

  18. Tuberculoid leprosy and cytomegalovirus retinitis as immune restoration disease in a patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shishir; Ghosh, Manab Kumar; Sarkar, Somenath; Mallik, Sudeshna; Biswas, Pradyot Narayan; Saha, Bibhuti

    2012-02-01

    Here we report a unique case of tuberculoid leprosy and cytomegalovirus retinitis in a 27-year-old female patient with AIDS, suggestive of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced immune restoration disease. After initiation of HAART, the patient presented with decreased visual acuity, hypoesthetic patch with local nerve thickening, and an increase in her CD4+ T cell count. On further investigations cytomegalovirus retinitis and tuberculoid leprosy were confirmed. To our knowledge no case with such a co-existence has previously been reported. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photovoltaic Retinal Prosthesis for Restoring Sight to Patients Blinded by Retinal Injury or Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We explored two boundary conditions for the stimulating and return electrodes: (1) When surface of each electrode was assumed equipotential , the...Stanford Nanofabrication Facility (SNF) using Surface Technology Systems (STS) PECVD. The precursors were SiH4 and NH3 (40:33.5 ratio of SiH4/NH3) at a... surface coating of retinal prostheses by PECVD at SNF (Plasma- Therm Shuttlelock SLR-730-PECVD). This tool used a capacitive-coupled plasma with

  20. In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Daniel C.; Merigan, William; Wolfing, Jessica I.; Gee, Bernard P.; Porter, Jason; Dubra, Alfredo; Twietmeyer, Ted H.; Ahamd, Kamran; Tumbar, Remy; Reinholz, Fred; Williams, David R.

    2006-08-01

    The ability to resolve single cells noninvasively in the living retina has important applications for the study of normal retina, diseased retina, and the efficacy of therapies for retinal disease. We describe a new instrument for high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the mammalian retina that combines the benefits of confocal detection, adaptive optics, multispectral, and fluorescence imaging. The instrument is capable of imaging single ganglion cells and their axons through retrograde transport in ganglion cells of fluorescent dyes injected into the monkey lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In addition, we demonstrate a method involving simultaneous imaging in two spectral bands that allows the integration of very weak signals across many frames despite inter-frame movement of the eye. With this method, we are also able to resolve the smallest retinal capillaries in fluorescein angiography and the mosaic of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with lipofuscin autofluorescence.

  1. EFFECTUAL HUMAN AUTHENTICATION FOR CRITICAL SECURITY APPLICATIONS USING RETINAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Latha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A robust method of human authentication based on the retinal blood vessel pattern is presented in this paper. This method entails a segmentation process to identify retinal blood vessel pattern, template generation consisting of the bifurcation points in the retina and matching of the intersection points in the template patterns. The number of matched blood vessel intersection points between the two patterns compared is used as a measure of similarity. As Liveness detection is a highly desirable anti-spoofing measure in biometric authentication, it is ensured while acquiring retinal images in realtime. The validity of our approach is verified with experimental results obtained from 603 comparisons made using 303 retinal images from three different publicly available databases, namely DRIVE, VARIA and STARE. We found that the proposed retinal recognition method gives 100%, 96.3% and 91.1% recognition rates respectively for the above databases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that uses a large number of retinal images from different retinal databases for the authentication purpose.

  2. Automatic detection and classification of malarial retinopathy- associated retinal whitening in digital retinal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, M.U.; Alvi, A.B.N.; Khan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Malarial retinopathy addresses diseases that are characterized by abnormalities in retinal fundus imaging. Macular whitening is one of the distinct signs of cerebral malaria but has hardly been explored as a critical bio-marker. The paper proposes a computerized detection and classification method for malarial retinopathy using retinal whitening as a bio-marker. The paper combines various statistical and color based features to form a sound feature set for accurate detection of retinal whitening. All features are extracted at image level and feature selection is performed to detect most discriminate features. A new method for macula location is also presented. The detected macula location is further used for grading of whitening as macular or peripheral whitening. Support vector machine along with radial basis function is used for classification of normal and malarial retinopathy patients. The evaluation is performed using a locally gathered dataset from malarial patients and it achieves an accuracy of 95% for detection of retinal whitening and 100% accuracy for grading of retinal whitening as macular or non-macular. One of the major contributions of proposed method is grading of retinal whitening into macular or peripheral whitening. (author)

  3. ROV Based Underwater Blurred Image Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhishen; DING Tianfu; WANG Gang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method of ROV based image processing to restore underwater blurry images from the theory of light and image transmission in the sea. Computer is used to simulate the maximum detection range of the ROV under different water body conditions. The receiving irradiance of the video camera at different detection ranges is also calculated. The ROV's detection performance under different water body conditions is given by simulation. We restore the underwater blurry images using the Wiener filter based on the simulation. The Wiener filter is shown to be a simple useful method for underwater image restoration in the ROV underwater experiments. We also present examples of restored images of an underwater standard target taken by the video camera in these experiments.

  4. Generalized probabilistic scale space for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Mishra, Akshaya K

    2010-10-01

    A novel generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale space theory is proposed for image restoration. We explore extending the definition of scale space to better account for both noise and observation models, which is important for producing accurately restored images. A new class of scale-space realizations based on sampling and probability theory is introduced to realize this extended definition in the context of image restoration. Experimental results using 2-D images show that generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale-space theory can be used to produce more accurate restored images when compared with state-of-the-art scale-space formulations, particularly under situations characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios and image degradation.

  5. Smart image processing system for retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, James D; Parikh, Neha; Pradeep, Vivek; Medioni, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prostheses for the blind have demonstrated the ability to provide the sensation of light in otherwise blind individuals. However, visual task performance in these patients remains poor relative to someone with normal vision. Computer vision algorithms for navigation and object detection were evaluated for their ability to improve task performance. Blind subjects navigating a mobility course had fewer collisions when using a wearable camera system that guided them on a safe path. Subjects using a retinal prosthesis simulator could locate objects more quickly when an object detection algorithm assisted them. Computer vision algorithms can assist retinal prosthesis patients and low-vision patients in general.

  6. Discriminative Transfer Learning for General Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2018-04-30

    Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g., denoising, deblurring, demosaicing) and problem condition (e.g., noise level of input images). This makes it time-consuming and difficult to encompass all tasks and conditions during training. In this paper, we propose a discriminative transfer learning method that incorporates formal proximal optimization and discriminative learning for general image restoration. The method requires a single-pass discriminative training and allows for reuse across various problems and conditions while achieving an efficiency comparable to previous discriminative approaches. Furthermore, after being trained, our model can be easily transferred to new likelihood terms to solve untrained tasks, or be combined with existing priors to further improve image restoration quality.

  7. Discriminative Transfer Learning for General Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Schö lkopf, Bernhard; Hirsch, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Recently, several discriminative learning approaches have been proposed for effective image restoration, achieving convincing trade-off between image quality and computational efficiency. However, these methods require separate training for each restoration task (e.g., denoising, deblurring, demosaicing) and problem condition (e.g., noise level of input images). This makes it time-consuming and difficult to encompass all tasks and conditions during training. In this paper, we propose a discriminative transfer learning method that incorporates formal proximal optimization and discriminative learning for general image restoration. The method requires a single-pass discriminative training and allows for reuse across various problems and conditions while achieving an efficiency comparable to previous discriminative approaches. Furthermore, after being trained, our model can be easily transferred to new likelihood terms to solve untrained tasks, or be combined with existing priors to further improve image restoration quality.

  8. Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects in retinal fundus images using Gabor filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hatanaka, Yuji; Aoyama, Akira; Kakogawa, Masakatsu; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2007-03-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD) is one of the most important findings for the diagnosis of glaucoma reported by ophthalmologists. However, such changes could be overlooked, especially in mass screenings, because ophthalmologists have limited time to search for a number of different changes for the diagnosis of various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and glaucoma. Therefore, the use of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system can improve the results of diagnosis. In this work, a technique for the detection of NFLDs in retinal fundus images is proposed. In the preprocessing step, blood vessels are "erased" from the original retinal fundus image by using morphological filtering. The preprocessed image is then transformed into a rectangular array. NFLD regions are observed as vertical dark bands in the transformed image. Gabor filtering is then applied to enhance the vertical dark bands. False positives (FPs) are reduced by a rule-based method which uses the information of the location and the width of each candidate region. The detected regions are back-transformed into the original configuration. In this preliminary study, 71% of NFLD regions are detected with average number of FPs of 3.2 per image. In conclusion, we have developed a technique for the detection of NFLDs in retinal fundus images. Promising results have been obtained in this initial study.

  9. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  10. Models for Patch-Based Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Das Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a supervised learning approach for object-category specific restoration, recognition, and segmentation of images which are blurred using an unknown kernel. The novelty of this work is a multilayer graphical model which unifies the low-level vision task of restoration and the high-level vision task of recognition in a cooperative framework. The graphical model is an interconnected two-layer Markov random field. The restoration layer accounts for the compatibility between sharp and blurred images and models the association between adjacent patches in the sharp image. The recognition layer encodes the entity class and its location in the underlying scene. The potentials are represented using nonparametric kernel densities and are learnt from training data. Inference is performed using nonparametric belief propagation. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for the restoration and recognition of blurred license plates as well as face images.

  11. Automatic segmentation of blood vessels from retinal fundus images ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The retinal blood vessels were segmented through color space conversion and color channel extraction, image pre-processing, Gabor filtering, image postprocessing, feature construction through application of principal component analysis, k-means clustering and first level classification using Naïve–Bayes classification ...

  12. Quality measures in applications of image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Naim, M; Schafer, L

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new method for the estimation of image quality in image restoration applications. We demonstrate this technique on a simulated data set of fluorescent beads, in comparison with restoration by three different deconvolution methods. Both the number of iterations and a regularisation factor are varied to enforce changes in the resulting image quality. First, the data sets are directly compared by an accuracy measure. These values serve to validate the image quality descriptor, which is developed on the basis of optical information theory. This most general measure takes into account the spectral energies and the noise, weighted in a logarithmic fashion. It is demonstrated that this method is particularly helpful as a user-oriented method to control the output of iterative image restorations and to eliminate the guesswork in choosing a suitable number of iterations.

  13. Automated imaging dark adaptometer for investigating hereditary retinal degenerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Dario F. G.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Regunath, Gopalakrishnan; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    1995-05-01

    We designed and built an automated imaging dark adaptometer (AIDA) to increase accuracy, reliability, versatility and speed of dark adaptation testing in patients with hereditary retinal degenerations. AIDA increases test accuracy by imaging the ocular fundus for precise positioning of bleaching and stimulus lights. It improves test reliability by permitting continuous monitoring of patient fixation. Software control of stimulus presentation provides broad testing versatility without sacrificing speed. AIDA promises to facilitate the measurement of dark adaptation in studies of the pathophysiology of retinal degenerations and in future treatment trials of these diseases.

  14. Live-cell imaging: new avenues to investigate retinal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Lahne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and responding to our environment requires functional neurons that act in concert. Neuronal cell loss resulting from degenerative diseases cannot be replaced in humans, causing a functional impairment to integrate and/or respond to sensory cues. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio possess an endogenous capacity to regenerate lost neurons. Here, we will focus on the processes that lead to neuronal regeneration in the zebrafish retina. Dying retinal neurons release a damage signal, tumor necrosis factor α, which induces the resident radial glia, the Müller glia, to reprogram and re-enter the cell cycle. The Müller glia divide asymmetrically to produce a Müller glia that exits the cell cycle and a neuronal progenitor cell. The arising neuronal progenitor cells undergo several rounds of cell divisions before they migrate to the site of damage to differentiate into the neuronal cell types that were lost. Molecular and immunohistochemical studies have predominantly provided insight into the mechanisms that regulate retinal regeneration. However, many processes during retinal regeneration are dynamic and require live-cell imaging to fully discern the underlying mechanisms. Recently, a multiphoton imaging approach of adult zebrafish retinal cultures was developed. We will discuss the use of live-cell imaging, the currently available tools and those that need to be developed to advance our knowledge on major open questions in the field of retinal regeneration.

  15. Portable, low-priced retinal imager for eye disease screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Peter; Nemeth, Sheila; VanNess, Richard; Barriga, E. S.; Zamora, Gilberto

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate a portable, low-priced, easy to use non-mydriatic retinal camera for eye disease screening in underserved urban and rural locations. Existing portable retinal imagers do not meet the requirements of a low-cost camera with sufficient technical capabilities (field of view, image quality, portability, battery power, and ease-of-use) to be distributed widely to low volume clinics, such as the offices of single primary care physicians serving rural communities or other economically stressed healthcare facilities. Our approach for Smart i-Rx is based primarily on a significant departure from current generations of desktop and hand-held commercial retinal cameras as well as those under development. Our techniques include: 1) Exclusive use of off-the-shelf components; 2) Integration of retinal imaging device into low-cost, high utility camera mount and chin rest; 3) Unique optical and illumination designed for small form factor; and 4) Exploitation of autofocus technology built into present digital SLR recreational cameras; and 5) Integration of a polarization technique to avoid the corneal reflex. In a prospective study, 41 out of 44 diabetics were imaged successfully. No imaging was attempted on three of the subjects due to noticeably small pupils (less than 2mm). The images were of sufficient quality to detect abnormalities related to diabetic retinopathy, such as microaneurysms and exudates. These images were compared with ones taken non-mydriatically with a Canon CR-1 Mark II camera. No cases identified as having DR by expert retinal graders were missed in the Smart i-Rx images.

  16. Imaging retinal progenitor lineages in developing zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusuf, Patricia; Harris, William A; Poggi, Lucia

    2013-03-01

    In this protocol, we describe how to make and analyze four dimensional (4D) movies of retinal lineage in the zebrafish embryo in vivo. 4D consists of three spatial dimensions (3D) reconstructed from stacks of confocal planes plus one time dimension. Our imaging is performed on transgenic cells that express fluorescent proteins under the control of cell-specific promoters or on cells that transiently express such reporters in specific retinal cell progenitors. An important aspect of lineage tracing is the ability to follow individual cells as they undergo multiple cell divisions, final migration, and differentiation. This may mean many hours of 4D imaging, requiring that cells be kept healthy and maintained under conditions suitable for normal development. The longest movies we have made are ∼50 h. By analyzing these movies, we can see when a specific cell was born and who its sister was, allowing us to reconstruct its retinal lineages in vivo.

  17. WIDEFIELD SPECTRAL-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF PERIPHERAL ROUND RETINAL HOLES WITH OR WITHOUT RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Edward J; Abou Ltaif, Sleiman; Carr, Thomas; Keane, Pearse A; Charteris, David G; Wickham, Louisa

    2018-03-02

    To describe the widefield spectral-domain optical coherence tomography features of peripheral round retinal holes, with or without associated retinal detachment (RD). Retrospective, observational study of 28 eyes with peripheral round retinal holes, with and without RD. Patients underwent imaging with a widefield 50-degree spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) and Optos ultra-widefield imaging systems (Optos, United Kingdom). Vitreous attachment at the site of the retinal hole was detected in 27/28 (96.4%) cases. Cases were split into three groups: RHs with RD (n = 12); RHs with subretinal fluid (n = 5), and flat RHs (n = 11), with minimal or no subretinal fluid. 91.6% retinal holes associated with subretinal fluid or RD had vitreous attachment at the site of the hole. Eighty percent had vitreous attachment at both edges of the retinal hole, in a U-shape configuration, which appeared to exert traction. By contrast, flat retinal holes had visible vitreous attachment only at one edge of the retinal hole in 45.4%. Vitreous attachment was commonly seen at the site of round retinal holes. Vitreous attachment at both edges of the retinal hole in a U-shape configuration was more commonly seen at holes associated with subretinal fluid or RD.

  18. Noninvasive Quantification of Retinal Microglia Using Widefield Autofluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokona, Despina; Schneider, Nadia; Giannakaki-Zimmermann, Helena; Jovanovic, Joel; Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin

    2017-04-01

    To validate widefield autofluorescence (AF) in vivo imaging of the retina in mice expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp) in microglia, and to monitor retinal microglia reconstitution in vivo after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. Transgenic Cx3cr1gfp/gfp and wildtype Balb/c mice were used in this study. A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used for AF imaging with a 55° and a widefield 102° lens. Intrasession reproducibility was assessed for each lens. To investigate reconstitution in vivo, bone marrow from Cx3cr1gfp/gfp mice was used to rescue lethally irradiated wildtype mice. Data were compared to confocal microscopy of retinal flat mounts. Both the 55° and the 102° lens produced high resolution images of retinal microglia with similar microglia density. However, compared to the 55° lens, the widefield 102° lens captured approximately 3.6 times more microglia cells (1515 ± 123 cells versus 445 ± 76 cells [mean ± SD], for 102° and 55°, respectively, P < 0.001). No statistical difference in the number of gfp positive cells within corresponding areas was observed within the same imaging session. Imaging of microglia reconstitution showed a similar time course compared to flat mount preparations with an excellent correlation between microglia cell numbers in AF and gfp-stained flat mounts (R = 0.92, P < 0.0001). Widefield AF imaging of mice with gfp expressing microglia can be used to quantify retinal microglia. In vivo microglia counts corresponded very well with ex vivo counts on retinal flat mounts. As such, AF imaging can largely replace ex vivo quantification.

  19. Matrix Krylov subspace methods for image restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalide jbilou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we consider some matrix Krylov subspace methods for solving ill-posed linear matrix equations and in those problems coming from the restoration of blurred and noisy images. Applying the well known Tikhonov regularization procedure leads to a Sylvester matrix equation depending the Tikhonov regularized parameter. We apply the matrix versions of the well known Krylov subspace methods, namely the Least Squared (LSQR and the conjugate gradient (CG methods to get approximate solutions representing the restored images. Some numerical tests are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  20. Restoration for Noise Removal in Quantum Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-09-01

    Quantum computation has become increasingly attractive in the past few decades due to its extraordinary performance. As a result, some studies focusing on image representation and processing via quantum mechanics have been done. However, few of them have considered the quantum operations for images restoration. To address this problem, three noise removal algorithms are proposed in this paper based on the novel enhanced quantum representation model, oriented to two kinds of noise pollution (Salt-and-Pepper noise and Gaussian noise). For the first algorithm Q-Mean, it is designed to remove the Salt-and-Pepper noise. The noise points are extracted through comparisons with the adjacent pixel values, after which the restoration operation is finished by mean filtering. As for the second method Q-Gauss, a special mask is applied to weaken the Gaussian noise pollution. The third algorithm Q-Adapt is effective for the source image containing unknown noise. The type of noise can be judged through the quantum statistic operations for the color value of the whole image, and then different noise removal algorithms are used to conduct image restoration respectively. Performance analysis reveals that our methods can offer high restoration quality and achieve significant speedup through inherent parallelism of quantum computation.

  1. Incorporating Spatial Information for Microaneurysm Detection in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Habib

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microaneurysms(MAs in retinal images is a pathognomonic sign of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR. This is one of the leading causes of blindness in the working population worldwide. This paper introduces a novel algorithm that combines information from spatial views of the retina for the purpose of MA detection. Most published research in the literature has addressed the problem of detecting MAs from single retinal images. This work proposes the incorporation of information from two spatial views during the detection process. The algorithm is evaluated using 160 images from 40 patients seen as part of a UK diabetic eye screening programme which contained 207 MAs. An improvement in performance compared to detection from an algorithm that relies on a single image is shown as an increase of 2% ROC score, hence demonstrating the potential of this method.

  2. Update on wide- and ultra-widefield retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir S Shoughy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral retina is the site of pathology in many ocular diseases and ultra-widefield (UWF imaging is one of the new technologies available to ophthalmologists to manage some of these diseases. Currently, there are several imaging systems used in practice for the purpose of diagnostic, monitoring disease progression or response to therapy, and telemedicine. These include modalities for both adults and pediatric patients. The current systems are capable of producing wide- and UWF color fundus photographs, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiograms, and autofluorescence images. Using this technology, important clinical observations have been made in diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, uveitides, retinal vascular occlusions and tumors, intraocular tumors, retinopathy of prematurity, and age-related macular degeneration. Widefield imaging offers excellent postoperative documentation of retinal detachment surgery. New applications will soon be available to integrate this technology into large volume routine clinical practice.

  3. A Method for Combined Retinal Vascular and Tissue Oxygen Tension Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Anthony E; Wanek, Justin; Tan, Michael R; Blair, Norman P; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2017-09-06

    The retina requires adequate oxygenation to maintain cellular metabolism and visual function. Inner retinal oxygen metabolism is directly related to retinal vascular oxygen tension (PO 2 ) and inner retinal oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), whereas outer retinal oxygen consumption (QO 2 ) relies on oxygen availability by the choroid and is contingent upon retinal tissue oxygen tension (tPO 2 ) gradients across the retinal depth. Thus far, these oxygenation and metabolic parameters have been measured independently by different techniques in separate animals, precluding a comprehensive and correlative assessment of retinal oxygenation and metabolism dynamics. The purpose of the current study is to report an innovative optical system for dual oxyphor phosphorescence lifetime imaging to near-simultaneously measure retinal vascular PO 2 and tPO 2 in rats. The use of a new oxyphor with different spectral characteristics allowed differentiation of phosphorescence signals from the retinal vasculature and tissue. Concurrent measurements of retinal arterial and venous PO 2 , tPO 2 through the retinal depth, inner retinal OEF, and outer retinal QO 2 were demonstrated, permitting a correlative assessment of retinal oxygenation and metabolism. Future application of this method can be used to investigate the relations among retinal oxygen content, extraction and metabolism under pathologic conditions and thus advance knowledge of retinal hypoxia pathophysiology.

  4. Roi Detection and Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaz, F.; Atila, U.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes disrupts work by affecting the structure of the eye and afterwards leads to loss of vision. Depending on the stage of disease that called diabetic retinopathy, there are sudden loss of vision and blurred vision problems. Automated detection of vessels in retinal images is a useful study to diagnose eye diseases, disease classification and other clinical trials. The shape and structure of the vessels give information about the severity of the disease and the stage of the disease. Automatic and fast detection of vessels allows for a quick diagnosis of the disease and the treatment process to start shortly. ROI detection and vessel extraction methods for retinal image are mentioned in this study. It is shown that the Frangi filter used in image processing can be successfully used in detection and extraction of vessels.

  5. ROI DETECTION AND VESSEL SEGMENTATION IN RETINAL IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sabaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes disrupts work by affecting the structure of the eye and afterwards leads to loss of vision. Depending on the stage of disease that called diabetic retinopathy, there are sudden loss of vision and blurred vision problems. Automated detection of vessels in retinal images is a useful study to diagnose eye diseases, disease classification and other clinical trials. The shape and structure of the vessels give information about the severity of the disease and the stage of the disease. Automatic and fast detection of vessels allows for a quick diagnosis of the disease and the treatment process to start shortly. ROI detection and vessel extraction methods for retinal image are mentioned in this study. It is shown that the Frangi filter used in image processing can be successfully used in detection and extraction of vessels.

  6. An automated vessel segmentation of retinal images using multiscale vesselness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, M.; Malek, J.; Tourki, R.; Krissian, K.

    2011-01-01

    The ocular fundus image can provide information on pathological changes caused by local ocular diseases and early signs of certain systemic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension. Automated analysis and interpretation of fundus images has become a necessary and important diagnostic procedure in ophthalmology. The extraction of blood vessels from retinal images is an important and challenging task in medical analysis and diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce an implementation of the anisotropic diffusion which allows reducing the noise and better preserving small structures like vessels in 2D images. A vessel detection filter, based on a multi-scale vesselness function, is then applied to enhance vascular structures.

  7. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  8. Ghost suppression in image restoration filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, T. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    An optimum image restoration filter is described in which provision is made to constrain the spatial extent of the restoration function, the noise level of the filter output and the rate of falloff of the composite system point-spread away from the origin. Experimental results show that sidelobes on the composite system point-spread function produce ghosts in the restored image near discontinuities in intensity level. By redetermining the filter using a penalty function that is zero over the main lobe of the composite point-spread function of the optimum filter and nonzero where the point-spread function departs from a smoothly decaying function in the sidelobe region, a great reduction in sidelobe level is obtained. Almost no loss in resolving power of the composite system results from this procedure. By iteratively carrying out the same procedure even further reductions in sidelobe level are obtained. Examples of original and iterated restoration functions are shown along with their effects on a test image.

  9. A fully organic retinal prosthesis restores vision in a rat model of degenerative blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Vetencourt, José Fernando; Ghezzi, Diego; Antognazza, Maria Rosa; Colombo, Elisabetta; Mete, Maurizio; Feyen, Paul; Desii, Andrea; Buschiazzo, Ambra; di Paolo, Mattia; di Marco, Stefano; Ticconi, Flavia; Emionite, Laura; Shmal, Dmytro; Marini, Cecilia; Donelli, Ilaria; Freddi, Giuliano; Maccarone, Rita; Bisti, Silvia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Pertile, Grazia; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Benfenati, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    The degeneration of photoreceptors in the retina is one of the major causes of adult blindness in humans. Unfortunately, no effective clinical treatments exist for the majority of retinal degenerative disorders. Here we report on the fabrication and functional validation of a fully organic prosthesis for long-term in vivo subretinal implantation in the eye of Royal College of Surgeons rats, a widely recognized model of retinitis pigmentosa. Electrophysiological and behavioural analyses reveal a prosthesis-dependent recovery of light sensitivity and visual acuity that persists up to 6-10 months after surgery. The rescue of the visual function is accompanied by an increase in the basal metabolic activity of the primary visual cortex, as demonstrated by positron emission tomography imaging. Our results highlight the possibility of developing a new generation of fully organic, highly biocompatible and functionally autonomous photovoltaic prostheses for subretinal implants to treat degenerative blindness.

  10. Comparative study of image restoration techniques in forensic image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijhold, Jurrien; Kuijper, Arjan; Westhuis, Jaap-Harm

    1997-02-01

    In this work we investigated the forensic applicability of some state-of-the-art image restoration techniques for digitized video-images and photographs: classical Wiener filtering, constrained maximum entropy, and some variants of constrained minimum total variation. Basic concepts and experimental results are discussed. Because all methods appeared to produce different results, a discussion is given of which method is the most suitable, depending on the image objects that are questioned, prior knowledge and type of blur and noise. Constrained minimum total variation methods produced the best results for test images with simulated noise and blur. In cases where images are the most substantial part of the evidence, constrained maximum entropy might be more suitable, because its theoretical basis predicts a restoration result that shows the most likely pixel values, given all the prior knowledge used during restoration.

  11. Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannetta, A; Jackson, J C; Kotre, C J; Birch, I P; Robson, K J; Padgett, R

    2004-01-01

    An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom were recorded using the standard magnification settings of 1.8 magnification/fine focus and also at 1.8 magnification/broad focus and 3.0 magnification/fine focus; the latter two arrangements would normally give rise to unacceptable geometric blurring. Measured point-spread functions were used in conjunction with the MEM image processing to de-blur these images. The results are presented as comparative images of phantom test features and as observer scores for the raw and processed images. Visualization of high resolution features and the total image scores for the test phantom were improved by the application of the MEM processing. It is argued that this successful demonstration of image de-blurring in noisy radiological images offers the possibility of weakening the link between focal spot size and geometric blurring in radiology, thus opening up new approaches to system optimization

  12. In vivo imaging of the retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica Ijams Wolfing

    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form an important layer of the retina because they are responsible for providing metabolic support to the photoreceptors. Techniques to image the RPE layer include autofluorescence imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). However, previous studies were unable to resolve single RPE cells in vivo. This thesis describes the technique of combining autofluorescence, SLO, adaptive optics (AO), and dual-wavelength simultaneous imaging and registration to visualize the individual cells in the RPE mosaic in human and primate retina for the first time in vivo. After imaging the RPE mosaic non-invasively, the cell layer's structure and regularity were characterized using quantitative metrics of cell density, spacing, and nearest neighbor distances. The RPE mosaic was compared to the cone mosaic, and RPE imaging methods were confirmed using histology. The ability to image the RPE mosaic led to the discovery of a novel retinal change following light exposure; 568 nm exposures caused an immediate reduction in autofluorescence followed by either full recovery or permanent damage in the RPE layer. A safety study was conducted to determine the range of exposure irradiances that caused permanent damage or transient autofluorescence reductions. Additionally, the threshold exposure causing autofluorescence reduction was determined and reciprocity of radiant exposure was confirmed. Light exposures delivered by the AOSLO were not significantly different than those delivered by a uniform source. As all exposures tested were near or below the permissible light levels of safety standards, this thesis provides evidence that the current light safety standards need to be revised. Finally, with the retinal damage and autofluorescence reduction thresholds identified, the methods of RPE imaging were modified to allow successful imaging of the individual cells in the RPE mosaic while still ensuring retinal safety. This thesis has provided a

  13. Improved wavefront correction for coherent image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Claudius; Koch, Reinhard

    2017-08-07

    Coherent imaging has a wide range of applications in, for example, microscopy, astronomy, and radar imaging. Particularly interesting is the field of microscopy, where the optical quality of the lens is the main limiting factor. In this article, novel algorithms for the restoration of blurred images in a system with known optical aberrations are presented. Physically motivated by the scalar diffraction theory, the new algorithms are based on Haugazeau POCS and FISTA, and are faster and more robust than methods presented earlier. With the new approach the level of restoration quality on real images is very high, thereby blurring and ringing caused by defocus can be effectively removed. In classical microscopy, lenses with very low aberration must be used, which puts a practical limit on their size and numerical aperture. A coherent microscope using the novel restoration method overcomes this limitation. In contrast to incoherent microscopy, severe optical aberrations including defocus can be removed, hence the requirements on the quality of the optics are lower. This can be exploited for an essential price reduction of the optical system. It can be also used to achieve higher resolution than in classical microscopy, using lenses with high numerical aperture and high aberration. All this makes the coherent microscopy superior to the traditional incoherent in suited applications.

  14. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhage in a case of nonaccidental trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinok, Deniz; Saleem, Sheena; Smith, Wilbur; Zhang, Zaixiang; Markman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Retinal hemorrhage is a well-recognized manifestation of child abuse found in many babies with shaken baby syndrome. The presence of retinal hemorrhage is generally associated with more severe neurological damage and a worse clinical outcome. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages are not well described in the pediatric literature. We present a 6-month-old boy with new-onset seizures, subdural hemorrhage and bilateral retinal hemorrhages that were detected by MRI and confirmed by indirect ophthalmoscopy. This case demonstrates the MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages and the importance of radiologists being able to recognize these specific imaging features. (orig.)

  15. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhage in a case of nonaccidental trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinok, Deniz; Saleem, Sheena; Smith, Wilbur [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhang, Zaixiang [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Markman, Lisa [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Child Protection Team, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Retinal hemorrhage is a well-recognized manifestation of child abuse found in many babies with shaken baby syndrome. The presence of retinal hemorrhage is generally associated with more severe neurological damage and a worse clinical outcome. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages are not well described in the pediatric literature. We present a 6-month-old boy with new-onset seizures, subdural hemorrhage and bilateral retinal hemorrhages that were detected by MRI and confirmed by indirect ophthalmoscopy. This case demonstrates the MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages and the importance of radiologists being able to recognize these specific imaging features. (orig.)

  16. Real-Time Imaging of Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. Yap

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring real-time apoptosis in-vivo is an unmet need of neurodegeneration science, both in clinical and research settings. For patients, earlier diagnosis before the onset of symptoms provides a window of time in which to instigate treatment. For researchers, being able to objectively monitor the rates of underlying degenerative processes at a cellular level provides a biomarker with which to test novel therapeutics. The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells project has developed a minimally invasive method using fluorescent annexin A5 to detect rates of apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, the key pathological process in glaucoma. Numerous animal studies have used DARC to show efficacy of novel, pressure-independent treatment strategies in models of glaucoma and other conditions where retinal apoptosis is reported, including Alzheimer’s disease. This may forge exciting new links in the clinical science of treating both cognitive and visual decline. Human trials are now underway, successfully demonstrating the safety and efficacy of the technique to differentiate patients with progressive neurodegeneration from healthy individuals. We review the current perspectives on retinal ganglion cell apoptosis, the way in which this can be imaged, and the exciting advantages that these future methods hold in store.

  17. Textureless Macula Swelling Detection with Multiple Retinal Fundus Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Grisan, Enrico [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Favaro, Paolo [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh; Ruggeri, Alfredo [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Retinal fundus images acquired with non-mydriatic digital fundus cameras are a versatile tool for the diagnosis of various retinal diseases. Because of the ease of use of newer camera models and their relatively low cost, these cameras can be employed by operators with limited training for telemedicine or Point-of-Care applications. We propose a novel technique that uses uncalibrated multiple-view fundus images to analyse the swelling of the macula. This innovation enables the detection and quantitative measurement of swollen areas by remote ophthalmologists. This capability is not available with a single image and prone to error with stereo fundus cameras. We also present automatic algorithms to measure features from the reconstructed image which are useful in Point-of-Care automated diagnosis of early macular edema, e.g., before the appearance of exudation. The technique presented is divided into three parts: first, a preprocessing technique simultaneously enhances the dark microstructures of the macula and equalises the image; second, all available views are registered using non-morphological sparse features; finally, a dense pyramidal optical flow is calculated for all the images and statistically combined to build a naiveheight- map of the macula. Results are presented on three sets of synthetic images and two sets of real world images. These preliminary tests show the ability to infer a minimum swelling of 300 microns and to correlate the reconstruction with the swollen location.

  18. Coupled dictionary learning for joint MR image restoration and segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuesong; Fan, Yong

    2018-03-01

    To achieve better segmentation of MR images, image restoration is typically used as a preprocessing step, especially for low-quality MR images. Recent studies have demonstrated that dictionary learning methods could achieve promising performance for both image restoration and image segmentation. These methods typically learn paired dictionaries of image patches from different sources and use a common sparse representation to characterize paired image patches, such as low-quality image patches and their corresponding high quality counterparts for the image restoration, and image patches and their corresponding segmentation labels for the image segmentation. Since learning these dictionaries jointly in a unified framework may improve the image restoration and segmentation simultaneously, we propose a coupled dictionary learning method to concurrently learn dictionaries for joint image restoration and image segmentation based on sparse representations in a multi-atlas image segmentation framework. Particularly, three dictionaries, including a dictionary of low quality image patches, a dictionary of high quality image patches, and a dictionary of segmentation label patches, are learned in a unified framework so that the learned dictionaries of image restoration and segmentation can benefit each other. Our method has been evaluated for segmenting the hippocampus in MR T1 images collected with scanners of different magnetic field strengths. The experimental results have demonstrated that our method achieved better image restoration and segmentation performance than state of the art dictionary learning and sparse representation based image restoration and image segmentation methods.

  19. Polarimetric imaging of retinal disease by polarization sensitive SLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Elsner, Ann E.; Iwasaki, Takuya; Goto, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Polarimetry imaging is used to evaluate different features of the macular disease. Polarimetry images were recorded using a commercially- available polarization-sensitive scanning laser opthalmoscope at 780 nm (PS-SLO, GDx-N). From data sets of PS-SLO, we computed average reflectance image, depolarized light images, and ratio-depolarized light images. The average reflectance image is the grand mean of all input polarization states. The depolarized light image is the minimum of crossed channel. The ratio-depolarized light image is a ratio between the average reflectance image and depolarized light image, and was used to compensate for variation of brightness. Each polarimetry image is compared with the autofluorescence image at 800 nm (NIR-AF) and autofluorescence image at 500 nm (SW-AF). We evaluated four eyes with geographic atrophy in age related macular degeneration, one eye with retinal pigment epithelium hyperplasia, and two eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Polarization analysis could selectively emphasize different features of the retina. Findings in ratio depolarized light image had similarities and differences with NIR-AF images. Area of hyper-AF in NIR-AF images showed high intensity areas in the ratio depolarized light image, representing melanin accumulation. Areas of hypo-AF in NIR-AF images showed low intensity areas in the ratio depolarized light images, representing melanin loss. Drusen were high-intensity areas in the ratio depolarized light image, but NIR-AF images was insensitive to the presence of drusen. Unlike NIR-AF images, SW-AF images showed completely different features from the ratio depolarized images. Polarization sensitive imaging is an effective tool as a non-invasive assessment of macular disease.

  20. Personal identification based on blood vessels of retinal fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Biometric technique has been implemented instead of conventional identification methods such as password in computer, automatic teller machine (ATM), and entrance and exit management system. We propose a personal identification (PI) system using color retinal fundus images which are unique to each individual. The proposed procedure for identification is based on comparison of an input fundus image with reference fundus images in the database. In the first step, registration between the input image and the reference image is performed. The step includes translational and rotational movement. The PI is based on the measure of similarity between blood vessel images generated from the input and reference images. The similarity measure is defined as the cross-correlation coefficient calculated from the pixel values. When the similarity is greater than a predetermined threshold, the input image is identified. This means both the input and the reference images are associated to the same person. Four hundred sixty-two fundus images including forty-one same-person's image pairs were used for the estimation of the proposed technique. The false rejection rate and the false acceptance rate were 9.9×10 -5% and 4.3×10 -5%, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed method has a higher performance than other biometrics except for DNA. To be used for practical application in the public, the device which can take retinal fundus images easily is needed. The proposed method is applied to not only the PI but also the system which warns about misfiling of fundus images in medical facilities.

  1. Retinal fundus imaging with a plenoptic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurin, Brice; Bloch, Edward; Nousias, Sotiris; Ourselin, Sebastien; Keane, Pearse; Bergeles, Christos

    2018-02-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery is moving towards 3D visualization of the surgical field. This require acquisition system capable of recording such 3D information. We propose a proof of concept imaging system based on a light-field camera where an array of micro-lenses is placed in front of a conventional sensor. With a single snapshot, a stack of images focused at different depth are produced on the fly, which provides enhanced depth perception for the surgeon. Difficulty in depth localization of features and frequent focus-change during surgery are making current vitreoretinal heads-up surgical imaging systems cumbersome to use. To improve the depth perception and eliminate the need to manually refocus on the instruments during the surgery, we designed and implemented a proof-of-concept ophthalmoscope equipped with a commercial light-field camera. The sensor of our camera is composed of an array of micro-lenses which are projecting an array of overlapped micro-images. We show that with a single light-field snapshot we can digitally refocus between the retina and a tool located in front of the retina or display an extended depth-of-field image where everything is in focus. The design and system performances of the plenoptic fundus camera are detailed. We will conclude by showing in vivo data recorded with our device.

  2. Retinal Imaging of Infants on Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vinekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral domain coherence tomography (SD OCT has become an important tool in the management of pediatric retinal diseases. It is a noncontact imaging device that provides detailed assessment of the microanatomy and pathology of the infant retina with a short acquisition time allowing office examination without the requirement of anesthesia. Our understanding of the development and maturation of the infant fovea has been enhanced by SD OCT allowing an in vivo assessment that correlates with histopathology. This has helped us understand the critical correlation of foveal development with visual potential in the first year of life and beyond. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the clinical applications of SD OCT in studying the pathoanatomy of the infant macula, its ability to detect subclinical features, and its correlation with disease and vision. Retinopathy of prematurity and macular edema have been discussed in detail. The review also summarizes the current status of SD OCT in other infant retinal conditions, imaging the optic nerve, the choroid, and the retinal nerve fibre in infants and children, and suggests future areas of research.

  3. Automated microaneurysm detection algorithms applied to diabetic retinopathy retinal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akara Sopharak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is the commonest cause of blindness in working age people. It is characterised and graded by the development of retinal microaneurysms, haemorrhages and exudates. The damage caused by diabetic retinopathy can be prevented if it is treated in its early stages. Therefore, automated early detection can limit the severity of the disease, improve the follow-up management of diabetic patients and assist ophthalmologists in investigating and treating the disease more efficiently. This review focuses on microaneurysm detection as the earliest clinically localised characteristic of diabetic retinopathy, a frequently observed complication in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Algorithms used for microaneurysm detection from retinal images are reviewed. A number of features used to extract microaneurysm are summarised. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of reported methods used to automatically detect microaneurysms is presented and discussed. The performance of methods and their complexity are also discussed.

  4. [Electronic Device for Retinal and Iris Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahanský, M; Kolář, R; Mňuk, T

    This paper describes design and construction of a new device for automatic capturing of eye retina and iris. This device has two possible ways of utilization - either for biometric purposes (persons recognition on the base of their eye characteristics) or for medical purposes as supporting diagnostic device. eye retina, eye iris, device, acquisition, image.

  5. Retinal image registration for eye movement estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Radim; Tornow, Ralf P; Odstrcilik, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for eye fixation measurement using a unique videoophthalmoscope setup and advanced image registration approach. The representation of the eye movements via Poincare plot is also introduced. The properties, limitations and perspective of this methodology are finally discussed.

  6. Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Bui, Bang; Nguyen, Christine T O; He, Zheng; Metha, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Conventional adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes use wavefront sensing methods to characterize ocular aberrations for real-time correction. However, there are important situations in which the wavefront sensing step is susceptible to difficulties that affect the accuracy of the correction. To circumvent these, wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (or non-wavefront sensing AO; NS-AO) imaging has recently been developed and has been applied to point-scanning based retinal imaging modalities. In this study we show, for the first time, contrast-based NS-AO ophthalmoscopy for full-frame in vivo imaging of human and animal eyes. We suggest a robust image quality metric that could be used for any imaging modality, and test its performance against other metrics using (physical) model eyes.

  7. Joint image restoration and location in visual navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuefeng; Sang, Nong; Lin, Wei; Shao, Yuanjie

    2018-02-01

    Image location methods are the key technologies of visual navigation, most previous image location methods simply assume the ideal inputs without taking into account the real-world degradations (e.g. low resolution and blur). In view of such degradations, the conventional image location methods first perform image restoration and then match the restored image on the reference image. However, the defective output of the image restoration can affect the result of localization, by dealing with the restoration and location separately. In this paper, we present a joint image restoration and location (JRL) method, which utilizes the sparse representation prior to handle the challenging problem of low-quality image location. The sparse representation prior states that the degraded input image, if correctly restored, will have a good sparse representation in terms of the dictionary constructed from the reference image. By iteratively solving the image restoration in pursuit of the sparest representation, our method can achieve simultaneous restoration and location. Based on such a sparse representation prior, we demonstrate that the image restoration task and the location task can benefit greatly from each other. Extensive experiments on real scene images with Gaussian blur are carried out and our joint model outperforms the conventional methods of treating the two tasks independently.

  8. Neural network based multiscale image restoration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ana Paula A.; da Silva, José D. S.

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a neural network based multiscale image restoration approach. Multilayer perceptrons are trained with artificial images of degraded gray level circles, in an attempt to make the neural network learn inherent space relations of the degraded pixels. The present approach simulates the degradation by a low pass Gaussian filter blurring operation and the addition of noise to the pixels at pre-established rates. The training process considers the degraded image as input and the non-degraded image as output for the supervised learning process. The neural network thus performs an inverse operation by recovering a quasi non-degraded image in terms of least squared. The main difference of the approach to existing ones relies on the fact that the space relations are taken from different scales, thus providing relational space data to the neural network. The approach is an attempt to come up with a simple method that leads to an optimum solution to the problem. Considering different window sizes around a pixel simulates the multiscale operation. In the generalization phase the neural network is exposed to indoor, outdoor, and satellite degraded images following the same steps use for the artificial circle image.

  9. Detection of microaneurysms in retinal images using an ensemble classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Habib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces, and reports on the performance of, a novel combination of algorithms for automated microaneurysm (MA detection in retinal images. The presence of MAs in retinal images is a pathognomonic sign of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR which is one of the leading causes of blindness amongst the working age population. An extensive survey of the literature is presented and current techniques in the field are summarised. The proposed technique first detects an initial set of candidates using a Gaussian Matched Filter and then classifies this set to reduce the number of false positives. A Tree Ensemble classifier is used with a set of 70 features (the most commons features in the literature. A new set of 32 MA groundtruth images (with a total of 256 labelled MAs based on images from the MESSIDOR dataset is introduced as a public dataset for benchmarking MA detection algorithms. We evaluate our algorithm on this dataset as well as another public dataset (DIARETDB1 v2.1 and compare it against the best available alternative. Results show that the proposed classifier is superior in terms of eliminating false positive MA detection from the initial set of candidates. The proposed method achieves an ROC score of 0.415 compared to 0.2636 achieved by the best available technique. Furthermore, results show that the classifier model maintains consistent performance across datasets, illustrating the generalisability of the classifier and that overfitting does not occur.

  10. In Vivo Imaging of Retinal Hypoxia in a Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Imam; Evans, Stephanie M; Craft, Jason R; Capozzi, Megan E; McCollum, Gary W; Yang, Rong; Marnett, Lawrence J; Uddin, Md Jashim; Jayagopal, Ashwath; Penn, John S

    2016-08-05

    Ischemia-induced hypoxia elicits retinal neovascularization and is a major component of several blinding retinopathies such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Currently, noninvasive imaging techniques capable of detecting and monitoring retinal hypoxia in living systems do not exist. Such techniques would greatly clarify the role of hypoxia in experimental and human retinal neovascular pathogenesis. In this study, we developed and characterized HYPOX-4, a fluorescence-imaging probe capable of detecting retinal-hypoxia in living animals. HYPOX-4 dependent in vivo and ex vivo imaging of hypoxia was tested in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Predicted patterns of retinal hypoxia were imaged by HYPOX-4 dependent fluorescence activity in this animal model. In retinal cells and mouse retinal tissue, pimonidazole-adduct immunostaining confirmed the hypoxia selectivity of HYPOX-4. HYPOX-4 had no effect on retinal cell proliferation as indicated by BrdU assay and exhibited no acute toxicity in retinal tissue as indicated by TUNEL assay and electroretinography (ERG) analysis. Therefore, HYPOX-4 could potentially serve as the basis for in vivo fluorescence-based hypoxia-imaging techniques, providing a tool for investigators to understand the pathogenesis of ischemic retinopathies and for physicians to address unmet clinical needs.

  11. 3D Reconstruction of the Retinal Arterial Tree Using Subject-Specific Fundus Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Wood, N. B.; Xu, X. Y.; Witt, N.; Hughes, A. D.; Samcg, Thom

    Systemic diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, are associated with changes in the retinal microvasculature. Although a number of studies have been performed on the quantitative assessment of the geometrical patterns of the retinal vasculature, previous work has been confined to 2 dimensional (2D) analyses. In this paper, we present an approach to obtain a 3D reconstruction of the retinal arteries from a pair of 2D retinal images acquired in vivo. A simple essential matrix based self-calibration approach was employed for the "fundus camera-eye" system. Vessel segmentation was performed using a semi-automatic approach and correspondence between points from different images was calculated. The results of 3D reconstruction show the centreline of retinal vessels and their 3D curvature clearly. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the retinal vessels is feasible and may be useful in future studies of the retinal vasculature in disease.

  12. Lentiviral expression of retinal guanylate cyclase-1 (RetGC1 restores vision in an avian model of childhood blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Williams

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA is a genetically heterogeneous group of retinal diseases that cause congenital blindness in infants and children. Mutations in the GUCY2D gene that encodes retinal guanylate cyclase-1 (retGC1 were the first to be linked to this disease group (LCA type 1 [LCA1] and account for 10%-20% of LCA cases. These mutations disrupt synthesis of cGMP in photoreceptor cells, a key second messenger required for function of these cells. The GUCY1*B chicken, which carries a null mutation in the retGC1 gene, is blind at hatching and serves as an animal model for the study of LCA1 pathology and potential treatments in humans.A lentivirus-based gene transfer vector carrying the GUCY2D gene was developed and injected into early-stage GUCY1*B embryos to determine if photoreceptor function and sight could be restored to these animals. Like human LCA1, the avian disease shows early-onset blindness, but there is a window of opportunity for intervention. In both diseases there is a period of photoreceptor cell dysfunction that precedes retinal degeneration. Of seven treated animals, six exhibited sight as evidenced by robust optokinetic and volitional visual behaviors. Electroretinographic responses, absent in untreated animals, were partially restored in treated animals. Morphological analyses indicated there was slowing of the retinal degeneration.Blindness associated with loss of function of retGC1 in the GUCY1*B avian model of LCA1 can be reversed using viral vector-mediated gene transfer. Furthermore, this reversal can be achieved by restoring function to a relatively low percentage of retinal photoreceptors. These results represent a first step toward development of gene therapies for one of the more common forms of childhood blindness.

  13. Ectopic norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and restores normal retinal angiogenesis in Norrie disease mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Andreas; Scholz, Michael; Goldwich, Andreas; Chauhan, Bharesh K; Hudl, Kristiane; Ohlmann, Anne V; Zrenner, Eberhart; Berger, Wolfgang; Cvekl, Ales; Seeliger, Mathias W; Tamm, Ernst R

    2005-02-16

    Norrie disease is an X-linked retinal dysplasia that presents with congenital blindness, sensorineural deafness, and mental retardation. Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene (NDP), is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. Norrie disease (Ndp(y/-)) mutant mice that are deficient in norrin develop blindness, show a distinct failure in retinal angiogenesis, and completely lack the deep capillary layers of the retina. We show here that the transgenic expression of ectopic norrin under control of a lens-specific promoter restores the formation of a normal retinal vascular network in Ndp(y/-) mutant mice. The improvement in structure correlates with restoration of neuronal function in the retina. In addition, lenses of transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show significantly more capillaries in the hyaloid vasculature that surrounds the lens during development. In vitro, lenses of transgenic mice in coculture with microvascular endothelial cells induce proliferation of the cells. Transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show more bromodeoxyuridine-labeled retinal progenitor cells at embryonic day 14.5 and thicker retinas at postnatal life than wild-type littermates, indicating a putative direct neurotrophic effect of norrin. These data provide direct evidence that norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and that pharmacologic modulation of norrin might be used for treatment of the vascular abnormalities associated with Norrie disease or other vascular disorders of the retina.

  14. Rat retinal vasomotion assessed by laser speckle imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neganova, Anastasiia Y; Postnov, Dmitry D; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Vasomotion is spontaneous or induced rhythmic changes in vascular tone or vessel diameter that lead to rhythmic changes in flow. While the vascular research community debates the physiological and pathophysiological consequence of vasomotion, there is a great need for experimental techniques...... that can address the role and dynamical properties of vasomotion in vivo. We apply laser speckle imaging to study spontaneous and drug induced vasomotion in retinal network of anesthetized rats. The results reveal a wide variety of dynamical patterns. Wavelet-based analysis shows that (i) spontaneous...

  15. Large-scale imaging of retinal output activity

    CERN Document Server

    Litke, A M; Dabrowski, W; Grillo, A A; Grybos, P; Kachiguine, S; Rahman, M; Taylor, G

    2003-01-01

    A system is being developed to study how the retina processes, encodes and communicates information about the visual world to the brain. It will image the activity of retinal output neurons over a region of live retina approaching that used for significant neural computation in the visual cortex. A prototype system consisting of 61 microelectrodes, covering an area of 0.17 mm**2, is described, including some first results with monkey retina. The plans and status for a system with 512 microelectrodes, covering an area of 1.7 mm**2, are also given.

  16. Outer Retinal and Choroidal Evaluation in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS): An Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Tito; Iaccheri, Barbara; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Lupidi, Marco; Torroni, Giovanni; Fruttini, Daniela; Cagini, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    To perform an analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) abnormalities in patients with MEWDS, during the acute and recovery stages, using enhanced depth imaging-OCT (EDI-OCT). A retrospective case series of five patients with MEWDS was included. EDI-OCT imaging was evaluated to detect retinal and choroidal features. In the acute phase, focal impairment of the ellipsoid zone and external limiting membrane, hyperreflective dots in the inner choroid, and full-thickness increase of the choroidal profile were observed in the affected eye; disappearance of these findings and restoration of the choroidal thickness (p = 0.046) was appreciated in the recovery phase. No OCT abnormalities were assessed in the unaffected eye. EDI-OCT revealed transient outer retinal layer changes and inner choroidal hyperreflective dots. A transient increased thickness of the whole choroid was also identified. This might confirm a short-lasting inflammatory involvement of the whole choroidal tissue in the active phase of MEWDS.

  17. Crowdsourcing and Automated Retinal Image Analysis for Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Lucy I; Wang, Xueyang; Friedman, David S; Brady, Christopher J

    2017-09-23

    As the number of people with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the USA is expected to increase threefold by 2050, the need to reduce health care costs associated with screening for this treatable disease is ever present. Crowdsourcing and automated retinal image analysis (ARIA) are two areas where new technology has been applied to reduce costs in screening for DR. This paper reviews the current literature surrounding these new technologies. Crowdsourcing has high sensitivity for normal vs abnormal images; however, when multiple categories for severity of DR are added, specificity is reduced. ARIAs have higher sensitivity and specificity, and some commercial ARIA programs are already in use. Deep learning enhanced ARIAs appear to offer even more improvement in ARIA grading accuracy. The utilization of crowdsourcing and ARIAs may be a key to reducing the time and cost burden of processing images from DR screening.

  18. High-speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging for human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Continuous and rapid eye movement causes significant intraframe distortion in adaptive optics high resolution retinal imaging. To minimize this artifact, we developed a high speed adaptive optics line scan confocal retinal imaging system. A high speed line camera was employed to acquire retinal image and custom adaptive optics was developed to compensate the wave aberration of the human eye's optics. The spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio were assessed in model eye and in living human eye. The improvement of imaging fidelity was estimated by reduction of intra-frame distortion of retinal images acquired in the living human eyes with frame rates at 30 frames/second (FPS), 100 FPS, and 200 FPS. The device produced retinal image with cellular level resolution at 200 FPS with a digitization of 512×512 pixels/frame in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors in the central fovea and rod photoreceptors near the fovea were resolved in three human subjects in normal chorioretinal health. Compared with retinal images acquired at 30 FPS, the intra-frame distortion in images taken at 200 FPS was reduced by 50.9% to 79.7%. We demonstrated the feasibility of acquiring high resolution retinal images in the living human eye at a speed that minimizes retinal motion artifact. This device may facilitate research involving subjects with nystagmus or unsteady fixation due to central vision loss.

  19. Structural analysis of retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone and postreceptor retinal layer associated with visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa by ganglion cell analysis combined with OCT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guodong; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Xu, Ding; Wang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine changes in photoreceptor ellipsoid zone (EZ) and postreceptor retinal layer in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients by ganglion cell analysis (GCA) combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to evaluate the structure–function relationships between retinal layer changes and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Sixty-eight eyes of 35 patients with RP and 65 eyes of 35 normal controls were analyzed in the study. The average length of EZ was 911.1 ± 208.8 μm in RP patients, which was shortened with the progression of the disease on the OCT images. The average ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT) was 54.7 ± 18.9 μm in RP patients, while in normal controls it was 85.6 ± 6.8 μm. The GCIPLT in all quarters became significantly thinner along with outer retinal thinning. There was a significantly positive correlation between BCVA and EZ (r = −0.7622, P retinal layer changes from a new perspective in RP patients, which suggests that EZ and GCIPLT obtained by GCA combined with OCT imaging are the direct and valid indicators to diagnosis and predict the pathological process of RP. PMID:28033301

  20. Cnn Based Retinal Image Upscaling Using Zero Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonov, A.; Chesnakov, K.; Krylov, A.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the paper is to obtain high quality of image upscaling for noisy images that are typical in medical image processing. A new training scenario for convolutional neural network based image upscaling method is proposed. Its main idea is a novel dataset preparation method for deep learning. The dataset contains pairs of noisy low-resolution images and corresponding noiseless highresolution images. To achieve better results at edges and textured areas, Zero Component Analysis is applied to these images. The upscaling results are compared with other state-of-the-art methods like DCCI, SI-3 and SRCNN on noisy medical ophthalmological images. Objective evaluation of the results confirms high quality of the proposed method. Visual analysis shows that fine details and structures like blood vessels are preserved, noise level is reduced and no artifacts or non-existing details are added. These properties are essential in retinal diagnosis establishment, so the proposed algorithm is recommended to be used in real medical applications.

  1. Ultra-Widefield Steering-Based SD-OCT Imaging of the Retinal Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Golding, John; Manry, Matthew W.; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of peripheral retinal findings using an ultra-widefield (UWF) steering technique to image the retinal periphery. Design Observational study. Participants 68 patients (68 eyes) with 19 peripheral retinal features. Main Outcome Measures SD-OCT-based structural features. Methods Nineteen peripheral retinal features including: vortex vein, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), pars plana, ora serrata pearl, typical cystoid degeneration (TCD), cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degeneration, retinal hole, retinal tear, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), typical degenerative senile retinoschisis, peripheral laser coagulation scars, ora tooth, cryopexy scars (retinal tear and treated retinoblastoma scar), bone spicules, white without pressure, and peripheral drusen were identified by peripheral clinical examination. Near infrared (NIR) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images and SD-OCT of these entities were registered to UWF color photographs. Results SD-OCT resolved structural features of all peripheral findings. Dilated hyporeflective tubular structures within the choroid were observed in the vortex vein. Loss of retinal lamination, neural retinal attenuation, RPE loss or hypertrophy were seen in several entities including CHRPE, ora serrata pearl, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degenerations. Hyporeflective intraretinal spaces, indicating cystoid or schitic fluid, were seen in ora serrata pearl, ora tooth, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, retinal hole, and typical degenerative senile retinoschisis. The vitreoretinal interface, which often consisted of lamellae-like structures of the condensed cortical vitreous near or adherent to the neural retina, appeared clearly in most peripheral findings, confirming its association with many low-risk and vision-threatening pathologies

  2. Automated retinal vessel type classification in color fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Barriga, S.; Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Bauman, W.; Soliz, P.

    2013-02-01

    Automated retinal vessel type classification is an essential first step toward machine-based quantitative measurement of various vessel topological parameters and identifying vessel abnormalities and alternations in cardiovascular disease risk analysis. This paper presents a new and accurate automatic artery and vein classification method developed for arteriolar-to-venular width ratio (AVR) and artery and vein tortuosity measurements in regions of interest (ROI) of 1.5 and 2.5 optic disc diameters from the disc center, respectively. This method includes illumination normalization, automatic optic disc detection and retinal vessel segmentation, feature extraction, and a partial least squares (PLS) classification. Normalized multi-color information, color variation, and multi-scale morphological features are extracted on each vessel segment. We trained the algorithm on a set of 51 color fundus images using manually marked arteries and veins. We tested the proposed method in a previously unseen test data set consisting of 42 images. We obtained an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 93.7% in the ROI of AVR measurement and 91.5% of AUC in the ROI of tortuosity measurement. The proposed AV classification method has the potential to assist automatic cardiovascular disease early detection and risk analysis.

  3. Retinal images in the human eye with implanted intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marek; Siedlecki, Damian; Nowak, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    A typical proceeding in cataract is based on the removal of opaque crystalline lens and inserting in its place the artificial intraocular lens (IOL). The quality of retinal image after such procedure depends, among others, on the parameters of the IOL, so the design of the implanted lens is of great importance. An appropriate choice of the IOL material, especially in relation to its biocompatibility, is often considered. However the parameter, which is often omitted during the IOL design is its chromatic aberration. In particular lack of its adequacy to the chromatic aberration of a crystalline lens may cause problems. In order to fit better chromatic aberration of the eye with implanted IOL to that of the healthy eye we propose a hybrid - refractive-diffractive IOL. It can be designed in such way that the total longitudinal chromatic aberration of an eye with implanted IOL equals the total longitudinal chromatic aberration of a healthy eye. In this study we compare the retinal image quality calculated numerically on the basis of the well known Liou-Brennan eye model with typical IOL implanted with that obtained if the IOL is done as hybrid (refractive-diffractive) design.

  4. Automated detection of diabetic retinopathy in retinal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Valverde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a disease with an increasing prevalence and the main cause of blindness among working-age population. The risk of severe vision loss can be significantly reduced by timely diagnosis and treatment. Systematic screening for DR has been identified as a cost-effective way to save health services resources. Automatic retinal image analysis is emerging as an important screening tool for early DR detection, which can reduce the workload associated to manual grading as well as save diagnosis costs and time. Many research efforts in the last years have been devoted to developing automatic tools to help in the detection and evaluation of DR lesions. However, there is a large variability in the databases and evaluation criteria used in the literature, which hampers a direct comparison of the different studies. This work is aimed at summarizing the results of the available algorithms for the detection and classification of DR pathology. A detailed literature search was conducted using PubMed. Selected relevant studies in the last 10 years were scrutinized and included in the review. Furthermore, we will try to give an overview of the available commercial software for automatic retinal image analysis.

  5. Automated detection of diabetic retinopathy in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Carmen; Garcia, Maria; Hornero, Roberto; Lopez-Galvez, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a disease with an increasing prevalence and the main cause of blindness among working-age population. The risk of severe vision loss can be significantly reduced by timely diagnosis and treatment. Systematic screening for DR has been identified as a cost-effective way to save health services resources. Automatic retinal image analysis is emerging as an important screening tool for early DR detection, which can reduce the workload associated to manual grading as well as save diagnosis costs and time. Many research efforts in the last years have been devoted to developing automatic tools to help in the detection and evaluation of DR lesions. However, there is a large variability in the databases and evaluation criteria used in the literature, which hampers a direct comparison of the different studies. This work is aimed at summarizing the results of the available algorithms for the detection and classification of DR pathology. A detailed literature search was conducted using PubMed. Selected relevant studies in the last 10 years were scrutinized and included in the review. Furthermore, we will try to give an overview of the available commercial software for automatic retinal image analysis.

  6. The relationship between the retinal image quality and the refractive index of defects arising in IOL: numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Malwina

    2017-09-01

    The best treatment for cataract patients, which allows to restore clear vision is implanting an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). The image quality of the lens has a significant impact on the quality of patient's vision. After a long exposure the implant to aqueous environment some defects appear in the artificial lenses. The defects generated in the IOL have different refractive indices. For example, glistening phenomenon is based on light scattering on the oval microvacuoles filled with an aqueous humor which refractive index value is about 1.34. Calcium deposits are another example of lens defects and they can be characterized by the refractive index 1.63. In the presented studies it was calculated how the difference between the refractive indices of the defect and the refractive index of the lens material affects the quality of image. The OpticStudio Professional program (from Radiant Zemax, LLC) was used for the construction of the numerical model of the eye with IOL and to calculate the characteristics of the retinal image. Retinal image quality was described in such characteristics as Point Spread Function (PSF) and the Optical Transfer Function with amplitude and phase. The results show a strong correlation between the refractive indices difference and retinal image quality.

  7. In vivo integrated photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hao F.; Wei, Qing; Cao, Wenwu

    2012-12-01

    The physiological and pathological properties of retina are closely associated with various optical contrasts. Hence, integrating different ophthalmic imaging technologies is more beneficial in both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of several blinding diseases. Recently, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) was developed for in vivo retinal imaging in small animals, which demonstrated the capability of imaging retinal vascular networks and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at high sensitivity. We combined PAOM with traditional imaging modalities, such as fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and auto-fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AF-SLO), for imaging rats and mice. The multimodal imaging system provided more comprehensive evaluation of the retina based on the complementary imaging contrast mechanisms. The high-quality retinal images show that the integrated ophthalmic imaging system has great potential in the investigation of blinding disorders.

  8. In vivo sectional imaging of the retinal periphery using conventional optical coherence tomography systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kothari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT has transformed macular disease practices. This report describes the use of conventional OCT systems for peripheral retinal imaging. Thirty-six eyes with peripheral retinal pathology underwent imaging with conventional OCT systems. In vivo sectional imaging of lattice degeneration, snail-track degeneration, and paving-stone degeneration was performed. Differences were noted between phenotypes of lattice degeneration. Several findings previously unreported in histopathology studies were encountered. Certain anatomic features were seen that could conceivably explain clinical and intraoperative behavior of peripheral lesions. Peripheral OCT imaging helped elucidate clinically ambiguous situations such as retinal breaks, subclinical retinal detachment, retinoschisis, choroidal nevus, and metastasis. Limitations of such scanning included end-gaze nystagmus and far peripheral lesions. This first of its kind study demonstrates the feasibility of peripheral retinal OCT imaging and expands the spectrum of indications for which OCT scanning may be clinically useful.

  9. In vivo sectional imaging of the retinal periphery using conventional optical coherence tomography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Abhishek; Narendran, V; Saravanan, V R

    2012-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has transformed macular disease practices. This report describes the use of conventional OCT systems for peripheral retinal imaging. Thirty-six eyes with peripheral retinal pathology underwent imaging with conventional OCT systems. In vivo sectional imaging of lattice degeneration, snail-track degeneration, and paving-stone degeneration was performed. Differences were noted between phenotypes of lattice degeneration. Several findings previously unreported in histopathology studies were encountered. Certain anatomic features were seen that could conceivably explain clinical and intraoperative behavior of peripheral lesions. Peripheral OCT imaging helped elucidate clinically ambiguous situations such as retinal breaks, subclinical retinal detachment, retinoschisis, choroidal nevus, and metastasis. Limitations of such scanning included end-gaze nystagmus and far peripheral lesions. This first of its kind study demonstrates the feasibility of peripheral retinal OCT imaging and expands the spectrum of indications for which OCT scanning may be clinically useful.

  10. Multiscale image restoration in nulear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammal, G.

    2001-01-01

    This work develops, analyzes and validates a new multiscale restoration framework for denoising and deconvolution in photon limited imagery. Denoising means the estimation of the intensity of a Poisson process from a single observation of the counts, whereas deconvolution refers to the recovery of an object related through a linear system of equations to the intensity function of the Poisson data. The developed framework has been named DeQuant in analogy to Denoising when the noise is of Quantum nature. DeQuant works according to the following scheme. (1) It starts by testing the statistical significance of the wavelet coefficients of the Poisson process, based on the knowledge of their probability density function. (2) A regularization constraint assigns a new value to the non significant coefficients enabling therewith to reduce artifacts and incorporate realistic prior information into the estimation process. Finally, (3) the application of the inverse wavelet transform yields the restored object. The whole procedure is iterated before obtaining the final estimate. The validation of DeQuant on nuclear medicine images showed excellent results. The obtained estimates enable a greater diagnostic confidence in clinical nuclear medicine since they give the physician the access to the diagnosis relevant information with a measure of the significance of the detected structures [de

  11. Wide-field optical coherence tomography based microangiography for retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinqin; Lee, Cecilia S.; Chao, Jennifer; Chen, Chieh-Li; Zhang, Thomas; Sharma, Utkarsh; Zhang, Anqi; Liu, Jin; Rezaei, Kasra; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Munsen, Richard; Kinyoun, James; Johnstone, Murray; van Gelder, Russell N.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) allows for the evaluation of functional retinal vascular networks without a need for contrast dyes. For sophisticated monitoring and diagnosis of retinal diseases, OCTA capable of providing wide-field and high definition images of retinal vasculature in a single image is desirable. We report OCTA with motion tracking through an auxiliary real-time line scan ophthalmoscope that is clinically feasible to image functional retinal vasculature in patients, with a coverage of more than 60 degrees of retina while still maintaining high definition and resolution. We demonstrate six illustrative cases with unprecedented details of vascular involvement in retinal diseases. In each case, OCTA yields images of the normal and diseased microvasculature at all levels of the retina, with higher resolution than observed with fluorescein angiography. Wide-field OCTA technology will be an important next step in augmenting the utility of OCT technology in clinical practice.

  12. STUDY OF IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES ON RETINAL IMAGES FOR HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT WITH FAST COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Prabhu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of segmentation in image processing is to separate foreground from background. In this process, the features become clearly visible when appropriate filters are applied on the image. In this paper emphasis has been laid on segmentation of biometric retinal images to filter out the vessels explicitly for evaluating the bifurcation points and features for diabetic retinopathy. Segmentation on images is performed by calculating ridges or morphology. Ridges are those areas in the images where there is sharp contrast in features. Morphology targets the features using structuring elements. Structuring elements are of different shapes like disk, line which is used for extracting features of those shapes. When segmentation was performed on retinal images problems were encountered during image pre-processing stage. Also edge detection techniques have been deployed to find out the contours of the retinal images. After the segmentation has been performed, it has been seen that artifacts of the retinal images have been minimal when ridge based segmentation technique was deployed. In the field of Health Care Management, image segmentation has an important role to play as it determines whether a person is normal or having any disease specially diabetes. During the process of segmentation, diseased features are classified as diseased one’s or artifacts. The problem comes when artifacts are classified as diseased ones. This results in misclassification which has been discussed in the analysis Section. We have achieved fast computing with better performance, in terms of speed for non-repeating features, when compared to repeating features.

  13. Application of the quantum spin glass theory to image restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2000-01-01

    Quantum fluctuation is introduced into the Markov random-field model for image restoration in the context of a Bayesian approach. We investigate the dependence of the quantum fluctuation on the quality of a black and white image restoration by making use of statistical mechanics. We find that the maximum posterior marginal (MPM) estimate based on the quantum fluctuation gives a fine restoration in comparison with the maximum a posteriori estimate or the thermal fluctuation based MPM estimate.

  14. Application of the quantum spin glass theory to image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, J I

    2001-04-01

    Quantum fluctuation is introduced into the Markov random-field model for image restoration in the context of a Bayesian approach. We investigate the dependence of the quantum fluctuation on the quality of a black and white image restoration by making use of statistical mechanics. We find that the maximum posterior marginal (MPM) estimate based on the quantum fluctuation gives a fine restoration in comparison with the maximum a posteriori estimate or the thermal fluctuation based MPM estimate.

  15. Elastic models: a comparative study applied to retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, E; Lambropoulou, S; Koutsouris, D

    2011-01-01

    In this work various methods of parametric elastic models are compared, namely the classical snake, the gradient vector field snake (GVF snake) and the topology-adaptive snake (t-snake), as well as the method of self-affine mapping system as an alternative to elastic models. We also give a brief overview of the methods used. The self-affine mapping system is implemented using an adapting scheme and minimum distance as optimization criterion, which is more suitable for weak edges detection. All methods are applied to glaucomatic retinal images with the purpose of segmenting the optical disk. The methods are compared in terms of segmentation accuracy and speed, as these are derived from cross-correlation coefficients between real and algorithm extracted contours and segmentation time, respectively. As a result, the method of self-affine mapping system presents adequate segmentation time and segmentation accuracy, and significant independence from initialization.

  16. Automated drusen detection in retinal images using analytical modelling algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivannan Ayyakkannu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drusen are common features in the ageing macula associated with exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD. They are visible in retinal images and their quantitative analysis is important in the follow up of the ARMD. However, their evaluation is fastidious and difficult to reproduce when performed manually. Methods This article proposes a methodology for Automatic Drusen Deposits Detection and quantification in Retinal Images (AD3RI by using digital image processing techniques. It includes an image pre-processing method to correct the uneven illumination and to normalize the intensity contrast with smoothing splines. The drusen detection uses a gradient based segmentation algorithm that isolates drusen and provides basic drusen characterization to the modelling stage. The detected drusen are then fitted by Modified Gaussian functions, producing a model of the image that is used to evaluate the affected area. Twenty two images were graded by eight experts, with the aid of a custom made software and compared with AD3RI. This comparison was based both on the total area and on the pixel-to-pixel analysis. The coefficient of variation, the intraclass correlation coefficient, the sensitivity, the specificity and the kappa coefficient were calculated. Results The ground truth used in this study was the experts' average grading. In order to evaluate the proposed methodology three indicators were defined: AD3RI compared to the ground truth (A2G; each expert compared to the other experts (E2E and a standard Global Threshold method compared to the ground truth (T2G. The results obtained for the three indicators, A2G, E2E and T2G, were: coefficient of variation 28.8 %, 22.5 % and 41.1 %, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.92, 0.88 and 0.67, sensitivity 0.68, 0.67 and 0.74, specificity 0.96, 0.97 and 0.94, and kappa coefficient 0.58, 0.60 and 0.49, respectively. Conclusions The gradings produced by AD3RI obtained an agreement

  17. Optic disc detection and boundary extraction in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, A; Fraz, Muhammad Moazam

    2015-04-10

    With the development of digital image processing, analysis and modeling techniques, automatic retinal image analysis is emerging as an important screening tool for early detection of ophthalmologic disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. In this paper, a robust method for optic disc detection and extraction of the optic disc boundary is proposed to help in the development of computer-assisted diagnosis and treatment of such ophthalmic disease. The proposed method is based on morphological operations, smoothing filters, and the marker controlled watershed transform. Internal and external markers are used to first modify the gradient magnitude image and then the watershed transformation is applied on this modified gradient magnitude image for boundary extraction. This method has shown significant improvement over existing methods in terms of detection and boundary extraction of the optic disc. The proposed method has optic disc detection success rate of 100%, 100%, 100% and 98.9% for the DRIVE, Shifa, CHASE_DB1, and DIARETDB1 databases, respectively. The optic disc boundary detection achieved an average spatial overlap of 61.88%, 70.96%, 45.61%, and 54.69% for these databases, respectively, which are higher than currents methods.

  18. Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Dubra, Alfredo; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Sharma, Robin; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Correction of the eye’s monochromatic aberrations using adaptive optics (AO) can improve the resolution of in vivo mouse retinal images [Biss et al., Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659 (2007) and Alt et al., Proc. SPIE 7550, 755019 (2010)], but previous attempts have been limited by poor spot quality in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). Recent advances in mouse eye wavefront sensing using an adjustable focus beacon with an annular beam profile have improved the wavefront sensor spot quality [Geng et al., Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717 (2011)], and we have incorporated them into a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The performance of the instrument was tested on the living mouse eye, and images of multiple retinal structures, including the photoreceptor mosaic, nerve fiber bundles, fine capillaries and fluorescently labeled ganglion cells were obtained. The in vivo transverse and axial resolutions of the fluorescence channel of the AOSLO were estimated from the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the line and point spread functions (LSF and PSF), and were found to be better than 0.79 μm ± 0.03 μm (STD)(45% wider than the diffraction limit) and 10.8 μm ± 0.7 μm (STD)(two times the diffraction limit), respectively. The axial positional accuracy was estimated to be 0.36 μm. This resolution and positional accuracy has allowed us to classify many ganglion cell types, such as bistratified ganglion cells, in vivo. PMID:22574260

  19. Enface Thickness Mapping and Reflectance Imaging of Retinal Layers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew W; Wanek, Justin; Lim, Jennifer I; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    To present a method for image segmentation and generation of enface thickness maps and reflectance images of retinal layers in healthy and diabetic retinopathy (DR) subjects. High density spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) images were acquired in 10 healthy and 4 DR subjects. Customized image analysis software identified 5 retinal cell layer interfaces and generated thickness maps and reflectance images of the total retina (TR), inner retina (IR), outer retina (OR), and the inner segment ellipsoid (ISe) band. Thickness maps in DR subjects were compared to those of healthy subjects by generating deviation maps which displayed retinal locations with thickness below, within, and above the normal 95% confidence interval. In healthy subjects, TR and IR thickness maps displayed the foveal depression and increased thickness in the parafoveal region. OR and ISe thickness maps showed increased thickness at the fovea, consistent with normal retinal anatomy. In DR subjects, thickening and thinning in localized regions were demonstrated on TR, IR, OR, and ISe thickness maps, corresponding to retinal edema and atrophy, respectively. TR and OR reflectance images showed reduced reflectivity in regions of increased thickness. Hard exudates appeared as hyper-reflective spots in IR reflectance images and casted shadows on the deeper OR and ISe reflectance images. The ISe reflectance image clearly showed the presence of focal laser scars. Enface thickness mapping and reflectance imaging of retinal layers is a potentially useful method for quantifying the spatial and axial extent of pathologies due to DR.

  20. Joint Multi-Focus Fusion and Bayer ImageRestoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Guo; Bin Yang; Chao Yang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a joint multifocus image fusion and Bayer pattern image restoration algorithm for raw images of single-sensor colorimaging devices is proposed. Different from traditional fusion schemes, the raw Bayer pattern images are fused before colorrestoration. Therefore, the Bayer image restoration operation is only performed one time. Thus, the proposed algorithm is moreefficient than traditional fusion schemes. In detail, a clarity measurement of Bayer pattern image is defined for raw Bayer patternimages, and the fusion operator is performed on superpixels which provide powerful grouping cues of local image feature. Theraw images are merged with refined weight map to get the fused Bayer pattern image, which is restored by the demosaicingalgorithm to get the full resolution color image. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can obtain betterfused results with more natural appearance and fewer artifacts than the traditional algorithms.

  1. Regenerating reptile retinas: a comparative approach to restoring retinal ganglion cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D L

    2017-02-01

    Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.

  2. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  3. Quantitative Image Restoration in Bright Field Optical Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Sánchez Miranda, Manuel de Jesús

    2017-11-07

    Bright field (BF) optical microscopy is regarded as a poor method to observe unstained biological samples due to intrinsic low image contrast. We introduce quantitative image restoration in bright field (QRBF), a digital image processing method that restores out-of-focus BF images of unstained cells. Our procedure is based on deconvolution, using a point spread function modeled from theory. By comparing with reference images of bacteria observed in fluorescence, we show that QRBF faithfully recovers shape and enables quantify size of individual cells, even from a single input image. We applied QRBF in a high-throughput image cytometer to assess shape changes in Escherichia coli during hyperosmotic shock, finding size heterogeneity. We demonstrate that QRBF is also applicable to eukaryotic cells (yeast). Altogether, digital restoration emerges as a straightforward alternative to methods designed to generate contrast in BF imaging for quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts retinal hemorrhages in abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok; Haldipur, Anshul; Willaman, Dennis [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Squires, Janet; Wolford, Jennifer [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Division of Child Advocacy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sylvester, Christin; Mitchell, Ellen; Lope, Lee Ann [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Eye Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nischal, Ken K. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Eye Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismus, and Adult Motility, Eye Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Berger, Rachel P. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Division of Child Advocacy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    This study aims to evaluate the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) susceptibility weighted images (SWI) in depicting retinal hemorrhages (RH) in abusive head trauma (AHT) compared to the gold standard dilated fundus exam (DFE). This is a retrospective, single institution, observational study on 28 patients with suspected AHT, who had a DFE and also underwent brain MRI-SWI as part of routine diagnostic protocol. Main outcome measures involved evaluation of patients to determine whether the RH could be identified on standard and high-resolution SWI sequences. Of the 21 subjects with RH on DFE, 13 (62 %) were identified by using a standard SWI sequence performed as part of brain MRI protocols. Of the 15 patients who also underwent an orbits SWI protocol, 12 (80 %) were positive for RH. None of the seven patients without RH on of DFE had RH on either standard or high-resolution SWI. Compared with DFE, the MRI standard protocol showed a sensitivity of 75 % which increased to 83 % for the orbits SWI protocol. Our study suggests the usefulness of a tailored high-resolution orbits protocol to detect RH in AHT. (orig.)

  5. Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts retinal hemorrhages in abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Haldipur, Anshul; Willaman, Dennis; Squires, Janet; Wolford, Jennifer; Sylvester, Christin; Mitchell, Ellen; Lope, Lee Ann; Nischal, Ken K.; Berger, Rachel P.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) susceptibility weighted images (SWI) in depicting retinal hemorrhages (RH) in abusive head trauma (AHT) compared to the gold standard dilated fundus exam (DFE). This is a retrospective, single institution, observational study on 28 patients with suspected AHT, who had a DFE and also underwent brain MRI-SWI as part of routine diagnostic protocol. Main outcome measures involved evaluation of patients to determine whether the RH could be identified on standard and high-resolution SWI sequences. Of the 21 subjects with RH on DFE, 13 (62 %) were identified by using a standard SWI sequence performed as part of brain MRI protocols. Of the 15 patients who also underwent an orbits SWI protocol, 12 (80 %) were positive for RH. None of the seven patients without RH on of DFE had RH on either standard or high-resolution SWI. Compared with DFE, the MRI standard protocol showed a sensitivity of 75 % which increased to 83 % for the orbits SWI protocol. Our study suggests the usefulness of a tailored high-resolution orbits protocol to detect RH in AHT. (orig.)

  6. Concurrent OCT imaging of stimulus evoked retinal neural activation and hemodynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taeyoon; Wang, Benquan; Lu, Yiming; Chen, Yanjun; Cao, Dingcai; Yao, Xincheng

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that major retinal diseases involve distortions of the retinal neural physiology and blood vascular structures. However, the details of distortions in retinal neurovascular coupling associated with major eye diseases are not well understood. In this study, a multi-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system was developed to enable concurrent imaging of retinal neural activity and vascular hemodynamics. Flicker light stimulation was applied to mouse retinas to evoke retinal neural responses and hemodynamic changes. The OCT images were acquired continuously during the pre-stimulation, light-stimulation, and post-stimulation phases. Stimulus-evoked intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) and hemodynamic changes were observed over time in blood-free and blood regions, respectively. Rapid IOSs change occurred almost immediately after stimulation. Both positive and negative signals were observed in adjacent retinal areas. The hemodynamic changes showed time delays after stimulation. The signal magnitudes induced by light stimulation were observed in blood regions and did not show significant changes in blood-free regions. These differences may arise from different mechanisms in blood vessels and neural tissues in response to light stimulation. These characteristics agreed well with our previous observations in mouse retinas. Further development of the multimodal OCT may provide a new imaging method for studying how retinal structures and metabolic and neural functions are affected by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and other diseases, which promises novel noninvasive biomarkers for early disease detection and reliable treatment evaluations of eye diseases.

  7. Histogram-Based Thresholding for Detection and Quantification of Hemorrhages in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Fadhel Hamdan Jaafar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal image analysis is commonly used for the detection and quantification of retinal diabetic retinopathy. In retinal images, dark lesions including hemorrhages and microaneurysms are the earliest warnings of vision loss. In this paper, new algorithm for extraction and quantification of hemorrhages in fundus images is presented. Hemorrhage candidates are extracted in a preliminary step as a coarse segmentation followed by a fine segmentation step. Local variation processes are applied in the coarse segmentation step to determine boundaries of all candidates with distinct edges. Fine segmentation processes are based on histogram thresholding to extract real hemorrhages from the segmented candidates locally. The proposed method was trained and tested using an image dataset of 153 manually labeled retinal images. At the pixel level, the proposed method could identify abnormal retinal images with 90.7% sensitivity and 85.1% predictive value. Due to its distinctive performance measurements, this technique demonstrates that it could be used for a computer-aided mass screening of retinal diseases.

  8. Feature-Based Retinal Image Registration Using D-Saddle Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roziana Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal image registration is important to assist diagnosis and monitor retinal diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. However, registering retinal images for various registration applications requires the detection and distribution of feature points on the low-quality region that consists of vessels of varying contrast and sizes. A recent feature detector known as Saddle detects feature points on vessels that are poorly distributed and densely positioned on strong contrast vessels. Therefore, we propose a multiresolution difference of Gaussian pyramid with Saddle detector (D-Saddle to detect feature points on the low-quality region that consists of vessels with varying contrast and sizes. D-Saddle is tested on Fundus Image Registration (FIRE Dataset that consists of 134 retinal image pairs. Experimental results show that D-Saddle successfully registered 43% of retinal image pairs with average registration accuracy of 2.329 pixels while a lower success rate is observed in other four state-of-the-art retinal image registration methods GDB-ICP (28%, Harris-PIIFD (4%, H-M (16%, and Saddle (16%. Furthermore, the registration accuracy of D-Saddle has the weakest correlation (Spearman with the intensity uniformity metric among all methods. Finally, the paired t-test shows that D-Saddle significantly improved the overall registration accuracy of the original Saddle.

  9. Improving high resolution retinal image quality using speckle illumination HiLo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Retinal image quality from flood illumination adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopes is adversely affected by out-of-focus light scatter due to the lack of confocality. This effect is more pronounced in small eyes, such as that of rodents, because the requisite high optical power confers a large dioptric thickness to the retina. A recently-developed structured illumination microscopy (SIM) technique called HiLo imaging has been shown to reduce the effect of out-of-focus light scatter in flood illumination microscopes and produce pseudo-confocal images with significantly improved image quality. In this work, we adopted the HiLo technique to a flood AO ophthalmoscope and performed AO imaging in both (physical) model and live rat eyes. The improvement in image quality from HiLo imaging is shown both qualitatively and quantitatively by using spatial spectral analysis.

  10. Objective and expert-independent validation of retinal image registration algorithms by a projective imaging distortion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeol; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Cattin, Philippe C; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    Fundus camera imaging of the retina is widely used to diagnose and manage ophthalmologic disorders including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Retinal images typically have a limited field of view, and multiple images can be joined together using an image registration technique to form a montage with a larger field of view. A variety of methods for retinal image registration have been proposed, but evaluating such methods objectively is difficult due to the lack of a reference standard for the true alignment of the individual images that make up the montage. A method of generating simulated retinal images by modeling the geometric distortions due to the eye geometry and the image acquisition process is described in this paper. We also present a validation process that can be used for any retinal image registration method by tracing through the distortion path and assessing the geometric misalignment in the coordinate system of the reference standard. The proposed method can be used to perform an accuracy evaluation over the whole image, so that distortion in the non-overlapping regions of the montage components can be easily assessed. We demonstrate the technique by generating test image sets with a variety of overlap conditions and compare the accuracy of several retinal image registration models. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.

  12. An automated retinal imaging method for the early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S Wilfred; Rajan, S Edward

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of long-term diabetes and is the major cause for eyesight loss due to changes in blood vessels of the retina. Major vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy is highly preventable with regular screening and timely intervention at the earlier stages. Retinal blood vessel segmentation methods help to identify the successive stages of such sight threatening diseases like diabetes. To develop and test a novel retinal imaging method which segments the blood vessels automatically from retinal images, which helps the ophthalmologists in the diagnosis and follow-up of diabetic retinopathy. This method segments each image pixel as vessel or nonvessel, which in turn, used for automatic recognition of the vasculature in retinal images. Retinal blood vessels were identified by means of a multilayer perceptron neural network, for which the inputs were derived from the Gabor and moment invariants-based features. Back propagation algorithm, which provides an efficient technique to change the weights in a feed forward network, is utilized in our method. Quantitative results of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were obtained in our method and the measured accuracy of our segmentation algorithm was 95.3%, which is better than that presented by state-of-the-art approaches. The evaluation procedure used and the demonstrated effectiveness of our automated retinal imaging method proves itself as the most powerful tool to diagnose diabetic retinopathy in the earlier stages.

  13. Objective and expert-independent validation of retinal image registration algorithms by a projective imaging distortion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Sangyeol; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Cattin, Philippe C.; Abramoff, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Fundus camera imaging of the retina is widely used to diagnose and manage ophthalmologic disorders including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Retinal images typically have a limited field of view, and multiple images can be joined together using an image

  14. Non-invasive imaging of retinal blood flow in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Hansen, Mathias M; Klefter, Oliver Niels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the circulation in the retinal vessels in patients with blood dyscrasia due to myeloproliferative neoplasms using non-invasive retinal imaging. METHODS: Prospective consecutive case series of seven treatment-naïve patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (n = 2), polycythemia vera...... present at baseline in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and were replaced by normal patterns at follow-up. Retinopathy, in the form of cotton-wool spots and retinal haemorrhages, was found at presentation in the two patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and in one patient with polycythemia vera...

  15. Mathematics behind a Class of Image Restoration Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita STATE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The restoration techniques are usually oriented toward modeling the type of degradation in order to infer the inverse process for recovering the given image. This approach usually involves the option for a criterion to numerically evaluate the quality of the resulted image and consequently the restoration process can be expressed in terms of an optimization problem. Most of the approaches are essentially based on additional hypothesis concerning the statistical properties of images. However, in real life applications, there is no enough information to support a certain particular image model, and consequently model-free developments have to be used instead. In our approaches the problem of image denoising/restoration is viewed as an information transmission/processing system, where the signal representing a certain clean image is transmitted through a noisy channel and only a noise-corrupted version is available. The aim is to recover the available signal as much as possible by using different noise removal techniques that is to build an accurate approximation of the initial image. Unfortunately, a series of image qualities, as for instance clarity, brightness, contrast, are affected by the noise removal techniques and consequently there is a need to partially restore them on the basis of information extracted exclusively from data. Following a brief description of the image restoration framework provided in the introductory part, a PCA-based methodology is presented in the second section of the paper. The basics of a new informational-based development for image restoration purposes and scatter matrix-based methods are given in the next two sections. The final section contains concluding remarks and suggestions for further work.

  16. Landmark matching based retinal image alignment by enforcing sparsity in correspondence matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Daniel, Ebenezer; Hunter, Allan A; Xiao, Rui; Gao, Jianbin; Li, Hongsheng; Maguire, Maureen G; Brainard, David H; Gee, James C

    2014-08-01

    Retinal image alignment is fundamental to many applications in diagnosis of eye diseases. In this paper, we address the problem of landmark matching based retinal image alignment. We propose a novel landmark matching formulation by enforcing sparsity in the correspondence matrix and offer its solutions based on linear programming. The proposed formulation not only enables a joint estimation of the landmark correspondences and a predefined transformation model but also combines the benefits of the softassign strategy (Chui and Rangarajan, 2003) and the combinatorial optimization of linear programming. We also introduced a set of reinforced self-similarities descriptors which can better characterize local photometric and geometric properties of the retinal image. Theoretical analysis and experimental results with both fundus color images and angiogram images show the superior performances of our algorithms to several state-of-the-art techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultra-Widefield Steering-Based Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Retinal Periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Golding, John; Manry, Matthew W; Rao, Rajesh C

    2016-06-01

    To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) features of peripheral retinal findings using an ultra-widefield (UWF) steering technique to image the retinal periphery. Observational study. A total of 68 patients (68 eyes) with 19 peripheral retinal features. Spectral-domain OCT-based structural features. Nineteen peripheral retinal features, including vortex vein, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, pars plana, ora serrata pearl, typical cystoid degeneration (TCD), cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degeneration, retinal hole, retinal tear, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, typical degenerative senile retinoschisis, peripheral laser coagulation scars, ora tooth, cryopexy scars (retinal tear and treated retinoblastoma scar), bone spicules, white without pressure, and peripheral drusen, were identified by peripheral clinical examination. Near-infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images and SD OCT of these entities were registered to UWF color photographs. Spectral-domain OCT resolved structural features of all peripheral findings. Dilated hyporeflective tubular structures within the choroid were observed in the vortex vein. Loss of retinal lamination, neural retinal attenuation, retinal pigment epithelium loss, or hypertrophy was seen in several entities, including congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, ora serrata pearl, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice, and cobblestone degenerations. Hyporeflective intraretinal spaces, indicating cystoid or schitic fluid, were seen in ora serrata pearl, ora tooth, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, retinal hole, and typical degenerative senile retinoschisis. The vitreoretinal interface, which often consisted of lamellae-like structures of the condensed cortical vitreous near or adherent to the neural retina, appeared clearly in most peripheral findings, confirming its association with many low-risk and vision

  18. PIZZARO: Forensic analysis and restoration of image and video data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamenický, Jan; Bartoš, Michal; Flusser, Jan; Mahdian, Babak; Kotera, Jan; Novozámský, Adam; Saic, Stanislav; Šroubek, Filip; Šorel, Michal; Zita, Aleš; Zitová, Barbara; Šíma, Z.; Švarc, P.; Hořínek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 264, č. 1 (2016), s. 153-166 ISSN 0379-0738 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013064; GA ČR GA13-29225S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image forensic analysis * Image restoration * Image tampering detection * Image source identification Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.989, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/kamenicky-0459504.pdf

  19. In-vivo imaging of retinal nerve fiber layer vasculature: imaging – histology comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libby Richard T

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has been suggested that alterations of nerve fiber layer vasculature may be involved in the etiology of eye diseases, including glaucoma, it has not been possible to examine this vasculature in-vivo. This report describes a novel imaging method, fluorescence adaptive optics (FAO scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, that makes possible for the first time in-vivo imaging of this vasculature in the living macaque, comparing in-vivo and ex-vivo imaging of this vascular bed. Methods We injected sodium fluorescein intravenously in two macaque monkeys while imaging the retina with an FAO-SLO. An argon laser provided the 488 nm excitation source for fluorescence imaging. Reflectance images, obtained simultaneously with near infrared light, permitted precise surface registration of individual frames of the fluorescence imaging. In-vivo imaging was then compared to ex-vivo confocal microscopy of the same tissue. Results Superficial focus (innermost retina at all depths within the NFL revealed a vasculature with extremely long capillaries, thin walls, little variation in caliber and parallel-linked structure oriented parallel to the NFL axons, typical of the radial peripapillary capillaries (RPCs. However, at a deeper focus beneath the NFL, (toward outer retina the polygonal pattern typical of the ganglion cell layer (inner and outer retinal vasculature was seen. These distinguishing patterns were also seen on histological examination of the same retinas. Furthermore, the thickness of the RPC beds and the caliber of individual RPCs determined by imaging closely matched that measured in histological sections. Conclusion This robust method demonstrates in-vivo, high-resolution, confocal imaging of the vasculature through the full thickness of the NFL in the living macaque, in precise agreement with histology. FAO provides a new tool to examine possible primary or secondary role of the nerve fiber layer vasculature in retinal

  20. Effect of software manipulation (Photoshop) of digitised retinal images on the grading of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, L D; Lusty, J; Owens, D R; Ollerton, R L

    1999-08-01

    To determine whether software processing of digitised retinal images using a "sharpen" filter improves the ability to grade diabetic retinopathy. 150 macula centred retinal images were taken as 35 mm colour transparencies representing a spectrum of diabetic retinopathy, digitised, and graded in random order before and after the application of a sharpen filter (Adobe Photoshop). Digital enhancement of contrast and brightness was performed and a X2 digital zoom was utilised. The grades from the unenhanced and enhanced digitised images were compared with the same retinal fields viewed as slides. Overall agreement in retinopathy grade from the digitised images improved from 83.3% (125/150) to 94.0% (141/150) with sight threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) correctly identified in 95.5% (84/88) and 98.9% (87/88) of cases when using unenhanced and enhanced images respectively. In total, five images were overgraded and four undergraded from the enhanced images compared with 17 and eight images respectively when using unenhanced images. This study demonstrates that the already good agreement in grading performance can be further improved by software manipulation or processing of digitised retinal images.

  1. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2009-02-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  2. Adaptive Proximal Point Algorithms for Total Variation Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is a fundamental problem in various areas of imaging sciences. This paper presents a class of adaptive proximal point algorithms (APPA with contraction strategy for total variational image restoration. In each iteration, the proposed methods choose an adaptive proximal parameter matrix which is not necessary symmetric. In fact, there is an inner extrapolation in the prediction step, which is followed by a correction step for contraction. And the inner extrapolation is implemented by an adaptive scheme. By using the framework of contraction method, global convergence result and a convergence rate of O(1/N could be established for the proposed methods. Numerical results are reported to illustrate the efficiency of the APPA methods for solving total variation image restoration problems. Comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed methods are comparable and promising.

  3. The Tonya Harding Controversy: An Analysis of Image Restoration Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Hanczor, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes Tonya Harding's defense of her image in "Eye to Eye with Connie Chung," applying the theory of image restoration discourse. Finds that the principal strategies employed in her behalf were bolstering, denial, and attacking her accuser, but that these strategies were not developed very effectively in this instance. (SR)

  4. Hugh Grant's Image Restoration Discourse: An Actor Apologizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the strategies used by actor Hugh Grant (in his appearances on talk shows) to help restore his reputation after he was arrested for lewd behavior with a prostitute. Uses this case as a springboard to contrast entertainment image repair with political and corporate image repair, arguing that important situational differences can be…

  5. Intraretinal hyperreflective foci on spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic images of patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masako; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Hata, Masayuki; Mandai, Michiko; Takahashi, Masayo; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to observe the characteristic findings of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images in the retinas of patients with retinitis pigmentosa and to evaluate their distribution patterns in the early and advanced stages of the disease. Methods A total of 184 patients (368 eyes) with retinitis pigmentosa were observed using SD-OCT. We studied the presence or absence of continuous inner/outer segment (IS/OS) lines, presence of thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch’s membrane complex, and distribution patterns of hyperreflective foci in the inner and outer nuclear layers (INL and ONL). Results The IS/OS junction had partially disappeared in 275 eyes, which were at the early stage of retinitis pigmentosa (group X), whereas the junction had totally disappeared in 93, which were at the advanced stage of retinitis pigmentosa (group Y). Hyperreflective foci in the INL were observed in a significantly larger proportion of the eyes in group X than in group Y (90% versus 61%, Pretinitis pigmentosa and hyperreflective foci in the ONL were more frequently observed in the advanced stage. Hyperreflective foci may be indicative of changes in the retinal structure at each stage of retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:24591813

  6. Automatic detection of retinal exudates in fundus images of diabetic retinopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Partovi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes and can lead to several retinal abnormalities including microaneurysms, exudates, dot and blot hemorrhages, and cotton wool spots. Automated early detection of these abnormalities could limit the severity of the disease and assist ophthalmologists in investigating and treating the disease more efficiently. Segmentation of retinal image features provides the basis for automated assessment. In this study, exudates lesion on retinopathy retinal images was segmented by different image processing techniques. The objective of this study is detection of the exudates regions on retinal images of retinopathy patients by different image processing techniques. Methods: A total of 30 color images from retinopathy patients were selected for this study. The images were taken by Topcon TRC-50 IX mydriatic camera and saves with TIFF format with a resolution of 500 × 752 pixels. The morphological function was applied on intensity components of hue saturation intensity (HSI space. To detect the exudates regions, thresholding was performed on all images and the exudates region was segmented. To optimize the detection efficiency, the binary morphological functions were applied. Finally, the exudates regions were quantified and evaluated for further statistical purposes. Results: The average of sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 98%, and accuracy of 97% was obtained. Conclusion: The results showed that our approach can identify the exudate regions in retinopathy images.

  7. Active learning approach for detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots, and drusen in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Clara I.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Kockelkorn, Thessa; Abràmoff, Michael D.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2009-02-01

    Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automatic identification of abnormalities in retinal images are gaining importance in diabetic retinopathy screening programs. A huge amount of retinal images are collected during these programs and they provide a starting point for the design of machine learning algorithms. However, manual annotations of retinal images are scarce and expensive to obtain. This paper proposes a dynamic CAD system based on active learning for the automatic identification of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen in retinal images. An uncertainty sampling method is applied to select samples that need to be labeled by an expert from an unlabeled set of 4000 retinal images. It reduces the number of training samples needed to obtain an optimum accuracy by dynamically selecting the most informative samples. Results show that the proposed method increases the classification accuracy compared to alternative techniques, achieving an area under the ROC curve of 0.87, 0.82 and 0.78 for the detection of hard exudates, cotton wool spots and drusen, respectively.

  8. Real-time image restoration for iris recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2007-12-01

    In the field of biometrics, it has been reported that iris recognition techniques have shown high levels of accuracy because unique patterns of the human iris, which has very many degrees of freedom, are used. However, because conventional iris cameras have small depth-of-field (DOF) areas, input iris images can easily be blurred, which can lead to lower recognition performance, since iris patterns are transformed by the blurring caused by optical defocusing. To overcome these problems, an autofocusing camera can be used. However, this inevitably increases the cost, size, and complexity of the system. Therefore, we propose a new real-time iris image-restoration method, which can increase the camera's DOF without requiring any additional hardware. This paper presents five novelties as compared to previous works: 1) by excluding eyelash and eyelid regions, it is possible to obtain more accurate focus scores from input iris images; 2) the parameter of the point spread function (PSF) can be estimated in terms of camera optics and measured focus scores; therefore, parameter estimation is more accurate than it has been in previous research; 3) because the PSF parameter can be obtained by using a predetermined equation, iris image restoration can be done in real-time; 4) by using a constrained least square (CLS) restoration filter that considers noise, performance can be greatly enhanced; and 5) restoration accuracy can also be enhanced by estimating the weight value of the noise-regularization term of the CLS filter according to the amount of image blurring. Experimental results showed that iris recognition errors when using the proposed restoration method were greatly reduced as compared to those results achieved without restoration or those achieved using previous iris-restoration methods.

  9. Adaptive optics fundus images of cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojo N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Tojo, Tomoko Nakamura, Chiharu Fuchizawa, Toshihiko Oiwake, Atsushi HayashiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa using an adaptive optics fundus camera and to investigate any correlations between cone photoreceptor density and findings on optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence.Methods: We examined two patients with typical retinitis pigmentosa who underwent ophthalmological examination, including measurement of visual acuity, and gathering of electroretinographic, optical coherence tomographic, fundus autofluorescent, and adaptive optics fundus images. The cone photoreceptors in the adaptive optics images of the two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and five healthy subjects were analyzed.Results: An abnormal parafoveal ring of high-density fundus autofluorescence was observed in the macula in both patients. The border of the ring corresponded to the border of the external limiting membrane and the inner segment and outer segment line in the optical coherence tomographic images. Cone photoreceptors at the abnormal parafoveal ring were blurred and decreased in the adaptive optics images. The blurred area corresponded to the abnormal parafoveal ring in the fundus autofluorescence images. Cone densities were low at the blurred areas and at the nasal and temporal retina along a line from the fovea compared with those of healthy controls. The results for cone spacing and Voronoi domains in the macula corresponded with those for the cone densities.Conclusion: Cone densities were heavily decreased in the macula, especially at the parafoveal ring on high-density fundus autofluorescence in both patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Adaptive optics images enabled us to observe in vivo changes in the cone photoreceptors of

  10. User-guided segmentation for volumetric retinal optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Chao, Jennifer R.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Despite the existence of automatic segmentation techniques, trained graders still rely on manual segmentation to provide retinal layers and features from clinical optical coherence tomography (OCT) images for accurate measurements. To bridge the gap between this time-consuming need of manual segmentation and currently available automatic segmentation techniques, this paper proposes a user-guided segmentation method to perform the segmentation of retinal layers and features in OCT images. With this method, by interactively navigating three-dimensional (3-D) OCT images, the user first manually defines user-defined (or sketched) lines at regions where the retinal layers appear very irregular for which the automatic segmentation method often fails to provide satisfactory results. The algorithm is then guided by these sketched lines to trace the entire 3-D retinal layer and anatomical features by the use of novel layer and edge detectors that are based on robust likelihood estimation. The layer and edge boundaries are finally obtained to achieve segmentation. Segmentation of retinal layers in mouse and human OCT images demonstrates the reliability and efficiency of the proposed user-guided segmentation method. PMID:25147962

  11. Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images Using Multi-scale Line Operator and K-Means Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Vahid Mohammadi; Osareh, Alireza; Shadgar, Bita

    2014-04-01

    Detecting blood vessels is a vital task in retinal image analysis. The task is more challenging with the presence of bright and dark lesions in retinal images. Here, a method is proposed to detect vessels in both normal and abnormal retinal fundus images based on their linear features. First, the negative impact of bright lesions is reduced by using K-means segmentation in a perceptive space. Then, a multi-scale line operator is utilized to detect vessels while ignoring some of the dark lesions, which have intensity structures different from the line-shaped vessels in the retina. The proposed algorithm is tested on two publicly available STARE and DRIVE databases. The performance of the method is measured by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the segmentation accuracy. The proposed method achieves 0.9483 and 0.9387 localization accuracy against STARE and DRIVE respectively.

  12. Mixture model-based clustering and logistic regression for automatic detection of microaneurysms in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Clara I.; Hornero, Roberto; Mayo, Agustín; García, María

    2009-02-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness and vision defects in developed countries. An early detection and diagnosis is crucial to avoid visual complication. Microaneurysms are the first ocular signs of the presence of this ocular disease. Their detection is of paramount importance for the development of a computer-aided diagnosis technique which permits a prompt diagnosis of the disease. However, the detection of microaneurysms in retinal images is a difficult task due to the wide variability that these images usually present in screening programs. We propose a statistical approach based on mixture model-based clustering and logistic regression which is robust to the changes in the appearance of retinal fundus images. The method is evaluated on the public database proposed by the Retinal Online Challenge in order to obtain an objective performance measure and to allow a comparative study with other proposed algorithms.

  13. Results of Automated Retinal Image Analysis for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy from the Nakuru Study, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Bøgelund Hansen, Morten; Abramoff, M. D.; Folk, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Digital retinal imaging is an established method of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR). It has been established that currently about 1% of the world's blind or visually impaired is due to DR. However, the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and DR is creating an increased...... workload on those with expertise in grading retinal images. Safe and reliable automated analysis of retinal images may support screening services worldwide. This study aimed to compare the Iowa Detection Program (IDP) ability to detect diabetic eye diseases (DED) to human grading carried out at Moorfields...... predictive value of IDP versus the human grader as reference standard. Results Altogether 3,460 participants were included. 113 had DED, giving a prevalence of 3.3%(95% CI, 2.7-3.9%). Sensitivity of the IDP to detect DED as by the human grading was 91.0%(95% CI, 88.0-93.4%). The IDP ability to detect DED...

  14. Rapid and coordinated processing of global motion images by local clusters of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tachibana, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs). We simultaneously recorded the firing of GCs in the goldfish isolated retina using a multi-electrode array, and classified each GC based on the temporal profile of its receptive field (RF). A moving target that accompanied the global motion (simulating a saccade following a period of fixational eye movements) modulated the RF properties and evoked synchronized and correlated firing among local clusters of the specific GCs. Our findings provide a novel concept for retinal information processing during eye movements.

  15. Fast nonconvex nonsmooth minimization methods for image restoration and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Mila; Ng, Michael K; Tam, Chi-Pan

    2010-12-01

    Nonconvex nonsmooth regularization has advantages over convex regularization for restoring images with neat edges. However, its practical interest used to be limited by the difficulty of the computational stage which requires a nonconvex nonsmooth minimization. In this paper, we deal with nonconvex nonsmooth minimization methods for image restoration and reconstruction. Our theoretical results show that the solution of the nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem is composed of constant regions surrounded by closed contours and neat edges. The main goal of this paper is to develop fast minimization algorithms to solve the nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem. Our experimental results show that the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  16. Restoration of nuclear medicine images using adaptive Wiener filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, G.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive Wiener filter implementation for restoration of nuclear medicine images is described. These are considerably disturbed both deterministically (definition) and stochastically (Poisson's quantum noise). After introduction of an image model, description of necessary parameter approximations and information on optimum design methods the implementation is described. The filter operates adaptively as concerns the local signal-to-noise ratio and is based on a filter band concept. To verify the restoration effect size numbers are introduced and the filter is tested against these numbers. (author)

  17. Bregmanized Domain Decomposition for Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Langer, Andreas; Osher, Stanley; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2012-01-01

    Computational problems of large-scale data are gaining attention recently due to better hardware and hence, higher dimensionality of images and data sets acquired in applications. In the last couple of years non-smooth minimization problems

  18. Restoration of uneven illumination in light sheet microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Shorif; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Preibisch, Stephan; Tomancak, Pavel

    2011-08-01

    Light microscopy images suffer from poor contrast due to light absorption and scattering by the media. The resulting decay in contrast varies exponentially across the image along the incident light path. Classical space invariant deconvolution approaches, while very effective in deblurring, are not designed for the restoration of uneven illumination in microscopy images. In this article, we present a modified radiative transfer theory approach to solve the contrast degradation problem of light sheet microscopy (LSM) images. We confirmed the effectiveness of our approach through simulation as well as real LSM images.

  19. Bregmanized Domain Decomposition for Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Langer, Andreas

    2012-05-22

    Computational problems of large-scale data are gaining attention recently due to better hardware and hence, higher dimensionality of images and data sets acquired in applications. In the last couple of years non-smooth minimization problems such as total variation minimization became increasingly important for the solution of these tasks. While being favorable due to the improved enhancement of images compared to smooth imaging approaches, non-smooth minimization problems typically scale badly with the dimension of the data. Hence, for large imaging problems solved by total variation minimization domain decomposition algorithms have been proposed, aiming to split one large problem into N > 1 smaller problems which can be solved on parallel CPUs. The N subproblems constitute constrained minimization problems, where the constraint enforces the support of the minimizer to be the respective subdomain. In this paper we discuss a fast computational algorithm to solve domain decomposition for total variation minimization. In particular, we accelerate the computation of the subproblems by nested Bregman iterations. We propose a Bregmanized Operator Splitting-Split Bregman (BOS-SB) algorithm, which enforces the restriction onto the respective subdomain by a Bregman iteration that is subsequently solved by a Split Bregman strategy. The computational performance of this new approach is discussed for its application to image inpainting and image deblurring. It turns out that the proposed new solution technique is up to three times faster than the iterative algorithm currently used in domain decomposition methods for total variation minimization. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  20. Visual Prosthesis: Interfacing Stimulating Electrodes with Retinal Neurons to Restore Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Barriga-Rivera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The bypassing of degenerated photoreceptors using retinal neurostimulators is helping the blind to recover functional vision. Researchers are investigating new ways to improve visual percepts elicited by these means as the vision produced by these early devices remain rudimentary. However, several factors are hampering the progression of bionic technologies: the charge injection limits of metallic electrodes, the mechanical mismatch between excitable tissue and the stimulating elements, neural and electric crosstalk, the physical size of the implanted devices, and the inability to selectively activate different types of retinal neurons. Electrochemical and mechanical limitations are being addressed by the application of electromaterials such as conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes and nanocrystalline diamonds, among other biomaterials, to electrical neuromodulation. In addition, the use of synthetic hydrogels and cell-laden biomaterials is promising better interfaces, as it opens a door to establishing synaptic connections between the electrode material and the excitable cells. Finally, new electrostimulation approaches relying on the use of high-frequency stimulation and field overlapping techniques are being developed to better replicate the neural code of the retina. All these elements combined will bring bionic vision beyond its present state and into the realm of a viable, mainstream therapy for vision loss.

  1. Image restoration from non-uniform magnetic field influence for direct Fourier NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, K.; Kuroda, M.; Kohno, H.

    1984-01-01

    A new technique is proposed for NMR image restoration from the influence of main magnetic field non-uniformities. This technique is applicable to direct Fourier NMR imaging. The mathematical basis and details of this technique are fully described. Modification to include image restoration from non-linear field gradient influence is also presented. Computer simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique for both Fourier zeugmatography and spin-warp imaging. (author)

  2. Restoration algorithms for imaging through atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-18

    temporal vector fields. Let us denote fpi, j, nq the input sequence of N frames where i, j are the 2D spatial variables and n is the frame number. The...and Surfaces. Vanderbilt University Press, 1999. [9] A. Chambolle, R.A. DeVore, N. Lee, and B.J. Lucier. Nonlinear wavelet image processing: varia

  3. A new approach to optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahebi, Javad; Hardalaç, Fırat

    2016-03-01

    There are various methods and algorithms to detect the optic discs in retinal images. In recent years, much attention has been given to the utilization of the intelligent algorithms. In this paper, we present a new automated method of optic disc detection in human retinal images using the firefly algorithm. The firefly intelligent algorithm is an emerging intelligent algorithm that was inspired by the social behavior of fireflies. The population in this algorithm includes the fireflies, each of which has a specific rate of lighting or fitness. In this method, the insects are compared two by two, and the less attractive insects can be observed to move toward the more attractive insects. Finally, one of the insects is selected as the most attractive, and this insect presents the optimum response to the problem in question. Here, we used the light intensity of the pixels of the retinal image pixels instead of firefly lightings. The movement of these insects due to local fluctuations produces different light intensity values in the images. Because the optic disc is the brightest area in the retinal images, all of the insects move toward brightest area and thus specify the location of the optic disc in the image. The results of implementation show that proposed algorithm could acquire an accuracy rate of 100 % in DRIVE dataset, 95 % in STARE dataset, and 94.38 % in DiaRetDB1 dataset. The results of implementation reveal high capability and accuracy of proposed algorithm in the detection of the optic disc from retinal images. Also, recorded required time for the detection of the optic disc in these images is 2.13 s for DRIVE dataset, 2.81 s for STARE dataset, and 3.52 s for DiaRetDB1 dataset accordingly. These time values are average value.

  4. Sequential and parallel image restoration: neural network implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M T; Leitao, J N

    1994-01-01

    Sequential and parallel image restoration algorithms and their implementations on neural networks are proposed. For images degraded by linear blur and contaminated by additive white Gaussian noise, maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation and regularization theory lead to the same high dimension convex optimization problem. The commonly adopted strategy (in using neural networks for image restoration) is to map the objective function of the optimization problem into the energy of a predefined network, taking advantage of its energy minimization properties. Departing from this approach, we propose neural implementations of iterative minimization algorithms which are first proved to converge. The developed schemes are based on modified Hopfield (1985) networks of graded elements, with both sequential and parallel updating schedules. An algorithm supported on a fully standard Hopfield network (binary elements and zero autoconnections) is also considered. Robustness with respect to finite numerical precision is studied, and examples with real images are presented.

  5. Real-time emulation of neural images in the outer retinal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Jun; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2008-12-01

    We describe a novel real-time system that emulates the architecture and functionality of the vertebrate retina. This system reconstructs the neural images formed by the retinal neurons in real time by using a combination of analog and digital systems consisting of a neuromorphic silicon retina chip, a field-programmable gate array, and a digital computer. While the silicon retina carries out the spatial filtering of input images instantaneously, using the embedded resistive networks that emulate the receptive field structure of the outer retinal neurons, the digital computer carries out the temporal filtering of the spatially filtered images to emulate the dynamical properties of the outer retinal circuits. The emulations of the neural image, including 128 x 128 bipolar cells, are carried out at a frame rate of 62.5 Hz. The emulation of the response to the Hermann grid and a spot of light and an annulus of lights has demonstrated that the system responds as expected by previous physiological and psychophysical observations. Furthermore, the emulated dynamics of neural images in response to natural scenes revealed the complex nature of retinal neuron activity. We have concluded that the system reflects the spatiotemporal responses of bipolar cells in the vertebrate retina. The proposed emulation system is expected to aid in understanding the visual computation in the retina and the brain.

  6. Adaptive optics fundus images of cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomoko; Fuchizawa, Chiharu; Oiwake, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cone photoreceptors in the macula of patients with retinitis pigmentosa using an adaptive optics fundus camera and to investigate any correlations between cone photoreceptor density and findings on optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence. We examined two patients with typical retinitis pigmentosa who underwent ophthalmological examination, including measurement of visual acuity, and gathering of electroretinographic, optical coherence tomographic, fundus autofluorescent, and adaptive optics fundus images. The cone photoreceptors in the adaptive optics images of the two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and five healthy subjects were analyzed. An abnormal parafoveal ring of high-density fundus autofluorescence was observed in the macula in both patients. The border of the ring corresponded to the border of the external limiting membrane and the inner segment and outer segment line in the optical coherence tomographic images. Cone photoreceptors at the abnormal parafoveal ring were blurred and decreased in the adaptive optics images. The blurred area corresponded to the abnormal parafoveal ring in the fundus autofluorescence images. Cone densities were low at the blurred areas and at the nasal and temporal retina along a line from the fovea compared with those of healthy controls. The results for cone spacing and Voronoi domains in the macula corresponded with those for the cone densities. Cone densities were heavily decreased in the macula, especially at the parafoveal ring on high-density fundus autofluorescence in both patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Adaptive optics images enabled us to observe in vivo changes in the cone photoreceptors of patients with retinitis pigmentosa, which corresponded to changes in the optical coherence tomographic and fundus autofluorescence images.

  7. Retinal Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, James T.; Sibley, Cailin H.; Lin, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ophthalmologists and rheumatologists frequently miscommunicate in consulting on patients with retinal vasculitis. This report seeks to establish a common understanding of the term, retinal vasculitis, and to review recent papers on this diagnosis. Recent findings 1) The genetic basis of some rare forms of retinal vascular disease have recently been described. Identified genes include CAPN5, TREX1, and TNFAIP3; 2) Behçet’s disease is a systemic illness that is very commonly associated with occlusive retinal vasculitis; 3) retinal imaging including fluorescein angiography and other newer imaging modalities has proven crucial to the identification and characterization of retinal vasculitis and its complications; 4) although monoclonal antibodies to IL-17A or IL-1 beta failed in trials for Behçet’s disease, antibodies to TNF alpha, either infliximab or adalimumab, have demonstrated consistent benefit in managing this disease. Interferon treatment and B cell depletion therapy via rituximab may be beneficial in certain types of retinal vasculitis. Summary Retinal vasculitis is an important entity for rheumatologists to understand. Retinal vasculitis associated with Behçet’s disease responds to monoclonal antibodies that neutralize TNF, but the many other forms of non-infectious retinal vasculitis may require alternate therapeutic management. PMID:26945335

  8. An optimized content-aware image retargeting method: toward expanding the perceived visual field of the high-density retinal prosthesis recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Zeng, Yajie; Lu, Zhuofan; Cao, Xiaofei; Su, Xiaofan; Sui, Xiaohong; Wang, Jing; Chai, Xinyu

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Retinal prosthesis devices have shown great value in restoring some sight for individuals with profoundly impaired vision, but the visual acuity and visual field provided by prostheses greatly limit recipients’ visual experience. In this paper, we employ computer vision approaches to seek to expand the perceptible visual field in patients implanted potentially with a high-density retinal prosthesis while maintaining visual acuity as much as possible. Approach. We propose an optimized content-aware image retargeting method, by introducing salient object detection based on color and intensity-difference contrast, aiming to remap important information of a scene into a small visual field and preserve their original scale as much as possible. It may improve prosthetic recipients’ perceived visual field and aid in performing some visual tasks (e.g. object detection and object recognition). To verify our method, psychophysical experiments, detecting object number and recognizing objects, are conducted under simulated prosthetic vision. As control, we use three other image retargeting techniques, including Cropping, Scaling, and seam-assisted shrinkability. Main results. Results show that our method outperforms in preserving more key features and has significantly higher recognition accuracy in comparison with other three image retargeting methods under the condition of small visual field and low-resolution. Significance. The proposed method is beneficial to expand the perceived visual field of prosthesis recipients and improve their object detection and recognition performance. It suggests that our method may provide an effective option for image processing module in future high-density retinal implants.

  9. Non-invasive retinal imaging in mice with fluorescent Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein-Javaheri, Nima

    2010-01-01

    Visualization of the internal structures of the retina is critical for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of pathology as well as for medical research investigating the root causes of retinal degeneration. The aim of this thesis is to develop multi-modal non-invasive imaging technology for studying retinal degeneration and gene therapy in mice. We have constructed a FD-OCT prototype and combined it with a Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) to permit real time alignment of the retinal field of...

  10. A robust nonlinear filter for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, V

    1995-01-01

    A class of nonlinear regression filters based on robust estimation theory is introduced. The goal of the filtering is to recover a high-quality image from degraded observations. Models for desired image structures and contaminating processes are employed, but deviations from strict assumptions are allowed since the assumptions on signal and noise are typically only approximately true. The robustness of filters is usually addressed only in a distributional sense, i.e., the actual error distribution deviates from the nominal one. In this paper, the robustness is considered in a broad sense since the outliers may also be due to inappropriate signal model, or there may be more than one statistical population present in the processing window, causing biased estimates. Two filtering algorithms minimizing a least trimmed squares criterion are provided. The design of the filters is simple since no scale parameters or context-dependent threshold values are required. Experimental results using both real and simulated data are presented. The filters effectively attenuate both impulsive and nonimpulsive noise while recovering the signal structure and preserving interesting details.

  11. Superresolution restoration of an image sequence: adaptive filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, M; Feuer, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new method based on adaptive filtering theory for superresolution restoration of continuous image sequences. The proposed methodology suggests least squares (LS) estimators which adapt in time, based on adaptive filters, least mean squares (LMS) or recursive least squares (RLS). The adaptation enables the treatment of linear space and time-variant blurring and arbitrary motion, both of them assumed known. The proposed new approach is shown to be of relatively low computational requirements. Simulations demonstrating the superresolution restoration algorithms are presented.

  12. Comparison of conventional color fundus photography and multicolor imaging in choroidal or retinal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; Gaber, Raouf; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Meshi, Amit; Goldbaum, Michael; Freeman, William R

    2018-04-01

    Our purpose was to compare the characteristics of the retinal and choroidal lesions including choroidal nevus, choroidal melanoma and congenital hypertrophy of the retina pigment epithelium using conventional color fundus photography (CFP) and multicolor imaging (MCI). The paired images of patients with retinal or choroidal lesions were assessed for the visibility of lesion's border, halo and drusen using a grading scale (0-2). The area of the lesion was measured on both imaging modalities. The same grading was also done on the individual color channels of MCI for a further evaluation. Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients were included. There were no significant differences in the mean border, drusen and halo visibility scores between the two imaging modalities (p = 0.12, p = 0.70, p = 0.35). However, the mean area of the lesion was significantly smaller on MCI than that on CFP (14.9±3.3 versus 18.7±3.4 mm 2 , p = 0.01). The appearance of choroidal and/ or retinal lesions on MCI may be different than that on CFP. Though MCI can provide similar information with CFP for the features of retinal and/ or choroidal lesions including border, halo and drusen; the infrared light reflection on MCI underestimates the extent of the choroidal lesion by 33%.

  13. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujat, M.; Chan, R. C.; Cense, B.; Park, B.H.; Joo, C.; Akkin, T.; Chen, TC; de Boer, JF

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in OCT images based on anisotropic noise suppression and deformable splines. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT) data was acquired at 29 kHz A-line rate with a depth resolution of 2.6 mum and a depth

  14. Lesion detection in ultra-wide field retinal images for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenkova, Anastasia; Sowmya, Arcot; Kalloniatis, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Ho, Arthur

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) leads to irreversible vision loss. Diagnosis and staging of DR is usually based on the presence, number, location and type of retinal lesions. Ultra-wide field (UWF) digital scanning laser technology provides an opportunity for computer-aided DR lesion detection. High-resolution UWF images (3078×2702 pixels) may allow detection of more clinically relevant retinopathy in comparison with conventional retinal images as UWF imaging covers a 200° retinal area, versus 45° by conventional cameras. Current approaches to DR diagnosis that analyze 7-field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) retinal images provide similar results to UWF imaging. However, in 40% of cases, more retinopathy was found outside the 7- field ETDRS fields by UWF and in 10% of cases, retinopathy was reclassified as more severe. The reason is that UWF images examine both the central retina and more peripheral regions. We propose an algorithm for automatic detection and classification of DR lesions such as cotton wool spots, exudates, microaneurysms and haemorrhages in UWF images. The algorithm uses convolutional neural network (CNN) as a feature extractor and classifies the feature vectors extracted from colour-composite UWF images using a support vector machine (SVM). The main contribution includes detection of four types of DR lesions in the peripheral retina for diagnostic purposes. The evaluation dataset contains 146 UWF images. The proposed method for detection of DR lesion subtypes in UWF images using two scenarios for transfer learning achieved AUC ≈ 80%. Data was split at the patient level to validate the proposed algorithm.

  15. Wavelet domain image restoration with adaptive edge-preserving regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, M; Kilmer, M E; Miller, E L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a wavelet based edge-preserving regularization scheme for use in linear image restoration problems. Our efforts build on a collection of mathematical results indicating that wavelets are especially useful for representing functions that contain discontinuities (i.e., edges in two dimensions or jumps in one dimension). We interpret the resulting theory in a statistical signal processing framework and obtain a highly flexible framework for adapting the degree of regularization to the local structure of the underlying image. In particular, we are able to adapt quite easily to scale-varying and orientation-varying features in the image while simultaneously retaining the edge preservation properties of the regularizer. We demonstrate a half-quadratic algorithm for obtaining the restorations from observed data.

  16. Multimodal imaging of central retinal disease progression in a 2 year mean follow up of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujirakul, Tharikarn; Lin, Michael K.; Duong, Jimmy; Wei, Ying; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the rate of progression and optimal follow up time in patients with advanced stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comparing the use of fundus autofluorescence imaging and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Design Retrospective analysis of progression rate. Methods Longitudinal imaging follow up in 71 patients with retinitis pigmentosa was studied using the main outcome measurements of hyperautofluoresent ring horizontal diameter and vertical diameter along with ellipsoid zone line width from spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Test-retest reliability and the rate of progression were calculated. The interaction between the progression rates was tested for sex, age, mode of inheritance, and baseline measurement size. Symmetry of left and right eye progression rate was also tested. Results Significant progression was observed in >75% of patients during the 2 year mean follow up. The mean annual progression rates of ellipsoid zone line, and hyperautofluorescent ring horizontal diameter and vertical diameter were 0.45° (4.9%), 0.51° (4.1%), and 0.42° (4.0%), respectively. The e llipsoid zone line width, and hyperautofluorescent ring horizontal diameter and vertical diameter had low test-retest variabilities of 8.9%, 9.5% and 9.6%, respectively. This study is the first to demonstrate asymmetrical structural progression rate between right and left eye, which was found in 19% of patients. The rate of progression was significantly slower as the disease approached the fovea, supporting the theory that RP progresses in an exponential fashion. No significant interaction between progression rate and patient age, sex, or mode of inheritance was observed. Conclusions Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography detect progression in patients with RP reliably and with strong correlation. These parameters may be useful alongside functional assessments as the outcome measurements for future therapeutic trials. Follow-up at 1 year

  17. Restoration of a single superresolution image from several blurred, noisy, and undersampled measured images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, M; Feuer, A

    1997-01-01

    The three main tools in the single image restoration theory are the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator, and the set theoretic approach using projection onto convex sets (POCS). This paper utilizes the above known tools to propose a unified methodology toward the more complicated problem of superresolution restoration. In the superresolution restoration problem, an improved resolution image is restored from several geometrically warped, blurred, noisy and downsampled measured images. The superresolution restoration problem is modeled and analyzed from the ML, the MAP, and POCS points of view, yielding a generalization of the known superresolution restoration methods. The proposed restoration approach is general but assumes explicit knowledge of the linear space- and time-variant blur, the (additive Gaussian) noise, the different measured resolutions, and the (smooth) motion characteristics. A hybrid method combining the simplicity of the ML and the incorporation of nonellipsoid constraints is presented, giving improved restoration performance, compared with the ML and the POCS approaches. The hybrid method is shown to converge to the unique optimal solution of a new definition of the optimization problem. Superresolution restoration from motionless measurements is also discussed. Simulations demonstrate the power of the proposed methodology.

  18. Automatic detection of the macula in retinal fundus images using seeded mode tracking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Damon W K; Liu, Jiang; Tan, Ngan-Meng; Yin, Fengshou; Cheng, Xiangang; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Gemmy C M; Wong, Tien Yin

    2012-01-01

    The macula is the part of the eye responsible for central high acuity vision. Detection of the macula is an important task in retinal image processing as a landmark for subsequent disease assessment, such as for age-related macula degeneration. In this paper, we have presented an approach to automatically determine the macula centre in retinal fundus images. First contextual information on the image is combined with a statistical model to obtain an approximate macula region of interest localization. Subsequently, we propose the use of a seeded mode tracking technique to locate the macula centre. The proposed approach is tested on a large dataset composed of 482 normal images and 162 glaucoma images from the ORIGA database and an additional 96 AMD images. The results show a ROI detection of 97.5%, and 90.5% correct detection of the macula within 1/3DD from a manual reference, which outperforms other current methods. The results are promising for the use of the proposed approach to locate the macula for the detection of macula diseases from retinal images.

  19. Spectral imaging technique for retinal perfusion detection using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Sharp, Peter F.

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate retinal perfusion in the human eye, a dual-wavelength confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) was developed that provides spectral imaging of the fundus using a combination of red (670 nm) and near-infrared (810 nm) wavelengths. The image of the ocular fundus was analyzed to find out if quantitative measurements of the reflectivity of tissue permit assessment of the oxygen perfusion of tissue. We explored problems that affect the reproducibility of patient measurements such as non-uniformity errors on the image. For the first time, an image processing technique was designed and used to minimize the errors of oxygen saturation measurements by illumination correction in retina wide field by increasing SNR. Retinal images were taken from healthy and diabetic retinopathy eyes using the cSLO with a confocal aperture of 100 μm. The ratio image (RI) of red/IR, as oxygen saturation (SO2) index, was calculated for normal eyes. The image correction technique improved the reproducibility of the measurements. Average RI intensity variation of healthy retina tissue was determined within a range of about 5.5%. The capability of the new technique to discriminate oxygenation levels of retinal artery and vein was successfully demonstrated and showed good promise in the diagnosis of the perfused retina.

  20. An automated algorithm for photoreceptors counting in adaptive optics retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yudong; Yun, Dai

    2012-10-01

    Eyes are important organs of humans that detect light and form spatial and color vision. Knowing the exact number of cones in retinal image has great importance in helping us understand the mechanism of eyes' function and the pathology of some eye disease. In order to analyze data in real time and process large-scale data, an automated algorithm is designed to label cone photoreceptors in adaptive optics (AO) retinal images. Images acquired by the flood-illuminated AO system are taken to test the efficiency of this algorithm. We labeled these images both automatically and manually, and compared the results of the two methods. A 94.1% to 96.5% agreement rate between the two methods is achieved in this experiment, which demonstrated the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm.

  1. Blood Vessel Extraction in Color Retinal Fundus Images with Enhancement Filtering and Unsupervised Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal blood vessels have a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of various retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. For this reason, retinal vasculature extraction is important in order to help specialists for the diagnosis and treatment of systematic diseases. In this paper, a novel approach is developed to extract retinal blood vessel network. Our method comprises four stages: (1 preprocessing stage in order to prepare dataset for segmentation; (2 an enhancement procedure including Gabor, Frangi, and Gauss filters obtained separately before a top-hat transform; (3 a hard and soft clustering stage which includes K-means and Fuzzy C-means (FCM in order to get binary vessel map; and (4 a postprocessing step which removes falsely segmented isolated regions. The method is tested on color retinal images obtained from STARE and DRIVE databases which are available online. As a result, Gabor filter followed by K-means clustering method achieves 95.94% and 95.71% of accuracy for STARE and DRIVE databases, respectively, which are acceptable for diagnosis systems.

  2. Portable retinal imaging for eye disease screening using a consumer-grade digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Simon; Larichev, Andrey; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The development of affordable means to image the retina is an important step toward the implementation of eye disease screening programs. In this paper we present the i-RxCam, a low-cost, hand-held, retinal camera for widespread applications such as tele-retinal screening for eye diseases like diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, and age-related ocular diseases. Existing portable retinal imagers do not meet the requirements of a low-cost camera with sufficient technical capabilities (field of view, image quality, portability, battery power, and ease-of-use) to be distributed widely to low volume clinics, such as the offices of single primary care physicians serving rural communities. The i-RxCam uses a Nikon D3100 digital camera body. The camera has a CMOS sensor with 14.8 million pixels. We use a 50mm focal lens that gives a retinal field of view of 45 degrees. The internal autofocus can compensate for about 2D (diopters) of focusing error. The light source is an LED produced by Philips with a linear emitting area that is transformed using a light pipe to the optimal shape at the eye pupil, an annulus. To eliminate corneal reflex we use a polarization technique in which the light passes through a nano-wire polarizer plate. This is a novel type of polarizer featuring high polarization separation (contrast ratio of more than 1000) and very large acceptance angle (>45 degrees). The i-RxCam approach will yield a significantly more economical retinal imaging device that would allow mass screening of the at-risk population.

  3. Results of Automated Retinal Image Analysis for Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy from the Nakuru Study, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten B; Abràmoff, Michael D; Folk, James C; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Bastawrous, Andrew; Peto, Tunde

    2015-01-01

    Digital retinal imaging is an established method of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR). It has been established that currently about 1% of the world's blind or visually impaired is due to DR. However, the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and DR is creating an increased workload on those with expertise in grading retinal images. Safe and reliable automated analysis of retinal images may support screening services worldwide. This study aimed to compare the Iowa Detection Program (IDP) ability to detect diabetic eye diseases (DED) to human grading carried out at Moorfields Reading Centre on the population of Nakuru Study from Kenya. Retinal images were taken from participants of the Nakuru Eye Disease Study in Kenya in 2007/08 (n = 4,381 participants [NW6 Topcon Digital Retinal Camera]). First, human grading was performed for the presence or absence of DR, and for those with DR this was sub-divided in to referable or non-referable DR. The automated IDP software was deployed to identify those with DR and also to categorize the severity of DR. The primary outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of IDP versus the human grader as reference standard. Altogether 3,460 participants were included. 113 had DED, giving a prevalence of 3.3% (95% CI, 2.7-3.9%). Sensitivity of the IDP to detect DED as by the human grading was 91.0% (95% CI, 88.0-93.4%). The IDP ability to detect DED gave an AUC of 0.878 (95% CI 0.850-0.905). It showed a negative predictive value of 98%. The IDP missed no vision threatening retinopathy in any patients and none of the false negative cases met criteria for treatment. In this epidemiological sample, the IDP's grading was comparable to that of human graders'. It therefore might be feasible to consider inclusion into usual epidemiological grading.

  4. Three-dimensional tomosynthetic image restoration for brachytherapy source localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons, Timothy M.

    2001-01-01

    Tomosynthetic image reconstruction allows for the production of a virtually infinite number of slices from a finite number of projection views of a subject. If the reconstructed image volume is viewed in toto, and the three-dimensional (3D) impulse response is accurately known, then it is possible to solve the inverse problem (deconvolution) using canonical image restoration methods (such as Wiener filtering or solution by conjugate gradient least squares iteration) by extension to three dimensions in either the spatial or the frequency domains. This dissertation presents modified direct and iterative restoration methods for solving the inverse tomosynthetic imaging problem in 3D. The significant blur artifact that is common to tomosynthetic reconstructions is deconvolved by solving for the entire 3D image at once. The 3D impulse response is computed analytically using a fiducial reference schema as realized in a robust, self-calibrating solution to generalized tomosynthesis. 3D modulation transfer function analysis is used to characterize the tomosynthetic resolution of the 3D reconstructions. The relevant clinical application of these methods is 3D imaging for brachytherapy source localization. Conventional localization schemes for brachytherapy implants using orthogonal or stereoscopic projection radiographs suffer from scaling distortions and poor visibility of implanted seeds, resulting in compromised source tracking (reported errors: 2-4 mm) and dosimetric inaccuracy. 3D image reconstruction (using a well-chosen projection sampling scheme) and restoration of a prostate brachytherapy phantom is used for testing. The approaches presented in this work localize source centroids with submillimeter error in two Cartesian dimensions and just over one millimeter error in the third

  5. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF DISEASE-ASSOCIATED PIGMENTARY CHANGES IN RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerch, Kaspar; Marsiglia, Marcela; Lee, Winston; Tsang, Stephen H; Sparrow, Janet R

    2016-12-01

    Using multiple imaging modalities, we evaluated the changes in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that are associated with bone spicule-shaped melanin pigmentation in retinitis pigmentosa. In a cohort of 60 patients with retinitis pigmentosa, short-wavelength autofluorescence, near-infrared autofluorescence (NIR-AF), NIR reflectance, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and color fundus images were studied. Central AF rings were visible in both short-wavelength autofluorescence and NIR-AF images. Bone spicule pigmentation was nonreflective in NIR reflectance, hypoautofluorescent with short-wavelength autofluorescence and NIR-AF imaging, and presented as intraretinal hyperreflective foci in spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. In areas beyond the AF ring outer border, the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone band was absent in spectral domain optical coherence tomography and the visibility of choroidal vessels in short-wavelength autofluorescence, NIR-AF, and NIR reflectance images was indicative of reduced RPE pigmentation. Choroidal visibility was most pronounced in the zone approaching peripheral areas of bone spicule pigmentation; here RPE/Bruch membrane thinning became apparent in spectral domain optical coherence tomography. These findings are consistent with a process by which RPE cells vacate their monolayer and migrate into inner retina in response to photoreceptor cell degeneration. The remaining RPE spread undergo thinning and consequently become less pigmented. An explanation for the absence of NIR-AF melanin signal in relation to bone spicule pigmentation is not forthcoming.

  6. Application of digital techniques to the restoration of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.

    1980-09-01

    The methods of constrained least squares and maximum entropy have been used to restore digital X and γ-ray radiographs. Both methods require the blurring of the image to be a linear, spatially invariant process. Although the blurring processes in radiography can be complex, situations have been identified where these simplifying assumptions are valid. Algorithms for deriving the point-spread function of each image are discussed. These include a pinhole method for X-ray radiographs, and reconstruction from edge profiles for γ-ray radiographs. The results from the restoration of geometrically blurred radiographs of sparking plugs are given. Maximum entropy gives results superior to those obtained by constrained least squares. The resolution is improved by a factor of about three when maximum entropy is used, and by a factor of about two for constrained least squares. (author)

  7. A general framework for regularized, similarity-based image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Amin; Milanfar, Peyman

    2014-12-01

    Any image can be represented as a function defined on a weighted graph, in which the underlying structure of the image is encoded in kernel similarity and associated Laplacian matrices. In this paper, we develop an iterative graph-based framework for image restoration based on a new definition of the normalized graph Laplacian. We propose a cost function, which consists of a new data fidelity term and regularization term derived from the specific definition of the normalized graph Laplacian. The normalizing coefficients used in the definition of the Laplacian and associated regularization term are obtained using fast symmetry preserving matrix balancing. This results in some desired spectral properties for the normalized Laplacian such as being symmetric, positive semidefinite, and returning zero vector when applied to a constant image. Our algorithm comprises of outer and inner iterations, where in each outer iteration, the similarity weights are recomputed using the previous estimate and the updated objective function is minimized using inner conjugate gradient iterations. This procedure improves the performance of the algorithm for image deblurring, where we do not have access to a good initial estimate of the underlying image. In addition, the specific form of the cost function allows us to render the spectral analysis for the solutions of the corresponding linear equations. In addition, the proposed approach is general in the sense that we have shown its effectiveness for different restoration problems, including deblurring, denoising, and sharpening. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on both synthetic and real examples.

  8. Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in Fluorescent Angiography Retinal Images Using Image Processing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Tavakoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the single largest cause of sight loss and blindness in the working age population of Western countries; it is the most common cause of blindness in adults between 20 and 60 years of age. Early diagnosis of DR is critical for preventing vision loss so early detection of microaneurysms (MAs as the first signs of DR is important. This paper addresses the automatic detection of MAs in fluorescein angiography fundus images, which plays a key role in computer assisted diagnosis of DR, a serious and frequent eye disease. Material and Methods: The algorithm can be divided into three main steps. The first step or pre-processing was for background normalization and contrast enhancement of the image. The second step aimed at detecting landmarks, i.e., all patterns possibly corresponding to vessels and the optic nerve head, which was achieved using a local radon transform. Then, MAs were extracted, which were used in the final step to automatically classify candidates into real MA and other objects. A database of 120 fluorescein angiography fundus images was used to train and test the algorithm. The algorithm was compared to manually obtained gradings of those images. Results: Sensitivity of diagnosis for DR was 94%, with specificity of 75%, and sensitivity of precise microaneurysm localization was 92%, at an average number of 8 false positives per image. Discussion and Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm make it one of the best methods in this field. Using local radon transform in this algorithm eliminates the noise sensitivity for microaneurysm detection in retinal image analysis.

  9. Gunn's dots in retinal images of 2,286 adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg-Ans, Lars C.; Munch, Inger C.; Larsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    a 6 mm grid centered on the optic disc. Results: One or more Gunn's dots were seen in at least one eye in 82.6% of children. The median number of Gunn's dots per eye was 46 (range 0-482). Most Gunn's dots were found inferior and superior of the optic disc (49.3% and 45.8%, respectively, of the total...... number of Gunn's dots in the population). The odds for having 1 or more Gunn's dots were 3-fold greater in children with dark brown irides compared with children with blue irides (odds ratio 2.99, 95% CI 1.81 to 4.94, P, 0.0001 adjusted for age, sex, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, refraction...

  10. Congenital Simple Hamartoma of Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Clinical and Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yasin Teke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital simple hamartoma of retinal pigment epithelium (CSHRPE is a rare, asymptomatic, and incidentally detected benign lesion. However, it is very important to do the differential diagnosis from other pigmented retinal lesions. Its clinical presentation and imaging findings are very helpful in doing this differentiation. This paper presents clinical and imaging findings of a 56-year-old woman with incidentally detected CSHRPE. The lesion was small, heavily pigmented, well circumscribed, and slightly elevated. Optical coherence tomography (OCT scanning was diagnostic and showed an elevated retina at the site of the lesion, increased optical reflectivity on its inner surface, optical shadowing of deeper structures, and clearly cut tumor margins. Ocular ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging which is firstly described in this report did not show any characteristic finding.

  11. Multimodal imaging of small hard retinal drusen in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Gilson, Stuart J; Dubra, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small hard macular drusen can be observed in the retina of adults as young as 18 years of age. Here, we seek to describe the in vivo topography and geometry of these drusen. METHODS: Retinal images were acquired in young, healthy adults using colour fundus photography, spectral domain...... the foveal centre were characterised. RESULTS: Small hard drusen were seen on colour photographs in 21 out of 97 participants and 26 drusen in 12 eyes in 11 participants were imaged using the full protocol. Drusen were easily identifiable in all modalities, except a few very small ones, which were...... not visible on SD-OCT. On AOSLO images, these drusen appeared as round, oval or lobular areas (up to three lobules) of diameter 22-61 µm where cone photoreceptor reflectivity and density was decreased (p=0.049). This was usually associated with discrete thickening of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE...

  12. Extraspectral Imaging for Improving the Perceived Information Presented in Retinal Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Atabany

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal prosthesis is steadily improving as a clinical treatment for blindness caused by retinitis pigmentosa. However, despite the continued exciting progress, the level of visual return is still very poor. It is also unlikely that those utilising these devices will stop being legally blind in the near future. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to maximise the transfer of useful information extracted from the visual scene. Such an approach can be achieved by digitally suppressing less important visual features and textures within the scene. The result can be interpreted as a cartoon-like image of the scene. Furthermore, utilising extravisual wavelengths such as infrared can be useful in the decision process to determine the optimal information to present. In this paper, we, therefore, present a processing methodology that utilises information extracted from the infrared spectrum to assist in the preprocessing of the visual image prior to conversion to retinal information. We demonstrate how this allows for enhanced recognition and how it could be implemented for optogenetic forms of retinal prosthesis. The new approach has been quantitatively evaluated on volunteers showing 112% enhancement in recognizing objects over normal approaches.

  13. Retro-mode imaging and fundus autofluorescence with scanning laser ophthalmoscope of retinal dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal dystrophies display a considerably wide range of phenotypic variability, which can make diagnosis and clinical staging difficult. The aim of the study is to analyze the contribution of retro-mode imaging (RMI and fundus autofluorescence (FAF to the characterization of retinal dystrophies. Methods Eighteen consecutive patients affected by retinal dystrophies underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, including best corrected visual acuity with ETDRS charts, blue-light fundus autofluorescence, (BL-FAF, near-infrared fundus autofluorescence (NIR-FAF, and RMI. The primary outcome was the identification of abnormal patterns on RMI. The secondary outcome was the correlation with the findings on BL-FAF and NIR-FAF. Results Overall, the main feature of RMI is represented by a pseudo-3D pattern of all the lesions at the posterior pole. More specifically, any accumulation of material within the retina appears as an area of elevation of different shape and size, displaying irregular and darker borders. No precise correlations between RMI, BL-AF, and NIR-AF imaging was found. Conclusions RMI and FAF appear to be useful tools for characterizing retinal dystrophies. Non-invasive diagnostic tools may yield additional information on the clinical setting and the monitoring of the patients.

  14. A thresholding based technique to extract retinal blood vessels from fundus images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiprava Dash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal imaging has become the significant tool among all the medical imaging technology, due to its capability to extract many data which is linked to various eye diseases. So, the accurate extraction of blood vessel is necessary that helps the eye care specialists and ophthalmologist to identify the diseases at the early stages. In this paper, we have proposed a computerized technique for extraction of blood vessels from fundus images. The process is conducted in three phases: (i pre-processing where the image is enhanced using contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and median filter, (ii segmentation using mean-C thresholding to extract retinal blood vessels, (iii post-processing where morphological cleaning operation is used to remove isolated pixels. The performance of the proposed method is tested on and experimental results show that our method achieve an accuracies of 0.955 and 0.954 on Digital retinal images for vessel extraction (DRIVE and Child heart and health study in England (CHASE_DB1 databases respectively.

  15. A multi-step system for screening and localization of hard exudates in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopardikar, Ajit S.; Bhola, Vishal; Raghavendra, B. S.; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2012-03-01

    The number of people being affected by Diabetes mellitus worldwide is increasing at an alarming rate. Monitoring of the diabetic condition and its effects on the human body are therefore of great importance. Of particular interest is diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is a result of prolonged, unchecked diabetes and affects the visual system. DR is a leading cause of blindness throughout the world. At any point of time 25 - 44% of people with diabetes are afflicted by DR. Automation of the screening and monitoring process for DR is therefore essential for efficient utilization of healthcare resources and optimizing treatment of the affected individuals. Such automation would use retinal images and detect the presence of specific artifacts such as hard exudates, hemorrhages and soft exudates (that may appear in the image) to gauge the severity of DR. In this paper, we focus on the detection of hard exudates. We propose a two step system that consists of a screening step that classifies retinal images as normal or abnormal based on the presence of hard exudates and a detection stage that localizes these artifacts in an abnormal retinal image. The proposed screening step automatically detects the presence of hard exudates with a high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV ). The detection/localization step uses a k-means based clustering approach to localize hard exudates in the retinal image. Suitable feature vectors are chosen based on their ability to isolate hard exudates while minimizing false detections. The algorithm was tested on a benchmark dataset (DIARETDB1) and was seen to provide a superior performance compared to existing methods. The two-step process described in this paper can be embedded in a tele-ophthalmology system to aid with speedy detection and diagnosis of the severity of DR.

  16. Reduced-illuminance autofluorescence imaging in ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Swider, Malgorzata; Aleman, Tomas S.; Roman, Marisa I.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Stone, Edwin M.; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2007-05-01

    The health of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be estimated with autofluorescence (AF) imaging of lipofuscin, which accumulates as a byproduct of retinal exposure to light. Lipofuscin may be toxic to the RPE, and its toxicity may be enhanced by short-wavelength (SW) illumination. The high-intensity and SW excitation light used in conventional AF imaging could, at least in principle, increase the rate of lipofuscin accumulation and/or increase its toxicity. We considered two reduced-illuminance AF imaging (RAFI) methods as alternatives to conventional AF imaging. RAFI methods use either near-infrared (NIR) light or reduced-radiance SW illumination for excitation of fluorophores. We quantified the distribution of RAFI signals in relation to retinal structure and function in patients with the prototypical lipofuscin accumulation disease caused by mutations in ABCA4. There was evidence for two subclinical stages of macular ABCA4 disease involving hyperautofluorescence of both SW- and NIR-RAFI with and without associated loss of visual function. Use of RAFI methods and microperimetry in future clinical trials involving lipofuscinopathies should allow quantification of subclinical disease expression and progression without subjecting the diseased retina/RPE to undue light exposure.

  17. Automated detection of kinks from blood vessels for optic cup segmentation in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D. W. K.; Liu, J.; Lim, J. H.; Li, H.; Wong, T. Y.

    2009-02-01

    The accurate localization of the optic cup in retinal images is important to assess the cup to disc ratio (CDR) for glaucoma screening and management. Glaucoma is physiologically assessed by the increased excavation of the optic cup within the optic nerve head, also known as the optic disc. The CDR is thus an important indicator of risk and severity of glaucoma. In this paper, we propose a method of determining the cup boundary using non-stereographic retinal images by the automatic detection of a morphological feature within the optic disc known as kinks. Kinks are defined as the bendings of small vessels as they traverse from the disc to the cup, providing physiological validation for the cup boundary. To detect kinks, localized patches are first generated from a preliminary cup boundary obtained via level set. Features obtained using edge detection and wavelet transform are combined using a statistical approach rule to identify likely vessel edges. The kinks are then obtained automatically by analyzing the detected vessel edges for angular changes, and these kinks are subsequently used to obtain the cup boundary. A set of retinal images from the Singapore Eye Research Institute was obtained to assess the performance of the method, with each image being clinically graded for the CDR. From experiments, when kinks were used, the error on the CDR was reduced to less than 0.1 CDR units relative to the clinical CDR, which is within the intra-observer variability of 0.2 CDR units.

  18. Automated analysis of retinal images for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abràmoff, Michael D; Folk, James C; Han, Dennis P; Walker, Jonathan D; Williams, David F; Russell, Stephen R; Massin, Pascale; Cochener, Beatrice; Gain, Philippe; Tang, Li; Lamard, Mathieu; Moga, Daniela C; Quellec, Gwénolé; Niemeijer, Meindert

    2013-03-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of computer detection programs has been reported to be comparable to that of specialists and expert readers, but no computer detection programs have been validated in an independent cohort using an internationally recognized diabetic retinopathy (DR) standard. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Iowa Detection Program (IDP) to detect referable diabetic retinopathy (RDR). In primary care DR clinics in France, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2010, patients were photographed consecutively, and retinal color images were graded for retinopathy severity according to the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy scale and macular edema by 3 masked independent retinal specialists and regraded with adjudication until consensus. The IDP analyzed the same images at a predetermined and fixed set point. We defined RDR as more than mild nonproliferative retinopathy and/or macular edema. A total of 874 people with diabetes at risk for DR. Sensitivity and specificity of the IDP to detect RDR, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity of the retinal specialists' readings, and mean interobserver difference (κ). The RDR prevalence was 21.7% (95% CI, 19.0%-24.5%). The IDP sensitivity was 96.8% (95% CI, 94.4%-99.3%) and specificity was 59.4% (95% CI, 55.7%-63.0%), corresponding to 6 of 874 false-negative results (none met treatment criteria). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.937 (95% CI, 0.916-0.959). Before adjudication and consensus, the sensitivity/specificity of the retinal specialists were 0.80/0.98, 0.71/1.00, and 0.91/0.95, and the mean intergrader κ was 0.822. The IDP has high sensitivity and specificity to detect RDR. Computer analysis of retinal photographs for DR and automated detection of RDR can be implemented safely into the DR screening pipeline, potentially improving access to screening and health care productivity and reducing visual loss

  19. Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy features in ultra-wide field retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenkova, Anastasia; Sowmya, Arcot; Kalloniatis, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Ho, Arthur

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. DR screening relies on retinal clinical signs (features). Opportunities for computer-aided DR feature detection have emerged with the development of Ultra-WideField (UWF) digital scanning laser technology. UWF imaging covers 82% greater retinal area (200°), against 45° in conventional cameras3 , allowing more clinically relevant retinopathy to be detected4 . UWF images also provide a high resolution of 3078 x 2702 pixels. Currently DR screening uses 7 overlapping conventional fundus images, and the UWF images provide similar results1,4. However, in 40% of cases, more retinopathy was found outside the 7-field ETDRS) fields by UWF and in 10% of cases, retinopathy was reclassified as more severe4 . This is because UWF imaging allows examination of both the central retina and more peripheral regions, with the latter implicated in DR6 . We have developed an algorithm for automatic recognition of DR features, including bright (cotton wool spots and exudates) and dark lesions (microaneurysms and blot, dot and flame haemorrhages) in UWF images. The algorithm extracts features from grayscale (green "red-free" laser light) and colour-composite UWF images, including intensity, Histogram-of-Gradient and Local binary patterns. Pixel-based classification is performed with three different classifiers. The main contribution is the automatic detection of DR features in the peripheral retina. The method is evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation on 25 UWF retinal images with 167 bright lesions, and 61 other images with 1089 dark lesions. The SVM classifier performs best with AUC of 94.4% / 95.31% for bright / dark lesions.

  20. Bayesian image restoration for medical images using radon transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouno, Hayaru; Okada, Masato

    2010-01-01

    We propose an image reconstruction algorithm using Bayesian inference for Radon transformed observation data, which often appears in the field of medical image reconstruction known as computed tomography (CT). In order to apply our Bayesian reconstruction method, we introduced several hyper-parameters that control the ratio between prior information and the fidelity of the observation process. Since the quality of the reconstructed image is influenced by the estimation accuracy of these hyper-parameters, we propose an inference method for them based on the marginal likelihood maximization principle as well as the image reconstruction method. We are able to demonstrate a reconstruction result superior to that obtained using the conventional filtered back projection method. (author)

  1. HDR Image Quality Enhancement Based on Spatially Variant Retinal Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi Takahiko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing demand for being able to display high dynamic range (HDR images on low dynamic range (LDR devices. Tone mapping is a process for enhancing HDR image quality on an LDR device by converting the tonal values of the original image from HDR to LDR. This paper proposes a new tone mapping algorithm for enhancing image quality by deriving a spatially-variant operator for imitating S-potential response in human retina, which efficiently improves local contrasts while conserving good global appearance. The proposed tone mapping operator is studied from a system construction point of view. It is found that the operator is regarded as a natural extension of the Retinex algorithm by adding a global adaptation process to the local adaptation. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is examined in detail on experiments using standard HDR images and real HDR scene images, comparing with conventional tone mapping algorithms.

  2. Optical imaging of mitochondrial redox state in rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Sepideh; Gopalakrishnan, Sandeep; Ghanian, Zahra; Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Schmitt, Heather; Eells, Janis; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to photoreceptor cell loss in retinal degenerative disorders. The metabolic state of the retina in a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was investigated using a cryo-fluorescence imaging technique. The mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are autofluorescent and can be monitored without exogenous labels using optical techniques. The cryo-fluorescence redox imaging technique provides a quantitative assessment of the metabolism. More specifically, the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of these fluorophores (NADH/FAD), the NADH redox ratio (RR), is a marker of the metabolic state of the tissue. The NADH RR and retinal function were examined in an established rodent model of RP, the P23H rat compared to that of nondystrophic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The NADH RR mean values were 1.11±0.03 in the SD normal and 0.841±0.01 in the P23H retina, indicating increased OS in the P23H retina. Electroretinographic data revealed a significant reduction in photoreceptor function in P23H animals compared to SD nozrmal rats. Thus, cryo-fluorescence redox imaging was used as a quantitative marker of OS in eyes from transgenic rats and demonstrated that alterations in the oxidative state of eyes occur during the early stages of RP.

  3. Non-monotonic behaviour in relaxation dynamics of image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Tomoko; Okada, Masato

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the relaxation dynamics of image restoration through a Bayesian approach. The relaxation dynamics is much faster at zero temperature than at the Nishimori temperature where the pixel-wise error rate is minimized in equilibrium. At low temperature, we observed non-monotonic development of the overlap. We suggest that the optimal performance is realized through premature termination in the relaxation processes in the case of the infinite-range model. We also performed Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to clarify the underlying mechanism of non-trivial behaviour at low temperature by checking the local field distributions of each pixel

  4. Image restorations constrained by a multiply exposed picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breedlove, J.R. Jr.; Kruger, R.P.; Trussell, H.J.; Hunt, B.R.

    1977-01-01

    There are a number of possible industrial and scientific applications of nanosecond cineradiographs. While the technology exists to produce closely spaced pulses of x rays for this application, the quality of the time-resolved radiographs is severely limited. The limitations arise from the necessity of using a fluorescent screen to convert the transmitted x rays to light and then using electro-optical imaging systems to gate and to record the images with conventional high-speed cameras. It has been proposed that in addition to the time-resolved images, a conventional multiply-exposed radiograph be obtained. Simulations are used to demonstrate that the additional information supplied by the multiply-exposed radiograph can be used to improve the quality of digital image restorations of the time-resolved pictures over what could be achieved with the degraded images alone. Because of the need for image registration and rubber sheet transformations, this problem is one which can best be solved on a digital, as opposed to an optical, computer

  5. A Stochastic Approach for Blurred Image Restoration and Optical Flow Computation on Field Image Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文; 陈熙霖

    1997-01-01

    The blur in target images caused by camera vibration due to robot motion or hand shaking and by object(s) moving in the background scene is different to deal with in the computer vision system.In this paper,the authors study the relation model between motion and blur in the case of object motion existing in video image sequence,and work on a practical computation algorithm for both motion analysis and blut image restoration.Combining the general optical flow and stochastic process,the paper presents and approach by which the motion velocity can be calculated from blurred images.On the other hand,the blurred image can also be restored using the obtained motion information.For solving a problem with small motion limitation on the general optical flow computation,a multiresolution optical flow algoritm based on MAP estimation is proposed. For restoring the blurred image ,an iteration algorithm and the obtained motion velocity are used.The experiment shows that the proposed approach for both motion velocity computation and blurred image restoration works well.

  6. Is screening with digital imaging using one retinal view adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, H M; Jordan, K; Flanagan, D W

    2003-05-01

    To compare the detection of diabetic retinopathy from digital images with slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and to determine whether British Diabetic Association (BDA) screening criteria are attained (>80% sensitivity, >95% specificity, &fashion. A single 45 degrees fundus image was obtained using the nonmydriatic digital camera. Each patient subsequently underwent slit-lamp biomicroscopy and diabetic retinopathy grading by a consultant ophthalmologist. Diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy was graded according to the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study. A total of 145 patients (288 eyes) were identified for screening. Of these, 26% of eyes had diabetic retinopathy, and eight eyes (3%) had sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy requiring treatment. The sensitivity for detection of any diabetic retinopathy was 38% and the specificity 95%. There was a 4% technical failure rate. There were 42/288 false negatives and 10/288 false positives. Of the 42 false negatives, 18 represented diabetic maculopathy, 20 represented peripheral diabetic retinopathy and four eyes had both macular and peripheral changes. Three eyes in the false-negative group (1% of total eyes) had sight-threatening retinopathy. There was good concordance between the two consultants (79% agreement on slit-lamp biomicroscopy and 84% on digital image interpretation). The specificity value and technical failure rate compare favourably with BDA guidelines. The low sensitivity for detection of any retinopathy reflects failure to detect minimal maculopathy and retinopathy outside the 45 degrees image. This could be improved by an additional nasal image and careful evaluation of macular images with a low threshold for slit-lamp biomicroscopy if image quality is poor.

  7. Does Magnetic Resonance Imaging Affect the Microleakage of Amalgam Restorations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, Ozlem Marti; Polat, Gunseli Guven; Turan Illca, Ahmet; Yildirim, Ceren; Demir, Pervin; Basak, Feridun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of MRI on microleakage of amalgam restorations is an important health issue that should be considered. If MRI application causes increase of microleakage, amalgam fillings should be reassessed after MRI and replaced if necessary. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on microleakage of class II bonded amalgam versus classical amalgam restorations. Class II cavities (3 mm width × 1.5 mm depth) with gingival margins ending 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were prepared in 40 permanent molar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups. Cavities in the first and second groups were restored with dentin adhesive and amalgam (bonded amalgam), and those in the third and fourth groups with amalgam only. MRI was performed with the teeth specimens from the first and third groups. All specimens were then thermocycled at 5° to 55° C with a 30-second dwell time for 1000 cycles. The samples were then immersed in 0.5% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectioned longitudinally. Dye penetration at the occlusal and gingival margins was quantified by 15× stereomicroscopy. IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 (IBM Corp., Released 2012., IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) and MS-Excel 2007 programs were used for statistical analyses and calculations. “nparLD” module was used for F2-LD-F1 design analysis at R program. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. In teeth with amalgam filling, there were no significant differences of occlusal and gingival surface microleakage after MRI exposure. Occlusal and gingival surface microleakages were also similar with and without MRI in teeth with bonded amalgam filling. The results of this study suggest that MRI does not increase microleakage of amalgam restorations

  8. Low dose CT image restoration using a database of image patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sungsoo; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the radiation dose in CT imaging has become an active research topic and many solutions have been proposed to remove the significant noise and streak artifacts in the reconstructed images. Most of these methods operate within the domain of the image that is subject to restoration. This, however, poses limitations on the extent of filtering possible. We advocate to take into consideration the vast body of external knowledge that exists in the domain of already acquired medical CT images, since after all, this is what radiologists do when they examine these low quality images. We can incorporate this knowledge by creating a database of prior scans, either of the same patient or a diverse corpus of different patients, to assist in the restoration process. Our paper follows up on our previous work that used a database of images. Using images, however, is challenging since it requires tedious and error prone registration and alignment. Our new method eliminates these problems by storing a diverse set of small image patches in conjunction with a localized similarity matching scheme. We also empirically show that it is sufficient to store these patches without anatomical tags since their statistics are sufficiently strong to yield good similarity matches from the database and as a direct effect, produce image restorations of high quality. A final experiment demonstrates that our global database approach can recover image features that are difficult to preserve with conventional denoising approaches.

  9. Image degradation characteristics and restoration based on regularization for diffractive imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiyang; Jiang, Shikai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Dawei; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    The diffractive membrane optical imaging system is an important development trend of ultra large aperture and lightweight space camera. However, related investigations on physics-based diffractive imaging degradation characteristics and corresponding image restoration methods are less studied. In this paper, the model of image quality degradation for the diffraction imaging system is first deduced mathematically based on diffraction theory and then the degradation characteristics are analyzed. On this basis, a novel regularization model of image restoration that contains multiple prior constraints is established. After that, the solving approach of the equation with the multi-norm coexistence and multi-regularization parameters (prior's parameters) is presented. Subsequently, the space-variant PSF image restoration method for large aperture diffractive imaging system is proposed combined with block idea of isoplanatic region. Experimentally, the proposed algorithm demonstrates its capacity to achieve multi-objective improvement including MTF enhancing, dispersion correcting, noise and artifact suppressing as well as image's detail preserving, and produce satisfactory visual quality. This can provide scientific basis for applications and possesses potential application prospects on future space applications of diffractive membrane imaging technology.

  10. Image quality of the cat eye measured during retinal ganglion cell experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B; Enroth-Cugell, C; Pinto, L H

    1972-01-01

    1. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the dioptrics of fifteen cat eyes was determined. The aerial image, formed by the eye of a standard object (a 0.5-1.0 degrees annulus), was photographed. The transmission of the film negative was measured with a scanning microdensitometer to yield the light distribution within the aerial image. Correcting for the double passage, this experimentally determined light distribution and the known object light distribution were used to obtain the MTF, applying Fourier methods. Each MTF was used to calculate the light distribution within the retinal image of stimuli of various geometry used in experiments on retinal ganglion cells in the same eye.2. When the eye was equipped with an artificial pupil of the same size as that used in the neurophysiological experiments (4.0-4.8 mm diam.) the MTF had fallen to 0.5 at 2.43 c/deg. When the pupil was removed the MTF had fallen to 0.5 at a much lower spatial frequency (1.0 c/deg). This shows that even when one uses an artificial pupil too large to provide optimal image quality there is a vast improvement over using no pupil.3. These image quality measurements were prompted by the need to know the actual stimulus image in experiments on the functional organization of the receptive field, a need exemplified in this paper by a few specific physiological results. The full neurophysiological results appear in the next two papers.

  11. Shift-invariant discrete wavelet transform analysis for retinal image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, April; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2007-12-01

    This work involves retinal image classification and a novel analysis system was developed. From the compressed domain, the proposed scheme extracts textural features from wavelet coefficients, which describe the relative homogeneity of localized areas of the retinal images. Since the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is shift-variant, a shift-invariant DWT was explored to ensure that a robust feature set was extracted. To combat the small database size, linear discriminant analysis classification was used with the leave one out method. 38 normal and 48 abnormal (exudates, large drusens, fine drusens, choroidal neovascularization, central vein and artery occlusion, histoplasmosis, arteriosclerotic retinopathy, hemi-central retinal vein occlusion and more) were used and a specificity of 79% and sensitivity of 85.4% were achieved (the average classification rate is 82.2%). The success of the system can be accounted to the highly robust feature set which included translation, scale and semi-rotational, features. Additionally, this technique is database independent since the features were specifically tuned to the pathologies of the human eye.

  12. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  13. RESTORATION TECHNIQUE FOR PLEIADES-HR PANCHROMATIC IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Latry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 17th of December 2011 from Kourou Space Centre, French Guyana. Like others high resolution optical satellites, it acquires both panchromatic images, with 70cm spatial resolution, and lower resolution multispectral images with 2.8m spatial resolution. Pleiades-HR is an optimized system, which means that the Modulation Transfer Function has a low value at Nyquist frequency, in order to reduce both the telescope diameter and aliasing effects. Shannon sampling condition is thus met at first order, which also makes classical ground processing, such as image matching or resampling, more justified for a mathematical point of view. Raw images are thus blurry which implies a deconvolution stage that restores sharpness but also increases the noise level in the high frequency domain. A denoising step, based upon wavelet packet coefficients thresholding/shrinkage technique, allows controlling the final noise level. Each of these methods includes numerous parameters that have to be assessed during the inflight commissioning period: deconvolution filter that depends on MTF assessment, instrumental noise model, noise level target for denoised images, wavelet packet decomposition level. This paper aims to precisely describe the deconvolution/denoising algorithms and how their main parameters have been set up during the inflight commissioning stage. Special attention will be given to structured noise induced by Pleiades-HR on board wavelet-based compression algorithm

  14. Chaetomium retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Wedin, Keith; Al Haddab, Saad

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of Chaetomium atrobrunneum retinitis in a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma. We studied the ocular manifestations of an 11-year-old boy with retinitis. Biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, and fundus photography were done. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed. A vitreous biopsy was subjected to viral, bacterial, and fungal cultures. Vitreous culture grew C. atrobrunneum. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple cerebral lesions consistent with an infectious process. The patient was given intravenous voriconazole and showed improvement of the ocular and central nervous system lesions. We report a case of central nervous system and ocular lesions by C. atrobrunneum. The retinitis was initially misdiagnosed as cytomegaloviral retinitis. Vitreous biopsy helped in the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a life- and vision-threatening infection.

  15. Interactive segmentation for geographic atrophy in retinal fundus images

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Noah; Smith, R. Theodore; Laine, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    Fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) imaging is a non-invasive technique for in vivo ophthalmoscopic inspection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in developed countries. Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD and accounts for 12–21% of severe visual loss in this disorder [3]. Automatic quantification of GA is important for determining disease progression and facilitating clinical diagnosis of AMD. The problem of automatic segmentation of patho...

  16. Molecular imaging of retinal endothelial injury in diabetic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Frimmel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that molecular imaging can be used to detect subtle changes in the diabetic retina prior to the occurrence of irreversible pathology. Thus, ICAM-1 could serve as a diagnostic target in patients with diabetes. This study provides a proof of principle for non-invasive subclinical diagnosis in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Further development of this technology could improve management of diabetic complications.

  17. Interactive segmentation for geographic atrophy in retinal fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Noah; Smith, R Theodore; Laine, Andrew F

    2008-10-01

    Fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) imaging is a non-invasive technique for in vivo ophthalmoscopic inspection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in developed countries. Geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced form of AMD and accounts for 12-21% of severe visual loss in this disorder [3]. Automatic quantification of GA is important for determining disease progression and facilitating clinical diagnosis of AMD. The problem of automatic segmentation of pathological images still remains an unsolved problem. In this paper we leverage the watershed transform and generalized non-linear gradient operators for interactive segmentation and present an intuitive and simple approach for geographic atrophy segmentation. We compare our approach with the state of the art random walker [5] algorithm for interactive segmentation using ROC statistics. Quantitative evaluation experiments on 100 FAF images show a mean sensitivity/specificity of 98.3/97.7% for our approach and a mean sensitivity/specificity of 88.2/96.6% for the random walker algorithm.

  18. Restoration of color in a remote sensing image and its quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuxun; Li, Zhijiang; Zhang, Jianqing; Wang, Zhihe

    2003-09-01

    This paper is focused on the restoration of color remote sensing (including airborne photo). A complete approach is recommended. It propose that two main aspects should be concerned in restoring a remote sensing image, that are restoration of space information, restoration of photometric information. In this proposal, the restoration of space information can be performed by making the modulation transfer function (MTF) as degradation function, in which the MTF is obtained by measuring the edge curve of origin image. The restoration of photometric information can be performed by improved local maximum entropy algorithm. What's more, a valid approach in processing color remote sensing image is recommended. That is splits the color remote sensing image into three monochromatic images which corresponding three visible light bands and synthesizes the three images after being processed separately with psychological color vision restriction. Finally, three novel evaluation variables are obtained based on image restoration to evaluate the image restoration quality in space restoration quality and photometric restoration quality. An evaluation is provided at last.

  19. Restoration and Enhancement of Underwater Images Based on Bright Channel Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakun Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method of underwater images restoration and enhancement which was inspired by the dark channel prior in image dehazing field. Firstly, we proposed the bright channel prior of underwater environment. By estimating and rectifying the bright channel image, estimating the atmospheric light, and estimating and refining the transmittance image, eventually underwater images were restored. Secondly, in order to rectify the color distortion, the restoration images were equalized by using the deduced histogram equalization. The experiment results showed that the proposed method could enhance the quality of underwater images effectively.

  20. Automated radial basis function neural network based image classification system for diabetic retinopathy detection in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, J.; Vijila, C. Kezi Selva; Hemanth, D. Jude

    2010-02-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic eye disease for which early detection is highly essential to avoid any fatal results. Image processing of retinal images emerge as a feasible tool for this early diagnosis. Digital image processing techniques involve image classification which is a significant technique to detect the abnormality in the eye. Various automated classification systems have been developed in the recent years but most of them lack high classification accuracy. Artificial neural networks are the widely preferred artificial intelligence technique since it yields superior results in terms of classification accuracy. In this work, Radial Basis function (RBF) neural network based bi-level classification system is proposed to differentiate abnormal DR Images and normal retinal images. The results are analyzed in terms of classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. A comparative analysis is performed with the results of the probabilistic classifier namely Bayesian classifier to show the superior nature of neural classifier. Experimental results show promising results for the neural classifier in terms of the performance measures.

  1. Phenotypic diversity in autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy elucidated by adaptive optics retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongxin; Rossi, Ethan A; Stone, Edwin; Latchney, Lisa; Williams, David; Dubra, Alfredo; Chung, Mina

    2018-01-01

    Several genes causing autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy (AD-CRD) have been identified. However, the mechanisms by which genetic mutations lead to cellular loss in human disease remain poorly understood. Here we combine genotyping with high-resolution adaptive optics retinal imaging to elucidate the retinal phenotype at a cellular level in patients with AD-CRD harbouring a defect in the GUCA1A gene. Nine affected members of a four-generation AD-CRD pedigree and three unaffected first-degree relatives underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, fundus examination, Goldmann perimetry, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and electroretinography. Genome-wide scan followed by bidirectional sequencing was performed on all affected participants. High-resolution imaging using a custom adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was performed for selected participants. Clinical evaluations showed a range of disease severity from normal fundus appearance in teenaged patients to pronounced macular atrophy in older patients. Molecular genetic testing showed a mutation in in GUCA1A segregating with disease. AOSLO imaging revealed that of the two teenage patients with mild disease, one had severe disruption of the photoreceptor mosaic while the other had a normal cone mosaic. AOSLO imaging demonstrated variability in the pattern of cone and rod cell loss between two teenage cousins with early AD-CRD, who had similar clinical features and had the identical disease-causing mutation in GUCA1A . This finding suggests that a mutation in GUCA1A does not lead to the same degree of AD-CRD in all patients. Modifying factors may mitigate or augment disease severity, leading to different retinal cellular phenotypes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Optical imaging of oxidative stress in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in rodent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanian, Zahra; Maleki, Sepideh; Gopalakrishnan, Sandeep; Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Eells, Janis T.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), which increases during retinal degenerative disorders, contributes to photoreceptor cell loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the metabolic state of the eye tissue in rodent models of retinitis pigmentosa by using the cryofluorescence imaging technique. The mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH and FADH2 are autofluorescent and can be monitored without exogenous labels using optical techniques. The NADH redox ratio (RR), which is the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of these fluorophores (NADH/FAD), was used as a quantitative diagnostic marker. The NADH RR was examined in an established rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the P23H rat, and compared to that of control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and P23H NIR treated rats. Our results demonstrated 24% decrease in the mean NADH RR of the eyes from P23H transgenic rats compared to normal rats and 20% increase in the mean NADH RR of the eyes from the P23H NIR treated rats compared to P23H non-treated rats.

  3. Hypertensive retinopathy identification through retinal fundus image using backpropagation neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Amalia, C.; Rahmat, R. F.; Abdullah, D.; Napitupulu, D.; Setiawan, M. I.; Albra, W.; Nurdin; Andayani, U.

    2018-03-01

    Hypertension or high blood pressure can cause damage of blood vessels in the retina of eye called hypertensive retinopathy (HR). In the event Hypertension, it will cause swelling blood vessels and a decrese in retina performance. To detect HR in patients body, it is usually performed through physical examination of opthalmoscope which is still conducted manually by an ophthalmologist. Certainly, in such a manual manner, takes a ong time for a doctor to detetct HR on aa patient based on retina fundus iamge. To overcome ths problem, a method is needed to identify the image of retinal fundus automatically. In this research, backpropagation neural network was used as a method for retinal fundus identification. The steps performed prior to identification were pre-processing (green channel, contrast limited adapative histogram qualization (CLAHE), morphological close, background exclusion, thresholding and connected component analysis), feature extraction using zoning. The results show that the proposed method is able to identify retinal fundus with an accuracy of 95% with maximum epoch of 1500.

  4. Modern technologies for retinal scanning and imaging: an introduction for the biomedical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This review article is meant to help biomedical engineers and nonphysical scientists better understand the principles of, and the main trends in modern scanning and imaging modalities used in ophthalmology. It is intended to ease the communication between physicists, medical doctors and engineers, and hopefully encourage “classical” biomedical engineers to generate new ideas and to initiate projects in an area which has traditionally been dominated by optical physics. Most of the methods involved are applicable to other areas of biomedical optics and optoelectronics, such as microscopic imaging, spectroscopy, spectral imaging, opto-acoustic tomography, fluorescence imaging etc., all of which are with potential biomedical application. Although all described methods are novel and important, the emphasis of this review has been placed on three technologies introduced in the 1990’s and still undergoing vigorous development: Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, and polarization-sensitive retinal scanning. PMID:24779618

  5. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Bagheri, Abouzar; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Frimmel, Sonja; Zhang, Zhongyu; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of vision loss. Biomarkers and methods for early diagnosis of DR are urgently needed. Using a new molecular imaging approach, we show up to 94% higher accumulation of custom designed imaging probes against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in retinal and choroidal vessels of diabetic animals (PM. R., Samiei, S., Soheili, Z.-S., Frimmel, S., Zhang, Z., Ablonczy, Z., Ahmadieh, H., Hafezi-Moghadam, A. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis. PMID:24903276

  6. Localized Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects in Red-free Photographs Versus En Face Structural Optical Coherence Tomography Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hoon; Park, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Chungkwon; Kim, Yong Yeon

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the locations of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in red-free fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography (OCT) en face images. We performed a retrospective, comparative study on 46 eyes from 46 glaucoma patients with localized RNFL defects observed in red-free fundus photographs. En face structural images were obtained in the superficial and whole retinal layers using OCT and were overlaid on the corresponding red-free fundus photographs. The proximal/distal angular locations and angular width of each RNFL defect in red-free photos (red-free defects) and in en face structural images (en face defects) were compared. In the superficial retinal layer, there were no significant differences between red-free and en face defects on the proximal/distal angular location and angular width. In the whole retinal layer, the degree of the distal angular location of the en face defects was significantly larger than that of the red-free defects (71.85±18.26 vs. 70.87±17.90 degrees, P=0.003). The correlations of clinical variables with the differences in angular parameters between red-free and en face defects were not significant in the superficial retinal layer. The average RNFL thickness was negatively correlated with the difference in the distal angular location in the whole retinal layer (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.401, P=0.006). Localized RNFL defects detected in OCT en face structural images of the superficial retinal layer showed high topographic correlation with defects detected in red-free photographs. OCT en face structural images in the superficial layer may be an alternative to red-free fundus photography for the identification of localized RNFL defects in glaucomatous eyes.

  7. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  8. Optimization of hybrid imaging systems based on maximization of kurtosis of the restored point spread function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demenikov, Mads

    2011-01-01

    to optimization results based on full-reference image measures of restored images. In comparison with full-reference measures, the kurtosis measure is fast to compute and requires no images, noise distributions, or alignment of restored images, but only the signal-to-noise-ratio. © 2011 Optical Society of America.......I propose a novel, but yet simple, no-reference, objective image quality measure based on the kurtosis of the restored point spread function. Using this measure, I optimize several phase masks for extended-depth-of-field in hybrid imaging systems and obtain results that are identical...

  9. Retinal axial focusing and multi-layer imaging with a liquid crystal adaptive optics camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui-Xue; Zheng Xian-Liang; Li Da-Yu; Hu Li-Fa; Cao Zhao-Liang; Mu Quan-Quan; Xuan Li; Xia Ming-Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the help of adaptive optics (AO) technology, cellular level imaging of living human retina can be achieved. Aiming to reduce distressing feelings and to avoid potential drug induced diseases, we attempted to image retina with dilated pupil and froze accommodation without drugs. An optimized liquid crystal adaptive optics camera was adopted for retinal imaging. A novel eye stared system was used for stimulating accommodation and fixating imaging area. Illumination sources and imaging camera kept linkage for focusing and imaging different layers. Four subjects with diverse degree of myopia were imaged. Based on the optical properties of the human eye, the eye stared system reduced the defocus to less than the typical ocular depth of focus. In this way, the illumination light can be projected on certain retina layer precisely. Since that the defocus had been compensated by the eye stared system, the adopted 512 × 512 liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) corrector provided the crucial spatial fidelity to fully compensate high-order aberrations. The Strehl ratio of a subject with −8 diopter myopia was improved to 0.78, which was nearly close to diffraction-limited imaging. By finely adjusting the axial displacement of illumination sources and imaging camera, cone photoreceptors, blood vessels and nerve fiber layer were clearly imaged successfully. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Fruit fly optimization based least square support vector regression for blind image restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Rui; Li, Junshan; Yang, Yawei

    2014-11-01

    The goal of image restoration is to reconstruct the original scene from a degraded observation. It is a critical and challenging task in image processing. Classical restorations require explicit knowledge of the point spread function and a description of the noise as priors. However, it is not practical for many real image processing. The recovery processing needs to be a blind image restoration scenario. Since blind deconvolution is an ill-posed problem, many blind restoration methods need to make additional assumptions to construct restrictions. Due to the differences of PSF and noise energy, blurring images can be quite different. It is difficult to achieve a good balance between proper assumption and high restoration quality in blind deconvolution. Recently, machine learning techniques have been applied to blind image restoration. The least square support vector regression (LSSVR) has been proven to offer strong potential in estimating and forecasting issues. Therefore, this paper proposes a LSSVR-based image restoration method. However, selecting the optimal parameters for support vector machine is essential to the training result. As a novel meta-heuristic algorithm, the fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) can be used to handle optimization problems, and has the advantages of fast convergence to the global optimal solution. In the proposed method, the training samples are created from a neighborhood in the degraded image to the central pixel in the original image. The mapping between the degraded image and the original image is learned by training LSSVR. The two parameters of LSSVR are optimized though FOA. The fitness function of FOA is calculated by the restoration error function. With the acquired mapping, the degraded image can be recovered. Experimental results show the proposed method can obtain satisfactory restoration effect. Compared with BP neural network regression, SVR method and Lucy-Richardson algorithm, it speeds up the restoration rate and

  11. Pain and stress assessment after retinopathy of prematurity screening examination: Indirect ophthalmoscopy versus digital retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral-Pumarega M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, neonatal clinics seek to minimize painful experiences and stress for premature infants. Fundoscopy performed with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is the reference examination technique for screening of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, and it is associated with pain and stress. Wide-field digital retinal imaging is a recent technique that should be evaluated for minimizing infant pain and stress. Methods The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the impact of using a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, or wide-field digital retinal imaging (WFDRI on pain and stress in infants undergoing ROP screening examination. This was a comparative evaluation study of two screening procedures. Ophthalmologic examinations (N = 70 were performed on 24 infants with both BIO and WFDRI. Pain assessments were performed with two specific neonatal scales (Crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression and sleeplessness, CRIES and, Premature infant pain profile, PIPP just prior to the examination, and 30 seconds, 1 hour, and 24 hours later after ending the examination. Results Changes over time were significantly different between BIO and WFDRI with both scales (PIPP score, p = .007, and CRIES score, p = .001. Median PIPP score (interquartile interval at baseline was 4 (3–5. At 30 seconds the score was 8 (6–9 for BIO and 6 (5–7 for WFDRI, respectively. The increase in PIPP score between baseline and 30 seconds was significantly lower with WFDRI (p = .006. The median increase in CRIES score from baseline to 30 seconds was 1 point lower for WFDRI than for BIO (p  Conclusions A transient short-term pain and stress response occurs with both BIO and WFDRI. Infants examined for screening of ROP with digital retinal imaging present less pain and stress at 30 seconds following completion of the exam when compared with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy.

  12. Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lombardo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of various technical factors on the variation of cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images. METHODS: Adaptive optics images of the photoreceptor mosaic were obtained in fifteen healthy subjects. The cone density and Voronoi diagrams were assessed in sampling windows of 320×320 µm, 160×160 µm and 64×64 µm at 1.5 degree temporal and superior eccentricity from the preferred locus of fixation (PRL. The technical factors that have been analyzed included the sampling window size, the corrected retinal magnification factor (RMFcorr, the conversion from radial to linear distance from the PRL, the displacement between the PRL and foveal center and the manual checking of cone identification algorithm. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between cone density estimated within the different sampling window conditions. RESULTS: The cone density declined with decreasing sampling area and data between areas of different size showed low agreement. A high agreement was found between sampling areas of the same size when comparing density calculated with or without using individual RMFcorr. The agreement between cone density measured at radial and linear distances from the PRL and between data referred to the PRL or the foveal center was moderate. The percentage of Voronoi tiles with hexagonal packing arrangement was comparable between sampling areas of different size. The boundary effect, presence of any retinal vessels, and the manual selection of cones missed by the automated identification algorithm were identified as the factors influencing variation of cone packing arrangements in Voronoi diagrams. CONCLUSIONS: The sampling window size is the main technical factor that influences variation of cone density. Clear identification of each cone in the image and the use of a large buffer zone are necessary to minimize factors influencing variation of Voronoi

  13. Dynamic simulation of the effect of soft toric contact lenses movement on retinal image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yafei; Sarver, Edwin J; Stevenson, Scott B; Marsack, Jason D; Parker, Katrina E; Applegate, Raymond A

    2008-04-01

    To report the development of a tool designed to dynamically simulate the effect of soft toric contact lens movement on retinal image quality, initial findings on three eyes, and the next steps to be taken to improve the utility of the tool. Three eyes of two subjects wearing soft toric contact lenses were cyclopleged with 1% cyclopentolate and 2.5% phenylephrine. Four hundred wavefront aberration measurements over a 5-mm pupil were recorded during soft contact lens wear at 30 Hz using a complete ophthalmic analysis system aberrometer. Each wavefront error measurement was input into Visual Optics Laboratory (version 7.15, Sarver and Associates, Inc.) to generate a retinal simulation of a high contrast log MAR visual acuity chart. The individual simulations were combined into a single dynamic movie using a custom MatLab PsychToolbox program. Visual acuity was measured for each eye reading the movie with best cycloplegic spectacle correction through a 3-mm artificial pupil to minimize the influence of the eyes' uncorrected aberrations. Comparison of the simulated acuity was made to values recorded while the subject read unaberrated charts with contact lenses through a 5-mm artificial pupil. For one study eye, average acuity was the same as the natural contact lens viewing condition. For the other two study eyes visual acuity of the best simulation was more than one line worse than natural viewing conditions. Dynamic simulation of retinal image quality, although not yet perfect, is a promising technique for visually illustrating the optical effects on image quality because of the movements of alignment-sensitive corrections.

  14. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome associated with retinal vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Akihiro Takahashi, Wataru Saito, Yuki Hashimoto, Susumu Ishida Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Purpose: A recent study revealed thickening of the inner retinal layers in acute stage of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS; however, the pathogenesis is still unknown. We report two cases with MEWDS whose funduscopy showed obvious retinal vasculitis. Methods: Case reports. Results: Healthy myopic 16- and 27-year-old women were the cases under study. In both cases, funduscopic examination revealed multiple, faint, small, subretinal white dots at the posterior pole to the midperiphery and macular granularity oculus dexter. Retinal vascular sheathing was also observed at midperiphery. Late-phase fluorescein angiography revealed leakages corresponding to the vascular sheathing. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed the discontinuity of the ellipsoid zone corresponding to the white dots and increased macular choroidal thickness. One month later, these white dots and retinal sheathing spontaneously resolved in both cases. Three months later, impairments of the outer retinal morphology and the visual acuity were restored. Conclusion: These results suggest that retinal vasculitis possibly plays a role in the pathogenesis of thickened inner retinal layers in acute stage of MEWDS. Keywords: enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, choroidal thickness, inner retinal layer, retinal vascular sheathing

  15. Placement of a crystalline lens and intraocular lens: Retinal image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Damian; Nowak, Jerzy; Zajac, Marek

    2006-01-01

    The influence of changes of both crystalline lens and intraocular lens (IOL) misalignment on the retinal image quality was investigated. The optical model of the eye used in investigations was the Liou-Brennan model, which is commonly considered as one of the most anatomically accurate. The original crystalline lens from this model was replaced with an IOL, made of rigid polymethylmethacrylate, in a way that recommend obligatory procedures. The modifications that were made both for crystalline lens and IOL were the longitudinal, the transversal, and the angular displacement.

  16. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Bagheri, Abouzar; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Frimmel, Sonja; Zhang, Zhongyu; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of vision loss. Biomarkers and methods for early diagnosis of DR are urgently needed. Using a new molecular imaging approach, we show up to 94% higher accumulation of custom designed imaging probes against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in retinal and choroidal vessels of diabetic animals (P

  17. An Automated System for the Detection and Classification of Retinal Changes Due to Red Lesions in Longitudinal Fundus Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adal, K.M.; Van Etten, Peter G.; Martinez, Jose P; Rouwen, Kenneth W.; Vermeer, K.A.; van Vliet, L.J.

    People with diabetes mellitus need annual screening to check for the development of diabetic retinopathy. Tracking small retinal changes due to early diabetic retinopathy lesions in longitudinal fundus image sets is challenging due to intra- and inter-visit variability in illumination and image

  18. Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Blindewald-Wittich, Almut; Holz, Frank G.; Giese, Günter; Niemz, Markolf H.; Snyder, Sarah; Sun, Hui; Yu, Jiayi; Agopov, Michael; La Schiazza, Olivier; Bille, Josef F.

    2006-01-01

    Degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells severely impairs the visual function of retina photoreceptors. However, little is known about the events that trigger the death of RPE cells at the subcellular level. Two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) imaging of RPE cells proves to be well suited to investigate both the morphological and the spectral characteristics of the human RPE cells. The dominant fluorophores of autofluorescence derive from lipofuscin (LF) granules that accumulate in the cytoplasm of the RPE cells with increasing age. Spectral TPEF imaging reveals the existence of abnormal LF granules with blue shifted autofluorescence in RPE cells of aging patients and brings new insights into the complicated composition of the LF granules. Based on a proposed two-photon laser scanning ophthalmoscope, TPEF imaging of the living retina may be valuable for diagnostic and pathological studies of age related eye diseases.

  19. New algorithm for detecting smaller retinal blood vessels in fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeAnder, Robert; Bidari, Praveen I.; Mohammed, Tauseef A.; Das, Moumita; Umbaugh, Scott E.

    2010-03-01

    About 4.1 million Americans suffer from diabetic retinopathy. To help automatically diagnose various stages of the disease, a new blood-vessel-segmentation algorithm based on spatial high-pass filtering was developed to automatically segment blood vessels, including the smaller ones, with low noise. Methods: Image database: Forty, 584 x 565-pixel images were collected from the DRIVE image database. Preprocessing: Green-band extraction was used to obtain better contrast, which facilitated better visualization of retinal blood vessels. A spatial highpass filter of mask-size 11 was applied. A histogram stretch was performed to enhance contrast. A median filter was applied to mitigate noise. At this point, the gray-scale image was converted to a binary image using a binary thresholding operation. Then, a NOT operation was performed by gray-level value inversion between 0 and 255. Postprocessing: The resulting image was AND-ed with its corresponding ring mask to remove the outer-ring (lens-edge) artifact. At this point, the above algorithm steps had extracted most of the major and minor vessels, with some intersections and bifurcations missing. Vessel segments were reintegrated using the Hough transform. Results: After applying the Hough transform, both the average peak SNR and the RMS error improved by 10%. Pratt's Figure of Merit (PFM) was decreased by 6%. Those averages were better than [1] by 10-30%. Conclusions: The new algorithm successfully preserved the details of smaller blood vessels and should prove successful as a segmentation step for automatically identifying diseases that affect retinal blood vessels.

  20. Imaging retinal nerve fiber bundles using optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Omer P; Cense, Barry; Jonnal, Ravi S; Wang, Qiang; Lee, Sangyeol; Gao, Weihua; Miller, Donald T

    2011-08-15

    Early detection of axonal tissue loss in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is critical for effective treatment and management of diseases such as glaucoma. This study aims to evaluate the capability of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics (UHR-AO-OCT) for imaging the RNFL axonal bundles (RNFBs) with 3×3×3μm(3) resolution in the eye. We used a research-grade UHR-AO-OCT system to acquire 3°×3° volumes in four normal subjects and one subject with an arcuate retinal nerve fiber layer defect (n=5; 29-62years). Cross section (B-scans) and en face (C-scan) slices extracted from the volumes were used to assess visibility and size distribution of individual RNFBs. In one subject, we reimaged the same RNFBs twice over a 7month interval and compared bundle width and thickness between the two imaging sessions. Lastly we compared images of an arcuate RNFL defect acquired with UHR-AO-OCT and commercial OCT (Heidelberg Spectralis). Individual RNFBs were distinguishable in all subjects at 3° retinal eccentricity in both cross-sectional and en face views (width: 30-50μm, thickness: 10-15μm). At 6° retinal eccentricity, RNFBs were distinguishable in three of the five subjects in both views (width: 30-45μm, thickness: 20-40μm). Width and thickness RNFB measurements taken 7months apart were strongly correlated (p<0.0005). Mean difference and standard deviation of the differences between the two measurement sessions were -0.1±4.0μm (width) and 0.3±1.5μm (thickness). UHR-AO-OCT outperformed commercial OCT in terms of clarity of the microscopic retina. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of RNFB cross section reported in the living human eye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm for retinal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torzicky, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop a Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) device for ocular imaging in the 1 µm wavelength range and to explore its capabilities to image healthy subjects and patients with various retinal disorders. PS-OCT set-ups working in the 840 nm range have been used in several clinical studies, for examining different retinal pathologies. Especially the segmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) based on PS-OCT data shows advantages in cases of age related macular degeneration (AMD) in comparison to segmentation based on intensity images from commercial OCT systems. OCT imaging in the 1 µm wavelength region has recently gained popularity for ophthalmic applications due to the fact that it is perfectly suitable for enhanced visualization of choroid and sclera. This is due to decreased scattering and absorption in the RPE with increasing wavelength and due to the local absorption minimum of water (the vitreous of the eye consists mainly of water) for wavelengths around 1060 nm. An additional advantage is that a higher imaging quality in patients with corneal haze or cataract can be achieved when using OCT systems working at 1 µm. In this work we combine the advantages of PS-OCT imaging with the enhanced penetration depth of the 1 µm wavelength range for acquiring intensity, retardation, axis orientation and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) images of choroid and sclera. As a first step different PS-OCT set-ups working at 1060 nm were developed and a comparison regarding set-up parameters and imaging performance was accomplished. The two different set-ups that were built and investigated were a spectrometer based Fourier Domain OCT set-up and a swept source Fourier Domain OCT set-up. The swept source set-up was tested with two different light sources, a commercially available swept source laser (A-Scan rate of 100 kHz) and a prototype of a Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) laser (A-Scan rate of 350

  2. A Nash-game approach to joint image restoration and segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kallel , Moez; Aboulaich , Rajae; Habbal , Abderrahmane; Moakher , Maher

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We propose a game theory approach to simultaneously restore and segment noisy images. We define two players: one is restoration, with the image intensity as strategy, and the other is segmentation with contours as strategy. Cost functions are the classical relevant ones for restoration and segmentation, respectively. The two players play a static game with complete information, and we consider as solution to the game the so-called Nash Equilibrium. For the computation ...

  3. Color correction with blind image restoration based on multiple images using a low-rank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Xudong; Lam, Kin-Man

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that can handle the color correction of multiple photographs with blind image restoration simultaneously and automatically. We prove that the local colors of a set of images of the same scene exhibit the low-rank property locally both before and after a color-correction operation. This property allows us to correct all kinds of errors in an image under a low-rank matrix model without particular priors or assumptions. The possible errors may be caused by changes of viewpoint, large illumination variations, gross pixel corruptions, partial occlusions, etc. Furthermore, a new iterative soft-segmentation method is proposed for local color transfer using color influence maps. Due to the fact that the correct color information and the spatial information of images can be recovered using the low-rank model, more precise color correction and many other image-restoration tasks-including image denoising, image deblurring, and gray-scale image colorizing-can be performed simultaneously. Experiments have verified that our method can achieve consistent and promising results on uncontrolled real photographs acquired from the Internet and that it outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Zone specific fractal dimension of retinal images as predictor of stroke incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmad, Behzad; Kumar, Dinesh Kant; Hao, Hao; Unnikrishnan, Premith; Che Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal; Kawasaki, Ryo; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Fractal dimensions (FDs) are frequently used for summarizing the complexity of retinal vascular. However, previous techniques on this topic were not zone specific. A new methodology to measure FD of a specific zone in retinal images has been developed and tested as a marker for stroke prediction. Higuchi's fractal dimension was measured in circumferential direction (FDC) with respect to optic disk (OD), in three concentric regions between OD boundary and 1.5 OD diameter from its margin. The significance of its association with future episode of stroke event was tested using the Blue Mountain Eye Study (BMES) database and compared against spectrum fractal dimension (SFD) and box-counting (BC) dimension. Kruskal-Wallis analysis revealed FDC as a better predictor of stroke (H = 5.80, P = 0.016, α = 0.05) compared with SFD (H = 0.51, P = 0.475, α = 0.05) and BC (H = 0.41, P = 0.520, α = 0.05) with overall lower median value for the cases compared to the control group. This work has shown that there is a significant association between zone specific FDC of eye fundus images with future episode of stroke while this difference is not significant when other FD methods are employed.

  5. Thickness related textural properties of retinal nerve fiber layer in color fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odstrcilik, Jan; Kolar, Radim; Tornow, Ralf-Peter; Jan, Jiri; Budai, Attila; Mayer, Markus; Vodakova, Martina; Laemmer, Robert; Lamos, Martin; Kuna, Zdenek; Gazarek, Jiri; Kubena, Tomas; Cernosek, Pavel; Ronzhina, Marina

    2014-09-01

    Images of ocular fundus are routinely utilized in ophthalmology. Since an examination using fundus camera is relatively fast and cheap procedure, it can be used as a proper diagnostic tool for screening of retinal diseases such as the glaucoma. One of the glaucoma symptoms is progressive atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) resulting in variations of the RNFL thickness. Here, we introduce a novel approach to capture these variations using computer-aided analysis of the RNFL textural appearance in standard and easily available color fundus images. The proposed method uses the features based on Gaussian Markov random fields and local binary patterns, together with various regression models for prediction of the RNFL thickness. The approach allows description of the changes in RNFL texture, directly reflecting variations in the RNFL thickness. Evaluation of the method is carried out on 16 normal ("healthy") and 8 glaucomatous eyes. We achieved significant correlation (normals: ρ=0.72±0.14; p≪0.05, glaucomatous: ρ=0.58±0.10; p≪0.05) between values of the model predicted output and the RNFL thickness measured by optical coherence tomography, which is currently regarded as a standard glaucoma assessment device. The evaluation thus revealed good applicability of the proposed approach to measure possible RNFL thinning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of cytochrome c as marker for retinal cell degeneration by uv/vis spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmach, Julia; Schweizer, Julia; Steiner, Gerald; Knels, Lilla; Funk, Richard H. W.; Thalheim, Silko; Koch, Edmund

    2011-07-01

    Retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration have become an important cause of visual loss depending on increasing life expectancy and lifestyle habits. Due to the fact that no satisfying treatment exists, early diagnosis and prevention are the only possibilities to stop the degeneration. The protein cytochrome c (cyt c) is a suitable marker for degeneration processes and apoptosis because it is a part of the respiratory chain and involved in the apoptotic pathway. The determination of the local distribution and oxidative state of cyt c in living cells allows the characterization of cell degeneration processes. Since cyt c exhibits characteristic absorption bands between 400 and 650 nm wavelength, uv/vis in situ spectroscopic imaging was used for its characterization in retinal ganglion cells. The large amount of data, consisting of spatial and spectral information, was processed by multivariate data analysis. The challenge consists in the identification of the molecular information of cyt c. Baseline correction, principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were performed in order to identify cyt c within the spectral dataset. The combination of PCA and CA reveals cyt c and its oxidative state. The results demonstrate that uv/vis spectroscopic imaging in conjunction with sophisticated multivariate methods is a suitable tool to characterize cyt c under in situ conditions.

  7. Enhanced Visualization of Subtle Outer Retinal Pathology by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation with Multi-Modal Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta M Sampson

    Full Text Available To present en face optical coherence tomography (OCT images generated by graph-search theory algorithm-based custom software and examine correlation with other imaging modalities.En face OCT images derived from high density OCT volumetric scans of 3 healthy subjects and 4 patients using a custom algorithm (graph-search theory and commercial software (Heidelberg Eye Explorer software (Heidelberg Engineering were compared and correlated with near infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO and microperimetry.Commercial software was unable to generate accurate en face OCT images in eyes with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE pathology due to segmentation error at the level of Bruch's membrane (BM. Accurate segmentation of the basal RPE and BM was achieved using custom software. The en face OCT images from eyes with isolated interdigitation or ellipsoid zone pathology were of similar quality between custom software and Heidelberg Eye Explorer software in the absence of any other significant outer retinal pathology. En face OCT images demonstrated angioid streaks, lesions of acute macular neuroretinopathy, hydroxychloroquine toxicity and Bietti crystalline deposits that correlated with other imaging modalities.Graph-search theory algorithm helps to overcome the limitations of outer retinal segmentation inaccuracies in commercial software. En face OCT images can provide detailed topography of the reflectivity within a specific layer of the retina which correlates with other forms of fundus imaging. Our results highlight the need for standardization of image reflectivity to facilitate quantification of en face OCT images and longitudinal analysis.

  8. Supervised retinal vessel segmentation from color fundus images based on matched filtering and AdaBoost classifier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogol Memari

    Full Text Available The structure and appearance of the blood vessel network in retinal fundus images is an essential part of diagnosing various problems associated with the eyes, such as diabetes and hypertension. In this paper, an automatic retinal vessel segmentation method utilizing matched filter techniques coupled with an AdaBoost classifier is proposed. The fundus image is enhanced using morphological operations, the contrast is increased using contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE method and the inhomogeneity is corrected using Retinex approach. Then, the blood vessels are enhanced using a combination of B-COSFIRE and Frangi matched filters. From this preprocessed image, different statistical features are computed on a pixel-wise basis and used in an AdaBoost classifier to extract the blood vessel network inside the image. Finally, the segmented images are postprocessed to remove the misclassified pixels and regions. The proposed method was validated using publicly accessible Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE, Structured Analysis of the Retina (STARE and Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE_DB1 datasets commonly used for determining the accuracy of retinal vessel segmentation methods. The accuracy of the proposed segmentation method was comparable to other state of the art methods while being very close to the manual segmentation provided by the second human observer with an average accuracy of 0.972, 0.951 and 0.948 in DRIVE, STARE and CHASE_DB1 datasets, respectively.

  9. Automatic Detection of Optic Disc in Retinal Image by Using Keypoint Detection, Texture Analysis, and Visual Dictionary Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Akyol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the computer field, methods and techniques in automatic image processing and analysis provide the opportunity to detect automatically the change and degeneration in retinal images. Localization of the optic disc is extremely important for determining the hard exudate lesions or neovascularization, which is the later phase of diabetic retinopathy, in computer aided eye disease diagnosis systems. Whereas optic disc detection is fairly an easy process in normal retinal images, detecting this region in the retinal image which is diabetic retinopathy disease may be difficult. Sometimes information related to optic disc and hard exudate information may be the same in terms of machine learning. We presented a novel approach for efficient and accurate localization of optic disc in retinal images having noise and other lesions. This approach is comprised of five main steps which are image processing, keypoint extraction, texture analysis, visual dictionary, and classifier techniques. We tested our proposed technique on 3 public datasets and obtained quantitative results. Experimental results show that an average optic disc detection accuracy of 94.38%, 95.00%, and 90.00% is achieved, respectively, on the following public datasets: DIARETDB1, DRIVE, and ROC.

  10. Pre-processing, registration and selection of adaptive optics corrected retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Gomathy; Devaney, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the aim is to demonstrate enhanced processing of sequences of fundus images obtained using a commercial AO flood illumination system. The purpose of the work is to (1) correct for uneven illumination at the retina (2) automatically select the best quality images and (3) precisely register the best images. Adaptive optics corrected retinal images are pre-processed to correct uneven illumination using different methods; subtracting or dividing by the average filtered image, homomorphic filtering and a wavelet based approach. These images are evaluated to measure the image quality using various parameters, including sharpness, variance, power spectrum kurtosis and contrast. We have carried out the registration in two stages; a coarse stage using cross-correlation followed by fine registration using two approaches; parabolic interpolation on the peak of the cross-correlation and maximum-likelihood estimation. The angle of rotation of the images is measured using a combination of peak tracking and Procrustes transformation. We have found that a wavelet approach (Daubechies 4 wavelet at 6th level decomposition) provides good illumination correction with clear improvement in image sharpness and contrast. The assessment of image quality using a 'Designer metric' works well when compared to visual evaluation, although it is highly correlated with other metrics. In image registration, sub-pixel translation measured using parabolic interpolation on the peak of the cross-correlation function and maximum-likelihood estimation are found to give very similar results (RMS difference 0.047 pixels). We have confirmed that correcting rotation of the images provides a significant improvement, especially at the edges of the image. We observed that selecting the better quality frames (e.g. best 75% images) for image registration gives improved resolution, at the expense of poorer signal-to-noise. The sharpness map of the registered and de-rotated images shows increased

  11. Characteristics of the retinal images of the eye optical systems with implanted intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Damian; Zając, Marek; Nowak, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Cataract, or opacity of crystalline lens in the human eye is one of the most frequent reasons of blindness nowadays. Removing the pathologically altered crystalline lens and replacing it with artificial implantable intraocular lens (IOL) is practically the only therapy in this illness. There exist a wide variety of artificial IOL types on the medical market, differing in their material and design (shape). In this paper six exemplary models of IOL's made of PMMA, acrylic and silicone are considered. The retinal image quality is analyzed numerically on the basis of Liou-Brennan eye model with these IOL's inserted. Chromatic aberration as well as polychromatic Point Spread Function and Modulation Transfer Function are calculated as most adequate image quality measures. The calculations made with Zemax TM software show the importance of chromatic aberration correction.

  12. In-vivo imaging of blood flow in human retinal vessels using color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    1999-04-01

    Quantification of retinal blood flow may lead to a better understanding of the progression and treatment of several ocular disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, age- related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Current techniques, such as fluorescein angiography and laser Doppler velocimetry are limited, failing to provide sufficient information to the clinician. Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) is a novel technique using coherent heterodyne detection for simultaneous cross- sectional imaging of tissue microstructure and blood flow. This technique is capable of high spatial and velocity resolution imaging in highly scattering media. We implemented CDOCT for retinal blood flow mapping in human subjects. No dilation of the pupil was necessary. CDOCT is demonstrated for determining bidirectional flow in sub- 100micrometers diameter vessels in the retina. Additionally, we calculated Doppler broadening using the variance of depth- resolved spectra to identify regions with large velocity gradients within the Xenopus heart. This technique may be useful in quantifying local tissue perfusion in highly vascular retinal tissue.

  13. Imaging of Dual Ophthalmic Arteries: Identification of the Central Retinal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the origin of the central retinal artery (CRA is imperative in tailoring angiographic studies to resolve a given clinical problem. A case with dual ophthalmic arteries (OAs, characterized by different origins and distinct branching patterns, is documented for training purposes. Pre-clinical diagnosis of a 9-year-old child who presented with a sharp wire in the left-side eyeball was primarily corneal laceration. For imaging, a selected six-vessel angiographic study with the transfemoral approach was performed. Embolization was not required and the wire could be successfully removed. Right-side OA anatomy was normal, while left-side dual OAs with external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA origins were seen. The case presented with a left-side meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly via the ECA, marked by a middle meningeal artery (MMA (origin: Maxillary artery; course: Through foramen spinosum with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and an OA variant (course: Through superior orbital fissure with a distinct orbital branching pattern. A smaller OA (origin: ICA; course: Through optic foramen with a distinct ocular branching pattern presented with the central retinal artery (CRA. The presence of the dual OAs and the M-OA anomaly can be explained by disturbed evolutionary changes of the primitive OA and stapedial artery during development. The surgical interventionist must be aware of dual OAs and M-OA anomalies with branching pattern variations on retinal supply, because of dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomotic connections. It is of clinical significance that the origin of the CRA from the ICA or ECA must be determined to avoid complications to the vision.

  14. Characterization of Long Working Distance Optical Coherence Tomography for Imaging of Pediatric Retinal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ruobing; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Sarin, Neeru; Vajzovic, Lejla; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2017-10-01

    We determined the feasibility of fovea and optic nerve head imaging with a long working distance (LWD) swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype in adults, teenagers, and young children. A prototype swept source OCT system with a LWD (defined as distance from the last optical element of the imaging system to the eye) of 350 mm with custom fixation targets was developed to facilitate imaging of children. Imaging was performed in 49 participants from three age groups: 26 adults, 16 children 13 to 18 years old (teenagers), and seven children under 6 years old (young children) under an approved institutional review board protocol. The imaging goal was to acquire high quality scans of the fovea and optic nerve in each eye in the shortest time possible. OCT B-scans and volumes of the fovea and optic nerve head of each eligible eye were captured and graded based on four categories (lateral and axial centration, contrast, and resolution) and on ability to determine presence or absence of pathology. LWD-OCT imaging was successful in 88 of 94 eligible eyes, including seven of 10 eyes of young children. Of the successfully acquired OCT images, 83% of B-scan and volumetric images, including 86% from young children, were graded as high-quality scans. Pathology was observed in high-quality OCT images. The prototype LWD-OCT system achieved high quality retinal imaging of adults, teenagers, and some young children with and without pathology with reasonable alignment time. The LWD-OCT system can facilitate imaging in children.

  15. Toward automatic phenotyping of retinal images from genetically determined mono- and dizygotic twins using amplitude modulation-frequency modulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, P.; Davis, B.; Murray, V.; Pattichis, M.; Barriga, S.; Russell, S.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents an image processing technique for automatically categorize age-related macular degeneration (AMD) phenotypes from retinal images. Ultimately, an automated approach will be much more precise and consistent in phenotyping of retinal diseases, such as AMD. We have applied the automated phenotyping to retina images from a cohort of mono- and dizygotic twins. The application of this technology will allow one to perform more quantitative studies that will lead to a better understanding of the genetic and environmental factors associated with diseases such as AMD. A method for classifying retinal images based on features derived from the application of amplitude-modulation frequency-modulation (AM-FM) methods is presented. Retinal images from identical and fraternal twins who presented with AMD were processed to determine whether AM-FM could be used to differentiate between the two types of twins. Results of the automatic classifier agreed with the findings of other researchers in explaining the variation of the disease between the related twins. AM-FM features classified 72% of the twins correctly. Visual grading found that genetics could explain between 46% and 71% of the variance.

  16. Multimodal Imaging of Disease-Associated Pigmentary Changes in Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerch, Kaspar; Marsiglia, Marcela; Lee, Winston; Tsang, Stephen H.; Sparrow, Janet R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Using multiple imaging modalities we evaluated the changes in photoreceptor cells and RPE that are associated with bone spicule-shaped melanin pigmentation in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods In a cohort of 60 RP patients, short-wavelength autofluorescence (SW-AF), near-infrared (NIR)-AF, NIR-reflectance (NIR-R), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and color fundus images were studied. Results Central AF rings were visible in both SW-AF and NIR-AF images. Bone spicule pigmentation was non-reflective in NIR-R, hypoautofluorescent with SW-AF and NIR-AF imaging and presented as intraretinal hyperreflective foci in SD-OCT images. In areas beyond the AF ring outer border, the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone (EZ) band was absent in SD-OCT scans and the visibility of choroidal vessels in SW-AF, NIR-AF and NIR-R images was indicative of reduced RPE pigmentation. Choroidal visibility was most pronounced in the zone approaching peripheral areas of bone spicule pigmentation; here RPE/Bruch’s membrane thinning became apparent in SD-OCT scans. Conclusions These findings are consistent with a process by which RPE cells vacate their monolayer and migrate into inner retina in response to photoreceptor cell degeneration. The remaining RPE spread, undergo thinning and consequently become less pigmented. An explanation for the absence of NIR-AF melanin signal in relation to bone spicule pigmentation is not forthcoming. PMID:28005673

  17. Fast localization of optic disc and fovea in retinal images for eye disease screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Barriga, S.; Agurto, C.; Echegaray, S.; Pattichis, M.; Zamora, G.; Bauman, W.; Soliz, P.

    2011-03-01

    Optic disc (OD) and fovea locations are two important anatomical landmarks in automated analysis of retinal disease in color fundus photographs. This paper presents a new, fast, fully automatic optic disc and fovea localization algorithm developed for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening. The optic disc localization methodology comprises of two steps. First, the OD location is identified using template matching and directional matched filter. To reduce false positives due to bright areas of pathology, we exploit vessel characteristics inside the optic disc. The location of the fovea is estimated as the point of lowest matched filter response within a search area determined by the optic disc location. Second, optic disc segmentation is performed. Based on the detected optic disc location, a fast hybrid level-set algorithm which combines the region information and edge gradient to drive the curve evolution is used to segment the optic disc boundary. Extensive evaluation was performed on 1200 images (Messidor) composed of 540 images of healthy retinas, 431 images with DR but no risk of macular edema (ME), and 229 images with DR and risk of ME. The OD location methodology obtained 98.3% success rate, while fovea location achieved 95% success rate. The average mean absolute distance (MAD) between the OD segmentation algorithm and "gold standard" is 10.5% of estimated OD radius. Qualitatively, 97% of the images achieved Excellent to Fair performance for OD segmentation. The segmentation algorithm performs well even on blurred images.

  18. Advances in retinal imaging for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Colin Siang Hui; Chew, Milton Cher Yong; Lim, Louis Wei Yi; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME) are leading causes of blindness throughout the world, and cause significant visual morbidity. Ocular imaging has played a significant role in the management of diabetic eye disease, and the advent of advanced imaging modalities will be of great value as our understanding of diabetic eye diseases increase, and the management options become increasingly varied and complex. Color fundus photography has established roles in screening for diabetic eye disease, early detection of progression, and monitoring of treatment response. Fluorescein angiography (FA) detects areas of capillary nonperfusion, as well as leakage from both microaneurysms and neovascularization. Recent advances in retinal imaging modalities complement traditional fundus photography and provide invaluable new information for clinicians. Ultra-widefield imaging, which can be used to produce both color fundus photographs and FAs, now allows unprecedented views of the posterior pole. The pathologies that are detected in the periphery of the retina have the potential to change the grading of disease severity, and may be of prognostic significance to disease progression. Studies have shown that peripheral ischemia may be related to the presence and severity of DME. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides structural detail of the retina, and the quantitative and qualitative features are useful in the monitoring of diabetic eye disease. A relatively recent innovation, OCT angiography, produces images of the fine blood vessels at the macula and optic disc, without the need for contrast agents. This paper will review the roles of each of these imaging modalities for diabetic eye disease.

  19. Time-resolved PHERMEX image restorations constrained with an additional multiply-exposed image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.P.; Breedlove, J.R. Jr.; Trussell, H.J.

    1978-06-01

    There are a number of possible industrial and scientific applications of nanosecond cineradiographs. Although the technology exists to produce closely spaced pulses of x rays for this application, the quality of the time-resolved radiographs is severely limited. The limitations arise from the necessity of using a fluorescent screen to convert the transmitted x rays to light and then using electro-optical imaging systems to gate and to record the images with conventional high-speed cameras. It has been proposed that, in addition to the time-resolved images, a conventional multiply exposed radiograph be obtained. This report uses both PHERMEX and conventional photographic simulations to demonstrate that the additional information supplied by the multiply exposed radiograph can be used to improve the quality of digital image restorations of the time-resolved pictures over what could be achieved with the degraded images alone

  20. Small-kernel constrained-least-squares restoration of sampled image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Rajeeb; Park, Stephen K.

    1992-10-01

    Constrained least-squares image restoration, first proposed by Hunt twenty years ago, is a linear image restoration technique in which the restoration filter is derived by maximizing the smoothness of the restored image while satisfying a fidelity constraint related to how well the restored image matches the actual data. The traditional derivation and implementation of the constrained least-squares restoration filter is based on an incomplete discrete/discrete system model which does not account for the effects of spatial sampling and image reconstruction. For many imaging systems, these effects are significant and should not be ignored. In a recent paper Park demonstrated that a derivation of the Wiener filter based on the incomplete discrete/discrete model can be extended to a more comprehensive end-to-end, continuous/discrete/continuous model. In a similar way, in this paper, we show that a derivation of the constrained least-squares filter based on the discrete/discrete model can also be extended to this more comprehensive continuous/discrete/continuous model and, by so doing, an improved restoration filter is derived. Building on previous work by Reichenbach and Park for the Wiener filter, we also show that this improved constrained least-squares restoration filter can be efficiently implemented as a small-kernel convolution in the spatial domain.

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Surgery: Perioperative Analysis to Real-Time Four-Dimensional Image-Guided Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Shen, Liangbo; Seider, Michael I; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    Magnification of the surgical field using the operating microscope facilitated profound innovations in retinal surgery in the 1970s, such as pars plana vitrectomy. Although surgical instrumentation and illumination techniques are continually developing, the operating microscope for vitreoretinal procedures has remained essentially unchanged and currently limits the surgeon's depth perception and assessment of subtle microanatomy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized clinical management of retinal pathology, and its introduction into the operating suite may have a similar impact on surgical visualization and treatment. In this article, we review the evolution of OCT for retinal surgery, from perioperative analysis to live volumetric (four-dimensional, 4D) image-guided surgery. We begin by briefly addressing the benefits and limitations of the operating microscope, the progression of OCT technology, and OCT applications in clinical/perioperative retinal imaging. Next, we review intraoperative OCT (iOCT) applications using handheld probes during surgical pauses, two-dimensional (2D) microscope-integrated OCT (MIOCT) of live surgery, and volumetric MIOCT of live surgery. The iOCT discussion focuses on technological advancements, applications during human retinal surgery, translational difficulties and limitations, and future directions.

  2. Detection of retinal changes from illumination normalized fundus images using convolutional neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adal, K.M.; Van Etten, Peter G.; Martinez, Jose P; Rouwen, Kenneth; Vermeer, K.A.; van Vliet, L.J.; Armato, Samuel G.; Petrick, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    Automated detection and quantification of spatio-temporal retinal changes is an important step to objectively assess disease progression and treatment effects for dynamic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, detecting retinal changes caused by early DR lesions such as

  3. [Retinal imaging of the macula and optic disc in neurodegenerative diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turski, G N; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S; Holz, F G; Finger, R P

    2017-02-01

    Due to current demographic trends, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia is expected to increase considerably. For potential new therapies it is important to identify patients at risk as early as possible. Currently, there is no population-based screening. Therefore, identification of biomarkers that will help screen the population at risk is urgently needed. Thus, a literature review on retinal pathology in neurodegenerative diseases was performed. PubMed was searched for studies published up to August 2016 using the following keywords: "mild cognitive impairment", "dementia", "eye", "ocular biomarkers", "OCT" and "OCT angiography". Relevant publications were selected and summarized qualitatively. Multiple studies using noninvasive in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging showed nonspecific retinal pathological changes in patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Pathological changes in macular volume, optic nerve fiber layer thickness and the ganglion cell complex were observed. However, based on available evidence, no ocular biomarkers for neurodegeneration which could be integrated in routine clinical diagnostics have been identified. The potential use of OCT in the early diagnostic workup and monitoring of progression of neurodegenerative diseases needs to be further explored in longitudinal studies with large cohorts.

  4. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  5. Fast vessel segmentation in retinal images using multi-scale enhancement and second-order local entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Barriga, S.; Agurto, C.; Zamora, G.; Bauman, W.; Soliz, P.

    2012-03-01

    Retinal vasculature is one of the most important anatomical structures in digital retinal photographs. Accurate segmentation of retinal blood vessels is an essential task in automated analysis of retinopathy. This paper presents a new and effective vessel segmentation algorithm that features computational simplicity and fast implementation. This method uses morphological pre-processing to decrease the disturbance of bright structures and lesions before vessel extraction. Next, a vessel probability map is generated by computing the eigenvalues of the second derivatives of Gaussian filtered image at multiple scales. Then, the second order local entropy thresholding is applied to segment the vessel map. Lastly, a rule-based decision step, which measures the geometric shape difference between vessels and lesions is applied to reduce false positives. The algorithm is evaluated on the low-resolution DRIVE and STARE databases and the publicly available high-resolution image database from Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany). The proposed method achieved comparable performance to state of the art unsupervised vessel segmentation methods with a competitive faster speed on the DRIVE and STARE databases. For the high resolution fundus image database, the proposed algorithm outperforms an existing approach both on performance and speed. The efficiency and robustness make the blood vessel segmentation method described here suitable for broad application in automated analysis of retinal images.

  6. A comparative analysis of pre-processing techniques in colour retinal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatelli, A; Bizai, G; Barbosa, G; Drozdowicz, B; Delrieux, C

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic disease of the ocular retina, which most of the times is only discovered when the disease is on an advanced stage and most of the damage is irreversible. For that reason, early diagnosis is paramount for avoiding the most severe consequences of the DR, of which complete blindness is not uncommon. Unsupervised or supervised image processing of retinal images emerges as a feasible tool for this diagnosis. The preprocessing stages are the key for any further assessment, since these images exhibit several defects, including non uniform illumination, sampling noise, uneven contrast due to pigmentation loss during sampling, and many others. Any feasible diagnosis system should work with images where these defects were compensated. In this work we analyze and test several correction techniques. Non uniform illumination is compensated using morphology and homomorphic filtering; uneven contrast is compensated using morphology and local enhancement. We tested our processing stages using Fuzzy C-Means, and local Hurst (self correlation) coefficient for unsupervised segmentation of the abnormal blood vessels. The results over a standard set of DR images are more than promising

  7. A comparative analysis of pre-processing techniques in colour retinal images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatelli, A [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Bizai, G [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Barbosa, G [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Drozdowicz, B [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Delrieux, C [Electric and Computing Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Alem 1253, BahIa Blanca, (Partially funded by SECyT-UNS) (Argentina)], E-mail: claudio@acm.org

    2007-11-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic disease of the ocular retina, which most of the times is only discovered when the disease is on an advanced stage and most of the damage is irreversible. For that reason, early diagnosis is paramount for avoiding the most severe consequences of the DR, of which complete blindness is not uncommon. Unsupervised or supervised image processing of retinal images emerges as a feasible tool for this diagnosis. The preprocessing stages are the key for any further assessment, since these images exhibit several defects, including non uniform illumination, sampling noise, uneven contrast due to pigmentation loss during sampling, and many others. Any feasible diagnosis system should work with images where these defects were compensated. In this work we analyze and test several correction techniques. Non uniform illumination is compensated using morphology and homomorphic filtering; uneven contrast is compensated using morphology and local enhancement. We tested our processing stages using Fuzzy C-Means, and local Hurst (self correlation) coefficient for unsupervised segmentation of the abnormal blood vessels. The results over a standard set of DR images are more than promising.

  8. Bayesian Image Restoration Using a Large-Scale Total Patch Variation Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Edge-preserving Bayesian restorations using nonquadratic priors are often inefficient in restoring continuous variations and tend to produce block artifacts around edges in ill-posed inverse image restorations. To overcome this, we have proposed a spatial adaptive (SA prior with improved performance. However, this SA prior restoration suffers from high computational cost and the unguaranteed convergence problem. Concerning these issues, this paper proposes a Large-scale Total Patch Variation (LS-TPV Prior model for Bayesian image restoration. In this model, the prior for each pixel is defined as a singleton conditional probability, which is in a mixture prior form of one patch similarity prior and one weight entropy prior. A joint MAP estimation is thus built to ensure the iteration monotonicity. The intensive calculation of patch distances is greatly alleviated by the parallelization of Compute Unified Device Architecture(CUDA. Experiments with both simulated and real data validate the good performance of the proposed restoration.

  9. Hierarchical detection of red lesions in retinal images by multiscale correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bob; Wu, Xiangqian; You, Jane; Li, Qin; Karray, Fakhri

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to the computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of diabetic retinopathy (DR) -- a common and severe complication of long-term diabetes which damages the retina and cause blindness. Since red lesions are regarded as the first signs of DR, there has been extensive research on effective detection and localization of these abnormalities in retinal images. In contrast to existing algorithms, a new approach based on Multiscale Correlation Filtering (MSCF) and dynamic thresholding is developed. This consists of two levels, Red Lesion Candidate Detection (coarse level) and True Red Lesion Detection (fine level). The approach was evaluated using data from Retinopathy On-line Challenge (ROC) competition website and we conclude our method to be effective and efficient.

  10. Analysis of visual appearance of retinal nerve fibers in high resolution fundus images: a study on normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Radim; Tornow, Ralf P; Laemmer, Robert; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mayer, Markus A; Gazarek, Jiri; Jan, Jiri; Kubena, Tomas; Cernosek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  11. Analysis of Visual Appearance of Retinal Nerve Fibers in High Resolution Fundus Images: A Study on Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Kolar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL. This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  12. Automatic classification of retinal three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images using principal component analysis network with composite kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Leyuan; Wang, Chong; Li, Shutao; Yan, Jun; Chen, Xiangdong; Rabbani, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    We present an automatic method, termed as the principal component analysis network with composite kernel (PCANet-CK), for the classification of three-dimensional (3-D) retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Specifically, the proposed PCANet-CK method first utilizes the PCANet to automatically learn features from each B-scan of the 3-D retinal OCT images. Then, multiple kernels are separately applied to a set of very important features of the B-scans and these kernels are fused together, which can jointly exploit the correlations among features of the 3-D OCT images. Finally, the fused (composite) kernel is incorporated into an extreme learning machine for the OCT image classification. We tested our proposed algorithm on two real 3-D spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) datasets (of normal subjects and subjects with the macular edema and age-related macular degeneration), which demonstrated its effectiveness. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. Bright Retinal Lesions Detection using Colour Fundus Images Containing Reflective Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-01-01

    In the last years the research community has developed many techniques to detect and diagnose diabetic retinopathy with retinal fundus images. This is a necessary step for the implementation of a large scale screening effort in rural areas where ophthalmologists are not available. In the United States of America, the incidence of diabetes is worryingly increasing among the young population. Retina fundus images of patients younger than 20 years old present a high amount of reflection due to the Nerve Fibre Layer (NFL), the younger the patient the more these reflections are visible. To our knowledge we are not aware of algorithms able to explicitly deal with this type of reflection artefact. This paper presents a technique to detect bright lesions also in patients with a high degree of reflective NFL. First, the candidate bright lesions are detected using image equalization and relatively simple histogram analysis. Then, a classifier is trained using texture descriptor (Multi-scale Local Binary Patterns) and other features in order to remove the false positives in the lesion detection. Finally, the area of the lesions is used to diagnose diabetic retinopathy. Our database consists of 33 images from a telemedicine network currently developed. When determining moderate to high diabetic retinopathy using the bright lesions detected the algorithm achieves a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 100% using hold-one-out testing.

  14. Retinal vascular imaging technology to monitor disease severity and complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Ae Ra; Wong, Tien Yin; Li, Ling-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a major disease affecting a large number of young patients. In the recent years, retinal vascular imaging has provided an objective assessment of vascular health in patients with T1DM. Our study aimed to review the current literature on retinal vascular parameters in young patients with T1DM in order to understand the following: (i) How retinal vessels are affected in T1DM (ii) How such vascular changes can be predictive of future diabetic microvascular complications METHODS: We performed a systematic review and extracted relevant data from 17 articles. We found significant correlations between retinal vessel changes and diabetes-related risk factors (eg, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity), diabetes-related features (eg, diabetes duration and glycemic control), and diabetes-related microvascular complications (eg, diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy). Our findings suggest that retinal microvasculature is associated with both disease severity and complications in young patients with T1DM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Automatic detection and recognition of multiple macular lesions in retinal optical coherence tomography images with multi-instance multilabel learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Leyuan; Yang, Liumao; Li, Shutao; Rabbani, Hossein; Liu, Zhimin; Peng, Qinghua; Chen, Xiangdong

    2017-06-01

    Detection and recognition of macular lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) are very important for retinal diseases diagnosis and treatment. As one kind of retinal disease (e.g., diabetic retinopathy) may contain multiple lesions (e.g., edema, exudates, and microaneurysms) and eye patients may suffer from multiple retinal diseases, multiple lesions often coexist within one retinal image. Therefore, one single-lesion-based detector may not support the diagnosis of clinical eye diseases. To address this issue, we propose a multi-instance multilabel-based lesions recognition (MIML-LR) method for the simultaneous detection and recognition of multiple lesions. The proposed MIML-LR method consists of the following steps: (1) segment the regions of interest (ROIs) for different lesions, (2) compute descriptive instances (features) for each lesion region, (3) construct multilabel detectors, and (4) recognize each ROI with the detectors. The proposed MIML-LR method was tested on 823 clinically labeled OCT images with normal macular and macular with three common lesions: epiretinal membrane, edema, and drusen. For each input OCT image, our MIML-LR method can automatically identify the number of lesions and assign the class labels, achieving the average accuracy of 88.72% for the cases with multiple lesions, which better assists macular disease diagnosis and treatment.

  16. The Role of Retinal Imaging and Portable Screening Devices in Tele-ophthalmology Applications for Diabetic Retinopathy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBuc, Delia Cabrera

    2016-12-01

    In the years since its introduction, retinal imaging has transformed our capability to visualize the posterior pole of the eye. Increasing practical advances in mobile technology, regular monitoring, and population screening for diabetic retinopathy management offer the opportunity for further development of cost-effective applications through remote assessment of the diabetic eye using portable retinal cameras, smart-phone-based devices and telemedicine networks. Numerous retinal imaging methods and mobile technologies in tele-ophthalmology applications have been reported for diabetic retinopathy screening and management. They provide several advantages of automation, sensitivity, specificity, portability, and miniaturization for the development of point-of-care diagnostics for eye complications in diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the role of retinal imaging and mobile technologies in tele-ophthalmology applications for diabetic retinopathy screening and management. At large, although improvements in current technology and telemedicine services are still needed, telemedicine has demonstrated to be a worthy tool to support health caregivers in the effective management and prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  17. Multi-categorical deep learning neural network to classify retinal images: A pilot study employing small database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joon Yul; Yoo, Tae Keun; Seo, Jeong Gi; Kwak, Jiyong; Um, Terry Taewoong; Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning emerges as a powerful tool for analyzing medical images. Retinal disease detection by using computer-aided diagnosis from fundus image has emerged as a new method. We applied deep learning convolutional neural network by using MatConvNet for an automated detection of multiple retinal diseases with fundus photographs involved in STructured Analysis of the REtina (STARE) database. Dataset was built by expanding data on 10 categories, including normal retina and nine retinal diseases. The optimal outcomes were acquired by using a random forest transfer learning based on VGG-19 architecture. The classification results depended greatly on the number of categories. As the number of categories increased, the performance of deep learning models was diminished. When all 10 categories were included, we obtained results with an accuracy of 30.5%, relative classifier information (RCI) of 0.052, and Cohen's kappa of 0.224. Considering three integrated normal, background diabetic retinopathy, and dry age-related macular degeneration, the multi-categorical classifier showed accuracy of 72.8%, 0.283 RCI, and 0.577 kappa. In addition, several ensemble classifiers enhanced the multi-categorical classification performance. The transfer learning incorporated with ensemble classifier of clustering and voting approach presented the best performance with accuracy of 36.7%, 0.053 RCI, and 0.225 kappa in the 10 retinal diseases classification problem. First, due to the small size of datasets, the deep learning techniques in this study were ineffective to be applied in clinics where numerous patients suffering from various types of retinal disorders visit for diagnosis and treatment. Second, we found that the transfer learning incorporated with ensemble classifiers can improve the classification performance in order to detect multi-categorical retinal diseases. Further studies should confirm the effectiveness of algorithms with large datasets obtained from hospitals.

  18. Screening retinal transplants with Fourier-domain OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Bin

    2009-02-01

    Transplant technologies have been studied for the recovery of vision loss from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In several rodent retinal degeneration models and in patients, retinal progenitor cells transplanted as layers to the subretinal space have been shown to restore or preserve vision. The methods for evaluation of transplants are expensive considering the large amount of animals. Alternatively, time-domain Stratus OCT was previously shown to be able to image the morphological structure of transplants to some extent, but could not clearly identify laminated transplants. The efficacy of screening retinal transplants with Fourier-domain OCT was studied on 37 S334ter line 3 rats with retinal degeneration 6-67 days after transplant surgery. The transplants were morphologically categorized as no transplant, detachment, rosettes, small laminated area and larger laminated area with both Fourier-domain OCT and histology. The efficacy of Fourier-domain OCT in screening retinal transplants was evaluated by comparing the categorization results with OCT and histology. Additionally, 4 rats were randomly selected for multiple OCT examinations (1, 5, 9, 14 and 21days post surgery) in order to determine the earliest image time of OCT examination since the transplanted tissue may need some time to show its tendency of growing. Finally, we demonstrated the efficacy of Fourier-domain OCT in screening retinal transplants in early stages and determined the earliest imaging time for OCT. Fourier-domain OCT makes itself valuable in saving resource spent on animals with unsuccessful transplants.

  19. Analysis of retinal capillaries in patients with type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using adaptive optics imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Parravano, Mariacristina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Ducoli, Pietro; Stirpe, Mario; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    To illustrate a noninvasive method to analyze the retinal capillary lumen caliber in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Adaptive optics imaging of the retinal capillaries were acquired in two parafoveal regions of interest in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and unaffected controls. Measures of the retinal capillary lumen caliber were quantified using an algorithm written in Matlab by an independent observer in a masked manner. Comparison of the adaptive optics images with red-free and color wide fundus retinography images was also assessed. Eight eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (eight patients, study group), no macular edema, and preserved visual acuity and eight control eyes (eight healthy volunteers; control group) were analyzed. The repeatability of capillary lumen caliber measurements was 0.22 μm (3.5%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.12 and 0.31 μm in the study group. It was 0.30 μm (4.1%) with the 95% confidence interval between 0.16 and 0.43 μm in the control group. The average capillary lumen caliber was significantly narrower in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (6.27 ± 1.63 μm) than in the control eyes (7.31 ± 1.59 μm, P = 0.002). The authors demonstrated a noninvasive method to analyze, with micrometric scale of resolution, the lumen of retinal capillaries. The parafoveal capillaries were narrower in patients with Type 1 diabetes and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy than in healthy subjects, showing the potential capability of adaptive optics imaging to detect pathologic variations of the retinal microvascular structures in vaso-occlusive diseases.

  20. Image restoration for civil engineering structure monitoring using imaging system embedded on UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozel, Benoit; Dumoulin, Jean; Chehdi, Kacem

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, civil engineering structures are periodically surveyed by qualified technicians (i.e. alpinist) operating visual inspection using heavy mechanical pods. This method is far to be safe, not only for civil engineering structures monitoring staff, but also for users. Due to the unceasing traffic increase, making diversions or closing lanes on bridge becomes more and more difficult. New inspection methods have to be found. One of the most promising technique is to develop inspection method using images acquired by a dedicated monitoring system operating around the civil engineering structures, without disturbing the traffic. In that context, the use of images acquired with an UAV, which fly around the structures is of particular interest. The UAV can be equipped with different vision system (digital camera, infrared sensor, video, etc.). Nonetheless, detection of small distresses on images (like cracks of 1 mm or less) depends on image quality, which is sensitive to internal parameters of the UAV (vibration modes, video exposure times, etc.) and to external parameters (turbulence, bad illumination of the scene, etc.). Though progresses were made at UAV level and at sensor level (i.e. optics), image deterioration is still an open problem. These deteriorations are mainly represented by motion blur that can be coupled with out-of-focus blur and observation noise on acquired images. In practice, deteriorations are unknown if no a priori information is available or dedicated additional instrumentation is set-up at UAV level. Image restoration processing is therefore required. This is a difficult problem [1-3] which has been intensively studied over last decades [4-12]. Image restoration can be addressed by following a blind approach or a myopic one. In both cases, it includes two processing steps that can be implemented in sequential or alternate mode. The first step carries out the identification of the blur impulse response and the second one makes use of this

  1. Parallel algorithm of real-time infrared image restoration based on total variation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Li, Miao; Long, Yunli; Zeng, Yaoyuan; An, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Image restoration is a necessary preprocessing step for infrared remote sensing applications. Traditional methods allow us to remove the noise but penalize too much the gradients corresponding to edges. Image restoration techniques based on variational approaches can solve this over-smoothing problem for the merits of their well-defined mathematical modeling of the restore procedure. The total variation (TV) of infrared image is introduced as a L1 regularization term added to the objective energy functional. It converts the restoration process to an optimization problem of functional involving a fidelity term to the image data plus a regularization term. Infrared image restoration technology with TV-L1 model exploits the remote sensing data obtained sufficiently and preserves information at edges caused by clouds. Numerical implementation algorithm is presented in detail. Analysis indicates that the structure of this algorithm can be easily implemented in parallelization. Therefore a parallel implementation of the TV-L1 filter based on multicore architecture with shared memory is proposed for infrared real-time remote sensing systems. Massive computation of image data is performed in parallel by cooperating threads running simultaneously on multiple cores. Several groups of synthetic infrared image data are used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parallel algorithm. Quantitative analysis of measuring the restored image quality compared to input image is presented. Experiment results show that the TV-L1 filter can restore the varying background image reasonably, and that its performance can achieve the requirement of real-time image processing.

  2. Solving Quasi-Variational Inequalities for Image Restoration with Adaptive Constraint Sets

    KAUST Repository

    Lenzen, F.; Lellmann, J.; Becker, F.; Schnö rr, C.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We consider a class of quasi-variational inequalities (QVIs) for adaptive image restoration, where the adaptivity is described via solution-dependent constraint sets. In previous work we studied

  3. The mean field theory in EM procedures for blind Markov random field image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J

    1993-01-01

    A Markov random field (MRF) model-based EM (expectation-maximization) procedure for simultaneously estimating the degradation model and restoring the image is described. The MRF is a coupled one which provides continuity (inside regions of smooth gray tones) and discontinuity (at region boundaries) constraints for the restoration problem which is, in general, ill posed. The computational difficulty associated with the EM procedure for MRFs is resolved by using the mean field theory from statistical mechanics. An orthonormal blur decomposition is used to reduce the chances of undesirable locally optimal estimates. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world images show that this approach provides good blur estimates and restored images. The restored images are comparable to those obtained by a Wiener filter in mean-square error, but are most visually pleasing.

  4. Restoration of longitudinal laser tomography target image from inhomogeneous medium degradation under common conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, WenJun; Wang, Ping; Fu, MeiCheng; Tan, JiChun; Zhu, Jubo; Li, XiuJian

    2017-07-10

    In order to overcome the shortages of the target image restoration method for longitudinal laser tomography using self-calibration, a more general restoration method through backscattering medium images associated with prior parameters is developed for common conditions. The system parameters are extracted from pre-calibration, and the LIDAR ratio is estimated according to the medium types. Assisted by these prior parameters, the degradation caused by inhomogeneous turbid media can be established with the backscattering medium images, which can further be used for removal of the interferences of turbid media. The results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed image restoration method can effectively eliminate the inhomogeneous interferences of turbid media and achieve exactly the reflectivity distribution of targets behind inhomogeneous turbid media. Furthermore, the restoration method can work beyond the limitation of the previous method that only works well under the conditions of localized turbid attenuations and some types of targets with fairly uniform reflectivity distributions.

  5. Two-dimensional restoration of single photon emission computed tomography images using the Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulfelfel, D.; Rangayyan, R.M.; Kuduvalli, G.R.; Hahn, L.J.; Kloiber, R.

    1994-01-01

    The discrete filtered backprojection (DFBP) algorithm used for the reconstruction of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images affects image quality because of the operations of filtering and discretization. The discretization of the filtered backprojection process can cause the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the SPECT imaging system to be anisotropic and nonstationary, especially near the edges of the camera's field of view. The use of shift-invariant restoration techniques fails to restore large images because these techniques do not account for such variations in the MTF. This study presents the application of a two-dimensional (2-D) shift-variant Kalman filter for post-reconstruction restoration of SPECT slices. This filter was applied to SPECT images of a hollow cylinder phantom; a resolution phantom; and a large, truncated cone phantom containing two types of cold spots, a sphere, and a triangular prism. The images were acquired on an ADAC GENESYS camera. A comparison was performed between results obtained by the Kalman filter and those obtained by shift-invariant filters. Quantitative analysis of the restored images performed through measurement of root mean squared errors shows a considerable reduction in error of Kalman-filtered images over images restored using shift-invariant methods

  6. Automated microaneurysm detection method based on double ring filter in retinal fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Suemori, Shinsuke; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    The presence of microaneurysms in the eye is one of the early signs of diabetic retinopathy, which is one of the leading causes of vision loss. We have been investigating a computerized method for the detection of microaneurysms on retinal fundus images, which were obtained from the Retinopathy Online Challenge (ROC) database. The ROC provides 50 training cases, in which "gold standard" locations of microaneurysms are provided, and 50 test cases without the gold standard locations. In this study, the computerized scheme was developed by using the training cases. Although the results for the test cases are also included, this paper mainly discusses the results for the training cases because the "gold standard" for the test cases is not known. After image preprocessing, candidate regions for microaneurysms were detected using a double-ring filter. Any potential false positives located in the regions corresponding to blood vessels were removed by automatic extraction of blood vessels from the images. Twelve image features were determined, and the candidate lesions were classified into microaneurysms or false positives using the rule-based method and an artificial neural network. The true positive fraction of the proposed method was 0.45 at 27 false positives per image. Forty-two percent of microaneurysms in the 50 training cases were considered invisible by the consensus of two co-investigators. When the method was evaluated for visible microaneurysms, the sensitivity for detecting microaneurysms was 65% at 27 false positives per image. Our computerized detection scheme could be improved for helping ophthalmologists in the early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Advances in retinal imaging for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Siang Hui Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME are leading causes of blindness throughout the world, and cause significant visual morbidity. Ocular imaging has played a significant role in the management of diabetic eye disease, and the advent of advanced imaging modalities will be of great value as our understanding of diabetic eye diseases increase, and the management options become increasingly varied and complex. Color fundus photography has established roles in screening for diabetic eye disease, early detection of progression, and monitoring of treatment response. Fluorescein angiography (FA detects areas of capillary nonperfusion, as well as leakage from both microaneurysms and neovascularization. Recent advances in retinal imaging modalities complement traditional fundus photography and provide invaluable new information for clinicians. Ultra-widefield imaging, which can be used to produce both color fundus photographs and FAs, now allows unprecedented views of the posterior pole. The pathologies that are detected in the periphery of the retina have the potential to change the grading of disease severity, and may be of prognostic significance to disease progression. Studies have shown that peripheral ischemia may be related to the presence and severity of DME. Optical coherence tomography (OCT provides structural detail of the retina, and the quantitative and qualitative features are useful in the monitoring of diabetic eye disease. A relatively recent innovation, OCT angiography, produces images of the fine blood vessels at the macula and optic disc, without the need for contrast agents. This paper will review the roles of each of these imaging modalities for diabetic eye disease.

  8. Automated retinal nerve fiber layer defect detection using fundus imaging in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rashmi; Puhan, N B; Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Panda, Ganapati

    2018-06-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) provides an early objective evidence of structural changes in glaucoma. RNFLD detection is currently carried out using imaging modalities like OCT and GDx which are expensive for routine practice. In this regard, we propose a novel automatic method for RNFLD detection and angular width quantification using cost effective redfree fundus images to be practically useful for computer-assisted glaucoma risk assessment. After blood vessel inpainting and CLAHE based contrast enhancement, the initial boundary pixels are identified by local minima analysis of the 1-D intensity profiles on concentric circles. The true boundary pixels are classified using random forest trained by newly proposed cumulative zero count local binary pattern (CZC-LBP) and directional differential energy (DDE) along with Shannon, Tsallis entropy and intensity features. Finally, the RNFLD angular width is obtained by random sample consensus (RANSAC) line fitting on the detected set of boundary pixels. The proposed method is found to achieve high RNFLD detection performance on a newly created dataset with sensitivity (SN) of 0.7821 at 0.2727 false positives per image (FPI) and the area under curve (AUC) value is obtained as 0.8733. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Image restoration by Wiener filtering in the presence of signal-dependent noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Ichioka, Y; Suzuki, T

    1977-09-01

    An optimum filter to restore the degraded image due to blurring and the signal-dependent noise is obtained on the basis of the theory of Wiener filtering. Computer simulations of image restoration using signal-dependent noise models are carried out. It becomes clear that the optimum filter, which makes use of a priori information on the signal-dependent nature of the noise and the spectral density of the signal and the noise showing significant spatial correlation, is potentially advantageous.

  10. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  11. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of subretinal bands associated with chronic retinal detachments

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Nikisha; Kuriyan, Ajay E; Flynn, Harry W

    2016-01-01

    Nikisha Kothari, Ajay E Kuriyan, Harry W Flynn JrDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: We report three patients with subretinal bands associated with retinal detachment in chronic retinal detachments who underwent successful retinal reattachment. Subretinal bands before and after surgery can be identified on clinical examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Removal of subr...

  13. Platform image processing to study the structural properties of retinal vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel MERCHÁN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technological platform specialized in assessing retinal vessel caliber and describing the relationship of the results obtained to cardiovascular risk. Retinal circulation is an area of active research by numerous groups, and there is general experimental agreement on the analysis of the patterns of the retinal blood vessels in the normal human retina. The development of automated tools designed to improve performance and decrease interobserver variability, therefore, appears necessary. 

  14. Microscope-Integrated Intraoperative Ultrahigh-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography for Widefield Retinal and Anterior Segment Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen D; Waheed, Nadia K; Witkin, Andre; Baumal, Caroline R; Liu, Jonathan J; Potsaid, Benjamin; Joseph, Anthony; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Chan, Kinpui; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of retinal and anterior segment intraoperative widefield imaging using an ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) surgical microscope attachment. A prototype post-objective SS-OCT using a 1,050-nm wavelength, 400 kHz A-scan rate, vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light source was integrated to a commercial ophthalmic surgical microscope after the objective. Each widefield OCT data set was acquired in 3 seconds (1,000 × 1,000 A-scans, 12 × 12 mm 2 for retina and 10 × 10 mm 2 for anterior segment). Intraoperative SS-OCT was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients. In six of seven membrane peels and five of seven rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair surgeries, widefield retinal imaging enabled evaluation pre- and postoperatively. In all seven cataract cases, anterior imaging evaluated the integrity of the posterior lens capsule. Ultrahigh-speed SS-OCT enables widefield intraoperative viewing in the posterior and anterior eye. Widefield imaging visualizes ocular structures and pathology without requiring OCT realignment. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:94-102.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. A new method by steering kernel-based Richardson–Lucy algorithm for neutron imaging restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Shuang; Wang, Qiao; Sun, Jia-ning; Huang, Ji-peng

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by industrial applications, neutron radiography has become a powerful tool for non-destructive investigation techniques. However, resulted from a combined effect of neutron flux, collimated beam, limited spatial resolution of detector and scattering, etc., the images made with neutrons are degraded severely by blur and noise. For dealing with it, by integrating steering kernel regression into Richardson–Lucy approach, we present a novel restoration method in this paper, which is capable of suppressing noise while restoring details of the blurred imaging result efficiently. Experimental results show that compared with the other methods, the proposed method can improve the restoration quality both visually and quantitatively

  16. Dual-conjugate adaptive optics for wide-field high-resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaung, Jörgen; Knutsson, Per; Popovic, Zoran; Owner-Petersen, Mette

    2009-03-16

    We present analysis and preliminary laboratory testing of a real-time dual-conjugate adaptive optics (DCAO) instrument for ophthalmology that will enable wide-field high resolution imaging of the retina in vivo. The setup comprises five retinal guide stars (GS) and two deformable mirrors (DM), one conjugate to the pupil and one conjugate to a plane close to the retina. The DCAO instrument has a closed-loop wavefront sensing wavelength of 834 nm and an imaging wavelength of 575 nm. It incorporates an array of collimator lenses to spatially filter the light from all guide stars using one adjustable iris, and images the Hartmann patterns of multiple reference sources on a single detector. Zemax simulations were performed at 834 nm and 575 nm with the Navarro 99 and the Liou- Brennan eye models. Two correction alternatives were evaluated; conventional single conjugate AO (SCAO, using one GS and a pupil DM) and DCAO (using multiple GS and two DM). Zemax simulations at 575 nm based on the Navarro 99 eye model show that the diameter of the corrected field of view for diffraction-limited imaging (Strehl >or= 0.8) increases from 1.5 deg with SCAO to 6.5 deg using DCAO. The increase for the less stringent condition of a wavefront error of 1 rad or less (Strehl >or= 0.37) is from 3 deg with SCAO to approximately 7.4 deg using DCAO. Corresponding results for the Liou-Brennan eye model are 3.1 deg (SCAO) and 8.2 deg (DCAO) for Strehl >or= 0.8, and 4.8 deg (SCAO) and 9.6 deg (DCAO) for Strehl >or= 0.37. Potential gain in corrected field of view with DCAO is confirmed both by laboratory experiments on a model eye and by preliminary in vivo imaging of a human eye. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  17. Block iterative restoration of astronomical images with the massively parallel processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heap, S.R.; Lindler, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for algebraic image restoration capable of treating astronomical images. For a typical 500 x 500 image, direct algebraic restoration would require the solution of a 250,000 x 250,000 linear system. The block iterative approach is used to reduce the problem to solving 4900 121 x 121 linear systems. The algorithm was implemented on the Goddard Massively Parallel Processor, which can solve a 121 x 121 system in approximately 0.06 seconds. Examples are shown of the results for various astronomical images

  18. Autofluorescence Imaging and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Incomplete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness and Comparison with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, ROYCE W. S.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; LAZOW, MARGOT A.; RAMACHANDRAN, RITHU; LIMA, LUIZ H.; HWANG, JOHN C.; SCHUBERT, CARL; BRAUNSTEIN, ALEXANDRA; ALLIKMETS, RANDO; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that the evaluation of retinal structure can have diagnostic value in differentiating between incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To compare retinal thickness differences between patients with CSNB2 and myopic controls. DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS Ten eyes of 5 patients diagnosed with CSNB2 (4 X-linked recessive, 1 autosomal recessive) and 6 eyes of 3 patients with RP (2 autosomal dominant, 1 autosomal recessive) were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Diagnoses of CSNB2 and RP were confirmed by full-field electroretinography (ERG). Manual segmentation of retinal layers, aided by a computer program, was performed by 2 professional segmenters on SD OCT images of all CSNB2 patients and 4 age-similar, normal myopic controls. Seven patients were screened for mutations with congenital stationary night blindness and RP genotyping arrays. RESULTS Patients with CSNB2 had specific findings on SD OCT and FAF that were distinct from those found in RP. CSNB2 patients showed qualitatively normal SD OCT results with preserved photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction, whereas this junction was lost in RP patients. In addition, CSNB2 patients had normal FAF images, whereas patients with RP demonstrated a ring of increased autofluorescence around the macula. On SD OCT segmentation, the inner and outer retinal layers of both X-linked recessive and autosomal recessive CSNB2 patients were thinner compared with those of normal myopic controls, with means generally outside of normal 95% confidence intervals. The only layers that demonstrated similar thickness between CSNB2 patients and the controls were the retinal nerve fiber layer and, temporal to the fovea, the combined outer segment layer and retinal pigment epithelium. A proband and his 2 affected brothers from a family segregating X-linked recessive

  19. Determination of point spread function for a flat-panel X-ray imager and its application in image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sungchae; Cho, Gyuseong; Huh, Young; Jin, Seungoh; Park, Jongduk

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the image blur estimation methods, namely modified the Richardson-Lucy (R-L) estimator and the Wiener estimator. Based on the empirical model of the PSF, an image restoration is applied to radiological images. The accuracy of the PSF estimation under the Poisson noise and readout electronic noise is significantly better for the R-L estimator than the Wiener estimator. In the image restoration using the 2-D PSF from the R-L estimator, the result shows a good improvement in the low and middle range of spatial frequency

  20. Study on monitoring ecological restoration in Jiuli mining area by SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Chen, Fu; Tang, Qian

    2011-10-01

    The ecological restoration in mining area is one of the study hot spots in the field of resources and environment at present. The vegetation biomass is used as the ecological restoration evaluation index in mining area in the paper. The synthetic aperture radar image after ecological restoration in mining area is used to classify different kinds of vegetation covers. Integrating the field data and the data of L band, the average total backward scattering coefficient which corresponds to the synthetic aperture radar image is calculated and the relation model between the average total backward scattering coefficient and vegetation biomass is established. At last the vegetation biomass is assessed in Jiuli mining area. The results show that the vegetation biomass characteristics which are assessed by using synthetic aperture radar image data and the field data of vegetation biomass characteristics have better consistency in Jiuli mining area. The effects of ecological restoration can be evaluated by using this relation model effectively and accurately.

  1. Microstructure Images Restoration of Metallic Materials Based upon KSVD and Smoothing Penalty Sparse Representation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Liang, Steven Y

    2018-04-20

    Microstructure images of metallic materials play a significant role in industrial applications. To address image degradation problem of metallic materials, a novel image restoration technique based on K-means singular value decomposition (KSVD) and smoothing penalty sparse representation (SPSR) algorithm is proposed in this work, the microstructure images of aluminum alloy 7075 (AA7075) material are used as examples. To begin with, to reflect the detail structure characteristics of the damaged image, the KSVD dictionary is introduced to substitute the traditional sparse transform basis (TSTB) for sparse representation. Then, due to the image restoration, modeling belongs to a highly underdetermined equation, and traditional sparse reconstruction methods may cause instability and obvious artifacts in the reconstructed images, especially reconstructed image with many smooth regions and the noise level is strong, thus the SPSR (here, q = 0.5) algorithm is designed to reconstruct the damaged image. The results of simulation and two practical cases demonstrate that the proposed method has superior performance compared with some state-of-the-art methods in terms of restoration performance factors and visual quality. Meanwhile, the grain size parameters and grain boundaries of microstructure image are discussed before and after they are restored by proposed method.

  2. CT Image Sequence Restoration Based on Sparse and Low-Rank Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Shuiping; Wang, Yueyue; Wang, Zhilong; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Jiao, Licheng; Wu, Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    Blurry organ boundaries and soft tissue structures present a major challenge in biomedical image restoration. In this paper, we propose a low-rank decomposition-based method for computed tomography (CT) image sequence restoration, where the CT image sequence is decomposed into a sparse component and a low-rank component. A new point spread function of Weiner filter is employed to efficiently remove blur in the sparse component; a wiener filtering with the Gaussian PSF is used to recover the average image of the low-rank component. And then we get the recovered CT image sequence by combining the recovery low-rank image with all recovery sparse image sequence. Our method achieves restoration results with higher contrast, sharper organ boundaries and richer soft tissue structure information, compared with existing CT image restoration methods. The robustness of our method was assessed with numerical experiments using three different low-rank models: Robust Principle Component Analysis (RPCA), Linearized Alternating Direction Method with Adaptive Penalty (LADMAP) and Go Decomposition (GoDec). Experimental results demonstrated that the RPCA model was the most suitable for the small noise CT images whereas the GoDec model was the best for the large noisy CT images. PMID:24023764

  3. Blurred image restoration using knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shudao; Yan, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Motion blur in images is usually modeled as the convolution of a point spread function (PSF) and the original image represented as pixel intensities. The knife-edge function can be used to model various types of motion-blurs, and hence it allows for the construction of a PSF and accurate estimation of the degradation function without knowledge of the specific degradation model. This paper addresses the problem of image restoration using a knife-edge function and optimal window Wiener filtering. In the proposed method, we first calculate the motion-blur parameters and construct the optimal window. Then, we use the detected knife-edge function to obtain the system degradation function. Finally, we perform Wiener filtering to obtain the restored image. Experiments show that the restored image has improved resolution and contrast parameters with clear details and no discernible ringing effects. PMID:29377950

  4. Advanced multiphoton methods for in vitro and in vivo functional imaging of mouse retinal neurons (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noam; Schejter, Adi; Farah, Nairouz; Shoham, Shy

    2016-03-01

    Studying the responses of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) populations has major significance in vision research. Multiphoton imaging of optogenetic probes has recently become the leading approach for visualizing neural populations and has specific advantages for imaging retinal activity during visual stimulation, because it leads to reduced direct photoreceptor excitation. However, multiphoton retinal activity imaging is not straightforward: point-by-point scanning leads to repeated neural excitation while optical access through the rodent eye in vivo has proven highly challenging. Here, we present two enabling optical designs for multiphoton imaging of responses to visual stimuli in mouse retinas expressing calcium indicators. First, we present an imaging solution based on Scanning Line Temporal Focusing (SLITE) for rapidly imaging neuronal activity in vitro. In this design, we scan a temporally focused line rather than a point, increasing the scan speed and reducing the impact of repeated excitation, while maintaining high optical sectioning. Second, we present the first in vivo demonstration of two-photon imaging of RGC activity in the mouse retina. To obtain these cellular resolution recordings we integrated an illumination path into a correction-free imaging system designed using an optical model of the mouse eye. This system can image at multiple depths using an electronically tunable lens integrated into its optical path. The new optical designs presented here overcome a number of outstanding obstacles, allowing the study of rapid calcium- and potentially even voltage-indicator signals both in vitro and in vivo, thereby bringing us a step closer toward distributed monitoring of action potentials.

  5. Point spread function modeling and image restoration for cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hua; Shi Yikai; Huang Kuidong; Xu Zhe

    2015-01-01

    X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CT) has such notable features as high efficiency and precision, and is widely used in the fields of medical imaging and industrial non-destructive testing, but the inherent imaging degradation reduces the quality of CT images. Aimed at the problems of projection image degradation and restoration in cone-beam CT, a point spread function (PSF) modeling method is proposed first. The general PSF model of cone-beam CT is established, and based on it, the PSF under arbitrary scanning conditions can be calculated directly for projection image restoration without the additional measurement, which greatly improved the application convenience of cone-beam CT. Secondly, a projection image restoration algorithm based on pre-filtering and pre-segmentation is proposed, which can make the edge contours in projection images and slice images clearer after restoration, and control the noise in the equivalent level to the original images. Finally, the experiments verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods. (authors)

  6. Research on Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm by Improved Expectation Maximization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Dongming; Su, Wei; Yang, Jinhua; Jiang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    To improve the effect of adaptive optics images’ restoration, we put forward a deconvolution algorithm improved by the EM algorithm which joints multiframe adaptive optics images based on expectation-maximization theory. Firstly, we need to make a mathematical model for the degenerate multiframe adaptive optics images. The function model is deduced for the points that spread with time based on phase error. The AO images are denoised using the image power spectral density and support constrain...

  7. Spot restoration for GPR image post-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N. Reginald

    2014-05-20

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  8. Retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme cases may have a rapid evolution over two decades or a slow progression that never leads to blindness. In some cases, the clinical presentation is a cone-rod dystrophy, in which the decrease in visual acuity predominates over the visual field loss. RP is usually non syndromic but there are also many syndromic forms, the most frequent being Usher syndrome. To date, 45 causative genes/loci have been identified in non syndromic RP (for the autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and digenic forms. Clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of night blindness and peripheral visual field defects, lesions in the fundus, hypovolted electroretinogram traces, and progressive worsening of these signs. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, but is not usually performed due to the tremendous genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Genetic counseling is always advised. Currently, there is no therapy that stops the evolution of the disease or restores the vision, so the visual prognosis is poor. The therapeutic approach is restricted to slowing down the degenerative process by sunlight protection and vitaminotherapy, treating the complications (cataract and macular edema, and helping patients to cope with the social and psychological impact of blindness. However, new therapeutic strategies are emerging from intensive research (gene therapy, neuroprotection, retinal prosthesis.

  9. GPU-based parallel algorithm for blind image restoration using midfrequency-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lang; Luo, Yi-han; Bao, Qi-liang

    2013-08-01

    GPU-based general-purpose computing is a new branch of modern parallel computing, so the study of parallel algorithms specially designed for GPU hardware architecture is of great significance. In order to solve the problem of high computational complexity and poor real-time performance in blind image restoration, the midfrequency-based algorithm for blind image restoration was analyzed and improved in this paper. Furthermore, a midfrequency-based filtering method is also used to restore the image hardly with any recursion or iteration. Combining the algorithm with data intensiveness, data parallel computing and GPU execution model of single instruction and multiple threads, a new parallel midfrequency-based algorithm for blind image restoration is proposed in this paper, which is suitable for stream computing of GPU. In this algorithm, the GPU is utilized to accelerate the estimation of class-G point spread functions and midfrequency-based filtering. Aiming at better management of the GPU threads, the threads in a grid are scheduled according to the decomposition of the filtering data in frequency domain after the optimization of data access and the communication between the host and the device. The kernel parallelism structure is determined by the decomposition of the filtering data to ensure the transmission rate to get around the memory bandwidth limitation. The results show that, with the new algorithm, the operational speed is significantly increased and the real-time performance of image restoration is effectively improved, especially for high-resolution images.

  10. Imaging retinal degeneration in mice by combining Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and fluorescent scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Javaheri, Nima; Molday, Laurie L.; Xu, Jing; Molday, Robert S.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2009-02-01

    Visualization of the internal structures of the retina is critical for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of pathology as well as for medical research investigating the root causes of retinal degeneration. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is emerging as the preferred technique for non-contact sub-surface depth-resolved imaging of the retina. The high resolution cross sectional images acquired in vivo by OCT can be compared to histology to visually delineate the retinal layers. The recent demonstration of the significant sensitivity increase obtained through use of Fourier domain (FD) detection with OCT has been used to facilitate high speed scanning for volumetric reconstruction of the retina in software. The images acquired by OCT are purely structural, relying on refractive index differences in the tissue for contrast, and do not provide information on the molecular content of the sample. We have constructed a FDOCT prototype and combined it with a fluorescent Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (fSLO) to permit real time alignment of the field of view on the retina. The alignment of the FDOCT system to the specimen is crucial for the registration of measurements taken throughout longitudinal studies. In addition, fluorescence detection has been integrated with the SLO to enable the en face localization of a molecular contrast signal, which is important for retinal angiography, and also for detection of autofluorescence associated with some forms of retinal degeneration, for example autofluorescence lipofuscin accumulations are associated with Stargardt's Macular Dystrophy. The integrated FD OCT/fSLO system was investigated for imaging the retina of the mice in vivo.

  11. SDOCT imaging to identify macular pathology in patients diagnosed with diabetic maculopathy by a digital photographic retinal screening programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mackenzie

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diabetic macular edema (DME is an important cause of vision loss. England has a national systematic photographic retinal screening programme to identify patients with diabetic eye disease. Grading retinal photographs according to this national protocol identifies surrogate markers for DME. We audited a care pathway using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT clinic to identify macular pathology in this subset of patients. METHODS: A prospective audit was performed of patients referred from screening with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (R1 and surrogate markers for diabetic macular edema (M1 attending an SDOCT clinic. The SDOCT images were graded by an ophthalmologist as SDOCT positive, borderline or negative. SDOCT positive patients were referred to the medical retina clinic. SDOCT negative and borderline patients were further reviewed in the SDOCT clinic in 6 months. RESULTS: From a registered screening population of 17 551 patients with diabetes mellitus, 311 patients met the inclusion criteria between (March 2008 and September 2009. We analyzed images from 311 patients' SDOCT clinic episodes. There were 131 SDOCT negative and 12 borderline patients booked for revisit in the OCT clinic. Twenty-four were referred back to photographic screening for a variety of reasons. A total of 144 were referred to ophthalmology with OCT evidence of definite macular pathology requiring review by an ophthalmologist. DISCUSSION: This analysis shows that patients with diabetes, mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (R1 and evidence of diabetic maculopathy on non-stereoscopic retinal photographs (M1 have a 42.1% chance of having no macular edema on SDOCT imaging as defined by standard OCT definitions of DME when graded by a retinal specialist. SDOCT imaging is a useful adjunct to colour fundus photography in screening for referable diabetic maculopathy in our screening population.

  12. Robust Multi-Frame Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Poisson Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive optics (AO system provides real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence. However, an AO image is usually of poor contrast because of the nature of the imaging process, meaning that the image contains information coming from both out-of-focus and in-focus planes of the object, which also brings about a loss in quality. In this paper, we present a robust multi-frame adaptive optics image restoration algorithm via maximum likelihood estimation. Our proposed algorithm uses a maximum likelihood method with image regularization as the basic principle, and constructs the joint log likelihood function for multi-frame AO images based on a Poisson distribution model. To begin with, a frame selection method based on image variance is applied to the observed multi-frame AO images to select images with better quality to improve the convergence of a blind deconvolution algorithm. Then, by combining the imaging conditions and the AO system properties, a point spread function estimation model is built. Finally, we develop our iterative solutions for AO image restoration addressing the joint deconvolution issue. We conduct a number of experiments to evaluate the performances of our proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm produces accurate AO image restoration results and outperforms the current state-of-the-art blind deconvolution methods.

  13. Noninvasive near infrared autofluorescence imaging of retinal pigment epithelial cells in the human retina using adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Jung, HaeWon; Liu, Jianfei; Droettboom, Michael; Tam, Johnny

    2017-10-01

    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells contain intrinsic fluorophores that can be visualized using infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). Although IRAF is routinely utilized in the clinic for visualizing retinal health and disease, currently, it is not possible to discern cellular details using IRAF due to limits in resolution. We demonstrate that the combination of adaptive optics (AO) with IRAF (AO-IRAF) enables higher-resolution imaging of the IRAF signal, revealing the RPE mosaic in the living human eye. Quantitative analysis of visualized RPE cells in 10 healthy subjects across various eccentricities demonstrates the possibility for in vivo density measurements of RPE cells, which range from 6505 to 5388 cells/mm 2 for the areas measured (peaking at the fovea). We also identified cone photoreceptors in relation to underlying RPE cells, and found that RPE cells support on average up to 18.74 cone photoreceptors in the fovea down to an average of 1.03 cone photoreceptors per RPE cell at an eccentricity of 6 mm. Clinical application of AO-IRAF to a patient with retinitis pigmentosa illustrates the potential for AO-IRAF imaging to become a valuable complementary approach to the current landscape of high resolution imaging modalities.

  14. Automatic classification of pathological myopia in retinal fundus images using PAMELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Wong, Damon W. K.; Tan, Ngan Meng; Zhang, Zhuo; Lu, Shijian; Lim, Joo Hwee; Li, Huiqi; Saw, Seang Mei; Tong, Louis; Wong, Tien Yin

    2010-03-01

    Pathological myopia is the seventh leading cause of blindness. We introduce a framework based on PAMELA (PAthological Myopia dEtection through peripapilLary Atrophy) for the detection of pathological myopia from fundus images. The framework consists of a pre-processing stage which extracts a region of interest centered on the optic disc. Subsequently, three analysis modules focus on detecting specific visual indicators. The optic disc tilt ratio module gives a measure of the axial elongation of the eye through inference from the deformation of the optic disc. In the texturebased ROI assessment module, contextual knowledge is used to demarcate the ROI into four distinct, clinically-relevant zones in which information from an entropy transform of the ROI is analyzed and metrics generated. In particular, the preferential appearance of peripapillary atrophy (PPA) in the temporal zone compared to the nasal zone is utilized by calculating ratios of the metrics. The PPA detection module obtains an outer boundary through a level-set method, and subtracts this region against the optic disc boundary. Temporal and nasal zones are obtained from the remnants to generate associated hue and color values. The outputs of the three modules are used as in a SVM model to determine the presence of pathological myopia in a retinal fundus image. Using images from the Singapore Eye Research Institute, the proposed framework reported an optimized accuracy of 90% and a sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and 0.95 respectively, indicating promise for the use of the proposed system as a screening tool for pathological myopia.

  15. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  16. Fast digital zooming system using directionally adaptive image interpolation and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonseok; Jeon, Jaehwan; Yu, Soohwan; Paik, Joonki

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fast digital zooming system for mobile consumer cameras using directionally adaptive image interpolation and restoration methods. The proposed interpolation algorithm performs edge refinement along the initially estimated edge orientation using directionally steerable filters. Either the directionally weighted linear or adaptive cubic-spline interpolation filter is then selectively used according to the refined edge orientation for removing jagged artifacts in the slanted edge region. A novel image restoration algorithm is also presented for removing blurring artifacts caused by the linear or cubic-spline interpolation using the directionally adaptive truncated constrained least squares (TCLS) filter. Both proposed steerable filter-based interpolation and the TCLS-based restoration filters have a finite impulse response (FIR) structure for real time processing in an image signal processing (ISP) chain. Experimental results show that the proposed digital zooming system provides high-quality magnified images with FIR filter-based fast computational structure.

  17. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  18. Neovascular Glaucoma Induced by Peripheral Retinal Ischemia in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Management and Imaging Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pichi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of a young patient affected by neurofibromatosis 1 (NF-1 with peripheral retinal ischemia-induced neovascular glaucoma and the peculiar spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT features. Material and Methods: A 13-year-old boy affected by NF-1, as diagnosed according to established criteria, was referred with a diagnosis of hypertensive uveitis in his left eye. He underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and comprehensive blood work with viral and immunological tests. The case was documented with fluorescein angiography (FA and SD-OCT. When the intraocular pressure (IOP of the left eye decreased and the cornea cleared, FA revealed retinal ischemia and leakage from pathologic retinal vessels. SD-OCT revealed foveal hypoplasia secondary to the complete absence of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Results: Peripheral retinal ischemia-induced neovascular glaucoma was diagnosed. The patient underwent Ahmed valve implantation to control his IOP, and subsequent retinal photocoagulation by argon laser and intravitreal bevacizumab injection were performed to control neovascularization. Discussion: Retinal ischemia in NF-1 might lead to neovascular glaucoma: lowering of the IOP with surgical implantation of an Ahmed valve, regression of neovascularization by argon laser panretinal photocoagulation and intravitreal injection of bevacizumab can be a helpful way to control such a complication.

  19. Detector response restoration in image reconstruction of high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical method was studied to model the detector response of high spatial-resolution positron emission tomography systems consisting of close-packed small crystals, and to restore the resolution deteriorated due to crystal penetration and/or nonuniform sampling across the field-of-view (FOV). The simulated detector system had 600 bismuth germanate crystals of 3.14 mm width and 30 mm length packed on a single ring of 60 cm diameter. The space between crystal was filled up with lead. Each crystal was in coincidence with 200 opposite crystals so that the FOV had a radius of 30 cm. The detector response was modeled based on the attenuating properties of the crystals and the septa, as well as the geometry of the detector system. The modeled detector-response function was used to restore the projections from the sinogram of the ring-detector system. The restored projections had a uniform sampling of 1.57 mm across the FOV. The crystal penetration and/or the nonuniform sampling were compensated in the projections. A penalized maximum-likelihood algorithm was employed to accomplish the restoration. The restored projections were then filtered and backprojected to reconstruct the image. A chest phantom with a few small circular ''cold'' objects located at the center and near the periphery of FOV was computer generated and used to test the restoration. The reconstructed images from the restored projections demonstrated resolution improvement off the FOV center, while preserving the resolution near the center

  20. Low-count PET image restoration using sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Jiang, Changhui; Gao, Juan; Yang, Yongfeng; Liang, Dong; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Hu, Zhanli

    2018-04-01

    In the field of positron emission tomography (PET), reconstructed images are often blurry and contain noise. These problems are primarily caused by the low resolution of projection data. Solving this problem by improving hardware is an expensive solution, and therefore, we attempted to develop a solution based on optimizing several related algorithms in both the reconstruction and image post-processing domains. As sparse technology is widely used, sparse prediction is increasingly applied to solve this problem. In this paper, we propose a new sparse method to process low-resolution PET images. Two dictionaries (D1 for low-resolution PET images and D2 for high-resolution PET images) are learned from a group real PET image data sets. Among these two dictionaries, D1 is used to obtain a sparse representation for each patch of the input PET image. Then, a high-resolution PET image is generated from this sparse representation using D2. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method exhibits a stable and superior ability to enhance image resolution and recover image details. Quantitatively, this method achieves better performance than traditional methods. This proposed strategy is a new and efficient approach for improving the quality of PET images.

  1. Photovoltaic restoration of sight with high visual acuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorach, Henri; Goetz, Georges; Smith, Richard; Lei, Xin; Mandel, Yossi; Kamins, Theodore; Mathieson, Keith; Huie, Philip; Harris, James; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Patients with retinal degeneration lose sight due to gradual demise of photoreceptors. Electrical stimulation of the surviving retinal neurons provides an alternative route for delivery of visual information. We demonstrate that subretinal arrays with 70 μm photovoltaic pixels provide highly localized stimulation, with electrical and visual receptive fields of comparable sizes in rat retinal ganglion cells. Similarly to normal vision, retinal response to prosthetic stimulation exhibits flicker fusion at high frequencies, adaptation to static images and non-linear spatial summation. In rats with retinal degeneration, these photovoltaic arrays provide spatial resolution of 64 ± 11 μm, corresponding to half of the normal visual acuity in pigmented rats. Ease of implantation of these wireless and modular arrays, combined with their high resolution opens the door to functional restoration of sight. PMID:25915832

  2. An Automatic Cognitive Graph-Based Segmentation for Detection of Blood Vessels in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Al Shehhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hierarchical graph-based segmentation for blood vessel detection in digital retinal images. This segmentation employs some of perceptual Gestalt principles: similarity, closure, continuity, and proximity to merge segments into coherent connected vessel-like patterns. The integration of Gestalt principles is based on object-based features (e.g., color and black top-hat (BTH morphology and context and graph-analysis algorithms (e.g., Dijkstra path. The segmentation framework consists of two main steps: preprocessing and multiscale graph-based segmentation. Preprocessing is to enhance lighting condition, due to low illumination contrast, and to construct necessary features to enhance vessel structure due to sensitivity of vessel patterns to multiscale/multiorientation structure. Graph-based segmentation is to decrease computational processing required for region of interest into most semantic objects. The segmentation was evaluated on three publicly available datasets. Experimental results show that preprocessing stage achieves better results compared to state-of-the-art enhancement methods. The performance of the proposed graph-based segmentation is found to be consistent and comparable to other existing methods, with improved capability of detecting small/thin vessels.

  3. Digital imaging for cultural heritage preservation analysis, restoration, and reconstruction of ancient artworks

    CERN Document Server

    Stanco, Filippo; Gallo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Experiencing the Past: Computer Graphics in Archaeology, F. Stanco and D. TanasiThe Past and the Future: Archaeology and Computer ScienceFrom the Field to the Screen: 3D computer graphics and the Archaeological HeritageThe Archeomatica ProjectArchaeological 3D ModelingHaghia Triada, CretePolizzello Mountain, SicilyDigital RestorationDealing with Image Data in Archaeology: New PerspectivesUsing Digital 3D Models for Study and Restoration of Cultural Heritage Artifacts, M.

  4. Design of a high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Vankov, Alexander; Huie, Phil; Baccus, Stephen

    2005-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. However, current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), whereas at least several thousand pixels would be required for functional restoration of sight. This paper presents the design of an optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system with a stimulating pixel density of up to 2500 pix mm(-2) (corresponding geometrically to a maximum visual acuity of 20/80). Requirements on proximity of neural cells to the stimulation electrodes are described as a function of the desired resolution. Two basic geometries of sub-retinal implants providing required proximity are presented: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. To provide for natural eye scanning of the scene, rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera, the system operates similar to 'virtual reality' devices. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted collimated infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for the simultaneous use of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical delivery of visual information to the implant allows for real-time image processing adjustable to retinal architecture, as well as flexible control of image processing algorithms and stimulation parameters.

  5. Design of a high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Vankov, Alexander; Huie, Phil; Baccus, Stephen

    2005-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. However, current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), whereas at least several thousand pixels would be required for functional restoration of sight. This paper presents the design of an optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system with a stimulating pixel density of up to 2500 pix mm-2 (corresponding geometrically to a maximum visual acuity of 20/80). Requirements on proximity of neural cells to the stimulation electrodes are described as a function of the desired resolution. Two basic geometries of sub-retinal implants providing required proximity are presented: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. To provide for natural eye scanning of the scene, rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera, the system operates similar to 'virtual reality' devices. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted collimated infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for the simultaneous use of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical delivery of visual information to the implant allows for real-time image processing adjustable to retinal architecture, as well as flexible control of image processing algorithms and stimulation parameters.

  6. Partner verification: restoring shattered images of our intimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Ronde, C; Swann, W B

    1998-08-01

    When spouses received feedback that disconfirmed their impressions of their partners, they attempted to undermine that feedback during subsequent interactions with these partners. Such partner verification activities occurred whether partners construed the feedback as overly favorable or overly unfavorable. Furthermore, because spouses tended to see their partners as their partners saw themselves, their efforts to restore their impressions of partners often worked hand-in-hand with partners' efforts to verify their own views. Finally, support for self-verification theory emerged in that participants were more intimate with spouses who verified their self-views, whether their self-views happened to be positive or negative.

  7. Retinal image quality and visual stimuli processing by simulation of partial eye cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Danilenko, Olga; Zavjalova, Varvara

    2016-10-01

    Visual stimuli were demonstrated on a 4.3'' mobile phone screen inside a "Virtual Reality" adapter that allowed separation of the left and right eye visual fields. Contrast of the retina image thus can be controlled by the image on the phone screen and parallel to that at appropriate geometry by the AC voltage applied to scattering PDLC cell inside the adapter. Such optical pathway separation allows to demonstrate to both eyes spatially variant images, that after visual binocular fusion acquire their characteristic indications. As visual stimuli we used grey and different color (two opponent components to vision - red-green in L*a*b* color space) spatially periodical stimuli for left and right eyes; and with spatial content that by addition or subtraction resulted as clockwise or counter clockwise slanted Gabor gratings. We performed computer modeling with numerical addition or subtraction of signals similar to processing in brain via stimuli input decomposition in luminance and color opponency components. It revealed the dependence of the perception psychophysical equilibrium point between clockwise or counter clockwise perception of summation on one eye image contrast and color saturation, and on the strength of the retinal aftereffects. Existence of a psychophysical equilibrium point in perception of summation is only in the presence of a prior adaptation to a slanted periodical grating and at the appropriate slant orientation of adaptation grating and/or at appropriate spatial grating pattern phase according to grating nods. Actual observer perception experiments when one eye images were deteriorated by simulated cataract approved the shift of mentioned psychophysical equilibrium point on the degree of artificial cataract. We analyzed also the mobile devices stimuli emission spectra paying attention to areas sensitive to macula pigments absorption spectral maxima and blue areas where the intense irradiation can cause in abnormalities in periodic melatonin

  8. Neural Network Blind Equalization Algorithm Applied in Medical CT Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunshan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for iterative blind image restoration is presented in this paper. The method extends blind equalization found in the signal case to the image. A neural network blind equalization algorithm is derived and used in conjunction with Zigzag coding to restore the original image. As a result, the effect of PSF can be removed by using the proposed algorithm, which contributes to eliminate intersymbol interference (ISI. In order to obtain the estimation of the original image, what is proposed in this method is to optimize constant modulus blind equalization cost function applied to grayscale CT image by using conjugate gradient method. Analysis of convergence performance of the algorithm verifies the feasibility of this method theoretically; meanwhile, simulation results and performance evaluations of recent image quality metrics are provided to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Signal restoration for NMR imaging using time-dependent gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, J.; Haenicke, W.

    1984-01-01

    NMR imaging experiments that employ linear but time-dependent gradients for encoding spatial information in the time-domain signals result in distorted images when treated with conventional image reconstruction techniques. It is shown here that the phase and amplitude distortions can be entirely removed if the timeshape of the gradient is known. The method proposed is of great theoretical and experimental simplicity. It consists of a retransformation of the measured time-domain signal and corresponds to synchronisation of the signal sampling with the time-development of the gradient field strength. The procedure complements other treatments of periodically oscillating gradients in NMR imaging. (author)

  10. Simultaneous macula detection and optic disc boundary segmentation in retinal fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Fantin; Kavalec, Conrad; Grenier, Sébastien; Ben Tahar, Houssem; Cheriet, Farida

    2016-03-01

    The optic disc (OD) and the macula are important structures in automatic diagnosis of most retinal diseases inducing vision defects such as glaucoma, diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. We propose a new method to detect simultaneously the macula and the OD boundary. First, the color fundus images are processed to compute several maps highlighting the different anatomical structures such as vessels, the macula and the OD. Then, macula candidates and OD candidates are found simultaneously and independently using seed detectors identified on the corresponding maps. After selecting a set of macula/OD pairs, the top candidates are sent to the OD segmentation method. The segmentation method is based on local K-means applied to color coordinates in polar space followed by a polynomial fitting regularization step. Pair scores are updated, resulting in the final best macula/OD pair. The method was evaluated on two public image databases: ONHSD and MESSIDOR. The results show an overlapping area of 0.84 on ONHSD and 0.90 on MESSIDOR, which is better than recent state of the art methods. Our segmentation method is robust to contrast and illumination problems and outputs the exact boundary of the OD, not just a circular or elliptical model. The macula detection has an accuracy of 94%, which again outperforms other macula detection methods. This shows that combining the OD and macula detections improves the overall accuracy. The computation time for the whole process is 6.4 seconds, which is faster than other methods in the literature.

  11. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Bagheri, Abouzar; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Frimmel, Sonja; Zhang, Zhongyu; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of vision loss. Biomarkers and methods for early diagnosis of DR are urgently needed. Using a new molecular imaging approach, we show up to 94% higher accumulation of custom designed imaging probes against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in retinal and choroidal vessels of diabetic animals (P<0.01), compared to normal controls. More than 80% of the VEGFR-2 in the diabetic retina was in the capillaries, compared to 47% in normal controls (P<0.01). Angiography in rabbit retinas revealed microvascular capillaries to be the location for VEGF-A-induced leakage, as expressed by significantly higher rate of fluorophore spreading with VEGF-A injection when compared to vehicle control (26±2 vs. 3±1 μm/s, P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed VEGFR-2 expression in capillaries of diabetic animals but not in normal controls. Macular vessels from diabetic patients (n=7) showed significantly more VEGFR-2 compared to nondiabetic controls (n=5) or peripheral retinal regions of the same retinas (P<0.01 in both cases). Here we introduce a new approach for early diagnosis of DR and VEGFR-2 as a molecular marker. VEGFR-2 could become a key diagnostic target, one that might help to prevent retinal vascular leakage and proliferation in diabetic patients. © FASEB.

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging of the optic tracts in multiple sclerosis: association with retinal thinning and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; Smith, Seth A; Ozturk, Arzu; Farrell, Sheena K; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2011-04-01

    Visual disability is common in multiple sclerosis, but its relationship to abnormalities of the optic tracts remains unknown. Because they are only rarely affected by lesions, the optic tracts may represent a good model for assessing the imaging properties of normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging was performed on 34 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 healthy volunteers. The optic tracts were reconstructed by tractography, and tract-specific diffusion indices were quantified. In the multiple-sclerosis group, peripapillary retinal nerve-fiber-layer thickness and total macular volume were measured by optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity at 100%, 2.5%, and 1.25% contrast was examined. After adjusting for age and sex, optic-tract mean and perpendicular diffusivity were higher (P=.002) in multiple sclerosis. Lower optic-tract fractional anisotropy was correlated with retinal nerve-fiber-layer thinning (r=.51, P=.003) and total-macular-volume reduction (r=.59, P=.002). However, optic-tract diffusion indices were not specifically correlated with visual acuity or with their counterparts in the optic radiation. Optic-tract diffusion abnormalities are associated with retinal damage, suggesting that both may be related to optic-nerve injury, but do not appear to contribute strongly to visual disability in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. Hardware architecture design of image restoration based on time-frequency domain computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Jiao, Zipeng

    2013-10-01

    The image restoration algorithms based on time-frequency domain computation is high maturity and applied widely in engineering. To solve the high-speed implementation of these algorithms, the TFDC hardware architecture is proposed. Firstly, the main module is designed, by analyzing the common processing and numerical calculation. Then, to improve the commonality, the iteration control module is planed for iterative algorithms. In addition, to reduce the computational cost and memory requirements, the necessary optimizations are suggested for the time-consuming module, which include two-dimensional FFT/IFFT and the plural calculation. Eventually, the TFDC hardware architecture is adopted for hardware design of real-time image restoration system. The result proves that, the TFDC hardware architecture and its optimizations can be applied to image restoration algorithms based on TFDC, with good algorithm commonality, hardware realizability and high efficiency.

  14. Conservative image transformations with restoration and scale-space properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weickert, J.A.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Viergever, M.A.; Delogne, P.

    1996-01-01

    Many image processing applications require to solve problems such as denoising with edge enhancement, preprocessing for segmentation, or the completion of interrupted lines. This may be accomplished by applying a suitable nonlinear anisotropic diffusion process to the image. Its diffusion tensor is

  15. A robust sub-pixel edge detection method of infrared image based on tremor-based retinal receptive field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Yang, Hu; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Because of complex thermal objects in an infrared image, the prevalent image edge detection operators are often suitable for a certain scene and extract too wide edges sometimes. From a biological point of view, the image edge detection operators work reliably when assuming a convolution-based receptive field architecture. A DoG (Difference-of- Gaussians) model filter based on ON-center retinal ganglion cell receptive field architecture with artificial eye tremors introduced is proposed for the image contour detection. Aiming at the blurred edges of an infrared image, the subsequent orthogonal polynomial interpolation and sub-pixel level edge detection in rough edge pixel neighborhood is adopted to locate the foregoing rough edges in sub-pixel level. Numerical simulations show that this method can locate the target edge accurately and robustly.

  16. Restoration of polarimetric SAR images using simulated annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Skriver, Henning

    2001-01-01

    approach favoring one of the objectives. An algorithm for estimating the radar cross-section (RCS) for intensity SAR images has previously been proposed in the literature based on Markov random fields and the stochastic optimization method simulated annealing. A new version of the algorithm is presented......Filtering synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images ideally results in better estimates of the parameters characterizing the distributed targets in the images while preserving the structures of the nondistributed targets. However, these objectives are normally conflicting, often leading to a filtering...

  17. Restoration and functional analysis of nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, R.E. III.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear medicine physician uses visual interpretation of a movie-like display of the beating human heart to detect wall motion abnormalities which might be related to impaired cardiac function. The present work is directed toward extracting more information from the heart motion study, and presenting it in a useful manner. A spatially adaptive smoothing routine using a quadtree image representation gives an improvement in mean squared error compared to the S9 smoother commonly used for nuclear medicine studies. Functional images show the two-dimensional distribution of parameters of the heart motion. The most popular, the first harmonic phase functional image, formed from the first Fourier harmonic fit to each pixel time-activity curve, is subject to significant artifacts which make a simple interpretation of it difficult. A multi-harmonic approximation is more accurate and offers a wealth of unique parameters with which to construct more directly meaningful functional images

  18. Use of the Discrete Cosine Transform for the restoration of an image sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acheroy, M.P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is recognized as an important tool for image compression techniques. Its use in image restoration is, however, not well known. It is the aim of this paper to provide a restoration method for a sequence of images using the DCT as well for the deblurring as for the noise reduction. It is shown that the DCT can play an interesting role in the deconvolution problem for linear imaging systems with finite, invariant and symmetric impulse response. It is further shown that the noise reduction can be performed onto an image sequence using a time adaptive Kalman filter in the domain of the Karhunen-Loeve transform which is approximated by the DCT

  19. Restoration of the analytically reconstructed OpenPET images by the method of convex projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Katsunuma, Takayuki; Suga, Mikio [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Kinouchi, Shoko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Obi, Takashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering; Kudo, Hiroyuki [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering

    2011-07-01

    We have proposed the OpenPET geometry which has gaps between detector rings and physically opened field-of-view. The image reconstruction of the OpenPET is classified into an incomplete problem because it does not satisfy the Orlov's condition. Even so, the simulation and experimental studies have shown that applying iterative methods such as the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm successfully reconstruct images in the gap area. However, the imaging process of the iterative methods in the OpenPET imaging is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analytically analyze the OpenPET imaging and estimate implicit constraints involved in the iterative methods. To apply explicit constraints in the OpenPET imaging, we used the method of convex projections for restoration of the images reconstructed by the analytical way in which low-frequency components are lost. Numerical simulations showed that the similar restoration effects are involved both in the ML-EM and the method of convex projections. Therefore, the iterative methods have advantageous effect of restoring lost frequency components of the OpenPET imaging. (orig.)

  20. Noninvasive Imaging of Retinal Morphology and Microvasculature in Obese Mice Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Optical Microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Zhongwei; Chao, Jennifer R.; Wietecha, Tomasz; Hudkins, Kelly L.; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate early diabetes-induced changes in retinal thickness and microvasculature in a type 2 diabetic mouse model by using optical coherence tomography (OCT)/optical microangiography (OMAG). Methods. Twenty-two-week-old obese (OB) BTBR mice (n = 10) and wild-type (WT) control mice (n = 10) were imaged. Three-dimensional (3D) data volumes were captured with spectral domain OCT using an ultrahigh-sensitive OMAG scanning protocol for 3D volumetric angiography of the retina and dense A-scan protocol for measurement of the total retinal blood flow (RBF) rate. The thicknesses of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) and that of the NFL to the inner plexiform layer (IPL) were measured and compared between OB and WT mice. The linear capillary densities within intermediate and deep capillary layers were determined by the number of capillaries crossing a 500-μm line. The RBF rate was evaluated using an en face Doppler approach. These quantitative measurements were compared between OB and WT mice. Results. The retinal thickness of the NFL to IPL was significantly reduced in OB mice (P < 0.01) compared to that in WT mice, whereas the NFL thickness between the two was unchanged. 3D depth-resolved OMAG angiography revealed the first in vivo 3D model of mouse retinal microcirculation. Although no obvious differences in capillary vessel densities of the intermediate and deep capillary layers were detected between normal and OB mice, the total RBF rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in OB mice than in WT mice. Conclusions. We conclude that OB BTBR mice have significantly reduced NFL–IPL thicknesses and total RBF rates compared with those of WT mice, as imaged by OCT/OMAG. OMAG provides an unprecedented capability for high-resolution depth-resolved imaging of mouse retinal vessels and blood flow that may play a pivotal role in providing a noninvasive method for detecting early microvascular changes in patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24458155

  1. ℓ0TV: A new method for image restoration in the presence of impulse noise

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2015-06-02

    Total Variation (TV) is an effective and popular prior model in the field of regularization-based image processing. This paper focuses on TV for image restoration in the presence of impulse noise. This type of noise frequently arises in data acquisition and transmission due to many reasons, e.g. a faulty sensor or analog-to-digital converter errors. Removing this noise is an important task in image restoration. State-of-the-art methods such as Adaptive Outlier Pursuit(AOP), which is based on TV with L02-norm data fidelity, only give sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we propose a new method, called L0T V -PADMM, which solves the TV-based restoration problem with L0-norm data fidelity. To effectively deal with the resulting non-convex nonsmooth optimization problem, we first reformulate it as an equivalent MPEC (Mathematical Program with Equilibrium Constraints), and then solve it using a proximal Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (PADMM). Our L0TV-PADMM method finds a desirable solution to the original L0-norm optimization problem and is proven to be convergent under mild conditions. We apply L0TV-PADMM to the problems of image denoising and deblurring in the presence of impulse noise. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that L0TV-PADMM outperforms state-of-the-art image restoration methods.

  2. l0TV: A Sparse Optimization Method for Impulse Noise Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Total Variation (TV) is an effective and popular prior model in the field of regularization-based image processing. This paper focuses on total variation for removing impulse noise in image restoration. This type of noise frequently arises in data acquisition and transmission due to many reasons, e.g. a faulty sensor or analog-to-digital converter errors. Removing this noise is an important task in image restoration. State-of-the-art methods such as Adaptive Outlier Pursuit(AOP), which is based on TV with l02-norm data fidelity, only give sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we propose a new sparse optimization method, called l0TV-PADMM, which solves the TV-based restoration problem with l0-norm data fidelity. To effectively deal with the resulting non-convex non-smooth optimization problem, we first reformulate it as an equivalent biconvex Mathematical Program with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC), and then solve it using a proximal Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (PADMM). Our l0TV-PADMM method finds a desirable solution to the original l0-norm optimization problem and is proven to be convergent under mild conditions. We apply l0TV-PADMM to the problems of image denoising and deblurring in the presence of impulse noise. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that l0TV-PADMM outperforms state-of-the-art image restoration methods.

  3. Radiopacity of restorative composites by conventional radiography and digital images with different resolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Raquel Venancio; Samento, Hugo Ramalho [Graduate Program in Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas (Brazil); Duarte, Rosangela Marques; Raso, Sonia Saeger Meireles Monte; De Andrade Ana Karina Maciel; Anjos-Pontual Maria Luiza Dos [Dept. of Operative Dentistry, Federal University of Paraiba, Pelotas (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the radiopacity of dentin, enamel, and 8 restorative composites on conventional radiograph and digital images with different resolutions. Specimens were fabricated from 8 materials and human molars were longitudinally sectioned 1.0 mm thick to include both enamel and dentin. The specimens and tooth sections were imaged by conventional radiograph using 4 sized intraoral film and digital images were taken in high speed and high resolution modes using a phosphor storage plate. Densitometric evaluation of the enamel, dentin, restorative materials, a lead sheet, and an aluminum step wedge was performed on the radiographic images. For the evaluation, the Al equivalent (mm) for each material was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05), considering the material factor and then the radiographic method factor, individually. The high speed mode allowed the highest radiopacity, while the high resolution mode generated the lowest values. Furthermore, the high resolution mode was the most efficient method for radiographic differentiation between restorative composites and dentin. The conventional radiograph was the most effective in enabling differentiation between enamel and composites. The high speed mode was the least effective in enabling radiographic differentiation between the dental tissues and restorative composites. The high speed mode of digital imaging was not effective for differentiation between enamel and composites. This made it less effective than the high resolution mode and conventional radiographs. All of the composites evaluated showed radiopacity values that fit the ISO 4049 recommendations.

  4. l0TV: A Sparse Optimization Method for Impulse Noise Image Restoration

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao

    2017-12-18

    Total Variation (TV) is an effective and popular prior model in the field of regularization-based image processing. This paper focuses on total variation for removing impulse noise in image restoration. This type of noise frequently arises in data acquisition and transmission due to many reasons, e.g. a faulty sensor or analog-to-digital converter errors. Removing this noise is an important task in image restoration. State-of-the-art methods such as Adaptive Outlier Pursuit(AOP), which is based on TV with l02-norm data fidelity, only give sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we propose a new sparse optimization method, called l0TV-PADMM, which solves the TV-based restoration problem with l0-norm data fidelity. To effectively deal with the resulting non-convex non-smooth optimization problem, we first reformulate it as an equivalent biconvex Mathematical Program with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC), and then solve it using a proximal Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (PADMM). Our l0TV-PADMM method finds a desirable solution to the original l0-norm optimization problem and is proven to be convergent under mild conditions. We apply l0TV-PADMM to the problems of image denoising and deblurring in the presence of impulse noise. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that l0TV-PADMM outperforms state-of-the-art image restoration methods.

  5. Four corneal presbyopia corrections: simulations of optical consequences on retinal image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Tobias; Seiler, Theo

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the possibility of multifocal or aspherical treatment of the cornea with optical ray tracing. Institute for Refractive and Ophthalmic Surgery, Zurich, Switzerland. The optical consequences of 4 corneal shapes-global optimum (GO) for curvature and asphericity, central steep island (CSI), decentered steep island (DSI), and centered steep annulus (CSA)-for presbyopia correction were analyzed using a modified Liou-Brennan eye model and ray tracing with a commercial optic design software (Zemax, Zemax Development Corp.). The ocular optical configuration for far vision was a point light source at a distance of 5 m, 1 degree up, and a pupil diameter of 5.0 mm and for near vision, 0.4 m distance, 1 degree up, and a pupil diameter of 2.5 mm. The curvature radius (R) of the cornea and its asphericity (Q) were used as operands to optimize (simultaneously for near and far vision) the quality of the retinal image described by means of the minimum spot diameter or the root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront error. Starting from an emmetropic eye optimized for R and Q, the RMS wavefront error in the retina was 0.07 microm (far) and 1.42 microm (near). The GO resulted in a wavefront error of 1.42 microm (far) and 0.52 microm (near); improvement of near vision using reading glasses is possible. The CSI yielded 0.91 microm (far) and 0.13 microm (near); spectacles did not improve far or near vision. The DSI and CSA had significantly worse results for near and far vision. Of the options studied, GO and CSI seemed the most promising alternatives for corneal presbyopia correction. Although reading glasses can improve near vision in GO, reading glasses did not improve near vision in CSI-treated eyes. The CSI treatment is critically dependent on centration and a reverse treatment is difficult to achieve.

  6. Additive diagnostic role of imaging in glaucoma: optical coherence tomography and retinal nerve fiber layer photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko Eun; Kim, Seok Hwan; Oh, Sohee; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Suh, Min Hee; Seo, Je Hyun; Kim, Martha; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung

    2014-11-20

    To investigate the additive diagnostic role of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and red-free retinal nerve fiber layer photography (RNFLP) in making clinical glaucoma diagnosis. Four diagnostic combination sets, including the most recent image from each measurement of 196 glaucoma eyes (including the 44 preperimetric glaucoma eyes) and 101 healthy eyes, were prepared: (1) stereo disc photography and Humphrey visual field (SH), (2) SH and SD-OCT (SHO), (3) SH and RNFLP (SHR), and (4) SHR and SD-OCT (SHRO). Each randomly sorted set was serially presented at 1-month intervals to five glaucoma specialists who were asked to evaluate them in a subjective and independent manner. The specialists' glaucoma-diagnostic performances based on the sets were then compared. For each specialist, adding SD-OCT to SH or SHR increased the glaucoma-diagnostic sensitivity but not to a level of statistical significance. For one specialist, adding RNFLP to SH significantly increased the sensitivity. Each specialist showed a high level of specificity regardless of the diagnostic set. The overall sensitivity of all specialists' assessments was significantly increased by adding RNFLP or the combination of SD-OCT and RNFLP to SH (P < 0.001); however, adding SD-OCT to SH or SHR did not significantly increase the sensitivity. A similar relationship was noted also for the preperimetric glaucoma subgroup. In contrast to RNFLP, SD-OCT did not significantly enhance the diagnostic accuracy of detecting glaucoma or even of preperimetric glaucoma. Our results suggest that, at least for glaucoma specialists, the additive diagnostic role of OCT is limited. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Parafoveal retinal cone mosaic imaging in children with ultra-compact switchable SLO/OCT handheld probe (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; DuBose, Theodore B.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-03-01

    In vivo photoreceptor imaging has enhanced the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists understand the retinal structure, function, and etiology of numerous retinal pathologies. However, the complexity and large footprint of current systems capable of resolving photoreceptors has limited imaging to patients who are able to sit in an upright position and fixate for several minutes. Unfortunately, this excludes an important fraction of patients including bedridden patients, small children, and infants. Here, we show that our dual-modality, high-resolution handheld probe with a weight of only 94 g is capable of visualizing photoreceptors in supine children. Our device utilizes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner and a novel telescope design to achieve over an order of magnitude reduction in size compared to similar systems. The probe has a 7° field of view and a lateral resolution of 8 µm. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has an axial resolution of 7 µm and a sensitivity of 101 dB. High definition scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and OCT images were acquired from children ranging from 14 months to 12 years of age with and without pathology during examination under anesthesia in the operating room. Parafoveal cone imaging was shown using the SLO arm of this device without adaptive optics using a 3° FOV for the first time in children under 4 years old. This work lays the foundation for pediatric research, which will improve understanding of retinal development, maldevelopment and early onset of diseases at the cellular level during the beginning stages of human growth.

  8. Visibility Restoration for Single Hazy Image Using Dual Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingye Ju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single image haze removal has been a challenging task due to its super ill-posed nature. In this paper, we propose a novel single image algorithm that improves the detail and color of such degraded images. More concretely, we redefine a more reliable atmospheric scattering model (ASM based on our previous work and the atmospheric point spread function (APSF. Further, by taking the haze density spatial feature into consideration, we design a scene-wise APSF kernel prediction mechanism to eliminate the multiple-scattering effect. With the redefined ASM and designed APSF, combined with the existing prior knowledge, the complex dehazing problem can be subtly converted into one-dimensional searching problem, which allows us to directly obtain the scene transmission and thereby recover visually realistic results via the proposed ASM. Experimental results verify that our algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art dehazing techniques in terms of robustness, effectiveness, and efficiency.

  9. Wavefront Control and Image Restoration with Less Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    PseudoDiversity is a method of recovering the wavefront in a sparse- or segmented- aperture optical system typified by an interferometer or a telescope equipped with an adaptive primary mirror consisting of controllably slightly moveable segments. (PseudoDiversity should not be confused with a radio-antenna-arraying method called pseudodiversity.) As in the cases of other wavefront- recovery methods, the streams of wavefront data generated by means of PseudoDiversity are used as feedback signals for controlling electromechanical actuators of the various segments so as to correct wavefront errors and thereby, for example, obtain a clearer, steadier image of a distant object in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. There are numerous potential applications in astronomy, remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft, targeting missiles, sighting military targets, and medical imaging (including microscopy) through such intervening media as cells or water. In comparison with prior wavefront-recovery methods used in adaptive optics, PseudoDiversity involves considerably simpler equipment and procedures and less computation. For PseudoDiversity, there is no need to install separate metrological equipment or to use any optomechanical components beyond those that are already parts of the optical system to which the method is applied. In Pseudo- Diversity, the actuators of a subset of the segments or subapertures are driven to make the segments dither in the piston, tilt, and tip degrees of freedom. Each aperture is dithered at a unique frequency at an amplitude of a half wavelength of light. During the dithering, images on the focal plane are detected and digitized at a rate of at least four samples per dither period. In the processing of the image samples, the use of different dither frequencies makes it possible to determine the separate effects of the various dithered segments or apertures. The digitized image-detector outputs are processed in the spatial

  10. Algorithm for predicting macular dysfunction based on moment invariants classification of the foveal avascular zone in functional retinal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Moises Arthur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A new method for segmenting and quantifying the macular area based on morphological alternating sequential filtering (ASF is proposed. Previous studies show that persons with diabetes present alterations in the foveal avascular zone (FAZ prior to the appearance of retinopathy. Thus, a proper characterization of FAZ using a method of automatic classification and prediction is a supportive and complementary tool for medical evaluation of the macular region, and may be useful for possible early treatment of eye diseases in persons without diabetic retinopathy. Methods We obtained high-resolution retinal images using a non-invasive functional imaging system called Retinal Function Imager to generate a series of combined capillary perfusion maps. We filtered sequentially the macular images to reduce the complexity by ASF. Then we segmented the FAZ using watershed transform from an automatic selection of markers. Using Hu’s moment invariants as a descriptor, we can automatically classify and categorize each FAZ. Results The FAZ differences between non-diabetic volunteers and diabetic subjects were automatically distinguished by the proposed system with an accuracy of 81%. Conclusion This is an innovative method to classify FAZ using a fully automatic algorithm for segmentation (based on morphological operators and for the classification (based on descriptor formed by Hu’s moments despite the presence of edema or other structures. This is an alternative tool for eye exams, which may contribute to the analysis and evaluation of FAZ morphology, promoting the prevention of macular impairment in diabetics without retinopathy.

  11. 3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Fuller, Alfred R.; Zhao, Mingtao; Wiley, David F.; Choi, Stacey S.; Bower, Bradley A.; Hamann, Bernd; Izatt, Joseph A.; Werner, John S.

    2006-02-01

    The acquisition speed of current FD-OCT (Fourier Domain - Optical Coherence Tomography) instruments allows rapid screening of three-dimensional (3D) volumes of human retinas in clinical settings. To take advantage of this ability requires software used by physicians to be capable of displaying and accessing volumetric data as well as supporting post processing in order to access important quantitative information such as thickness maps and segmented volumes. We describe our clinical FD-OCT system used to acquire 3D data from the human retina over the macula and optic nerve head. B-scans are registered to remove motion artifacts and post-processed with customized 3D visualization and analysis software. Our analysis software includes standard 3D visualization techniques along with a machine learning support vector machine (SVM) algorithm that allows a user to semi-automatically segment different retinal structures and layers. Our program makes possible measurements of the retinal layer thickness as well as volumes of structures of interest, despite the presence of noise and structural deformations associated with retinal pathology. Our software has been tested successfully in clinical settings for its efficacy in assessing 3D retinal structures in healthy as well as diseased cases. Our tool facilitates diagnosis and treatment monitoring of retinal diseases.

  12. Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise Image Restoration Via Total Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    deblurring under impulse noise ,” J. Math. Imaging Vis., vol. 36, pp. 46–53, January 2010. [5] B. Li, Q. Liu, J. Xu, and X. Luo, “A new method for removing......Several Total Variation (TV) regularization methods have recently been proposed to address denoising under mixed Gaussian and impulse noise . While

  13. Restoration the domain structure from magnetic force microscopy image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongping; Lou, Yuanfu; Wei, Fulin; Wei, Dan

    2012-04-01

    This contribution gives an approximation method to calculate the stray field of the scanning plane from the magnetic force microscopy (MFM) force gradient image. Before calculation, a Butterworth low-pass filter has been used to remove a part of the noise of the image. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) method has been used to calculate the magnetic potential of the film surface. It shows that the potential is not correct because the low-frequency noise has been enlarged. The approximation method gives a better result of the potential and proves that the MFM force gradient of the perpendicular component image also gives the perpendicular component of the stray field. Supposing that the distance between the tip and the sample is as small as near zero, the force gradient image also gives the magnetic charge distribution of the film surface. So if the orientation of the film from hysteresis loop is known, then the domain structure of the film can be determined. For perpendicular orientation, the absolution value of the perpendicular component of stray field gives the domain and domain wall position. For in-plane orientation, the absolution value of in-plane component of stray field gives the domain and domain wall position.

  14. Variational approach for restoring blurred images with cauchy noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciacchitano, Federica; Dong, Yiqiu; Zeng, Tieyong

    2015-01-01

    model, we add a quadratic penalty term, which guarantees the uniqueness of the solution. Due to the convexity of our model, the primal dual algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for simultaneously deblurring...... and denoising images corrupted by Cauchy noise. Comparison with other existing and well-known methods is provided as well....

  15. Beyond Retinal Layers: A Deep Voting Model for Automated Geographic Atrophy Segmentation in SD-OCT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zexuan; Chen, Qiang; Niu, Sijie; Leng, Theodore; Rubin, Daniel L

    2018-01-01

    To automatically and accurately segment geographic atrophy (GA) in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images by constructing a voting system with deep neural networks without the use of retinal layer segmentation. An automatic GA segmentation method for SD-OCT images based on the deep network was constructed. The structure of the deep network was composed of five layers, including one input layer, three hidden layers, and one output layer. During the training phase, the labeled A-scans with 1024 features were directly fed into the network as the input layer to obtain the deep representations. Then a soft-max classifier was trained to determine the label of each individual pixel. Finally, a voting decision strategy was used to refine the segmentation results among 10 trained models. Two image data sets with GA were used to evaluate the model. For the first dataset, our algorithm obtained a mean overlap ratio (OR) 86.94% ± 8.75%, absolute area difference (AAD) 11.49% ± 11.50%, and correlation coefficients (CC) 0.9857; for the second dataset, the mean OR, AAD, and CC of the proposed method were 81.66% ± 10.93%, 8.30% ± 9.09%, and 0.9952, respectively. The proposed algorithm was capable of improving over 5% and 10% segmentation accuracy, respectively, when compared with several state-of-the-art algorithms on two data sets. Without retinal layer segmentation, the proposed algorithm could produce higher segmentation accuracy and was more stable when compared with state-of-the-art methods that relied on retinal layer segmentation results. Our model may provide reliable GA segmentations from SD-OCT images and be useful in the clinical diagnosis of advanced nonexudative AMD. Based on the deep neural networks, this study presents an accurate GA segmentation method for SD-OCT images without using any retinal layer segmentation results, and may contribute to improved understanding of advanced nonexudative AMD.

  16. Image preprocessing for improving computational efficiency in implementation of restoration and superresolution algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshan, Malur K; Bhattacharjee, Supratik; Inampudi, Radhika; Pang, Ho-Yuen

    2002-12-10

    Computational complexity is a major impediment to the real-time implementation of image restoration and superresolution algorithms in many applications. Although powerful restoration algorithms have been developed within the past few years utilizing sophisticated mathematical machinery (based on statistical optimization and convex set theory), these algorithms are typically iterative in nature and require a sufficient number of iterations to be executed to achieve the desired resolution improvement that may be needed to meaningfully perform postprocessing image exploitation tasks in practice. Additionally, recent technological breakthroughs have facilitated novel sensor designs (focal plane arrays, for instance) that make it possible to capture megapixel imagery data at video frame rates. A major challenge in the processing of these large-format images is to complete the execution of the image processing steps within the frame capture times and to keep up with the output rate of the sensor so that all data captured by the sensor can be efficiently utilized. Consequently, development of novel methods that facilitate real-time implementation of image restoration and superresolution algorithms is of significant practical interest and is the primary focus of this study. The key to designing computationally efficient processing schemes lies in strategically introducing appropriate preprocessing steps together with the superresolution iterations to tailor optimized overall processing sequences for imagery data of specific formats. For substantiating this assertion, three distinct methods for tailoring a preprocessing filter and integrating it with the superresolution processing steps are outlined. These methods consist of a region-of-interest extraction scheme, a background-detail separation procedure, and a scene-derived information extraction step for implementing a set-theoretic restoration of the image that is less demanding in computation compared with the

  17. ASSESSMENT OF RESTORATION METHODS OF X-RAY IMAGES WITH EMPHASIS ON MEDICAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hosseinian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various medical X-ray imaging methods such as digital radiography, computed tomography and fluoroscopy are used as important tools in diagnostic and operative processes especially in the computer and robotic assisted surgeries. The procedures of extracting information from these images require appropriate deblurring and denoising processes on the pre- and intra-operative images in order to obtain more accurate information. This issue becomes more considerable when the X-ray images are planned to be employed in the photogrammetric processes for 3D reconstruction from multi-view X-ray images since, accurate data should be extracted from images for 3D modelling and the quality of X-ray images affects directly on the results of the algorithms. For restoration of X-ray images, it is essential to consider the nature and characteristics of these kinds of images. X-ray images exhibit severe quantum noise due to limited X-ray photons involved. The assumptions of Gaussian modelling are not appropriate for photon-limited images such as X-ray images, because of the nature of signal-dependant quantum noise. These images are generally modelled by Poisson distribution which is the most common model for low-intensity imaging. In this paper, existing methods are evaluated. For this purpose, after demonstrating the properties of medical X-ray images, the more efficient and recommended methods for restoration of X-ray images would be described and assessed. After explaining these approaches, they are implemented on samples from different kinds of X-ray images. By considering the results, it is concluded that using PURE-LET, provides more effective and efficient denoising than other examined methods in this research.

  18. Adaptive optics retinal imaging with automatic detection of the pupil and its boundary in real time using Shack-Hartmann images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alberto; Sawides, Lucie; Qi, Xiaofeng; Burns, Stephen A

    2017-08-20

    Retinal imaging with an adaptive optics (AO) system usually requires that the eye be centered and stable relative to the exit pupil of the system. Aberrations are then typically corrected inside a fixed circular pupil. This approach can be restrictive when imaging some subjects, since the pupil may not be round and maintaining a stable head position can be difficult. In this paper, we present an automatic algorithm that relaxes these constraints. An image quality metric is computed for each spot of the Shack-Hartmann image to detect the pupil and its boundary, and the control algorithm is applied only to regions within the subject's pupil. Images on a model eye as well as for five subjects were obtained to show that a system exit pupil larger than the subject's eye pupil could be used for AO retinal imaging without a reduction in image quality. This algorithm automates the task of selecting pupil size. It also may relax constraints on centering the subject's pupil and on the shape of the pupil.

  19. Integral equation models for image restoration: high accuracy methods and fast algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yao; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng

    2010-01-01

    Discrete models are consistently used as practical models for image restoration. They are piecewise constant approximations of true physical (continuous) models, and hence, inevitably impose bottleneck model errors. We propose to work directly with continuous models for image restoration aiming at suppressing the model errors caused by the discrete models. A systematic study is conducted in this paper for the continuous out-of-focus image models which can be formulated as an integral equation of the first kind. The resulting integral equation is regularized by the Lavrentiev method and the Tikhonov method. We develop fast multiscale algorithms having high accuracy to solve the regularized integral equations of the second kind. Numerical experiments show that the methods based on the continuous model perform much better than those based on discrete models, in terms of PSNR values and visual quality of the reconstructed images

  20. Parallel detecting super-resolution microscopy using correlation based image restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongzhi; Liu, Shaocong; Zhu, Dazhao; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2017-12-01

    A novel approach to achieve the image restoration is proposed in which each detector's relative position in the detector array is no longer a necessity. We can identify each detector's relative location by extracting a certain area from one of the detector's image and scanning it on other detectors' images. According to this location, we can generate the point spread functions (PSF) for each detector and perform deconvolution for image restoration. Equipped with this method, the microscope with discretionally designed detector array can be easily constructed without the concern of exact relative locations of detectors. The simulated results and experimental results show the total improvement in resolution with a factor of 1.7 compared to conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy. With the significant enhancement in resolution and easiness for application of this method, this novel method should have potential for a wide range of application in fluorescence microscopy based on parallel detecting.

  1. Bioelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, James D.

    2016-05-01

    Retinal prosthesis have been translated to clinical use over the past two decades. Currently, two devices have regulatory approval for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa and one device is in clinical trials for treatment of age-related macular degeneration. These devices provide partial sight restoration and patients use this improved vision in their everyday lives to navigate and to detect large objects. However, significant vision restoration will require both better technology and improved understanding of the interaction between electrical stimulation and the retina. In particular, current retinal prostheses do not provide peripheral visions due to technical and surgical limitations, thus limiting the effectiveness of the treatment. This paper reviews recent results from human implant patients and presents technical approaches for peripheral vision.

  2. A Convex Variational Model for Restoring Blurred Images with Multiplicative Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Tieyong Zeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new variational model for restoring blurred images with multiplicative noise is proposed. Based on the statistical property of the noise, a quadratic penalty function technique is utilized in order to obtain a strictly convex model under a mild condition, which guarantees...

  3. Application of signal detection theory to optics. [image evaluation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helstrom, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Basic quantum detection and estimation theory, applications to optics, photon counting, and filtering theory are studied. Recent work on the restoration of degraded optical images received at photoelectrically emissive surfaces is also reported, the data used by the method are the numbers of electrons ejected from various parts of the surface.

  4. Automatic detection of blood vessels in retinal images for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, D Siva Sundhara; Vasuki, S

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. DR is mainly caused due to the damage of retinal blood vessels in the diabetic patients. It is essential to detect and segment the retinal blood vessels for DR detection and diagnosis, which prevents earlier vision loss in diabetic patients. The computer aided automatic detection and segmentation of blood vessels through the elimination of optic disc (OD) region in retina are proposed in this paper. The OD region is segmented using anisotropic diffusion filter and subsequentially the retinal blood vessels are detected using mathematical binary morphological operations. The proposed methodology is tested on two different publicly available datasets and achieved 93.99% sensitivity, 98.37% specificity, 98.08% accuracy in DRIVE dataset and 93.6% sensitivity, 98.96% specificity, and 95.94% accuracy in STARE dataset, respectively.

  5. Morphology and Topography of Retinal Pericytes in the Living Mouse Retina Using In Vivo Adaptive Optics Imaging and Ex Vivo Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallek, Jesse; Geng, Ying; Nguyen, HoanVu; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To noninvasively image retinal pericytes in the living eye and characterize NG2-positive cell topography and morphology in the adult mouse retina. Methods. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent pericytes (NG2, DsRed) were imaged using a two-channel, adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). One channel imaged vascular perfusion with near infrared light. A second channel simultaneously imaged fluorescent retinal pericytes. Mice were also imaged using wide-field ophthalmoscopy. To confirm in vivo imaging, five eyes were enucleated and imaged in flat mount with conventional fluorescent microscopy. Cell topography was quantified relative to the optic disc. Results. We observed strong DsRed fluorescence from NG2-positive cells. AOSLO revealed fluorescent vascular mural cells enveloping all vessels in the living retina. Cells were stellate on larger venules, and showed banded morphology on arterioles. NG2-positive cells indicative of pericytes were found on the smallest capillaries of the retinal circulation. Wide-field SLO enabled quick assessment of NG2-positive distribution, but provided insufficient resolution for cell counts. Ex vivo microscopy showed relatively even topography of NG2-positive capillary pericytes at eccentricities more than 0.3 mm from the optic disc (515 ± 94 cells/mm2 of retinal area). Conclusions. We provide the first high-resolution images of retinal pericytes in the living animal. Subcellular resolution enabled morphological identification of NG2-positive cells on capillaries showing classic features and topography of retinal pericytes. This report provides foundational basis for future studies that will track and quantify pericyte topography, morphology, and function in the living retina over time, especially in the progression of microvascular disease. PMID:24150762

  6. Research on Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm by Improved Expectation Maximization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the effect of adaptive optics images’ restoration, we put forward a deconvolution algorithm improved by the EM algorithm which joints multiframe adaptive optics images based on expectation-maximization theory. Firstly, we need to make a mathematical model for the degenerate multiframe adaptive optics images. The function model is deduced for the points that spread with time based on phase error. The AO images are denoised using the image power spectral density and support constraint. Secondly, the EM algorithm is improved by combining the AO imaging system parameters and regularization technique. A cost function for the joint-deconvolution multiframe AO images is given, and the optimization model for their parameter estimations is built. Lastly, the image-restoration experiments on both analog images and the real AO are performed to verify the recovery effect of our algorithm. The experimental results show that comparing with the Wiener-IBD or RL-IBD algorithm, our iterations decrease 14.3% and well improve the estimation accuracy. The model distinguishes the PSF of the AO images and recovers the observed target images clearly.

  7. Ultra-wide field imaging system and traditional retinal examinations for screening fundus changes after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Zhang, Qi; Jin, Hai-Ying; Lu, Wu-Yi; Zhao, Pei-Quan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the results of non-mydriatic ultra-wide field imaging system, mydriatic slit-lamp lens (Volk +90 D) and mydriatic Goldmann three-mirror contact lens examinations in screening fundus lesions among patients after cataract surgery. Non-mydriatic images were obtained with an Optomap panoramic 200Tx (Optomap 200Tx) 3d after surgery and graded by a blinded ophthalmologist. A mydriatic slit-lamp lens examination was performed by another blinded retinal specialist on the same day. A third blinded retinal specialist examined patients two weeks after surgery using a Goldmann three-mirror contact lens. In total, 160 patients (184 eyes) were examined, and 66, 69, and 75 cases of retinal lesion(s) were identified using the Optomap 200Tx, slit-lamp lens, and Goldmann three-mirror contact lens, respectively. In 13 cases, fundus changes were sight-threatening. The results obtained by Optomap 200Tx examination and by mydriatic slit-lamp lens examination have good consistency (P=0.375, Kappa=0.942). The mydriatic Goldmann three-mirror lens examination revealed more fundus lesions but are consistent with Optomap 200Tx (P=0.004, Kappa=0.897) and mydriatic slit-lamp lens examination (P=0.031, Kappa=0.932). Early post-operative fundus screening in cataract patients is extremely important and necessary to prevent further vision loss. Wide-field imaging is a feasible and convenient tool for fundus examination that can be used as a primary screening method among patients after cataract surgery.

  8. A NEW REGION-BASED PDE FOR PERCEPTUAL IMAGE RESTORATION

    OpenAIRE

    Magnier , Baptiste; Montesinos , Philippe; Diep , Daniel

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a new image regularization method using a rotating smoothing filter. The novelty of this approach resides in the mixing of ideas coming both from pixel classification which determines roughly if a pixel belongs to a homogenous region or an edge and an anisotropic perceptual edge detector which computes two precise diffusion directions. These directions are used by an anisotropic diffusion scheme. This anisotropic diffusion is accurately contro...

  9. Vector Directional Distance Rational Hybrid Filters for Color Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khriji

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of nonlinear filters, called vector-directional distance rational hybrid filters (VDDRHF for multispectral image processing, is introduced and applied to color image-filtering problems. These filters are based on rational functions (RF. The VDDRHF filter is a two-stage filter, which exploits the features of the vector directional distance filter (VDDF, the center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF and those of the rational operator. The filter output is a result of vector rational function (VRF operating on the output of three sub-functions. Two vector directional distance (VDDF filters and one center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF are proposed to be used in the first stage due to their desirable properties, such as, noise attenuation, chromaticity retention, and edges and details preservation. Experimental results show that the new VDDRHF outperforms a number of widely known nonlinear filters for multi-spectral image processing such as the vector median filter (VMF, the generalized vector directional filters (GVDF and distance directional filters (DDF with respect to all criteria used.

  10. Non-destructive evaluation of teeth restored with different composite resins using synchrotron based micro-imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, A; Kulkarni, V K; Banda, N R; Agrawal, A K; Singh, B; Sarkar, P S; Tripathi, S; Shripathi, T; Kashyap, Y; Sinha, A

    2016-01-01

    Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-imaging in microdefects studies of restored dental samples. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the defects in restorations done by two different resin systems on teeth samples using synchrotron based micro-imaging techniques namely Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) and micro-computed tomography (MCT). With this aim acquired image quality was also compared with routinely used RVG (Radiovisiograph). Crowns of human teeth samples were fractured mechanically involving only enamel and dentin, without exposure of pulp chamber and were divided into two groups depending on the restorative composite materials used. Group A samples were restored using a submicron Hybrid composite material and Group B samples were restored using a Nano-Hybrid restorative composite material. Synchrotron based PCI and MCT was performed with the aim of visualization of tooth structure, composite resin and their interface. The quantitative and qualitative comparison of phase contrast and absorption contrast images along with MCT on the restored teeth samples shows comparatively large number of voids in Group A samples. Quality assessment of dental restorations using synchrotron based micro-imaging suggests Nano-Hybrid resin restorations (Group B) are better than Group A.

  11. Model-based restoration using light vein for range-gated imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Canjin; Sun, Tao; Wang, Tingfeng; Wang, Rui; Guo, Jin; Tian, Yuzhen

    2016-09-10

    The images captured by an airborne range-gated imaging system are degraded by many factors, such as light scattering, noise, defocus of the optical system, atmospheric disturbances, platform vibrations, and so on. The characteristics of low illumination, few details, and high noise make the state-of-the-art restoration method fail. In this paper, we present a restoration method especially for range-gated imaging systems. The degradation process is divided into two parts: the static part and the dynamic part. For the static part, we establish the physical model of the imaging system according to the laser transmission theory, and estimate the static point spread function (PSF). For the dynamic part, a so-called light vein feature extraction method is presented to estimate the fuzzy parameter of the atmospheric disturbance and platform movement, which make contributions to the dynamic PSF. Finally, combined with the static and dynamic PSF, an iterative updating framework is used to restore the image. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method can effectively suppress ringing artifacts and achieve better performance in a range-gated imaging system.

  12. Single underwater image enhancement based on color cast removal and visibility restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongyi; Guo, Jichang; Wang, Bo; Cong, Runmin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Images taken under underwater condition usually have color cast and serious loss of contrast and visibility. Degraded underwater images are inconvenient for observation and analysis. In order to address these problems, an underwater image-enhancement method is proposed. A simple yet effective underwater image color cast removal algorithm is first presented based on the optimization theory. Then, based on the minimum information loss principle and inherent relationship of medium transmission maps of three color channels in an underwater image, an effective visibility restoration algorithm is proposed to recover visibility, contrast, and natural appearance of degraded underwater images. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, qualitative comparison, quantitative comparison, and color accuracy test are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively remove color cast, improve contrast and visibility, and recover natural appearance of degraded underwater images. Additionally, the proposed method is comparable to and even better than several state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Quantitative measurement of changes in retinal vessel diameter in ocular fundus images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Grunkin, Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2000-01-01

    The change in diameter of retinal vessels as a function of increasing distance to the optic disc is believed to be indicative of the risk level of various vascular diseases such as generalised arteriosclerosis and Diabetes Mellitus. In particular, focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN) is considered re...

  14. Split bundle detection in polarimetric images of the human retinal nerve fiber layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K. A.; Reus, N. J.; Vos, F. M.; Lemij, H. G.; Vossepoel, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    One method for assessing pathological retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) appearance is by comparing the NFL to normative values, derived from healthy subjects. These normative values will be more specific when normal physiological differences are taken into account. One common variation is a split

  15. Automated segmentation of geographic atrophy of the retinal epithelium via random forests in AREDS color fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeny, Albert K; Tadarati, Mongkol; Freund, David E; Bressler, Neil M; Burlina, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), left untreated, is the leading cause of vision loss in people older than 55. Severe central vision loss occurs in the advanced stage of the disease, characterized by either the in growth of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), termed the "wet" form, or by geographic atrophy (GA) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) involving the center of the macula, termed the "dry" form. Tracking the change in GA area over time is important since it allows for the characterization of the effectiveness of GA treatments. Tracking GA evolution can be achieved by physicians performing manual delineation of GA area on retinal fundus images. However, manual GA delineation is time-consuming and subject to inter-and intra-observer variability. We have developed a fully automated GA segmentation algorithm in color fundus images that uses a supervised machine learning approach employing a random forest classifier. This algorithm is developed and tested using a dataset of images from the NIH-sponsored Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). GA segmentation output was compared against a manual delineation by a retina specialist. Using 143 color fundus images from 55 different patient eyes, our algorithm achieved PPV of 0.82±0.19, and NPV of 0:95±0.07. This is the first study, to our knowledge, applying machine learning methods to GA segmentation on color fundus images and using AREDS imagery for testing. These preliminary results show promising evidence that machine learning methods may have utility in automated characterization of GA from color fundus images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An improved method for polarimetric image restoration in interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratley, Luke; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    Interferometric radio astronomy data require the effects of limited coverage in the Fourier plane to be accounted for via a deconvolution process. For the last 40 years this process, known as `cleaning', has been performed almost exclusively on all Stokes parameters individually as if they were independent scalar images. However, here we demonstrate for the case of the linear polarization P, this approach fails to properly account for the complex vector nature resulting in a process which is dependent on the axes under which the deconvolution is performed. We present here an improved method, `Generalized Complex CLEAN', which properly accounts for the complex vector nature of polarized emission and is invariant under rotations of the deconvolution axes. We use two Australia Telescope Compact Array data sets to test standard and complex CLEAN versions of the Högbom and SDI (Steer-Dwedney-Ito) CLEAN algorithms. We show that in general the complex CLEAN version of each algorithm produces more accurate clean components with fewer spurious detections and lower computation cost due to reduced iterations than the current methods. In particular, we find that the complex SDI CLEAN produces the best results for diffuse polarized sources as compared with standard CLEAN algorithms and other complex CLEAN algorithms. Given the move to wide-field, high-resolution polarimetric imaging with future telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array, we suggest that Generalized Complex CLEAN should be adopted as the deconvolution method for all future polarimetric surveys and in particular that the complex version of an SDI CLEAN should be used.

  17. Confocal pore size measurement based on super-resolution image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dali; Wang, Yun; Qiu, Lirong; Mao, Xinyue; Zhao, Weiqian

    2014-09-01

    A confocal pore size measurement based on super-resolution image restoration is proposed to obtain a fast and accurate measurement for submicrometer pore size of nuclear track-etched membranes (NTEMs). This method facilitates the online inspection of the pore size evolution during etching. Combining confocal microscopy with super-resolution image restoration significantly improves the lateral resolution of the NTEM image, yields a reasonable circle edge-setting criterion of 0.2408, and achieves precise pore edge detection. Theoretical analysis shows that the minimum measuring diameter can reach 0.19 μm, and the root mean square of the residuals is only 1.4 nm. Edge response simulation and experiment reveal that the edge response of the proposed method is better than 80 nm. The NTEM pore size measurement results obtained by the proposed method agree well with that obtained by scanning electron microscopy.

  18. [Evaluation method with radiographic image quality indicator for internal defects of dental casting metallic restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zheng, G; Lin, H

    2014-12-18

    To develop a new kind of dental radiographic image quality indicator (IQI) for internal quality of casting metallic restoration to influence on its usage life. Radiographic image quality indicator method was used to evaluate the depth of the defects region and internal quality of 127 casting metallic restoration and the accuracy was compared with that of conventional callipers method. In the 127 cases of casting metallic restoration, 9 were found the thickness less than 0.7 mm and the thinnest thickness only 0.2 mm in 26 casting metallic crowns or bridges' occlusal defects region. The data measured by image quality indicator were consistent with those measured by conventional gauging. Two metal inner crowns were found the thickness less than 0.3 mm in 56 porcelain crowns or bridges. The thickness of casting removable partial denture was more than 1.0 mm, but thinner regions were not found. It was found that in a titanium partial denture, the X-ray image of clasp was not uniform and there were internal porosity defects in the clasp. Special dental image quality indicator can solve the visual error problems caused by different observing backgrounds and estimate the depth of the defects region in the casting.

  19. Use of the geometric mean of opposing planar projections in pre-reconstruction restoration of SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulfelfel, D.; Rangayyan, R.M.; Hahn, L.J.; Kloiber, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a restoration scheme for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images that performs restoration before reconstruction (pre-reconstruction restoration) from planar (projection) images. In this scheme, the pixel-by-pixel geometric mean of each pair of opposing (conjugate) planar projections is computed prior to the reconstruction process. The averaging process is shown to help in making the degradation phenomenon less dependent on the distance of each point of the object from the camera. The restoration filters investigated are the Wiener and power spectrum equalization filters. (author)

  20. A level-set method for pathology segmentation in fluorescein angiograms and en face retinal images of patients with age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Fatimah; Ansari, Rashid; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2013-03-01

    The visibility and continuity of the inner segment outer segment (ISOS) junction layer of the photoreceptors on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images is known to be related to visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Automatic detection and segmentation of lesions and pathologies in retinal images is crucial for the screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of patients with retinal diseases. One of the challenges of using the classical level-set algorithms for segmentation involves the placement of the initial contour. Manually defining the contour or randomly placing it in the image may lead to segmentation of erroneous structures. It is important to be able to automatically define the contour by using information provided by image features. We explored a level-set method which is based on the classical Chan-Vese model and which utilizes image feature information for automatic contour placement for the segmentation of pathologies in fluorescein angiograms and en face retinal images of the ISOS layer. This was accomplished by exploiting a priori knowledge of the shape and intensity distribution allowing the use of projection profiles to detect the presence of pathologies that are characterized by intensity differences with surrounding areas in retinal images. We first tested our method by applying it to fluorescein angiograms. We then applied our method to en face retinal images of patients with AMD. The experimental results included demonstrate that the proposed method provided a quick and improved outcome as compared to the classical Chan-Vese method in which the initial contour is randomly placed, thus indicating the potential to provide a more accurate and detailed view of changes in pathologies due to disease progression and treatment.

  1. Brain MR Image Restoration Using an Automatic Trilateral Filter With GPU-Based Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Herng-Hua; Li, Cheng-Yuan; Gallogly, Audrey Haihong

    2018-02-01

    Noise reduction in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images has been a challenging and demanding task. This study develops a new trilateral filter that aims to achieve robust and efficient image restoration. Extended from the bilateral filter, the proposed algorithm contains one additional intensity similarity funct-ion, which compensates for the unique characteristics of noise in brain MR images. An entropy function adaptive to intensity variations is introduced to regulate the contributions of the weighting components. To hasten the computation, parallel computing based on the graphics processing unit (GPU) strategy is explored with emphasis on memory allocations and thread distributions. To automate the filtration, image texture feature analysis associated with machine learning is investigated. Among the 98 candidate features, the sequential forward floating selection scheme is employed to acquire the optimal texture features for regularization. Subsequently, a two-stage classifier that consists of support vector machines and artificial neural networks is established to predict the filter parameters for automation. A speedup gain of 757 was reached to process an entire MR image volume of 256 × 256 × 256 pixels, which completed within 0.5 s. Automatic restoration results revealed high accuracy with an ensemble average relative error of 0.53 ± 0.85% in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio. This self-regulating trilateral filter outperformed many state-of-the-art noise reduction methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. We believe that this new image restoration algorithm is of potential in many brain MR image processing applications that require expedition and automation.

  2. ℓ0TV: A new method for image restoration in the presence of impulse noise

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Ganzhao; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method, called L0T V -PADMM, which solves the TV-based restoration problem with L0-norm data fidelity. To effectively deal with the resulting non-convex nonsmooth optimization problem, we first reformulate it as an equivalent MPEC (Mathematical Program with Equilibrium Constraints), and then solve it using a proximal Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (PADMM). Our L0TV-PADMM method finds a desirable solution to the original L0-norm optimization problem and is proven to be convergent under mild conditions. We apply L0TV-PADMM to the problems of image denoising and deblurring in the presence of impulse noise. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that L0TV-PADMM outperforms state-of-the-art image restoration methods.

  3. UAV remote sensing atmospheric degradation image restoration based on multiple scattering APSF estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiang; Dai, Ming; Yin, Chuan-li

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote imaging is affected by the bad weather, and the obtained images have the disadvantages of low contrast, complex texture and blurring. In this paper, we propose a blind deconvolution model based on multiple scattering atmosphere point spread function (APSF) estimation to recovery the remote sensing image. According to Narasimhan analytical theory, a new multiple scattering restoration model is established based on the improved dichromatic model. Then using the L0 norm sparse priors of gradient and dark channel to estimate APSF blur kernel, the fast Fourier transform is used to recover the original clear image by Wiener filtering. By comparing with other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method can correctly estimate blur kernel, effectively remove the atmospheric degradation phenomena, preserve image detail information and increase the quality evaluation indexes.

  4. Image Restoration Based on the Hybrid Total-Variation-Type Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Baoli; Pang, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Yu-Fei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid total-variation-type model for the image restoration problem based on combining advantages of the ROF model with the LLT model. Since two ${L}^{1}$ -norm terms in the proposed model make it difficultly solved by using some classically numerical methods directly, we first employ the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve a general form of the proposed model. Then, based on the ADMM and the Moreau-Yosida decomposition theory, a more efficient method call...

  5. SMOS images restoration from L1A data: A sparsity-based variational approach

    OpenAIRE

    Preciozzi, J.; Musé, Pablo; Almansa, A.; Durand, Sylvain; Khazaal, Ali; Rougé, B.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Data degradation by radio frequency interferences (RFI) is one of the major challenges that SMOS and other interferometers radiometers missions have to face. Although a great number of the illegal emitters were turned off since the mission was launched, not all of the sources were completely removed. Moreover, the data obtained previously is already corrupted by these RFI. Thus, the recovery of brightness temperature from corrupted data by image restoration techniques ...

  6. Prosthetic vision: devices, patient outcomes and retinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Meffin, Hamish; Maturana, Matias I; Cloherty, Shaun L; Ibbotson, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Retinal disease and its associated retinal degeneration can lead to the loss of photoreceptors and therefore, profound blindness. While retinal degeneration destroys the photoreceptors, the neural circuits that convey information from the eye to the brain are sufficiently preserved to make it possible to restore sight using prosthetic devices. Typically, these devices consist of a digital camera and an implantable neurostimulator. The image sensor in a digital camera has the same spatiotopic arrangement as the photoreceptors of the retina. Therefore, it is possible to extract meaningful spatial information from an image and deliver it via an array of stimulating electrodes directly to the surviving retinal circuits. Here, we review the structure and function of normal and degenerate retina. The different approaches to prosthetic implant design are described in the context of human and preclinical trials. In the last section, we review studies of electrical properties of the retina and its response to electrical stimulation. These types of investigation are currently assessing a number of key challenges identified in human trials, including stimulation efficacy, spatial localisation, desensitisation to repetitive stimulation and selective activation of retinal cell populations. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  7. Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The author describes the etiology of retinitis pigmentosa, a visual dysfunction which results from progressive loss of the retinal photoreceptors. Sections address signs and symptoms, ancillary findings, heredity, clinical diagnosis, therapy, and research. (SBH)

  8. Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & Research ... degenerate. Forms of RP and related diseases include Usher syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome, among ...

  9. Retinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & Research ... central portion of the retina called the macula. Usher Syndrome Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  10. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  11. Low-dose computed tomography image restoration using previous normal-dose scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jianhua; Huang, Jing; Feng, Qianjin; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In current computed tomography (CT) examinations, the associated x-ray radiation dose is of a significant concern to patients and operators. A simple and cost-effective means to perform the examinations is to lower the milliampere-seconds (mAs) or kVp parameter (or delivering less x-ray energy to the body) as low as reasonably achievable in data acquisition. However, lowering the mAs parameter will unavoidably increase data noise and the noise would propagate into the CT image if no adequate noise control is applied during image reconstruction. Since a normal-dose high diagnostic CT image scanned previously may be available in some clinical applications, such as CT perfusion imaging and CT angiography (CTA), this paper presents an innovative way to utilize the normal-dose scan as a priori information to induce signal restoration of the current low-dose CT image series. Methods: Unlike conventional local operations on neighboring image voxels, nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm utilizes the redundancy of information across the whole image. This paper adapts the NLM to utilize the redundancy of information in the previous normal-dose scan and further exploits ways to optimize the nonlocal weights for low-dose image restoration in the NLM framework. The resulting algorithm is called the previous normal-dose scan induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM). Because of the optimized nature of nonlocal weights calculation, the ndiNLM algorithm does not depend heavily on image registration between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose CT scans. Furthermore, the smoothing parameter involved in the ndiNLM algorithm can be adaptively estimated based on the image noise relationship between the current low-dose and the previous normal-dose scanning protocols. Results: Qualitative and quantitative evaluations were carried out on a physical phantom as well as clinical abdominal and brain perfusion CT scans in terms of accuracy and resolution properties. The gain by the use

  12. Serial imaging and structure-function correlates of high-density rings of fundus autofluorescence in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Anthony G; Tufail, Adnan; Fitzke, Fred; Bird, Alan C; Moore, Anthony T; Holder, Graham E; Webster, Andrew R

    2011-09-01

    To document the evolution and functional and structural significance of parafoveal rings of high-density fundus autofluorescence (AF) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and preserved visual acuity. Fifty-two patients with nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa or Usher syndrome, who had a parafoveal ring of high-density AF and a visual acuity of 20/30 or better, were ascertained. All had international standard full-field electroretinography and pattern electroretinography. Autofluorescence imaging was repeated in 30 patients after periods of up to 9.3 years. Of the 52 patients, 35 underwent optical coherence tomography. Progressive constriction of the ring was detected in 17 patients. Ring radius reduced by up to 40% at a mean rate of between 0.8% and 15.8% per year. In 1 patient, a small ring was replaced by irregular AF; visual acuity deteriorated over the same period. There was a high correspondence between the lateral extent of the preserved optical coherence tomography inner segment/outer segment band and the diameter of the ring along the same optical coherence tomographic scan plane (slope, 0.9; r = 0.97; P retina and preserved photopic function. Serial fundus AF may provide prognostic indicators for preservation of central acuity and potentially assist in the identification and evaluation of patients suitable for treatment aimed at preservation of remaining function.

  13. Adaptive optics imaging of healthy and abnormal regions of retinal nerve fiber bundles of patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Monica F; Chui, Toco Y P; Alhadeff, Paula; Rosen, Richard B; Ritch, Robert; Dubra, Alfredo; Hood, Donald C

    2015-01-08

    To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage of the macula, especially the structural changes seen between relatively healthy and clearly abnormal (AB) retinal regions, using an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). Adaptive optics SLO images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) vertical line scans were obtained on one eye of seven glaucoma patients, with relatively deep local arcuate defects on the 10-2 visual field test in one (six eyes) or both hemifields (one eye). Based on the OCT images, the retinal nerve fiber (RNF) layer was divided into two regions: (1) within normal limits (WNL), relative RNF layer thickness within mean control values ±2 SD; and (2) AB, relative thickness less than -2 SD value. As seen on AO-SLO, the pattern of AB RNF bundles near the border of the WNL and AB regions differed across eyes. There were normal-appearing bundles in the WNL region of all eyes and AB-appearing bundles near the border with the AB region. This region with AB bundles ranged in extent from a few bundles to the entire AB region in the case of one eye. All other eyes had a large AB region without bundles. However, in two of these eyes, a few bundles were seen within this region of otherwise missing bundles. The AO-SLO images revealed details of glaucomatous damage that are difficult, if not impossible, to see with current OCT technology. Adaptive optics SLO may prove useful in following progression in clinical trials, or in disease management, if AO-SLO becomes widely available and easy to use. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Fast detection of the main anatomical structures in digital retinal images based on intra- and inter-structure relational knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Casado, José M; Carmona, Enrique J; García-Feijoó, Julián

    2017-10-01

    The anatomical structure detection in retinal images is an open problem. However, most of the works in the related literature are oriented to the detection of each structure individually or assume the previous detection of a structure which is used as a reference. The objective of this paper is to obtain simultaneous detection of the main retinal structures (optic disc, macula, network of vessels and vascular bundle) in a fast and robust way. We propose a new methodology oriented to accomplish the mentioned objective. It consists of two stages. In an initial stage, a set of operators is applied to the retinal image. Each operator uses intra-structure relational knowledge in order to produce a set of candidate blobs that belongs to the desired structure. In a second stage, a set of tuples is created, each of which contains a different combination of the candidate blobs. Next, filtering operators, using inter-structure relational knowledge, are used in order to find the winner tuple. A method using template matching and mathematical morphology is implemented following the proposed methodology. A success is achieved if the distance between the automatically detected blob center and the actual structure center is less than or equal to one optic disc radius. The success rates obtained in the different public databases analyzed were: MESSIDOR (99.33%, 98.58%, 97.92%), DIARETDB1 (96.63%, 100%, 97.75%), DRIONS (100%, n/a, 100%) and ONHSD (100%, 98.85%, 97.70%) for optic disc (OD), macula (M) and vascular bundle (VB), respectively. Finally, the overall success rate obtained in this study for each structure was: 99.26% (OD), 98.69% (M) and 98.95% (VB). The average time of processing per image was 4.16 ± 0.72 s. The main advantage of the use of inter-structure relational knowledge was the reduction of the number of false positives in the detection process. The implemented method is able to simultaneously detect four structures. It is fast, robust and its detection

  15. Extended depth of focus contact lenses vs. two commercial multifocals: Part 1. Optical performance evaluation via computed through-focus retinal image quality metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi C. Bakaraju

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: With the through focus retinal image quality as the gauge of optical performance, we demonstrated that the prototype EDOF designs were less susceptible to variations in pupil, inherent ocular aberrations and decentration, compared to the commercial designs. To ascertain whether these incremental improvements translate to a clinically palpable outcome requires investigation through human trials.

  16. Anterior segment and retinal OCT imaging with simplified sample arm using focus tunable lens technology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Ruminski, Daniel; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Availability of the long-depth-range OCT systems enables comprehensive structural imaging of the eye and extraction of biometric parameters characterizing the entire eye. Several approaches have been developed to perform OCT imaging with extended depth ranges. In particular, current SS-OCT technology seems to be suited to visualize both anterior and posterior eye in a single measurement. The aim of this study is to demonstrate integrated anterior segment and retinal SS-OCT imaging using a single instrument, in which the sample arm is equipped with the electrically tunable lens (ETL). ETL is composed of the optical liquid confined in the space by an elastic polymer membrane. The shape of the membrane, electrically controlled by a specific ring, defines the radius of curvature of the lens surface, thus it regulates the power of the lens. ETL can be also equipped with additional offset lens to adjust the tuning range of the optical power. We characterize the operation of the tunable lens using wavefront sensing. We develop the optimized optical set-up with two adaptive operational states of the ETL in order to focus the light either on the retina or on the anterior segment of the eye. We test the performance of the set-up by utilizing whole eye phantom as the object. Finally, we perform human eye in vivo imaging using the SS-OCT instrument with versatile imaging functionality that accounts for the optics of the eye and enables dynamic control of the optical beam focus.

  17. Restoration of Thickness, Density, and Volume for Highly Blurred Thin Cortical Bones in Clinical CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amirreza; Hardisty, Michael; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Whyne, Cari

    2016-11-01

    In clinical CT images containing thin osseous structures, accurate definition of the geometry and density is limited by the scanner's resolution and radiation dose. This study presents and validates a practical methodology for restoring information about thin bone structure by volumetric deblurring of images. The methodology involves 2 steps: a phantom-free, post-reconstruction estimation of the 3D point spread function (PSF) from CT data sets, followed by iterative deconvolution using the PSF estimate. Performance of 5 iterative deconvolution algorithms, blind, Richardson-Lucy (standard, plus Total Variation versions), modified residual norm steepest descent (MRNSD), and Conjugate Gradient Least-Squares were evaluated using CT scans of synthetic cortical bone phantoms. The MRNSD algorithm resulted in the highest relative deblurring performance as assessed by a cortical bone thickness error (0.18 mm) and intensity error (150 HU), and was subsequently applied on a CT image of a cadaveric skull. Performance was compared against micro-CT images of the excised thin cortical bone samples from the skull (average thickness 1.08 ± 0.77 mm). Error in quantitative measurements made from the deblurred images was reduced 82% (p < 0.01) for cortical thickness and 55% (p < 0.01) for bone mineral mass. These results demonstrate a significant restoration of geometrical and radiological density information derived for thin osseous features.

  18. An enhanced approach for biomedical image restoration using image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ghada Sabah; Abbas, Fatma Ismail; Abood, Ziad M.; Kadhim, Kadhim K.; Karam, Nada S.

    2018-05-01

    Biomedical image is generally noisy and little blur due to the physical mechanisms of the acquisition process, so one of the common degradations in biomedical image is their noise and poor contrast. The idea of biomedical image enhancement is to improve the quality of the image for early diagnosis. In this paper we are using Wavelet Transformation to remove the Gaussian noise from biomedical images: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image and Radiography (Radio) image, in different color spaces (RGB, HSV, YCbCr), and we perform the fusion of the denoised images resulting from the above denoising techniques using add image method. Then some quantive performance metrics such as signal -to -noise ratio (SNR), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and Mean Square Error (MSE), etc. are computed. Since this statistical measurement helps in the assessment of fidelity and image quality. The results showed that our approach can be applied of Image types of color spaces for biomedical images.

  19. Image restoration technique using median filter combined with decision tree algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethu, D.; Assadi, H.M.; Hasson, F.N.; Hasson, N.N.

    2007-01-01

    Images are usually corrupted during transmission principally due to interface in the channel used for transmission. Images also be impaired by the addition of various forms of noise. Salt and pepper is commonly used to impair the image. Salt and pepper noise can be caused by errors in data transmission, malfunctioning pixel elements in camera sensors, and timing errors in the digitization process. During the filtering of noisy image, important features such as edges, lines and other fine image details embedded in the image tends to blur because of filtering operation. The enhancement of noisy data, however, is a very critical process because the sharpening operation can significantly increase the noise. In this respect, contrast enhancement is often necessary in order to highlight details that have been blurred. In this proposed approach we aim to develop image processing technique that can meet this new requirement, which are high quality and high speed. Furthermore, prevent the noise accretion during the sharpening of the image details, and compare the restored images via proposed method with other kinds of filters. (author)

  20. High-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kohei; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Arakawa, Naoko; Oshima, Susumu; Shibata, Naohisa; Hanebuchi, Masaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2012-01-01

    To conduct high-resolution imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal eyes using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). AO-SLO images were obtained in 20 normal eyes at multiple locations in the posterior polar area and a circular path with a 3-4-mm diameter around the optic disc. For each eye, images focused on the RNFL were recorded and a montage of AO-SLO images was created. AO-SLO images for all eyes showed many hyperreflective bundles in the RNFL. Hyperreflective bundles above or below the fovea were seen in an arch from the temporal periphery on either side of a horizontal dividing line to the optic disc. The dark lines among the hyperreflective bundles were narrower around the optic disc compared with those in the temporal raphe. The hyperreflective bundles corresponded with the direction of the striations on SLO red-free images. The resolution and contrast of the bundles were much higher in AO-SLO images than in red-free fundus photography or SLO red-free images. The mean hyperreflective bundle width around the optic disc had a double-humped shape; the bundles at the temporal and nasal sides of the optic disc were narrower than those above and below the optic disc (Poptical coherence tomography correlated with the hyperreflective bundle widths on AO-SLO (Pfiber bundles and Müller cell septa. The widths of the nerve fiber bundles appear to be proportional to the RNFL thickness at equivalent distances from the optic disc.

  1. An image-processing strategy to extract important information suitable for a low-size stimulus pattern in a retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yili; Fu, Jixiang; Chu, Dawei; Li, Rongmao; Xie, Yaoqin

    2017-11-27

    A retinal prosthesis is designed to help the blind to obtain some sight. It consists of an external part and an internal part. The external part is made up of a camera, an image processor and an RF transmitter. The internal part is made up of an RF receiver, implant chip and microelectrode. Currently, the number of microelectrodes is in the hundreds, and we do not know the mechanism for using an electrode to stimulate the optic nerve. A simple hypothesis is that the pixels in an image correspond to the electrode. The images captured by the camera should be processed by suitable strategies to correspond to stimulation from the electrode. Thus, it is a question of how to obtain the important information from the image captured in the picture. Here, we use the region of interest (ROI), a useful algorithm for extracting the ROI, to retain the important information, and to remove the redundant information. This paper explains the details of the principles and functions of the ROI. Because we are investigating a real-time system, we need a fast processing ROI as a useful algorithm to extract the ROI. Thus, we simplified the ROI algorithm and used it in an outside image-processing digital signal processing (DSP) system of the retinal prosthesis. The results show that our image-processing strategies are suitable for a real-time retinal prosthesis and can eliminate redundant information and provide useful information for expression in a low-size image.

  2. Challenges and advantages in wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the human retinal and choroidal vasculature at 1.7-MHz A-scan rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Raju; Migacz, Justin V.; Schwartz, Daniel M.; Werner, John S.; Gorczynska, Iwona

    2017-10-01

    We present noninvasive, three-dimensional, depth-resolved imaging of human retinal and choroidal blood circulation with a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at 1065-nm center wavelength. Motion contrast OCT imaging was performed with the phase-variance OCT angiography method. A Fourier-domain mode-locked light source was used to enable an imaging rate of 1.7 MHz. We experimentally demonstrate the challenges and advantages of wide-field OCT angiography (OCTA). In the discussion, we consider acquisition time, scanning area, scanning density, and their influence on visualization of selected features of the retinal and choroidal vascular networks. The OCTA imaging was performed with a field of view of 16 deg (5 mm×5 mm) and 30 deg (9 mm×9 mm). Data were presented in en face projections generated from single volumes and in en face projection mosaics generated from up to 4 datasets. OCTA imaging at 1.7 MHz A-scan rate was compared with results obtained from a commercial OCTA instrument and with conventional ophthalmic diagnostic methods: fundus photography, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography. Comparison of images obtained from all methods is demonstrated using the same eye of a healthy volunteer. For example, imaging of retinal pathology is presented in three cases of advanced age-related macular degeneration.

  3. Performance Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Local Feature Detectors and Descriptors in the Context of Longitudinal Registration of Retinal Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sajib K; Xiao, Di; Frost, Shaun; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2018-02-17

    In this paper we systematically evaluate the performance of several state-of-the-art local feature detectors and descriptors in the context of longitudinal registration of retinal images. Longitudinal (temporal) registration facilitates to track the changes in the retina that has happened over time. A wide number of local feature detectors and descriptors exist and many of them have already applied for retinal image registration, however, no comparative evaluation has been made so far to analyse their respective performance. In this manuscript we evaluate the performance of the widely known and commonly used detectors such as Harris, SIFT, SURF, BRISK, and bifurcation and cross-over points. As of descriptors SIFT, SURF, ALOHA, BRIEF, BRISK and PIIFD are used. Longitudinal retinal image datasets containing a total of 244 images are used for the experiment. The evaluation reveals some potential findings including more robustness of SURF and SIFT keypoints than the commonly used bifurcation and cross-over points, when detected on the vessels. SIFT keypoints can be detected with a reliability of 59% for without pathology images and 45% for with pathology images. For SURF keypoints these values are respectively 58% and 47%. ALOHA descriptor is best suited to describe SURF keypoints, which ensures an overall matching accuracy, distinguishability of 83%, 93% and 78%, 83% for without pathology and with pathology images respectively.

  4. Fully Automated Robust System to Detect Retinal Edema, Central Serous Chorioretinopathy, and Age Related Macular Degeneration from Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maculopathy is the excessive damage to macula that leads to blindness. It mostly occurs due to retinal edema (RE, central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR, or age related macular degeneration (ARMD. Optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging is the latest eye testing technique that can detect these syndromes in early stages. Many researchers have used OCT images to detect retinal abnormalities. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research that presents a fully automated system to detect all of these macular syndromes is reported. This paper presents the world’s first ever decision support system to automatically detect RE, CSCR, and ARMD retinal pathologies and healthy retina from OCT images. The automated disease diagnosis in our proposed system is based on multilayered support vector machines (SVM classifier trained on 40 labeled OCT scans (10 healthy, 10 RE, 10 CSCR, and 10 ARMD. After training, SVM forms an accurate decision about the type of retinal pathology using 9 extracted features. We have tested our proposed system on 2819 OCT scans (1437 healthy, 640 RE, and 742 CSCR of 502 patients from two different datasets and our proposed system correctly diagnosed 2817/2819 subjects with the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity ratings of 99.92%, 100%, and 99.86%, respectively.

  5. Solving Quasi-Variational Inequalities for Image Restoration with Adaptive Constraint Sets

    KAUST Repository

    Lenzen, F.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We consider a class of quasi-variational inequalities (QVIs) for adaptive image restoration, where the adaptivity is described via solution-dependent constraint sets. In previous work we studied both theoretical and numerical issues. While we were able to show the existence of solutions for a relatively broad class of problems, we encountered difficulties concerning uniqueness of the solution as well as convergence of existing algorithms for solving QVIs. In particular, it seemed that with increasing image size the growing condition number of the involved differential operator posed severe problems. In the present paper we prove uniqueness for a larger class of problems, particularly independent of the image size. Moreover, we provide a numerical algorithm with proved convergence. Experimental results support our theoretical findings.

  6. Efficient generalized cross-validation with applications to parametric image restoration and resolution enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N; Milanfar, P; Golub, G

    2001-01-01

    In many image restoration/resolution enhancement applications, the blurring process, i.e., point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system, is not known or is known only to within a set of parameters. We estimate these PSF parameters for this ill-posed class of inverse problem from raw data, along with the regularization parameters required to stabilize the solution, using the generalized cross-validation method (GCV). We propose efficient approximation techniques based on the Lanczos algorithm and Gauss quadrature theory, reducing the computational complexity of the GCV. Data-driven PSF and regularization parameter estimation experiments with synthetic and real image sequences are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  7. Restoration of three-dimensional MR images degraded by rotational movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method to restore three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) images that have been degraded by rotational movements, such as head nodding by a restless patient. The technique for acquiring the 3D MR images includes additional MR signals, which provide one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) projections of anatomy. The 1D projections detect gross movements, and the 2D projections resolve displacements in one plane. The 2D projections are transformed from Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates to identify rotation. A spatial transformation to reverse the rotation is applied to the imaging data after they have been Fourier transformed to resolve structures in the plane of rotation, but before the Fourier transform for the third direction

  8. Mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after magnetic resonance imaging and following mobile phone use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, S M.J., [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Paramedical Sciences; Daiee, E; Yazdi, A; Khiabani, K; Kavousi, A [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dentistry School; Vazirinejad, R [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Medicine, Community Medicine Dept.; Behnejad, B [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Paramedical Sciences, Radiologic Technology Dept.; Ghasemi, M [Mashad University of Medical Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Imam Reza Hospital, Toxicology Laboratory; Mood, M Balali [Mashad Univ. of Medical Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Imam Reza Hospital, Medical Toxicology Research Center

    2008-07-01

    Background: Mercury or Hydrargyrum (Hg) is the most non-radioactive toxic element. Dental amalgam is made up of 50% mercury. Exposure to electromagnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microwave radiation emitted from mobile phone use may increase the emission of mercury from dental amalgam fillings. It was thus aimed to study the effects of exposure to MRI and mobile phone use on the mercury release from dental amalgam restorations. Materials and Methods: Following approval of the University Medical Ethics Committee and the informed consents of the subjects, two different studies were undertaken. A-MRI: - Thirty patients (27 F, 3 M) aged 18 to 48 years who had been referred to MRI department of Ali-ebn Abitaleb Teaching Hospital and had at least four amalgam restorated teeth, were investigated. Five ml stimulated saliva was collected just before and after MRI. The magnetic flux density was 0.23 T, and the duration of exposure of patients to magnetic field was 30 minutes. B-Mobile phone Use: Fourteen female healthy University students aged 19-23 years, who had not used mobile phones before the study and did not have any previous amalgam restorations but had decays in at least four teeth were investigated. Their urine samples were collected before amalgam restoration, and at days 1, 2, 3 and 4 after restoration. Dental amalgam restoration was performed for all 14 students (2 molars on one side, one class I and one class II restorations with identical volume and surface area of the amalgam fillings). The students randomly divided into two equal groups. The test group students were exposed to microwave radiation emitted from a Nokia 3310 mobile phone (SAR=0.96 W kg{sup -1}) that was operated in talk mode for 15 min every day at days 1-4 after restoration. The other seven female age matched students who served as controls sham exposed to microwave radiation. For each subject, a questionnaire regarding their possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic

  9. Mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after magnetic resonance imaging and following mobile phone use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Daiee, E.; Yazdi, A.; Khiabani, K.; Kavousi, A.; Vazirinejad, R.; Behnejad, B.; Ghasemi, M.; Mood, M. Balali

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mercury or Hydrargyrum (Hg) is the most non-radioactive toxic element. Dental amalgam is made up of 50% mercury. Exposure to electromagnetic fields of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microwave radiation emitted from mobile phone use may increase the emission of mercury from dental amalgam fillings. It was thus aimed to study the effects of exposure to MRI and mobile phone use on the mercury release from dental amalgam restorations. Materials and Methods: Following approval of the University Medical Ethics Committee and the informed consents of the subjects, two different studies were undertaken. A-MRI: - Thirty patients (27 F, 3 M) aged 18 to 48 years who had been referred to MRI department of Ali-ebn Abitaleb Teaching Hospital and had at least four amalgam restorated teeth, were investigated. Five ml stimulated saliva was collected just before and after MRI. The magnetic flux density was 0.23 T, and the duration of exposure of patients to magnetic field was 30 minutes. B-Mobile phone Use: Fourteen female healthy University students aged 19-23 years, who had not used mobile phones before the study and did not have any previous amalgam restorations but had decays in at least four teeth were investigated. Their urine samples were collected before amalgam restoration, and at days 1, 2, 3 and 4 after restoration. Dental amalgam restoration was performed for all 14 students (2 molars on one side, one class I and one class II restorations with identical volume and surface area of the amalgam fillings). The students randomly divided into two equal groups. The test group students were exposed to microwave radiation emitted from a Nokia 3310 mobile phone (SAR=0.96 W kg -1 ) that was operated in talk mode for 15 min every day at days 1-4 after restoration. The other seven female age matched students who served as controls sham exposed to microwave radiation. For each subject, a questionnaire regarding their possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic

  10. A multi-scale tensor voting approach for small retinal vessel segmentation in high resolution fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, Argyrios; Hurtut, Thomas; Tahar, Houssem Ben; Cheriet, Farida

    2016-09-01

    Segmenting the retinal vessels from fundus images is a prerequisite for many CAD systems for the automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy lesions. So far, research efforts have concentrated mainly on the accurate localization of the large to medium diameter vessels. However, failure to detect the smallest vessels at the segmentation step can lead to false positive lesion detection counts in a subsequent lesion analysis stage. In this study, a new hybrid method for the segmentation of the smallest vessels is proposed. Line detection and perceptual organization techniques are combined in a multi-scale scheme. Small vessels are reconstructed from the perceptual-based approach via tracking and pixel painting. The segmentation was validated in a high resolution fundus image database including healthy and diabetic subjects using pixel-based as well as perceptual-based measures. The proposed method achieves 85.06% sensitivity rate, while the original multi-scale line detection method achieves 81.06% sensitivity rate for the corresponding images (p<0.05). The improvement in the sensitivity rate for the database is 6.47% when only the smallest vessels are considered (p<0.05). For the perceptual-based measure, the proposed method improves the detection of the vasculature by 7.8% against the original multi-scale line detection method (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preservation of visual cortical function following retinal pigment epithelium transplantation in the RCS rat using optical imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gias, Carlos; Jones, Myles; Keegan, David; Adamson, Peter; Greenwood, John; Lund, Ray; Martindale, John; Johnston, David; Berwick, Jason; Mayhew, John; Coffey, Peter

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of cortical functional preservation following retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplantation in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat using single-wavelength optical imaging and spectroscopy. The cortical responses to visual stimulation in transplanted rats at 6 months post-transplantation were compared with those from age-matched untreated dystrophic and non-dystrophic rats. Our results show that cortical responses were evoked in non-dystrophic rats to both luminance changes and pattern stimulation, whereas no response was found in untreated dystrophic animals to any of the visual stimuli tested. In contrast, a cortical response was elicited in most of the transplanted rats to luminance changes and in many of those a response was also evoked to pattern stimulation. Although the transplanted rats did not respond to high spatial frequency information we found evidence of preservation in the cortical processing of luminance changes and low spatial frequency stimulation. Anatomical sections of transplanted rat retinas confirmed the capacity of RPE transplantation to rescue photoreceptors. Good correlation was found between photoreceptor survival and the extent of cortical function preservation determined with optical imaging techniques. This study determined the efficacy of RPE transplantation to preserve visual cortical processing and established optical imaging as a powerful technique for its assessment.

  12. Optimizing visualization in enhanced depth imaging OCT in healthy subjects and patients with retinal pigment epithelial detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampik A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lukas Reznicek, Efstathios Vounotrypidis, Florian Seidensticker, Karsten Kortuem, Anselm Kampik, Aljoscha S Neubauer, Armin WolfDepartment of Ophthalmology, Ludwig Maximilians University Muenchen, Munich, GermanyBackground: This study’s objective was to optimize the visualization of three different spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT display modalities and evaluate enhanced depth imaging (EDI by comparing the maximum depth of assessment in conventional versus inverted cross-sectional OCT images in healthy subjects and in patients with retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED.Methods: Cross-sectional SD-OCT conventional and inverted images were obtained with the HRA2 (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph II, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany. Horizontal as well as vertical sections in three different display modes were blinded for evaluation by three independent, experienced graders for maximal imaging depth of the deep ocular fundus layers.Results: The mean imaging depth as measured from the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS to the outer choroid of all 14 healthy subjects was 197 ± 44 µm vs 263 ± 56 µm for conventional vs EDI scans: in black/white mode, it was significantly lower (P < 0.001 than in white/black mode (249 ± 42 µm vs 337 ± 71 µm and color/heat mode (254 ± 48 µm vs 354 ± 73 µm. The mean imaging depth of all 14 study eyes with PED was 240 ± 78 µm vs 345 ± 100 µm for conventional vs EDI scans in black/white mode, and was significantly lower (P < 0.001 than in white/black mode (393 ± 104 µm vs 464 ± 126 µm and in color/heat mode (373 ± 106 µm vs 453 ± 114 µm. In each display modality of healthy subjects and of patients with PED, EDI scans showed a significantly higher imaging depth than the corresponding conventional scans.Conclusion: White/black and color/heat modes allow increased imaging depth, compared to black/white mode using both conventional or EDI OCT scans in healthy subjects or

  13. Restoration of color images degraded by space-variant motion blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šorel, Michal; Flusser, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 4673 (2007), s. 450-457 ISSN 0302-9743. [Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns. Vienna, 27.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : deblurring * space-variant restoration * motion blur * color Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74272-2_56

  14. Volumetric fluorescence retinal imaging in vivo over a 30-degree field of view by oblique scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (oSLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Song, Weiye; Shao, Di; Zhang, Sui; Desai, Manishi; Ness, Steven; Roy, Sayon; Yi, Ji

    2018-01-01

    While fluorescent contrast is widely used in ophthalmology, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence retinal imaging over a large field of view (FOV) has been challenging. In this paper, we describe a novel oblique scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (oSLO) technique that provides 3D volumetric fluorescence retinal imaging with only one raster scan. The technique utilizes scanned oblique illumination and angled detection to obtain fluorescent cross-sectional images, analogous to optical coherence tomography (OCT) line scans (or B-scans). By breaking the coaxial optical alignment used in conventional retinal imaging modalities, depth resolution is drastically improved. To demonstrate the capability of oSLO, we have performed in vivo volumetric fluorescein angiography (FA) of the rat retina with ~25μm depth resolution and over a 30° FOV. Using depth segmentation, oSLO can obtain high contrast images of the microvasculature down to single capillaries in 3D. The multi-modal nature of oSLO also allows for seamless combination with simultaneous OCT angiography.

  15. High-resolution imaging of retinal nerve fiber bundles in glaucoma using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kohei; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Ueda-Arakawa, Naoko; Yoshida, Sachiko; Akagi, Tadamichi; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Nonaka, Atsushi; Hanebuchi, Masaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2013-05-01

    To detect pathologic changes in retinal nerve fiber bundles in glaucomatous eyes seen on images obtained by adaptive optics (AO) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO SLO). Prospective cross-sectional study. Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients with open-angle glaucoma and 21 normal eyes of 21 volunteer subjects underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, visual field testing using a Humphrey Field Analyzer, fundus photography, red-free SLO imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and imaging with an original prototype AO SLO system. The AO SLO images showed many hyperreflective bundles suggesting nerve fiber bundles. In glaucomatous eyes, the nerve fiber bundles were narrower than in normal eyes, and the nerve fiber layer thickness was correlated with the nerve fiber bundle widths on AO SLO (P fiber layer defect area on fundus photography, the nerve fiber bundles on AO SLO were narrower compared with those in normal eyes (P optic disc, the nerve fiber bundle width was significantly lower, even in areas without nerve fiber layer defect, in eyes with glaucomatous eyes compared with normal eyes (P = .026). The mean deviations of each cluster in visual field testing were correlated with the corresponding nerve fiber bundle widths (P = .017). AO SLO images showed reduced nerve fiber bundle widths both in clinically normal and abnormal areas of glaucomatous eyes, and these abnormalities were associated with visual field defects, suggesting that AO SLO may be useful for detecting early nerve fiber bundle abnormalities associated with loss of visual function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Retinal vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M; Herbort, Carl P; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2005-12-01

    Retinal vasculitis is a sight-threatening intraocular inflammation affecting the retinal vessels. It may occur as an isolated ocular condition, as a manifestation of infectious or neoplastic disorders, or in association with a systemic inflammatory disease. The search for an underlying etiology should be approached in a multidisciplinary fashion based on a thorough history, review of systems, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious etiologies of retinal vasculitis is important because their treatment is different. This review is based on recently published articles on retinal vasculitis and deals with its clinical diagnosis, its link with systemic diseases, and its laboratory investigation.

  17. Mean field theory of EM algorithm for Bayesian grey scale image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2003-01-01

    The EM algorithm for the Bayesian grey scale image restoration is investigated in the framework of the mean field theory. Our model system is identical to the infinite range random field Q-Ising model. The maximum marginal likelihood method is applied to the determination of hyper-parameters. We calculate both the data-averaged mean square error between the original image and its maximizer of posterior marginal estimate, and the data-averaged marginal likelihood function exactly. After evaluating the hyper-parameter dependence of the data-averaged marginal likelihood function, we derive the EM algorithm which updates the hyper-parameters to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate analytically. The time evolutions of the hyper-parameters and so-called Q function are obtained. The relation between the speed of convergence of the hyper-parameters and the shape of the Q function is explained from the viewpoint of dynamics

  18. HYPERSPECTRAL AUTOFLUORESCENCE IMAGING OF DRUSEN AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM IN DONOR EYES WITH AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuehong; Ben Ami, Tal; Hong, Sungmin; Heintzmann, Rainer; Gerig, Guido; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Curcio, Christine A; Ach, Thomas; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-12-01

    To elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and interpretation of fundus autofluorescence imaging, the authors identified spectral autofluorescence characteristics of drusen and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in donor eyes with AMD. Macular RPE/Bruch membrane flat mounts were prepared from 5 donor eyes with AMD. In 12 locations (1-3 per eye), hyperspectral autofluorescence images in 10-nm-wavelength steps were acquired at 2 excitation wavelengths (λex 436, 480 nm). A nonnegative tensor factorization algorithm was used to recover 5 abundant emission spectra and their corresponding spatial localizations. At λex 436 nm, the authors consistently localized a novel spectrum (SDr) with a peak emission near 510 nm in drusen and sub-RPE deposits. Abundant emission spectra seen previously (S0 in Bruch membrane and S1, S2, and S3 in RPE lipofuscin/melanolipofuscin, respectively) also appeared in AMD eyes, with the same shapes and peak wavelengths as in normal tissue. Lipofuscin/melanolipofuscin spectra localizations in AMD eyes varied widely in their overlap with drusen, ranging from none to complete. An emission spectrum peaking at ∼510 nm (λex 436 nm) appears to be sensitive and specific for drusen and sub-RPE deposits. One or more abundant spectra from RPE organelles exhibit characteristic relationships with drusen.

  19. Speckle Noise Reduction for the Enhancement of Retinal Layers in Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoon Nowshiravan Rahatabad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important pre-processing steps in optical coherence tomography (OCT is reducing speckle noise, resulting from multiple scattering of tissues, which degrades the quality of OCT images. Materials and Methods The present study focused on speckle noise reduction and edge detection techniques. Statistical filters with different masks and noise variances were applied on OCT and test images. Objective evaluation of both types of images was performed, using various image metrics such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, root mean square error, correlation coefficient and elapsed time. For the purpose of recovery, Kuan filter was used as an input for edge enhancement. Also, a spatial filter was applied to improve image quality. Results The obtained results were presented as statistical tables and images. Based on statistical measures and visual quality of OCT images, Enhanced Lee filter (3×3 with a PSNR value of 43.6735 in low noise variance and Kuan filter (3×3 with a PSNR value of 37.2850 in high noise variance showed superior performance over other filters. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, by using speckle reduction filters such as Enhanced Lee and Kuan filters on OCT images, the number of compounded images, required to achieve a given image quality, could be reduced. Moreover, use of Kuan filters for promoting the edges allowed smoothing of speckle regions, while preserving image tissue texture.

  20. Restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and subwavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawhary, Omar; Schilder, Nick J; Costa Assafrao, Alberto da; Pereira, Silvania F; Paul Urbach, H

    2012-01-01

    It was predicted a few years ago that a medium with negative index of refraction would allow for perfect imaging. Although no material has been found so far that behaves as a perfect lens, some experiments confirmed the theoretical predictions in the near-field, or quasi-static, regime where the behaviour of a negative index medium can be mimicked by a thin layer of noble metal, such as silver. These results are normally attributed to the excitation of surface plasmons in the metal, which only leads to the restoration of p-polarized evanescent waves. In this work, we show that the restoration of s-polarized evanescent waves and, correspondingly, sub-wavelength imaging by a single dielectric slab are possible. Specifically, we show that at λ = 632 nm a thin layer of GaAs behaves as a superlens for s-polarized waves. Replacing the single-metal slab by a dielectric is not only convenient from a technical point of view, it being much easier to deposit and control the thickness and flatness of dielectric films than metal ones, but also invites us to re-think the connection between surface plasmon excitation and the theory of negative refraction. (paper)

  1. Tratteggio retouch and its derivatives as an image reintegration solution in the process of restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grenda

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’article traite du problème de retouche dans la conservation- restauration du papier, concernant en particulier la retouche tratteggio et ses derivatifs que peuvent être la solution de la réintegration de l’image, non si populaire parmi les restaurateurs du papier. C’était la partie du projet de Maîtrise de l’auteur d’examiner la possibilité de l’usage de retouches comme tratteggio dans la restauration de l’affiche de cinéma polonaise de Stefan Norblin, imprimée en lithographie en couleurs.The article describes issues concerning retouch in paper conservation- restoration with particular consideration of tratteggio retouch and its derivatives as an image reintegration solution, not very popular among paper conservators. It was a part of author’s MA project to examine the possibility of using tratteggio- like retouches during the restoration of 20th century Polish film poster by Stefan Norblin, printed in colour litograph.

  2. A comparison of image restoration approaches applied to three-dimensional confocal and wide-field fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verveer, P. J; Gemkow, M. J; Jovin, T. M

    1999-01-01

    We have compared different image restoration approaches for fluorescence microscopy. The most widely used algorithms were classified with a Bayesian theory according to the assumed noise model and the type of regularization imposed. We considered both Gaussian and Poisson models for the noise in combination with Tikhonov regularization, entropy regularization, Good's roughness and without regularization (maximum likelihood estimation). Simulations of fluorescence confocal imaging were used to examine the different noise models and regularization approaches using the mean squared error criterion. The assumption of a Gaussian noise model yielded only slightly higher errors than the Poisson model. Good's roughness was the best choice for the regularization. Furthermore, we compared simulated confocal and wide-field data. In general, restored confocal data are superior to restored wide-field data, but given sufficient higher signal level for the wide-field data the restoration result may rival confocal data in quality. Finally, a visual comparison of experimental confocal and wide-field data is presented.

  3. Image restoration techniques using Compton backscatter imaging for the detection of buried land mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Keshavmurthy, Shyam P.; Watanabe, Yoichi; Dugan, Edward T.; Jacobs, Alan M.

    1995-06-01

    Earlier landmine imaging systems used two collimated detectors to image objects. These systems had difficulty in distinguishing between surface features and buried features. Using a combination of collimated and uncollimated detectors in a Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) system, allows the identification of surface and buried features. Images created from the collimated detectors contain information about the surface and the buried features, while the uncollimated detectors respond (approximately 80%) to features on the surface. The analysis of surface features are performed first, then these features can be removed and the buried features can be identified. Separation of the surface and buried features permits the use of a globbing algorithm to define regions of interest that can then be quantified [area, Y dimension, X dimension, and center location (xo, yo)]. Mine composition analysis is also possible because of the properties of the four detector system. Distinguishing between a pothole and a mine, that was previously very difficult, can now be easily accomplished.

  4. Perfect blind restoration of images blurred by multiple filters: theory and efficient algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, G; Bresler, Y

    1999-01-01

    We address the problem of restoring an image from its noisy convolutions with two or more unknown finite impulse response (FIR) filters. We develop theoretical results about the existence and uniqueness of solutions, and show that under some generically true assumptions, both the filters and the image can be determined exactly in the absence of noise, and stably estimated in its presence. We present efficient algorithms to estimate the blur functions and their sizes. These algorithms are of two types, subspace-based and likelihood-based, and are extensions of techniques proposed for the solution of the multichannel blind deconvolution problem in one dimension. We present memory and computation-efficient techniques to handle the very large matrices arising in the two-dimensional (2-D) case. Once the blur functions are determined, they are used in a multichannel deconvolution step to reconstruct the unknown image. The theoretical and practical implications of edge effects, and "weakly exciting" images are examined. Finally, the algorithms are demonstrated on synthetic and real data.

  5. Semiautomated segmentation and analysis of retinal layers in three-dimensional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images of patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhihong; Shi, Yue; Nandanan, Kiran; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2017-01-01

    Historically, regular drusen and geographic atrophy (GA) have been recognized as the hallmarks of nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent imaging developments have revealed another distinct nonneovascular AMD phenotype, reticular pseudodrusen (RPD). We develop an approach to semiautomatically quantify retinal surfaces associated with various AMD lesions (i.e., regular drusen, RPD, and GA) in spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. More specifically, a graph-based algorithm was used to segment multiple retinal layers in SD-OCT volumes. Varying surface feasibility constraints based on the presegmentation were applied on the double-surface graph search to refine the surface segmentation. The thicknesses of these layers and their correlation with retinal functional measurements, including microperimetry (MP) sensitivity and visual acuity (VA), were investigated. The photoreceptor outer segment layer demonstrated significant thinning with a reduction in MP sensitivity and VA score when atrophic AMD lesions were present. Regular drusen and RPD were separately segmented on SD-OCT images to allow their characteristics and distribution to be studied separately. The mean thickness of regular drusen was found to significantly correlate with the VA score. RPD appeared to be distributed evenly throughout the macula and regular drusen appeared to be more concentrated centrally.

  6. Identification of retinal ganglion cells and their projections involved in central transmission of information about upward and downward image motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Yonehara

    Full Text Available The direction of image motion is coded by direction-selective (DS ganglion cells in the retina. Particularly, the ON DS ganglion cells project their axons specifically to terminal nuclei of the accessory optic system (AOS responsible for optokinetic reflex (OKR. We recently generated a knock-in mouse in which SPIG1 (SPARC-related protein containing immunoglobulin domains 1-expressing cells are visualized with GFP, and found that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the medial terminal nucleus (MTN, the principal nucleus of the AOS, are comprised of SPIG1+ and SPIG1(- ganglion cells distributed in distinct mosaic patterns in the retina. Here we examined light responses of these two subtypes of MTN-projecting cells by targeted electrophysiological recordings. SPIG1+ and SPIG1(- ganglion cells respond preferentially to upward motion and downward motion, respectively, in the visual field. The direction selectivity of SPIG1+ ganglion cells develops normally in dark-reared mice. The MTN neurons are activated by optokinetic stimuli only of the vertical motion as shown by Fos expression analysis. Combination of genetic labeling and conventional retrograde labeling revealed that axons of SPIG1+ and SPIG1(- ganglion cells project to the MTN via different pathways. The axon terminals of the two subtypes are organized into discrete clusters in the MTN. These results suggest that information about upward and downward image motion transmitted by distinct ON DS cells is separately processed in the MTN, if not independently. Our findings provide insights into the neural mechanisms of OKR, how information about the direction of image motion is deciphered by the AOS.

  7. Progress toward the maintenance and repair of degenerating retinal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugler, Anthony A

    2010-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa remain major causes of severe vision loss in humans. Clinical trials for treatment of retinal degenerations are underway and advancements in our understanding of retinal biology in health/disease have implications for novel therapies. A review of retinal biology is used to inform a discussion of current strategies to maintain/repair neural circuitry in age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis. In age-related macular degeneration/retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive loss of rods/cones results in corruption of bipolar cell circuitry, although retinal output neurons/photoreceptive melanopsin cells survive. Visual function can be stabilized/enhanced after treatment in age-related macular degeneration, but in advanced degenerations, reorganization of retinal circuitry may preclude attempts to restore cone function. In Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis, useful vision can be restored by gene therapy where central cones survive. Remarkable progress has been made in restoring vision to rodents using light-responsive ion channels inserted into bipolar cells/retinal ganglion cells. Advances in genetic, cellular, and prosthetic therapies show varying degrees of promise for treating retinal degenerations. While functional benefits can be obtained after early therapeutic interventions, efforts should be made to minimize circuitry changes as soon as possible after rod/cone loss. Advances in retinal anatomy/physiology and genetic technologies should allow refinement of future reparative strategies.

  8. Crowdsourcing as a novel technique for retinal fundus photography classification: analysis of images in the EPIC Norfolk cohort on behalf of the UK Biobank Eye and Vision Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Danny; Peto, Tunde; Hayat, Shabina; Morgan, James E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the process of outsourcing numerous tasks to many untrained individuals. Our aim was to assess the performance and repeatability of crowdsourcing for the classification of retinal fundus photography. One hundred retinal fundus photograph images with pre-determined disease criteria were selected by experts from a large cohort study. After reading brief instructions and an example classification, we requested that knowledge workers (KWs) from a crowdsourcing platform classified each image as normal or abnormal with grades of severity. Each image was classified 20 times by different KWs. Four study designs were examined to assess the effect of varying incentive and KW experience in classification accuracy. All study designs were conducted twice to examine repeatability. Performance was assessed by comparing the sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Without restriction on eligible participants, two thousand classifications of 100 images were received in under 24 hours at minimal cost. In trial 1 all study designs had an AUC (95%CI) of 0.701(0.680-0.721) or greater for classification of normal/abnormal. In trial 1, the highest AUC (95%CI) for normal/abnormal classification was 0.757 (0.738-0.776) for KWs with moderate experience. Comparable results were observed in trial 2. In trial 1, between 64-86% of any abnormal image was correctly classified by over half of all KWs. In trial 2, this ranged between 74-97%. Sensitivity was ≥ 96% for normal versus severely abnormal detections across all trials. Sensitivity for normal versus mildly abnormal varied between 61-79% across trials. With minimal training, crowdsourcing represents an accurate, rapid and cost-effective method of retinal image analysis which demonstrates good repeatability. Larger studies with more comprehensive participant training are needed to explore the utility of this compelling technique in large scale medical image analysis.

  9. Association between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and magnetic resonance imaging findings and intelligence in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtari, Fereshteh; Emami, Parisa; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease in which demyelination and axonal loss leads to progressive disability. Cognition impairment is among the most common complication. Studying axonal loss in the retina is a new marker for MS. The main goal of our study is to search for correlations between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at the macula and head of the optic nerve and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Scores that assess multiple domains of intelligence, and to explore the relationship between changes in the RNFL thickness with intellectual and cognitive dysfunction. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Hospital of Kashani, Isfahan, Iran, from September to December 2013. All patients were assessed with a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) on the WAIS-R. An optical coherence tomography study and brain MRI were performed in the same week for all the patients. Statistical analysis was conducted by using a bivariate correlation, by utilizing SPSS 20.0. A P value ≤ 0.05 was the threshold of statistical significance. Examination of a 100 patients showed a significant correlation between the average RNFL thickness of the macula and the verbal IQ (P value = 0.01) and full IQ (P value = 0.01). There was a significant correlation between brain atrophy and verbal IQ. The RNFL loss was correlated with verbal IQ and full IQ.

  10. Elliptical local vessel density: a fast and robust quality metric for retinal images

    OpenAIRE

    Giancardo, L.; Abramoff, M.D.; Chaum, E.; Karnowski, T.P.; Meriaudeau, F.; Tobin, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    A great effort of the research community is geared towards the creation of an automatic screening system able to promptly detect diabetic retinopathy with the use of fundus cameras. In addition, there are some documented approaches for automatically judging the image quality. We propose a new set of features independent of field of view or resolution to describe the morphology of the patient's vessels. Our initial results suggest that these features can be used to estimate the image quality i...

  11. Image Restoration Based on the Hybrid Total-Variation-Type Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoli Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid total-variation-type model for the image restoration problem based on combining advantages of the ROF model with the LLT model. Since two L1-norm terms in the proposed model make it difficultly solved by using some classically numerical methods directly, we first employ the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM to solve a general form of the proposed model. Then, based on the ADMM and the Moreau-Yosida decomposition theory, a more efficient method called the proximal point method (PPM is proposed and the convergence of the proposed method is proved. Some numerical results demonstrate the viability and efficiency of the proposed model and methods.

  12. Retinal Thickening and Photoreceptor Loss in HIV Eyes without Retinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Arcinue

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of structural changes in HIV retinae (i.e., photoreceptor density and retinal thickness in the macula compared with age-matched HIV-negative controls.Cohort of patients with known HIV under CART (combination Antiretroviral Therapy treatment were examined with a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera to assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to assess retinal layers and retinal thickness.Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (n = 6 HIV-positive and 6 HIV-negative were imaged with the adaptive optics camera. In each of the regions of interest studied (nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, the HIV group had significantly less mean cone photoreceptor density compared with age-matched controls (difference range, 4,308-6,872 cones/mm2. A different subset of forty eyes of 20 patients (n = 10 HIV-positive and 10 HIV-negative was included in the retinal thickness measurements and retinal layer segmentation with the SD-OCT. We observed significant thickening in HIV positive eyes in the total retinal thickness at the foveal center, and in each of the three horizontal B-scans (through the macular center, superior, and inferior to the fovea. We also noted that the inner retina (combined thickness from ILM through RNFL to GCL layer was also significantly thickened in all the different locations scanned compared with HIV-negative controls.Our present study shows that the cone photoreceptor density is significantly reduced in HIV retinae compared with age-matched controls. HIV retinae also have increased macular retinal thickness that may be caused by inner retinal edema secondary to retinovascular disease in HIV. The interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE, as well as possible low-grade ocular inflammation causing diffuse inner retinal edema, may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients without overt retinitis.

  13. Discriminative Structured Dictionary Learning on Grassmann Manifolds and Its Application on Image Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Han; Jing, Zhongliang; Qiao, Lingfeng; Li, Minzhe

    2017-09-25

    Image restoration is a difficult and challenging problem in various imaging applications. However, despite of the benefits of a single overcomplete dictionary, there are still several challenges for capturing the geometric structure of image of interest. To more accurately represent the local structures of the underlying signals, we propose a new problem formulation for sparse representation with block-orthogonal constraint. There are three contributions. First, a framework for discriminative structured dictionary learning is proposed, which leads to a smooth manifold structure and quotient search spaces. Second, an alternating minimization scheme is proposed after taking both the cost function and the constraints into account. This is achieved by iteratively alternating between updating the block structure of the dictionary defined on Grassmann manifold and sparsifying the dictionary atoms automatically. Third, Riemannian conjugate gradient is considered to track local subspaces efficiently with a convergence guarantee. Extensive experiments on various datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the removal of mixed Gaussian-impulse noise.

  14. Automatic detection of micro-aneurysms in retinal images based on curvelet transform and morphological operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Alipour, Shirin Hajeb; Rabbani, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes that changes the blood vessels of the retina and distorts patient vision that finally in high stages can lead to blindness. Micro-aneurysms (MAs) are one of the first pathologies associated with DR. The number and the location of MAs are very important in grading of DR. Early diagnosis of micro-aneurysms (MAs) can reduce the incidence of blindness. As MAs are tiny area of blood protruding from vessels in the retina and their size is about 25 to 100 microns, automatic detection of these tiny lesions is still challenging. MAs occurring in the macula can lead to visual loss. Also the position of a lesion such as MAs relative to the macula is a useful feature for analysis and classification of different stages of DR. Because MAs are more distinguishable in fundus fluorescin angiography (FFA) compared to color fundus images, we introduce a new method based on curvelet transform and morphological operations for MAs detection in FFA images. As vessels and MAs are the bright parts of FFA image, firstly extracted vessels by curvelet transform are removed from image. Then morphological operations are applied on resulted image for detecting MAs.

  15. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 1 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youla, D C; Webb, H

    1982-01-01

    A projection operator onto a closed convex set in Hilbert space is one of the few examples of a nonlinear map that can be defined in simple abstract terms. Moreover, it minimizes distance and is nonexpansive, and therefore shares two of the more important properties of ordinary linear orthogonal projections onto closed linear manifolds. In this paper, we exploit the properties of these operators to develop several iterative algorithms for image restoration from partial data which permit any number of nonlinear constraints of a certain type to be subsumed automatically. Their common conceptual basis is as follows. Every known property of an original image f is envisaged as restricting it to lie in a well-defined closed convex set. Thus, m such properties place f in the intersection E(0) = E(i) of the corresponding closed convex sets E(1),E(2),...EE(m). Given only the projection operators PE(i) onto the individual E(i)'s, i = 1 --> m, we restore f by recursive means. Clearly, in this approach, the realization of the P(i)'s in a Hilbert space setting is one of the major synthesis problems. Section I describes the geometrical significance of the three main theorems in considerable detail, and most of the underlying ideas are illustrated with the aid of simple diagrams. Section II presents rules for the numerical implementation of 11 specific projection operators which are found to occur frequently in many signal-processing applications, and the Appendix contains proofs of all the major results.

  16. Contribution to restoration of degraded images by a space-variant system: use of an a priori model of the image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Imaging systems often present shift-variant point spread functions which are usually approximated by shift-invariant ones, in order to simplify the restoration problem. The aim of this thesis is to show that, if this shift-variant degradation is taken into account, it may increase strongly the quality of restoration. The imaging system is a pinhole, used to acquire images of high energy beams. Three restoration methods have been studied and compared: the Tikhonov-Miller regularization, the Markov-fields and the Maximum-Entropy methods. These methods are based on the incorporation of an a priori knowledge into the restoration process, to achieve stability of the solution. An improved restoration method is proposed: this approach is based on the Tikhonov-Miller regularization, combined with an a priori model of the solution. The idea of such a model is to express local characteristics to be reconstructed. The concept of parametric models described by a set of parameters (shape of the object, amplitude values,...) is used. A parametric optimization is used to find the optimal estimation of parameters close to the correct a priori information data of the expected solution. Several criteria have been proposed to measure the restoration quality. (author) [fr

  17. Cell Therapy Applications for Retinal Vascular Diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susanna S

    2016-04-01

    Retinal vascular conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion, remain leading causes of vision loss. No therapy exists to restore vision loss resulting from retinal ischemia and associated retinal degeneration. Tissue regeneration is possible with cell therapy. The goal would be to restore or replace the damaged retinal vasculature and the retinal neurons that are damaged and/or degenerating from the hypoxic insult. Currently, various adult cell therapies have been explored as potential treatment. They include mesenchymal stem cells, vascular precursor cells (i.e., CD34+ cells, hematopoietic cells or endothelial progenitor cells), and adipose stromal cells. Preclinical studies show that all these cells have a paracrine trophic effect on damaged ischemic tissue, leading to tissue preservation. Endothelial progenitor cells and adipose stromal cells integrate into the damaged retinal vascular wall in preclinical models of diabetic retinopathy and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mesenchymal stem cells do not integrate as readily but appear to have a primary paracrine trophic effect. Early phase clinical trials have been initiated and ongoing using mesenchymal stem cells or autologous bone marrow CD34+ cells injected intravitreally as potential therapy for diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion. Adipose stromal cells or pluripotent stem cells differentiated into endothelial colony-forming cells have been explored in preclinical studies and show promise as possible therapies for retinal vascular disorders. The relative safety or efficacy of these various cell therapies for treating retinal vascular disorders have yet to be determined.

  18. Imaging and image restoration of an on-axis three-mirror Cassegrain system with wavefront coding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohu; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Jia, Wei; Kong, Lingqin; Wu, Yijian; Li, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Wavefront coding (WFC) technology is adopted in the space optical system to resolve the problem of defocus caused by temperature difference or vibration of satellite motion. According to the theory of WFC, we calculate and optimize the phase mask parameter of the cubic phase mask plate, which is used in an on-axis three-mirror Cassegrain (TMC) telescope system. The simulation analysis and the experimental results indicate that the defocused modulation transfer function curves and the corresponding blurred images have a perfect consistency in the range of 10 times the depth of focus (DOF) of the original TMC system. After digital image processing by a Wiener filter, the spatial resolution of the restored images is up to 57.14 line pairs/mm. The results demonstrate that the WFC technology in the TMC system has superior performance in extending the DOF and less sensitivity to defocus, which has great value in resolving the problem of defocus in the space optical system.

  19. Automated Segmentation Methods of Drusen to Diagnose Age-Related Macular Degeneration Screening in Retinal Images

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2018-01-01

    Existing drusen measurement is difficult to use in clinic because it requires a lot of time and effort for visual inspection. In order to resolve this problem, we propose an automatic drusen detection method to help clinical diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration. First, we changed the fundus image to a green channel and extracted the ROI of the macular area based on the optic disk. Next, we detected the candidate group using the difference image of the median filter within the ROI. We...

  20. Retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments for retinitis pigmentosa, including the use of DHA, which is an omega-3 fatty acid. Other ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 630. ...

  1. Cytomegalovirus retinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have weakened immune systems as a result of: HIV/AIDS Bone marrow transplant Chemotherapy Drugs that suppress the immune system Organ transplant Symptoms Some people with CMV retinitis have no symptoms. ...

  2. Retinal Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your brain. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving, and seeing fine detail. A retinal detachment lifts or pulls the retina from its normal position. It can occur at ...

  3. Automated Segmentation Methods of Drusen to Diagnose Age-Related Macular Degeneration Screening in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jae Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing drusen measurement is difficult to use in clinic because it requires a lot of time and effort for visual inspection. In order to resolve this problem, we propose an automatic drusen detection method to help clinical diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration. First, we changed the fundus image to a green channel and extracted the ROI of the macular area based on the optic disk. Next, we detected the candidate group using the difference image of the median filter within the ROI. We also segmented vessels and removed them from the image. Finally, we detected the drusen through Renyi’s entropy threshold algorithm. We performed comparisons and statistical analysis between the manual detection results and automatic detection results for 30 cases in order to verify validity. As a result, the average sensitivity was 93.37% (80.95%~100% and the average DSC was 0.73 (0.3~0.98. In addition, the value of the ICC was 0.984 (CI: 0.967~0.993, p<0.01, showing the high reliability of the proposed automatic method. We expect that the automatic drusen detection helps clinicians to improve the diagnostic performance in the detection of drusen on fundus image.

  4. Exudate detection in color retinal images for mass screening of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiwei; Thibault, Guillaume; Decencière, Etienne; Marcotegui, Beatriz; Laÿ, Bruno; Danno, Ronan; Cazuguel, Guy; Quellec, Gwénolé; Lamard, Mathieu; Massin, Pascale; Chabouis, Agnès; Victor, Zeynep; Erginay, Ali

    2014-10-01

    The automatic detection of exudates in color eye fundus images is an important task in applications such as diabetic retinopathy screening. The presented work has been undertaken in the framework of the TeleOphta project, whose main objective is to automatically detect normal exams in a tele-ophthalmology network, thus reducing the burden on the readers. A new clinical database, e-ophtha EX, containing precisely manually contoured exudates, is introduced. As opposed to previously available databases, e-ophtha EX is very heterogeneous. It contains images gathered within the OPHDIAT telemedicine network for diabetic retinopathy screening. Image definition, quality, as well as patients condition or the retinograph used for the acquisition, for example, are subject to important changes between different examinations. The proposed exudate detection method has been designed for this complex situation. We propose new preprocessing methods, which perform not only normalization and denoising tasks, but also detect reflections and artifacts in the image. A new candidates segmentation method, based on mathematical morphology, is proposed. These candidates are characterized using classical features, but also novel contextual features. Finally, a random forest algorithm is used to detect the exudates among the candidates. The method has been validated on the e-ophtha EX database, obtaining an AUC of 0.95. It has been also validated on other databases, obtaining an AUC between 0.93 and 0.95, outperforming state-of-the-art methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. All-optical recording and stimulation of retinal neurons in vivo in retinal degeneration mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzeri, Jennifer M.; Williams, David R.; Merigan, William H.

    2018-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the application of a method that could accelerate the development of novel therapies by allowing direct and repeatable visualization of cellular function in the living eye, to study loss of vision in animal models of retinal disease, as well as evaluate the time course of retinal function following therapeutic intervention. We use high-resolution adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy to image fluorescence from the calcium sensor GCaMP6s. In mice with photoreceptor degeneration (rd10), we measured restored visual responses in ganglion cell layer neurons expressing the red-shifted channelrhodopsin ChrimsonR over a six-week period following significant loss of visual responses. Combining a fluorescent calcium sensor, a channelrhodopsin, and adaptive optics enables all-optical stimulation and recording of retinal neurons in the living eye. Because the retina is an accessible portal to the central nervous system, our method also provides a novel non-invasive method of dissecting neuronal processing in the brain. PMID:29596518

  6. Image Restoration and Analysis of Influenza Virions Binding to Membrane Receptors Reveal Adhesion-Strengthening Kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W Lee

    Full Text Available With the development of single-particle tracking (SPT microscopy and host membrane mimics called supported lipid bilayers (SLBs, stochastic virus-membrane binding interactions can be studied in depth while maintaining control over host receptor type and concentration. However, several experimental design challenges and quantitative image analysis limitations prevent the widespread use of this approach. One main challenge of SPT studies is the low signal-to-noise ratio of SPT videos, which is sometimes inevitable due to small particle sizes, low quantum yield of fluorescent dyes, and photobleaching. These situations could render current particle tracking software to yield biased binding kinetic data caused by intermittent tracking error. Hence, we developed an effective image restoration algorithm for SPT applications called STAWASP that reveals particles with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.2 while preserving particle features. We tested our improvements to the SPT binding assay experiment and imaging procedures by monitoring X31 influenza virus binding to α2,3 sialic acid glycolipids. Our interests lie in how slight changes to the peripheral oligosaccharide structures can affect the binding rate and residence times of viruses. We were able to detect viruses binding weakly to a glycolipid called GM3, which was undetected via assays such as surface plasmon resonance. The binding rate was around 28 folds higher when the virus bound to a different glycolipid called GD1a, which has a sialic acid group extending further away from the bilayer surface than GM3. The improved imaging allowed us to obtain binding residence time distributions that reflect an adhesion-strengthening mechanism via multivalent bonds. We empirically fitted these distributions using a time-dependent unbinding rate parameter, koff, which diverges from standard treatment of koff as a constant. We further explain how to convert these models to fit ensemble-averaged binding data

  7. New layer-based imaging and rapid prototyping techniques for computer-aided design and manufacture of custom dental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M-Y; Chang, C-C; Ku, Y C

    2008-01-01

    Fixed dental restoration by conventional methods greatly relies on the skill and experience of the dental technician. The quality and accuracy of the final product depends mostly on the technician's subjective judgment. In addition, the traditional manual operation involves many complex procedures, and is a time-consuming and labour-intensive job. Most importantly, no quantitative design and manufacturing information is preserved for future retrieval. In this paper, a new device for scanning the dental profile and reconstructing 3D digital information of a dental model based on a layer-based imaging technique, called abrasive computer tomography (ACT) was designed in-house and proposed for the design of custom dental restoration. The fixed partial dental restoration was then produced by rapid prototyping (RP) and computer numerical control (CNC) machining methods based on the ACT scanned digital information. A force feedback sculptor (FreeForm system, Sensible Technologies, Inc., Cambridge MA, USA), which comprises 3D Touch technology, was applied to modify the morphology and design of the fixed dental restoration. In addition, a comparison of conventional manual operation and digital manufacture using both RP and CNC machining technologies for fixed dental restoration production is presented. Finally, a digital custom fixed restoration manufacturing protocol integrating proposed layer-based dental profile scanning, computer-aided design, 3D force feedback feature modification and advanced fixed restoration manufacturing techniques is illustrated. The proposed method provides solid evidence that computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies may become a new avenue for custom-made fixed restoration design, analysis, and production in the 21st century.

  8. Red lesion detection using background estimation and lesions characteristics in diabetic retinal image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Peng, Yinghui; Yi, Yao; Shang, Xingyu

    2013-10-01

    Detection of red lesions [hemorrhages (HRs) and microaneurysms (MAs)] is crucial for the diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy. A method based on background estimation and adapted to specific characteristics of HRs and MAs is proposed. Candidate red lesions are located by background estimation and Mahalanobis distance measure and then some adaptive postprocessing techniques, which include vessel detection, nonvessel exclusion based on shape analysis, and noise points exclusion by double-ring filter (only used for MAs detection), are conducted to remove nonlesion pixels. The method is evaluated on our collected image dataset, and experimental results show that it is better than or approximate to other previous approaches. It is effective to reduce the false-positive and false-negative results that arise from incomplete and inaccurate vessel structure.

  9. Cytomegalovirus retinitis and HIV: Case reviews from KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    untreated, CMV retinitis can progress to retinal detachment with ... 1 Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Doris .... [18] Ocular TB .... patients for publication of these case reviews and accompanying images.

  10. Microaneurysms detection with the radon cliff operator in retinal fundus images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Early detection is the key in providing effective treatment. However, the current number of trained eye care specialists is inadequate to screen the increasing number of diabetic patients. In recent years, automated and semi-automated systems to detect DR with color fundus images have been developed with encouraging, but not fully satisfactory results. In this study we present the initial results of a new technique for the detection and localization of microaneurysms, an early sign of DR. The algorithm is based on three steps: candidates selection, the actual microaneurysms detection and a final probability evaluation. We introduce the new Radon Cliff operator which is our main contribution to the field. Making use of the Radon transform, the operator is able to detect single noisy Gaussian-like circular structures regardless of their size or strength. The advantages over existing microaneurysms detectors are manifold: the size of the lesions can be unknown, it automatically distinguishes lesions from the vasculature and it provides a fair approach to microaneurysm localization even without post-processing the candidates with machine learning techniques, facilitating the training phase. The algorithm is evaluated on a publicly available dataset from the Retinopathy Online Challenge.

  11. Microaneurysms detection with the radon cliff operator in retinal fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, Luca; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Tobin, Kenneth W.; Li, Yaqin; Chaum, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Early detection is the key in providing effective treatment. However, the current number of trained eye care specialists is inadequate to screen the increasing number of diabetic patients. In recent years, automated and semi-automated systems to detect DR with color fundus images have been developed with encouraging, but not fully satisfactory results. In this study we present the initial results of a new technique for the detection and localization of microaneurysms, an early sign of DR. The algorithm is based on three steps: candidates selection, the actual microaneurysms detection and a final probability evaluation. We introduce the new Radon Cliff operator which is our main contribution to the field. Making use of the Radon transform, the operator is able to detect single noisy Gaussian-like circular structures regardless of their size or strength. The advantages over existing microaneurysms detectors are manifold: the size of the lesions can be unknown, it automatically distinguishes lesions from the vasculature and it provides a fair approach to microaneurysm localization even without post-processing the candidates with machine learning techniques, facilitating the training phase. The algorithm is evaluated on a publicly available dataset from the Retinopathy Online Challenge.

  12. A model-based radiography restoration method based on simple scatter-degradation scheme for improving image visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Kang, S.; Cho, H.; Kang, W.; Seo, C.; Park, C.; Lee, D.; Lim, H.; Lee, H.; Kim, G.; Park, S.; Park, J.; Kim, W.; Jeon, D.; Woo, T.; Oh, J.

    2018-02-01

    In conventional planar radiography, image visibility is often limited mainly due to the superimposition of the object structure under investigation and the artifacts caused by scattered x-rays and noise. Several methods, including computed tomography (CT) as a multiplanar imaging modality, air-gap and grid techniques for the reduction of scatters, phase-contrast imaging as another image-contrast modality, etc., have extensively been investigated in attempt to overcome these difficulties. However, those methods typically require higher x-ray doses or special equipment. In this work, as another approach, we propose a new model-based radiography restoration method based on simple scatter-degradation scheme where the intensity of scattered x-rays and the transmission function of a given object are estimated from a single x-ray image to restore the original degraded image. We implemented the proposed algorithm and performed an experiment to demonstrate its viability. Our results indicate that the degradation of image characteristics by scattered x-rays and noise was effectively recovered by using the proposed method, which improves the image visibility in radiography considerably.

  13. Radiopacity of restorative materials using digital images Radiopacidade de materiais restauradores utilizando imagens digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Maria Pescinini Salzedas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiopacity of esthetic restorative materials has been established as an important requirement, improving the radiographic diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of six restorative materials using a direct digital image system, comparing them to the dental tissues (enamel-dentin, expressed as equivalent thickness of aluminum (millimeters of aluminum. Five specimens of each material were made. Three 2-mm thick longitudinal sections were cut from an intact extracted permanent molar tooth (including enamel and dentin. An aluminum step wedge with 9 steps was used. The samples of different materials were placed on a phosphor plate together with a tooth section, aluminum step wedge and metal code letter, and were exposed using a dental x-ray unit. Five measurements of radiographic density were obtained from each image of each item assessed (restorative material, enamel, dentin, each step of the aluminum step wedge and the mean of these values was calculated. Radiopacity values were subsequently calculated as equivalents of aluminum thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated significant differences in radiopacity values among the materials (PA radiopacidade dos materiais tem sido valorizada como importante requisito, incrementando o diagnóstico radiográfico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, no sistema digital Digora, as densidades radiográficas de 06 materiais restauradores comparando-os aos tecidos dentais (esmalte e dentina, expressos em milímetros de alumínio (mm Al. Foram confeccionadas 05 amostras de cada material e três cortes de um molar extraído hígido (incluindo esmalte e dentina, com 2 mm de espessura, e um penetrômetro de alumínio com 09 degraus. Sobre cada placa óptica foram colocados amostras dos diferentes materiais, um corte do dente humano, o penetrômetro e a identificação, e feita a exposição utilizando um aparelho de raios X. Foram obtidas 05 medidas de densidade radiográfica de

  14. Single-cell resolution imaging of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in vivo using a cell-penetrating caspase-activatable peptide probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Qiu

    Full Text Available Peptide probes for imaging retinal ganglion cell (RGC apoptosis consist of a cell-penetrating peptide targeting moiety and a fluorophore-quencher pair flanking an effector caspase consensus sequence. Using ex vivo fluorescence imaging, we previously validated the capacity of these probes to identify apoptotic RGCs in cell culture and in an in vivo rat model of N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA-induced neurotoxicity. Herein, using TcapQ488, a new probe designed and synthesized for compatibility with clinically-relevant imaging instruments, and real time imaging of a live rat RGC degeneration model, we fully characterized time- and dose-dependent probe activation, signal-to-noise ratios, and probe safety profiles in vivo. Adult rats received intravitreal injections of four NMDA concentrations followed by varying TcapQ488 doses. Fluorescence fundus imaging was performed sequentially in vivo using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope and individual RGCs displaying activated probe were counted and analyzed. Rats also underwent electroretinography following intravitreal injection of probe. In vivo fluorescence fundus imaging revealed distinct single-cell probe activation as an indicator of RGC apoptosis induced by intravitreal NMDA injection that corresponded to the identical cells observed in retinal flat mounts of the same eye. Peak activation of probe in vivo was detected 12 hours post probe injection. Detectable fluorescent RGCs increased with increasing NMDA concentration; sensitivity of detection generally increased with increasing TcapQ488 dose until saturating at 0.387 nmol. Electroretinography following intravitreal injections of TcapQ488 showed no significant difference compared with control injections. We optimized the signal-to-noise ratio of a caspase-activatable cell penetrating peptide probe for quantitative non-invasive detection of RGC apoptosis in vivo. Full characterization of probe performance in this setting creates an important in

  15. Implementations of three OCT angiography (OCTA) methods with 1.7 MHz A-scan rate OCT system on imaging of human retinal and choroidal vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Raju; Werner, John S.

    2018-06-01

    We present noninvasive depth-resolved imaging of human retinal and choroidal microcirculation with an ultrahigh-speed (1.7 MHz A-scans/s), Fourier-domain mode locked (FDML) swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system having a central wavelength of 1065 nm. Three OCT angiography (OCTA) motion based contrast methods, namely phase variance (PV), amplitude decorrelation (AD) and Joint Spectral and Time domain OCT (STdOCT) were implemented. The OCTA imaging was performed with a field of view of 16° (5 mm × 5 mm) and 30° (9 mm × 9 mm), on the retina. A qualitative comparison of images obtained with all three OCTA methods is demonstrated using the same eye of a healthy volunteer. Different parameters, namely acquisition time, scanning area, and scanning density, are discussed. The phase-variance OCTA (PV-OCTA) method produced relatively better results than the other two. Different features regarding the retinal and choroidal vessels are described in different subjects.

  16. 3D image restoration for confocal microscopy: toward a wavelet deconvolution for the study of complex biological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Le Calvez, Sophie; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2000-05-01

    Image restoration algorithms provide efficient tools for recovering part of the information lost in the imaging process of a microscope. We describe recent progress in the application of deconvolution to confocal microscopy. The point spread function of a Biorad-MRC1024 confocal microscope was measured under various imaging conditions, and used to process 3D-confocal images acquired in an intact preparation of the inner ear developed at Karolinska Institutet. Using these experiments we investigate the application of denoising methods based on wavelet analysis as a natural regularization of the deconvolution process. Within the Bayesian approach to image restoration, we compare wavelet denoising with the use of a maximum entropy constraint as another natural regularization method. Numerical experiments performed with test images show a clear advantage of the wavelet denoising approach, allowing to `cool down' the image with respect to the signal, while suppressing much of the fine-scale artifacts appearing during deconvolution due to the presence of noise, incomplete knowledge of the point spread function, or undersampling problems. We further describe a natural development of this approach, which consists of performing the Bayesian inference directly in the wavelet domain.

  17. LONG-TERM SD-OCT/SLO IMAGING OF NEURORETINA AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM AFTER SUB-THRESHOLD INFRARED LASER TREATMENT OF DRUSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOJANA, FRANCESCA; BRAR, MANPREET; CHENG, LINGYUN; BARTSCH, DIRK-UWE G.; FREEMAN, WILLIAM R.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the long-term effect of sub-threshold diode laser treatment for drusen in patients with non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with spectral domain optical coherence tomography combined with simultaneous scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SD-OCT/SLO). METHODS 8 eyes of 4 consecutive AMD patients with bilateral drusen previously treated with sub-threshold diode laser were imaged with SD-OCT/SLO. Abnormalities in the outer retina layers reflectivity as seen with SD-OCT/SLO were retrospectively analyzed and compared with color fundus pictures and autofluorescence images (AF) acquired immediately before and after the laser treatment. RESULTS A focal discrete disruptions in the reflectivity of the outer retinal layers was noted in 29% of the laser lesions. The junction in between the inner and outer segment of the photoreceptor was more frequently affected, with associated focal damage of the outer nuclear layer. Defects of the RPE were occasionally detected. These changes did not correspond to threshold burns on color fundus photography, but corresponded to focal areas of increased AF in the majority of the cases. CONCLUSIONS Sub-threshold diode laser treatment causes long-term disruption of the retinal photoreceptor layer as analyzed by SD-OCT/SLO. The concept that sub-threshold laser treatment can achieve a selected RPE effect without damage to rods and cones may be flawed. PMID:21157398

  18. Effect of Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Micro leakage of Amalgam Restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To authenticate whether exposure to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can cause micro leakage of amalgam restorations or not. Methods: This prospective in-vitro study study was conducted at Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University. Thirty-six non-carious human teeth (18 premolars and 18 molars), (26 upper and 10 lower) were gathered from the Oral Surgery Department. Standard class V cavities with all margins in the enamel were made on the buccal and lingual aspects after surface debridement .Three groups of teeth were randomly assigned, each containing 12 teeth. Three types of amalgams were used, GS-80, Rupy Cap and Trend alloy. Each type of amalgams was randomly applied to one group. Each group was divided randomly into two equal categories, one was designed to be the control group and the other was scanned by a 1.5 Tesla MRI Scanner for approximately 5 minutes. Micro leakage was assessed in each group. Three amalgam specimens were scanned using 1.5 Tesla Optima MR360 Scanner .The three specimens were sticked to the superior aspect of the medium spine phantom (one specimen per scan) to induce magnetization transfer contrast to easily visualize these in vitro dental ware containing amalgam. The three specimens were scanned using the same Susceptibility Weighted Angiography (SWAN) technique in different orthogonal orientations (Axial, Coronal and Sagittal) to assess the amalgam induced artifacts during MRI scanning. The primary outcome measure was the micro leakage caused by different types of amalgams during MRI scanning; the second outcome measure was the artifacts that may be encountered by different types of amalgams during MRI scanning .

  19. Retinal Imaging with Smartphone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-23

    Aug 23, 2016 ... professionals is increasing, especially with the availability of different applications. On account of cost, ... of ophthalmology for which the use of smart phones appears promising .... com/oldsite/statistics/2013%20Epocrates%20.

  20. Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Riaz, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 58-year-old female presented to the emergency department reporting six days of progressive, atraumatic left eye vision loss. Her symptoms started with the appearance of dark spots and “spider webs,” and then progressed to darkening of vision in her left eye. She reports mild pain since yesterday. Her review of symptoms was otherwise negative. Ocular physical examination revealed normal external appearance, intact extraocular movements, and visual acuities of 20/25 OD and light/dark sensitivity OS. Fluorescein uptake was negative and slit lamp exam was unremarkable. Significant findings: Bedside ocular ultrasound revealed a serpentine, hyperechoic membrane that appeared tethered to the optic disc posteriorly with hyperechoic material underneath. These findings are consistent with retinal detachment (RD and associated retinal hemorrhage. Discussion: The retina is a layer of organized neurons that line the posterior portion of the posterior chamber of the eye. RD occurs when this layer separates from the underlying epithelium, resulting in ischemia and progressive photoreceptor degeneration, with potentially rapid and permanent vision loss if left untreated.1 Risk factors include advanced age, male sex (60%, race (Asians and Jews, and myopia and lattice degeneration.2 Bedside ultrasound (US performed by emergency physicians provides a valuable tool that has been used by ophthalmologists for decades to evaluate intraocular disease.1,3 Findings on bedside ultrasound consistent with RD include a hyperechoic membrane floating in the posterior chamber. RD usuallyremain tethered to the optic disc posteriorly and do not cross midline, a feature distinguishing them from posterior vitreous detachments. Associated retinal hemorrhage, seen as hyperechoic material under the retinal flap, can often be seen.1,2 US can also distinguish between “mac-on” and “mac-off” detachments. If the retina is still attached to the

  1. RESTORATION OF WEAK PHASE-CONTRAST IMAGES RECORDED WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF DEFOCUS: THE"TWIN IMAGE" PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH CTF CORRECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Kenneth H.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2008-03-28

    Relatively large values of objective-lens defocus must normally be used to produce detectable levels of image contrast for unstained biological specimens, which are generally weak phase objects. As a result, a subsequent restoration operation must be used to correct for oscillations in the contrast transfer function (CTF) at higher resolution. Currently used methods of CTF-correction assume the ideal case in which Friedel mates in the scattered wave have contributed pairs of Fourier components that overlap with one another in the image plane. This"ideal" situation may be only poorly satisfied, or not satisfied at all, as the particle size gets smaller, the defocus value gets larger, and the resolution gets higher. We have therefore investigated whether currently used methods of CTF correction are also effective in restoring the single-sideband image information that becomes displaced (delocalized) by half (or more) the diameter of a particle of finite size. Computer simulations are used to show that restoration either by"phase flipping" or by multiplying by the CTF recovers only about half of the delocalized information. The other half of the delocalized information goes into a doubly defocused"twin" image of the type produced during optical reconstruction of an in-line hologram. Restoration with a Wiener filter is effective in recovering the delocalized information only when the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is orders of magnitude higher than that which exists in low-dose images of biological specimens, in which case the Wiener filter approaches division by the CTF (i.e. the formal inverse). For realistic values of the S/N, however, the"twin image" problem seenwith a Wiener filter is very similar to that seen when either phase flipping or multiplying by the CTF are used for restoration. The results of these simulations suggest that CTF correction is a poor alternative to using a Zernike-type phase plate when imaging biological specimens, in which case the images can

  2. Retinal detachment and retinal holes in retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaky, K; Olk, R J; Mahl, C F; Bloom, S M

    1991-01-01

    Retinal detachment and retinal holes in two family members with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento are reported. We believe these are the first such cases reported in the literature. We describe the presenting symptoms and management, including cryotherapy, scleral buckling procedure, and sulfur hexafluoride injection (SF6), resulting in stable visual acuity in one case and retinal reattachment and improved visual acuity in the other case.

  3. Retinal Vessels Segmentation Techniques and Algorithms: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Almotiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vessels identification and localization aim to separate the different retinal vasculature structure tissues, either wide or narrow ones, from the fundus image background and other retinal anatomical structures such as optic disc, macula, and abnormal lesions. Retinal vessels identification studies are attracting more and more attention in recent years due to non-invasive fundus imaging and the crucial information contained in vasculature structure which is helpful for the detection and diagnosis of a variety of retinal pathologies included but not limited to: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR, glaucoma, hypertension, and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD. With the development of almost two decades, the innovative approaches applying computer-aided techniques for segmenting retinal vessels are becoming more and more crucial and coming closer to routine clinical applications. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview for retinal vessels segmentation techniques. Firstly, a brief introduction to retinal fundus photography and imaging modalities of retinal images is given. Then, the preprocessing operations and the state of the art methods of retinal vessels identification are introduced. Moreover, the evaluation and validation of the results of retinal vessels segmentation are discussed. Finally, an objective assessment is presented and future developments and trends are addressed for retinal vessels identification techniques.

  4. Determination of retinal surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Logan, Nicola S

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants. An ancillary aim is to examine whether inter-quadrant variations in area are concordant with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Seventy-three adult participants presenting without retinal pathology (mean age 26.25 ± 6.06 years) were scanned using a Siemens 3-Tesla MRI scanner to provide T2-weighted MR images that demarcate fluid-filled internal structures for the whole eye and provide high-contrast delineation of the vitreous-retina interface. Integrated MRI software generated total internal ocular surface area (TSA). The second nodal point was used to demarcate the origin of the peripheral retina in order to calculate total retinal surface area (RSA) and quadrant retinal surface areas (QRSA) for ST, IT, SN, and IN quadrants. Mean spherical error (MSE) was -2.50 ± 4.03D and mean axial length (AL) 24.51 ± 1.57 mm. Mean TSA and RSA for the RE were 2058 ± 189 and 1363 ± 160 mm 2 , respectively. Repeated measures anova for QRSA data indicated a significant difference within-quadrants (P area/mm increase in AL. Although the differences between QRSAs are relatively small, there was evidence of concordance with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with PVD. The data allow AL to be converted to QRSAs, which will assist further

  5. Novel method for edge detection of retinal vessels based on the model of the retinal vascular network and mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Hengyi; Yu, Yajun

    1998-09-01

    Accurate edge detection of retinal vessels is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis of subtle morphological changes of retinal vessels under different pathological conditions. A novel method for edge detection of retinal vessels is presented in this paper. Methods: (1) Wavelet-based image preprocessing. (2) The signed edge detection algorithm and mathematical morphological operation are applied to get the approximate regions that contain retinal vessels. (3) By convolving the preprocessed image with a LoG operator only on the detected approximate regions of retinal vessels, followed by edges refining, clear edge maps of the retinal vessels are fast obtained. Results: A detailed performance evaluation together with the existing techniques is given to demonstrate the strong features of our method. Conclusions: True edge locations of retinal vessels can be fast detected with continuous structures of retinal vessels, less non- vessel segments left and insensitivity to noise. The method is also suitable for other application fields such as road edge detection.

  6. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M.; Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Haney, Suzanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  7. Development and Validation of a Deep Learning System for Diabetic Retinopathy and Related Eye Diseases Using Retinal Images From Multiethnic Populations With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Lim, Gilbert; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Quang, Nguyen D; Gan, Alfred; Hamzah, Haslina; Garcia-Franco, Renata; San Yeo, Ian Yew; Lee, Shu Yen; Wong, Edmund Yick Mun; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Baskaran, Mani; Ibrahim, Farah; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Finkelstein, Eric A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Ian Y; Bressler, Neil M; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Varma, Rohit; Jonas, Jost B; He, Ming Guang; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Gemmy Chui Ming; Aung, Tin; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong Li; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-12-12

    A deep learning system (DLS) is a machine learning technology with potential for screening diabetic retinopathy and related eye diseases. To evaluate the performance of a DLS in detecting referable diabetic retinopathy, vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy, possible glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in community and clinic-based multiethnic populations with diabetes. Diagnostic performance of a DLS for diabetic retinopathy and related eye diseases was evaluated using 494 661 retinal images. A DLS was trained for detecting diabetic retinopathy (using 76 370 images), possible glaucoma (125 189 images), and AMD (72 610 images), and performance of DLS was evaluated for detecting diabetic retinopathy (using 112 648 images), possible glaucoma (71 896 images), and AMD (35 948 images). Training of the DLS was completed in May 2016, and validation of the DLS was completed in May 2017 for detection of referable diabetic retinopathy (moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or worse) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or worse) using a primary validation data set in the Singapore National Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program and 10 multiethnic cohorts with diabetes. Use of a deep learning system. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and sensitivity and specificity of the DLS with professional graders (retinal specialists, general ophthalmologists, trained graders, or optometrists) as the reference standard. In the primary validation dataset (n = 14 880 patients; 71 896 images; mean [SD] age, 60.2 [2.2] years; 54.6% men), the prevalence of referable diabetic retinopathy was 3.0%; vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy, 0.6%; possible glaucoma, 0.1%; and AMD, 2.5%. The AUC of the DLS for referable diabetic retinopathy was 0.936 (95% CI, 0.925-0.943), sensitivity was 90.5% (95% CI, 87.3%-93.0%), and specificity was 91.6% (95% CI, 91.0%-92.2%). For

  8. A Hybrid Method of medical Image Restoration with Gaussian and Impulsive Noise; Un Metodo Hibrido de Restauracion de Images Medidas con Ruido Gausino e Impulsivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M. G.; Vidal, V.; Verdu, G.; Mayo, P.; Rodenas, F.

    2011-07-01

    The noise removal techniques to restore noisy images is currently an important issue, for example, medical images obtained by X-ray computed tomography in noise due to the use of a small number of projections present noise of different types. In this paper we analyze and evaluate two techniques that separately each behaves efficiently for the removal of Gaussian and impulsive noise respectively, and combined to form a hybrid approach obtains very good performance with respect to quality in most different types of noise.

  9. Mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after magnetic resonance imaging and following mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Daiee, E; Yazdi, A; Khiabani, K; Kavousi, A; Vazirinejad, R; Behnejad, B; Ghasemi, M; Mood, M Balali

    2008-04-15

    In the 1st phase of this study, thirty patients were investigated. Five milliliter stimulated saliva was collected just before and after MRI. The magnetic flux density was 0.23 T and the duration of exposure of patients to magnetic field was 30 minutes. In the 2nd phase, fourteen female healthy University students who had not used mobile phones before the study and did not have any previous amalgam restorations were investigated. Dental amalgam restoration was performed for all 14 students. Their urine samples were collected before amalgam restoration and at days 1, 2, 3 and 4 after restoration. The mean +/- SD saliva Hg concentrations of the patients before and after MRI were 8.6 +/- 3.0 and 11.3 +/- 5.3 microg L(-1), respectively (p mobile phone. The mean +/- SE urinary Hg concentrations of the students who used mobile phones were 2.43 +/- 0.25, 2.71 +/- 0.27, 3.79 +/- 0.25, 4.8 +/- 0.27 and 4.5 +/- 0.32 microg L(-1) before the amalgam restoration and at days 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Whereas the respective Hg concentrations in the controls, were 2.07 +/- 0.22, 2.34 +/- 0.30, 2.51 +/- 0.25, 2.66 +/- 0.24 and 2.76 +/- 0.32 microg L(-1). It appears that MRI and microwave radiation emitted from mobile phones significantly release mercury from dental amalgam restoration. Further research is needed to clarify whether other common sources of electromagnetic field exposure may cause alterations in dental amalgam and accelerate the release of mercury.

  10. Visual field defects and retinal nerve fiber imaging in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Paula; Ascaso, Francisco J; Vicente, Eugenio; Tejero-Garcés, Gloria; Adiego, María I; Cristóbal, José A

    2018-03-02

    To assess the retinal sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients evaluated with standard automated perimetry (SAP). And to correlate the functional SAP results with structural parameters obtained with optical coherence tomography (OCT). This prospective, observational, case-control study consisted of 63 eyes of 63 OSAHS patients (mean age 51.7 ± 12.7 years, best corrected visual acuity ≥20/25, refractive error less than three spherical or two cylindrical diopters, and intraocular pressure < 21 mmHg) who were enrolled and compared with 38 eyes of 38 age-matched controls. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was measured by Stratus OCT and SAP sensitivities and indices were explored with Humphrey Field Analyzer perimeter. Correlations between functional and structural parameters were calculated, as well as the relationship between ophthalmologic and systemic indices in OSAHS patients. OSAHS patients showed a significant reduction of the sensitivity for superior visual field division (p = 0.034, t-student test). When dividing the OSAHS group in accordance with the severity of the disease, nasal peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly lower in severe OSAHS than that in controls and mild-moderate cases (p = 0.031 and p = 0.016 respectively, Mann-Whitney U test). There were no differences between groups for SAP parameters. We found no correlation between structural and functional variables. The central visual field sensitivity of the SAP revealed a poor Pearson correlation with the apnea-hipopnea index (0.284, p = 0.024). Retinal sensitivity show minor differences between healthy subjects and OSAHS. Functional deterioration in OSAHS patients is not easy to demonstrate with visual field examination.

  11. Retinal biometrics based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Tajima, Mikiya; Kawasaki, Ryo; Saito, Koko; Ogohara, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Sunayama, Wataru; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    The pattern of blood vessels in the eye is unique to each person because it rarely changes over time. Therefore, it is well known that retinal blood vessels are useful for biometrics. This paper describes a biometrics method using the Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC) based on blood vessel regions in retinal image pairs. The retinal image pairs were rough matched by the center of their optic discs. Moreover, the image pairs were aligned using the Iterative Closest Point algorithm based on detailed blood vessel skeletons. For registration, perspective transform was applied to the retinal images. Finally, the pairs were classified as either correct or incorrect using the JSC of the blood vessel region in the image pairs. The proposed method was applied to temporal retinal images, which were obtained in 2009 (695 images) and 2013 (87 images). The 87 images acquired in 2013 were all from persons already examined in 2009. The accuracy of the proposed method reached 100%.

  12. Preclinical evaluation and intraoperative human retinal imaging with a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Paul; Migacz, Justin; O'Donnell, Rachelle; Day, Shelley; Lee, Annie; Lin, Phoebe; Vann, Robin; Kuo, Anthony; Fekrat, Sharon; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi; Postel, Eric A; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    and vitreomacular traction, and demonstrated postsurgical changes in retinal morphology. Two cohorts of five patients were imaged. In the second cohort, the predefined end points were exceeded with ≥80% correlation between microscope-mounted OCT and HHOCT imaging in 100% of the patients. This report describes high-resolution MIOCT imaging using the prototype device in human eyes during vitreoretinal surgery, with successful achievement of predefined end points for imaging. Further refinements and investigations will be directed toward fully integrating MIOCT with vitreoretinal and other ocular surgery to image surgical maneuvers in real time.

  13. Extended depth of focus contact lenses vs. two commercial multifocals: Part 1. Optical performance evaluation via computed through-focus retinal image quality metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaraju, Ravi C; Ehrmann, Klaus; Ho, Arthur

    To compare the computed optical performance of prototype lenses designed using deliberate manipulation of higher-order spherical aberrations to extend depth-of-focus (EDOF) with two commercial multifocals. Emmetropic, presbyopic, schematic eyes were coupled with prototype EDOF and commercial multifocal lenses (Acuvue Oasys for presbyopia, AOP, Johnson & Johnson & Air Optix Aqua multifocal, AOMF, Alcon). For each test configuration, the through-focus retinal image quality (TFRIQ) values were computed over 21 vergences, ranging from -0.50 to 2.00D, in 0.125D steps. Analysis was performed considering eyes with three different inherent aberration profiles: five different pupils and five different lens decentration levels. Except the LOW design, the AOP lenses offered 'bifocal' like TFRIQ performance. Lens performance was relatively independent to pupil and aberrations but not centration. Contrastingly, AOMF demonstrated distance centric performance, most dominant in LOW followed by MED and HIGH designs. AOMF lenses were the most sensitive to pupil, aberrations and centration. The prototypes demonstrated a 'lift-off' in the TFRIQ performance, particularly at intermediate and near, without trading performance at distance. When compared with AOP and AOMF, EDOF lenses demonstrated reduced sensitivity to pupil, aberrations and centration. With the through focus retinal image quality as the gauge of optical performance, we demonstrated that the prototype EDOF designs were less susceptible to variations in pupil, inherent ocular aberrations and decentration, compared to the commercial designs. To ascertain whether these incremental improvements translate to a clinically palpable outcome requires investigation through human trials. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanowire arrays restore vision in blind mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Qin, Nan; Chong, Yan; Diao, Yupu; Yiliguma; Wang, Zhexuan; Xue, Tian; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2018-03-06

    The restoration of light response with complex spatiotemporal features in retinal degenerative diseases towards retinal prosthesis has proven to be a considerable challenge over the past decades. Herein, inspired by the structure and function of photoreceptors in retinas, we develop artificial photoreceptors based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanowire arrays, for restoration of visual responses in the blind mice with degenerated photoreceptors. Green, blue and near UV light responses in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are restored with a spatial resolution better than 100 µm. ON responses in RGCs are blocked by glutamatergic antagonists, suggesting functional preservation of the remaining retinal circuits. Moreover, neurons in the primary visual cortex respond to light after subretinal implant of nanowire arrays. Improvement in pupillary light reflex suggests the behavioral recovery of light sensitivity. Our study will shed light on the development of a new generation of optoelectronic toolkits for subretinal prosthetic devices.

  15. Satellite Image-based Estimates of Snow Water Equivalence in Restored Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, T.; Springer, A. E.; O'Donnell, F. C.; Donald, J.; McVay, J.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service plans to conduct forest restoration treatments through the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) on hundreds of thousands of acres of ponderosa pine forest in northern Arizona over the next 20 years with the goals of reducing wildfire hazard and improving forest health. The 4FRI's key objective is to thin and burn the forests to create within-stand openings that "promote snowpack accumulation and retention which benefit groundwater recharge and watershed processes at the fine (1 to 10 acres) scale". However, little is known about how these openings created by restoration treatments affect snow water equivalence (SWE) and soil moisture, which are key parts of the water balance that greatly influence water availability for healthy trees and for downstream water users in the Sonoran Desert. We have examined forest canopy cover by calculating a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a key indicator of green vegetation cover, using Landsat satellite data. We have then compared NDVI between treatments at our study sites in northern Arizona and have found statistically significant differences in tree canopy cover between treatments. The control units have significantly greater forest canopy cover than the treated units. The thinned units also have significantly greater tree canopy cover than the thin-and-burn units. Winter season Landsat images have also been analyzed to calculate Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), a key indicator of snow water equivalence and snow accumulation at the treated and untreated forests. The NDSI values from these dates are examined to determine if snow accumulation and snow water equivalence vary between treatments at our study sites. NDSI is significantly greater at the treated units than the control units. In particular, the thinned forest units have significantly greater snow cover than the control units. Our results indicate that forest restoration treatments result in increased snow pack

  16. Influence of dental restorations and mastication loadings on dentine fatigue behaviour: Image-based modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, Arso M; Zelic, Ksenija; Jovicic, Gordana; Djuric, Marija; Filipovic, Nenad

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to estimate the influence of various mastication loads and different tooth treatments (composite restoration and endodontic treatment) on dentine fatigue. The analysis of fatigue behaviour of human dentine in intact and composite restored teeth with root-canal-treatment using FEA and fatigue theory was performed. Dentine fatigue behaviour was analysed in three virtual models: intact, composite-restored and endodontically-treated tooth. Volumetric change during the polymerization of composite was modelled by thermal expansion in a heat transfer analysis. Low and high shrinkage stresses were obtained by varying the linear shrinkage of composite. Mastication forces were applied occlusally with the load of 100, 150 and 200N. Assuming one million cycles, Fatigue Failure Index (FFI) was determined using Goodman's criterion while residual fatigue lifetime assessment was performed using Paris-power law. The analysis of the Goodman diagram gave both maximal allowed crack size and maximal number of cycles for the given stress ratio. The size of cracks was measured on virtual models. For the given conditions, fatigue-failure is not likely to happen neither in the intact tooth nor in treated teeth with low shrinkage stress. In the cases of high shrinkage stress, crack length was much larger than the maximal allowed crack and failure occurred with 150 and 200N loads. The maximal allowed crack size was slightly lower in the tooth with root canal treatment which induced somewhat higher FFI than in the case of tooth with only composite restoration. Main factors that lead to dentine fatigue are levels of occlusal load and polymerization stress. However, root canal treatment has small influence on dentine fatigue. The methodology proposed in this study provides a new insight into the fatigue behaviour of teeth after dental treatments. Furthermore, it estimates maximal allowed crack size and maximal number of cycles for a

  17. TU-CD-BRA-12: Coupling PET Image Restoration and Segmentation Using Variational Method with Multiple Regularizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L; Tan, S [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a new variational method which couples image restoration with tumor segmentation for PET images using multiple regularizations. Methods: Partial volume effect (PVE) is a major degrading factor impacting tumor segmentation accuracy in PET imaging. The existing segmentation methods usually need to take prior calibrations to compensate PVE and they are highly system-dependent. Taking into account that image restoration and segmentation can promote each other and they are tightly coupled, we proposed a variational method to solve the two problems together. Our method integrated total variation (TV) semi-blind deconvolution and Mumford-Shah (MS) segmentation. The TV norm was used on edges to protect the edge information, and the L{sub 2} norm was used to avoid staircase effect in the no-edge area. The blur kernel was constrained to the Gaussian model parameterized by its variance and we assumed that the variances in the X-Y and Z directions are different. The energy functional was iteratively optimized by an alternate minimization algorithm. Segmentation performance was tested on eleven patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and evaluated by Dice similarity index (DSI) and classification error (CE). For comparison, seven other widely used methods were also tested and evaluated. Results: The combination of TV and L{sub 2} regularizations effectively improved the segmentation accuracy. The average DSI increased by around 0.1 than using either the TV or the L{sub 2} norm. The proposed method was obviously superior to other tested methods. It has an average DSI and CE of 0.80 and 0.41, while the FCM method — the second best one — has only an average DSI and CE of 0.66 and 0.64. Conclusion: Coupling image restoration and segmentation can handle PVE and thus improves tumor segmentation accuracy in PET. Alternate use of TV and L2 regularizations can further improve the performance of the algorithm. This work was supported in part by National Natural

  18. Phenomenological marine snow model for optical underwater image simulation: Applications to color restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Boffety , Matthieu; Galland , Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Optical imaging plays an important role in oceanic science and engineering. However, the design of optical systems and image processing techniques for subsea environment are challenging tasks due to water turbidity. Marine snow is notably a major source of image degradation as it creates white bright spots that may strongly impact the performance of image processing methods. In this context, it is necessary to have a tool to foresee the behavior of these methods in mar...

  19. In search for the original image: Luciano Freire and the theory and practice of painting restoration in Portugal circa 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António João Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the fragmentary statements found in several texts, especially from a report written in the 1930's that presents memoir notes, this paper intends to reconstitute, as much as possible, the restoration theory and practice of Luciano Freire (1864-1934. He treated many of the most important paintings belonging to Portuguese museums and, according to his words, those interventions were justified, above all, by the damages caused by past restorers, through repaints, which was frequent, or through cleaning, which originated the worst problems, and by the damages caused by the ambient conditions surrounding the paintings. In general, the interventions aimed at recovering the original image. Although Luciano Freire was, in theory, an adept of the complete cleaning of dirt and varnishes and complete removal of retouches and repaints, as it was done in National Gallery, London, in practice he admitted that when the retouches and repaints were well done and in good condition they were not to be removed. He considered that losses should be reintegrated and his thoughts were divided by the recovering the original image and the respect for the original work. He usually ended up considering that mimetic retouching could only be done when enough clues were present. Therefore, retouching had limits that, however, he recognizes, he crossed at times. Although did not use radiographs, he attributed great importance to treatment documentation through photography or other means.

  20. Computer-controlled impalement of cells in retinal wholemounts visualized by infrared CCD imaging on an inverted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsamer, H; Groiss, H P; Franz, M; Pflug, R

    2000-01-31

    We present a computer-guided microelectrode positioning system that is routinely used in our laboratory for intracellular electrophysiology and functional staining of retinal neurons. Wholemount preparations of isolated retina are kept in a superfusion chamber on the stage of an inverted microscope. Cells and layers of the retina are visualized by Nomarski interference contrast using infrared light in combination with a CCD camera system. After five-point calibration has been performed the electrode can be guided to any point inside the calibrated volume without moving the retina. Electrode deviations from target cells can be corrected by the software further improving the precision of this system. The good visibility of cells avoids prelabeling with fluorescent dyes and makes it possible to work under completely dark adapted conditions.

  1. In vivo retinal imaging for fixational eye motion detection using a high-speed digital micromirror device (DMD)-based ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienola, Kari V; Damodaran, Mathi; Braaf, Boy; Vermeer, Koenraad A; de Boer, Johannes F

    2018-02-01

    Retinal motion detection with an accuracy of 0.77 arcmin corresponding to 3.7 µm on the retina is demonstrated with a novel digital micromirror device based ophthalmoscope. By generating a confocal image as a reference, eye motion could be measured from consecutively measured subsampled frames. The subsampled frames provide 7.7 millisecond snapshots of the retina without motion artifacts between the image points of the subsampled frame, distributed over the full field of view. An ophthalmoscope pattern projection speed of 130 Hz enabled a motion detection bandwidth of 65 Hz. A model eye with a scanning mirror was built to test the performance of the motion detection algorithm. Furthermore, an in vivo motion trace was obtained from a healthy volunteer. The obtained eye motion trace clearly shows the three main types of fixational eye movements. Lastly, the obtained eye motion trace was used to correct for the eye motion in consecutively obtained subsampled frames to produce an averaged confocal image correct for motion artefacts.

  2. Automatic diagnosis of abnormal macula in retinal optical coherence tomography images using wavelet-based convolutional neural network features and random forests classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Reza; Mehridehnavi, Alireza; Rabbani, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Fedra

    2018-03-01

    The present research intends to propose a fully automatic algorithm for the classification of three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of patients suffering from abnormal macula from normal candidates. The method proposed does not require any denoising, segmentation, retinal alignment processes to assess the intraretinal layers, as well as abnormalities or lesion structures. To classify abnormal cases from the control group, a two-stage scheme was utilized, which consists of automatic subsystems for adaptive feature learning and diagnostic scoring. In the first stage, a wavelet-based convolutional neural network (CNN) model was introduced and exploited to generate B-scan representative CNN codes in the spatial-frequency domain, and the cumulative features of 3-D volumes were extracted. In the second stage, the presence of abnormalities in 3-D OCTs was scored over the extracted features. Two different retinal SD-OCT datasets are used for evaluation of the algorithm based on the unbiased fivefold cross-validation (CV) approach. The first set constitutes 3-D OCT images of 30 normal subjects and 30 diabetic macular edema (DME) patients captured from the Topcon device. The second publicly available set consists of 45 subjects with a distribution of 15 patients in age-related macular degeneration, DME, and normal classes from the Heidelberg device. With the application of the algorithm on overall OCT volumes and 10 repetitions of the fivefold CV, the proposed scheme obtained an average precision of 99.33% on dataset1 as a two-class classification problem and 98.67% on dataset2 as a three-class classification task.

  3. Automatic diagnosis of abnormal macula in retinal optical coherence tomography images using wavelet-based convolutional neural network features and random forests classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Reza; Mehridehnavi, Alireza; Rabbani, Hossein; Hajizadeh, Fedra

    2018-03-01

    The present research intends to propose a fully automatic algorithm for the classification of three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of patients suffering from abnormal macula from normal candidates. The method proposed does not require any denoising, segmentation, retinal alignment processes to assess the intraretinal layers, as well as abnormalities or lesion structures. To classify abnormal cases from the control group, a two-stage scheme was utilized, which consists of automatic subsystems for adaptive feature learning and diagnostic scoring. In the first stage, a wavelet-based convolutional neural network (CNN) model was introduced and exploited to generate B-scan representative CNN codes in the spatial-frequency domain, and the cumulative features of 3-D volumes were extracted. In the second stage, the presence of abnormalities in 3-D OCTs was scored over the extracted features. Two different retinal SD-OCT datasets are used for evaluation of the algorithm based on the unbiased fivefold cross-validation (CV) approach. The first set constitutes 3-D OCT images of 30 normal subjects and 30 diabetic macular edema (DME) patients captured from the Topcon device. The second publicly available set consists of 45 subjects with a distribution of 15 patients in age-related macular degeneration, DME, and normal classes from the Heidelberg device. With the application of the algorithm on overall OCT volumes and 10 repetitions of the fivefol