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Sample records for retinal damages thresholds

  1. Damage threshold from large retinal spot size repetitive-pulse laser exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Brian J; Lund, David J; Edsall, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    The retinal damage thresholds for large spot size, multiple-pulse exposures to a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wavelength, 7 ns pulses) have been measured for 100 μm and 500 μm retinal irradiance diameters. The ED50, expressed as energy per pulse, varies only weakly with the number of pulses, n, for these extended spot sizes. The previously reported threshold for a multiple-pulse exposure for a 900 μm retinal spot size also shows the same weak dependence on the number of pulses. The multiple-pulse ED50 for an extended spot-size exposure does not follow the n dependence exhibited by small spot size exposures produced by a collimated beam. Curves derived by using probability-summation models provide a better fit to the data.

  2. Multiphoton Absorption is Probably Not the Primary Threshold Damage Mechanism for Femtosecond Laser Pulse Exposures in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Tromberg, and E. Gratton, "Two-photon excited lifetime imaging of autofluorescence in cells during UTVA and NIR photostress", J. Micros. 183, pp. 197-204...1996. 4. K. Konig, Y. Liu, G. J. Sonek, M. W. Berns, and B. J. Tromberg, " Autofluorescence spectroscopy of optically trapped cells", Photochem...34, Photochem. Photobiol. 70, pp. 146-151, 1999. 10. R. D. Glickman, "Phototoxicity to the retina : Mechanisms of damage", International Journal of

  3. Investigation of retinal damage during refractive eye surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S.; Sander, M.; Dopke, C.; Grone, A.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2005-04-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses are increasingly used in refractive eye surgery to cut inside transparent corneal tissue. This is exploited by the fs-LASIK procedure which affords the opportunity to correct ametropia without any mechanical effects. The cutting process is caused by the optical breakdown occurring in the laser focus. During this process only a certain amount of the pulse energy is deposited into the tissue. The remaining pulse energy propagates further through the eye and interacts with the retina and the strong absorbing tissue layers behind. Therefore this investigation shall clarify if the intensity of the remaining laser pulse and the resulting temperature field can damage the retina and the surrounding tissue. Threshold values of the retinal tissue and theoretical calculations of the temperature field will be presented.

  4. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ''false negative or false positive'' indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments

  5. Mechanisms of Retinal Damage after Ocular Alkali Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Zhou, Chengxin; Lei, Fengyang; Scott, Nathan; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Robert, Marie-Claude; Vavvas, Demetrios; Dana, Reza; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H

    2017-06-01

    Alkali burns to the eye constitute a leading cause of worldwide blindness. In recent case series, corneal transplantation revealed unexpected damage to the retina and optic nerve in chemically burned eyes. We investigated the physical, biochemical, and immunological components of retinal injury after alkali burn and explored a novel neuroprotective regimen suitable for prompt administration in emergency departments. Thus, in vivo pH, oxygen, and oxidation reduction measurements were performed in the anterior and posterior segment of mouse and rabbit eyes using implantable microsensors. Tissue inflammation was assessed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. The experiments confirmed that the retinal damage is not mediated by direct effect of the alkali, which is effectively buffered by the anterior segment. Rather, pH, oxygen, and oxidation reduction changes were restricted to the cornea and the anterior chamber, where they caused profound uveal inflammation and release of proinflammatory cytokines. The latter rapidly diffuse to the posterior segment, triggering retinal damage. Tumor necrosis factor-α was identified as a key proinflammatory mediator of retinal ganglion cell death. Blockade, by either monoclonal antibody or tumor necrosis factor receptor gene knockout, reduced inflammation and retinal ganglion cell loss. Intraocular pressure elevation was not observed in experimental alkali burns. These findings illuminate the mechanism by which alkali burns cause retinal damage and may have importance in designing therapies for retinal protection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of retinal function using chromatic pupillography in retinitis pigmentosa and the relationship to electrically evoked phosphene thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbsch, Carina; Maeda, Fumiatsu; Lisowska, Jolanta; Lisowski, Lukasz; Strasser, Torsten; Stingl, Krunoslav; Wilhelm, Barbara; Wilhelm, Helmut; Peters, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    To analyse pupil responses to specific chromatic stimuli in patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP) to ascertain whether chromatic pupillography can be used as an objective marker for residual retinal function. To examine correlations between parameters of the pupil response and the perception threshold of electrically evoked phosphenes. Chromatic pupillography was performed in 40 patients with advanced RP (visual acuity Chromatic pupillography demonstrated a significant decrease in outer retinal photoreceptor responses but a persisting and disinhibited intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in advanced RP. These phenomena may be useful as an objective marker for the efficacy of any interventional treatment for hereditary retinal diseases as well as for the selection of suitable patients for an electronic retinal implant. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hypoxia-ischemia and retinal ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charanjit Kaur

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Charanjit Kaur1, Wallace S Foulds2, Eng-Ang Ling11Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, SingaporeAbstract: Retinal hypoxia is the potentially blinding mechanism underlying a number of sight-threatening disorders including central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic central retinal vein thrombosis, complications of diabetic eye disease and some types of glaucoma. Hypoxia is implicated in loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs occurring in such conditions. RGC death occurs by apoptosis or necrosis. Hypoxia-ischemia induces the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and its target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Increased production of VEGF results in disruption of the blood retinal barrier leading to retinal edema. Enhanced expression of NOS results in increased production of nitric oxide which may be toxic to the cells resulting in their death. Excess glutamate release in hypoxic-ischemic conditions causes excitotoxic damage to the RGCs through activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Activation of glutamate receptors is thought to initiate damage in the retina by a cascade of biochemical effects such as neuronal NOS activation and increase in intracellular Ca2+ which has been described as a major contributing factor to RGC loss. Excess production of proinflammatory cytokines also mediates cell damage. Besides the above, free-radicals generated in hypoxic-ischemic conditions result in RGC loss because of an imbalance between antioxidant- and oxidant-generating systems. Although many advances have been made in understanding the mediators and mechanisms of injury, strategies to improve the damage are lacking. Measures to prevent neuronal injury have to be developed.Keywords: retinal hypoxia, retinal ganglion cells, glutamate receptors, neuronal injury, retina

  8. Chronic intravitreous infusion of ciliary neurotrophic factor modulates electrical retinal stimulation thresholds in the RCS rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Tiffany L; Glybina, Inna V; Abrams, Gary W; Iezzi, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the sustained intravitreous delivery of CNTF modulates cortical response thresholds to electrical retinal stimulation in the RCS rat model of retinal degeneration. Animals were assigned to four groups: untreated, nonsurgical control and infusion groups of 10 ng/d CNTF, 1 ng/d CNTF, and PBS vehicle control. Thresholds for electrically evoked cortical potentials (EECPs) were recorded in response to transcorneal electrical stimulation of the retina at p30 and again at p60, after a three-week infusion. As the retina degenerated over time, EECP thresholds in response to electrical retinal stimulation increased. Eyes treated with 10 ng/d CNTF demonstrated significantly greater retinal sensitivity to electrical stimulation when compared with all other groups. In addition, eyes treated with 1 ng/d CNTF demonstrated significantly greater retinal sensitivity than both PBS-treated and untreated control groups. Retinal sensitivity to electrical stimulation was preserved in animals treated with chronic intravitreous infusion of CNTF. These data suggest that CNTF-mediated retinal neuroprotection may be a novel therapy that can lower stimulus thresholds in patients about to undergo retinal prosthesis implantation. Furthermore, it may maintain the long-term efficacy of these devices in patients.

  9. Comparative Study of Retinal Vessel Segmentation Based on Global Thresholding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Mapayi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to noise from uneven contrast and illumination during acquisition process of retinal fundus images, the use of efficient preprocessing techniques is highly desirable to produce good retinal vessel segmentation results. This paper develops and compares the performance of different vessel segmentation techniques based on global thresholding using phase congruency and contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE for the preprocessing of the retinal images. The results obtained show that the combination of preprocessing technique, global thresholding, and postprocessing techniques must be carefully chosen to achieve a good segmentation performance.

  10. Retinal Damage Induced by Internal Limiting Membrane Removal

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    Rachel Gelman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The internal limiting membrane (ILM, the basement membrane of the Müller cells, serves as the interface between the vitreous body and the retinal nerve fiber layer. It has a fundamental role in the development, structure, and function of the retina, although it also is a pathologic component in the various vitreoretinal disorders, most notably in macular holes. It was not until understanding of the evolution of idiopathic macular holes and the advent of idiopathic macular hole surgery that the idea of adjuvant ILM peeling in the treatment of tractional maculopathies was explored. Today intentional ILM peeling is a commonly applied surgical technique among vitreoretinal surgeons as it has been found to increase the rate of successful macular hole closure and improve surgical outcomes in other vitreoretinal diseases. Though ILM peeling has refined surgery for tractional maculopathies, like all surgical procedures it is not immune to perioperative risk. The essential role of the ILM to the integrity of the retina and risk of trauma to retinal tissue spurs suspicion with regard to its routine removal. Several authors have investigated the retinal damage induced by ILM peeling and these complications have been manifested across many different diagnostic studies.

  11. Histogram-Based Thresholding for Detection and Quantification of Hemorrhages in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Fadhel Hamdan Jaafar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal image analysis is commonly used for the detection and quantification of retinal diabetic retinopathy. In retinal images, dark lesions including hemorrhages and microaneurysms are the earliest warnings of vision loss. In this paper, new algorithm for extraction and quantification of hemorrhages in fundus images is presented. Hemorrhage candidates are extracted in a preliminary step as a coarse segmentation followed by a fine segmentation step. Local variation processes are applied in the coarse segmentation step to determine boundaries of all candidates with distinct edges. Fine segmentation processes are based on histogram thresholding to extract real hemorrhages from the segmented candidates locally. The proposed method was trained and tested using an image dataset of 153 manually labeled retinal images. At the pixel level, the proposed method could identify abnormal retinal images with 90.7% sensitivity and 85.1% predictive value. Due to its distinctive performance measurements, this technique demonstrates that it could be used for a computer-aided mass screening of retinal diseases.

  12. Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C.J.; Genin, F.Y.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Long, D.; Lalazari, R.; Wu, Z.L.; Kuo, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) coatings were developed for the laser gyro industry to meet significantly different requirements than those of fusion lasers. Laser gyro mirrors are small ( 26 J/cm 2 at 1,064 nm with 3-ns pulses). As part of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) coating development effort, IBS coatings are being studied to explore the possible benefits of this technology to NIF optics. As an initial step to achieving the NIF size and damage threshold requirements, the coating process is being scaled to uniformly coat a 20 x 40 cm 2 area with reduced spectral, reflected wavefront, and laser damage threshold requirements. Here, multilayer coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering with amorphous layers were found to have lower damage thresholds at 1,064 nm than similar coatings with crystalline layers. Interestingly, at higher fluences the damage was less severe for the amorphous coatings. The magnitude of the difference in damage thresholds between the two different microstructures was strongly influenced by the size of the tested area. To better understand the microstructure effects, single layers of HfO 2 with different microstructures were studied using transmission electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and a photothermal deflection technique. Since the laser damage initiated at defects, the influence of thermal diffusivity on thermal gradients in nodular defects is also presented

  13. High-Damage-Threshold Pinhole for Glass Fusion Laser Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumit, N.A.; Letzring, S.A.; Johnson, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    We are investigating methods to fabricate high-damage-threshold spatial-filter pinholes that might not be susceptible to plasma closure for relatively high energies and long pulses. These are based on the observation that grazing-incidence reflection from glass can withstand in excess of 5 kJ/cm 2 (normal to the beam) without plasma formation. The high damage threshold results from both the cos q spreading of the energy across the surface and the reflection of a large fraction of the energy from the surface, thereby greatly reducing the field strength within the medium

  14. Retinal hemorrhage thresholds for Q-switched neodymium-Yag laser exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenstein, M.F.; Zuclich, J.; Allen, R.G.; Davis, H.; Thomas, S.J.; Harrison, R.F.

    1986-07-01

    Thresholds for retinal vitreal and contained hemorrhages were determined for 1064 nm laser light at 30-nsec and 4-nsec pulsewidths. Rhesus monkeys received graded exposures from a neodymium-yag laser onto either the macular or extramacular region of the retina. Contained hemorrhages appeared as concentric ring structures with white punctate centers. The vitreal hemorrhage was characterized by the presence of choroidal blood in the vitreal chamber at the exposure site. The 30-nsec contained hemorrhage threshold (ED50) was 1.7 mJ on the macula and 2.1 mJ for an extramacular exposure. The 30-nsec vitreal hemorrhage macular threshold was 2.3 mJ, and the extramacular threshold was 6.6 mJ. The threshold for the 4-nsec pulsewidths to produce a hemorrhage (vitreal or contained) on the retina (macula or extramacular) was 340 microJ.

  15. Retinal-hemorrhage thresholds for Q-switched neodymium-YAG laser exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenstein, M.F.; Zuclich; Allen, R.G.; Davis; Thomas, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    Thresholds for retinal vitreal and contained hemorrhages were determined for 1064-nm laser light at 30-ns and 4-ns pulsewidths. Rhesus monkeys received graded exposures from a neodymium-YAG laser onto either the macular or extramacular region of the retina. Contained hemorrhages appeared as concentric-ring structures with white punctuate centers. The vitreal hemorrhage was characterized by the presence of choroidal blood in the vitreal chamber at the exposure site. The 30-ns contained-hemorrhage threshold (ED50) was 1.7 mJ on the macula and 2.1 mJ for an extramacular exposure. The 30-ns vitreal-hemorrhage macular threshold was 2.3 mJ, and the extramacular threshold was 6.6 Mj. The threshold for the 4-ns pulse widths to produce a hemorrhage (vitreal or contained) on the retina (macula or extramacular) was 340 uJ.

  16. LONG-TERM SD-OCT/SLO IMAGING OF NEURORETINA AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM AFTER SUB-THRESHOLD INFRARED LASER TREATMENT OF DRUSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOJANA, FRANCESCA; BRAR, MANPREET; CHENG, LINGYUN; BARTSCH, DIRK-UWE G.; FREEMAN, WILLIAM R.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the long-term effect of sub-threshold diode laser treatment for drusen in patients with non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with spectral domain optical coherence tomography combined with simultaneous scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SD-OCT/SLO). METHODS 8 eyes of 4 consecutive AMD patients with bilateral drusen previously treated with sub-threshold diode laser were imaged with SD-OCT/SLO. Abnormalities in the outer retina layers reflectivity as seen with SD-OCT/SLO were retrospectively analyzed and compared with color fundus pictures and autofluorescence images (AF) acquired immediately before and after the laser treatment. RESULTS A focal discrete disruptions in the reflectivity of the outer retinal layers was noted in 29% of the laser lesions. The junction in between the inner and outer segment of the photoreceptor was more frequently affected, with associated focal damage of the outer nuclear layer. Defects of the RPE were occasionally detected. These changes did not correspond to threshold burns on color fundus photography, but corresponded to focal areas of increased AF in the majority of the cases. CONCLUSIONS Sub-threshold diode laser treatment causes long-term disruption of the retinal photoreceptor layer as analyzed by SD-OCT/SLO. The concept that sub-threshold laser treatment can achieve a selected RPE effect without damage to rods and cones may be flawed. PMID:21157398

  17. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage threshold on hybrid mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Jan; Muresan, Mihai-George; Bilek, Vojtech; Sebek, Matej; Hanus, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Rostohar, Danijela; Mocek, Tomas; Škoda, Václav

    2017-11-01

    So-called hybrid mirrors, consisting of broadband metallic surface coated with dielectric reflector designed for specific wavelength, becoming more important with progressing development of broadband mid-IR sources realized using parametric down conversion system. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage on such mirrors was tested by method s-on-1, where s stands for various numbers of pulses. We show difference in damage threshold between common protected silver mirrors and hybrid silver mirrors prepared by PVD technique and their variants prepared by IAD. Keywords: LIDT,

  18. Database of average-power damage thresholds at 1064 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; Hildum, E.A.; Milam, D.

    1987-01-01

    We have completed a database of average-power, laser-induced, damage thresholds at 1064 nm on a variety of materials. Measurements were made with a newly constructed laser to provide design input for moderate and high average-power laser projects. The measurements were conducted with 16-ns pulses at pulse-repetition frequencies ranging from 6 to 120 Hz. Samples were typically irradiated for time ranging from a fraction of a second up to 5 minutes (36,000 shots). We tested seven categories of samples which included antireflective coatings, high reflectors, polarizers, single and multiple layers of the same material, bare and overcoated metal surfaces, bare polished surfaces, and bulk materials. The measured damage threshold ranged from 2 for some metals to > 46 J/cm 2 for a bare polished glass substrate. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. A thresholding based technique to extract retinal blood vessels from fundus images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiprava Dash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal imaging has become the significant tool among all the medical imaging technology, due to its capability to extract many data which is linked to various eye diseases. So, the accurate extraction of blood vessel is necessary that helps the eye care specialists and ophthalmologist to identify the diseases at the early stages. In this paper, we have proposed a computerized technique for extraction of blood vessels from fundus images. The process is conducted in three phases: (i pre-processing where the image is enhanced using contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and median filter, (ii segmentation using mean-C thresholding to extract retinal blood vessels, (iii post-processing where morphological cleaning operation is used to remove isolated pixels. The performance of the proposed method is tested on and experimental results show that our method achieve an accuracies of 0.955 and 0.954 on Digital retinal images for vessel extraction (DRIVE and Child heart and health study in England (CHASE_DB1 databases respectively.

  20. Edaravone Protect against Retinal Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xi; Xie, Ping; Yuan, Songtao; Zhang, Weiwei; Lin, Xiaojun; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a free radical scavenger, is used for the clinical treatment of retinal injury. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of edaravone against diabetic retinal damage in the mouse. Diabetic retinopathy in the mouse was induced by injection of streptozotocin. Edaravone was given once-daily and was intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated at a dose of 3 mg/kg from streptozotocin injection to 4 weeks after onset of diabetes. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) damage was evaluated by recording the pattern electroretinogram (ERG). RGCs damage was also detected by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined fluorometrically. The expressions of phosporylated-ERK1/2, BDNF, and caspase-3 were determined by Western blot analysis. Retinal levels of ROS, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly increased, whereas the expression of BDNF was significantly decreased in the retinas of diabetic mice, compared to nondiabetic mice. Administration of edaravone significantly attenuated diabetes induced RGCs death, upregulation of ROS, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and cleaved caspase-3 and downregulation of BDNF. These findings suggest that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in diabetic retinal damage and that systemic administration of edaravone may slow the progression of retinal neuropathy induced by diabetes. PMID:24897298

  1. Edaravone protect against retinal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yuan

    Full Text Available Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one, a free radical scavenger, is used for the clinical treatment of retinal injury. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of edaravone against diabetic retinal damage in the mouse. Diabetic retinopathy in the mouse was induced by injection of streptozotocin. Edaravone was given once-daily and was intraperitoneally (i.p. treated at a dose of 3 mg/kg from streptozotocin injection to 4 weeks after onset of diabetes. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs damage was evaluated by recording the pattern electroretinogram (ERG. RGCs damage was also detected by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were determined fluorometrically. The expressions of phosporylated-ERK1/2, BDNF, and caspase-3 were determined by Western blot analysis. Retinal levels of ROS, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly increased, whereas the expression of BDNF was significantly decreased in the retinas of diabetic mice, compared to nondiabetic mice. Administration of edaravone significantly attenuated diabetes induced RGCs death, upregulation of ROS, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and cleaved caspase-3 and downregulation of BDNF. These findings suggest that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in diabetic retinal damage and that systemic administration of edaravone may slow the progression of retinal neuropathy induced by diabetes.

  2. Large-aperture, high-damage-threshold optics for beamlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Maney, R.T.; Montesanti, R.C.; Sheehan, L.M.; Barker, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Beamlet serves as a test bed for the proposed NIF laser design and components. Therefore, its optics are similar in size and quality to those proposed for the NIF. In general, the optics in the main laser cavity and transport section of Beamlet are larger and have higher damage thresholds than the optics manufactured for any of our previous laser systems. In addition, the quality of the Beamlet optical materials is higher, leading to better wavefront quality, higher optical transmission, and lower-intensity modulation of the output laser beam than, for example, that typically achieved on Nova. In this article, we discuss the properties and characteristics of the large-aperture optics used on Beamlet

  3. Mechanisms of Retinal Damage from Chronic Laser Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    and the other by 15 a slower, partly reversible rod cell degeneration It appears that a normal light cycle protects the rat eye somewhat from the...lium, disturbing the metabolic support of the receptors. Gross separation as in retinal detachment is known to cause degeneration of receptors and...border by scatter and reflection. A particular kind of specialization in the retina is represented by the fovea and macula . In the center of the macula

  4. Brazilian Green Propolis Protects against Retinal Damage In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Yuta Inokuchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological (anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether Brazilian green propolis exerts neuroprotective effects in the retina in vitro and/or in vivo. In vitro, retinal damage was induced by 24 h hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exposure, and cell viability was measured by Hoechst 33342 and YO-PRO-1 staining or by a resazurin–reduction assay. Propolis inhibited the neurotoxicity and apoptosis induced in cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5, a rat ganglion cell line transformed using E1A virus by 24 h H2O2 exposure. Propolis also inhibited the neurotoxicity induced in RGC-5 cultures by staurosporine. Regarding the possible underlying mechanism, in pig retina homogenates propolis protected against oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, as also did trolox (water-soluble vitamin E. In mice in vivo, propolis (100 mg kg−1; intraperitoneally administered four times reduced the retinal damage (decrease in retinal ganglion cells and in thickness of inner plexiform layer induced by intravitreal in vivo N-methyl-d-aspartate injection. These findings indicate that Brazilian green propolis has neuroprotective effects against retinal damage both in vitro and in vivo, and that a propolis-induced inhibition of oxidative stress may be partly responsible for these neuroprotective effects.

  5. Femtosecond laser damage threshold and nonlinear characterization in bulk transparent SiC materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesAutels, G. Logan; Finet, Marc; Ristich, Scott; Whitaker, Matt; Brewer, Chris; Juhl, Shane; Walker, Mark; Powers, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Semi-insulating and conducting SiC crystalline transparent substrates were studied after being processed by femtosecond (fs) laser radiation (780 nm at 160 fs). Z-scan and damage threshold experiments were performed on both SiC bulk materials to determine each sample's nonlinear and threshold parameters. 'Damage' in this text refers to an index of refraction modification as observed visually under an optical microscope. In addition, a study was performed to understand the damage threshold as a function of numerical aperture. Presented here for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, are the damage threshold, nonlinear index of refraction, and nonlinear absorption measured values

  6. Damage threshold in adult rabbit eyes after scleral cross-linking by riboflavin/blue light application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseli, Hans Peter; Körber, Nicole; Karl, Anett; Koch, Christian; Schuldt, Carsten; Penk, Anja; Liu, Qing; Huster, Daniel; Käs, Josef; Reichenbach, Andreas; Wiedemann, Peter; Francke, Mike

    2015-10-01

    Several scleral cross-linking (SXL) methods were suggested to increase the biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue and therefore, to inhibit axial eye elongation in progressive myopia. In addition to scleral cross-linking and biomechanical effects caused by riboflavin and light irradiation such a treatment might induce tissue damage, dependent on the light intensity used. Therefore, we characterized the damage threshold and mechanical stiffening effect in rabbit eyes after application of riboflavin combined with various blue light intensities. Adult pigmented and albino rabbits were treated with riboflavin (0.5 %) and varying blue light (450 ± 50 nm) dosages from 18 to 780 J/cm(2) (15 to 650 mW/cm(2) for 20 min). Scleral, choroidal and retinal tissue alterations were detected by means of light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Biomechanical changes were measured by shear rheology. Blue light dosages of 480 J/cm(2) (400 mW/cm(2)) and beyond induced pathological changes in ocular tissues; the damage threshold was defined by the light intensities which induced cellular degeneration and/or massive collagen structure changes. At such high dosages, we observed alterations of the collagen structure in scleral tissue, as well as pigment aggregation, internal hemorrhages, and collapsed blood vessels. Additionally, photoreceptor degenerations associated with microglia activation and macroglia cell reactivity in the retina were detected. These pathological alterations were locally restricted to the treated areas. Pigmentation of rabbit eyes did not change the damage threshold after a treatment with riboflavin and blue light but seems to influence the vulnerability for blue light irradiations. Increased biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue could be achieved with blue light intensities below the characterized damage threshold. We conclude that riboflavin and blue light application increased the biomechanical stiffness of scleral tissue at

  7. A Morphological Hessian Based Approach for Retinal Blood Vessels Segmentation and Denoising Using Region Based Otsu Thresholding.

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    Khan BahadarKhan

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy (DR harm retinal blood vessels in the eye causing visual deficiency. The appearance and structure of blood vessels in retinal images play an essential part in the diagnoses of an eye sicknesses. We proposed a less computational unsupervised automated technique with promising results for detection of retinal vasculature by using morphological hessian based approach and region based Otsu thresholding. Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE and morphological filters have been used for enhancement and to remove low frequency noise or geometrical objects, respectively. The hessian matrix and eigenvalues approach used has been in a modified form at two different scales to extract wide and thin vessel enhanced images separately. Otsu thresholding has been further applied in a novel way to classify vessel and non-vessel pixels from both enhanced images. Finally, postprocessing steps has been used to eliminate the unwanted region/segment, non-vessel pixels, disease abnormalities and noise, to obtain a final segmented image. The proposed technique has been analyzed on the openly accessible DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction and STARE (STructured Analysis of the REtina databases along with the ground truth data that has been precisely marked by the experts.

  8. The neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on laser-induced retinal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskia-Dai, Victoria; Belokopytov, Mark; Dubinsky, Galina; Nachum, Gal; Avni, Isaac; Belkin, Michael; Rosner, Mordechai

    2005-04-01

    Retinal damage induced by mechanical trauma, ischemia or laser photocoagulation increases considerably by secondary degeneration processes. The spread of damage may be ameliorated by neuroprotection that is aimed at reducing the extent of the secondary degeneration and promote healing processes. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment consists of inspiration of oxygen at higher than one absolute atmospheric pressure. Improved neural function was observed in patients with acute brain trauma or ischemia treated with HBO. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on laser induced retinal damage in a rat model. Standard argon laser lesions were created in 25 pigmented rats divided into three groups: Ten rats were treated immediately after the irradiation with HBO three times during the first 24 hr followed by 12 consecutive daily treatments. Five rats received a shorter treatment regimen of 10 consecutive HBO treatments. The control group (10 rats) underwent the laser damage with no additional treatment. The retinal lesions were evaluated 20 days after the injury. All outcome measures were improved by the longer HBO treatment (Ptreatment was less effective, showing an increase only in nuclei density at the central area of lesion (Pretinal damage in a rat model. In the range of HBO exposures studied, longer exposure provides more neuroprotection. These results encourage further evaluation of the potential therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen in diseases and injuries of the retina.

  9. Robust optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of dielectric mirrors for high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorel, Marine; Lanternier, Thomas; Lavastre, Éric; Bonod, Nicolas; Bousquet, Bruno; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-30

    We report on a numerical optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of multi-dielectric high reflection mirrors in the sub-picosecond regime. We highlight the interplay between the electric field distribution, refractive index and intrinsic laser induced damage threshold of the materials on the overall laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the multilayer. We describe an optimization method of the multilayer that minimizes the field enhancement in high refractive index materials while preserving a near perfect reflectivity. This method yields a significant improvement of the damage resistance since a maximum increase of 40% can be achieved on the overall LIDT of the multilayer.

  10. Thioredoxin plays a key role in retinal neuropathy prior to endothelial damage in diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Xiang; Li, Chen; Liu, Junli; Zhang, Chenghong; Fu, Yuzhen; Wang, Nina; Ma, Haiying; Lu, Heyuan; Kong, Hui; Kong, Li

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic syndrome that results in changes in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. With diabetes for a long time, it increases the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and long-term morbidity and mortality. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that neuron damage occurs earlier than microvascular complications in DR patients, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated diabetes-induced retinal neuropathy and elucidated key molecular events to identify new...

  11. Laser induced damage threshold on metallic surfaces during laser cleaning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available laser paint removal. Laser induced damage on 316L stainless steel was studied, with the target subjected to single and multiple pulse irradiations using a Q-switched Nd:YAG, with fluences between 0.15 and 11.8 J/cm2. Several different damage morphologies...

  12. Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzon, E.; Henis, Z.; Pecker, S.; Ehrlich, Y.; Fisher, D.; Fraenkel, M.; Zigler, A.

    2005-01-01

    The threshold fluence for laser induced damage in wide band gap dielectric materials, fused silica and MgF 2 , is observed to be lower by up to 20% for negatively (down) chirped pulses than for positively (up) chirped, at pulse durations ranging from 60 fs to 1 ps. This behavior of the threshold fluence for damage on the chirp direction was not observed in semiconductors (silicon and GaAs). Based on a model including electron generation in the conduction band and Joule heating, it is suggested that the decrease in the damage threshold for negatively chirped pulse is related to the dominant role of multiphoton ionization in wide gap materials

  13. Laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and their alloys in air and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starinskiy, Sergey V.; Shukhov, Yuri G.; Bulgakov, Alexander V., E-mail: bulgakov@itp.nsc.ru

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Laser damage thresholds of Ag, Au and Ag-Au alloys in air and water are measured. • Alloy thresholds are lower than those of Ag and Au due to low thermal conductivity. • Laser damage thresholds in water are ∼1.5 times higher than those in air. • Light scattering mechanisms responsible for high thresholds in water are suggested. • Light scattering mechanisms are supported by optical reflectance measurements. - Abstract: The nanosecond-laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and gold-silver alloys of various compositions in air and water have been measured for single-shot irradiation conditions. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by solving the heat flow equation for the samples irradiated in air and in water taking into account vapor nucleation at the solid-water interface. The damage thresholds of Au-Ag alloys are systematically lower than those for pure metals, both in air and water that is explained by lower thermal conductivities of the alloys. The thresholds measured in air agree well with the calculated melting thresholds for all samples. The damage thresholds in water are found to be considerably higher, by a factor of ∼1.5, than the corresponding thresholds in air. This cannot be explained, in the framework of the used model, neither by the conductive heat transfer to water nor by the vapor pressure effect. Possible reasons for the high damage thresholds in water such as scattering of the incident laser light by the vapor-liquid interface and the critical opalescence in the superheated water are suggested. Optical pump-probe measurements have been performed to study the reflectance dynamics of the surface irradiated in air and water. Comparison of the transient reflectance signal with the calculated nucleation dynamics provides evidence that the both suggested scattering mechanisms are likely to occur during metal ablation in water.

  14. Influence of transverse mode on retinal spot size and retinal injury effect: A theoretical analysis on 532-nm laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Rui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental transverse mode (TEM00 is preferable for experimental and theoretical study on the laser-induced retinal injury effect, for it can produce the minimal retinal image and establish the most strict laser safety standards. But actually lasers with higher order mode were frequently used in both earlier and recent studies. Generally higher order mode leads to larger retinal spot size and so higher damage threshold, but there are few quantitative analyses on this problem. In this paper, a four-surface schematic eye model is established for human and macaque. The propagation of 532-nm laser in schematic eye is analyzed by the ABCD law of Gaussian optics. It is shown that retinal spot size increases with laser transverse mode order. For relative lower mode order, the retinal spot diameter will not exceed the minimum laser-induced retinal lesion (25 ~ 30 μm in diameter, and so has little effect on retinal damage threshold. While for higher order mode, the larger retinal spot requires more energy to induce injury and so the damage threshold increases. When beam divergence is lowered, the retinal spot size decreases correspondingly, so the effect of mode order can be compensated. The retinal spot size of macaque is slightly smaller than that of human and the ratio between them is independent of mode order. We conclude that the laser mode order has significant influence on retinal spot size but limited influence on the retinal injury effect.

  15. Laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and their alloys in air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starinskiy, Sergey V.; Shukhov, Yuri G.; Bulgakov, Alexander V.

    2017-02-01

    The nanosecond-laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and gold-silver alloys of various compositions in air and water have been measured for single-shot irradiation conditions. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by solving the heat flow equation for the samples irradiated in air and in water taking into account vapor nucleation at the solid-water interface. The damage thresholds of Au-Ag alloys are systematically lower than those for pure metals, both in air and water that is explained by lower thermal conductivities of the alloys. The thresholds measured in air agree well with the calculated melting thresholds for all samples. The damage thresholds in water are found to be considerably higher, by a factor of ∼1.5, than the corresponding thresholds in air. This cannot be explained, in the framework of the used model, neither by the conductive heat transfer to water nor by the vapor pressure effect. Possible reasons for the high damage thresholds in water such as scattering of the incident laser light by the vapor-liquid interface and the critical opalescence in the superheated water are suggested. Optical pump-probe measurements have been performed to study the reflectance dynamics of the surface irradiated in air and water. Comparison of the transient reflectance signal with the calculated nucleation dynamics provides evidence that the both suggested scattering mechanisms are likely to occur during metal ablation in water.

  16. Computer simulation of threshold radiation damage in rutile, TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation methods have been used to study threshold radiation damage structures in rutile. It was found Ti ions have threshold energies much larger than O ions. Basal plane displacements for oxygen were shown to be complex, and focuson behaviour was only found at energies several times the threshold energy. Oxygen ions do not have simple interstitials or vacancies, but rather a three-ion crowdion and divacancy-interstitial combination were found, respectively. Threshold energies were found to be highly dependent on crystallographic direction, being as low as 10 eV in one instance, but often much higher. Oxygen ions were seen to defocus along the c-axis. (author)

  17. Damage thresholds of thin film materials and high reflectors at 248 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Carniglia, C.K.; Hart, T.T.; Lichtenstein, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-ns, 248-nm KrF laser pulses were used to measure laser damage thresholds for halfwave-thick layers of 15 oxide and fluoride coating materials, and for high reflectance coatings made with 13 combinations of these materials. The damage thresholds of the reflectors and single-layer films were compared to measurements of several properties of the halfwave-thick films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films were useful for identifying materials for fabrication of damage resistant coatings

  18. Experimental Determination of Damage Threshold Characteristics of IR Compatible Optical Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The accelerating gradient in a laser-driven dielectric accelerating structure is often limited by the laser damage threshold of the structure. For a given laser-driven dielectric accelerator design, we can maximize the accelerating gradient by choosing the best combination of the accelerator's constituent material and operating wavelength. We present here a model of the damage mechanism from ultrafast infrared pulses and compare that model with experimental measurements of the damage threshold of bulk silicon. Additionally, we present experimental measurements of a variety of candidate materials, thin films, and nanofabricated accelerating structures.

  19. The relationship between retinal damage and current intensity in a pre-clinical suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation model using a laser-formed microporous electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Yukari; Terasawa, Yasuo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Fujikado, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation (STS) is a stimulation method for retinal prostheses. For STS-type retinal prostheses, we developed a new type of stimulating electrode called a femtosecond laser-induced porous electrode (FLiP electrode). To verify the safety of the FLiP electrode for STS, we investigated the characteristics of STS-induced retinal injury. Approach. Sixteen eyes of pigmented rabbits were studied in this in vivo study. For each examined eye, we implanted a single-channel FLiP electrode (diameter, 0.5 mm height, 0.3 mm geometric surface area, 0.43 mm2) in a scleral pocket created at the posterior pole of the eye. A return electrode (diameter, 0.5 mm length, 3 mm) was inserted into the vitreous cavity. The eyes were divided into five groups, and each group was stimulated with a different current intensity. The stimulus intensities and the number of eyes in each group were as follows: 1.0 mA (n  =  2), 1.5 mA (n  =  3), 2.0 mA (n  =  3), 2.5 mA (n  =  4), and 3.0 mA (n  =  2). Continuous biphasic pulses (0.5 ms/phase) were applied under general anesthesia at a frequency of 20 Hz for 48 h. Fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography were performed before and after applying the electrical stimulation to evaluate the retinal injury. Main results. The 1.0 mA and 1.5 mA groups showed little or no retinal damage. Fluorescent dye leakage in FA and punctate pigmentation in the fundus were observed around the stimulation site with stimulation of 2.0 mA (1/3), 2.5 mA (1/4), and 3.0 mA (2/2). Significance. Our findings indicate that the threshold current for inducing retinal damage is greater than that for eliciting electrical phosphenes (<1 mA) with STS observed in human trials. Therefore, STS by the FLiP electrode is a safe and feasible stimulation method for retinal prostheses as long as it is used with these pulse parameters.

  20. Corneal Damage from Infrared Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCally, Russell

    2000-01-01

    ...) laser radiation at 10.6 (micrometer) and Tm: YAG laser radiation at 2.02 (micrometer). Retinal damage from sources with rectangular irradiance distributions was also modeled. Thresholds for CO(2...

  1. Activation of muscarinic receptors protects against retinal neurons damage and optic nerve degeneration in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pan-Pan; Yuan, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Xu; Cui, Yong-Yao; Li, Hui; Feng, Xue-Mei; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Zhou, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist pilocarpine reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) of glaucoma mainly by stimulating ciliary muscle contraction and then increasing aqueous outflow. It is of our great interest to know whether pilocarpine has the additional properties of retinal neuroprotection independent of IOP lowering in vitro and in vivo models. In rat primary retinal cultures, cell viability was measured using an MTT assay and the trypan blue exclusion method, respectively. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were identified by immunofluorescence and quantified by flow cytometry. For the in vivo study, the retinal damage after retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats was evaluated by histopathological study using hematoxylin and eosin staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical study on cleaved caspase-3, caspase-3, and ChAT. Pretreatment of pilocarpine attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity of primary retinal neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Protection of pilocarpine in both retinal neurons and RGCs was largely abolished by the nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and the M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine. After ischemia/reperfusion injury in retina, the inner retinal degeneration occurred including ganglion cell layer thinning and neuron lost, and the optic nerve underwent vacuolar changes. These degenerative changes were significantly lessened by topical application of 2% pilocarpine. In addition, the protective effect of pilocarpine on the ischemic rat retina was favorably reflected by downregulating the expression of activated apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-3 and upregulating the expression of cholinergic cell marker ChAT. Taken together, this highlights pilocarpine through the activation of muscarinic receptors appear to afford significant protection against retinal neurons damage and optic nerve degeneration at clinically relevant concentrations. These data also

  2. Characterization of Retinal Vascular and Neural Damage in a Novel Model of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasekera, Lakshini Y; Balmer, Lois A; Ram, Ramesh; Morahan, Grant

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of blindness globally. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of DR would be aided by a suitable mouse model that developed key features seen in the human disease, and did so without carrying genetic modifications. This study was undertaken to produce such a model. Our panel of Collaborative Cross strains was screened for DR-like features after induction of diabetes by intravenous injection with alloxan or streptozotocin. Both flat-mounted whole-retina and histologic sections were studied for the presence of retinal lesions. Progression of DR was also studied by histologic examination of the retinal vascular and neural structure at various time points after diabetes onset. In addition, microarray investigations were conducted on retinas from control and diabetic mice. Features of DR such as degenerated pericytes, acellular capillaries, minor vascular proliferation, gliosis of Müller cells, and loss of ganglion cells were noted as early as day 7 in some mice. These lesions became more evident with time. After 21 days of diabetes, severe vascular proliferation, microaneurysms, preretinal damage, increased Müller cell gliosis, and damage to the outer retina were all obvious. Microarray studies found significant differential expression of multiple genes known to be involved in DR. The FOT_FB strain provides a useful model to investigate the pathogenesis of DR and to develop treatments for this vision-threatening disease.

  3. Laser-damage thresholds of thin-film optical coatings at 248 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milam, D.; Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the laser-induced damage thresholds for 248 nm wavelength light of over 100 optical coatings from commercial vendors and research institutions. All samples were irradiated once per damage site with temporally multi-lobed, 20-ns pulses generated by a KrF laser. The survey included high, partial, and dichroic reflectors, anti-reflective coatings, and single layer films. The samples were supplied by ten vendors. The majority of samples tested were high reflectors and antireflective coatings. The highest damage thresholds were 8.5 to 9.4 J/cm 2 , respectively. Although these represent extremes of what has been tested so far, several vendors have produced coatings of both types with thresholds which consistently exceed 6 J/cm 2 . Repeated irradiations of some sites were made on a few samples. These yielded no degradation in threshold, but in fact some improvement in damage resistance. These same samples also exhibited no change in threshold after being retested seven months later

  4. Development of high damage threshold optics for petawatt-class short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics and gold-coated optics at 1053 and 526 nm for pulse durations, τ, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Damage thresholds of gold coatings are limited to 500 mJ/cm 2 in the subpicosecond range for 1053-nm pulses. In dielectrics, qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated τ1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for τ≤10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for τ>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in quantitative agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results

  5. Cleaning Process Versus Laser-Damage Threshold of Coated Optical Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigatti, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The cleaning of optical surfaces is important in the manufacture of high-laser-damage-threshold coatings, which are a key component on peak-power laser systems such as OMEGA located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Since cleaning adds time, labor, and ultimately cost to the final coated component, this experiment was designed to determine the impact of different cleaning protocols on the measured laser-damage performance

  6. Impact of Chronic Neonatal Intermittent Hypoxia on Severity of Retinal Damage in a Rat Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Kay D; Cai, Charles L; Ahmad, Taimur; Guzel, Sibel; Valencia, Gloria B; Aranda, Jacob V

    2018-01-01

    Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) followed by re-oxygenation in normoxia or supplemental oxygen (IHR) increases the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The exact timing for the onset of retinal damage which may guide strategic interventions during retinal development, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure of the immature retina to neonatal IH induces early manifestations of retinal damage that can be utilized as key time points for strategic pharmacologic intervention. Newborn rats were exposed to IH within 2 hours of birth (P0) until P14, or allowed to recover in room air (RA) from P14 to P21 (IHR). Retinal integrity and angiogenesis biomarkers were progressively assessed before (P0), during IH, and post IH (recovery in RA), or IHR, and compared to normoxic age-matched controls. Retinal damage occurred as early as day 3 of neonatal IH, consistent with vascular abnormalities and disturbances in the astrocytic template. These abnormalities worsened during IHR. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions to identify, prevent, or minimize neonatal IH should be implemented shortly after birth in high risk preterm newborns. This strategy may lead to a reduction in the outcome of severe ROP requiring later invasive treatments.

  7. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Yee Li

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, extracts from the wolfberries, are good for "eye health" according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS or LBP (1 mg/kg once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, aquaporin-4 (AQP4, poly(ADP-ribose (PAR and nitrotyrosine (NT were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and the inner nuclear layer (INL of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature.

  8. Infrared laser damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretsky, Adam R.; Clary, Joseph E.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast lasers have become a fixture in many biomedical, industrial, telecommunications, and defense applications in recent years. These sources are capable of generating extremely high peak power that can cause laser-induced tissue breakdown through the formation of a plasma upon exposure. Despite the increasing prevalence of such lasers, current safety standards (ANSI Z136.1-2014) do not include maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values for the cornea with pulse durations less than one nanosecond. This study was designed to measure damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms in the near-infrared and mid-infrared to identify the wavelength dependence of laser damage thresholds from 1200-2500 nm. A high-energy regenerative amplifier and optical parametric amplifier outputting 100 femtosecond pulses with pulse energies up to 2 mJ were used to perform exposures and determine damage thresholds in transparent collagen gel tissue phantoms. Three-dimensional imaging, primarily optical coherence tomography, was used to evaluate tissue phantoms following exposure to determine ablation characteristics at the surface and within the bulk material. The determination of laser damage thresholds in the near-IR and mid-IR for ultrafast lasers will help to guide safety standards and establish the appropriate MPE levels for exposure sensitive ocular tissue such as the cornea. These data will help promote the safe use of ultrafast lasers for a wide range of applications.

  9. Modeling of damage generation mechanisms in silicon at energies below the displacement threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ivan; Marques, Luis A.; Pelaz, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulation techniques to study the generation of damage in Si within the low-energy deposition regime. We have demonstrated that energy transfers below the displacement threshold can produce a significant amount of damage, usually neglected in traditional radiation damage calculations. The formation of amorphous pockets agrees with the thermal spike concept of local melting. However, we have found that the order-disorder transition is not instantaneous, but it requires some time to reach the appropriate kinetic-potential energy redistribution for melting. The competition between the rate of this energy redistribution and the energy diffusion to the surrounding atoms determines the amount of damage generated by a given deposited energy. Our findings explain the diverse damage morphology produced by ions of different masses

  10. Calculation of femtosecond pulse laser induced damage threshold for broadband antireflective microstructure arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xufeng; Shao, Jianda; Zhang, Junchao; Jin, Yunxia; He, Hongbo; Fan, Zhengxiu

    2009-12-21

    In order to more exactly predict femtosecond pulse laser induced damage threshold, an accurate theoretical model taking into account photoionization, avalanche ionization and decay of electrons is proposed by comparing respectively several combined ionization models with the published experimental measurements. In addition, the transmittance property and the near-field distribution of the 'moth eye' broadband antireflective microstructure directly patterned into the substrate material as a function of the surface structure period and groove depth are performed by a rigorous Fourier model method. It is found that the near-field distribution is strongly dependent on the periodicity of surface structure for TE polarization, but for TM wave it is insensitive to the period. What's more, the femtosecond pulse laser damage threshold of the surface microstructure on the pulse duration taking into account the local maximum electric field enhancement was calculated using the proposed relatively accurate theoretical ionization model. For the longer incident wavelength of 1064 nm, the weak linear damage threshold on the pulse duration is shown, but there is a surprising oscillation peak of breakdown threshold as a function of the pulse duration for the shorter incident wavelength of 532 nm.

  11. Infrared skin damage thresholds from 1319-nm continuous-wave laser exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Vincelette, Rebecca; Noojin, Gary D.; Clark, Clifton D.; Harbert, Corey A.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Kumru, Semih S.; Maughan, Justin; Kitzis, Naomi; Buffington, Gavin D.; Stolarski, David J.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in vivo using Yucatan miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) to determine thermal damage thresholds to the skin from 1319-nm continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Experiments employed exposure durations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, and 10 s and beam diameters of ˜0.6 and 1 cm. Thermal imagery data provided a time-dependent surface temperature response from the laser. A damage endpoint of fifty percent probability of a minimally visible effect was used to determine threshold for damage at 1 and 24 h postexposure. Predicted thermal response and damage thresholds are compared with a numerical model of optical-thermal interaction. Resultant trends with respect to exposure duration and beam diameter are compared with current standardized exposure limits for laser safety. Mathematical modeling agreed well with experimental data, predicting that though laser safety standards are sufficient for exposures <10 s, they may become less safe for very long exposures.

  12. Damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Qinglong; Zhang, Bin; Zhong, Sencheng; Zhu, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    The damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Firstly, the model for the damage threshold prediction of crystal materials based on the improved rate equation has been proposed. Then, the experimental measure method of the damage threshold of crystal materials has been given in detail. On the basis, the variation of the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal with the pulse duration has also been analyzed quantitatively. Finally, the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under multiple laser pulses has been measured and compared to the theoretical results. The results show that the transmittance of lithium niobate crystal is almost a constant when the laser pulse fluence is relative low, whereas it decreases linearly with the increase in the laser pulse fluence below the damage threshold. The damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal increases with the increase in the duration of the femtosecond laser pulse. And the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under multiple laser pulses is obviously lower than that irradiated by a single laser pulse. The theoretical data fall in good agreement with the experimental results. (orig.)

  13. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m"2). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H_2O_2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H_2O_2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  14. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  15. Tornado risk analysis at Savannah River Plant using windspeed damage thresholds and single building strike frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.H.; McDonald, J.R.; Twisdale, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tornado risk analysis at the Savannah River Plant has taken a two pronged approach: (1) developing a catalogue of damage thresholds as a function of windspeed for processing buildings and other representative site structures; (2) developing a method of estimating, for each building, the probability of a tornado exceeding each damage threshold. Wind resistance of building construction at SRP varies widely depending on the function of the structure. It was recognized that all tornadoes do not necessarily seriously damage buildings, but the damage thresholds were unknown. In order to evaluate the safety of existing structures and properly design new structures, an analysis of tornado resistance was conducted by J.R. McDonald on each process building at SRP and other buildings by type. Damage estimates were catalogued for each Fujita class windspeed interval and windspeeds were catalogued as a function of increased levels of damage. Tornado single point and structure specific strike probabilities for the SRP site were determined by L.A. Twisdale using the TORRISK computer code. To calculate the structure specific strike probability, a correction factor is determined from a set of curves using building area and aspect ratio (length/width relative to north) as parameters. The structure specific probability is then the product of the correction factor and the point probability. The correction factor increases as a function of building size and windspeed. For large buildings (10 5 ft 2 ) and very intense storms (250 mph), the correction factor is equal to or greater than 4. The cumulative probability of a tornado striking any building type (process, personnel, etc.) was also calculated

  16. Improvement of the damage threshold of high reflectivity multidielectric coatings 1.06 μM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geenen, B.; Malherbes, A.; Guerain, J.; Boisgard, D.

    1985-01-01

    Development of new high power laser for laser-matter interaction in C.E.A. Limeil requires the realization of H.R. coatings with damage thresholds above 8 J/cm/sup 2/. MATRA's laboratory ''couches minces optiques'' (thin optical layers) production commercial mirrors was around 3.5 J/cm/sup 2/ in 1982. In order to obtain better results the authors decided to improve the control of evaporation parameters such as: vacuum and regulation of oxygen pressure by means of a mass spectrometer; better measurements of evaporation temperature and regulation of evaporation rate; measurement and control of substrate temperature by pyrometric observation; and to automatize the process. These different measurements and controls enable them to establish new processing operations giving better evaporation conditions. The result was an increase of damage threshold from 3.5 J/cm/sup 2/ to 8 J/cm/sup 2/

  17. High-damage-threshold static laser beam shaping using optically patterned liquid-crystal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrer, C; Wei, S K-H; Leung, P; Vargas, M; Wegman, K; Boulé, J; Zhao, Z; Marshall, K L; Chen, S H

    2011-10-15

    Beam shaping of coherent laser beams is demonstrated using liquid crystal (LC) cells with optically patterned pixels. The twist angle of a nematic LC is locally set to either 0 or 90° by an alignment layer prepared via exposure to polarized UV light. The two distinct pixel types induce either no polarization rotation or a 90° polarization rotation, respectively, on a linearly polarized optical field. An LC device placed between polarizers functions as a binary transmission beam shaper with a highly improved damage threshold compared to metal beam shapers. Using a coumarin-based photoalignment layer, various devices have been fabricated and tested, with a measured single-shot nanosecond damage threshold higher than 30 J/cm2.

  18. Protective effects of the compounds isolated from the seed of Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Shim, Sang Hee; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism underlying glaucoma remains controversial, but apoptosis caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were treated with L-buthione-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) and glutamate in the presence or with pre-treatment with compound 6, bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia. We observed reduced cell death in cells pre-treated with bakuchiol. Moreover, bakuchiol inhibited the oxidative stress-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm). Furthermore, while intracellular Ca 2+ was high in RGC-5 cells after exposure to oxidative stress, bakuchiol reduced these levels. In an in vivo study, in which rat retinal damage was induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), bakuchiol markedly reduced translocation of AIF and release of cytochrome c, and inhibited up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved PARP. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 7 days after optic nerve crush (ONC) in mice was significantly decreased; however, bakuchiol attenuated the loss of RGCs. Moreover, bakuchiol attenuated ONC-induced up-regulation of apoptotic proteins, including cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Bakuchiol also significantly inhibited translocation of mitochondrial AIF into the nuclear fraction and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol. These results demonstrate that bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, and may be considered as an agent for treating or preventing retinal degeneration. - Highlights: • Psoralea corylifolia have neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. • Bakuchiol attenuated the increase of apoptotic proteins induced by oxidative

  19. Protective effects of the compounds isolated from the seed of Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-A [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sang Hee [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hong Ryul [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shjung507@gmail.com [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-01

    The mechanism underlying glaucoma remains controversial, but apoptosis caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were treated with L-buthione-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) and glutamate in the presence or with pre-treatment with compound 6, bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia. We observed reduced cell death in cells pre-treated with bakuchiol. Moreover, bakuchiol inhibited the oxidative stress-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm). Furthermore, while intracellular Ca{sup 2+} was high in RGC-5 cells after exposure to oxidative stress, bakuchiol reduced these levels. In an in vivo study, in which rat retinal damage was induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), bakuchiol markedly reduced translocation of AIF and release of cytochrome c, and inhibited up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved PARP. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 7 days after optic nerve crush (ONC) in mice was significantly decreased; however, bakuchiol attenuated the loss of RGCs. Moreover, bakuchiol attenuated ONC-induced up-regulation of apoptotic proteins, including cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Bakuchiol also significantly inhibited translocation of mitochondrial AIF into the nuclear fraction and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol. These results demonstrate that bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, and may be considered as an agent for treating or preventing retinal degeneration. - Highlights: • Psoralea corylifolia have neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. • Bakuchiol attenuated the increase of apoptotic proteins induced by oxidative

  20. Long-range pulselength scaling of 351nm laser damage thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, S. R.; Jolin, L. J.

    1986-12-01

    In a series of experiments incorporating 351nm pulselength of 9, 26, 54, and 625ns, it was found that laser damage thresholds increased as (pulselength)/sup x/, and that the exponent averaged 0.36 and ranged, for different samples, from 0.23 to 0.48. Similar results were obtained when only catastrophic damage was considered. Samples included Al2O3/SiO2 in both AR and HR multilayers, HR's of Sc2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2, and Al-on-pyrex mirror; 9ns thresholds were between 0.2 to 5.6 J/sq cm. When these data were compared with a wide range of other results - for wavelengths from 0.25 to 10.6 microns and pulselengths down to 4ps - a remarkably consistent picture emerged. Damage thresholds, on average, increase approximately as the cube-root of pulselength from picoseconds to nearly a microsecond, and do so regardless of wavelength or material under test.

  1. Nanosecond laser therapy reverses pathologic and molecular changes in age-related macular degeneration without retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, A I; Guymer, R H; Vessey, K A; Greferath, U; Mills, S A; Brassington, K H; Luu, C D; Aung, K Z; Trogrlic, L; Plunkett, M; Fletcher, E L

    2015-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss, characterized by drusen deposits and thickened Bruch's membrane (BM). This study details the capacity of nanosecond laser treatment to reduce drusen and thin BM while maintaining retinal structure. Fifty patients with AMD had a single nanosecond laser treatment session and after 2 yr, change in drusen area was compared with an untreated cohort of patients. The retinal effect of the laser was determined in human and mouse eyes using immunohistochemistry and compared with untreated eyes. In a mouse with thickened BM (ApoEnull), the effect of laser treatment was quantified using electron microscopy and quantitative PCR. In patients with AMD, nanosecond laser treatment reduced drusen load at 2 yr. Retinal structure was not compromised in human and mouse retina after laser treatment, with only a discrete retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) injury, and limited mononuclear cell response observed. BM was thinned in the ApoEnull mouse 3 mo after treatment (ApoEnull treated 683 ± 38 nm, ApoEnull untreated 890 ± 60 nm, C57Bl6J 606 ± 43 nm), with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -3 increased (>260%). Nanosecond laser resolved drusen independent of retinal damage and improved BM structure, suggesting this treatment has the potential to reduce AMD progression. © FASEB.

  2. Wavelength dependence of femtosecond laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallais, L., E-mail: laurent.gallais@fresnel.fr; Douti, D.-B.; Commandré, M. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France); Batavičiūtė, G.; Pupka, E.; Ščiuka, M.; Smalakys, L.; Sirutkaitis, V.; Melninkaitis, A. [Laser Research Center, Vilnius University, Saulétekio aléja 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2015-06-14

    An experimental and numerical study of the laser-induced damage of the surface of optical material in the femtosecond regime is presented. The objective of this work is to investigate the different processes involved as a function of the ratio of photon to bandgap energies and compare the results to models based on nonlinear ionization processes. Experimentally, the laser-induced damage threshold of optical materials has been studied in a range of wavelengths from 1030 nm (1.2 eV) to 310 nm (4 eV) with pulse durations of 100 fs with the use of an optical parametric amplifier system. Semi-conductors and dielectrics materials, in bulk or thin film forms, in a range of bandgap from 1 to 10 eV have been tested in order to investigate the scaling of the femtosecond laser damage threshold with the bandgap and photon energy. A model based on the Keldysh photo-ionization theory and the description of impact ionization by a multiple-rate-equation system is used to explain the dependence of laser-breakdown with the photon energy. The calculated damage fluence threshold is found to be consistent with experimental results. From these results, the relative importance of the ionization processes can be derived depending on material properties and irradiation conditions. Moreover, the observed damage morphologies can be described within the framework of the model by taking into account the dynamics of energy deposition with one dimensional propagation simulations in the excited material and thermodynamical considerations.

  3. Porcine skin damage thresholds for pulsed nanosecond-scale laser exposure at 1064-nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Michael P.; Peterson, Amanda M.; Noojin, Gary D.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Tijerina, Amanda J.; Boretsky, Adam R.; Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kumru, Semih S.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2018-02-01

    Pulsed high-energy lasers operating in the near-infrared (NIR) band are increasingly being used in medical, industrial, and military applications, but there are little available experimental data to characterize their hazardous effects on skin tissue. The current American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1-2014) defines the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) on the skin as either a single-pulse or total exposure time limit. This study determined the minimum visible lesion (MVL) damage thresholds in Yucatan miniature pig skin for the single-pulse case and several multiple-pulse cases over a wide range of pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) (10, 125, 2,000, and 10,000 Hz) utilizing nanosecond-scale pulses (10 or 60 ns). The thresholds are expressed in terms of the median effective dose (ED50) based on varying individual pulse energy with other laser parameters held constant. The results confirm a decrease in MVL threshold as PRF increases for exposures with a constant number of pulses, while also noting a PRF-dependent change in the threshold as a function of the number of pulses. Furthermore, this study highlights a change in damage mechanism to the skin from melanin-mediated photomechanical events at high irradiance levels and few numbers of pulses to bulk tissue photothermal additivity at lower irradiance levels and greater numbers of pulses. The observed trends exceeded the existing exposure limits by an average factor of 9.1 in the photothermally-damaged cases and 3.6 in the photomechanicallydamaged cases.

  4. Stanniocalcin-1 protects retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Optic neuropathy including glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision loss, and there are currently no effective therapies. The hallmark of pathophysiology of optic neuropathy is oxidative stress and apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, a population of neurons in the central nervous system with their soma in the inner retina and axons in the optic nerve. We here tested that an anti-apoptotic protein stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1 can prevent loss of RGCs in the rat retina with optic nerve transection (ONT and in cultures of RGC-5 cells with CoCl2 injury. We found that intravitreal injection of STC-1 increased the number of RGCs in the retina at days 7 and 14 after ONT, and decreased apoptosis and oxidative damage. In cultures, treatment with STC-1 dose-dependently increased cell viability, and decreased apoptosis and levels of reactive oxygen species in RGC-5 cells that were exposed to CoCl2. The expression of HIF-1α that was up-regulated by injury was significantly suppressed in the retina and in RGC-5 cells by STC-1 treatment. The results suggested that intravitreal injection of STC-1 might be a useful therapy for optic nerve diseases in which RGCs undergo apoptosis through oxidative stress.

  5. On the threshold of damage formation in aluminum oxide via electronic excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratov, V.A., E-mail: skuratov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); O’Connell, J. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Kirilkin, N.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Neethling, J. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    This work is aimed to determine the threshold of dense ionization induced damage formation and their morphology in sapphire single crystals irradiated with 1.2 MeV/amu Xe ions. Cross-sectional TEM examination of r-oriented Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} specimens irradiated to fluences of 2 × 10{sup 12} and 2 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} has revealed discontinuous ion tracks visible from the irradiated surface up to a depth of 7.6 ± 0.1 μm. According to the SRIM code calculation, the threshold electronic stopping power for track formation in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is within the range 9.8 ÷ 10.5 keV/nm. This value agrees with those predicted by both inelastic and analytical thermal spike models.

  6. On the threshold of damage formation in aluminum oxide via electronic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; O’Connell, J.; Kirilkin, N.S.; Neethling, J.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed to determine the threshold of dense ionization induced damage formation and their morphology in sapphire single crystals irradiated with 1.2 MeV/amu Xe ions. Cross-sectional TEM examination of r-oriented Al 2 O 3 specimens irradiated to fluences of 2 × 10 12 and 2 × 10 13 cm −2 has revealed discontinuous ion tracks visible from the irradiated surface up to a depth of 7.6 ± 0.1 μm. According to the SRIM code calculation, the threshold electronic stopping power for track formation in Al 2 O 3 is within the range 9.8 ÷ 10.5 keV/nm. This value agrees with those predicted by both inelastic and analytical thermal spike models

  7. Orally active multi-functional antioxidants are neuroprotective in a rat model of light-induced retinal damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Randazzo

    Full Text Available Progression of age-related macular degeneration has been linked to iron dysregulation and oxidative stress that induce apoptosis of neural retinal cells. Since both antioxidants and chelating agents have been reported to reduce the progression of retinal lesions associated with AMD in experimental animals, the present study evaluates the ability of multi-functional antioxidants containing functional groups that can independently chelate redox metals and quench free radicals to protect the retina against light-induced retinal degeneration, a rat model of dry atrophic AMD.Proof of concept studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of 4-(5-hydroxypyrimidin-2-yl-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 4 and 4-(5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 8 to reduce retinal damage in 2-week dark adapted Wistar rats exposed to 1000 lx of light for 3 hours. Assessment of the oxidative stress markers 4- hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine modified proteins and Thioredoxin by ELISA and Western blots indicated that these compounds reduced the oxidative insult caused by light exposure. The beneficial antioxidant effects of these compounds in providing significant functional and structural protection were confirmed by electroretinography and quantitative histology of the retina.The present study suggests that multi-functional compounds may be effective candidates for preventive therapy of AMD.

  8. Effects of melatonin and its receptor antagonist on retinal pigment epithelial cells against hydrogen peroxide damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Richard B.; Hu, Dan-Ning; Chen, Min; McCormick, Steven A.; Walsh, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recently, we reported finding that circulating melatonin levels in age-related macular degeneration patients were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that melatonin deficiency may play a role in the oxidative damage of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by testing the protective effect of melatonin and its receptor antagonist on RPE cells exposed to H2O2 damage. Methods Cultured human RPE cells were subjected to oxidative stress induced by 0.5 mM H2O2. Cell viability was measured using the microculture tetrazoline test (MTT) assay. Cells were pretreated with or without melatonin for 24 h. Luzindole (50 μM), a melatonin membrane-receptor antagonist, was added to the culture 1 h before melatonin to distinguish direct antioxidant effects from indirect receptor-dependent effects. All tests were performed in triplicate. Results H2O2 at 0.5 mM decreased cell viability to 20% of control levels. Melatonin showed dose-dependent protective effects on RPE cells against H2O2. Cell viability of RPE cells pretreated with 10−10, 10−8, 10−6, and 10−4 M melatonin for 24 h was 130%, 160%, 187%, and 230% of cells treated with H2O2 alone (all p<0.05). Using cells cultured without H2O2 as the control, cell viability of cells treated with H2O2 after pretreatment with 10−10-10−4 M melatonin was still significantly lower than that of the controls, suggesting that melatonin significantly decreased but did not completely abolish the in vitro cytotoxic effects of H2O2. Luzindole completely blocked melatonin’s protective effects at low concentrations of melatonin (10−10-10−8 M) but not at high concentrations (10−6-10−4 M). Conclusions Melatonin has a partial protective effect on RPE cells against H2O2 damage across a wide range of concentrations (10−10-10−4 M). This protective effect occurs through the activation of melatonin membrane receptors at low concentrations (10−10

  9. Review of ultraviolet damage threshold measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of damage threshold measurements made at LLNL using ultraviolet wavelength laser pulses are reviewed. Measurements were made with pulses from a krypton fluoride laser with wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns and with Nd-glass laser pulses converted to the third harmonic wavelength of 355 nm with duration of 0.6 ns. Measurements are presented for transparent window materials, crystals and harmonic generation, single layer dielectric films of oxide and fluoride materials and multilayer high reflectivity and antireflective coatings.

  10. Review of ultraviolet damage threshold measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of damage threshold measurements made at LLNL using ultraviolet wavelength laser pulses are reviewed. Measurements were made with pulses from a krypton fluoride laser with wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns and with Nd-glass laser pulses converted to the third harmonic wavelength of 355 nm with duration of 0.6 ns. Measurements are presented for transparent window materials, crystals and harmonic generation, single layer dielectric films of oxide and fluoride materials and multilayer high reflectivity and antireflective coatings

  11. Design and fabrication of a high-damage threshold infrared Smattt interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.B.; Gibbs, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    It has been shown that a Smartt interferometer may be used as a very precise alignment tool for infrared lasers. This interferometer may also be used effectively to investigate the phase front of a laser pulse. To use this tool for applications to high-power, fast-pulse laser systems such as Helios and Antares; however, it has been necessary to fabricate a structure with the unique optical characteristics of the Smartt interferometer combined with a very high optical-damage threshold. We have been successful in this effort by utilizing the high technology, process control, and unique properties of semiconductor-grade, single-crystal Si

  12. Neodymium: YAG laser damage threshold. A comparison of injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S E; Brubaker, R F

    1987-01-01

    The possibility that injection-molded intraocular lenses (IOLs) with imperfections called iridescent clefts could have a decreased threshold to neodymium: YAG (Nd:YAG) laser-induced damage was investigated. Thresholds for Nd:YAG laser-induced damage were determined for injection-molded and lathe-cut polymethylmethacrylate lenses. When aimed at a membrane in contact with a posterior convex surface, the average thresholds were 0.96 +/- 0.18 mJ (Standard deviation [SD]) and 1.80 +/- 0.55 mJ, respectively. The difference was significant at P = 0.001. When injection-molding polymethylmethacrylate was used to make lathe-cut IOLs, very few iridescent clefts were present, and the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage was 0.94 +/- 0.25 mJ. Iridescent clefts are therefore produced during the injection-molding process but they do not lower the threshold to Nd:YAG laser-induced damage. Rather, the reduced threshold in injection-molded lenses is most probably a result of the polymethylmethacrylate used in their manufacture. Clinically, iridescent clefts in a lens suggest that it has been manufactured by an injection-molding process and that Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy must be performed at the lowest possible energy level to avoid damage.

  13. Enhancement of laser induced damage threshold of fused silica by acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meng; Xiang Xia; Jiang Yong; Zu Xiaotao; Yuan Xiaodong; Zheng Wanguo; Wang Haijun; Li Xibin; Lu Haibing; Jiang Xiaodong; Wang Chengcheng

    2010-01-01

    Acid etching combined with UV laser conditioning is developed to enhance the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of fused silica. Firstly, the fused silica is etched for 1 ∼ 100 min with a buffered 1% HF solution. After acid etching, its transmittance, surface roughness and LIDT are measured. The results reveal that the fused silica has the highest LIDT and transmittance after etching for 10 min. Then UV laser (355 nm) conditioning is adopted to process the 10-min-etched fused silica. When the laser fluence is below 60% of fused silica's zero probability damage threshold, the LIDT increases gradually with the increase of laser conditioning fluence. However, the LIDT rapidly decreases to be lower than the threshold of the 10-min-etched fused silica when the conditioning fluence is up to 80% of the threshold. Proper acid etching and laser conditioning parameters will effectively enhance the laser damage resistance of fused silica. (authors)

  14. Program requirements to determine and relate fuel damage and failure thresholds to anticipated conditions in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyd, R.F.; Croucher, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    Anticipated transients, licensing criteria, and damage mechanisms for PWR fuel rods are reviewed. Potential mechanistic fuel rod damage limits for PWRs are discussed. An expermental program to be conducted out-of-pile and in the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) to generate a safety data base to define mechanistic fuel damage and failure thresholds and to relate these thresholds to the thermal-hydraulic and power conditions in a PWR is proposed. The requirements for performing the tests are outlined. Analytical support requirements are defined

  15. Chronic cigarette smoke causes oxidative damage and apoptosis to retinal pigmented epithelial cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Fujihara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke develop features of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Two month old C57Bl6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or cigarette smoke in a smoking chamber for 5 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 months. Eyes were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde/2% paraformaldehyde and examined for ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. The contralateral eye was fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and examined for oxidative injury to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG immunolabeling and apoptosis by TUNEL labeling. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke had immunolabeling for 8-OHdG in 85+/-3.7% of RPE cells counted compared to 9.5+/-3.9% in controls (p<0.00001. Bruch membrane was thicker in mice exposed to smoke (1086+/-332 nm than those raised in air (543+/-132 nm; p = 0.0069. The two most pronounced ultrastructural changes (severity grading scale from 0-3 seen were a loss of basal infoldings (mean difference in grade = 1.98; p<0.0001, and an increase in intracellular vacuoles (mean difference in grade = 1.7; p<0.0001. Ultrastructural changes to Bruch membrane in cigarette-smoke exposed mice were smaller in magnitude but consistently demonstrated significantly higher grade injury in cigarette-exposed mice, including basal laminar deposits (mean difference in grade = 0.54; p<0.0001, increased outer collagenous layer deposits (mean difference in grade = 0.59; p = 0.002, and increased basal laminar deposit continuity (mean difference in grade = 0.4; p<0.0001. TUNEL assay showed a higher percentage of apoptotic RPE from mice exposed to cigarette smoke (average 8.0+/-1.1% than room air (average 0+/-0%; p = 0.043. Mice exposed to chronic cigarette smoke develop evidence of oxidative damage with ultrastructural degeneration to the RPE and Bruch membrane, and RPE cell apoptosis. This model could be useful for studying the

  16. A historical perspective on fifteen years of laser damage thresholds at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; De Marco, F.P.; Staggs, M.C.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Atherton, L.J.; Sheehan, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    We have completed a fifteen year, referenced and documented compilation of more than 15,000 measurements of laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDT) conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These measurements cover the spectrum from 248 to 1064 nm with pulse durations ranging from < 1 ns to 65 ns and at pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) from single shots to 6.3 kHz. We emphasize the changes in LIDTs during the past two years since we last summarized our database. We relate these results to earlier data concentrating on improvements in processing methods, materials, and conditioning techniques. In particular, we highlight the current status of anti-reflective (AR) coatings, high reflectors (HR), polarizers, and frequency-conversion crystals used primarily at 355 nm and 1064 nm

  17. Renal-Retinal Ciliopathy Gene Sdccag8 Regulates DNA Damage Response Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Airik, Rannar; Slaats, Gisela G; Guo, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RCs) are developmental and degenerative kidney diseases that are frequently associated with extrarenal pathologies such as retinal degeneration, obesity, and intellectual disability. We recently identified mutations in a gene encoding the centrosomal...... protein SDCCAG8 as causing NPHP type 10 in humans. To study the role of Sdccag8 in disease pathogenesis, we generated a Sdccag8 gene-trap mouse line. Homozygous Sdccag8(gt/gt) mice lacked the wild-type Sdccag8 transcript and protein, and recapitulated the human phenotypes of NPHP and retinal degeneration....... These mice exhibited early onset retinal degeneration that was associated with rhodopsin mislocalization in the photoreceptors and reduced cone cell numbers, and led to progressive loss of vision. By contrast, renal histologic changes occurred later, and no global ciliary defects were observed in the kidneys...

  18. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p exercise. Mean motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pexercise. The firing rate of high-threshold motor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures.

  19. Retinal pigment epithelial cell multinucleation in the aging eye - a mechanism to repair damage and maintain homoeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Rajapakse, Dinusha; Fraczek, Monika; Luo, Chang; Forrester, John V; Xu, Heping

    2016-06-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are central to retinal health and homoeostasis. Dysfunction or death of RPE cells underlies many age-related retinal degenerative disorders particularly age-related macular degeneration. During aging RPE cells decline in number, suggesting an age-dependent cell loss. RPE cells are considered to be postmitotic, and how they repair damage during aging remains poorly defined. We show that RPE cells increase in size and become multinucleate during aging in C57BL/6J mice. Multinucleation appeared not to be due to cell fusion, but to incomplete cell division, that is failure of cytokinesis. Interestingly, the phagocytic activity of multinucleate RPE cells was not different from that of mononuclear RPE cells. Furthermore, exposure of RPE cells in vitro to photoreceptor outer segment (POS), particularly oxidized POS, dose-dependently promoted multinucleation and suppressed cell proliferation. Both failure of cytokinesis and suppression of proliferation required contact with POS. Exposure to POS also induced reactive oxygen species and DNA oxidation in RPE cells. We propose that RPE cells have the potential to proliferate in vivo and to repair defects in the monolayer. We further propose that the conventionally accepted 'postmitotic' status of RPE cells is due to a modified form of contact inhibition mediated by POS and that RPE cells are released from this state when contact with POS is lost. This is seen in long-standing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment as overtly proliferating RPE cells (proliferative vitreoretinopathy) and more subtly as multinucleation during normal aging. Age-related oxidative stress may promote failure of cytokinesis and multinucleation in RPE cells. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A rat retinal damage model predicts for potential clinical visual disturbances induced by Hsp90 inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yuan; Ye, Josephine; Ying, Weiwen; Ogawa, Luisa Shin; Inoue, Takayo; Tatsuta, Noriaki; Wada, Yumiko; Koya, Keizo; Huang, Qin; Bates, Richard C.; Sonderfan, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    In human trials certain heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors, including 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922, have caused visual disorders indicative of retinal dysfunction; others such as 17-AAG and ganetespib have not. To understand these safety profile differences we evaluated histopathological changes and exposure profiles of four Hsp90 inhibitors, with or without clinical reports of adverse ocular effects, using a rat retinal model. Retinal morphology, Hsp70 expression (a surrogate marker of Hsp90 inhibition), apoptotic induction and pharmacokinetic drug exposure analysis were examined in rats treated with the ansamycins 17-DMAG and 17-AAG, or with the second-generation compounds NVP-AUY922 and ganetespib. Both 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922 induced strong yet restricted retinal Hsp70 up-regulation and promoted marked photoreceptor cell death 24 h after the final dose. In contrast, neither 17-AAG nor ganetespib elicited photoreceptor injury. When the relationship between drug distribution and photoreceptor degeneration was examined, 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922 showed substantial retinal accumulation, with high retina/plasma (R/P) ratios and slow elimination rates, such that 51% of 17-DMAG and 65% of NVP-AUY922 present at 30 min post-injection were retained in the retina 6 h post-dose. For 17-AAG and ganetespib, retinal elimination was rapid (90% and 70% of drugs eliminated from the retina at 6 h, respectively) which correlated with lower R/P ratios. These findings indicate that prolonged inhibition of Hsp90 activity in the eye results in photoreceptor cell death. Moreover, the results suggest that the retina/plasma exposure ratio and retinal elimination rate profiles of Hsp90 inhibitors, irrespective of their chemical class, may predict for ocular toxicity potential. - Highlights: • In human trials some Hsp90 inhibitors cause visual disorders, others do not. • Prolonged inhibition of Hsp90 in the rat eye results in photoreceptor cell death. • Retina/plasma ratio and retinal

  1. Correlating optical damage threshold with intrinsic defect populations in fused silica as a function of heat treatment temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matthews, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elhadj, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, P. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamilton, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-04-03

    Here, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used for the production of fused silica optics in high-power laser applications. However, relatively little is known about the ultraviolet laser damage threshold of CVD films and how they relate to intrinsic defects produced during deposition. We present here a study relating structural and electronic defects in CVD films to 355 nm pulsed-laser damage threshold as a function of post-deposition annealing temperature (THT). Plasma-enhanced CVD based on SiH4/N2O under oxygen-rich conditions was used to deposit 1.5, 3.1 and 6.4 µm thick films on etched SiO2 substrates. Rapid annealing was performed using a scanned CO2 laser beam up to THT ~ 2100 K. The films were then characterized using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A gradual transition in the damage threshold of annealed films was observed for THT values up to 1600 K, correlating with a decrease in non-bridging silanol and oxygen deficient centres. An additional sharp transition in damage threshold also occurs at ~1850 K indicating substrate annealing. Based on our results, a mechanism for damage-related defect annealing is proposed, and the potential of using high-THT CVD SiO2 to mitigate optical damage is also discussed.

  2. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Lewis J.

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pmotor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures. PMID:29630622

  3. Downregulation of Wip1 phosphatase modulates the cellular threshold of DNA damage signaling in mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macurek, Libor; Benada, Jan; Müllers, Erik; Halim, Vincentius A.; Krejčíková, Kateřina; Burdová, Kamila; Pecháčková, Sona; Hodný, Zdeněk; Lindqvist, Arne; Medema, René H.; Bartek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Cells are constantly challenged by DNA damage and protect their genome integrity by activation of an evolutionary conserved DNA damage response pathway (DDR). A central core of DDR is composed of a spatiotemporally ordered net of post-translational modifications, among which protein phosphorylation plays a major role. Activation of checkpoint kinases ATM/ATR and Chk1/2 leads to a temporal arrest in cell cycle progression (checkpoint) and allows time for DNA repair. Following DNA repair, cells re-enter the cell cycle by checkpoint recovery. Wip1 phosphatase (also called PPM1D) dephosphorylates multiple proteins involved in DDR and is essential for timely termination of the DDR. Here we have investigated how Wip1 is regulated in the context of the cell cycle. We found that Wip1 activity is downregulated by several mechanisms during mitosis. Wip1 protein abundance increases from G1 phase to G2 and declines in mitosis. Decreased abundance of Wip1 during mitosis is caused by proteasomal degradation. In addition, Wip1 is phosphorylated at multiple residues during mitosis, and this leads to inhibition of its enzymatic activity. Importantly, ectopic expression of Wip1 reduced γH2AX staining in mitotic cells and decreased the number of 53BP1 nuclear bodies in G1 cells. We propose that the combined decrease and inhibition of Wip1 in mitosis decreases the threshold necessary for DDR activation and enables cells to react adequately even to modest levels of DNA damage encountered during unperturbed mitotic progression. PMID:23255129

  4. Coenzyme Q10 instilled as eye drops on the cornea reaches the retina and protects retinal layers from apoptosis in a mouse model of kainate-induced retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schipani, Christian; Bergamini, Christian; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2012-12-17

    To evaluate if coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis and, when instilled as eye drops on the cornea, if it can reach the retina and exert its antiapoptotic activity in this area in a mouse model of kainate (KA)-induced retinal damage. Rat primary or cultured RGCs were subjected to glutamate (50 μM) or chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A, 200 μM) or serum withdrawal (FBS, 0.5%) in the presence or absence of CoQ10 (10 μM). Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. Apoptosis was evaluated by caspase 3/7 activity and mitochondrion depolarization tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester analysis. CoQ10 transfer to the retina following its instillation as eye drops on the cornea was quantified by HPLC. Retinal protection by CoQ10 (10 μM) eye drops instilled on the cornea was then evaluated in a mouse model of KA-induced excitotoxic retinal cell apoptosis by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistofluorescence, caspase 3/7 activity assays, and quantification of inhibition of RGC loss. CoQ10 significantly increased viable cells by preventing RGC apoptosis. Furthermore, when topically applied as eye drops to the cornea, it reached the retina, thus substantially increasing local CoQ10 concentration and protecting retinal layers from apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 eye drops to protect retinal cells from apoptosis in the mouse model of KA-induced retinal damage suggests that topical CoQ10 may be evaluated in designing therapies for treating apoptosis-driven retinopathies.

  5. A protective effect of anthocyanins and xanthophylls on UVB-induced damage in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silván, Jose Manuel; Reguero, Marina; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2016-02-01

    Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage that may promote age related macular degeneration (AMD) and other ocular pathologies. This study is aimed to demonstrate the protective effects of some anthocyanins and xanthophylls against the UVB-induced oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. ARPE-19 cells were treated with 5 μM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein, zeaxanthin or a mixture of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside:zeaxanthin prior to UVB exposure (500 J m(-2)). Cell viability and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation were determined by MTT assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The data showed that UVB irradiation reduces the cell viability to 46% with increasing of intracellular ROS levels and phosphorylation of MAPKs. However, pre-treatment (60 min) with 5 μM cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein or zeaxanthin significantly reduced cellular ROS levels and phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK1/2 and p38) mediated by UVB irradiation and subsequently increased cell viability. Thus, results show that UVB irradiation is able to induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells through oxidative stress; however anthocyanins and xanthophylls pre-treatment can attenuate this damage. This suggests that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, lutein and zeaxanthin are effective in preventing UVB-induced damage in RPE cells and may be suitable as chemoprotective factors for the prevention of ocular damage. The use of natural dietary antioxidants might reduce ocular oxidative damage caused by UVB radiation.

  6. Choice of Cell Source in Cell-Based Therapies for Retinal Damage due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disorder that affects primarily the macula involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE but also to a certain extent the photoreceptor layer and the retinal neurons. Cell transplantation is a promising option for AMD and clinical trials are underway using different cell types. Methods. We hypothesize that instead of focusing on a particular cell source for concurrent regeneration of all the retinal layers and also to prevent exhaustive research on an array of cell sources for regeneration of each layer, the choice should depend on, precisely, which layer is damaged. Results. Thus, for a damage limited to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE layer, the choice we suggest would be RPE cells. When the damage extends to rods and cones, the choice would be bone marrow stem cells and when retinal neurons are involved, relatively immature stem cell populations with an inherent capacity to yield neuronal lineage such as hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells can be tried. Conclusion. This short review will prove to be a valuable guideline for those working on cell therapy for AMD to plan their future directions of research and therapy for this condition.

  7. Development and validation of rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging inflammation thresholds associated with lack of damage progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Joshua F.; Østergaard, Mikkel; Emery, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine thresholds for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) magnetic resonance imaging scores (RAMRIS) associated with a low risk of structural damage progression. Methods MRI of the dominant hand was performed and RAMRIS scores determined at weeks 0, 24, and 52. X-rays were performed and van...

  8. Modelling single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, R.A.; Sobierajski, R.; Louis, Eric; Bosgra, J.; Bosgra, J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for highintensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly

  9. Design of a high pulse repitition frequency carbon dioxide laser for processing high damage threshold materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, Christopher R.; McDonald, Donald W.; Scott, Brian F.

    1989-07-01

    The absence of an applications led design philosophy has compromised both the development of laser source technology and its effective implementation into manufacturing technology in particular. For example, CO2 lasers are still incapable of processing classes of refractory and non-ferrous metals. Whilst the scope of this paper is restricted to high power CO2 lasers; the design methodology reported herein is applicable to source technology in general, which when exploited, will effect an expansion of applications. The CO2 laser operational envelope should not only be expanded to incorporate high damage threshold materials but also offer a greater degree of controllability. By a combination of modelling and experimentation the requisite beam characteristics, at the workpiece, were determined then utilised to design the Laser Manufacturing System. The design of sub-system elements was achieved by a combination of experimentation and simulation which benefited from a comprehensive set of software tools. By linking these tools the physical processes in the laser - electron processes in the plasma, the history of photons in the resonator, etc. - can be related, in a detailed model, to the heating mechanisms in the workpiece.

  10. The Laser Damage Threshold for Materials and the Relation Between Solid-Melt and Melt-Vapor Interface Velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Osama Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated and analytic theories have predicted that there is a threshold for pulsed laser ablation of a wide range of materials. Optical surface damage threshold is a very complex and important application of high-power lasers. Optical damage may also be considered to be the initial phase of laser ablation. In this work it was determined the time required and the threshold energy of a layer of thickness to heat up. We used the Finite Difference method to simulate the process of laser-target interaction in three cases. Namely, the case before melting begins using a continuous wave (c.w) laser source and a pulsed laser source, the case after the first change of state (from solid to melt), and the case after the second change of state (from melt to vapor). And also study the relation between the solid-melt and melt-vapor interface velocities to have a commonsense of the laser ablation process.

  11. On the threshold conditions for electron beam damage of asbestos amosite fibers in the transmission electron microscope (TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joannie; Beauparlant, Martin; Sauvé, Sébastien; L'Espérance, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    Asbestos amosite fibers were investigated to evaluate the damage caused by a transmission electron microscope (TEM) electron beam. Since elemental x-ray intensity ratios obtained by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) are commonly used for asbestos identification, the impact of beam damage on these ratios was evaluated. It was determined that the magnesium/silicon ratio best represented the damage caused to the fiber. Various tests showed that most fibers have a current density threshold above which the chemical composition of the fiber is modified. The value of this threshold current density varied depending on the fiber, regardless of fiber diameter, and in some cases could not be determined. The existence of a threshold electron dose was also demonstrated. This value was dependent on the current density used and can be increased by providing a recovery period between exposures to the electron beam. This study also established that the electron beam current is directly related to the damage rate above a current density of 165 A/cm 2 . The large number of different results obtained suggest, that in order to ensure that the amosite fibers are not damaged, analysis should be conducted below a current density of 100 A/cm 2 .

  12. Investigation of damage threshold to TiO2 coatings at different laser wavelength and pulse duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jianke; Fan Zhengxiu; Jin Yunxia; Zhao Yuanan; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced damages to TiO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /SiO 2 high reflectors at laser wavelength of 1064 nm, 800 nm, 532 nm, and pulse width of 12 ns, 220 ps, 50 fs, 8 ns are investigated. All films are prepared by electron beam evaporation. The relations among microstructure, chemical composition, optical properties and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), have been researched. The dependence of damage mechanism on laser wavelength and pulse width is discussed. It is found that from 1064 nm to 532 nm, LIDT is mainly absorption related, which is determined by film's extinction coefficient and stoichiometric defects. The rapid decrease of LIDT at 800 nm is due to the pulse width factor. TiO 2 coatings are mainly thermally by damaged at long pulse (τ ≥ 220 ps). The damage shows ablation feature at 50 fs

  13. Eccentric muscle damage has variable effects on motor unit recruitment thresholds and discharge patterns in elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnall, Tamara J; Rogasch, Nigel C; Nordstrom, Michael A; Semmler, John G

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eccentric muscle damage on recruitment threshold force and repetitive discharge properties of low-threshold motor units. Ten subjects performed four tasks involving isometric contraction of elbow flexors while electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from human biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. Tasks were 1) maximum voluntary contraction (MVC); 2) constant-force contraction at various submaximal targets; 3) motor unit recruitment threshold task; and 4) minimum motor unit discharge rate task. These tasks were performed on three separate days before, immediately after, and 24 h after eccentric exercise of elbow flexor muscles. MVC force declined (42%) immediately after exercise and remained depressed (29%) 24 h later, indicative of muscle damage. Mean motor unit recruitment threshold for biceps brachii was 8.4+/-4.2% MVC, (n=34) before eccentric exercise, and was reduced by 41% (5.0+/-3.0% MVC, n=34) immediately after and by 39% (5.2+/-2.5% MVC, n=34) 24 h after exercise. No significant changes in motor unit recruitment threshold were observed in the brachialis muscle. However, for the minimum tonic discharge rate task, motor units in both muscles discharged 11% faster (10.8+/-2.0 vs. 9.7+/-1.7 Hz) immediately after (n=29) exercise compared with that before (n=32). The minimum discharge rate variability was greater in brachialis muscle immediately after exercise (13.8+/-3.1%) compared with that before (11.9+/-3.1%) and 24 h after exercise (11.7+/-2.4%). No significant changes in minimum discharge rate variability were observed in the biceps brachii motor units after exercise. These results indicate that muscle damage from eccentric exercise alters motor unit recruitment thresholds for >or=24 h, but the effect is not the same in the different elbow flexor muscles.

  14. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin; Yan, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy

  15. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jqin710@vip.sina.com; Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy.

  16. Anisotropy of hardness and laser damage threshold of unidirectional organic NLO crystal in relation to the internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Arivanandhan, M.; Sankaranarayanan, K.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Growth rate of the unidirectional organic crystals were measured and the variation in the growth rate was explained based on the attachment energy model. · Anisotropic behaviors of hardness and laser damage threshold of the unidirectional materials were analyzed. · The obtained results were explained based on the crystal structure of the material. - Abstract: Unidirectional benzophenone crystals were grown along , and directions by uniaxially solution crystallization method at ambient temperature. The growth rate of the grown crystals was varied with orientation. The optical absorption coefficients of benzophenone were measured as a function of wavelength. The optical absorption study reveals that the benzophenone crystal has very low absorption in the wavelength range of interest. Moreover, the laser damage threshold and micro hardness for , and oriented unidirectional benzophenone crystals were measured using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm radiation and Vicker's micro hardness tester, respectively. The laser damage threshold is larger for the and oriented crystals compared to oriented crystal at 1064 nm wavelength. The result is consistent with the hardness variation observed for the three different crystallographic directions of benzophenone crystal. The relation between the laser damage profile and mechanical hardness anisotropy is discussed based on the crystal structure of benzophenone.

  17. Damage Mechanisms In Polymers Upon NIR Femtosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation: Sub-Threshold Processes And Their Implications For Laser Safety Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, Joern; Krueger, Joerg; Solis, Javier; Spielmann, Christian; Lippert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This contribution investigates laser-induced damage of thin film and bulk polymer samples, with the focus on physical processes occurring close to the damage threshold. In-situ real-time reflectivity (RTR) measurements with picosecond (ps) and nanosecond (ns) temporal resolution were performed on thin polymer films on a timescale up to a few microseconds (μs). A model for polymer thin film damage is presented, indicating that irreversible chemical modification processes take place already below the fluence threshold for macroscopic damage. On dye-doped bulk polymer filters (as used for laser goggles), transmission studies using fs-and ps-laser pulses reveal the optical saturation behavior of the material and its relation to the threshold of permanent damage. Implications of the sub-threshold processes for laser safety applications will be discussed for thin film and bulk polymer damage.

  18. Measurements of the dependence of damage thresholds on laser wavelength, pulse duration and film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; Vercimak, C.L.; Carniglia, C.K.; Milam, D.; Hart, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    Results of three experiments are described. The authors used 351-nm and 355-nm pulses with durations of 0.6, 1, 5 and 9 ns to measure thresholds for a variety of antireflectance and high reflectance coatings. The functional form t/sup m/, with t the pulse duration, was used to scale fluence thresholds measured at 0.6 ns to those measured at 9.0 ns. Values of the coefficient m ranged from 0.10 to 0.51. The average value was 0.30. In the second experiment, they measured thresholds at 1064 nm, 527 nm and 355 nm for single-frequency high reflectance ZrO/sub 2//SiO/sub 2/ coatings. Coatings for all three frequencies were deposited simultaneously by use of masks in the coating chamber. Thresholds varied from 2-4 J/cm/sup 2/ at 355 nm to 7-10 J/cm/sup 2/ at 1064 nm. The third experiment measured thresholds at 355 nm for antireflection coatings made with layer thicknesses varying from greater than one wavelength to less than a quarterwavelength. A significant variation of threshold with coating thickness was not observed, but the median thresholds increased slightly as coating thickness increased

  19. Determination of ultra-short laser induced damage threshold of KH2PO4 crystal: Numerical calculation and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth and ultra-precision machining of large-size KDP (KH2PO4 crystals with high laser damage resistance are tough challenges in the development of large laser systems. It is of high interest and practical significance to have theoretical models for scientists and manufacturers to determine the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT of actually prepared KDP optics. Here, we numerically and experimentally investigate the laser-induced damage on KDP crystals in ultra-short pulse laser regime. On basis of the rate equation for free electron generation, a model dedicated to predicting the LIDT is developed by considering the synergistic effect of photoionization, impact ionization and decay of electrons. Laser damage tests are performed to measure the single-pulse LIDT with several testing protocols. The testing results combined with previously reported experimental data agree well with those calculated by the model. By taking the light intensification into consideration, the model is successfully applied to quantitatively evaluate the effect of surface flaws inevitably introduced in the preparation processes on the laser damage resistance of KDP crystals. This work can not only contribute to further understanding of the laser damage mechanisms of optical materials, but also provide available models for evaluating the laser damage resistance of exquisitely prepared optical components used in high power laser systems.

  20. Dependence of diameters and oxygen saturation of retinal vessels on visual field damage and age in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Lisa; Jentsch, Susanne; Peters, Sven; Sauer, Lydia; Augsten, Regine; Hammer, Martin

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the interrelationship between the oxygen supply of the retina and its regulation with the severity of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Central retinal artery (CRAE) and vein (CRVE) diameters and oxygen saturation of peripapillary retinal vessels in 41 patients suffering from POAG (64.1 ± 12.9 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (63.6 ± 14.1 years) were measured using the retinal vessel analyzer. All measures were taken before and during flicker light stimulation. The mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was determined by OCT and the visual field mean defect (MD) was identified using perimetry. In glaucoma patients, CRAE (r = -0.48 p = 0.002) and CRVE (r = -0.394 p = 0.014) at baseline were inversely related to MD, while arterial and venous oxygen saturation showed no significant dependence on the severity of the damage. However, the flicker light-induced change in arterio-venous difference in oxygen saturation was correlated with the MD (r = 0.358 p = 0.027). The diameters of arteries and veins at baseline decreased with reduction of the mean RNFLT (arteries: r = 0.718 p field loss, may be explained by a reduction of the retinal metabolic demand with progressive loss of neuronal tissue in glaucoma. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluating Glaucomatous Retinal Nerve Fiber Damage by GDx VCC Polarimetry in Taiwan Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Mei-Ling; Huang, Wei-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To study the capability of scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC) to detect differences in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness between normal and glaucomatous eyes in a Taiwan Chinese population. Methods This study included 44 normal eyes and 107 glaucomatous eyes. The glaucomatous eyes were divided into three subgroups on the basis of its visual field defects (early, moderate, severe). Each subject underwent a GDx-VCC exam and visual field testing. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AROC) of each relevant parameter was used to differentiate normal from each glaucoma subgroup, respectively. The correlation between visual field index and each parameter was evaluated for the eyes in the glaucoma group. Results For normal vs. early glaucoma, the parameter with the best AROC was Nerve fiber indicator (NFI) (0.942). For normal vs. moderate glaucoma, the parameter showing the best AROC was NFI (0.985). For normal vs. severe glaucoma, the parameter that had the best AROC was NFI (1.000). For early vs. moderate glaucoma, the parameter with the best AROC was NFI (0.732). For moderate vs. severe, the parameter showing the best AROC was temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal average (0.652). For early vs. severe, the parameter with the best AROC was NFI (0.852). Conclusions GDx-VCC-measured parameters may serve as a useful tool to distinguish normal from glaucomatous eyes; in particular, NFI turned out to be the best discriminating parameter.

  2. Damage Threshold of In Vivo Rabbit Cornea by 2 micron Laser Irradiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Bo; Oliver, Jeffery; Dutta, Soumak; Rylander, III, Grady H; Thomsen, Sharon L; Welch, Ashley J

    2007-01-01

    To support refinement of the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) safety limits, a series of experiments were conducted in vivo on Dutch Belted rabbit corneas to determine corneal minimum visible lesion thresholds...

  3. Peripapillary retinal thermal coagulation following electrical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have presented the case report of a 20 year old boy who suffered an electric injury shock, following which he showed peripapillary retinal opacification and increased retinal thickening that subsequently progressed to retinal atrophy. The fluorescein angiogram revealed normal retinal circulation, thus indicating thermal damage to retina without any compromise to retinal circulation.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of peroxiredoxin 6 against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Anil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to respond to changes in the extra-intracellular environment is prerequisite for cell survival. Cellular responses to the environment include elevating defense systems, such as the antioxidant defense system. Hypoxia-evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS-driven oxidative stress is an underlying mechanism of retinal ganglion cell (RGC death that leads to blinding disorders. The protein peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 plays a pleiotropic role in negatively regulating death signaling in response to stressors, and thereby stabilizes cellular homeostasis. Results We have shown that RGCs exposed to hypoxia (1% or hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride display reduced expression of PRDX6 with higher ROS expression and activation of NF-κB. These cells undergo apoptosis, while cells with over-expression of PRDX6 demonstrate resistance against hypoxia-driven RGC death. The RGCs exposed to hypoxia either with 1% oxygen or cobalt chloride (0-400 μM, revealed ~30%-70% apoptotic cell death after 48 and 72 h of exposure. Western analysis and real-time PCR showed elevated expression of PRDX6 during hypoxia at 24 h, while PRDX6 protein and mRNA expression declined from 48 h onwards following hypoxia exposure. Concomitant with this, RGCs showed increased ROS expression and activation of NF-κB with IkB phosphorylation/degradation, as examined with H2DCF-DA and transactivation assays. These hypoxia-induced adverse reactions could be reversed by over-expression of PRDX6. Conclusion Because an abundance of PRDX6 in cells was able to attenuate hypoxia-induced RGC death, the protein could possibly be developed as a novel therapeutic agent acting to postpone RGC injury and delay the progression of glaucoma and other disorders caused by the increased-ROS-generated death signaling related to hypoxia.

  5. Influence of post-deposition treatment by UV light and oxygen (ozone) on 350 nm damage thresholds of SiO2 films deposited from sols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.; Wilder, J.; Lee, A.; George, D.

    1988-01-01

    Certain multilayer porous silica AR coatings on fused silica substrates prepared by the sol-gel process have been found to have a much lower laser damage threshold than single layer coatings prepared by the same method. Treatment with UV light in the presence of oxygen (which gives ozone) at low temperature was found to restore damage thresholds to the levels found in single layers. Damage thresholds were measured at 350 nm with a 25 ns pulse for 1000 shots at 25 Hz. The effect of exposure time and other factors such as replacement of oxygen with nitrogen and vacuum are described

  6. White Light Generation and Anisotropic Damage in Gold Films near Percolation Threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Frydendahl, Christian; Beermann, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    in vanishingly small gaps between gold islands in thin films near the electrically determined percolation threshold. Optical explorations using two-photon luminescence (TPL) and near-field microscopies reveals supercubic TPL power dependencies with white-light spectra, establishing unequivocally...... that the strongest TPL signals are generated close to the percolation threshold films, and occurrence of extremely confined (similar to 30 nm) and strongly enhanced (similar to 100 times) fields at the illumination wavelength. For linearly polarized and sufficiently powerful light, we observe pronounced optical...

  7. Efficient Phase Locking of Fiber Amplifiers Using a Low-Cost and High-Damage-Threshold Phase Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Zhou; Yan-Xing, Ma; Xiao-Lin, Wang; Hao-Tong, Ma; Xiao-Jun, Xu; Ze-Jin, Liu

    2010-01-01

    We propose a low-cost and high-damage-threshold phase control system that employs a piezoelectric ceramic transducer modulator controlled by a stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm. Efficient phase locking of two fiber amplifiers is demonstrated. Experimental results show that energy encircled in the target pinhole is increased by a factor of 1.76 and the visibility of the fringe pattern is as high as 90% when the system is in close-loop. The phase control system has potential in phase locking of large-number and high-power fiber laser endeavors. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  8. Effects of deposition rates on laser damage threshold of TiO2/SiO2 high reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jianke; Xu Cheng; Ma Jianyong; Fang Ming; Fan Zhengxiu; Jin Yunxia; Zhao Yuanan; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /SiO 2 high reflectors (HR) are prepared by electron beam evaporation at different TiO 2 deposition rates. It is found that the changes of properties of TiO 2 films with the increase of rate, such as the increase of refractive index and extinction coefficient and the decrease of physical thickness, lead to the spectrum shift and reflectivity bandwidth broadening of HR together with the increase of absorption and decrease of laser-induced damage threshold. The damages are found of different morphologies: a shallow pit to a seriously delaminated and deep crater, and the different amorphous-to-anatase-to-rutile phase transition processes detected by Raman study. The frequency shift of Raman vibration mode correlates with the strain in film. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveals that impurities and non-stoichiometric defects are two absorption initiations resulting to the laser-induced transformation.

  9. Influence of Different Substrates on Laser Induced Damage Thresholds at 1064 nm of Ta2O5 Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xu; Jian-Yong, Ma; Yun-Xia, Jin; Hong-Bo, He; Jian-Da, Shao; Zheng-Xiu, Fan

    2008-01-01

    Ta 2 O 5 films are prepared on Si, BK7, fused silica, antireflection (AR) and high reflector (HR) substrates by electron beam evaporation method, respectively. Both the optical property and laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) at 1064 nm of Ta 2 O 5 films on different substrates are investigated before and after annealing at 673K for 12 h. It is shown that annealing increases the refractive index and decreases the extinction index, and improves the O/Ta ratio of the Ta 2 O 5 films from 2.42 to 2.50. Moreover, the results show that the LIDTs of the Ta 2 O 5 films are mainly correlated with three parameters: substrate property, substoichiometry defect in the films and impurity defect at the interface between the substrate and the films. Details of the laser induced damage models in different cases are discussed

  10. Increasing the laser-induced damage threshold of single-crystal ZnGeP{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawilski, Kevin T; Setzler, Scott D; Schunemann, Peter G; Pollak, Thomas M [BAE Systems, Advanced Systems and Technology, P.O. Box 868, MER15-1813, Nashua, New Hampshire 03061-0868 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of single-crystal zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP), ZnGeP{sub 2}, was increased to 2 J/cm{sup 2} at 2.05 {mu}m and a 10 kHz pulse rate frequency (double the previously measured value of 1 J/cm{sup 2}). This increased LIDT was achieved by improving the polishing of ZGP optical parametric oscillator crystals. Two different polishing techniques were evaluated. Surfaces were characterized using scanning white-light interferometry to determine rms surface roughness and sample flatness. The photon backscatter technique was used to determine the degree of surface and subsurface damage in the sample induced through the fabrication process. The effect of subsurface damage in the samples was studied by removing different amounts of material during polishing for otherwise identical samples. Statistical LIDT was measured using a high-average-power, repetitively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF 2.05 {mu}m pump laser. On average, lower surface roughness and photon backscatter measurements were a good indicator of ZGP samples exhibiting higher LIDT. The removal of more material during polishing significantly improved the LIDT of otherwise identical samples, indicating the importance of subsurface damage defects in the LIDT of ZGP.

  11. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Culture and Cooperation of L-carnitine in Reducing Stress Induced Cellular Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsi, Farrukh A.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.; Athmanathan, S.; Boulton, M.; Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose was to show that L-carnitine (LC) is capable of reducing non-oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) of the human eye. The RPE cells were cultured from donor eyes, obtained immediately after post-mortem. The interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and non-oxidative (sodium hydroxide and methyl methane sulphonate) stress-inducers was observed by recording the change in the absorption profiles of the interacting molecules after incubation in light for 5 hours and after treatment with LC. The isolated and cultured RPE cells from the human eyes were treated with sodium hydroxide or methyl methane sulphonate and/or LC for 5 hours under light, and the qualitative effect on cell morphology after treatment was analyzed by staining cells with Giemsa and visualization by light microscopy. The cell morphology was also qualitatively analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). L-carnitine and stress-inducers interact with BSA and bring about changes in the spectral profile of the interacted molecules. Light microscopy as well as SEM show that the changes in the cellular morphology, induced by 100 uM concentrations of non-oxidative stress-inducers, are considerably reduced in the presence of 100 uM LC. However, L-carnitine alone does not cause any qualitative damage to the cell morphology during incubation under similar conditions. The results give a preliminary indication that LC has ability to reduce the changes brought about by the non-oxidative stress-inducers in the RPF cells in culture. (author)

  12. Reorganization of Visual Callosal Connections Following Alterations of Retinal Input and Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restani, Laura; Caleo, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC). The CC is the major white matter structure in the brain and is involved in information processing between the two hemispheres. In particular, visual callosal connections interconnect homologous areas of visual cortices, binding together the two halves of the visual field. This interhemispheric communication plays a significant role in visual cortical output. Here, we will first review the essential literature on the physiology of the callosal connections in normal vision. The available data support the view that the callosum contributes to both excitation and inhibition to the target hemisphere, with a dynamic adaptation to the strength of the incoming visual input. Next, we will focus on data showing how callosal connections may sense visual alterations and respond to the classical paradigm for the study of visual plasticity, i.e., monocular deprivation (MD). This is a prototypical example of a model for the study of callosal plasticity in pathological conditions (e.g., strabismus and amblyopia) characterized by unbalanced input from the two eyes. We will also discuss the findings of callosal alterations in blind subjects. Noteworthy, we will discuss data showing that inter-hemispheric transfer mediates recovery of visual responsiveness following cortical damage. Finally, we will provide an overview of how callosal projections dysfunction could contribute to pathologies such as neglect and occipital

  13. REORGANIZATION OF VISUAL CALLOSAL CONNECTIONS FOLLOWING ALTERATIONS OF RETINAL INPUT AND BRAIN DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA RESTANI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC. The CC is the major white matter structure in the brain and is involved in information processing between the two hemispheres. In particular, visual callosal connections interconnect homologous areas of visual cortices, binding together the two halves of the visual field. This interhemispheric communication plays a significant role in visual cortical output. Here, we will first review essential literature on the physiology of the callosal connections in normal vision. The available data support the view that the callosum contributes to both excitation and inhibition to the target hemisphere, with a dynamic adaptation to the strength of the incoming visual input. Next, we will focus on data showing how callosal connections may sense visual alterations and respond to the classical paradigm for the study of visual plasticity, i.e. monocular deprivation. This is a prototypical example of a model for the study of callosal plasticity in pathological conditions (e.g. strabismus and amblyopia characterized by unbalanced input from the two eyes. We will also discuss findings of callosal alterations in blind subjects. Noteworthy, we will discuss data showing that inter-hemispheric transfer mediates recovery of visual responsiveness following cortical damage. Finally, we will provide an overview of how callosal projections dysfunction could contribute to pathologies such as neglect and occipital

  14. Stochastic Threshold Exponential (TE) Model for Hematopoietic Tissue Reconstitution Deficit after Radiation Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, B R; Potter, C A

    2014-07-01

    Whole-body exposure to large radiation doses can cause severe loss of hematopoietic tissue cells and threaten life if the lost cells are not replaced in a timely manner through natural repopulation (a homeostatic mechanism). Repopulation to the baseline level N 0 is called reconstitution and a reconstitution deficit (repopulation shortfall) can occur in a dose-related and organ-specific manner. Scott et al. (2013) previously introduced a deterministic version of a threshold exponential (TE) model of tissue-reconstitution deficit at a given follow-up time that was applied to bone marrow and spleen cellularity (number of constituent cells) data obtained 6 weeks after whole-body gamma-ray exposure of female C.B-17 mice. In this paper a more realistic, stochastic version of the TE model is provided that allows radiation response to vary between different individuals. The Stochastic TE model is applied to post gamma-ray-exposure cellularity data previously reported and also to more limited X-ray cellularity data for whole-body irradiated female C.B-17 mice. Results indicate that the population average threshold for a tissue reconstitution deficit appears to be similar for bone marrow and spleen and for 320-kV-spectrum X-rays and Cs-137 gamma rays. This means that 320-kV spectrum X-rays could successfully be used in conducting such studies.

  15. Downregulation of Wip1 phosphatase modulates the cellular threshold of DNA damage signaling in mitosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macůrek, Libor; Benada, Jan; Müllers, E.; Halim, V.A.; Krejčíková, Kateřina; Burdová, Kamila; Pecháčková, Soňa; Hodný, Zdeněk; Lindqvist, A.; Medema, R.H.; Bartek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2013), s. 251-262 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP305/10/P420; GA ČR GAP301/10/1525 Grant - others:Netherlands Genomic Initiative of NWO(NL) CGC; EK(XE) 259893 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : DNA damage response * Wip1 phosphatase * cell cycle * mitotic progression * γH2AX Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.006, year: 2013

  16. Level of damages and economical threshold, decisive aspects in the integrated management of plagues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and application of economical levels demand a procedure to find with precision the insects population in a given moment. In the integrated management of plagues is not allowed the idea that any insect which is feeding from a part of plants requires a control action, that is why it is very important to determine the real effect that this insect population causes to the cultivation. Any decrease in the crop, constitutes a real waste of time; but when the economical level is defined, it is included an additional factor which is the measure cost of the plagues control. The determination of damages of levels is very important for economists, farming experts and specialists; while for producers is very significant its implementation with the objective to count with a sustainable and beneficial agriculture.

  17. Very high laser-damage threshold of polymer-derived Si(B)CN-carbon nanotube composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandavat, R; Feldman, A; Cromer, C; Lehman, J; Singh, G

    2013-04-10

    We study the laser irradiance behavior and resulting structural evolution of polymer-derived silicon-boron-carbonitride (Si(B)CN) functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite spray coatings on copper substrate. We report a damage threshold value of 15 kWcm(-2) and an optical absorbance of 0.97 after irradiation. This is an order of magnitude improvement over MWCNT (1.4 kWcm(-2), 0.76), SWCNT (0.8 kWcm(-2), 0.65) and carbon paint (0.1 kWcm(-2), 0.87) coatings previously tested at 10.6 μm (2.5 kW CO2 laser) exposure. Electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests partial oxidation of Si(B)CN forming a stable protective SiO2 phase upon irradiation.

  18. Fractional sunburn threshold UVR doses generate equivalent vitamin D and DNA damage in skin types I-VI, but with epidermal DNA damage gradient correlated to skin darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Barbara B; Farrar, Mark D; Cooke, Marcus S; Osman, Joanne; Langton, Abigail K; Kift, Richard; Webb, Ann R; Berry, Jacqueline L; Watson, Rachel E B; Vail, Andy; de Gruijl, Frank R; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2018-05-03

    Public health guidance recommends limiting sun-exposure to sub-sunburn levels, but it's unknown whether these can gain vitamin D (for musculoskeletal health) whilst avoiding epidermal DNA damage (initiates skin cancer). Well-characterised healthy humans of all skin types (I-VI; lightest to darkest skin) were exposed to a low dose-series of solar simulated UVR of 20-80% their individual sunburn threshold dose (minimal erythemal dose, MED). Significant UVR dose-responses were seen for serum 25(OH)D and whole epidermal CPD, with as little as 0.2 MED concurrently producing 25(OH)D and CPD. Notably, fractional MEDs generated equivalent levels of whole epidermal CPD and 25(OH)D across all skin types. Crucially, we demonstrated an epidermal gradient of CPD formation strongly correlated with skin darkness (r=0.74; Pskin types, ranging from darkest skin, where high CPD levels occurred superficially with none in the germinative basal layer, through to lightest skin where CPD were induced evenly across the epidermal depth. Darker skin people can be encouraged to utilise sub-sunburn UVR-exposure to enhance their vitamin D. In lighter skin people, basal cell damage occurs concurrent with vitamin D synthesis at exquisitely low UVR levels, providing an explanation for their high skin cancer incidence; greater caution is required. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Borate protection of softwood from Coptotermes acinaciformis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) damage: variation in protection thresholds explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenton C; Fitzgerald, Christopher J

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory and field data reported in the literature are confusing with regard to "adequate" protection thresholds for borate timber preservatives. The confusion is compounded by differences in termite species, timber species and test methodology. Laboratory data indicate a borate retention of 0.5% mass/mass (m/m) boric acid equivalent (BAE) would cause > 90% termite mortality and restrict mass loss in test specimens to 0.5% m/m BAE are required. We report two field experiments with varying amounts of untreated feeder material in which Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) responses to borate-treated radiata (Monterey) pine, Pinus radiata D. Don, were measured. The apparently conflicting results between laboratory and field data are explained by the presence or absence of untreated feeder material in the test environment. In the absence of untreated feeder material, wood containing 0.5% BAE provided adequate protection from Coptotermes sp., whereas in the presence of untreated feeder material, increased retentions were required. Furthermore, the retentions required increased with increased amounts of susceptible material present. Some termites, Nasutitermes sp. and Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, for example, are borate-tolerant and borate timber preservatives are not a viable management option with these species. The lack of uniform standards for termite test methodology and assessment criteria for efficacy across the world is recognized as a difficulty with research into the performance of timber preservatives with termites. The many variables in laboratory and field assays make "prescriptive" standards difficult to recommend. The use of "performance" standards to define efficacy criteria ("adequate" protection) is discussed.

  20. Effect of temperature on surface error and laser damage threshold for self-healing BK7 glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu; Wang, Hongxiang; Shen, Lu; Hou, Jing; Xu, Qiao; Wang, Jian; Chen, Xianhua; Liu, Zhichao

    2018-03-20

    Cracks caused during the lapping and polishing process can decrease the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the BK7 glass optical elements, which would shorten the lifetime and limit the output power of the high-energy laser system. When BK7 glass is heated under appropriate conditions, the surface cracks can exhibit a self-healing phenomenon. In this paper, based on thermodynamics and viscous fluid mechanics theory, the mechanisms of crack self-healing are explained. The heat-healing experiment was carried out, and the effect of water was analyzed. The multi-spatial-frequency analysis was used to investigate the effect of temperature on surface error for self-healing BK7 glass, and the lapped BK7 glass specimens before and after heat healing were detected by an interferometer and atomic force microscopy. The low-spatial-frequency error was analyzed by peak to valley and root mean square, the mid-spatial-frequency error was analyzed by power spectral density, and the high-spatial-frequency error was analyzed by surface roughness. The results showed that the optimal heating temperature for BK7 was 450°C, and when the heating temperature was higher than the glass transition temperature (555°C), the surface quality decreased a lot. The laser damage test was performed, and the specimen heated at 450°C showed an improvement in LIDT.

  1. The retinitis pigmentosa-mutated RP2 protein exhibits exonuclease activity and translocates to the nucleus in response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Qiu Junzhuan; Cai Sheng; Chen Yuan; Cheetham, Michael E.; Shen Binghui; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    2006-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by degeneration of the retina. Mutations in the RP2 gene are linked to the second most frequent form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. RP2 is a plasma membrane-associated protein of unknown function. The N-terminal domain of RP2 shares amino acid sequence similarity to the tubulin-specific chaperone protein co-factor C. The C-terminus consists of a domain with similarity to nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs). Human NDK1, in addition to its role in providing nucleoside triphosphates, has recently been described as a 3' to 5' exonuclease. Here, we show that RP2 is a DNA-binding protein that exhibits exonuclease activity, with a preference for single-stranded or nicked DNA substrates that occur as intermediates of base excision repair pathways. Furthermore, we show that RP2 undergoes re-localization into the nucleus upon treatment of cells with DNA damaging agents inducing oxidative stress, most notably solar simulated light and UVA radiation. The data suggest that RP2 may have previously unrecognized roles as a DNA damage response factor and 3' to 5' exonuclease

  2. Laser-induced damage threshold tests of ultrafast multilayer dielectric coatings in various environmental conditions relevant for operation of ELI beamlines laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurák, Michal; Velpula, Praveen Kumar; Kramer, Daniel; Cupal, Josef; Medřík, Tomáš; Hřebíček, Jan; Golasowski, Jiří; Peceli, Davorin; Kozlová, Michaela; Rus, Bedřich

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the laser-induced damage resistance of optical components is one of the major challenges in the development of Peta-watt (PW) class laser systems. The extreme light infrastructure (ELI) beamlines project will provide ultrafast laser systems with peak powers up to 10 PW available every minute and PW class beams at 10 Hz complemented by a 5-TW, 1-kHz beamline. Sustainable performance of PW class laser systems relies on the durability of the employed optical components. As part of an effort to evaluate the damage resistance of components utilized in ELI beamlines systems, damage thresholds of several optical multilayer dielectric coatings were measured with different laser parameters and in different environments. Three coatings were tested with 10 Hz and 1 kHz pulse repetition rates, and the effect of a cleaning treatment on their damage resistance was examined. To explore the damage threshold behavior at different vacuum levels, one coating was subject to tests at various residual gas pressures. No change of damage threshold in a high vacuum with respect to ambient pressure was recorded. The effect of the cleaning treatment was found to be inconsistent, suggesting that development of the optimal cleaning treatment for a given coating requires consideration of its specific properties.

  3. Difference in patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage between primary open-angle glaucoma and non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Hee Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the patterns of retinal ganglion cell damage between primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION.In total, 35 eyes with unilateral NAION, and 70 age- and average peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness-matched eyes with POAG, were enrolled as disease groups; 35 unaffected fellow eyes of the NAION, and 70 age- and refractive error-matched normal subjects for the POAG, were enrolled as their control groups, respectively. The peripapillary RNFL thickness and macular ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL thickness were compared between the disease groups and their controls, and between the two disease groups.Mean RNFL thicknesses at the 1 and 2 o'clock (superonasal positions were thinner in NAION than in POAG (both p < 0.05. Mean RNFL thickness at 7 o'clock (inferotemporal was thinner in POAG than in NAION (p = 0.001. Although there was no significant difference between NAION and POAG in average GCIPL thickness, all of the sectoral GCIPL thicknesses were thinner in NAION (all p < 0.05, except in the inferior and inferotemporal sectors. The ranges of the clock-hour RNFL with damage greater than the average RNFL thickness reduction, versus fellow eyes and control eyes, were 7 hours in NAION and 4 hours in POAG.The more damaged clock-hour RNFL regions differed between NAION (1 and 2 o'clock and POAG (7 o'clock. Most sectoral GCIPL thicknesses were thinner in NAION than in POAG.

  4. Synthesis, growth and characterization of o-phenylinediaminium benzilate: An SHG material with high laser damage threshold for NLO applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M.; Chandramohan, A.

    2017-02-01

    An organic molecular charge transfer complex salt, o-phenylenediaminium benzilate was synthesized and single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique in methanol at ambient temperature. The grown crystal was subjected to Single crystal XRD analysis to establish the molecular structure. The molecular structure was further confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. The formation of the charge transfer complex salt was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. To identify the optical transmittance window and lower wavelength cut-off, the crystal was subjected to UV-Vis-NIR transmission spectral studies. The presence of various functional groups in the salt crystal was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. Photoluminescence study was carried out to explore its efficiency towards device fabrications. The TG and DTA thermal analyses were simultaneously carried out to establish the thermal stability of the crystal. The dielectric studies of the grown crystal were executed at different temperatures as a function of frequency to investigate its electrical properties. The SHG efficiency of the crystal was determined using the modified Kurtz and Perry powder technique and its value was found to be 1.98 times that of the KDP crystal. Laser damage threshold value was measured using Nd:YAG laser. The mechanical stability of the title crystal was established employing Vickers micro hardness tester.

  5. Preparation of high laser-induced damage threshold Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Cheng, E-mail: xucheng@cumt.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yi, Peng; Fan, Heliang; Qi, Jianwei; Yang, Shuai; Qiang, Yinghuai; Liu, Jiongtian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Dawei [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-08-01

    High laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were prepared by the sol–gel method using TaCl{sub 5} as a new precursor. The optical properties, surface morphologies, chemical composition, absorption and LIDT of the films were investigated. The results showed that the transparent and homogenous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films had small surface roughness, low absorption and high LIDT even with large number of layers. The maximum LIDT at 1064 nm and 12 ns of the films was 24.8 J/cm{sup 2}. The ion chromatograph and Fourier transform infrared spectrum were used to reveal the functions of the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the sol formation. It was shown that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had two important functions, which were the decrease of Cl element content and the rapid generation of tantalum oxide. The high LIDT achieved was mainly due to the nearly free of defects in the films.

  6. Optic radiation damage in multiple sclerosis is associated with visual dysfunction and retinal thinning - an ultrahigh-field MR pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnecker, Tim; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Zimmermann, Hanna; Ramien, Caren; Brandt, Alexander U.; Metz, Imke; Brueck, Wolfgang; Pfueller, Caspar F.; Doerr, Jan; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Hahn, Katrin; Niendorf, Thoralf; Paul, Friedemann; Wuerfel, Jens

    2015-01-01

    To investigate posterior visual pathway damage in multiple sclerosis using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 Tesla (7 T), and to determine its correlation with visual disability and retinal fibre layer (RNFL) damage detectable by optic coherence tomography (OCT). We studied 7 T MRI, OCT, functional acuity contrast testing (FACT), and visually evoked potentials (VEP, n = 16) in 30 patients (including 26 relapsing-remitting MS and four clinically isolated syndrome patients) and 12 healthy controls to quantify RNFL thickness, optic radiation lesion volume, and optic radiation thickness. Optic radiation lesion volume was associated with thinning of the optic radiation (p < 0.001), delayed VEP (p = 0.031), and visual disability indicated by FACT (p = 0.020). Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between optic radiation lesion volume and RNFL thickness (p < 0.001), including patients without previous optic neuritis (p < 0.001). Anterior visual pathway damage, but also (subclinical) optic radiation integrity loss detectable by 7 T MRI are common findings in MS that are mutually affected. Given the association between optic radiation damage, visual impairment, and increased VEP latency in this exploratory study of a limited sample size, clinicians should be aware of acute lesions within the optic radiation in patients with (bilateral) visual disturbances. (orig.)

  7. Optic radiation damage in multiple sclerosis is associated with visual dysfunction and retinal thinning - an ultrahigh-field MR pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnecker, Tim [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Asklepios Fachklinikum Teupitz, Department of Neurology, Teupitz (Germany); Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Zimmermann, Hanna; Ramien, Caren; Brandt, Alexander U. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Metz, Imke; Brueck, Wolfgang [University Medicine Goettingen, Institute of Neuropathology, Goettingen (Germany); Pfueller, Caspar F.; Doerr, Jan [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Hahn, Katrin [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F), Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Paul, Friedemann [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinical and Experimental Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Wuerfel, Jens [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F), Berlin (Germany); University Medicine Goettingen, Institute of Neuroradiology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    To investigate posterior visual pathway damage in multiple sclerosis using ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 Tesla (7 T), and to determine its correlation with visual disability and retinal fibre layer (RNFL) damage detectable by optic coherence tomography (OCT). We studied 7 T MRI, OCT, functional acuity contrast testing (FACT), and visually evoked potentials (VEP, n = 16) in 30 patients (including 26 relapsing-remitting MS and four clinically isolated syndrome patients) and 12 healthy controls to quantify RNFL thickness, optic radiation lesion volume, and optic radiation thickness. Optic radiation lesion volume was associated with thinning of the optic radiation (p < 0.001), delayed VEP (p = 0.031), and visual disability indicated by FACT (p = 0.020). Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between optic radiation lesion volume and RNFL thickness (p < 0.001), including patients without previous optic neuritis (p < 0.001). Anterior visual pathway damage, but also (subclinical) optic radiation integrity loss detectable by 7 T MRI are common findings in MS that are mutually affected. Given the association between optic radiation damage, visual impairment, and increased VEP latency in this exploratory study of a limited sample size, clinicians should be aware of acute lesions within the optic radiation in patients with (bilateral) visual disturbances. (orig.)

  8. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  9. Transgenic inhibition of astroglial NF-κB protects from optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell loss in experimental optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brambilla Roberta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optic neuritis is an acute, demyelinating neuropathy of the optic nerve often representing the first appreciable symptom of multiple sclerosis. Wallerian degeneration of irreversibly damaged optic nerve axons leads to death of retinal ganglion cells, which is the cause of permanent visual impairment. Although the specific mechanisms responsible for triggering these events are unknown, it has been suggested that a key pathological factor is the activation of immune-inflammatory processes secondary to leukocyte infiltration. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence to support such a causal role for infiltrating peripheral immune cells in the etiopathology of optic neuritis. Methods To dissect the contribution of the peripheral immune-inflammatory response versus the CNS-specific inflammatory response in the development of optic neuritis, we analyzed optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells pathology in wild-type and GFAP-IκBα-dn transgenic mice, where NF-κB is selectively inactivated in astrocytes, following induction of EAE. Results We found that, in wild-type mice, axonal demyelination in the optic nerve occurred as early as 8 days post induction of EAE, prior to the earliest signs of leukocyte infiltration (20 days post induction. On the contrary, GFAP-IκBα-dn mice were significantly protected and showed a nearly complete prevention of axonal demyelination, as well as a drastic attenuation in retinal ganglion cell death. This correlated with a decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, as well as a prevention of NAD(PH oxidase subunit upregulation. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that astrocytes, not infiltrating immune cells, play a key role in the development of optic neuritis and that astrocyte-mediated neurotoxicity is dependent on activation of a transcriptional program regulated by NF-κB. Hence, interventions targeting the NF-κB transcription

  10. Nondamaging Retinal Laser Therapy: Rationale and Applications to the Macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinsky, Daniel; Wang, Jenny; Huie, Philip; Dalal, Roopa; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Dae Yeong; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Retinal photocoagulation and nondamaging laser therapy are used for treatment of macular disorders, without understanding of the response mechanism and with no rationale for dosimetry. To establish a proper titration algorithm, we measured the range of tissue response and damage threshold. We then evaluated safety and efficacy of nondamaging retinal therapy (NRT) based on this algorithm for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and macular telangiectasia (MacTel). Retinal response to laser treatment below damage threshold was assessed in pigmented rabbits by expression of the heat shock protein HSP70 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Energy was adjusted relative to visible titration using the Endpoint Management (EpM) algorithm. In clinical studies, 21 eyes with CSCR and 10 eyes with MacTel were treated at 30% EpM energy with high spot density (0.25-diameter spacing). Visual acuity, retinal and choroidal thickness, and subretinal fluid were monitored for 1 year. At 25% EpM energy and higher, HSP70 was expressed acutely in RPE, and GFAP upregulation in Müller cells was observed at 1 month. Damage appeared starting at 40% setting. Subretinal fluid resolved completely in 81% and partially in 19% of the CSCR patients, and visual acuity improved by 12 ± 3 letters. Lacunae in the majority of MacTel patients decreased while preserving the retinal thickness, and vision improved by 10 letters. Heat shock protein expression in response to hyperthermia helps define the therapeutic window for NRT. Lack of tissue damage enables high-density treatment to boost clinical efficacy, therapy in the fovea, and retreatments to manage chronic diseases.

  11. PRMT1 and PRMT4 Regulate Oxidative Stress-Induced Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Damage in SIRT1-Dependent and SIRT1-Independent Manners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Il Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress-induced retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell damage is involved in the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Arginine methylation catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs has emerged as an important histone modification involved in diverse diseases. Sirtuin (SIRT1 is a protein deacetylase implicated in the onset of metabolic diseases. Therefore, we examined the roles of type I PRMTs and their relationship with SIRT1 in human RPE cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. H2O2 treatment increased PRMT1 and PRMT4 expression but decreased SIRT1 expression. Similar to H2O2 treatment, PRMT1 or PRMT4 overexpression increased RPE cell damage. Moreover, the H2O2-induced RPE cell damage was attenuated by PRMT1 or PRMT4 knockdown and SIRT1 overexpression. In this study, we revealed that SIRT1 expression was regulated by PRMT1 but not by PRMT4. Finally, we found that PRMT1 and PRMT4 expression is increased in the RPE layer of streptozotocin-treated rats. Taken together, we demonstrated that oxidative stress induces apoptosis both via PRMT1 in a SIRT1-dependent manner and via PRMT4 in a SIRT1-independent manner. The inhibition of the expression of type I PRMTs, especially PRMT1 and PRMT4, and increased SIRT1 could be therapeutic approaches for diabetic retinopathy.

  12. 2-ethylpyridine, a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our goal was to identify the cellular and molecular effects of 2-ethylpyridine (2-EP, a component of cigarette smoke on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 in vitro. Materials and Methods: ARPE-19 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of 2-EP. Cell viability (CV was measured by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities were measured by fluorochrome assays. The production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS was detected with a 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye assay. The JC-1 assay was used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Mitochondrial redox potential was measured using a RedoxSensor Red kit and mitochondria were evaluated with Mitotracker dye. Results: After 2-EP exposure, ARPE-19 cells showed significantly decreased CV, increased caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, elevated ROS/RNS levels, decreased ΔΨm value and decreased redox fluorescence when compared with control samples. Conclusions: These results show that 2-EP treatment induced cell death by caspase-dependent apoptosis associated with an oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These data represent a possible mechanism by which smoking contributes to age-related macular degeneration and other retinal diseases and identify mitochondria as a target for future therapeutic interventions.

  13. Recent developments in retinal lasers and delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocoagulation is the standard of care for several ocular disorders and in particular retinal conditions. Technology has offered us newer lasing mediums, wavelengths and delivery systems. Pattern scan laser in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema allows laser treatment that is less time consuming and less painful. Now, it is possible to deliver a subthreshold micropulse laser that is above the threshold of biochemical effect but below the threshold of a visible, destructive lesion thereby preventing collateral damage. The advent of solid-state diode yellow laser allows us to treat closer to the fovea, is more effective for vascular structures and offers a more uniform effect in patients with light or irregular fundus pigmentation. Newer retinal photocoagulation options along with their advantages is discussed in this review.

  14. Dietary antioxidants prevent age-related retinal pigment epithelium actin damage and blindness in mice lacking αvβ5 integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Chia; Nandrot, Emeline F.; Dun, Ying; Finnemann, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    In the aging human eye, oxidative damage and accumulation of pro-oxidant lysosomal lipofuscin cause functional decline of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which contributes to age-related macular degeneration. In mice with an RPE-specific phagocytosis defect due to lack of αvβ5 integrin receptors, RPE accumulation of lipofuscin suggests that the age-related blindness we previously described in this model may also result from oxidative stress. Cellular and molecular targets of oxidative stress in the eye remain poorly understood. Here we identify actin among 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) adducts formed specifically in β5−/− RPE but not neural retina with age. HNE modification directly correlated with loss of resistance of actin to detergent extraction, suggesting cytoskeletal damage in aging RPE. Dietary enrichment with natural antioxidants grapes or marigold extract containing macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin was sufficient to prevent HNE-adduct formation, actin solubility, lipofuscin accumulation, and age-related cone and rod photoreceptor dysfunction in β5−/− mice. Acute generation of HNE-adducts directly destabilized actin but not tubulin cytoskeletal elements of RPE cells. These findings identify destabilization of the actin cytoskeleton as a consequence of physiological, sublethal oxidative burden of RPE cells in vivo that is associated with age-related blindness and that can be prevented by consuming an antioxidant-rich diet. PMID:22178979

  15. Determination of ultra-short laser induced damage threshold of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} crystal: Numerical calculation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jian [Center for Precision Engineering, School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Chen, Mingjun, E-mail: chenmj@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: chowdhury.24@osu.edu; Wang, Jinghe; Xiao, Yong [Center for Precision Engineering, School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Kafka, Kyle; Austin, Drake; Chowdhury, Enam, E-mail: chenmj@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: chowdhury.24@osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Rapid growth and ultra-precision machining of large-size KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystals with high laser damage resistance are tough challenges in the development of large laser systems. It is of high interest and practical significance to have theoretical models for scientists and manufacturers to determine the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of actually prepared KDP optics. Here, we numerically and experimentally investigate the laser-induced damage on KDP crystals in ultra-short pulse laser regime. On basis of the rate equation for free electron generation, a model dedicated to predicting the LIDT is developed by considering the synergistic effect of photoionization, impact ionization and decay of electrons. Laser damage tests are performed to measure the single-pulse LIDT with several testing protocols. The testing results combined with previously reported experimental data agree well with those calculated by the model. By taking the light intensification into consideration, the model is successfully applied to quantitatively evaluate the effect of surface flaws inevitably introduced in the preparation processes on the laser damage resistance of KDP crystals. This work can not only contribute to further understanding of the laser damage mechanisms of optical materials, but also provide available models for evaluating the laser damage resistance of exquisitely prepared optical components used in high power laser systems.

  16. Analysis of the damage threshold of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Xiao-Wen; Chai Chang-Chun; Liu Yang; Yang Yin-Tang; Fan Qing-Yang; Shi Chun-Lei

    2016-01-01

    An electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced damage model based on the internal damage mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) is established in this paper. With this model, the relationships among the damage power, damage energy, pulse width and signal amplitude are investigated. Simulation results show that the pulse width index from the damage power formula obtained here is higher than that from the empirical formula due to the hotspot transferring in the damage process of the device. It is observed that the damage energy is not a constant, which decreases with the signal amplitude increasing, and then changes little when the signal amplitude reaches up to a certain level. (paper)

  17. Zerumbone, a Bioactive Sesquiterpene, Ameliorates Diabetes-Induced Retinal Microvascular Damage through Inhibition of Phospho-p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Nuclear Factor-κB Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Young Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone ameliorates retinal damage by blocking advanced glycation end products and their receptor system in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Because of the multiple factors involved in diabetic retinopathy (DR etiology, the mechanisms of zerumbone that are mainly responsible for its ameliorative effect on DR need to be further clarified. In the present study, zerumbone (20 mg or 40 mg/kg or fenofibric acid (100 mg/kg was orally administered to diabetic rats by intragastric gavage once daily for three consecutive months. Zerumbone displayed similar characteristics to fenofibric acid in reducing retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis in diabetic rats. Fundus photographs showed that large retinal vessel diameters were decreased in zerumbone-treated diabetic rats. Zerumbone not only down-regulated the gene expression of retinal angiogenic parameters, but also reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the retina of diabetic rats. Moreover, zerumbone reduced the p38 MAPK phosphorylation and abrogated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in the retina of diabetic rats. In conclusion, treatment of diabetic rats with zerumbone attenuates the severity of retinal inflammation and angiogenesis, via inhibition of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. These benefits of zerumbone for DR appear to be linked to its antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects.

  18. Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    The author describes the etiology of retinitis pigmentosa, a visual dysfunction which results from progressive loss of the retinal photoreceptors. Sections address signs and symptoms, ancillary findings, heredity, clinical diagnosis, therapy, and research. (SBH)

  19. Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & Research ... degenerate. Forms of RP and related diseases include Usher syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome, among ...

  20. Retinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & Research ... central portion of the retina called the macula. Usher Syndrome Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  1. Myeloid cells expressing VEGF and arginase-1 following uptake of damaged retinal pigment epithelium suggests potential mechanism that drives the onset of choroidal angiogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    Full Text Available Whilst data recognise both myeloid cell accumulation during choroidal neovascularisation (CNV as well as complement activation, none of the data has presented a clear explanation for the angiogenic drive that promotes pathological angiogenesis. One possibility that is a pre-eminent drive is a specific and early conditioning and activation of the myeloid cell infiltrate. Using a laser-induced CNV murine model, we have identified that disruption of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and Bruch's membrane resulted in an early recruitment of macrophages derived from monocytes and microglia, prior to angiogenesis and contemporaneous with lesional complement activation. Early recruited CD11b(+ cells expressed a definitive gene signature of selective inflammatory mediators particularly a pronounced Arg-1 expression. Accumulating macrophages from retina and peripheral blood were activated at the site of injury, displaying enhanced VEGF expression, and notably prior to exaggerated VEGF expression from RPE, or earliest stages of angiogenesis. All of these initial events, including distinct VEGF (+ Arg-1(+ myeloid cells, subsided when CNV was established and at the time RPE-VEGF expression was maximal. Depletion of inflammatory CCR2-positive monocytes confirmed origin of infiltrating monocyte Arg-1 expression, as following depletion Arg-1 signal was lost and CNV suppressed. Furthermore, our in vitro data supported a myeloid cell uptake of damaged RPE or its derivatives as a mechanism generating VEGF (+ Arg-1(+ phenotype in vivo. Our results reveal a potential early driver initiating angiogenesis via myeloid-derived VEGF drive following uptake of damaged RPE and deliver an explanation of why CNV develops during any of the stages of macular degeneration and can be explored further for therapeutic gain.

  2. Effect of Li and NH4 doping on the crystal perfection, second harmonic generation efficiency and laser damage threshold of potassium pentaborate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, A. N.; Kalainathan, S.; Raja, C. Ramachandra

    2018-03-01

    Potassium pentaborate (KB5) is an excellent nonlinear optical material especially in the UV region. In this work, Li and NH4 doped KB5 crystals were grown using slow evaporation solution growth method. The incorporation of dopant has been confirmed and analysed by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline perfection of pure and doped KB5 crystals was studied by High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis. Structural grain boundaries were observed in doped crystals. Second harmonic generation was confirmed for pure and doped crystals and output values revealed the enhancement of SHG efficiency in doped crystals. Resistance against laser damage was carried out using 1064 nm Nd-YAG laser of pulse width 10 ns. The laser damage threshold value is increased in Li doped crystal and decreased in NH4 doped crystal when compared to pure KB5 crystal.

  3. Retinal Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, James T.; Sibley, Cailin H.; Lin, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ophthalmologists and rheumatologists frequently miscommunicate in consulting on patients with retinal vasculitis. This report seeks to establish a common understanding of the term, retinal vasculitis, and to review recent papers on this diagnosis. Recent findings 1) The genetic basis of some rare forms of retinal vascular disease have recently been described. Identified genes include CAPN5, TREX1, and TNFAIP3; 2) Behçet’s disease is a systemic illness that is very commonly associated with occlusive retinal vasculitis; 3) retinal imaging including fluorescein angiography and other newer imaging modalities has proven crucial to the identification and characterization of retinal vasculitis and its complications; 4) although monoclonal antibodies to IL-17A or IL-1 beta failed in trials for Behçet’s disease, antibodies to TNF alpha, either infliximab or adalimumab, have demonstrated consistent benefit in managing this disease. Interferon treatment and B cell depletion therapy via rituximab may be beneficial in certain types of retinal vasculitis. Summary Retinal vasculitis is an important entity for rheumatologists to understand. Retinal vasculitis associated with Behçet’s disease responds to monoclonal antibodies that neutralize TNF, but the many other forms of non-infectious retinal vasculitis may require alternate therapeutic management. PMID:26945335

  4. Relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions and nonlinear increase in the conversion efficiency of an optical parametric oscillator using a bi-directional pump geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, G; McConnell, G

    2010-03-01

    A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.

  5. Retinal vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M; Herbort, Carl P; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2005-12-01

    Retinal vasculitis is a sight-threatening intraocular inflammation affecting the retinal vessels. It may occur as an isolated ocular condition, as a manifestation of infectious or neoplastic disorders, or in association with a systemic inflammatory disease. The search for an underlying etiology should be approached in a multidisciplinary fashion based on a thorough history, review of systems, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious etiologies of retinal vasculitis is important because their treatment is different. This review is based on recently published articles on retinal vasculitis and deals with its clinical diagnosis, its link with systemic diseases, and its laboratory investigation.

  6. Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makhotkin, I.; Sobierajski, R.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Tiedtke, K.; de Vries, G.; Stoermer, M.; Scholze, F.; Siewert, F.; van de Kruijs, R.W.E.; Milov, I.; Louis, E.; Jacyna, I.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Nittler, L.; Syryanyy, Y.; Juha, Libor; Hájková, Věra; Vozda, Vojtěch; Burian, Tomáš; Saksl, Karel; Faatz, B.; Keitel, B.; Ploenjes, E.; Schreiber, S.; Toleikis, S.; Loch, R.A.; Hermann, M.; Strobel, S.; Nienhuys, H.-K.; Gwalt, G.; Mey, T.; Enkisch, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2018), s. 77-84 ISSN 1600-5775. [Workshop on FEL Photon Diagnostics, Instrumentation and Beamline Design (PhotonDiag2017). Stanford, 01.05.2017-03.05.2017] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15013; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05167s; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : free-electron laser induced damage * EUV optics * thin films * FELs Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.011, year: 2016

  7. Experimental study of EUV mirror radiation damage resistance under long-term free-electron laser exposures below the single-shot damage threshold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makhotkin, I.A.; Sobierajski, R.; Chalupský, J.; Tiedtke, K.; de Vries, G.; Stoermer, M.; Scholze, F.; Siewert, F.; van de Kruijs, R.W.E.; Louis, E.; Jacyna, I.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Nittler, L.; Syryanyy, Y.; Juha, Libor; Hájková, V.; Vozda, V.; Burian, Tomáš; Saksl, K.; Faatz, B.; Keitel, B.; Ploenjes, E.; Schreiber, S.; Toleikis, S.; Loch, R.; Hermann, M.; Strobel, S.; Nienhuys, H.-K.; Gwalt, G.; Mey, T.; Enkisch, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2018), s. 77-84 ISSN 0909-0495. [Workshop on FEL Photon Diagnostics, Instrumentation and Beamline Design (PhotonDiag2017). Stanford, 01.05.2017-03.05.2017] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S; GA MŠk LG15013 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : free-electron laser induced damage * EUV optics * thin films * FELs Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  8. Semiparametric profile likelihood estimation for continuous outcomes with excess zeros in a random-threshold damage-resistance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John D; Tsodikov, Alex

    2017-05-30

    Continuous outcome data with a proportion of observations equal to zero (often referred to as semicontinuous data) arise frequently in biomedical studies. Typical approaches involve two-part models, with one part a logistic model for the probability of observing a zero and some parametric continuous distribution for modeling the positive part of the data. We propose a semiparametric model based on a biological system with competing damage manifestation and resistance processes. This allows us to derive a closed-form profile likelihood based on the retro-hazard function, leading to a flexible procedure for modeling continuous data with a point mass at zero. A simulation study is presented to examine the properties of the method in finite samples. We apply the method to a data set consisting of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage area in lab rats subjected to diagnostic ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Growth, structural, optical, thermal and laser damage threshold studies of an organic single crystal: 1,3,5 – triphenylbenzene (TPB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, R. Subramaniyan; Babu, G. Anandha; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Good quality single crystals of pure hydrocarbon 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene (TPB) have been successfully grown using toluene as a solvent using controlled slow cooling solution growth technique. TPB crystallizes in orthorhombic structure with the space group Pna2 1 . The structural perfection of the grown crystal has been analysed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements. The range and percentage of the optical transmission are ascertained by recording the UV-vis spectrum. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study its thermal properties. Powder second harmonic generation studies were carried out to explore its NLO properties. Laser damage threshold value has been determined using Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm.

  10. Comparison of retina damage thresholds simulating the femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis (fs-LASIK) process with two laser systems in the CW- and fs-regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, M.; Minet, O.; Zabarylo, U.; Müller, M.; Tetz, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis procedure affords the opportunity to correct ametropia by cutting transparent corneal tissue with ultra-short laser pulses. Thereby the tissue cut is generated by a laser-induced optical breakdown in the cornea with ultra-short laser pulses in the near-infrared range. Compared to standard procedures such as photorefractive keratectomy and laser in-situ keratomileusis with the excimer laser, where the risk potential for the eye is low due to the complete absorption of ultraviolet irradiation from corneal tissue, only a certain amount of the pulse energy is deposited in the cornea during the fs-LASIK process. The remaining energy propagates through the eye and interacts with the retina and the strong absorbing tissue layers behind. The objective of the presented study was to determine and compare the retina damage thresholds during the fs-LASIK process simulated with two various laser systems in the CW- and fs-regime.

  11. Chemical Etching, AFM, Laser Damage Threshold, and Nonlinear Optical Studies of Potential Nonlinear Optical Crystal: Bis (L-Glutamine Potassium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redrothu Hanumantharao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal bis (L-glutamine potassium nitrate (BGPN grown by slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The grown crystal surface has been analyzed by chemical etching and atomic force microscopy (AFM studies. Amplitude parameters like area roughness, roughness average, valley height, valley depth, peak height, and peak valley height were measured successfully from AFM studies. Etching studies were carried out by various solvents like water, methanol and ethanol. The etching study indicates the occurrence of different types of etch pit patterns like striations and steplike pattern. The laser damage threshold energy has been measured by irradiating laser beam using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm. Second harmonic generation (SHG studies have been performed by famous Kurtz powder technique with reference to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals (KDP. It is found from this technique that SHG efficiency of BGPN is in comparison to that of standard KDP crystals.

  12. In vivo imaging of the retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica Ijams Wolfing

    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form an important layer of the retina because they are responsible for providing metabolic support to the photoreceptors. Techniques to image the RPE layer include autofluorescence imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). However, previous studies were unable to resolve single RPE cells in vivo. This thesis describes the technique of combining autofluorescence, SLO, adaptive optics (AO), and dual-wavelength simultaneous imaging and registration to visualize the individual cells in the RPE mosaic in human and primate retina for the first time in vivo. After imaging the RPE mosaic non-invasively, the cell layer's structure and regularity were characterized using quantitative metrics of cell density, spacing, and nearest neighbor distances. The RPE mosaic was compared to the cone mosaic, and RPE imaging methods were confirmed using histology. The ability to image the RPE mosaic led to the discovery of a novel retinal change following light exposure; 568 nm exposures caused an immediate reduction in autofluorescence followed by either full recovery or permanent damage in the RPE layer. A safety study was conducted to determine the range of exposure irradiances that caused permanent damage or transient autofluorescence reductions. Additionally, the threshold exposure causing autofluorescence reduction was determined and reciprocity of radiant exposure was confirmed. Light exposures delivered by the AOSLO were not significantly different than those delivered by a uniform source. As all exposures tested were near or below the permissible light levels of safety standards, this thesis provides evidence that the current light safety standards need to be revised. Finally, with the retinal damage and autofluorescence reduction thresholds identified, the methods of RPE imaging were modified to allow successful imaging of the individual cells in the RPE mosaic while still ensuring retinal safety. This thesis has provided a

  13. Outstanding laser damage threshold in Li2MnGeS4 and tunable optical nonlinearity in diamond-like semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacilynn A; Clark, Daniel J; Kim, Yong Soo; Jang, Joon I; Weiland, Ashley; Aitken, Jennifer A

    2015-03-16

    The new Li2MnGeS4 and Li2CoSnS4 compounds result from employing a rational and simple design strategy that guides the discovery of diamond-like semiconductors (DLSs) with wide regions of optical transparency, high laser damage threshold, and efficient second-order optical nonlinearity. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction was used to solve and refine the crystal structures of Li2MnGeS4 and Li2CoSnS4, which crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric space groups Pna21 and Pn, respectively. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXRPD) was used to assess the phase purity, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy was used to estimate the bandgaps of Li2MnGeS4 (Eg = 3.069(3) eV) and Li2CoSnS4 (Eg = 2.421(3) eV). In comparison with Li2FeGeS4, Li2FeSnS4, and Li2CoSnS4 DLSs, Li2MnGeS4 exhibits the widest region of optical transparency (0.60-25 μm) and phase matchability (≥1.6 μm). All four of the DLSs exhibit second-harmonic generation and are compared with the benchmark NLO material, AgGaSe2. Most remarkably, Li2MnGeS4 does not undergo two- or three-photon absorption upon exposure to a fundamental Nd:YAG beam (λ = 1.064 μm) and exhibits a laser damage threshold > 16 GW/cm(2).

  14. Cell Therapy Applications for Retinal Vascular Diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susanna S

    2016-04-01

    Retinal vascular conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion, remain leading causes of vision loss. No therapy exists to restore vision loss resulting from retinal ischemia and associated retinal degeneration. Tissue regeneration is possible with cell therapy. The goal would be to restore or replace the damaged retinal vasculature and the retinal neurons that are damaged and/or degenerating from the hypoxic insult. Currently, various adult cell therapies have been explored as potential treatment. They include mesenchymal stem cells, vascular precursor cells (i.e., CD34+ cells, hematopoietic cells or endothelial progenitor cells), and adipose stromal cells. Preclinical studies show that all these cells have a paracrine trophic effect on damaged ischemic tissue, leading to tissue preservation. Endothelial progenitor cells and adipose stromal cells integrate into the damaged retinal vascular wall in preclinical models of diabetic retinopathy and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mesenchymal stem cells do not integrate as readily but appear to have a primary paracrine trophic effect. Early phase clinical trials have been initiated and ongoing using mesenchymal stem cells or autologous bone marrow CD34+ cells injected intravitreally as potential therapy for diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion. Adipose stromal cells or pluripotent stem cells differentiated into endothelial colony-forming cells have been explored in preclinical studies and show promise as possible therapies for retinal vascular disorders. The relative safety or efficacy of these various cell therapies for treating retinal vascular disorders have yet to be determined.

  15. Chaetomium retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Wedin, Keith; Al Haddab, Saad

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of Chaetomium atrobrunneum retinitis in a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma. We studied the ocular manifestations of an 11-year-old boy with retinitis. Biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, and fundus photography were done. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed. A vitreous biopsy was subjected to viral, bacterial, and fungal cultures. Vitreous culture grew C. atrobrunneum. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple cerebral lesions consistent with an infectious process. The patient was given intravenous voriconazole and showed improvement of the ocular and central nervous system lesions. We report a case of central nervous system and ocular lesions by C. atrobrunneum. The retinitis was initially misdiagnosed as cytomegaloviral retinitis. Vitreous biopsy helped in the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a life- and vision-threatening infection.

  16. Retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments for retinitis pigmentosa, including the use of DHA, which is an omega-3 fatty acid. Other ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 630. ...

  17. Cytomegalovirus retinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have weakened immune systems as a result of: HIV/AIDS Bone marrow transplant Chemotherapy Drugs that suppress the immune system Organ transplant Symptoms Some people with CMV retinitis have no symptoms. ...

  18. Retinal Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your brain. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving, and seeing fine detail. A retinal detachment lifts or pulls the retina from its normal position. It can occur at ...

  19. Retinal Cell Degeneration in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Niwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide an overview of various retinal cell degeneration models in animal induced by chemicals (N-methyl-d-aspartate- and CoCl2-induced, autoimmune (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, mechanical stress (optic nerve crush-induced, light-induced and ischemia (transient retinal ischemia-induced. The target regions, pathology and proposed mechanism of each model are described in a comparative fashion. Animal models of retinal cell degeneration provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of the disease, and will facilitate the development of novel effective therapeutic drugs to treat retinal cell damage.

  20. AN EFFICIENT TECHNIQUE FOR RETINAL VESSEL SEGMENTATION AND DENOISING USING MODIFIED ISODATA AND CLAHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Bahadar Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal damage caused due to complications of diabetes is known as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR. In this case, the vision is obscured due to the damage of retinal tinny blood vessels of the retina. These tinny blood vessels may cause leakage which affect the vision and can lead to complete blindness. Identification of these new retinal vessels and their structure is essential for analysis of DR. Automatic blood vessels segmentation plays a significant role to assist subsequent automatic methodologies that aid to such analysis. In literature most of the people have used computationally hungry a strong preprocessing steps followed by a simple thresholding and post processing, But in our proposed technique we utilize an arrangement of  light pre-processing which consists of Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE for contrast enhancement, a difference image of green channel from its Gaussian blur filtered image to remove local noise or geometrical object, Modified Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Technique (MISODATA for segmentation of vessel and non-vessel pixels based on global and local thresholding, and a strong  post processing using region properties (area, eccentricity to eliminate the unwanted region/segment, non-vessel pixels and noise that never been used to reject misclassified foreground pixels. The strategy is tested on the publically accessible DRIVE (Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction and STARE (STructured Analysis of the REtina databases. The performance of proposed technique is assessed comprehensively and the acquired accuracy, robustness, low complexity and high efficiency and very less computational time that make the method an efficient tool for automatic retinal image analysis. Proposed technique perform well as compared to the existing strategies on the online available databases in term of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, true positive rate and area under receiver

  1. Modeling laser damage to the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Clifton D.

    This dissertation presents recent progress in several areas related to modeling laser damage to the retina. In Chapter 3, we consider the consequences of using the Arrhenius damage model to predict the damage thresholds of multiple pulse, or repetitive pulse, exposures. We have identified a few fundamental trends associated with the multiple pulse damage predictions made by the Arrhenius model. These trends differ from what would be expected by non-thermal mechanisms, and could prove useful in differentiating thermal and non-thermal damage. Chapter 4 presents a new rate equation damage model hypothesized to describe photochemical damage. The model adds a temperature dependent term to the simple rate equation implied by the principle of reciprocity that is characteristic of photochemical damage thresholds. A recent damage threshold study, conducted in-vitro, has revealed a very sharp transition between thermal and photochemical damage threshold trends. For the wavelength used in the experiment (413 nm), thermal damage thresholds were observed at exposure levels that were twice the expected photochemical damage threshold, based on the traditional understanding of photochemical damage. Our model accounts for this observed trend by introducing a temperature dependent quenching, or repair, rate to the photochemical damage rate. For long exposures that give a very small temperature rise, the model reduces to the principle of reciprocity. Near the transition region between thermal and photochemical damage, the model allows the damage threshold to be set by thermal mechanisms, even at exposure above the reciprocity exposure. In Chapter 5, we describe a retina damage model that includes thermal lensing in the eye by coupling beam propagation and heat transfer models together. Thermal lensing has recently been suggested as a contributing factor to the large increase in measured retinal damage thresholds in the near infrared. The transmission of the vitreous decreases

  2. Laser-induced damage thresholds of bulk and coating optical materials at 1030  nm, 500  fs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Laurent; Commandré, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    We report on extensive femtosecond laser damage threshold measurements of optical materials in both bulk and thin-film form. This study, which is based on published and new data, involved simple oxide and fluoride films, composite films made from a mixture of two dielectric materials, metallic films, and the surfaces of various bulk materials: oxides, fluorides, semiconductors, and ionic crystals. The samples were tested in comparable conditions at 1030 nm, 375 to 600 fs, under single-pulse irradiation. A large number of different samples prepared by different deposition techniques have been tested, involving classical materials used in the fabrication of optical thin film components (Ag, AlF3, Al2O3, HfO2, MgF2, Nb2O5, Pt, Sc2O3, SiO2, Ta2O5, Y2O3, and ZrO2) and their combination with codeposition processes. Their behaviors are compared with the surfaces of bulk materials (Al2O3, BaF2, CaF2, Ge, KBr, LiF, MgF2, NaCl, Quartz, Si, ZnS, ZnSe, and different silica glasses). Tabulated values of results are presented and discussed.

  3. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of bis(L-asparaginato) zinc(II): A promising new semiorganic crystal with high laser damage threshold for shorter wavelength generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashini, R.; Arjunan, S.

    2018-05-01

    An exceedingly apparent nonlinear semiorganic optical crystals of bis(L-asparaginato)zinc(II) [BLAZ], was synthesized by a traditional slow evaporation solution growth technique. The cell parameters were estimated from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Spectroscopic study substantiates the presence of functional groups. The UV spectrum shows the sustenance of wide transparency window and several optical constants, such as extinction coefficient (K), refractive index, optical conductivity and electric susceptibility with real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were calculated using the transmittance data. The fluorescence emission spectrum of the crystal pronounces red emission. The laser induced surface damage threshold of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser. The output intensity of second harmonic generation was estimated using the Kurtz and Perry powder method. The hardness stability was investigated by Vickers microhardness test. The decomposition and thermal stability of the compound were scrutinized by TGA-DSC studies. Dielectric studies were carried out to anatomize the electrical properties of the crystal. SEM analysis reveals the existence of minute crystallites on the growth surface.

  4. Synthesis and stabilization of oxide-based colloidal suspensions in organic media: application in the preparation of hybrids organic-inorganic materials for very high laser damage threshold coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchet, N.

    2008-02-01

    Multilayer coatings are widely used in optic and particular in the field of high power laser on the components of laser chains. The development of a highly reflective coating with a laser damage resistance requires the fine-tuning of a multilayer stack constituted by a succession alternated by materials with low and high refractive index. In order to limit the number of layers in the stack, refractive indexes must be optimized. To do it, an original approach consists in synthesizing new organic-inorganic hybrid materials satisfying the criteria of laser damage resistance and optimized refractive index. These hybrid materials are constituted by nano-particles of metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel process and dispersed in an organic polymer with high laser damage threshold. Nevertheless, this composite system requires returning both compatible phases between them by chemical grafting of alc-oxy-silanes or carboxylic acids. We showed that it was so possible to disperse in a homogeneous way these functionalized nano-particles in non-polar, aprotic solvent containing solubilized organic polymers, to obtain time-stable nano-composite solutions. From these organic-inorganic hybrid solutions, thin films with optical quality and high laser damage threshold were obtained. These promising results have permitted to realize highly reflective stacks, constituted by 7 pairs with optical properties in agreement with the theoretical models and high laser damage threshold. (author)

  5. Speech-in-Noise Tests and Supra-threshold Auditory Evoked Potentials as Metrics for Noise Damage and Clinical Trial Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Brungart, Douglas S

    2016-09-01

    In humans, the accepted clinical standards for detecting hearing loss are the behavioral audiogram, based on the absolute detection threshold of pure-tones, and the threshold auditory brainstem response (ABR). The audiogram and the threshold ABR are reliable and sensitive measures of hearing thresholds in human listeners. However, recent results from noise-exposed animals demonstrate that noise exposure can cause substantial neurodegeneration in the peripheral auditory system without degrading pure-tone audiometric thresholds. It has been suggested that clinical measures of auditory performance conducted with stimuli presented above the detection threshold may be more sensitive than the behavioral audiogram in detecting early-stage noise-induced hearing loss in listeners with audiometric thresholds within normal limits. Supra-threshold speech-in-noise testing and supra-threshold ABR responses are reviewed here, given that they may be useful supplements to the behavioral audiogram for assessment of possible neurodegeneration in noise-exposed listeners. Supra-threshold tests may be useful for assessing the effects of noise on the human inner ear, and the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent noise trauma. The current state of the science does not necessarily allow us to define a single set of best practice protocols. Nonetheless, we encourage investigators to incorporate these metrics into test batteries when feasible, with an effort to standardize procedures to the greatest extent possible as new reports emerge.

  6. Demonstration of a 100-mJ OPO/OPA for future lidar applications and laser-induced damage threshold testing of optical components for MERLIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Florian; Livrozet, Marie; Strotkamp, Michael; Wüppen, Jochen; Jungbluth, Bernd; Kasemann, Raphael; Löhring, Jens; Meissner, Ansgar; Meyer, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2018-02-01

    In the field of atmospheric research, lidar is a powerful technology that can measure gas or aerosol concentrations, wind speed, or temperature profiles remotely. To conduct such measurements globally, spaceborne systems are advantageous. Pulse energies in the 100-mJ range are required to achieve highly accurate, longitudinal resolved measurements. Measuring concentrations of specific gases, such as CH4 or CO2, requires output wavelengths in the IR-B, which can be addressed by optical-parametric frequency conversion. An OPO/OPA frequency conversion setup was designed and built as a demonstration module to address the 1.6-μm range. The pump laser is an Nd:YAG-MOPA system, consisting of a stable oscillator and two subsequent Innoslab-based amplifier stages that deliver up to 500 mJ of output pulse energy at 100 Hz repetition frequency. The OPO is inherited from the OPO design for the CH4 lidar instrument on the French-German climate satellite methane remote-sensing lidar mission (MERLIN). To address the 100-mJ regime, the OPO output beam is amplified in a subsequent multistage OPA. With potassium titanyl phosphate as nonlinear medium, the OPO/OPA delivered more than 100 mJ of output energy at 1645 nm from 450 mJ of the pump energy and a pump pulse duration of 30 ns. This corresponds to a quantum conversion efficiency of about 25%. In addition to demonstrating optical performance for future lidar systems, this laser will be part of a laser-induced damage thresholds test facility, which will be used to qualify optical components especially for the MERLIN.

  7. Growth, spectral, thermal, laser damage threshold, microhardness, dielectric, linear and nonlinear optical properties of an organic single crystal: L-phenylalanine DL-mandelic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaprakash, P. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Peer Mohamed, M. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnan, P. [Department of Physics, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600 119, Tamil Nadu (India); Nageshwari, M.; Mani, G. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India); Lydia Caroline, M., E-mail: lydiacaroline2006@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar 604 407, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-12-15

    Single crystals of L-phenylalanine dl-mandelic acid [C{sub 9}H{sub 11}NO{sub 2}. C{sub 8}H{sub 8}O{sub 3}], have been grown by the slow evaporation technique at room temperature using aqueous solution. The single crystal XRD study confirms monoclinic system for the grown crystal. The functional groups present in the grown crystal have been identified by FTIR and FT-Raman analyses. The optical absorption studies show that the crystal is transparent in the visible region with a lower cut-off wavelength of 257 nm and the optical band gap energy E{sub g} is determined to be 4.62 eV. The Kurtz powder second harmonic generation was confirmed using Nd:YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. Further, the thermal studies confirmed no weight loss up to 150°C for the as-grown crystal. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibited three peaks (414 nm, 519 nm, 568 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. Laser damage threshold value was found to be 4.98 GW/cm{sup 2}. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out on the grown crystals and there by Vickers hardness number (H{sub v}), work hardening coefficient (n), yield strength (σ{sub y}), stiffness constant C{sub 11} were evaluated. The dielectric behavior of the crystal has been determined in the frequency range 50 Hz–5 MHz at various temperatures.

  8. Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Riaz, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 58-year-old female presented to the emergency department reporting six days of progressive, atraumatic left eye vision loss. Her symptoms started with the appearance of dark spots and “spider webs,” and then progressed to darkening of vision in her left eye. She reports mild pain since yesterday. Her review of symptoms was otherwise negative. Ocular physical examination revealed normal external appearance, intact extraocular movements, and visual acuities of 20/25 OD and light/dark sensitivity OS. Fluorescein uptake was negative and slit lamp exam was unremarkable. Significant findings: Bedside ocular ultrasound revealed a serpentine, hyperechoic membrane that appeared tethered to the optic disc posteriorly with hyperechoic material underneath. These findings are consistent with retinal detachment (RD and associated retinal hemorrhage. Discussion: The retina is a layer of organized neurons that line the posterior portion of the posterior chamber of the eye. RD occurs when this layer separates from the underlying epithelium, resulting in ischemia and progressive photoreceptor degeneration, with potentially rapid and permanent vision loss if left untreated.1 Risk factors include advanced age, male sex (60%, race (Asians and Jews, and myopia and lattice degeneration.2 Bedside ultrasound (US performed by emergency physicians provides a valuable tool that has been used by ophthalmologists for decades to evaluate intraocular disease.1,3 Findings on bedside ultrasound consistent with RD include a hyperechoic membrane floating in the posterior chamber. RD usuallyremain tethered to the optic disc posteriorly and do not cross midline, a feature distinguishing them from posterior vitreous detachments. Associated retinal hemorrhage, seen as hyperechoic material under the retinal flap, can often be seen.1,2 US can also distinguish between “mac-on” and “mac-off” detachments. If the retina is still attached to the

  9. Retinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Hoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes and Müller cells (retinal macroglia provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors. Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB, play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage. In response to polyetiological insults, glia cells react with a process called reactive gliosis, seeking to maintain retinal homeostasis. When malfunctioning, macroglial cells can become primary pathogenic elements. A reactive gliosis has been described in different retinal pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetes, glaucoma, retinal detachment, or retinitis pigmentosa. A better understanding of the dual, neuroprotective, or cytotoxic effect of macroglial involvement in retinal pathologies would help in treating the physiopathology of these diseases. The extensive participation of the macroglia in retinal diseases points to these cells as innovative targets for new drug therapies.

  10. Retinal detachment and retinal holes in retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaky, K; Olk, R J; Mahl, C F; Bloom, S M

    1991-01-01

    Retinal detachment and retinal holes in two family members with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento are reported. We believe these are the first such cases reported in the literature. We describe the presenting symptoms and management, including cryotherapy, scleral buckling procedure, and sulfur hexafluoride injection (SF6), resulting in stable visual acuity in one case and retinal reattachment and improved visual acuity in the other case.

  11. Retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme cases may have a rapid evolution over two decades or a slow progression that never leads to blindness. In some cases, the clinical presentation is a cone-rod dystrophy, in which the decrease in visual acuity predominates over the visual field loss. RP is usually non syndromic but there are also many syndromic forms, the most frequent being Usher syndrome. To date, 45 causative genes/loci have been identified in non syndromic RP (for the autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and digenic forms. Clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of night blindness and peripheral visual field defects, lesions in the fundus, hypovolted electroretinogram traces, and progressive worsening of these signs. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, but is not usually performed due to the tremendous genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Genetic counseling is always advised. Currently, there is no therapy that stops the evolution of the disease or restores the vision, so the visual prognosis is poor. The therapeutic approach is restricted to slowing down the degenerative process by sunlight protection and vitaminotherapy, treating the complications (cataract and macular edema, and helping patients to cope with the social and psychological impact of blindness. However, new therapeutic strategies are emerging from intensive research (gene therapy, neuroprotection, retinal prosthesis.

  12. Retinal pigmentary changes in chronic uveitis mimicking retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevgi, D Damla; Davoudi, Samaneh; Comander, Jason; Sobrin, Lucia

    2017-09-01

    To present retinal pigmentary changes mimicking retinitis pigmentosa (RP) as a finding of advanced uveitis. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients without a family history of inherited retinal degenerations who presented with retinal pigment changes and signs of past or present intraocular inflammation. Comprehensive eye examination including best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination and dilated fundus examination was performed on all patients in addition to color fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and full-field electroretinogram testing. We identified five patients with ages ranging from 33 to 66 years, who presented with RP-like retinal pigmentary changes which were eventually attributed to longstanding uveitis. The changes were bilateral in three cases and unilateral in two cases. Four of five cases presented with active inflammation, and the remaining case showed evidence of active intraocular inflammation during follow-up. This study highlights the overlapping features of advanced uveitis and RP including the extensive pigmentary changes. Careful review of possible past uveitis history, detailed examination of signs of past or present inflammation and ancillary testing, with FA often being most helpful, are required for the correct diagnosis. This is important, because intervention can prevent further damage if the cause of the pigmentary changes is destructive inflammation.

  13. Growth, structural, physical and computational perspectives of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline: a promising organic nonlinear optical material with large laser-induced damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, Ramaiah; Anitha, Kandasamy

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a systematic study of an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material, trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (THP), C5H9NO3 is reported. An optical quality single crystals of THP have been successfully grown by using slow evaporation solution growth technique (SEST). The single crystal x-ray diffraction (SXRD) analysis reveals that grown crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group (NCS), P212121. Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis shows relatively a good crystalline nature. The molecular structure of THP was recognized by NMR (1H and 13C) studies and its vibrational modes were confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman vibrational studies. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of grown crystal shows high optical transparency in the visible and near-IR region with low near-UV cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. Photoluminescence study confirms ultraviolet wavelength emission of THP crystal. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal is 1.6 times greater with respect to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Nonlinear refractive index (n 2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) were determined using the Z-scan technique. The title compound owns high thermal stability of 294 °C and specific heat capacity (C P) of 1.21 J g-1 K-1 at 300 K and 11.33 J g-1 K-1 at 539 K (melting point). The laser-induced damage threshold (LDT) value of grown crystal was measured as 7.25 GW cm-2. The crystal growth mechanism and defects of grown crystal were studied by chemical etching technique. Mechanical strength was extensively studied by Vickers microhardness test and crystal void percentage analysis. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to probe the Mulliken charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the optimized molecular structure to get a better insight of the molecular properties. These characterization results endorse that grown THP crystal as a

  14. Crystal growth, structural, optical, thermal, mechanical, laser damage threshold and electrical properties of triphenylphosphine oxide 4-nitrophenol (TP4N) single crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppasamy, P.; Senthil Pandian, Muthu; Ramasamy, P.; Verma, Sunil

    2018-05-01

    The optically good quality single crystals of triphenylphosphine oxide 4-nitrophenol (TP4N) with maximum dimension of 15 × 10 × 5 mm3 were grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) at room temperature. The cell dimensions of the grown TP4N crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and the crystalline purity was confirmed and planes were indexed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis. Functional groups of TP4N crystal were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis. The optical transmittance of the grown crystal was determined by the UV-Vis NIR spectral analysis and it has good optical transparency in the entire visible region. The band tail (Urbach) energy of the grown crystal was analyzed and it appears to be minimum, which indicates that the TP4N has good crystallinity. The position of valence band (Ev) and conduction band (Ec) of the TP4N have been determined from the electron affinity energy (EA) and the ionization energy (EI) of its elements and using the optical band gap. The thermal behaviour of the grown crystal was investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Vickers microhardness analysis was carried out to identify the mechanical stability of the grown crystal and their indentation size effect (ISE) was explained by the Meyer's law (ML), Hays-Kendall's (HK) approach, proportional specimen resistance (PSR) model, modified PSR model (MPSR), elastic/plastic deformation (EPD) model and indentation induced cracking (IIC) model. Chemical etching study was carried out to find the etch pit density (EPD) of the grown crystal. Laser damage threshold (LDT) value was measured by using Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). The dielectric permittivity (ε՛) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as a function of frequency was measured. The electronic polarizability (α) of the TP4N crystal was calculated. It is well matched to the value which was calculated from Clausius-Mossotti relation

  15. Nutritional Manipulation of Primate Retinas, V: Effects of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and n–3 Fatty Acids on Retinal Sensitivity to Blue-Light–Induced Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Felix M.; Snodderly, D. Max; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Schalch, Wolfgang; Koepcke, Wolfgang; Gerss, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Blue-light photooxidative damage has been implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The macular pigment xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) and n–3 fatty acids may reduce this damage and lower the risk of AMD. This study investigated the effects of the lifelong absence of xanthophylls followed by L or Z supplementation, combined with the effects of n–3 fatty acid deficiency, on acute blue-light photochemical damage. Methods. Subjects included eight rhesus monkeys with no lifelong intake of xanthophylls and no detectable macular pigment. Of these, four had low n–3 fatty acid intake and four had adequate intakes. Control subjects had typical L, Z, and n–3 fatty acid intake. Retinas received 150-μm-diameter exposures of low-power 476-nm laser light at 0.5 mm (∼2°) eccentricity, which is adjacent to the macular pigment peak, and parafoveally at 1.5 mm (∼6°). Exposures of xanthophyll-free animals were repeated after supplementation with pure L or Z for 22 to 28 weeks. Ophthalmoscopically visible lesion areas were plotted as a function of exposure energy, with greater slopes of the regression lines indicating greater sensitivity to damage. Results. In control animals, the fovea was less sensitive to blue-light–induced damage than the parafovea. Foveal protection was absent in xanthophyll-free animals but was evident after supplementation. In the parafovea, animals low in n–3 fatty acids showed greater sensitivity to damage than animals with adequate levels. Conclusions. After long-term xanthophyll deficiency, L or Z supplementation protected the fovea from blue light–induced damage, whereas adequate n–3 fatty acid levels reduced the damage in the parafovea. PMID:21245404

  16. A robust technique based on VLM and Frangi filter for retinal vessel extraction and denoising.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Bahadar Khan

    Full Text Available The exploration of retinal vessel structure is colossally important on account of numerous diseases including stroke, Diabetic Retinopathy (DR and coronary heart diseases, which can damage the retinal vessel structure. The retinal vascular network is very hard to be extracted due to its spreading and diminishing geometry and contrast variation in an image. The proposed technique consists of unique parallel processes for denoising and extraction of blood vessels in retinal images. In the preprocessing section, an adaptive histogram equalization enhances dissimilarity between the vessels and the background and morphological top-hat filters are employed to eliminate macula and optic disc, etc. To remove local noise, the difference of images is computed from the top-hat filtered image and the high-boost filtered image. Frangi filter is applied at multi scale for the enhancement of vessels possessing diverse widths. Segmentation is performed by using improved Otsu thresholding on the high-boost filtered image and Frangi's enhanced image, separately. In the postprocessing steps, a Vessel Location Map (VLM is extracted by using raster to vector transformation. Postprocessing steps are employed in a novel way to reject misclassified vessel pixels. The final segmented image is obtained by using pixel-by-pixel AND operation between VLM and Frangi output image. The method has been rigorously analyzed on the STARE, DRIVE and HRF datasets.

  17. Photostress Testing Device for Diagnosing Retinal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Swan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Retinal diseases such as Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD affect nearly one in three elderly patients. ARMD damages the central vision photoreceptors in the fovea. The Photostress Test is a simple technique for testing for the early effects of ARMD. Here, the illumination sources in a novel self-administered Photostress Testing device were modeled for safety and distribution in illumination software. After satisfying the design constraints in the model, a prototype of the illumination system was fabricated and tested to confirm the modeling results. The resultant prototype can be used to aid in the diagnosis of retinal disease and is well within retinal safety levels.

  18. Relationship between target organ damage and blood pressure, retinal vessel calibre, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in patients with hypertension: a case–control study protocol (LOD-Hipertensión)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Target organ damage (TOD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study objectives were to analyse the relationship of TOD to blood pressure, size of retinal arteries and veins, oxidative stress and different polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in participants with hypertension. Methods and analysis A case–control study to analyse the relationship between clinical, biochemical and genetic parameters and presence of cardiac, vascular and renal TOD in 486 patients with hypertension. Participants with TOD will be considered as cases, and those without TOD will be enrolled as controls. This will be a collaborative study conducted by the groups of Primary Care, Cardiovascular and Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases of the Instituto de Investigación Biomédica of Salamanca (IBSAL). Assessment of cardiac, renal and vascular TOD. Measurement of peripheral and central blood pressure, size of eye fundus arteries and veins, and oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted after approval is obtained from the Ethics Committee of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study, and another consent to agree on the genetic study, in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow for an understanding of the relationship of the different TODs with blood pressure, retinal artery and vein diameters, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Trial registration number Clinical Trials. gov Identifier: NCT02022618. PMID:24699462

  19. Relationship between target organ damage and blood pressure, retinal vessel calibre, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in patients with hypertension: a case-control study protocol (LOD-Hipertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-04-03

    Target organ damage (TOD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study objectives were to analyse the relationship of TOD to blood pressure, size of retinal arteries and veins, oxidative stress and different polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in participants with hypertension. A case-control study to analyse the relationship between clinical, biochemical and genetic parameters and presence of cardiac, vascular and renal TOD in 486 patients with hypertension. Participants with TOD will be considered as cases, and those without TOD will be enrolled as controls. This will be a collaborative study conducted by the groups of Primary Care, Cardiovascular and Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases of the Instituto de Investigación Biomédica of Salamanca (IBSAL). Assessment of cardiac, renal and vascular TOD. Measurement of peripheral and central blood pressure, size of eye fundus arteries and veins, and oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. The study will be conducted after approval is obtained from the Ethics Committee of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study, and another consent to agree on the genetic study, in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow for an understanding of the relationship of the different TODs with blood pressure, retinal artery and vein diameters, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Clinical Trials. gov Identifier: NCT02022618.

  20. Missed retinal breaks in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Takkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the causes and associations of missed retinal breaks (MRBs and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. METHODS: Case sheets of patients undergoing vitreo retinal surgery for RRD at a tertiary eye care centre were evaluated retrospectively. Out of the 378 records screened, 253 were included for analysis of MRBs and 191 patients were included for analysis of PVD, depending on the inclusion criteria. Features of RRD and retinal breaks noted on examination were compared to the status of MRBs and PVD detected during surgery for possible associations. RESULTS: Overall, 27% patients had MRBs. Retinal holes were commonly missed in patients with lattice degeneration while missed retinal tears were associated with presence of complete PVD. Patients operated for cataract surgery were significantly associated with MRBs (P=0.033 with the odds of missing a retinal break being 1.91 as compared to patients with natural lens. Advanced proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR and retinal bullae were the most common reasons for missing a retinal break during examination. PVD was present in 52% of the cases and was wrongly assessed in 16%. Retinal bullae, pseudophakia/aphakia, myopia, and horse shoe retinal tears were strongly associated with presence of PVD. Traumatic RRDs were rarely associated with PVD. CONCLUSION: Pseudophakic patients, and patients with retinal bullae or advanced PVR should be carefully screened for MRBs. Though Weiss ring is a good indicator of PVD, it may still be over diagnosed in some cases. PVD is associated with retinal bullae and pseudophakia, and inversely with traumatic RRD.

  1. Adaptive optics for reduced threshold energy in femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in water based eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Krueger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmic microsurgery tissue dissection is achieved using femtosecond laser pulses to create an optical breakdown. For vitreo-retinal applications the irradiance distribution in the focal volume is distorted by the anterior components of the eye causing a raised threshold energy for breakdown. In this work, an adaptive optics system enables spatial beam shaping for compensation of aberrations and investigation of wave front influence on optical breakdown. An eye model was designed to allow for aberration correction as well as detection of optical breakdown. The eye model consists of an achromatic lens for modeling the eye's refractive power, a water chamber for modeling the tissue properties, and a PTFE sample for modeling the retina's scattering properties. Aberration correction was performed using a deformable mirror in combination with a Hartmann-Shack-sensor. The influence of an adaptive optics aberration correction on the pulse energy required for photodisruption was investigated using transmission measurements for determination of the breakdown threshold and video imaging of the focal region for study of the gas bubble dynamics. The threshold energy is considerably reduced when correcting for the aberrations of the system and the model eye. Also, a raise in irradiance at constant pulse energy was shown for the aberration corrected case. The reduced pulse energy lowers the potential risk of collateral damage which is especially important for retinal safety. This offers new possibilities for vitreo-retinal surgery using femtosecond laser pulses.

  2. Retinal detachment secondary to ocular perforation during retrobulbar Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics and the retinal breaks associated with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments secondary to accidental globe perforation during local infiltration anaesthesia in five highly myopic eyes are presented. Retinal detachment was total with variable proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The pattern of retinal breaks was rather typical and predictable. Management involved vitreous surgery with internal tamponade by silicone oil in four eyes and perfluoropropane gas in one eye. At the last follow-up, all eyes had attached retina. One eye did not recover useful vision due to possible concurrent optic nerve damage.

  3. Correlation of damage threshold and surface geometry of nodular defects in HR coatings as determined by in-situ atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staggs, M.C.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Balooch, M.

    1992-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine in-situ the correlation between the surface dimensions of defects in dielectric multilayer optical coatings and their susceptibility to damage by pulsed laser illumination. The primary surface defects studied were μm-scale domes associated with the classic nodule defect. The optical film studied was a highly reflective dielectric multilayer consisting of pairs of alternating HfO 2 and SiO 2 layers of quarter wave thickness at 1.06 μm. Nodule defect height and width dimensions were measured prior to laser illumination on two different samples. Correlation between these dimensions supported a simple model for the defect geometry. Defects with high nodule heights (> 0.6 μm) were found to be most susceptible to laser damage over a range of fluences between 0-35 J/cm 2 (1.06 μm, 10 ns, and 1/e 2 diam. of 1.3 mm). Crater defects, formed by nodules ejected from the coating prior to illumination, were also studied. None of the crater defects damaged when illuminated over the same range of fluences that the nodule defects were subjected to

  4. Hypertensive retinopathy identification through retinal fundus image using backpropagation neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Amalia, C.; Rahmat, R. F.; Abdullah, D.; Napitupulu, D.; Setiawan, M. I.; Albra, W.; Nurdin; Andayani, U.

    2018-03-01

    Hypertension or high blood pressure can cause damage of blood vessels in the retina of eye called hypertensive retinopathy (HR). In the event Hypertension, it will cause swelling blood vessels and a decrese in retina performance. To detect HR in patients body, it is usually performed through physical examination of opthalmoscope which is still conducted manually by an ophthalmologist. Certainly, in such a manual manner, takes a ong time for a doctor to detetct HR on aa patient based on retina fundus iamge. To overcome ths problem, a method is needed to identify the image of retinal fundus automatically. In this research, backpropagation neural network was used as a method for retinal fundus identification. The steps performed prior to identification were pre-processing (green channel, contrast limited adapative histogram qualization (CLAHE), morphological close, background exclusion, thresholding and connected component analysis), feature extraction using zoning. The results show that the proposed method is able to identify retinal fundus with an accuracy of 95% with maximum epoch of 1500.

  5. Recovery of outer retinal laminations on optical coherence tomography after treatment of cancer associated retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Irizarry

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions and importance: Cancer associated retinopathy is a paraneoplastic disease that results in damage to retinal structures through an autoimmune response. The damage is generally considered to be irreversible; however, in rare cases, such as observed here, retinal structures may demonstrate recovery after treatment.

  6. Focal retinal phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Quan V; Freund, K Bailey; Klancnik, James M; Sorenson, John A; Cunningham, Emmett T; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    To report three cases of solitary, focal retinal phlebitis. An observational case series. Three eyes in three patients were noted to have unilateral decreased vision, macular edema, and a focal retinal phlebitis, which was not at an arteriovenous crossing. All three patients developed a branch retinal vein occlusion at the site of inflammation. These patients had no other evidence of intraocular inflammation, including vitritis, retinitis, retinal vasculitis, or choroiditis, nor was there any systemic disorder associated with inflammation, infection, or coagulation identified. Focal retinal phlebitis appears to be an uncommon and unique entity that produces macular edema and ultimately branch retinal vein occlusion. In our patients, the focal phlebitis and venous occlusion did not occur at an arteriovenous crossing, which is the typical site for branch retinal venous occlusive disease. This suggests that our cases represent a distinct clinical entity, which starts with a focal abnormality in the wall of a retinal venule, resulting in surrounding exudation and, ultimately, ends with branch retinal vein occlusion.

  7. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  8. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  9. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for retinal vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Da; An, Ying; Zhang, Jing-Shang; Wan, Xiu-Hua; Jonas, Jost B; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    To examine the potential of intravitreally implanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to affect vascular repair and the blood-retina barrier in mice and rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy or retinal ischaemia-reperfusion damage. Three study groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 18 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received BMSCs injected intravitreally. Control groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 12 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received an intravitreal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. We applied immunohistological techniques to measure retinal vascularization, spectroscopic measurements of intraretinally extravasated fluorescein-conjugated dextran to quantify the blood-retina barrier breakdown, and histomorphometry to assess retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell count. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy model, the study group with intravitreally injected BMSCs as compared with the control group showed a significantly (p = 0.001) smaller area of retinal neovascularization. In the diabetic retinopathy model, study group and control group did not differ significantly in the amount of intraretinally extravasated dextran. In the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model, on the 7th day after retina injury, the retina was significantly thicker in the study group than in the control group (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in the retinal ganglion cell count (p = 0.36). Intravitreally implanted human BMSCs were associated with a reduced retinal neovascularization in the oxygen-induced retinopathy model and with a potentially cell preserving effect in the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model. Intravitreal BMSCs may be of potential interest for the therapy of retinal vascular disorders. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley

  10. Retinal detachment following endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, P T; Marcus, D A; Bovino, J A

    1985-08-01

    Fifty-five consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis were reviewed. All patients were treated with systemic, periocular, topical, and intravitreal antibiotics. In addition, 33 of the patients underwent a pars plana vitrectomy. Nine retinal detachments occurred within six months of initial diagnosis. The higher frequency of retinal detachment in the vitrectomy group (21%) as compared to those patients managed without vitrectomy (9%) may be explained by a combination of surgical complications and the increased severity of endophthalmitis in the vitrectomy group. The two patients who developed retinal detachment during vitrectomy surgery rapidly progressed to no light perception. Conversely, the repair of retinal detachments diagnosed postoperatively had a good prognosis.

  11. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhage in a case of nonaccidental trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinok, Deniz; Saleem, Sheena; Smith, Wilbur; Zhang, Zaixiang; Markman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Retinal hemorrhage is a well-recognized manifestation of child abuse found in many babies with shaken baby syndrome. The presence of retinal hemorrhage is generally associated with more severe neurological damage and a worse clinical outcome. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages are not well described in the pediatric literature. We present a 6-month-old boy with new-onset seizures, subdural hemorrhage and bilateral retinal hemorrhages that were detected by MRI and confirmed by indirect ophthalmoscopy. This case demonstrates the MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages and the importance of radiologists being able to recognize these specific imaging features. (orig.)

  12. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhage in a case of nonaccidental trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinok, Deniz; Saleem, Sheena; Smith, Wilbur [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhang, Zaixiang [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Markman, Lisa [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Child Protection Team, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Retinal hemorrhage is a well-recognized manifestation of child abuse found in many babies with shaken baby syndrome. The presence of retinal hemorrhage is generally associated with more severe neurological damage and a worse clinical outcome. MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages are not well described in the pediatric literature. We present a 6-month-old boy with new-onset seizures, subdural hemorrhage and bilateral retinal hemorrhages that were detected by MRI and confirmed by indirect ophthalmoscopy. This case demonstrates the MR imaging findings of retinal hemorrhages and the importance of radiologists being able to recognize these specific imaging features. (orig.)

  13. Retinal oximetry in patients with ischaemic retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rilvén, Sandra; Torp, Thomas Lee; Grauslund, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The retinal oximeter is a new tool for non-invasive measurement of retinal oxygen saturation in humans. Several studies have investigated the associations between retinal oxygen saturation and retinal diseases. In the present systematic review, we examine whether there are associations between...... retinal oxygen saturation and retinal ischaemic diseases. We used PubMed and Embase to search for retinal oxygen saturation and retinal ischaemic diseases. Three separate searches identified a total of 79 publications. After two levels of manual screening, 10 studies were included: six about diabetic...... retinopathy (DR) and four about retinal vein occlusion. No studies about retinal artery occlusion were included. In diabetes, all studies found that increases in retinal venous oxygen saturation (rvSatO2 ) were associated with present as well as increasing levels of DR. Four of six studies also found...

  14. Direct Measurement of the Isomerization Barrier of the Isolated Retinal Chromophore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilger, Jonathan; Musbat, Lihi; Sheves, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    Isomerizations of the retinal chromophore were investigated using the IMS-IMS technique. Four different structural features of the chromophore were observed, isolated, excited collisionally, and the resulting isomer and fragment distributions were measured. By establishing the threshold activatio...

  15. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  16. Bilateral retinal vein occlusion and rubeosis irides: lessons to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Noh, Umi Kalthum; Ahem, Amin; Mustapha, Mushawiahti

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension is well- known to give rise to systemic complications involving multiple central organs. Artherosclerosis leads to damage of the retinal vessels wall, contributing to venous stasis, thrombosis and finally, occlusion. Retinal vein occlusions compromise vision through development of ischaemic maculopathy, macular oedema, and rubeotic glaucoma. Laser photocoagulation remains the definitive treatment for ischaemic vein occlusion with secondary neovascularization. Timely treatment with anti- vascular endothelial growth factor prevents development of rubeotic glaucoma. We hereby report an unusual case of bilateral retinal vein occlusion complicated by rubeosis irides, which was successfully managed to improve vision and prevent rubeotic glaucoma.

  17. Hierarchical detection of red lesions in retinal images by multiscale correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bob; Wu, Xiangqian; You, Jane; Li, Qin; Karray, Fakhri

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to the computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of diabetic retinopathy (DR) -- a common and severe complication of long-term diabetes which damages the retina and cause blindness. Since red lesions are regarded as the first signs of DR, there has been extensive research on effective detection and localization of these abnormalities in retinal images. In contrast to existing algorithms, a new approach based on Multiscale Correlation Filtering (MSCF) and dynamic thresholding is developed. This consists of two levels, Red Lesion Candidate Detection (coarse level) and True Red Lesion Detection (fine level). The approach was evaluated using data from Retinopathy On-line Challenge (ROC) competition website and we conclude our method to be effective and efficient.

  18. Unsupervised Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using Combined Filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendeson S Oliveira

    Full Text Available Image segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a process that can help to predict and diagnose cardiovascular related diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, which are known to affect the retinal blood vessels' appearance. This work proposes an unsupervised method for the segmentation of retinal vessels images using a combined matched filter, Frangi's filter and Gabor Wavelet filter to enhance the images. The combination of these three filters in order to improve the segmentation is the main motivation of this work. We investigate two approaches to perform the filter combination: weighted mean and median ranking. Segmentation methods are tested after the vessel enhancement. Enhanced images with median ranking are segmented using a simple threshold criterion. Two segmentation procedures are applied when considering enhanced retinal images using the weighted mean approach. The first method is based on deformable models and the second uses fuzzy C-means for the image segmentation. The procedure is evaluated using two public image databases, Drive and Stare. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well for vessel segmentation in comparison with state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Differential diagnosis of retinal vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M; Herbort, Carl P; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2009-10-01

    Retinal vaculitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory eye condition that involves the retinal vessels. Detection of retinal vasculitis is made clinically, and confirmed with the help of fundus fluorescein angiography. Active vascular disease is characterized by exudates around retinal vessels resulting in white sheathing or cuffing of the affected vessels. In this review, a practical approach to the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis is discussed based on ophthalmoscopic and fundus fluorescein angiographic findings.

  20. Local signaling from a retinal prosthetic in a rodent retinitis pigmentosa model in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, James W.; Pangeni, Gobinda; Pardue, Machelle T.; McCall, Maureen A.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. In clinical trials, retinitis pigmentosa patients implanted with a retinal prosthetic device show enhanced spatial vision, including the ability to read large text and navigate. New prosthetics aim to increase spatial resolution by decreasing pixel/electrode size and limiting current spread. To examine spatial resolution of a new prosthetic design, we characterized and compared two photovoltaic array (PVA) designs and their interaction with the retina after subretinal implantation in transgenic S334ter line 3 rats (Tg S334ter-3). Approach. PVAs were implanted subretinally at two stages of degeneration and assessed in vivo using extracellular recordings in the superior colliculus (SC). Several aspects of this interaction were evaluated by varying duration, irradiance and position of a near infrared laser focused on the PVA. These characteristics included: activation threshold, response linearity, SC signal topography and spatial localization. The major design difference between the two PVA designs is the inclusion of local current returns in the newer design. Main results. When tested in vivo, PVA-evoked response thresholds were independent of pixel/electrode size, but differ between the new and old PVA designs. Response thresholds were independent of implantation age and duration (⩽7.5 months). For both prosthesis designs, threshold intensities were within established safety limits. PVA-evoked responses require inner retina synaptic transmission and do not directly activate retinal ganglion cells. The new PVA design evokes local retinal activation, which is not found with the older PVA design that lacks local current returns. Significance. Our study provides in vivo evidence that prosthetics make functional contacts with the inner nuclear layer at several stages of degeneration. The new PVA design enhances local activation within the retina and SC. Together these results predict that the new design can potentially harness the inherent processing within

  1. Presentation of Complex Homozygous Allele in ABCA4 Gene in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Māreta Audere

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa is a degenerative retinal disease characterized by progressive photoreceptor damage, which causes loss of peripheral and night vision and the development of tunnel vision and may result in loss of central vision. This study describes a patient with retinitis pigmentosa caused by a mutation in the ABCA4 gene with complex allele c.1622T>C, p.L541P; c.3113C>T, p.A1038V in homozygous state.

  2. Melanin microcavitation threshold in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Noojin, Gary D.; Wharmby, Andrew W.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2014-02-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of isolated bovine and porcine melanosomes were determined using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the NIR (1000 - 1319 nm) wavelength regime. Average fluence thresholds for microcavitation increased non-linearly with increasing wavelength. Average fluence thresholds were also measured for 10-ns pulses at 532 nm, and found to be comparable to visible ns pulse values published in previous reports. Fluence thresholds were used to calculate melanosome absorption coefficients, which decreased with increasing wavelength. This trend was found to be comparable to the decrease in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer absorption coefficients reported over the same wavelength region. Estimated corneal total intraocular energy (TIE) values were determined and compared to the current and proposed maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe exposure levels. Results from this study support the proposed changes to the MPE levels.

  3. Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feb 20, 2018 Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer for People With Inherited Retinal Disease Dec 19, 2017 ... the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  4. Learning about Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning about Retinitis Pigmentosa Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research ...

  5. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  6. An Unconventional Approach To Reducing Retinal Degeneration After Traumatic Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    regulating drugs – currently not purposed to treat retinal damage – may serve to ameliorate retinal degeneration in mice who have experienced blast...to buy a set for for our experiments going forward). A parallel experiments of SNR experiments with red vs green dye (data not shown), moreover

  7. Lowered threshold energy for femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in a water based eye model by aberration correction with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Géneaux, Romain; Günther, Axel; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-06-01

    In femtosecond laser ophthalmic surgery tissue dissection is achieved by photodisruption based on laser induced optical breakdown. In order to minimize collateral damage to the eye laser surgery systems should be optimized towards the lowest possible energy threshold for photodisruption. However, optical aberrations of the eye and the laser system distort the irradiance distribution from an ideal profile which causes a rise in breakdown threshold energy even if great care is taken to minimize the aberrations of the system during design and alignment. In this study we used a water chamber with an achromatic focusing lens and a scattering sample as eye model and determined breakdown threshold in single pulse plasma transmission loss measurements. Due to aberrations, the precise lower limit for breakdown threshold irradiance in water is still unknown. Here we show that the threshold energy can be substantially reduced when using adaptive optics to improve the irradiance distribution by spatial beam shaping. We found that for initial aberrations with a root-mean-square wave front error of only one third of the wavelength the threshold energy can still be reduced by a factor of three if the aberrations are corrected to the diffraction limit by adaptive optics. The transmitted pulse energy is reduced by 17% at twice the threshold. Furthermore, the gas bubble motions after breakdown for pulse trains at 5 kilohertz repetition rate show a more transverse direction in the corrected case compared to the more spherical distribution without correction. Our results demonstrate how both applied and transmitted pulse energy could be reduced during ophthalmic surgery when correcting for aberrations. As a consequence, the risk of retinal damage by transmitted energy and the extent of collateral damage to the focal volume could be minimized accordingly when using adaptive optics in fs-laser surgery.

  8. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-08-10

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Retinal shows its true colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coughlan, N. J.A.; Adamson, B. D.; Gamon, L.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal is one of Nature's most important and widespread chromophores, exhibiting remarkable versatility in its function and spectral response, depending on its protein environment. Reliable spectroscopic and photochemical data for the isolated retinal molecule are essential for calibrating theor...

  10. Retinal findings in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: Drusen remain the ocular stigmata for MPGN occuring at an early age. The retinal disease is progressive with gradual thickening of Bruch's membrane and occurrence of retinal pigment epithelium detachment.

  11. On threshold mechanisms for achromatic and chromatic vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1972-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of the achromatic zone for red light in the fovea and for green light in the periphery, a discussion is given on the possible difference in threshold mechanisms for the achromatic (scotopic) and chromatic (photopic) retinal systems. A specific suggestion for this

  12. Bioelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, James D.

    2016-05-01

    Retinal prosthesis have been translated to clinical use over the past two decades. Currently, two devices have regulatory approval for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa and one device is in clinical trials for treatment of age-related macular degeneration. These devices provide partial sight restoration and patients use this improved vision in their everyday lives to navigate and to detect large objects. However, significant vision restoration will require both better technology and improved understanding of the interaction between electrical stimulation and the retina. In particular, current retinal prostheses do not provide peripheral visions due to technical and surgical limitations, thus limiting the effectiveness of the treatment. This paper reviews recent results from human implant patients and presents technical approaches for peripheral vision.

  13. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  14. Sector retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Woerkom, Craig; Ferrucci, Steven

    2005-05-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common hereditary retinal dystrophies and causes of visual impairment affecting all age groups. The reported incidence varies, but is considered to be between 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 7,000. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by regionalized areas of bone spicule pigmentation, usually in the inferior quadrants of the retina. A 57-year-old Hispanic man with a history of previously diagnosed retinitis pigmentosa came to the clinic with a longstanding symptom of decreased vision at night. Bone spicule pigmentation was found in the nasal and inferior quadrants in each eye. He demonstrated superior and temporal visual-field loss corresponding to the areas of the affected retina. Clinical measurements of visual-field loss, best-corrected visual acuity, and ophthalmoscopic appearance have remained stable during the five years the patient has been followed. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by bilateral pigmentary retinopathy, usually isolated to the inferior quadrants. The remainder of the retina appears clinically normal, although studies have found functional abnormalities in these areas as well. Sector RP is generally considered a stationary to slowly progressive disease, with subnormal electro-retinogram findings and visual-field defects corresponding to the involved retinal sectors. Management of RP is very difficult because there are no proven methods of treatment. Studies have shown 15,000 IU of vitamin A palmitate per day may slow the progression, though this result is controversial. Low vision rehabilitation, long wavelength pass filters, and pedigree counseling remain the mainstay of management.

  15. Chitosan oligosaccharides attenuates oxidative-stress related retinal degeneration in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Mo Fang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS for oxidative stress-induced retinal diseases. Retinal oxidative damage was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intravitreal injection of paraquat (PQ. Low-dose (5 mg/kg or high-dose (10 mg/kg COS or PBS was intragastrically given for 14 days after PQ injection. Electroretinograms were performed to determine the functionality of the retinas. The surviving neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer and retinal apoptosis were determined by counting Neu N-positive cells in whole-mounted retinas and TUNEL staining, respectively. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was determined by lucigenin- and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Retinal oxidative damages were assessed by staining with nitrotyrosine, acrolein, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Immunohistochemical studies were used to demonstrate the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 in retinas. An in vitro study using RGC-5 cells was performed to verify the results. We demonstrated COS significantly enhanced the recovery of retinal function, preserved inner retinal thickness, and decreased retinal neurons loss in a dose-dependent manner. COS administration demonstrated anti-oxidative effects by reducing luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminenscense levels and activating superoxide dismutase and catalase, leading to decreased retinal apoptosis. COS markedly reduced retinal NF-κB p65. An in vitro study demonstrated COS increased IκB expression, attenuated the increase of p65 and thus decreased NF-κB/DNA binding activity in PQ-stimulated RGC-5 cells. In conclusion, COS attenuates oxidative stress-induced retinal damages, probably by decreasing free radicals, maintaining the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  16. Myeloid differentiation protein 2-dependent mechanisms in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Luqing; Tao, Jianjian; Chen, Huaicheng; Bian, Yang; Yang, Xi; Chen, Gaozhi; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Guang; Wu, Wencan; Song, Zongming; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common pathological process in many eye disorders. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in retinal I/R injury. Recent studies show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in initiating sterile inflammatory response in retinal I/R. However, the molecular mechanism by which TLR4 is activated is not known. In this study, we show that retinal I/R injury involves a co-receptor of TLR4, myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2). Inhibition of MD2 prevented cell death and preserved retinal function following retinal I/R injury. We confirmed these findings using MD2 knockout mice. Furthermore, we utilized human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells) to show that oxidative stress-induced cell death as well as inflammatory response are mediated through MD2. Inhibition of MD2 through a chemical inhibitor or knockdown prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Oxidative stress was found to activate TLR4 in a MD2-dependent manner via increasing the expression of high mobility group box 1. In summary, our study shows that oxidative stress in retinal I/R injury can activate TLR4 signaling via MD2, resulting in induction of inflammatory genes and retinal damage. MD2 may represent an attractive therapeutic target for retinal I/R injury. - Highlights: • MD2 inhibition reduced retinal damage after I/R induction in mice. • TBHP induced TLR4/MD2 binding via increasing HMGB-1 expression. • TLR4/MD2 initiated inflammatory response via activation of MAPKs and NF-κB. • MD2 could be the therapeutic target for the treatment of retinal I/R.

  17. Myeloid differentiation protein 2-dependent mechanisms in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Luqing [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Tao, Jianjian; Chen, Huaicheng; Bian, Yang; Yang, Xi [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); The Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Chen, Gaozhi; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Guang [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wu, Wencan, E-mail: wuwencan118@163.com [The Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Song, Zongming, E-mail: szmeyes@126.com [The Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Yi, E-mail: yi.wang1122@wmu.edu.cn [Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-02-15

    Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common pathological process in many eye disorders. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in retinal I/R injury. Recent studies show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in initiating sterile inflammatory response in retinal I/R. However, the molecular mechanism by which TLR4 is activated is not known. In this study, we show that retinal I/R injury involves a co-receptor of TLR4, myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2). Inhibition of MD2 prevented cell death and preserved retinal function following retinal I/R injury. We confirmed these findings using MD2 knockout mice. Furthermore, we utilized human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells) to show that oxidative stress-induced cell death as well as inflammatory response are mediated through MD2. Inhibition of MD2 through a chemical inhibitor or knockdown prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Oxidative stress was found to activate TLR4 in a MD2-dependent manner via increasing the expression of high mobility group box 1. In summary, our study shows that oxidative stress in retinal I/R injury can activate TLR4 signaling via MD2, resulting in induction of inflammatory genes and retinal damage. MD2 may represent an attractive therapeutic target for retinal I/R injury. - Highlights: • MD2 inhibition reduced retinal damage after I/R induction in mice. • TBHP induced TLR4/MD2 binding via increasing HMGB-1 expression. • TLR4/MD2 initiated inflammatory response via activation of MAPKs and NF-κB. • MD2 could be the therapeutic target for the treatment of retinal I/R.

  18. Doubler system quench detection threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepke, K.; Kuchnir, M.; Martin, P.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental study leading to the determination of the sensitivity needed for protecting the Fermilab Doubler from damage during quenches is presented. The quench voltage thresholds involved were obtained from measurements made on Doubler cable of resistance x temperature and voltage x time during quenches under several currents and from data collected during operation of the Doubler Quench Protection System as implemented in the B-12 string of 20 magnets. At 4kA, a quench voltage threshold in excess of 5.OV will limit the peak Doubler cable temperature to 452K for quenches originating in the magnet coils whereas a threshold of 0.5V is required for quenches originating outside of coils

  19. Erythropoietin protects the retinal pigment epithelial barrier against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zhanghongmei

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Results showed that, EPO increased the viability of H2O2-treated RPE cells, the disruption of .... in RPE damage that occurs in AMD and other retinal diseases of aging ..... However, preventing the cellular effects of ROIs in the.

  20. Growth, spectral, optical, laser damage threshold and DFT investigations on 2-amino 4-methyl pyridinium 4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB): A potential organic third order nonlinear optical material for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, M.; Karthick, S.; Thirupugalmani, K.; Babu, B.; Vinitha, G.

    2018-05-01

    In present investigation, single crystals of organic charge transfer complex, 2-amino-4-methyl pyridinium-4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB) was grown by controlled slow evaporation solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent at room temperature. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed the crystal system and lattice parameters of 2A4MP4MB. The crystalline nature, presence of various vibrational modes and other chemical bonds in the compound have been recognized and confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques respectively. The presence of various proton and carbon positions in title compound was confirmed using 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The wide optical operating window and cut-off wavelength were identified and band gap value of the title compound was calculated using UV-vis-NIR study. The specific heat capacity (cp) values of the title compound, 1.712 J g-1·K-1 at 300 K and 13.6 J g-1 K-1 at 433 K (melting point) were measured using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies (MDSC). From Z-scan study, nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) values were determined. The self-defocusing effect and saturable absorption behavior of the material were utilized to exhibit the optical limiting action at λ = 532 nm by employing the same continuous wave (cw) Nd: YAG laser source. The laser damage threshold (LDT) study of title compound was carried out using Nd: YAG laser of 532 nm wavelength. The Vickers' micro hardness test was carried out at room temperature and obtained results were investigated using classical Meyer's law. In addition, DFT calculations were carried out for the first time for this compound. These characterization studies performed on the title compound planned to probe the valuable and safe region of optical, thermal and mechanical properties to improve efficacy of 2A4MP4MB single crystals in optoelectronic device

  1. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  2. Retinal tear presenting in a patient with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jane Ann; Port, Nicholas; Graham, Trevor

    2014-04-01

    This article aims to report a case of known ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia in a young male patient who subsequently was found to have a retinal tear and localized retinal detachment. This is a case report of a 22-year-old white male patient with a history of ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia. Our patient initially presented with an acute exacerbation of bilateral, red, irritated eyes. No recent changes in vision were reported. The patient's ocular surface disease was consistent with ectrodermal dysplasia syndrome. However, a dilated fundus examination revealed an asymptomatic retinal tear with a surrounding localized retinal detachment. In this case, the patient presented with longstanding ocular surface disease known to be associated with this patient's inherited ectoderm disorder. In addition, this patient revealed a retinal tear, raising the possibility that patients with inherited congenital ectodermal dysplasia could be at risk for damaged structures originating from the neural ectoderm. In this heterogeneous disease, we are contributing to the existing literature a case of ectodermal dysplasia syndrome with obvious ectodermal complications that also had retinal findings leading us to speculate question if neural ectoderm could also be involved in this inherited disease.

  3. Realtime temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Koinzer, Stefan; Schlott, Kerstin; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Miura, Yoko; Birngruber, Reginald; Roider, Johann

    2011-03-01

    Retinal photocoagulation is a long time established treatment for a variety of retinal diseases, most commonly applied for diabetic macular edema and diabetic retinopathy. The damage extent of the induced thermal coagulations depend on the temperature increase and the time of irradiation. So far, the induced temperature rise is unknown due to intraocular variations in light transmission and scattering and RPE/choroidal pigmentation, which can vary inter- and intraindividually by more than a factor of four. Thus in clinical practice, often stronger and deeper coagulations are applied than therapeutically needed, which lead to extended retinal damage and strong pain perception. The final goal of this project focuses on a dosimetry control, which automatically generates a desired temperature profile and thus coagulation strength for every individual coagulation spot, ideally unburden the ophthalmologist from any laser settings. In this paper we present the first realtime temperature measurements achieved on patients during retinal photocoagulation by means of an optoacoustic method, making use of the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient of retinal tissue. Therefore, nanosecond probe laser pulses are repetitively and simultaneously applied with the treatment radiation in order to excite acoustic waves, which are detected at the cornea with an ultrasonic transducer embedded in the contact lens and then are processed by PC.

  4. Live-cell imaging: new avenues to investigate retinal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Lahne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and responding to our environment requires functional neurons that act in concert. Neuronal cell loss resulting from degenerative diseases cannot be replaced in humans, causing a functional impairment to integrate and/or respond to sensory cues. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio possess an endogenous capacity to regenerate lost neurons. Here, we will focus on the processes that lead to neuronal regeneration in the zebrafish retina. Dying retinal neurons release a damage signal, tumor necrosis factor α, which induces the resident radial glia, the Müller glia, to reprogram and re-enter the cell cycle. The Müller glia divide asymmetrically to produce a Müller glia that exits the cell cycle and a neuronal progenitor cell. The arising neuronal progenitor cells undergo several rounds of cell divisions before they migrate to the site of damage to differentiate into the neuronal cell types that were lost. Molecular and immunohistochemical studies have predominantly provided insight into the mechanisms that regulate retinal regeneration. However, many processes during retinal regeneration are dynamic and require live-cell imaging to fully discern the underlying mechanisms. Recently, a multiphoton imaging approach of adult zebrafish retinal cultures was developed. We will discuss the use of live-cell imaging, the currently available tools and those that need to be developed to advance our knowledge on major open questions in the field of retinal regeneration.

  5. Reversibility of retinal ischemia due to central retinal artery occlusion by hyperbaric oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadanny A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amir Hadanny,1,2 Amit Maliar,1 Gregory Fishlev,1 Yair Bechor,1 Jacob Bergan,1 Mony Friedman,1 Isaac Avni,2,3 Shai Efrati1,2,4,5 1Sagol Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Research, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 3Opthalmology Department, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zeirifin, Israel; 4Research and Development Unit, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel; 5Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel Purpose: Ischemic retinal damage can be reversed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT as long as irreversible infarction damage has not developed. However, the time window till irreversible damage develops is still unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effect of HBOT and determine possible markers for irreversible retinal damage.Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of 225 patients treated with HBOT for central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in 1999–2015. One hundred and twenty-eight patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria: age >18 years, symptoms <20 hours, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA <0.5 logMAR.Results: Time delay from symptoms to treatment was 7.8±3.8 hours. The BCVA was significantly improved after HBOT, from 2.14±0.50 to 1.61±0.78 (P<0.0001. The proportion of patients with clinically meaningful visual improvement was significantly higher in patients without cherry-red spot (CRS compared to patients with CRS at presentation (86.0% vs 57.6%, P<0.0001. The percentage of patients with final BCVA better than 1.0 was also significantly higher in patients without CRS vs patients with CRS at presentation (61.0% vs 7.1%, P<0.0001. There was no correlation between CRS and the time from symptoms. HBOT was found to be safe, and only 5.5% of patients had minor, reversible, adverse events.Conclusion: HBOT is an effective treatment for non-arteritic CRAO as long as CRS has not formed. The fundus findings, rather

  6. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  7. Peripheral retinal degenerations and the risk of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hilel

    2003-07-01

    To review the degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship with the risk to develop a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to present recommendations for use in eyes at increased risk of developing a retinal detachment. Focused literature review and author's clinical experience. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina, and most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and, rarely, zonular traction tufts, can result in a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic therapy; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Well-designed, prospective, randomized clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefit-risk ratio of prophylactic treatment. In the meantime, the evidence available suggests that most of the peripheral retinal degenerations should not be treated except in rare, high-risk situations.

  8. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection using morphological component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Elaheh; Javidi, Malihe; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza

    2015-03-01

    Detection and quantitative measurement of variations in the retinal blood vessels can help diagnose several diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Intrinsic characteristics of abnormal retinal images make blood vessel detection difficult. The major problem with traditional vessel segmentation algorithms is producing false positive vessels in the presence of diabetic retinopathy lesions. To overcome this problem, a novel scheme for extracting retinal blood vessels based on morphological component analysis (MCA) algorithm is presented in this paper. MCA was developed based on sparse representation of signals. This algorithm assumes that each signal is a linear combination of several morphologically distinct components. In the proposed method, the MCA algorithm with appropriate transforms is adopted to separate vessels and lesions from each other. Afterwards, the Morlet Wavelet Transform is applied to enhance the retinal vessels. The final vessel map is obtained by adaptive thresholding. The performance of the proposed method is measured on the publicly available DRIVE and STARE datasets and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. An accuracy of 0.9523 and 0.9590 has been respectively achieved on the DRIVE and STARE datasets, which are not only greater than most methods, but are also superior to the second human observer's performance. The results show that the proposed method can achieve improved detection in abnormal retinal images and decrease false positive vessels in pathological regions compared to other methods. Also, the robustness of the method in the presence of noise is shown via experimental result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Re-examination of the threshold energy surface in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Benedek, R.; Merkle, K.L.; Meshii, M.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced defect production in copper has been studied using in-situ electrical resistivity damage-rate measurements in the HVEM and molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of the results yields a threshold energy surface characterized by two isolated pockets of low threshold energy centered at and surrounded by regions of much higher threshold energy; the corresponding damage function exhibits a plateau at 0.65 Frenkel pairs. A Frenkel pair resistivity of (2.75/sub -0.2/ + 0 6 ) x 10 - 4 Ω-cm is proposed. A model damage function is constructed and compared to results from ion irradiation damage-rate measurements. 7 figures

  10. Retinal Protection and Distribution of Curcumin in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara B. M. Platania

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR, a secondary complication of diabetes, is a leading cause of irreversible blindness accounting for 5% of world blindness cases in working age. Oxidative stress and inflammation are considered causes of DR. Curcumin, a product with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, is currently proposed as oral supplementation therapy for retinal degenerative diseases, including DR. In this study we predicted the pharmacodynamic profile of curcumin through an in silico approach. Furthermore, we tested the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin on human retinal pigmented epithelial cells exposed to oxidative stress, human retinal endothelial and human retinal pericytes (HRPCs cultured with high glucose. Because currently marketed curcumin nutraceutical products have not been so far evaluated for their ocular bioavailability; we assessed retinal distribution of curcumin, following oral administration, in rabbit eye. Curcumin (10 μM decreased significantly (p < 0.01 ROS concentration and TNF-α release in retinal pigmented epithelial cells and retinal endothelial cells, respectively. The same curcumin concentration significantly (p < 0.01 protected retinal pericytes from high glucose damage as assessed by cell viability and LDH release. Among the tested formulations, only that containing a hydrophilic carrier provided therapeutic levels of curcumin in rabbit retina. In conclusion, our data suggest that curcumin, when properly formulated, may be of value in clinical practice to manage retinal diseases.

  11. Characterization of Multiple Light Damage Paradigms Reveals Regional Differences in Photoreceptor Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Craig M.; Luo, Xixia; Hyde, David R.; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish provide an attractive model to study the retinal response to photoreceptor apoptosis due to its remarkable ability to spontaneously regenerate retinal neurons following damage. There are currently two widely used light-induced retinal degeneration models to damage photoreceptors in the adult zebrafish. One model uses constant bright light, whereas the other uses a short exposure to extremely intense ultraviolet light. Although both models are currently used, it is unclear whether th...

  12. Regenerating reptile retinas: a comparative approach to restoring retinal ganglion cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D L

    2017-02-01

    Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.

  13. Real time speckle monitoring to control retinal photocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    Photocoagulation is a treatment modality for several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the retinal absorption as well as ocular transmission and light scattering makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure with one set of laser parameters. To guarantee a uniform damage throughout the therapy a real-time control is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real-time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis in-vivo is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633 nm diode laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. An algorithm is presented that can discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes and that seems to be robust to noise in-vivo. Tissue changes in rabbits during retinal coagulation could be observed for different lesion strengths. This algorithm can run on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage.

  14. Retinitis pigmentosa and deafness.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, R P; Calver, D M

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) have been investigated audiologically. Of 9 found to have a significant hearing loss, 6 were examples of Usher's syndrome; these patients had a cochlear pattern of hearing loss. The other 3 were examples of Senior's syndrome, Kearne-Sayre syndrome and Lawrence-Moon-Biedle syndrome respectively. Two of these patients had absent stapedius reflexes. It is suggested that patients with different RP-deafness syndromes may have lesions in different p...

  15. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-13

    Eye Diseases Hereditary; Retinal Disease; Achromatopsia; Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; Bassen-Kornzweig Syndrome; Batten Disease; Best Disease; Choroidal Dystrophy; Choroideremia; Cone Dystrophy; Cone-Rod Dystrophy; Congenital Stationary Night Blindness; Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome; Fundus Albipunctatus; Goldmann-Favre Syndrome; Gyrate Atrophy; Juvenile Macular Degeneration; Kearns-Sayre Syndrome; Leber Congenital Amaurosis; Refsum Syndrome; Retinitis Pigmentosa; Retinitis Punctata Albescens; Retinoschisis; Rod-Cone Dystrophy; Rod Dystrophy; Rod Monochromacy; Stargardt Disease; Usher Syndrome

  16. Outcomes in bullous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Read

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions and importance: GRTs are an uncommon cause of retinal detachment. While pars plana vitrectomy with tamponade is standard in GRT management, there is variability in the use of scleral buckling and PFO in these cases. This is in contrast to retinal dialysis where scleral buckle alone can yield favorable results. Though a baseball ocular trauma is common, retinal involvement is rare compared to other sports injuries such as those occurring with tennis, soccer and golf. Sports trauma remains an important cause of retinal injury and patients should be counseled on the need for eye protection.

  17. Retinal Thickening and Photoreceptor Loss in HIV Eyes without Retinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Arcinue

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of structural changes in HIV retinae (i.e., photoreceptor density and retinal thickness in the macula compared with age-matched HIV-negative controls.Cohort of patients with known HIV under CART (combination Antiretroviral Therapy treatment were examined with a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera to assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to assess retinal layers and retinal thickness.Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (n = 6 HIV-positive and 6 HIV-negative were imaged with the adaptive optics camera. In each of the regions of interest studied (nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, the HIV group had significantly less mean cone photoreceptor density compared with age-matched controls (difference range, 4,308-6,872 cones/mm2. A different subset of forty eyes of 20 patients (n = 10 HIV-positive and 10 HIV-negative was included in the retinal thickness measurements and retinal layer segmentation with the SD-OCT. We observed significant thickening in HIV positive eyes in the total retinal thickness at the foveal center, and in each of the three horizontal B-scans (through the macular center, superior, and inferior to the fovea. We also noted that the inner retina (combined thickness from ILM through RNFL to GCL layer was also significantly thickened in all the different locations scanned compared with HIV-negative controls.Our present study shows that the cone photoreceptor density is significantly reduced in HIV retinae compared with age-matched controls. HIV retinae also have increased macular retinal thickness that may be caused by inner retinal edema secondary to retinovascular disease in HIV. The interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE, as well as possible low-grade ocular inflammation causing diffuse inner retinal edema, may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients without overt retinitis.

  18. Threshold quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding

  19. Retinal Diseases Associated with Oxidative Stress and the Effects of a Free Radical Scavenger (Edaravone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Masuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in developing and accelerating retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR, and retinal vein occlusion (RVO. An excess amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS can lead to functional and morphological impairments in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, endothelial cells, and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Here we demonstrate that edaravone, a free radical scavenger, decreased apoptotic cell death, oxidative damage to DNA and lipids, and angiogenesis through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in AMD, glaucoma, DR, and RVO animal models. These data suggest that the therapeutic strategy for targeting oxidative stress may be important for the treatment of these ocular diseases, and edaravone may be useful for treating retinal diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  20. Retinal Diseases Associated with Oxidative Stress and the Effects of a Free Radical Scavenger (Edaravone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in developing and accelerating retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). An excess amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to functional and morphological impairments in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), endothelial cells, and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we demonstrate that edaravone, a free radical scavenger, decreased apoptotic cell death, oxidative damage to DNA and lipids, and angiogenesis through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in AMD, glaucoma, DR, and RVO animal models. These data suggest that the therapeutic strategy for targeting oxidative stress may be important for the treatment of these ocular diseases, and edaravone may be useful for treating retinal diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:28194256

  1. Primary Retinal Cultures as a Tool for Modeling Diabetic Retinopathy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Matteucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental models of diabetic retinopathy (DR have had a crucial role in the comprehension of the pathophysiology of the disease and the identification of new therapeutic strategies. Most of these studies have been conducted in vivo, in animal models. However, a significant contribution has also been provided by studies on retinal cultures, especially regarding the effects of the potentially toxic components of the diabetic milieu on retinal cell homeostasis, the characterization of the mechanisms on the basis of retinal damage, and the identification of potentially protective molecules. In this review, we highlight the contribution given by primary retinal cultures to the study of DR, focusing on early neuroglial impairment. We also speculate on possible themes into which studies based on retinal cell cultures could provide deeper insight.

  2. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  3. Advances in Bone Marrow Stem Cell Therapy for Retinal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susanna S.; Moisseiev, Elad; Bauer, Gerhard; Anderson, Johnathon D.; Grant, Maria B.; Zam, Azhar; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue. Since the paracrine trophic effects can have regenerative effects on multiple cells in the retina, the use of this cell therapy is not limited to a particular retinal condition. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells are being explored in early clinical trials as therapy for various retinal conditions. These bone marrow stem cells include mesenchymal stem cells, mononuclear cells and CD34+ cells. Autologous therapy requires no systemic immunosuppression or donor matching. Intravitreal delivery of CD34+ cells and mononuclear cells appears to be tolerated and is being explored since some of these cells can home into the damaged retina after intravitreal administration. The safety of intravitreal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells has not been well established. This review provides an update of the current evidence in support of the use of bone marrow stem cells as treatment for retinal dysfunction. The potential limitations and complications of using certain forms of bone marrow stem cells as therapy are discussed. Future directions of research include methods to optimize the therapeutic potential of these stem cells, non-cellular alternatives using extracellular vesicles, and in vivo high-resolution retinal imaging to detect cellular changes in the retina following cell therapy. PMID:27784628

  4. Improved photoacoustic dosimetry for retinal laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Suzie; Brown, Robert B.; Gallant, Pascal; Mermut, Ozzy

    2018-02-01

    Lasers are employed for numerous medical interventions by exploiting ablative, disruptive or thermal effects. In ocular procedures, lasers have been used for decades to treat diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, macular edema and aged related macular degeneration via photocoagulation of retinal tissues. Although laser photocoagulation is well established in today's practice, efforts to improve clinical outcomes by reducing the collateral damage from thermal diffusion is leading to novel treatments using shorter (μs) laser pulses (e.g. selective retinal therapy) which result in physical rather than thermal damage. However, for these new techniques to be widely utilized, a method is required to ensure safe but sufficient dosage has been applied, since no visible effects can be seen by ophthalmoscopy directly post treatment. Photoacoustic feedback presents an attractive solution, as the signal is dependent directly on absorbed dosage. Here, we present a method that takes advantage of temporal pulse formatting technology to minimize variation in absorbed dose in ophthalmic laser treatment and provide intelligent dosimetry feedback based on photoacoustic (PA) response. This method tailors the pulse to match the frequency response of the sample and/or detection chain. Depending on the system, this may include the absorbing particle size, the laser beam diameter, the laser pulse duration, tissue acoustic properties and the acoustic detector frequency response. A significant improvement (<7x) of photoacoustic signal-to-noise ratio over equivalent traditional pulse formats have been achieved, while spectral analysis of the detected signal provides indications of cavitation events and other sample properties.

  5. Impaired Retinal Vasodilator Responses in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Mary E.J.; Slocomb, Julia E.; Shivkumar, Vikram; Smith, Bruce; Quillen, David; Gabbay, Robert A.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Bettermann, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, endothelial dysfunction and subsequent structural damage to blood vessels can lead to heart attacks, retinopathy and strokes. However, it is unclear whether prediabetic subjects exhibit microvascular dysfunction indicating early stages of arteriosclerosis and vascular risk. The purpose of this study was to examine whether retinal reactivity may be impaired early in the hyperglycemic continuum and may be associated with markers of inflammation. Methods Individuals with prediabetes (n = 22), type 2 diabetes (n = 25) and healthy age and body composition matched controls (n = 19) were studied. We used the Dynamic Vessel Analyzer to assess retinal vasoreactivity (percent change in vessel diameter) during a flickering light stimulation. Fasting highly sensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a marker of inflammation, was measured in blood plasma. Results Prediabetic and diabetic individuals had attenuated peak vasodilator and relative amplitude changes in retinal vein diameters to the flickering light stimulus compared to healthy controls (peak dilation: prediabetic subjects 3.3 ± 1.8 %, diabetic subjects 3.3 ± 2.1% controls 5.6 ± 2.6%, p = .001; relative amplitude: prediabetic subjects 4.3 ± 2.2%, diabetic subjects 5.0 ± 2.6% and control subjects 7.2 ± 3.2%, p = .003). Similar findings were observed in retinal arteries. Levels of hs-CRP were not associated with either retinal vessel response parameters. Conclusion Retinal reactivity was impaired in prediabetic and type 2 diabetic individuals in parallel with reduced insulin sensitivity but not associated with levels of hs-CRP. Retinal vasoreactivity measurements may be a sensitive tool to assess early vascular risk. PMID:23742315

  6. Plastic roles of pericytes in the blood-retinal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do Young; Lee, Junyeop; Kim, Jaeryung; Kim, Kangsan; Hong, Seonpyo; Han, Sangyeul; Kubota, Yoshiaki; Augustin, Hellmut G; Ding, Lei; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Hail; He, Yulong; Adams, Ralf H; Koh, Gou Young

    2017-05-16

    The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) consists of tightly interconnected capillary endothelial cells covered with pericytes and glia, but the role of the pericytes in BRB regulation is not fully understood. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B/PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signalling is critical in formation and maturation of BRB through active recruitment of pericytes onto growing retinal vessels. Impaired pericyte recruitment to the vessels shows multiple vascular hallmarks of diabetic retinopathy (DR) due to BRB disruption. However, PDGF-B/PDGFRβ signalling is expendable for maintaining BRB integrity in adult mice. Although selective pericyte loss in stable adult retinal vessels surprisingly does not cause BRB disintegration, it sensitizes retinal vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to VEGF-A, leading to upregulation of angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in ECs through FOXO1 activation and triggering a positive feedback that resembles the pathogenesis of DR. Accordingly, either blocking Ang2 or activating Tie2 greatly attenuates BRB breakdown, suggesting potential therapeutic approaches to reduce retinal damages upon DR progression.

  7. Müller stem cell dependent retinal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Annu; Singh, Usha; Kumar, Atul; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    Müller Stem cells to treat ocular diseases has triggered enthusiasm across all medical and scientific communities. Recent development in the field of stem cells has widened the prospects of applying cell based therapies to regenerate ocular tissues that have been irreversibly damaged by disease or injury. Ocular tissues such as the lens and the retina are now known to possess cell having remarkable regenerative abilities. Recent studies have shown that the Müller glia, a cell found in all vertebrate retinas, is the primary source of new neurons, and therefore are considered as the cellular basis for retinal regeneration in mammalian retinas. Here, we review the current status of retinal regeneration of the human eye by Müller stem cells. This review elucidates the current status of retinal regeneration by Müller stem cells, along with major retinal degenerative diseases where these stem cells play regenerative role in retinal repair and replacement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Non-damaging laser therapy of the macula: Titration algorithm and tissue response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Lavinsky, Daniel; Dalal, Roopa; Huie, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Retinal photocoagulation typically results in permanent scarring and scotomata, which limit its applicability to the macula, preclude treatments in the fovea, and restrict the retreatments. Non-damaging approaches to laser therapy have been tested in the past, but the lack of reliable titration and slow treatment paradigms limited their clinical use. We developed and tested a titration algorithm for sub-visible and non-damaging treatments of the retina with pulses sufficiently short to be used with pattern laser scanning. The algorithm based on Arrhenius model of tissue damage optimizes the power and duration for every energy level, relative to the threshold of lesion visibility established during titration (and defined as 100%). Experiments with pigmented rabbits established that lesions in the 50-75% energy range were invisible ophthalmoscopically, but detectable with Fluorescein Angiography and OCT, while at 30% energy there was only very minor damage to the RPE, which recovered within a few days. Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) and Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) have been treated over the edematous areas at 30% energy, using 200μm spots with 0.25 diameter spacing. No signs of laser damage have been detected with any imaging modality. In CSR patients, subretinal fluid resolved within 45 days. In DME patients the edema decreased by approximately 150μm over 60 days. After 3-4 months some patients presented with recurrence of edema, and they responded well to retreatment with the same parameters, without any clinically visible damage. This pilot data indicates a possibility of effective and repeatable macular laser therapy below the tissue damage threshold.

  9. Retinal astrocytoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Keiichi; Kice, Nathan; Ota-Kuroki, Juri

    2017-09-01

    A miniature schnauzer dog presenting with hyphema and glaucoma of the right eye had a retinal neoplasm. Neoplastic cells stained positively for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and S-100 and largely negatively for oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 by immunohistochemistry. The clinical and histopathological features of canine retinal astrocytomas are discussed.

  10. Non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, S.K. (Sanne K.); R.A.C. van Huet (Ramon A. C.); C.J.F. Boon (Camiel); A.I. Hollander (Anneke); R.W.J. Collin (Rob); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); C. Hoyng (Carel); R. Roepman (Ronald); B.J. Klevering (Jeroen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractRetinitis pigmentosa (RP) encompasses a group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterized by the primary degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors. RP is a leading cause of visual disability, with a worldwide prevalence of 1:4000. Although the majority of RP cases are non-syndromic,

  11. Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world that includes age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, the review is devoted to retinal imaging and image analysis methods and their clinical implications. Methods for 2-D fundus imaging and techniques for 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are reviewed. Special attention is given to quantitative techniques for analysis of fundus photographs with a focus on clinically relevant assessment of retinal vasculature, identification of retinal lesions, assessment of optic nerve head (ONH) shape, building retinal atlases, and to automated methods for population screening for retinal diseases. A separate section is devoted to 3-D analysis of OCT images, describing methods for segmentation and analysis of retinal layers, retinal vasculature, and 2-D/3-D detection of symptomatic exudate-associated derangements, as well as to OCT-based analysis of ONH morphology and shape. Throughout the paper, aspects of image acquisition, image analysis, and clinical relevance are treated together considering their mutually interlinked relationships. PMID:22275207

  12. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using...... a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf...... arterial oxygen saturation and the optical density ratio over retinal arteries revealed an approximately linear relationship (R(2) = 0.74, p = 3.4 x 10(-9)). In order to test the validity of applying the arterial calibration to veins, we compared non-invasive oximetry measurements to invasive pO2...

  13. Fiber-delivered mid-infrared (6-7) laser ablation of retinal tissue under perfluorodecalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A.; Joos, Karen M.; Jansen, E. Duco

    2003-07-01

    The Er:YAG laser (l=2.94mm) is an effective tool in vitreo-retinal surgery. Pulsed mid-infrared (l=6.45 mm) radiation from the Free Electron Laser has been touted as a potentially superior cutting tool. To date, use of this laser has been limited to applications in an air environment. The goal of this study was: 1) determine feasibility of fiberoptic delivery of 6.45mm using silverhalide fibers (d=700mm); 2) use infrared transparent vitreous substitute (perfluorodecalin) to allow non-contact ablation of the retina at 6.45mm. Fiber damage threshold=7.8J/cm2 (0.54GW/cm2) while transmission loss=0.54dB/m, allowing supra-ablative radiant exposures to the target. FTIR measurements of perfluorodecalin at 6.45mm yielded ma=3mm-1. Pump-probe imaging of ablation of a tissue-phantom through perfluorodecalin showed feasibility of non-contact ablation at l=6.45mm. Ablation of the retinal membranes of enucleated pig eyes was carried out under perfluorodecalin (5 Hz, 1.3 J/cm2). Each eye was cut along its equator to expose the retina. Vitreous was replaced by perfluorodecalin and laser radiation was delivered to the retina via the silverhalide fiber. The eye was rotated (at 2 rpm) using a stepper motor (0.9o/step) to create an ablation circle around the central axis of the retina (50% spot-to-spot overlap). Histological analysis of ablation yield and collateral damage will be presented. We have shown that using l=6.45mm delivered via silver halide fibers through perfluorodecalin allowed non-contact laser ablation. Remote structures are shielded, as the radiant exposure falls below the ablation threshold owing non-negligible absorption of perfluorodecalin at 6.45mm. This may optimize efficacy and safety of laser-based vitreoretinal surgery.

  14. Computational analysis of thresholds for magnetophosphenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    In international guidelines, basic restriction limits on the exposure of humans to low-frequency magnetic and electric fields are set with the objective of preventing the generation of phosphenes, visual sensations of flashing light not caused by light. Measured data on magnetophosphenes, i.e. phosphenes caused by a magnetically induced electric field on the retina, are available from volunteer studies. However, there is no simple way for determining the retinal threshold electric field or current density from the measured threshold magnetic flux density. In this study, the experimental field configuration of a previous study, in which phosphenes were generated in volunteers by exposing their heads to a magnetic field between the poles of an electromagnet, is computationally reproduced. The finite-element method is used for determining the induced electric field and current in five different MRI-based anatomical models of the head. The direction of the induced current density on the retina is dominantly radial to the eyeball, and the maximum induced current density is observed at the superior and inferior sides of the retina, which agrees with literature data on the location of magnetophosphenes at the periphery of the visual field. On the basis of computed data, the macroscopic retinal threshold current density for phosphenes at 20 Hz can be estimated as 10 mA m −2 (−20% to  + 30%, depending on the anatomical model); this current density corresponds to an induced eddy current of 14 μA (−20% to  + 10%), and about 20% of this eddy current flows through each eye. The ICNIRP basic restriction limit for the induced electric field in the case of occupational exposure is not exceeded until the magnetic flux density is about two to three times the measured threshold for magnetophosphenes, so the basic restriction limit does not seem to be conservative. However, the reasons for the non-conservativeness are purely technical: removal of the highest 1% of

  15. Changes of retinal light sensitivity after YAG-laser capsulotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahor, D.; Gracner, B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the changes of retinal light sensitivity of central visual field in patients with posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after YAG-laser capsulotomy. Our study includes 18 eyes ( 18 patients) with PCO after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. In all patients YAG-laser capsulotomy was performed. In all patients, a threshold visual field analysis was carried out with the C 30-2 program of the automated Humphrey Field Analyzer before and one month after the procedure. In all patients a significant improvement of visual acuity was observed one month after capsulotomy (p 0.00004). One month after YAG-laser treatment, a significant improvement of retinal light sensitivity in the central visual field was also observed. The average MD (mean deviation) before the procedure was -6.88 db (±3.9, max. -11.7, min. 2.17) and after the procedure --4.58 db (±4.37, max. -10.87, min. +0.51). The improvement in MD was statistically significant (p = 0.00475). No correlation was established between the improvement of retinal light sensitivity and patient age or the size of capsulotomy. Our study shows that the improvement of retinal light sensitivity is significant after YAG-laser capsulotomy and does not depend on patient age or capsulotomy size. (author)

  16. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  17. Particles near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Willenbrock, S.

    1993-01-01

    We propose returning to the definition of the width of a particle in terms of the pole in the particle's propagator. Away from thresholds, this definition of width is equivalent to the standard perturbative definition, up to next-to-leading order; however, near a threshold, the two definitions differ significantly. The width as defined by the pole position provides more information in the threshold region than the standard perturbative definition and, in contrast with the perturbative definition, does not vanish when a two-particle s-wave threshold is approached from below

  18. Some considerations regarding the creep crack growth threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouless, M.D.; Evans, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The preceding analysis reveals that the existence of a threshold determined by the sintering stress does not influence the post threshold crack velocity. Considerations of the sintering stress can thus be conveniently excluded from analysis of the post threshold crack velocity. The presence of a crack growth threshold has been predicted, based on the existence of cavity nucleation controlled crack growth. A preliminary analysis of cavity nucleation rates within the damage zone reveals that this threshold is relatively abrupt, in accord with experimental observations. Consequently, at stress intensities below K /SUB th/ growth becomes nucleation limited and crack blunting occurs in preference to crack growth

  19. Noninvasive, in vivo assessment of mouse retinal structure using optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dominik Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a novel method of retinal in vivo imaging. In this study, we assessed the potential of OCT to yield histology-analogue sections in mouse models of retinal degeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We achieved to adapt a commercial 3(rd generation OCT system to obtain and quantify high-resolution morphological sections of the mouse retina which so far required in vitro histology. OCT and histology were compared in models with developmental defects, light damage, and inherited retinal degenerations. In conditional knockout mice deficient in retinal retinoblastoma protein Rb, the gradient of Cre expression from center to periphery, leading to a gradual reduction of retinal thickness, was clearly visible and well topographically quantifiable. In Nrl knockout mice, the layer involvement in the formation of rosette-like structures was similarly clear as in histology. OCT examination of focal light damage, well demarcated by the autofluorescence pattern, revealed a practically complete loss of photoreceptors with preservation of inner retinal layers, but also more subtle changes like edema formation. In Crb1 knockout mice (a model for Leber's congenital amaurosis, retinal vessels slipping through the outer nuclear layer towards the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE due to the lack of adhesion in the subapical region of the photoreceptor inner segments could be well identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that with the OCT we were able to detect and analyze a wide range of mouse retinal pathology, and the results compared well to histological sections. In addition, the technique allows to follow individual animals over time, thereby reducing the numbers of study animals needed, and to assess dynamic processes like edema formation. The results clearly indicate that OCT has the potential to revolutionize the future design of respective short- and long-term studies, as well as the preclinical

  20. Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

    2013-03-01

    Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

  1. Bilateral patching in retinal detachment: fluid mechanics and retinal "settling".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J

    2011-07-20

    When a patient suffers a retinal detachment and surgery is delayed, it is known clinically that bilaterally patching the patient may allow the retina to partially reattach or "settle." Although this procedure has been performed since the 1860s, there is still debate as to how such a maneuver facilitates the reattachment of the retina. Finite element calculations using commercially available analysis software are used to elucidate the influence of reduction in eye movement caused by bilateral patching on the flow of subretinal fluid in a physical model of retinal detachment. It was found that by coupling fluid mechanics with structural mechanics, a physically consistent explanation of increased retinal detachment with eye movements can be found in the case of traction on the retinal hole. Large eye movements increase vitreous traction and detachment forces on the edge of the retinal hole, creating a subretinal vacuum and facilitating increased subretinal fluid. Alternative models, in which intraocular fluid flow is redirected into the subretinal space, are not consistent with these simulations. The results of these simulations explain the physical principles behind bilateral patching and provide insight that can be used clinically. In particular, as is known clinically, bilateral patching may facilitate a decrease in the height of a retinal detachment. The results described here provide a description of a physical mechanism underlying this technique. The findings of this study may aid in deciding whether to bilaterally patch patients and in counseling patients on pre- and postoperative care.

  2. A Novel Nanoparticle Mediated Selective Inner Retinal Photocoagulation for Diseases of the Inner Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupesh; Rajaraman, Srinivas; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan

    2017-10-01

    A novel nanoparticle mediated methodology for laser photocoagulation of the inner retina to achieve tissue selective treatment is presented. Transport of 527, 577, and 810 nm laser, heat deposition, and eventual thermal damage in vitreous, retina, RPE, choroid, and sclera were modeled using Bouguer-Beer-Lambert law of absorption and solved numerically using the finite volume method. Nanoparticles were designed using Mie theory of scattering. Performance of the new photocoagulation strategy using gold nanospheres and gold-silica nanoshells was compared with that of conventional methods without nanoparticles. For experimental validation, vitreous cavity of ex vivo porcine eyes was infused with gold nanospheres. After ~6 h of nanoparticle diffusion, the porcine retina was irradiated with a green laser and imaged simultaneously using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis SD-OCT, Heidelberg Engineering). Our computational model predicted a significant spatial shift in the peak temperature from RPE to the inner retinal region when infused with nanoparticles. Arrhenius thermal damage in the mid-retinal location was achieved in ~14 ms for 527 nm laser thereby reducing the irradiation duration by ~30 ms compared with the treatment without nanoparticles. In ex vivo porcine eyes infused with gold nanospheres, SD-OCT retinal images revealed a lower thermal damage and expansion at RPE due to laser photocoagulation. Nanoparticle infused laser photocoagulation strategy provided a selective inner retinal thermal damage with significant decrease in laser power and laser exposure time. The proposed treatment strategy shows possibilities for an efficient and highly selective inner retinal laser treatment.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. ... in known genes account for 58% of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008; ...

  4. Automated detection of retinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmchen, Lorens A; Lehmann, Harold P; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Nearly 4 in 10 Americans with diabetes currently fail to undergo recommended annual retinal exams, resulting in tens of thousands of cases of blindness that could have been prevented. Advances in automated retinal disease detection could greatly reduce the burden of labor-intensive dilated retinal examinations by ophthalmologists and optometrists and deliver diagnostic services at lower cost. As the current availability of ophthalmologists and optometrists is inadequate to screen all patients at risk every year, automated screening systems deployed in primary care settings and even in patients' homes could fill the current gap in supply. Expanding screens to all patients at risk by switching to automated detection systems would in turn yield significantly higher rates of detecting and treating diabetic retinopathy per dilated retinal examination. Fewer diabetic patients would develop complications such as blindness, while ophthalmologists could focus on more complex cases.

  5. Advances in Retinal Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxiu Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinal imaging has undergone a revolution in the past 50 years to allow for better understanding of the eye in health and disease. Significant improvements have occurred both in hardware such as lasers and optics in addition to software image analysis. Optical imaging modalities include optical coherence tomography (OCT, OCT angiography (OCTA, photoacoustic microscopy (PAM, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, adaptive optics (AO, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, and molecular imaging (MI. These imaging modalities have enabled improved visualization of retinal pathophysiology and have had a substantial impact on basic and translational medical research. These improvements in technology have translated into early disease detection, more accurate diagnosis, and improved management of numerous chorioretinal diseases. This article summarizes recent advances and applications of retinal optical imaging techniques, discusses current clinical challenges, and predicts future directions in retinal optical imaging.

  6. Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Grauslund, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks has been examined in several studies and reviews, but so far, no studies have successfully applied a systematic approach. In the present systematic review, we examined the need of follow-up after posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) - diagnosed by slit...... published before 2012. Four levels of screening identified 13 studies suitable for inclusion in this systematic review. No meta-analysis was conducted as no data suitable for statistical analysis were identified. In total, the initial examination after symptomatic PVD identified 85-95% of subsequent retinal......-47% of cases, respectively. The cumulated incidence of RRD despite prophylactic treatment was 2.1-8.8%. The findings in this review suggest that follow-up after symptomatic PVD is only necessary in cases of incomplete retinal examination at presentation. Prophylactic treatment of symptomatic retinal breaks...

  7. SirT1—A Sensor for Monitoring Self-Renewal and Aging Process in Retinal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsien Peng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinal stem cells bear potency of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation into many retinal cells. Utilizing appropriate sensors one can effectively detect the self-renewal and aging process abilities. Silencing information regulator (SirT1, a member of the sirtuin family, is a NAD-dependent histone deacetylase and an essential mediator for longevity in normal cells by calorie restriction. We firstly investigate the SirT1 mRNA expression in retinal stem cells from rats and 19 human eyes of different ages. Results revealed that SirT1 expression was significantly decreased in in vivo aged eyes, associated with poor self-renewal abilities. Additionally, SirT1 mRNA levels were dose-dependently increased in resveratrol- treated retinal stem cells. The expression of SirT1 on oxidative stress-induced damage was significantly decreased, negatively correlated with the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with resveratrol could effectively further reduce oxidative stress induced by H2O2 treatment in retinal stem cells. Importantly, the anti-oxidant effects of resveratrol in H2O2-treated retinal stem cells were significantly abolished by knockdown of SirT1 expression (sh-SirT1. SirT1 expression provides a feasible sensor in assessing self-renewal and aging process in retinal stem cells. Resveratrol can prevent reactive oxygen species-induced damages via increased retinal SirT1 expression.

  8. Concentric retinitis pigmentosa: clinicopathologic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, A H; De Castro, E B; Smith, J E; Tang, W X; John, S K; Gorin, M B; Stone, E M; Aguirre, G D; Jacobson, S G

    2001-10-01

    Progressive concentric (centripetal) loss of vision is one pattern of visual field loss in retinitis pigmentosa. This study provides the first clinicopathologic correlations for this form of retinitis pigmentosa. A family with autosomal dominant concentric retinitis pigmentosa was examined clinically and with visual function tests. A post-mortem eye of an affected 94 year old family member was processed for histopathology and immunocytochemistry with retinal cell specific antibodies. Unrelated simplex/multiplex patients with concentric retinitis pigmentosa were also examined. Affected family members of the eye donor and patients from the other families had prominent peripheral pigmentary retinopathy with more normal appearing central retina, good visual acuity, concentric field loss, normal or near normal rod and cone sensitivity within the preserved visual field, and reduced rod and cone electroretinograms. The eye donor, at age 90, had good acuity and function in a central island. Grossly, the central region of the donor retina appeared thinned but otherwise normal, while the far periphery contained heavy bone spicule pigment. Microscopically the central retina showed photoreceptor outer segment shortening and some photoreceptor cell loss. The mid periphery had a sharp line of demarcation where more central photoreceptors were near normal except for very short outer segments and peripheral photoreceptors were absent. Rods and cones showed abrupt loss of outer segments and cell death at this interface. It is concluded that concentric retinitis pigmentosa is a rare but recognizable phenotype with slowly progressive photoreceptor death from the far periphery toward the central retina. The disease is retina-wide but shows regional variation in severity of degeneration; photoreceptor death is severe in the peripheral retina with an abrupt edge between viable and degenerate photoreceptors. Peripheral to central gradients of unknown retinal molecule(s) may be defective

  9. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J T; Saxton, J; Hoffman, G

    1976-05-01

    A patient presented with unilateral findings of night blindness shown by impaired rod function and dark adaptation, constricted visual fields with good central acuity, a barely recordable electro-retinographic b-wave, and a unilaterally impaired electro-oculogram. There were none of the pigmentary changes usually associated with retinitis pigmentosa. The unaffected right eye was normal in all respects. Therefore the case is most probably one of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

  10. Light and inherited retinal degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Paskowitz, D M; LaVail, M M; Duncan, J L

    2006-01-01

    Light deprivation has long been considered a potential treatment for patients with inherited retinal degenerative diseases, but no therapeutic benefit has been demonstrated to date. In the few clinical studies that have addressed this issue, the underlying mutations were unknown. Our rapidly expanding knowledge of the genes and mechanisms involved in retinal degeneration have made it possible to reconsider the potential value of light restriction in specific genetic contexts. This review summ...

  11. Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injury and Visual Loss Using Sustained Release of Intra-Vitreal Neurotrophic Growth Factors. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    phagocytosed melanine granules. Significant microglial infiltration was present in different retinal layers (arrow heads in red boxes). 2 Figure...photoreceptor density, corresponds to human macula), c) set of linear scans through inferior/non-tapetal fundus (these scans were aligned vertically...degree of retinal pigmentation affects the degree of laser damage and recovery with treatment, analogous to humans with differing eye pigmentation

  12. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  13. Neuroprotective Effects of Citicoline in in Vitro Models of Retinal Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Matteucci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, citicoline has been the object of remarkable interest as a possible neuroprotectant. The aim of this study was to investigate if citicoline affected cell survival in primary retinal cultures and if it exerted neuroprotective activity in conditions modeling retinal neurodegeneration. Primary retinal cultures, obtained from rat embryos, were first treated with increasing concentrations of citicoline (up to 1000 µM and analyzed in terms of apoptosis and caspase activation and characterized by immunocytochemistry to identify neuronal and glial cells. Subsequently, excitotoxic concentration of glutamate or High Glucose-containing cell culture medium (HG was administered as well-known conditions modeling neurodegeneration. Glutamate or HG treatments were performed in the presence or not of citicoline. Neuronal degeneration was evaluated in terms of apoptosis and loss of synapses. The results showed that citicoline did not cause any damage to the retinal neuroglial population up to 1000 µM. At the concentration of 100 µM, it was able to counteract neuronal cell damage both in glutamate- and HG-treated retinal cultures by decreasing proapoptotic effects and contrasting synapse loss. These data confirm that citicoline can efficiently exert a neuroprotective activity. In addition, the results suggest that primary retinal cultures, under conditions inducing neurodegeneration, may represent a useful system to investigate citicoline neuroprotective mechanisms.

  14. Effect of substance P on recovery from laser-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Suna; Nam, Seungwoo; Um, Jihyun; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Son, Youngsook

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degeneration is caused by neovascularization and persistent inflammation in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid, and causes serious eye disease including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, inhibiting inflammation and neovascularization may be a primary approach to protect the retina from degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether substance P (SP), which can suppress inflammation and mobilize stem cells, can protect the RPE from degeneration. The effect of SP was evaluated by analyzing systemic inflammation, cell survival, and neovascularization within the argon laser-injured retina of mice. At 1 week postinjury, the SP-treated group had lower tumor necrosis factor-alpha and higher interleukin-10 serum concentrations, and a more intact retinal structure compared to the vehicle-treated group. In mice administered SP repeatedly for 4 weeks, the retinal structure appeared normal and showed sparse neovascularization, whereas the vehicle-treated group showed severe retinal destruction and dense neovascularization. Moreover, the efficacy of SP was identical to that of mesenchymal stem cells that were transplanted into the vitreous after retinal injury. This study highlights the potential for the endogenous neuropeptide SP as a treatment for retinal damage to prevent conditions such as AMD. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Human cadaver retina model for retinal heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yun, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Yan, Ying; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers are widely used in everyday clinical procedures to perform minimally invasive corneal refractive surgery. The intralase femtosecond laser (AMO Corp. Santa Ana, CA) is a common example of such a laser. In the present study a numerical simulation was developed to quantify the temperature rise in the retina during femtosecond intracorneal surgery. Also, ex-vivo retinal heating due to laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke Corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation. A computer simulation was developed using Comsol Multiphysics to calculate the temperature rise in the cadaver retina during femtosecond laser corneal surgery. The simulation showed a temperature rise of less than 0.3 degrees for realistic pulse energies for the various repetition rates. Human cadaver retinas were irradiated with a 150 kHz Intralase femtosecond laser and the temperature rise was measured withan infrared thermal camera. Thermal camera measurements are in agreement with the simulation. During routine femtosecond laser corneal surgery with normal clinical parameters, the temperature rise is well beneath the threshold for retina damage. The simulation predictions are in agreement with thermal measurements providing a level of experimental validation.

  16. Exploring Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of glaucomatous retinal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.; Harper, Matthew M.; Hamouche, Nicolas; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana; Yu, Chenxu

    2011-10-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and subsequent loss of visual function. Early detection of glaucoma is critical for the prevention of permanent structural damage and irreversible vision loss. Raman spectroscopy is a technique that provides rapid biochemical characterization of tissues in a nondestructive and noninvasive fashion. In this study, we explored the potential of using Raman spectroscopy for detection of glaucomatous changes in vitro. Raman spectroscopic imaging was conducted on retinal tissues of dogs with hereditary glaucoma and healthy control dogs. The Raman spectra were subjected to multivariate discriminant analysis with a support vector machine algorithm, and a classification model was developed to differentiate disease tissues versus healthy tissues. Spectroscopic analysis of 105 retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from glaucomatous dogs and 267 RGCs from healthy dogs revealed spectroscopic markers that differentiated glaucomatous specimens from healthy controls. Furthermore, the multivariate discriminant model differentiated healthy samples and glaucomatous samples with good accuracy [healthy 89.5% and glaucomatous 97.6% for the same breed (Basset Hounds); and healthy 85.0% and glaucomatous 85.5% for different breeds (Beagles versus Basset Hounds)]. Raman spectroscopic screening can be used for in vitro detection of glaucomatous changes in retinal tissue with a high specificity.

  17. Photobiomodulation for the treatment of retinal diseases: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivayla I. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM, also known as low level laser therapy, has recently risen to the attention of the ophthalmology community as a promising new approach to treat a variety of retinal conditions including age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, amblyopia, methanol-induced retinal damage, and possibly others. This review evaluates the existing research pertaining to PBM applications in the retina, with a focus on the mechanisms of action and clinical outcomes. All available literature until April 2015 was reviewed using PubMed and the following keywords: “photobiomodulation AND retina”, “low level light therapy AND retina”, “low level laser therapy AND retina”, and “FR/NIR therapy AND retina”. In addition, the relevant references listed within the papers identified through PubMed were incorporated. The literature supports the conclusion that the low-cost and non-invasive nature of PBM, coupled with the first promising clinical reports and the numerous preclinical-studies in animal models, make PBM well-poised to become an important player in the treatment of a wide range of retinal disorders. Nevertheless, large-scale clinical trials will be necessary to establish the PBM therapeutic ranges for the various retinal diseases, as well as to gain a deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action.

  18. Determination of retinal surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Logan, Nicola S

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants. An ancillary aim is to examine whether inter-quadrant variations in area are concordant with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Seventy-three adult participants presenting without retinal pathology (mean age 26.25 ± 6.06 years) were scanned using a Siemens 3-Tesla MRI scanner to provide T2-weighted MR images that demarcate fluid-filled internal structures for the whole eye and provide high-contrast delineation of the vitreous-retina interface. Integrated MRI software generated total internal ocular surface area (TSA). The second nodal point was used to demarcate the origin of the peripheral retina in order to calculate total retinal surface area (RSA) and quadrant retinal surface areas (QRSA) for ST, IT, SN, and IN quadrants. Mean spherical error (MSE) was -2.50 ± 4.03D and mean axial length (AL) 24.51 ± 1.57 mm. Mean TSA and RSA for the RE were 2058 ± 189 and 1363 ± 160 mm 2 , respectively. Repeated measures anova for QRSA data indicated a significant difference within-quadrants (P area/mm increase in AL. Although the differences between QRSAs are relatively small, there was evidence of concordance with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with PVD. The data allow AL to be converted to QRSAs, which will assist further

  19. Thrombophilic screening in retinal artery occlusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Nagy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Valeria Nagy1, Lili Takacs1, Zita Steiber1, György Pfliegler2, Andras Berta11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Rare Diseases, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen, HungaryBackground: Retinal artery occlusion (RAO is an ischemic vascular damage of the retina, which frequently leads to sudden, mostly irreversible loss of vision. In this study, blood thrombophilic factors as well as cardiovascular risk factors were investigated for their relevance to this pathology. Thrombophilic risk factors so far not evaluated were included in the study.Patients and methods: 28 RAO patients and 81 matched control subjects were examined. From blood samples, protein C, protein S, antithrombinopathy, and factor V (Leiden mutation (FV, factor II gene polymorphism, factor VIII C level, plasminogen activity, lipoprotein(a and fibrinogen levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and presence of anticardiolipin – antiphospholipid antibodies were investigated. Possibly relevant pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease were also registered. Statistical analysis by logistic regression was performed with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the group of patients with RAO only the incidence of hypertension (OR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.30–9.70, p = 0.014 as an average risk factor showed significant difference, but thrombophilic factors such as hyperfibrinogenemia (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.29–6.57, p = 0.010 and the presence of FV (Leiden mutation (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.43–10.96, p = 0.008 increased the chances of developing this disease.Conclusions: Our results support the assumption that thrombophilia may contribute to the development of RAO besides vascular damage due to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed, however, to justify the possible use of secondary prophylaxis in form of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy.Keywords: retinal arterial occlusion, risk factors, thrombophilia

  20. Retinal and post-retinal contributions to the Quantum efficiency of the human eye revealed by electrical neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibran eManasseh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The retina is one of the best known quantum detectors with rods able to reliably respond to single photons. However, estimates on the number of photons eliciting conscious perception, based on signal detection theory, are systematically above these values after discounting by retinal losses. One possibility is that there is a trade-off between the limited motor resources available to living systems and the excellent reliability of the visual photoreceptors. On this view, the limits to sensory thresholds are not set by the individual reliability of the receptors within each sensory modality (as often assumed but rather by the limited central processing and motor resources available to process the constant inflow of sensory information. To investigate this issue, we reproduced the classical experiment from Hetch aimed to determine the sensory threshold in human vision. We combined a careful physical control of the stimulus parameters with high temporal/spatial resolution recordings of EEG signals and behavioral variables over a relatively large sample of subjects (12. Contrarily to the idea that the limits to visual sensitivity are fully set by the statistical fluctuations in photon absorption on retinal photoreceptors we observed that the state of ongoing neural oscillations before any photon impinges the retina helps to determine if the responses of photoreceptors have access to central conscious processing. Our results suggest that motivational and attentional off-retinal mechanisms play a major role in reducing the QE efficiency of the human visual system when compared to the efficiency of isolated retinal photoreceptors. Yet, this mechanism might subserve adaptive behavior by enhancing the overall multisensory efficiency of the whole system composed by diverse reliable sensory modalities.

  1. Prediction of temperature and damage in an irradiated human eye-Utilization of a detailed computer model which includes a vectorial blood stream in the choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussner, Nico; Holl, Lukas; Nowak, Timo; Beuth, Thorsten; Spitzer, Martin S; Stork, Wilhelm

    2014-08-01

    The work presented here describes the development and use of a three-dimensional thermo-dynamic model of the human eye for the prediction of temperatures and damage thresholds under irradiation. This model takes into account the blood flow by the implementation of a vectorial blood stream in the choroid and also uses the actual physiological extensions and tissue parameters of the eye. Furthermore it considers evaporation, radiation and convection at the cornea as well as the eye lid. The predicted temperatures were successfully validated against existing eye models in terms of corneal and global thermal behaviour. The model׳s predictions were additionally checked for consistency with in-vivo temperature measurements of the cornea, the irradiated retina and its damage thresholds. These thresholds were calculated from the retinal temperatures using the Arrhenius integral. Hence the model can be used to predict the temperature increase and irradiation hazard within the human eye as long as the absorption values and the Arrhenius coefficients are known and the damage mechanism is in the thermal regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  3. Thresholds in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Hofmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations of biological radiation effects frequently use the word 'threshold'. The meaning of this word is explored together with its relationship to the fundamental character of radiation effects and to the question of perception. It is emphasised that although the existence of either a dose or an LET threshold can never be settled by experimental radiobiological investigations, it may be argued on fundamental statistical grounds that for all statistical processes, and especially where the number of observed events is small, the concept of a threshold is logically invalid. (U.K.)

  4. Retinal detachment in paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S. N.; Qureshi, N.; Azad, N.; Khan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the causes of retinal detachment in children and the various operative procedures requiring vitreoretinal surgical intervention for the same. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to May 2009. Methodology: A total of 281 eyes of 258 patients, (aged 0 - 18 years) who underwent vitreo-retinal surgical intervention for retinal detachment were included. Surgical log was searched for the type of retinal detachment and its causes. Frequencies of various interventions done in these patients viz. vitrectomy, scleral buckle, use of tamponading agents, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy were noted. Results were described as descriptive statistics. Results: Myopia was the cause in 62 (22.1%) and trauma in 51 (18.1%) of the eyes. Total retinal detachment (RD) was treated in 94 (33.5%) eyes, sub total RD in 36 (12.8%), recurrent RD in 32 (11.4%), giant retinal tear in 28 (10%), tractional RD in 15 (5.3%) and exudative RD in 2 (0.7%). Prophylactic laser or cryotherapy was applied in 74 (26.3%) of the eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was carried out in 159 (56.6%) eyes while scleral buckle procedure was done in 129 (45.9%) eyes. Silicon oil was used in 149 (53%), perfluorocarbon liquid in 32 (11.4%) and gas tamponade in 20 (7.1%) eyes. Conclusion: The most common cause of retinal detachment in paediatric patients was myopia, followed by trauma. Total RD was more common as compared to the other types. The most common procedure adopted was pars plana vitrectomy followed by scleral buckle procedure. (author)

  5. Activation of retinal stem cells in the proliferating marginal region of RCS rats during development of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Qian; Xu, Haiwei; Xie, Hanping; Tian, Chunyu; Zhao, Tongtao; Yin, ZhengQin

    2009-11-06

    Retinal stem cells (RSCs) have been demonstrated at the proliferating marginal regions from the pars plana of ciliary body to the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) in adult lower vertebrates and mammals. Investigations in the lower vertebrates have provided some evidence that RSCs can proliferate following retinal damage; however, the evidence that this occurs in mammals is not clear. In this study, we explored RSCs proliferation potential of adult mammalian in proliferating marginal regions of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, an animal model for retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The proliferation was evaluated using BrdU labeling, and Chx-10 as markers to discern progenitor cell of CMZ in Long-Evan's and RCS rats at different postnatal day (PND) after eye opening. We found that few Chx-10 and BrdU labeled cells in the proliferating marginal regions of Long-Evan's rats, which significantly increased in RCS rats at PND30 and PND60. Consistent with this, Chx-10/Vimentin double staining cells in the center retina of RCS rats increased significantly at PND30 after eye opening. In addition, mRNA expression of Shh, Ptch1 and Smo was up-regulated in RCS rats at PND60 compared to age-matched Long-Evan's rats, which revealed Shh/ptc pathway involving in the activation of RSCs. These results suggest that RSCs in the mammalian retinal proliferating marginal regions has the potential to regenerate following degeneration.

  6. Hydrometeorological threshold conditions for debris flow initiation in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows, triggered by extreme precipitation events and rapid snow melt, cause considerable damage to the Norwegian infrastructure every year. To define intensity-duration (ID thresholds for debris flow initiation critical water supply conditions arising from intensive rainfall or snow melt were assessed on the basis of daily hydro-meteorological information for 502 documented debris flow events. Two threshold types were computed: one based on absolute ID relationships and one using ID relationships normalized by the local precipitation day normal (PDN. For each threshold type, minimum, medium and maximum threshold values were defined by fitting power law curves along the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the data population. Depending on the duration of the event, the absolute threshold intensities needed for debris flow initiation vary between 15 and 107 mm day−1. Since the PDN changes locally, the normalized thresholds show spatial variations. Depending on location, duration and threshold level, the normalized threshold intensities vary between 6 and 250 mm day−1. The thresholds obtained were used for a frequency analysis of over-threshold events giving an estimation of the exceedance probability and thus potential for debris flow events in different parts of Norway. The absolute thresholds are most often exceeded along the west coast, while the normalized thresholds are most frequently exceeded on the west-facing slopes of the Norwegian mountain ranges. The minimum thresholds derived in this study are in the range of other thresholds obtained for regions with a climate comparable to Norway. Statistics reveal that the normalized threshold is more reliable than the absolute threshold as the former shows no spatial clustering of debris flows related to water supply events captured by the threshold.

  7. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  8. Retinal vascular oximetry during ranibizumab treatment of central retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; la Cour, Morten; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of intravitreal injections of the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor ranibizumab on retinal oxygenation in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS: Retinal oxygen saturation in patients with CRVO was analysed using the Oxymap Retin...

  9. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber...... and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Likewise, the retinal metabolism can be evaluated by retinal oximetry, and higher retinal venular oxygen saturation has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic retinopathy. So far, most studies have been cross-sectional, but these can only...... retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The Department of Ophthalmology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, has a strong tradition of studying the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. In the present paper, we demonstrate the importance of the retinal vasculature not only as predictors of long...

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  11. Threshold Assessment of Gear Diagnostic Tools on Flight and Test Rig Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Mosher, Marianne; Huff, Edward M.

    2003-01-01

    A method for defining thresholds for vibration-based algorithms that provides the minimum number of false alarms while maintaining sensitivity to gear damage was developed. This analysis focused on two vibration based gear damage detection algorithms, FM4 and MSA. This method was developed using vibration data collected during surface fatigue tests performed in a spur gearbox rig. The thresholds were defined based on damage progression during tests with damage. The thresholds false alarm rates were then evaluated on spur gear tests without damage. Next, the same thresholds were applied to flight data from an OH-58 helicopter transmission. Results showed that thresholds defined in test rigs can be used to define thresholds in flight to correctly classify the transmission operation as normal.

  12. Lin28b stimulates the reprogramming of rat Müller glia to retinal progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chen; Tao, Zui; Xue, Langyue; Zeng, Yuxiao [Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration & Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyieye@aliyun.com [Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration & Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Haiwei, E-mail: haiweixu2001@163.com [Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration & Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yin, Zheng Qin, E-mail: qinzyin@aliyun.com [Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration & Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-03-01

    In lower-order vertebrates, Müller glia exhibit characteristics of retinal progenitor cells, while in higher vertebrates, such as mammals, the regenerative capacity of Müller glia is limited. Recently, we reported that Lin28b promoted the trans-differentiation of Müller cells to rod photoreceptor and bipolar cells in the retina of retinitis pigmentosa rat model, whereas it is unclear whether Lin28b can stimulate the reprogramming of Müller glia in vitro for transplantation into a damaged retina. In the present study, Long-Evens rat Müller glia were infected with Adeno-Lin28b or Adeno-GFP. Over-expression of Lin28b in isolated rat Müller glia resulted in the suppression of GFAP expression, enhancement of cell proliferation and a significant increase of the expression of retinal progenitor markers 5 days after infection. Moreover, Lin28b caused a significant reduction of the Let-7 family of microRNAs. Following sub-retinal space transplantation, Müller glia-derived retinal progenitors improved b-wave amplification of 30d Royal College of Surgeons retinitis pigmentosa model (RCS-P+) rats, as detected by electroretinography (ERG) recordings. Taken together, these data suggest that the up-regulation of Lin28b expression facilitated the reprogramming of Müller cells toward characteristics of retinal progenitors. - Highlights: • Lin28b reprograms Müller glia to retinal progenitors. • Let-7 micrRNAs are suppressed by Lin28b. • Transplantation of reprogrammed Müller glia restores retinal function.

  13. Lin28b stimulates the reprogramming of rat Müller glia to retinal progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chen; Tao, Zui; Xue, Langyue; Zeng, Yuxiao; Wang, Yi; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2017-01-01

    In lower-order vertebrates, Müller glia exhibit characteristics of retinal progenitor cells, while in higher vertebrates, such as mammals, the regenerative capacity of Müller glia is limited. Recently, we reported that Lin28b promoted the trans-differentiation of Müller cells to rod photoreceptor and bipolar cells in the retina of retinitis pigmentosa rat model, whereas it is unclear whether Lin28b can stimulate the reprogramming of Müller glia in vitro for transplantation into a damaged retina. In the present study, Long-Evens rat Müller glia were infected with Adeno-Lin28b or Adeno-GFP. Over-expression of Lin28b in isolated rat Müller glia resulted in the suppression of GFAP expression, enhancement of cell proliferation and a significant increase of the expression of retinal progenitor markers 5 days after infection. Moreover, Lin28b caused a significant reduction of the Let-7 family of microRNAs. Following sub-retinal space transplantation, Müller glia-derived retinal progenitors improved b-wave amplification of 30d Royal College of Surgeons retinitis pigmentosa model (RCS-P+) rats, as detected by electroretinography (ERG) recordings. Taken together, these data suggest that the up-regulation of Lin28b expression facilitated the reprogramming of Müller cells toward characteristics of retinal progenitors. - Highlights: • Lin28b reprograms Müller glia to retinal progenitors. • Let-7 micrRNAs are suppressed by Lin28b. • Transplantation of reprogrammed Müller glia restores retinal function.

  14. Influencing factors affecting the retinal blood vessel morphology in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu Kong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the influencing factors affecting retinal blood vessel morphology in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Totally 312 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in our hospital from January 2012 to September 2016 were selected as study subjects. The patients were examined by fundus photography and related laboratory. As grouping factors in the patients'age, sex, disease duration, smoking, drinking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetic nephropathy, we compared the incidence of retinal vascular changes in different groups. The meaningful factors were introduced into the Logistic regression equation again. Independent risk factors for retinal vascular changes in patients with diabetes mellitus were screened out. RESULTS:In 312 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,169 cases were accompanied with retinal vascular abnormalities, and 143 cases were not associated with retinal vascular abnormalities. Univariate analysis showed that age, duration of disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes nephropathy were significantly correlated with retinal vascular morphological changes(PP>0.05. Retinal vascular abnormalities were used as the dependent variable, and the above mentioned factors were grouped as independent variables. By Logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that the course of disease, patients with hypertension or diabetic nephropathy were the independent risk factors of abnormal retinal vascular morphology(PCONCLUSION: The independent risk factors for the occurrence of retinal vascular changes in patients with diabetes mellitus are increased course of disease, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy. Early diagnosis and intervention, to take measures and control blood pressure, reduce kidney damage can reduce the incidence of diabetic retinopathy, and macrovascular disease caused by diabetes, the incidence of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

  15. Large area damage testing of optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Stolz, C.

    1996-01-01

    The damage threshold specifications for the National Ignition Facility will include a mixture of standard small-area tests and new large-area tests. During our studies of laser damage and conditioning processes of various materials we have found that some damage morphologies are fairly small and this damage does not grow with further illumination. This type of damage might not be detrimental to the laser performance. We should therefore assume that some damage can be allowed on the optics, but decide on a maximum damage allowance of damage. A new specification of damage threshold termed open-quotes functional damage thresholdclose quotes was derived. Further correlation of damage size and type to system performance must be determined in order to use this measurement, but it is clear that it will be a large factor in the optics performance specifications. Large-area tests have verified that small-area testing is not always sufficient when the optic in question has defect-initiated damage. This was evident for example on sputtered polarizer and mirror coatings where the defect density was low enough that the features could be missed by standard small- area testing. For some materials, the scale-length at which damage non-uniformities occur will effect the comparison of small-area and large-area tests. An example of this was the sub-aperture tests on KD*P crystals on the Beamlet test station. The tests verified the large-area damage threshold to be similar to that found when testing a small-area. Implying that for this KD*P material, the dominate damage mechanism is of sufficiently small scale-length that small-area testing is capable of determining the threshold. The Beamlet test station experiments also demonstrated the use of on-line laser conditioning to increase the crystals damage threshold

  16. Retinal detachment in black South Africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    low incidence of retinal detachment in black patients is not known. ... a retinal break. Predisposing factors include peripheral retinal degenerations, myopia, aphakia and trauma. Delay in presentation increases the difficulty in achieving adequate surgical ... On examination, note was taken of the visual acuity in both eyes, the ...

  17. Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Retinal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    Retinitis Pigmentosa; Macula Off; Primary Open Angle Glaucoma; Hereditary Macular Degeneration; Treated Retina Detachment; Retinal Artery Occlusion; Retinal Vein Occlusion; Non-Arthritic-Anterior-Ischemic Optic-Neuropathy; Hereditary Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy; Dry Age Related Macular Degeneration; Ischemic Macula Edema

  18. Metabolic Memory Phenomenon and Accumulation of Peroxynitrite in Retinal Capillaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Diabetic retinopathy resists reversal after good glycemic control (GC is reinitiated, and preexisting damage at the time of intervention is considered as the major factor in determining the outcome of the GC. This study is to investigate the role of peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal capillaries in the failure of retinopathy to reverse after reestablishment of GC, and to determine the effect of this reversal on the activity of the enzyme responsible for scavenging mitochondrial superoxide, MnSOD. Methods. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, 6 months of poor glycemic control (PC, glycated hemoglobin, GHb>12.0% was followed by 6 additional months of GC (GHb about 6%. The trypsin-digested retinal microvessels were prepared for immunostaining of nitrotyrosine (a measure of peroxynitrite and for counting the number of acellular capillaries (a measure of histopathology. The retina from the other eye was used to quantify nitrotyrosine concentration, MnSOD activity and the total antioxidant capacity. Results. Reversal of hyperglycemia after 6 months of PC had no significant effect on nitrotyrosine concentration in the retina, on the nitrotyrosine-positive retinal capillary cells and on the number of acellular capillaries; the values were similar in PC-GC and PC groups. In the same rats retinal MnSOD activity remained inhibited and the total antioxidant capacity was subnormal 6 months after cessation of PC. Conclusions. Peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal microvasculature, the site of histopathology, fails to normalize after reversal of hyperglycemia, and superoxide remains inadequately scavenged. This failure of reversal of peroxynitrite accumulation could be, in part, responsible for the resistance of diabetic retinopathy to reverse after termination of PC.

  19. Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: An Approach Toward Retinal Degenerative Diseases Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Parvini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells as the cells with a capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into various specificcell types have been highly regarded in regenerative medicine studies. To repair the eye disease damages, thedifferentiation into retinal pigment epithelial cells of pluripotent stem cells has gained great importance inrecent decades because the inappropriate function of these cells is the main cause of degenerative diseases suchas the age-related macular degeneration. Millions of people in the world suffer this disease.To restore the damaged cells and, finally, to improve the vision, numerous studies have been conducted on usingpluripotent stem cells, their differentiation into retinal pigment epithelial cells, and finally, their applicationin cell therapy. Based on this, many researchers have attempted to produce highly efficient retinal pigmentepithelial cells, such that they show a proper function after transplant, along with the host cells. In this reviewarticle, the importance and the role of pigment epithelial cells, as well as, the studies on the in vitro productionof these cells were examined

  20. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  1. Automated microaneurysm detection algorithms applied to diabetic retinopathy retinal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akara Sopharak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is the commonest cause of blindness in working age people. It is characterised and graded by the development of retinal microaneurysms, haemorrhages and exudates. The damage caused by diabetic retinopathy can be prevented if it is treated in its early stages. Therefore, automated early detection can limit the severity of the disease, improve the follow-up management of diabetic patients and assist ophthalmologists in investigating and treating the disease more efficiently. This review focuses on microaneurysm detection as the earliest clinically localised characteristic of diabetic retinopathy, a frequently observed complication in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Algorithms used for microaneurysm detection from retinal images are reviewed. A number of features used to extract microaneurysm are summarised. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of reported methods used to automatically detect microaneurysms is presented and discussed. The performance of methods and their complexity are also discussed.

  2. Retinal image quality during accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Norberto; Martin, Jesson; Liu, Tao; Bradley, Arthur; Díaz-Muñoz, David; Thibos, Larry N

    2013-07-01

    We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552 nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye's higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced visual function may be a useful

  3. Threshold guidance update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Last years' activities (1984) included the development of a threshold guidance dose, the development of threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose, the development of supporting documentation, review by a technical peer review committee, and review by the DOE community. As a result of the comments, areas have been identified for more extensive analysis, including an alternative basis for selection of the guidance dose and the development of quality assurance guidelines. Development of quality assurance guidelines will provide a reasonable basis for determining that a given waste stream qualifies as a threshold waste stream and can then be the basis for a more extensive cost-benefit analysis. The threshold guidance and supporting documentation will be revised, based on the comments received. The revised documents will be provided to DOE by early November. DOE-HQ has indicated that the revised documents will be available for review by DOE field offices and their contractors

  4. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

  5. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, S; Shorer, R; Wollman, J; Dotan, G; Paran, D

    2017-11-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus. Atrophy of the corpus callosum and hippocampus have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown impaired white matter integrity, suggesting that white matter damage in systemic lupus erythematosus may underlie the cognitive impairment as well as other neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as assessed by optical coherence tomography, has been suggested as a biomarker for white matter damage in neurologic disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Retinal nerve fiber layer thinning may occur early, even in patients with mild clinical symptoms. Aim The objective of this study was to assess the association of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as a biomarker of white matter damage in systemic lupus erythematosus patients, with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations, including cognitive impairment. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus underwent neuropsychological testing using a validated computerized battery of tests as well as the Rey-Auditory verbal learning test. All 21 patients, as well as 11 healthy, age matched controls, underwent optical coherence tomography testing to assess retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and results in eight cognitive domains assessed by the computerized battery of tests as well as the Rey-Auditory verbal learning test were assessed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, with and without neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, and compared to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in healthy controls. Results No statistically significant correlation was found between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as compared to healthy

  6. Glaucomatous damage of the macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Donald C; Raza, Ali S; de Moraes, Carlos Gustavo V; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that early glaucomatous damage involves the macula. The anatomical basis of this damage can be studied using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT), by which the local thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and local retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layer can be measured. Based upon averaged fdOCT results from healthy controls and patients, we show that: 1. For healthy controls, the average RGC+ layer thickness closely matches human histological data; 2. For glaucoma patients and suspects, the average RGC+ layer shows greater glaucomatous thinning in the inferior retina (superior visual field (VF)); and 3. The central test points of the 6° VF grid (24-2 test pattern) miss the region of greatest RGC+ thinning. Based upon fdOCT results from individual patients, we have learned that: 1. Local RGC+ loss is associated with local VF sensitivity loss as long as the displacement of RGCs from the foveal center is taken into consideration; and 2. Macular damage is typically arcuate in nature and often associated with local RNFL thinning in a narrow region of the disc, which we call the macular vulnerability zone (MVZ). According to our schematic model of macular damage, most of the inferior region of the macula projects to the MVZ, which is located largely in the inferior quadrant of the disc, a region that is particularly susceptible to glaucomatous damage. A small (cecocentral) region of the inferior macula, and all of the superior macula (inferior VF), project to the temporal quadrant, a region that is less susceptible to damage. The overall message is clear; clinicians need to be aware that glaucomatous damage to the macula is common, can occur early in the disease, and can be missed and/or underestimated with standard VF tests that use a 6° grid, such as the 24-2 VF test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Near threshold fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. C.; Strum, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10(exp -5) mm/cycle (4 x 10(exp -7) inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity are described.

  8. Retinal pigment epithelial detachments and tears, and progressive retinal degeneration in light chain deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Leigh H; Heckenlively, John R; Leys, Anita M

    2013-05-01

    Light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare condition characterised by deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (LCs) in tissues, resulting in varying degrees of organ dysfunction. This study reports the characteristic clinical ocular findings seen in advanced LCDD upon development of ocular fundus changes. This is the first report to describe this entity in vivo in a series of patients. A case series of ocular fundus changes in three patients with kidney biopsy-proven LCDD. All patients underwent best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) exam, perimetry, colour fundus photography and fluorescein angiography; two patients underwent indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound and electroretinography; and one patient underwent fundus autofluorescence. Three patients, 53-60 years old at initial presentation, were studied. All three presented with night blindness, poor dark adaptation, metamorphopsia and visual loss. Examination revealed serous and serohaemorrhagic detachments, multiple retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tears, diffuse RPE degeneration and progressive fibrotic changes. Neither choroidal neovascularisation nor other vascular abnormalities were present. Final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 20/40 to 20/300. Progressive LC deposition in the fundus seems to damage RPE pump function with flow disturbance between choroid and retina. This pathogenesis can explain the evolution to RPE detachments and subsequent rips and progressive retinal malfunction.

  9. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  10. Retinitis Pigmentosa and Education Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa includes a number of inherited diseases which usually result in blindness. The disease is progressive in nature and begins with the deterioration of cells in the eye responsible for peripheral vision. As the condition worsens there is a gradual loss of peripheral vision and night blindness. Proper educational planning requires…

  11. [Surgical managment of retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritoglou, C; Wolf, A

    2015-05-01

    The detachment of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium can be related to breaks of the retina allowing vitreous fluid to gain access to the subretinal space, to exudative changes of the choroid such as tumours or inflammatory diseases or to excessive tractional forces exerted by interactions of the collagenous vitreous and the retina. Tractional retinal detachment is usually treated by vitrectomy and exudative detachment can be addressed by treatment of the underlying condition in many cases. In rhegmatogenous retinal detachment two different surgical procedures, vitrectomy and scleral buckling, can be applied for functional and anatomic rehabilitation of our patients. The choice of the surgical procedure is not really standardised and often depends on the experience of the surgeon and other more ocular factors including lens status, the number of retinal breaks, the extent of the detachment and the amount of preexisting PVR. Using both techniques, anatomic success rates of over 90 % can be achieved. Especially in young phakic patients scleral buckling offers the true advantage to prevent the progression of cataract formation requiring cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Therefore, scleral buckling should be considered in selected cases as an alternative surgical option in spite of the very important technical refinements in modern vitrectomy techniques. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Retinal imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of

  13. Semi-automated retinal vessel analysis in nonmydriatic fundus photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Alexander Karl-Georg; Fischer, Joachim Ernst; Vossmerbaeumer, Urs

    2014-02-01

    Funduscopic assessment of the retinal vessels may be used to assess the health status of microcirculation and as a component in the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors. Typically, the evaluation is restricted to morphological appreciation without strict quantification. Our purpose was to develop and validate a software tool for semi-automated quantitative analysis of retinal vasculature in nonmydriatic fundus photography. matlab software was used to develop a semi-automated image recognition and analysis tool for the determination of the arterial-venous (A/V) ratio in the central vessel equivalent on 45° digital fundus photographs. Validity and reproducibility of the results were ascertained using nonmydriatic photographs of 50 eyes from 25 subjects recorded from a 3DOCT device (Topcon Corp.). Two hundred and thirty-three eyes of 121 healthy subjects were evaluated to define normative values. A software tool was developed using image thresholds for vessel recognition and vessel width calculation in a semi-automated three-step procedure: vessel recognition on the photograph and artery/vein designation, width measurement and calculation of central retinal vessel equivalents. Mean vessel recognition rate was 78%, vessel class designation rate 75% and reproducibility between 0.78 and 0.91. Mean A/V ratio was 0.84. Application on a healthy norm cohort showed high congruence with prior published manual methods. Processing time per image was one minute. Quantitative geometrical assessment of the retinal vasculature may be performed in a semi-automated manner using dedicated software tools. Yielding reproducible numerical data within a short time leap, this may contribute additional value to mere morphological estimates in the clinical evaluation of fundus photographs. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Threshold factorization redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2018-05-01

    We reanalyze the factorization theorems for the Drell-Yan process and for deep inelastic scattering near threshold, as constructed in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), from a new, consistent perspective. In order to formulate the factorization near threshold in SCET, we should include an additional degree of freedom with small energy, collinear to the beam direction. The corresponding collinear-soft mode is included to describe the parton distribution function (PDF) near threshold. The soft function is modified by subtracting the contribution of the collinear-soft modes in order to avoid double counting on the overlap region. As a result, the proper soft function becomes infrared finite, and all the factorized parts are free of rapidity divergence. Furthermore, the separation of the relevant scales in each factorized part becomes manifest. We apply the same idea to the dihadron production in e+e- annihilation near threshold, and show that the resultant soft function is also free of infrared and rapidity divergences.

  15. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  16. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Sik Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control. Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

  17. Screening for retinitis in children with probable systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMV retinitis may be prevented by timely diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to .... retinitis are: 'a fulminant picture of retinal vasculitis and vascular sheathing with areas of yellow-white, full thickness, retinal necrosis producing retinal oedema associated ... and intravenous foscarnet as alternatives.[4] Although CMV- ...

  18. Study of Short-Pulsed Laser Retinal Injury Mechanisms By Time-Resolved Imaging of Photomechanical Transients in RPE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We studied RPE cell damage mechanism for laser duration from 100 femtosec to 5 microsec, and we have investigated the dependence of threshold fluence for cell damage on the laser spot size on the RPE...

  19. Retinal vascular injuries and intravitreal human embryonic stem cell-derived haemangioblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Da; An, Ying; Zhang, Jing-Shang; Wan, Xiu-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Lanza, Robert; Lu, Shi-Jiang; Jonas, Jost B; Xu, Liang

    2017-09-01

    To investigate whether intravitreally applied haemangioblasts (HB) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are helpful for the repair of vascular damage caused in animals by an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), by an induced diabetic retinopathy (DR) or by an induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion. Human embryonic stem cell-derived HBs were transplanted intravitreally into C57BL/6J mice (OIR model), into male Wistar rats with an induced DR and into male Wistar rats undergoing induced retinal ischaemia with subsequent reperfusion. Control groups of animals received an intravitreal injection of endothelial cells (ECs) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). We examined the vasculature integrity in the mice with OIR, the blood-retina barrier in the rats with induced DR, and retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell density in retina flat mounts of the rats with the retinal ischaemic-reperfusion retinopathy. In the OIR model, the study group versus control groups showed a significantly (p < 0.001) smaller retinal avascular area [5.1 ± 2.7%;n = 18 animals versus 12.2 ± 2.8% (PBS group; n = 10 animals) and versus 11.8 ± 3.7% (EC group; n = 8 animals)] and less retinal neovascularization [6.3 ± 2.5%;n = 18 versus 15.2 ± 6.3% (n = 10; PBS group) and versus 15.8 ± 3.3% (n = 8; EC group)]. On retinal flat mounts, hESC-HBs were integrated into damaged retinal vessels and stained positive for PECAM (CD31) as EC marker. In the DR model, the study group versus the EC control group showed a significantly (p = 0.001) better blood-retina barrier function as measured at 2 days after the intravitreal injections [study group: 20.2 ± 12.8 μl/(g × hr); n = 6; versus EC control group: 52.9 ± 9.9 μl/(g × hr; n = 6)]. In the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model, the groups did not differ significantly in retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell density at 2, 5 and 7 days after baseline. By integrating into

  20. Endogenous retinal neural stem cell reprogramming for neuronal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, optic nerve injuries and associated neurodegenerative diseases are often followed by permanent vision loss. Consequently, an important challenge is to develop safe and effective methods to replace retinal neurons and thereby restore neuronal functions and vision. Identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms allowing to replace damaged neurons is a major goal for basic and translational research in regenerative medicine. Contrary to mammals, the zebrafish has the capacity to fully regenerate entire parts of the nervous system, including retina. This regenerative process depends on endogenous retinal neural stem cells, the Müller glial cells. Following injury, zebrafish Müller cells go back into cell cycle to proliferate and generate new neurons, while mammalian Müller cells undergo reactive gliosis. Recently, transcription factors and microRNAs have been identified to control the formation of new neurons derived from zebrafish and mammalian Müller cells, indicating that cellular reprogramming can be an efficient strategy to regenerate human retinal neurons. Here we discuss recent insights into the use of endogenous neural stem cell reprogramming for neuronal regeneration, differences between zebrafish and mammalian Müller cells, and the need to pursue the identification and characterization of new molecular factors with an instructive and potent function in order to develop theurapeutic strategies for eye diseases.

  1. The reduction of retinal autofluorescence caused by light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica I W; Hunter, Jennifer J; Merigan, William H; Williams, David R

    2009-12-01

    A prior study showed that long exposure to 568-nm light at levels below the maximum permissible exposure safety limit produces retinal damage preceded by a transient reduction in the autofluorescence of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vivo. The present study shows how the effects of exposure power and duration combine to produce this autofluorescence reduction and find the minimum exposure causing a detectable autofluorescence reduction. Macaque retinas were imaged using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope to resolve individual RPE cells in vivo. The retina was exposed to 568-nm light over a square subtending 0.5 degrees with energies ranging from 1 to 788 J/cm(2), where power and duration were independently varied. In vivo exposures of 5 J/cm(2) and higher caused an immediate decrease in autofluorescence followed by either full autofluorescence recovery (exposures or= 247 J/cm(2)). No significant autofluorescence reduction was observed for exposures of 2 J/cm(2) and lower. Reciprocity of exposure power and duration held for the exposures tested, implying that the total energy delivered to the retina, rather than its distribution in time, determines the amount of autofluorescence reduction. That reciprocity held is consistent with a photochemical origin, which may or may not cause retinal degeneration. The implementation of safe methods for delivering light to the retina requires a better understanding of the mechanism causing autofluorescence reduction. Finally, RPE imaging was demonstrated using light levels that do not cause a detectable reduction in autofluorescence.

  2. [Effects of pressure induced retinal ischemia on ERG in rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G; Yang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhang, D

    2001-12-01

    To observe the effects of pressure induced retinal ischemia on electroretinogram(ERG) in rabbit. Retinal ischemia was induced in rabbits by increasing intraocular pressure at 30 mmHg, 60 mmHg, 90 mmHg, 120 mmHg for 45 minutes, and retinal function was monitored by eletroretinography. There was no difference on ERG before or after the experiment both in 30 mmHg group and control one. In 60 mmHg pressure induced ischemia eyes, the amplitudes of the b-wave and OPs wave reduced significantly. Four hours after reperfusion, they were totally recovered. After an ischemic insult of 90 mmHg or 120 mmHg for 45 minutes, there was no response of ERG. Four hours later, the amplitudes of the b-wave and OPs wave were 66.912 +/- 20.157 and 16.423 +/- 3.965 the former, 38.852 +/- 23.438 and 8.610 +/- 12.090 the latter, respectively. These results suggest that higher intraocular pressure causes more severe retina ischemic damage, and less recovery ability.

  3. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final state interaction effects in pp → pΛK+ and pd → 3He η reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the pΛ potential and the ηN scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between Λ and p and η and 3He are described rigorously. The Λ production is ...

  4. Casualties and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; National Cancer Inst., Bethesda

    1988-01-01

    Radiation effects like cancer are denoted as casualties. Other radiation effects occur almost in everyone when the radiation dose is sufficiently high. One then speaks of radiation effects with a threshold dose. In this article the author puts his doubt about this classification of radiation effects. He argues that some effects of exposure to radiation do not fit in this classification. (H.W.). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Resonance phenomena near thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1995-12-01

    The trapping effect is investigated close to the elastic threshold. The nucleus is described as an open quantum mechanical many-body system embedded in the continuum of decay channels. An ensemble of compound nucleus states with both discrete and resonance states is investigated in an energy-dependent formalism. It is shown that the discrete states can trap the resonance ones and also that the discrete states can directly influence the scattering cross section. (orig.)

  6. Progranulin, a major secreted protein of mouse adipose-derived stem cells, inhibits light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Yamauchi, Mika; Sugitani, Sou; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Ohno, Yuta; Nagahara, Yuki; Ikegame, Yuka; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Iwama, Toru; Hara, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction contains mesenchymal stem cells, which show protective effects when administered to damaged tissues, mainly through secreted trophic factors. We examined the protective effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) against retinal damage and identified the neuroprotective factors in ASC-CM. ASCs and mature adipocytes were isolated from mouse subcutaneous tissue. ASCs were injected intravitreally in a mouse model of light-induced retinal damage, and ASC injection recovered retinal function as measured by electroretinogram and inhibited outer nuclear layer, thinning, without engraftment of ASCs. ASC-CM and mature adipocyte-conditioned medium were collected after 72 hours of culture. In vitro, H2O2- and light-induced cell death was reduced in a photoreceptor cell line with ASC-CM but not with mature adipocyte-conditioned medium. In vivo, light-induced photoreceptor damage was evaluated by measurement of outer nuclear layer thickness at 5 days after light exposure and by electroretinogram recording. ASC-CM significantly inhibited photoreceptor degeneration and retinal dysfunction after light exposure. Progranulin was identified as a major secreted protein of ASCs that showed protective effects against retinal damage in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, progranulin phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP response element binding protein, and hepatocyte growth factor receptor, and protein kinase C signaling pathways were involved in the protective effects of progranulin. These findings suggest that ASC-CM and progranulin have neuroprotective effects in the light-induced retinal-damage model. Progranulin may be a potential target for the treatment of the degenerative diseases of the retina.

  7. Estimating retinal vascular permeability using the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model with fluorescein videoangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Osswald, Christian R.; Dosmar, Emily; Guthrie, Micah J.; Hones, Logan; Sinha, Lagnojita; Xu, Xiaochun; Mieler, William F.; St. Lawrence, Keith; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J.

    2015-06-01

    Clinical symptoms of diabetic retinopathy are not detectable until damage to the retina reaches an irreversible stage, at least by today's treatment standards. As a result, there is a push to develop new, "sub-clinical" methods of predicting the onset of diabetic retinopathy before the onset of irreversible damage. With diabetic retinopathy being associated with the accumulation of long-term mild damage to the retinal vasculature, retinal blood vessel permeability has been proposed as a key parameter for detecting preclinical stages of retinopathy. In this study, a kinetic modeling approach used to quantify vascular permeability in dynamic contrast-enhanced medical imaging was evaluated in noise simulations and then applied to retinal videoangiography data in a diabetic rat for the first time to determine the potential for this approach to be employed clinically as an early indicator of diabetic retinopathy. Experimental levels of noise were found to introduce errors of less than 15% in estimates of blood flow and extraction fraction (a marker of vascular permeability), and fitting of rat retinal fluorescein angiography data provided stable maps of both parameters.

  8. Advances in Retinal Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary for retinal progenitor cell formation in mouse and human cell cultures. This review focuses on the culture methods used by different groups, which has culminated in the generation of laminated retinal tissue from both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. The review also briefly describes advances made in transplantation studies using donor retinal progenitor and cultured retinal cells.

  9. Prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with data from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry that comprises all patients in Denmark with generalized retinal......PURPOSE: Generalized retinal dystrophy is a frequent cause of visual impairment and blindness in younger individuals and a subject of new clinical intervention trials. Nonetheless, there are few nation-wide population-based epidemiological data of generalized retinal dystrophy. The purpose...... and chorioretinal dystrophies from the 19th century to the present. Among 3076 registered cases, the primary diagnosis of generalized retinal dystrophy was assessed by chart review, including fundus photographs and electroretinograms. Demographic data on the Danish population were retrieved from Statistics Denmark...

  10. Automatic Vessel Segmentation on Retinal Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yuan Yu; Chia-Jen Chang; Yen-Ju Yao; Shyr-Shen Yu

    2014-01-01

    Several features of retinal vessels can be used to monitor the progression of diseases. Changes in vascular structures, for example, vessel caliber, branching angle, and tortuosity, are portents of many diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and arterial hyper-tension. This paper proposes an automatic retinal vessel segmentation method based on morphological closing and multi-scale line detection. First, an illumination correction is performed on the green band retinal image. Next, the morphological closing and subtraction processing are applied to obtain the crude retinal vessel image. Then, the multi-scale line detection is used to fine the vessel image. Finally, the binary vasculature is extracted by the Otsu algorithm. In this paper, for improving the drawbacks of multi-scale line detection, only the line detectors at 4 scales are used. The experimental results show that the accuracy is 0.939 for DRIVE (digital retinal images for vessel extraction) retinal database, which is much better than other methods.

  11. Retinal Image Preprocessing: Background and Noise Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Akram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal images are used for the automated screening and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The retinal image quality must be improved for the detection of features and abnormalities and for this purpose preprocessing of retinal images is vital. In this paper, we present a novel automated approach for preprocessing of colored retinal images. The proposed technique improves the quality of input retinal image by separating the background and noisy area from the overall image. It contains coarse segmentation and fine segmentation. Standard retinal images databases Diaretdb0, Diaretdb1, DRIVE and STARE are used to test the validation of our preprocessing technique. The experimental results show the validity of proposed preprocessing technique.

  12. [Peripheral retinal degenerations--treatment recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, A M; Kirchhof, B

    2004-10-01

    This report reviews the clinical appearance of degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship to the risk of developing a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. We present recommendations for preventive treatment in eyes at increased risk of developing retinal detachment. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina but most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and very rarely zonular traction tufts can result in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic treatment; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Most of the peripheral retinal degenerations may not require treatment except in rare, high-risk situations. According to current knowledge there is no higher incidence of secondary pucker or other side effects after laser coagulation. Therefore, generous laser indication is recommended if risk factors apply.

  13. [Prophylactic treatment of retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, S; Riss, B

    1981-08-01

    The indications for and results of prophylactic treatment of retinal detachment during a period of five years are reported and compared with the results in the literature. Half of the cases (3 out of 6 eyes) which developed a retinal detachment had been horse-shoe tears combined with a vitreous hemorrhage. For this reason a small buckle operation is recommended in these cases, to prevent further traction. Lattice degeneration should rather be observed than treated, except in special cases: This includes eyes where the fellow eye had a detachment from a lattice degeneration, cases in which one eye is blind from an uncured detachment or has no useful visual acuity, and eyes whose fellow eye has giant tears. In aphakic eyes treatment of lattice degeneration is recommended, because the incidence of detachment from these areas is high, especially in young aphakic cases. In one aphakic eye which had been photocoagulated several times the formation of a preretinal membrane was observed.

  14. Recovery of cat retinal ganglion cell sensitivity following pigment bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B; Enroth-Cugell, C

    1979-01-01

    1. The threshold illuminance for small spot stimulation of on-centre cat retinal ganglion cells was plotted vs. time after exposure to adapting light sufficiently strong to bleach significant amounts of rhodopsin. 2. When the entire receptive field of an X- or Y-type ganglion cell is bleached by at most 40%, recovery of the cell's rod-system proceeds in two phases: an early relatively fast one during which the response appears transient, and a late, slower one during which responses become more sustained. Log threshold during the later phase is well fit by an exponential in time (tau = 11.5-38 min). 3. After bleaches of 90% of the underlying pigment, threshold is cone-determined for as long as 40 min. Rod threshold continues to decrease for at least 85 min after the bleach. 4. The rate of recovery is slower after strong than after weak bleaches; 10 and 90% bleaches yield time constants for the later phase of 11.5 and 38 min, respectively. This contrasts with an approximate time constant of 11 min for rhodopsin regeneration following any bleach. 5. The relationship between the initial elevation of log rod threshold extrapolated from the fitted exponential curves and the initial amount of pigment bleached is monotonic, but nonlinear. 6. After a bleaching exposure, the maintained discharge is initially very regular. The firing rate first rises, then falls to the pre-bleach level, with more extended time courses of change in firing rate after stronger exposures. The discharge rate is restored before threshold has recovered fully. 7. The change in the response vs. log stimulus relationship after bleaching is described as a shift of the curve to the right, paired with a decrease in slope of the linear segment of the curve. PMID:521963

  15. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Clinical Trial Network. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases and dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through the conduct of clinical trials and other...design and conduct of effective and efficient clinical trials for inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases and dry AMD; • Limited number and...linica l trial in the NEER network for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, and the ProgSTAR studies for Stargardt disease ) . As new interventions b

  16. Protective Effect of Proanthocyanidins from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides L. Seed against Visible Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proanthocyanidins (PACs as health-protective agents have become an important area of human nutrition research because of their potent bioactivities. We investigated the retinoprotective effects of PACs from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. seed against visible light-induced retinal degeneration in vivo. Pigmented rabbits were orally administered sea buckthorn seed PACs (50 and 100 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days of pre-illumination and seven consecutive days of post-illumination. Retinal function was quantified via electroretinography 7 days after light exposure. Retinal damage was evaluated by measuring the thickness of the full-thickness retina and outer nuclear layer 7 days after light exposure. Sea buckthorn seed PACs significantly attenuated the destruction of electroretinograms and maintained the retinal structure. Increased retinal photooxidative damage was expressed by the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, the decrease of total antioxidant capacity level and the increase of malondialdehyde level. Light exposure induced a significant increase of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 and angiogenesis (VEGF levels in retina. Light exposure upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, sea buckthorn seed PACs ameliorated these changes induced by light exposure. Sea buckthorn seed PACs mediated the protective effect against light-induced retinal degeneration via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms.

  17. Frequency of lattice degeneration and retinal breaks in the fellow eye in retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, S E

    1988-04-01

    The fellow eye of 100 consecutively admitted cases of retinal detachment was studied with three-mirror examination for the presence of lattice degeneration and retinal breaks. Lattice degeneration was found in 18% and retinal breaks in 20% of fellow eyes.

  18. Comparative study of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness performed with optical coherence tomography and GDx scanning laser polarimetry in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, Jaromir T; Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona

    2012-03-01

    We compared the parameters of retinal nerve fibre layer in patients with advanced glaucoma with the use of different OCT (Optical Coherence Tomograph) devices in relation to analogical measurements performed with GDx VCC (Nerve Fiber Analyzer with Variable Corneal Compensation) scanning laser polarimetry. Study subjects had advanced primary open-angle glaucoma, previously treated conservatively, diagnosed and confirmed by additional examinations (visual field, ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve, gonioscopy), A total of 10 patients were enrolled (9 women and 1 man), aged 18-70 years of age. Nineteen eyes with advanced glaucomatous neuropathy were examined. 1) Performing a threshold perimetry Octopus, G2 strategy and ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve to confirm the presence of advanced primary open-angle glaucoma; 2) performing a GDx VCC scanning laser polarimetry of retinal nerve fibre layer; 3) measuring the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness with 3 different optical coherence tomographs. The parameters of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness are highly correlated between the GDx and OCT Stratus and 3D OCT-1000 devices in mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in the upper sector, and correlation of NFI (GDx) with mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in OCT examinations. Absolute values of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (measured in µm) differ significantly between GDx and all OCT devices. Examination with OCT devices is a sensitive diagnostic method of glaucoma, with good correlation with the results of GDx scanning laser polarimetry of the patients.

  19. Coincidence of retinitis pigmentosa and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is an observational case report presenting retinitis pigmentosa associated with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Case outline. A 69-year-old man presented with retinitis pigmentosa. On examination, pseudoexfoliative material was detected on anterior segment structures, and intraocular pressure was 26 mmHg in the right and 24 mmHg in the left eye. The patient was commenced on topical antiglaucomatous therapy (timolol + dorzolamide twice daily, latanoprost once in the evening to both eyes. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of retinitis pigmentosa associated with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Although rare, retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma can occur in the same eye.

  20. Retinal phlebitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Fiona L M; Tajunisah, Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    To describe a case of retinal phlebitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Observational case report. A 44-year-old Indian man diagnosed with autoimmune hemolytic anemia presented with a 1-week history of blurred vision in both eyes. Fundus biomicroscopy revealed bilateral peripheral retinal venous sheathing and cellophane maculopathy. Fundus fluorescent angiogram showed bilateral late leakage from the peripheral venous arcades and submacular fluid accumulation. The retinal phlebitis resolved following a blood transfusion and administration of systemic steroids. Retinopathy associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia is not well known. This is thought to be the first documentation of retinal phlebitis occurring in this condition.

  1. Tractional retinal detachment in Usher syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Alka; Pal, Nikhil; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Sharma, Yog Raj; Chandra, Parijat; Vikram Singh, Deependra

    2005-08-01

    Retinal detachment is a rare complication in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. A case is reported of tractional retinal detachment in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa and sensorineural hearing loss, which was diagnosed as Usher syndrome type II. Because of the poor visual prognosis, the patient refused surgery in that eye. Tractional retinal detachment should be added to the differential diagnoses of visual loss in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

  2. Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Applications in Retinal Degenerative Diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Yiming; Enzmann Volker; Ildstad Suzanne T

    2011-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases that target photoreceptors or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration (RD) is found in many different forms of retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Effective treatment for retinal degeneration has been widely investigated. Gene-replacement therapy has been shown to improve visual function in inheri...

  3. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5. RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2 with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia.

  4. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Samin; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Chan Yun; Seong, Gong Je

    2007-01-01

    Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2) with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia. PMID:17908330

  5. Threshold values characterizing iodine-induced SCC of zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Une, K.

    1984-01-01

    Threshold values of stress, stress intensity factor, strain, strain rate and iodine concentration for SCC of unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloys are reviewed. The ratio of σsub(th)/σsub(y) adequately represents the effects of cold work and irradiation damage on the SCC susceptibility, where threshold stress σsub(th) is defined as the minimum stress to cause SCC to failure after -6 and 10 -3 min -1 . A comparison of SCC data between constant strain rate and constant stress tests is presented in order to examine the validity of a cumulative-damage concept under SCC conditions. (author)

  6. New approach to modulate retinal cellular toxic effects of high glucose using marine epa and dha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagon Roxane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids against cellular damages of high glucose were studied on retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells. Methods Retinal epithelial cells were incubated with omega-3 marine oils rich in EPA and DHA and then with high glucose (25 mM for 48 hours. Cellular responses were compared to normal glucose (5 mM: intracellular redox status, reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial succinate deshydrogenase activity, inflammatory cytokines release and caveolin-1 expression were evaluated using microplate cytometry, ELISA and flow cytometry techniques. Fatty acids incorporation in retinal cell membranes was analysed using chromatography. Results Preincubation of the cells with fish oil decreased ROS overproduction, mitochondrial alterations and TNFα release. These protective effects could be attributed to an increase in caveolin-1 expression induced by marine oil. Conclusion Marine formulations rich in omega-3 fatty acids represent a promising therapeutic approach for diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Automatic detection of blood vessels in retinal images for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, D Siva Sundhara; Vasuki, S

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. DR is mainly caused due to the damage of retinal blood vessels in the diabetic patients. It is essential to detect and segment the retinal blood vessels for DR detection and diagnosis, which prevents earlier vision loss in diabetic patients. The computer aided automatic detection and segmentation of blood vessels through the elimination of optic disc (OD) region in retina are proposed in this paper. The OD region is segmented using anisotropic diffusion filter and subsequentially the retinal blood vessels are detected using mathematical binary morphological operations. The proposed methodology is tested on two different publicly available datasets and achieved 93.99% sensitivity, 98.37% specificity, 98.08% accuracy in DRIVE dataset and 93.6% sensitivity, 98.96% specificity, and 95.94% accuracy in STARE dataset, respectively.

  8. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  9. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  10. Normal central retinal function and structure preserved in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Samuel G; Roman, Alejandro J; Aleman, Tomas S; Sumaroka, Alexander; Herrera, Waldo; Windsor, Elizabeth A M; Atkinson, Lori A; Schwartz, Sharon B; Steinberg, Janet D; Cideciyan, Artur V

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether normal function and structure, as recently found in forms of Usher syndrome, also occur in a population of patients with nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Patients with simplex, multiplex, or autosomal recessive RP (n = 238; ages 9-82 years) were studied with static chromatic perimetry. A subset was evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Co-localized visual sensitivity and photoreceptor nuclear layer thickness were measured across the central retina to establish the relationship of function and structure. Comparisons were made to patients with Usher syndrome (n = 83, ages 10-69 years). Cross-sectional psychophysical data identified patients with RP who had normal rod- and cone-mediated function in the central retina. There were two other patterns with greater dysfunction, and longitudinal data confirmed that progression can occur from normal rod and cone function to cone-only central islands. The retinal extent of normal laminar architecture by OCT corresponded to the extent of normal visual function in patients with RP. Central retinal preservation of normal function and structure did not show a relationship with age or retained peripheral function. Usher syndrome results were like those in nonsyndromic RP. Regional disease variation is a well-known finding in RP. Unexpected was the observation that patients with presumed recessive RP can have regions with functionally and structurally normal retina. Such patients will require special consideration in future clinical trials of either focal or systemic treatment. Whether there is a common molecular mechanism shared by forms of RP with normal regions of retina warrants further study.

  11. Early interventions to prevent retinal vasculopathy in diabetes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison WW

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wendy W Harrison, Vladimir YevseyenkovArizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Diabetic eye disease is a public health concern in all areas of the world as a leading cause of blindness in the working aged to elderly populations. Diabetes damages the lining of the microvasculature throughout the body through prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions. The ocular changes are progressive with very little recourse for improvement once damage begins. Current treatments for the eye focus mainly on the late stages of the disease when neovascularization or edema threatens sight. Early interventions for diabetic vasculopathy involve metabolic therapy to improve blood glucose and blood pressure control. Technology improvements have a large part to play in advancing diagnosis of diabetic eye disease. These new technologies offer both structural and functional means for assessment of retinal health. This review focuses on current treatments for diabetic eye disease at all stages with an emphasis on new and early interventions. It also details established and emerging technologies used for earlier detection of diabetic eye disease, which is vital to the development and approval of much needed treatments targeted at earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Possible future treatments should be aimed to prevent retinal vasculopathy from progressing. This review will explore current research on this topic and what is needed moving forward.Keywords: diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, vascular disease

  12. Zingiber officinale attenuates retinal microvascular changes in diabetic rats via anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongare, Shirish; Mathur, Rajani; Saxena, Rohit; Mathur, Sandeep; Agarwal, Renu; Nag, Tapas C.; Srivastava, Sushma; Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of long-standing diabetes. Several complex interconnecting biochemical pathways are activated in response to hyperglycemia. These pathways culminate into proinflammatory and angiogenic effects that bring about structural and functional damage to the retinal vasculature. Since Zingiber officinale (ginger) is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties, we investigated the effects of its extract standardized to 5% 6-gingerol, the major active constituent of ginger, in attenuating retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetic rats were treated orally with the vehicle or the ginger extract (75 mg/kg/day) over a period of 24 weeks along with regular monitoring of bodyweight and blood glucose and weekly fundus photography. At the end of the 24-week treatment, the retinas were isolated for histopathological examination under a light microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and determination of the retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Results Oral administration of the ginger extract resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and vascular basement membrane thickness. Improvement in the architecture of the retinal vasculature was associated with significantly reduced expression of NF-κB and reduced activity of TNF-α and VEGF in the retinal tissue in the ginger extract–treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusions The current study showed that ginger extract containing 5% of 6-gingerol attenuates the retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic actions. Although precise molecular targets remain to be determined, 6-gingerol seems to be a potential candidate for further investigation. PMID:27293376

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of human retinal detachment reveals both inflammatory response and photoreceptor death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Noëlle Delyfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal detachment often leads to a severe and permanent loss of vision and its therapeutic management remains to this day exclusively surgical. We have used surgical specimens to perform a differential analysis of the transcriptome of human retinal tissues following detachment in order to identify new potential pharmacological targets that could be used in combination with surgery to further improve final outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Statistical analysis reveals major involvement of the immune response in the disease. Interestingly, using a novel approach relying on coordinated expression, the interindividual variation was monitored to unravel a second crucial aspect of the pathological process: the death of photoreceptor cells. Within the genes identified, the expression of the major histocompatibility complex I gene HLA-C enables diagnosis of the disease, while PKD2L1 and SLCO4A1 -which are both down-regulated- act synergistically to provide an estimate of the duration of the retinal detachment process. Our analysis thus reveals the two complementary cellular and molecular aspects linked to retinal detachment: an immune response and the degeneration of photoreceptor cells. We also reveal that the human specimens have a higher clinical value as compared to artificial models that point to IL6 and oxidative stress, not implicated in the surgical specimens studied here. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic analysis confirmed the occurrence of both neurodegeneration and inflammation during retinal detachment, and further identifies precisely the modification of expression of the different genes implicated in these two phenomena. Our data henceforth give a new insight into the disease process and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting inflammation and photoreceptor damage associated with retinal detachment and, in turn, improving visual prognosis after retinal surgery.

  14. Crocin prevents retinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wen-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Xin-Guang

    2013-02-01

    Crocin is a pharmacologically active component of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and has been reported to be useful in the treatment of neuronal damage. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of crocin on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after retinal ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, and our results show that crocin acts through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Retinal IR injury was induced by raising the intraocular pressure of Sprague-Dawley rats to 110 mmHg for 60 min. The neuroprotective effect of crocin was determined by quantifying the surviving RGCs and apoptotic RGCs following IR injury by means of retrograde labelling and TUNEL staining, respectively. The phosphorylated AKT protein level was determined by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. To determine the extent to which the PI3K/AKT pathway contributes to the neuroprotective effect of crocin, experiments were also performed using the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Compared with the IR + vehicle group, crocin (50 mg/kg) treatment enhanced RGC survival by approximately 36% and decreased RGC apoptosis by 44% after retinal IR injury. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT pathway was activated by crocin in the ganglion cell layer after retinal IR injury. Intravitreal injection of LY294002 blocked the neuroprotective effect of crocin on IR-induced RGC death. In conclusion, crocin prevents retinal IR-induced apoptosis of RGCs by activating the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photobiomodulation reduces photoreceptor death and regulates cytoprotection in early states of P23H retinal dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Diana K.; Gopalakrishnan, Sandeep; Schmitt, Heather; Abroe, Betsy; Stoehr, Michele; Dubis, Adam; Carroll, Joseph; Stone, Jonathan; Valter, Krisztina; Eells, Janis

    2013-03-01

    Irradiation by light in the far-red to near-infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (photobiomodulation, PBM) has been demonstrated to attenuate the severity of neurodegenerative disease in experimental and clinical studies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that 670 nm PBM would protect against the loss of retinal function and improve photoreceptor survival in a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa, the P23H transgenic rat. P23H rat pups were treated once per day with a 670 nm LED array (180 sec treatments at 50 mW/cm2; fluence 9 joules/cm2) (Quantum Devices Inc., Barneveld WI) from postnatal day (p) 16-20 or from p10-20. Sham-treated rats were restrained, but not exposed to NIR light. The status of the retina was determined at p22 by assessment of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and cell death. In a second series of studies, retinal status was assessed at p30 by measuring photoreceptor function by ERG and retinal morphology by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). 670 nm PBM increased retinal mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase activity and upregulated the retina's production of the key mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, MnSOD. PBM also attenuated photoreceptor cell loss and improved photoreceptor function. PBM protects photoreceptors in the developing P23H retina, by augmenting mitochondrial function and stimulating antioxidant protective pathways. Photobiomodulation may have therapeutic potential, where mitochondrial damage is a step in the death of photoreceptors.

  16. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Karia, Niral

    2010-01-01

    Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

  17. Retinitis pigmentosa, Coats disease and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A; Banin, E; Anteby, I; Benezra, D

    1999-01-01

    To study the anamnestic immune response to retinal specific antigens of two patients suffering from a rare triad of retinitis pigmentosa, Coats disease and uveitis. 17-year-old girl presented with an acute episode of panuveitis, and her 19-year-old brother suffered from chronic uveitis. On examination, both patients showed retinal vascular changes and subretinal exudations typical of Coats disease, with bone-spicule pigmentary changes as observed in retinitis pigmentosa. All routine examinations were unrevealing. However, the peripheral lymphocytes from these two siblings gave a specific anamnestic response to retinal antigens in vitro. A stimulation index of 4.6 was obtained when the sister's lymphocytes were stimulated with interphotoreceptor binding protein, IRBP--during the acute stage of the uveitis. The brother's lymphocytes showed a stimulation index of 2.7 towards S-Ag during the chronic phase of his uveitic condition. These results indicate that autoimmunity towards retinal antigens may play some role in specific types of retinitis pigmentosa. Whether these autoimmune reactions are a primary pathological mechanism or are secondary to the extensive destruction of the photoreceptor layer resulting from the retinitis pigmentosa remains debatable.

  18. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabai, Andrea; Veritti, Daniele; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications. PMID:26139802

  19. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gabai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundus autofluorescence (FAF is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications.

  20. Crossing the Petawatt threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.

    1996-01-01

    A revolutionary new laser called the Petawatt, developed by Lawrence Livermore researchers after an intensive three-year development effort, has produced more than 1,000 trillion (open-quotes petaclose quotes) watts of power, a world record. By crossing the petawatt threshold, the extraordinarily powerful laser heralds a new age in laser research. Lasers that provide a petawatt of power or more in a picosecond may make it possible to achieve fusion using significantly less energy than currently envisioned, through a novel Livermore concept called open-quotes fast ignition.close quotes The petawatt laser will also enable researchers to study the fundamental properties of matter, thereby aiding the Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship efforts and opening entirely new physical regimes to study. The technology developed for the Petawatt has also provided several spinoff technologies, including a new approach to laser material processing

  1. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Frank T; Lamberts, Querin J; van den Biesen, Pieter R; Rothova, Aniki

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the frequency, high-risk factors, and visual prognosis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in patients with uveitis. Retrospective case-control study. We included 1387 consecutive patients with uveitis who consulted our uveitis clinic from January 1990 through December 1997 of whom 43 patients (46 eyes) with RRD were identified. The retinal detachment (RD) controls were 212 consecutive patients with RRD (221 eyes, first occurrence of RD, not associated with uveitis) who were admitted for surgery in the period from April 1999 to April 2000. The uveitis control group consisted of 150 age-matched patients (210 eyes) selected from the entire uveitis series. Retrospective analysis of clinical data. The presence of RRD and eventual risk factors for RRD, such as myopia, retinal lattice degeneration, prior intraocular surgery, anatomic location of uveitis, its specific diagnosis, and clinical manifestations. Furthermore, the surgical and nonsurgical outcomes of RRD, as well as the results of various treatment regimens, were analyzed. RRD was identified in 3.1% of the patients with uveitis. RRD was most frequently associated with panuveitis (6.6%). RRD was associated more frequently with infectious (7.6%) than noninfectious uveitis (2.1%). At the onset of RRD, uveitis was active in most (46%) affected eyes. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy was present in 30% of the uveitic RRD eyes at presentation in contrast to 12% of the RRD control eyes. In uveitic RRD, the retina was reattached in 59% of eyes with a single operation; the final anatomic reattachment rate was 88%. Finally, a visual acuity of less than 20/200 was present in 71% of the uveitic RRD eyes, 10% of which had no light perception. We discovered a high prevalence of RRD in patients with active panuveitis and infectious uveitis and document that uveitis in itself is a risk factor for the development of RRD. The visual prognosis of RRD in uveitis was poor because of the uveitis itself and the

  2. [To cognize retinitis pigmentosa with scientific view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen-lin

    2009-03-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited eye disease that usually leads into blind, and is high simplex and clinical heterogeneity. Recent years, some new hereditary forms have been found, such as digenic RP, mitochondrial RP, incomplete dominant inheritance RP. The phenotype of RP is multiplicity. Incompatible phenomenon between genotype and phenotypes was shown in some genes such as peripherin/RDS, RHO, RP2 and RP3. The complicated phenotype was shown in the rare RP forms, such as centricity RP, stemma RP, retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento, and retinal degeneration slow. Retinal transplantation, retinal implantation, drug and neurotrophic factor therapy, and gene therapy have been well studied worldwide and presented some hopeful efficacy. Ophthalmologists and practitioners should cognize the new advance and new knowledge on RP therapy with a scientific view for better serving the RP patients.

  3. [Indications for Retinal Laser Therapy Revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, P; Schaub, F; Fauser, S

    2017-02-10

    Background Laser therapy is an important treatment option in retinal diseases, especially in cases of vascular involvement. Most approaches are based on coagulation of retinal structures. As there is increasing use of agents targetting vascular endothelial growth factor in the treatment of macular diseases, indications for the use of laser treatment need to be reviewed carefully, especially with respect to their significance in first line therapy. This article explains recent strategies and treatment protocols. Materials and Methods Review of current literature in PubMed as well as synopsis of relevant guidelines. Results and Conclusion Retinal laser therapy is still widely used within retinal opthalmology and covers a large spectrum of indications. Despite the success of medical approaches, retinal laser therapy remains an indispensable treatment option for proliferative diabetic retinopathy, central or peripheral vein occlusion and less frequent pathologies, such as retinopathy of prematurity or Coats's disease. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Variable retinal presentations in nanophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Zafar, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Nanophthalmos is an uncommon developmental ocular disorder characterized by a small eye with short axial length, high hyperopia and high lens/eye volume ratio due to arrested development of the globe in all directions. Different types of fundus changes can rarely occur with nanophthalmos. We describe five cases of nanophthalmos, each of them presenting with a different fundus appearance. Our case series highlights variability of pigmentary changes from retinal flecks to bone spicules and bull's eye maculopathy, which are rare in the combinations described here. (author)

  5. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  6. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    , the retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficients. Falconer's formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The mean...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0...

  7. Retinal peripheral changes after LASIK

    OpenAIRE

    Nassaralla Junior,João Jorge; Santos,Regina Cândido Ribeiro dos; Nassaralla,Belquiz Amaral

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To better define the effect of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) on myopic eyes and the risk and incidence of retinal complications after surgery. METHODS: In a prospective study, 200 eyes of 100 patients, 49 male and 51 female, with a mean age of 29.7 years, had a complete posterior pole examination before and at 1 week, 1, 3 and 12 months after bilateral simultaneous LASIK for the correction of myopia. Mean spherical equivalent was 7.75D (range 1.00 to -17.25D). Before LASIK, pr...

  8. Pulsed laser damage to optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.W.; Gillies, G.T.; Magnuson, D.W.; Pagano, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes some observations of pulsed laser damage to optical fibers with emphasis on a damage mode characterized as a linear fracture along the outer core of a fiber. Damage threshold data are presented which illustrate the effects of the focusing lens, end-surface preparation, and type of fiber. An explanation based on fiber-beam misalignment is given and is illustrated by a simple experiment and ray trace

  9. Relationship between retinal blood flow and arterial oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Richard W; Yusof, Firdaus; Tsui, Edmund; Jong, Monica; Duffin, James; Flanagan, John G; Fisher, Joseph A; Hudson, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Vascular reactivity, the response of the vessels to a vasoactive stimulus such as hypoxia and hyperoxia, can be used to assess the vascular range of adjustment in which the vessels are able to compensate for changes in PO2. Previous studies in the retina have not accurately quantified retinal vascular responses and precisely targeted multiple PaO2 stimuli at the same time as controlling the level of carbon dioxide, thus precluding them from modelling the relationship between retinal blood flow and oxygen. The present study modelled the relationship between retinal blood flow and PaO2, showing them to be a combined linear and hyperbolic function. This model demonstrates that the resting tonus of the vessels is at the mid-point and that they have great vascular range of adjustment, compensating for decreases in oxygen above a PETCO2 of 32-37 mmHg but being limited below this threshold. Retinal blood flow (RBF) increases in response to a reduction in oxygen (hypoxia) but decreases in response to increased oxygen (hyperoxia). However, the relationship between blood flow and the arterial partial pressure of oxygen has not been quantified and modelled in the retina, particularly in the vascular reserve and resting tonus of the vessels. The present study aimed to determine the limitations of the retinal vasculature by modelling the relationship between RBF and oxygen. Retinal vascular responses were measured in 13 subjects for eight different blood gas conditions, with the end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen (PETCO2) ranging from 40-500 mmHg. Retinal vascular response measurements were repeated twice; using the Canon laser blood flowmeter (Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan) during the first visit and using Doppler spectral domain optical coherence tomography during the second visit. We determined that the relationship between RBF and PaO2 can be modelled as a combination of hyperbolic and linear functions. We concluded that RBF compensated for decreases in arterial oxygen content

  10. Suppressed retinal degeneration in aged wild type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice by bone marrow transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yang

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is an age-related condition characterized by accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid β peptides (Aβ in brain and retina. Because bone marrow transplantation (BMT results in decreased cerebral Aβ in experimental AD, we hypothesized that BMT would mitigate retinal neurotoxicity through decreased retinal Aβ. To test this, we performed BMT in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mice using green fluorescent protein expressing wild type (wt mice as marrow donors. We first examined retinas from control, non-transplanted, aged AD mice and found a two-fold increase in microglia compared with wt mice, prominent inner retinal Aβ and paired helical filament-tau, and decreased retinal ganglion cell layer neurons. BMT resulted in near complete replacement of host retinal microglia with BMT-derived cells and normalized total AD retinal microglia to non-transplanted wt levels. Aβ and paired helical filament-tau were reduced (61.0% and 44.1% respectively in BMT-recipient AD mice, which had 20.8% more retinal ganglion cell layer neurons than non-transplanted AD controls. Interestingly, aged wt BMT recipients also had significantly more neurons (25.4% compared with non-transplanted aged wt controls. Quantitation of retinal ganglion cell layer neurons in young mice confirmed age-related retinal degeneration was mitigated by BMT. We found increased MHC class II expression in BMT-derived microglia and decreased oxidative damage in retinal ganglion cell layer neurons. Thus, BMT is neuroprotective in age-related as well as AD-related retinal degeneration, and may be a result of alterations in innate immune function and oxidative stress in BMT recipient mice.

  11. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of intravitreal adalimumab administration in rabbit retinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álcio Coutinho de Paula

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of intravitreal adalimumab treatment in an animal experimental model using cytological and molecular techniques. Methods: Eighteen rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups: control, adalimumab treatment, and placebo. Cytotoxicity on retinal cells was evaluated using flow cytometry assays to determine the level of apoptosis and necrosis. Genotoxicity was evaluated by comet assays to assess DNA damage, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to evaluate expression of apoptosis-inducing caspases (8 and 3. Results: No cytotoxicity or genotoxicity was observed in any of the two treatment groups (adalimumab and placebo following intravitreal administration compared with the control group. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that more than 90% of the cells were viable, and only a low proportion of retinal cells presented apoptotic (~10% or necrotic (<1% activity across all groups. Molecular damage was also low with a maximum of 6.4% DNA degradation observed in the comet assays. In addition, no increase in gene expression of apoptosis-inducing caspases was observed on retinal cells by qPCR in both the adalimumab and placebo groups compared with the control group. Conclusion: The use of adalimumab resulted in no detectable cytotoxicity or genotoxicity on retinal cells for up to 60 days upon administration. These results therefore indicate that adalimumab may be a safe option for intravitreal application to treat ocular inflammatory diseases in which TNF-α is involved.

  12. Fasudil, a Clinically Used ROCK Inhibitor, Stabilizes Rod Photoreceptor Synapses after Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes-Anderson, Ellen; Wang, Jianfeng; Halász, Éva; Sugino, Ilene; Pitler, Amy; Whitehead, Ian; Zarbin, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Retinal detachment disrupts the rod-bipolar synapse in the outer plexiform layer by retraction of rod axons. We showed that breakage is due to RhoA activation whereas inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK), using Y27632, reduces synaptic damage. We test whether the ROCK inhibitor fasudil, used for other clinical applications, can prevent synaptic injury after detachment. Detachments were made in pigs by subretinal injection of balanced salt solution (BSS) or fasudil (1, 10 mM). In some animals, fasudil was injected intravitreally after BSS-induced detachment. After 2 to 4 hours, retinae were fixed for immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Axon retraction was quantified by imaging synaptic vesicle label in the outer nuclear layer. Apoptosis was analyzed using propidium iodide staining. For biochemical analysis by Western blotting, retinal explants, detached from retinal pigmented epithelium, were cultured for 2 hours. Subretinal injection of fasudil (10 mM) reduced retraction of rod spherules by 51.3% compared to control detachments ( n = 3 pigs, P = 0.002). Intravitreal injection of 10 mM fasudil, a more clinically feasible route of administration, also reduced retraction (28.7%, n = 5, P ROCK, was decreased with 30 μM fasudil ( n = 8-10 explants, P ROCK signaling with fasudil reduced photoreceptor degeneration and preserved the rod-bipolar synapse after retinal detachment. These results support the possibility, previously tested with Y27632, that ROCK inhibition may attenuate synaptic damage in iatrogenic detachments.

  13. Enhancing the efficacy of AREDS antioxidants in light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul; Markey, M; Rapp, C M; Darrow, R M; Ziesel, A; Organisciak, D T

    2017-01-01

    Light-induced photoreceptor cell degeneration and disease progression in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) involve oxidative stress and visual cell loss, which can be prevented, or slowed, by antioxidants. Our goal was to test the protective efficacy of a traditional Age-related Eye Disease Study antioxidant formulation (AREDS) and AREDS combined with non-traditional antioxidants in a preclinical animal model of photooxidative retinal damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in a low-intensity (20 lux) or high-intensity (200 lux) cyclic light environment for 6 weeks. Some animals received a daily dietary supplement consisting of a small cracker infused with an AREDS antioxidant mineral mixture, AREDS antioxidants minus zinc, or zinc oxide alone. Other rats received AREDS combined with a detergent extract of the common herb rosemary, AREDS plus carnosic acid, zinc oxide plus rosemary, or rosemary alone. Antioxidant efficacy was determined by measuring retinal DNA levels 2 weeks after 6 h of intense exposure to white light (9,000 lux). Western blotting was used to determine visual cell opsin and arrestin levels following intense light treatment. Rhodopsin regeneration was determined after 1 h of exposure to light. Gene array analysis was used to determine changes in the expression of retinal genes resulting from light rearing environment or from antioxidant supplementation. Chronic high-intensity cyclic light rearing resulted in lower levels of rod and cone opsins, retinal S-antigen (S-ag), and medium wavelength cone arrestin (mCAR) than found for rats maintained in low cyclic light. However, as determined by retinal DNA, and by residual opsin and arrestin levels, 2 weeks after acute photooxidative damage, visual cell loss was greater in rats reared in low cyclic light. Retinal damage decreased with AREDS plus rosemary, or with zinc oxide plus rosemary whereas AREDS alone and zinc oxide alone (at their daily recommended levels) were both ineffective. One

  14. Can acupuncture therapy help patients with retinitis-pigmentosa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Fereydouni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of acupuncture therapy on visual function of patients with retinitis-pigmentosa (RP. Methods: In a prospective study, 23 RP subjects received ten sessions of body-acupuncture. Pre and post-treatment evaluations included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, near visual acuity (NVA, and static 30-2 perimetry. Results: UCVA, BCVA, and NVA improvements after acupuncture therapy were statistically and clinically significant (P = 0.048, P = 0.0005, P = 0.002, respectively. The changes of mean foveal threshold (MFT and mean deviation (MD were statistically significant (P = 0.031, P = 0.02. There were no statistically significant difference between different age group and genders. Subjective symptoms of improvement were seen in most of cases. Conclusion: Future studies are needed to show the effect of acupuncture therapy on visual function of patients with RP. Keywords: Retina, Retinitis pigmentosa, Acupuncture, Chinese medicine

  15. Novel Computerized Method for Measurement of Retinal Vessel Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Guedri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several clinical studies reveal the relationship between alterations in the topologies of the human retinal blood vessel, the outcrop and the disease evolution, such as diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, and macular degeneration. Indeed, the detection of these vascular changes always has gaps. In addition, the manual steps are slow, which may be subjected to a bias of the perceiver. However, we can overcome these troubles using computer algorithms that are quicker and more accurate. This paper presents and investigates a novel method for measuring the blood vessel diameter in the retinal image. The proposed method is based on a thresholding segmentation and thinning step, followed by the characteristic point determination step by the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. Thereafter, it uses the active contours to detect vessel contour. Finally, Heron’s Formula is applied to assure the calculation of vessel diameter. The obtained results for six sample images showed that the proposed method generated less errors compared to other techniques, which confirms the high performance of the proposed method.

  16. Absence of synaptic regulation by phosducin in retinal slices.

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    James H Long

    Full Text Available Phosducin is an abundant photoreceptor protein that binds G-protein βγ subunits and plays a role in modulating synaptic transmission at photoreceptor synapses under both dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions in vivo. To examine the role of phosducin at the rod-to-rod bipolar cell (RBC synapse, we used whole-cell voltage clamp recordings to measure the light-evoked currents from both wild-type (WT and phosducin knockout (Pd(-/- RBCs, in dark- and light-adapted retinal slices. Pd(-/- RBCs showed smaller dim flash responses and steeper intensity-response relationships than WT RBCs, consistent with the smaller rod responses being selectively filtered out by the non-linear threshold at the rod-to-rod bipolar synapse. In addition, Pd(-/- RBCs showed a marked delay in the onset of the light-evoked currents, similar to that of a WT response to an effectively dimmer flash. Comparison of the changes in flash sensitivity in the presence of steady adapting light revealed that Pd(-/- RBCs desensitized less than WT RBCs to the same intensity. These results are quantitatively consistent with the smaller single photon responses of Pd(-/- rods, owing to the known reduction in rod G-protein expression levels in this line. The absence of an additional synaptic phenotype in these experiments suggests that the function of phosducin at the photoreceptor synapse is abolished by the conditions of retinal slice recordings.

  17. Preventive and therapeutic effects of SkQ1-containing Visomitin eye drops against light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Yu P; Gancharova, O S; Eichler, O V; Philippov, P P; Grigoryan, E N

    2014-10-01

    The human retina is constantly affected by light of varying intensity, this being especially true for photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium. Traditionally, photoinduced damages of the retina are induced by visible light of high intensity in albino rats using the LIRD (light-induced retinal degeneration) model. This model allows study of pathological processes in the retina and the search for retinoprotectors preventing retinal photodamage. In addition, the etiology and mechanisms of retina damage in the LIRD model have much in common with the mechanisms of the development of age-related retinal disorders, in particular, with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We have studied preventive and therapeutic effects of Visomitin eye drops (based on the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1) on albino rat retinas damaged by bright light. In the first series of experiments, rats receiving Visomitin for two weeks prior to illumination demonstrated significantly less expressed atrophic and degenerative changes in the retina compared to animals receiving similar drops with no SkQ1. In the second series, the illuminated rats were treated for two weeks with Visomitin or similar drops without SkQ1. The damaged retinas of the experimental animals were repaired much more effectively than those of the control animals. Therefore, we conclude that Visomitin SkQ1-containing eye drops have pronounced preventive and therapeutic effects on the photodamaged retina and might be recommended as a photoprotector and a pharmaceutical preparation for the treatment of AMD in combination with conventional medicines.

  18. Investigation of damage in KDP using scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, B.; Runkel, M.; Yan, M.; Staggs, M.; Zaitseva, N.; Kozlowski, M.; De Yoreo, J.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in producing high damage threshold KH 2 PO 4 (KDP) and (D x H 1-x ) 2 PO 4 (DKDP)(also called KD*P) for frequency conversion and optical switching applications is driven by the requirements of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Presently only the best crystals meet the NIF system requirements at the third harmonic (351 nm) and only after a laser conditioning process. Neither the mechanism for damage in bulk KDP nor the mechanism for conditioning is understood. As part of a development effort to increase the damage thresholds of KDP and DKDP, we have been developing techniques to pinpoint the locations where damage will initiate in the bulk material. After we find these locations we will use other measurement techniques to determine how these locations differ from the other surrounding material and why they cause damage. This will allow crystal growers to focus their efforts to improve damage thresholds. Historically damage thresholds have increased it is believed as a consequence of increased purity of the growth solution and through the use of constant filtration during the growth process. As a result we believe that damage is caused by defects in the crystals and have conducted a series of experiments using light scatter to locate these defects and to determine when and where damage occurs. In this paper we present results which show a low correlation between light scatter from bulk defects in KDP and the initiation sites for damage. We have also studied the effects of thermal conditioning on light scatter, strain induced birefringence and damage threshold. We have seen evidence that regions of high strain also exhibit lower damage threshold than the surrounding lower strain material. When thermally conditioned, these crystals show a decrease in some of the strong linear scattering features and a decrease in the strain birefringence while the damage threshold in these regions increased to that of the surrounding bulk material

  19. Crossing the threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John; Tambasco, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    First, we summarize the circumstances in which chaotic pilot-wave dynamics gives rise to quantum-like statistical behavior. For ``closed'' systems, in which the droplet is confined to a finite domain either by boundaries or applied forces, quantum-like features arise when the persistence time of the waves exceeds the time required for the droplet to cross its domain. Second, motivated by the similarities between this hydrodynamic system and stochastic electrodynamics, we examine the behavior of a bouncing droplet above the Faraday threshold, where a stochastic element is introduced into the drop dynamics by virtue of its interaction with a background Faraday wave field. With a view to extending the dynamical range of pilot-wave systems to capture more quantum-like features, we consider a generalized theoretical framework for stochastic pilot-wave dynamics in which the relative magnitudes of the drop-generated pilot-wave field and a stochastic background field may be varied continuously. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through their CMMI and DMS divisions.

  20. Performance of photovoltaic arrays in-vivo and characteristics of prosthetic vision in animals with retinal degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorach, Henri; Goetz, Georges; Mandel, Yossi; Lei, Xin; Kamins, Theodore I.; Mathieson, Keith; Huie, Philip; Dalal, Roopa; Harris, James S.; Palanker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loss of photoreceptors during retinal degeneration leads to blindness, but information can be reintroduced into the visual system using electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons. Subretinal photovoltaic arrays convert pulsed illumination into pulsed electric current to stimulate the inner retinal neurons. Since required irradiance exceeds the natural luminance levels, an invisible near-infrared (915nm) light is used to avoid photophobic effects. We characterized the thresholds and dynamic range of cortical responses to prosthetic stimulation with arrays of various pixel sizes and with different number of photodiodes. Stimulation thresholds for devices with 140µm pixels were approximately half those of 70µm pixels, and with both pixel sizes, thresholds were lower with 2 diodes than with 3 diodes per pixel. In all cases these thresholds were more than two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. At high stimulation frequencies (>20Hz), the cortical response exhibited flicker fusion. Over one order of magnitude of dynamic range could be achieved by varying either pulse duration or irradiance. However, contrast sensitivity was very limited. Cortical responses could be detected even with only a few illuminated pixels. Finally, we demonstrate that recording of the corneal electric potential in response to patterned illumination of the subretinal arrays allows monitoring the current produced by each pixel, and thereby assessing the changes in the implant performance over time. PMID:25255990

  1. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  2. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  3. Retinitis pigmentosa, pigmentary retinopathies, and neurologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M Tariq

    2006-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a group of inherited retinal diseases with phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. The pathophysiologic basis of the progressive visual loss in patients with RP is not completely understood but is felt to be due to a primary retinal photoreceptor cell degenerative process mainly affecting the rods of the peripheral retina. In most cases RP is seen in isolation (nonsyndromic), but in some other cases it may be a part of a genetic, metabolic, or neurologic syndrome or disorder. Nyctalopia, or night blindness, is the most common symptom of RP. The classic fundus appearance of RP includes retinal pigment epithelial cell changes resulting in retinal hypo- or hyperpigmentation ("salt-and-pepper"), retinal granularity, and bone spicule formation. The retinal vessels are often narrowed or attenuated and there is a waxy pallor appearance of the optic nerve head. Electroretinography will demonstrate rod and cone photoreceptor cell dysfunction and is a helpful test in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with RP. A detailed history with pedigree analysis, a complete ocular examination, and the appropriate paraclinical testing should be performed in patients complaining of visual difficulties at night or in dim light. This review discusses the clinical manifestations of RP as well as describing the various systemic diseases, with a special emphasis on neurologic diseases, associated with a pigmentary retinopathy.

  4. Genomic analysis of mouse retinal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Blackshaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate retina is comprised of seven major cell types that are generated in overlapping but well-defined intervals. To identify genes that might regulate retinal development, gene expression in the developing retina was profiled at multiple time points using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. The expression patterns of 1,051 genes that showed developmentally dynamic expression by SAGE were investigated using in situ hybridization. A molecular atlas of gene expression in the developing and mature retina was thereby constructed, along with a taxonomic classification of developmental gene expression patterns. Genes were identified that label both temporal and spatial subsets of mitotic progenitor cells. For each developing and mature major retinal cell type, genes selectively expressed in that cell type were identified. The gene expression profiles of retinal Müller glia and mitotic progenitor cells were found to be highly similar, suggesting that Müller glia might serve to produce multiple retinal cell types under the right conditions. In addition, multiple transcripts that were evolutionarily conserved that did not appear to encode open reading frames of more than 100 amino acids in length ("noncoding RNAs" were found to be dynamically and specifically expressed in developing and mature retinal cell types. Finally, many photoreceptor-enriched genes that mapped to chromosomal intervals containing retinal disease genes were identified. These data serve as a starting point for functional investigations of the roles of these genes in retinal development and physiology.

  5. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalam, K V; Sambhav, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software) helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA). Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.

  6. Silver nano - a trove for retinal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Barathmanikanth, Selvaraj; Pandian, Sureshbabu Ram Kumar; Deepak, Venkatraman; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2010-07-14

    Pathological retinal angiogenesis (neovascularization) is one of the most feared complications among retinal diseases, leading to visual impairment and irreversible blindness. Recent findings made by us on therapeutic applications of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against VEGF induced retinal endothelial cells, elucidates the effectual inhibitory activities of AgNPs over the downstream signaling pathways (Src and AKT/PI3K) leading to retinal angiogenesis. The current review focuses on the imperative role of VEGF induced angiogenesis in the development of retinal neovascularization and despite the fact that several VEGF targeting ocular drugs are available; the review examines the need for a cost economic alternative, thereby suggesting the role of AgNPs as an emerging economic ocular drug for retinal therapies. The current technologies available for the development of targeted and controlled release of drugs is being discussed and a model has been proposed for the amenable targeting mechanism, by which Poly gamma glutamic acid (PGA) capsulated AgNPs conjugated to cyclic RGD peptides carry out a sustained controlled release specifically targeting the neovascularization cells and induce apoptosis unaffecting the normal retinal cells. These constructs consequently affirm the futuristic application of silver nanoparticles as a boon to ocular therapies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical Burns of the Eye: The Role of Retinal Injury and New Therapeutic Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlman, Claes H; Cade, Fabiano; Regatieri, Caio V; Zhou, Chengxin; Lei, Fengyang; Crnej, Alja; Harissi-Dagher, Mona; Robert, Marie-Claude; Papaliodis, George N; Chen, Dongfeng; Aquavella, James V; Akpek, Esen K; Aldave, Anthony J; Sippel, Kimberly C; DʼAmico, Donald J; Dohlman, Jan G; Fagerholm, Per; Wang, Liqiang; Shen, Lucy Q; González-Andrades, Miguel; Chodosh, James; Kenyon, Kenneth R; Foster, C Stephen; Pineda, Roberto; Melki, Samir; Colby, Kathryn A; Ciolino, Joseph B; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Dana, Reza; Paschalis, Eleftherios I

    2018-02-01

    To propose a new treatment paradigm for chemical burns to the eye - in the acute and chronic phases. Recent laboratory and clinical data on the biology and treatment of chemical burns are analyzed. Corneal blindness from chemical burns can now be successfully treated with a keratoprosthesis, on immediate and intermediate bases. Long term outcomes, however, are hampered by early retinal damage causing glaucoma. New data suggest that rapid diffusion of inflammatory cytokines posteriorly (TNF-α, etc) can severely damage the ganglion cells. Prompt anti-TNF-α treatment is markedly neuroprotective. Long term profound reduction of the intraocular pressure is also vital. A new regimen, in addition to standard treatment, for severe chemical burns is proposed. This involves tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibition promptly after the accident (primarily for retinal neuroprotection), prophylactic maximal lowering of the intraocular pressure (starting immediately), and keratoprosthesis implantation in a later quiet state.

  8. Automatic detection of retinal exudates in fundus images of diabetic retinopathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Partovi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes and can lead to several retinal abnormalities including microaneurysms, exudates, dot and blot hemorrhages, and cotton wool spots. Automated early detection of these abnormalities could limit the severity of the disease and assist ophthalmologists in investigating and treating the disease more efficiently. Segmentation of retinal image features provides the basis for automated assessment. In this study, exudates lesion on retinopathy retinal images was segmented by different image processing techniques. The objective of this study is detection of the exudates regions on retinal images of retinopathy patients by different image processing techniques. Methods: A total of 30 color images from retinopathy patients were selected for this study. The images were taken by Topcon TRC-50 IX mydriatic camera and saves with TIFF format with a resolution of 500 × 752 pixels. The morphological function was applied on intensity components of hue saturation intensity (HSI space. To detect the exudates regions, thresholding was performed on all images and the exudates region was segmented. To optimize the detection efficiency, the binary morphological functions were applied. Finally, the exudates regions were quantified and evaluated for further statistical purposes. Results: The average of sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 98%, and accuracy of 97% was obtained. Conclusion: The results showed that our approach can identify the exudate regions in retinopathy images.

  9. Effects of hyperbaric, normobaric and hypobaric oxygen supplementation on retinal vessels in newborn rats: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, B

    1987-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted on eight litters of newborn rats to evaluate the effects of supplemental oxygen administration on the retinal vasculature. The animals and their mothers were kept inside a pressure chamber and treated for the first 5 days of life. On the sixth day, they were removed and kept for five more days under room air and normobaric conditions. Three litters received continuous flow oxygen at 80% at a compression pressure of +81 kPa, one litter oxygen at 80% at a pressure of -39.5 kPa atms and three other litters received oxygen at 80% under normobaric conditions. The eighth litter was treated with room air oxygen at a compression pressure of +81 kPa. A severe retinopathy with marked retinal neovascularization was seen only in the newborn animals of the litters that received oxygen supplementation under normobaric or hypobaric conditions. Retinal vessels showed no pathological changes in the litters treated with hyperbaric normoxia or hyperoxia. It is possible to hypothesize that the prolonged period of oxygen supplementation failed to produce harmful effects on the retinal vasculature because the moderate hyperbarism caused mild retinal and choroidal vasoconstriction thus preventing excessive oxygen transport to the inner retina from the choroid during hyperoxia without inducing structural damage to the retinal tissue.

  10. Retinal protective effects of topically administered agmatine on ischemic ocular injury caused by transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and putative neuromodulator, is known to have neuroprotective effects on various neurons in the central nervous system. We determined whether or not topically administered agmatine could reduce ischemic retinal injury. Transient ocular ischemia was achieved by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of ddY mice (30-35 g for 2 h, which is known to also induce occlusion of the ophthalmic artery. In the agmatine group (N = 6, a 1.0 mM agmatine-containing ophthalmic solution was administered four times daily for 2 weeks before occlusion. In the control group (N = 6, a 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution was instilled at the same times. At 22 h after reperfusion, the eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL. Transient ocular ischemia induced apoptosis of retinal cells in the entire retinal layer, and topically administered agmatine can significantly reduce this ischemic retinal injury. The proportion of apoptotic cells was definitely decreased (P < 0.001; Kruskal-Wallis test. Overall, we determined that topical agmatine application effectively decreases retinal damage in an in vivo ocular ischemic injury model. This implies that agmatine is a good candidate as a direct neuroprotective agent for eyes with ocular ischemic diseases.

  11. Retinal protective effects of topically administered agmatine on ischemic ocular injury caused by transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S.; Hara, H.; Shimazawa, M.; Hyakkoku, K.; Kim, C.Y.; Seong, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and putative neuromodulator, is known to have neuroprotective effects on various neurons in the central nervous system. We determined whether or not topically administered agmatine could reduce ischemic retinal injury. Transient ocular ischemia was achieved by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of ddY mice (30-35 g) for 2 h, which is known to also induce occlusion of the ophthalmic artery. In the agmatine group (N = 6), a 1.0 mM agmatine-containing ophthalmic solution was administered four times daily for 2 weeks before occlusion. In the control group (N = 6), a 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution was instilled at the same times. At 22 h after reperfusion, the eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Transient ocular ischemia induced apoptosis of retinal cells in the entire retinal layer, and topically administered agmatine can significantly reduce this ischemic retinal injury. The proportion of apoptotic cells was definitely decreased (P agmatine application effectively decreases retinal damage in an in vivo ocular ischemic injury model. This implies that agmatine is a good candidate as a direct neuroprotective agent for eyes with ocular ischemic diseases. PMID:22331138

  12. Paediatric retinal detachment: aetiology, characteristics and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McElnea

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. METHODS: A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients, 15 (62.5% of whom were male and 9 (37.5% of whom were female, their mean age being 11.6y and range 2-16y developed retinal detachment over the eight year period studied. Trauma featured in the development of retinal detachment in 14 (50.0% cases. Retinal detachment was associated with other ocular and/or systemic conditions in 11 (39.3% cases. A mean of 3.0 procedures with a range of 1-9 procedures per patient were undertaken in the management of retinal detachment. Complex vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling or complex vitrectomy alone were those most frequently performed. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 1.2 logMAR with range 0.0-3.0 logMAR. In 22 of 26 (84.6% cases which underwent surgical repair the retina was attached at last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Aggressive management of paediatric retinal detachment including re-operation increases the likelihood of anatomical success. In cases where the retinal detachment can be repaired by an external approach alone there is a more favourable visual outcome.

  13. Paediatric retinal detachment: aetiology, characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElnea, Elizabeth; Stephenson, Kirk; Gilmore, Sarah; O'Keefe, Michael; Keegan, David

    2018-01-01

    To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded. Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients, 15 (62.5%) of whom were male and 9 (37.5%) of whom were female, their mean age being 11.6y and range 2-16y developed retinal detachment over the eight year period studied. Trauma featured in the development of retinal detachment in 14 (50.0%) cases. Retinal detachment was associated with other ocular and/or systemic conditions in 11 (39.3%) cases. A mean of 3.0 procedures with a range of 1-9 procedures per patient were undertaken in the management of retinal detachment. Complex vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling or complex vitrectomy alone were those most frequently performed. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 1.2 logMAR with range 0.0-3.0 logMAR. In 22 of 26 (84.6%) cases which underwent surgical repair the retina was attached at last follow-up. Aggressive management of paediatric retinal detachment including re-operation increases the likelihood of anatomical success. In cases where the retinal detachment can be repaired by an external approach alone there is a more favourable visual outcome.

  14. A clinical approach to the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Asrar, Ahmed M Abu; Herbort, Carl P; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2010-04-01

    Retinal vasculitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory eye condition that involves the retinal vessels. Detection of retinal vasculitis is made clinically, and is confirmed with the help of fundus fluorescein angiography. Active vascular disease is characterized by exudates around retinal vessels resulting in white sheathing or cuffing of the affected vessels. In this review, a practical approach to the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis is discussed based on ophthalmoscopic and fundus fluorescein angiographic findings.

  15. An Unusual Case of Extensive Lattice Degeneration and Retinal Detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, David J.; Sarma, Saurabh Kumar; Basaiawmoit, Jennifer V.

    2016-01-01

    Lattice degeneration of the retina is not infrequently encountered on a dilated retinal examination and many of them do not need any intervention. We report a case of atypical lattice degeneration variant with peripheral retinal detachment. An asymptomatic 35-year-old lady with minimal refractive error was found to have extensive lattice degeneration, peripheral retinal detachment and fibrotic changes peripherally with elevation of retinal vessels on dilated retinal examination. There were al...

  16. Smart image processing system for retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, James D; Parikh, Neha; Pradeep, Vivek; Medioni, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prostheses for the blind have demonstrated the ability to provide the sensation of light in otherwise blind individuals. However, visual task performance in these patients remains poor relative to someone with normal vision. Computer vision algorithms for navigation and object detection were evaluated for their ability to improve task performance. Blind subjects navigating a mobility course had fewer collisions when using a wearable camera system that guided them on a safe path. Subjects using a retinal prosthesis simulator could locate objects more quickly when an object detection algorithm assisted them. Computer vision algorithms can assist retinal prosthesis patients and low-vision patients in general.

  17. Increase in Central Retinal Edema after Subthreshold Diode Micropulse Laser Treatment of Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Gawęcki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Subthreshold diode micropulse laser (SDM treatment is believed to be safe method of treating clinical entities involving retinal edema. We present a case of serous edematous reaction of the retina to SDM treatment. Methods. Case report. Results. A patient with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR was treated with SDM Yellow multispot laser. Procedure had been preceded by careful titration of the laser power, which after achieving of the threshold parameter was decreased by 50%. The follow-up visit two days after treatment revealed significant central retinal edema and subretinal fluid. Fundus autofluorescence image showed thermal reaction from the RPE in the form of small spots of hyperfluorescence corresponding to the laser multispot pattern used for treatment. Retinal edema resolved after topical bromfenac and single intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Slight pigmentary reaction from the RPE persisted. Conclusion. In the treatment of CSCR, there is a need to significantly reduce threshold SDM power parameters or simply use very low power without titration.

  18. Effects of combined ketamine/xylazine anesthesia on light induced retinal degeneration in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Arango-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of ketamine-xylazine anesthesia on light-induced retinal degeneration in rats. METHODS: Rats were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine (100 and 5 mg, respectively for 1 h, followed by a recovery phase of 2 h before exposure to 16,000 lux of environmental illumination for 2 h. Functional assessment by electroretinography (ERG and morphological assessment by in vivo imaging (optical coherence tomography, histology (hematoxylin/eosin staining, TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry (GFAP and rhodopsin staining were performed at baseline (ERG, 36 h, 7 d and 14 d post-treatment. Non-anesthetized animals treated with light damage served as controls. RESULTS: Ketamine-xylazine pre-treatment preserved retinal function and protected against light-induced retinal degeneration. In vivo retinal imaging demonstrated a significant increase of outer nuclear layer (ONL thickness in the non-anesthetized group at 36 h (p0.05, indicating a stabilizing and/or protective effect with regard to phototoxicity. Histology confirmed light-induced photoreceptor cell death and Müller cells gliosis in non-anesthetized rats, especially in the superior hemiretina, while ketamine-xylazine treated rats showed reduced photoreceptor cell death (TUNEL staining: p<0.001 after 7 d, thicker ONL and longer IS/OS. Fourteen days after light damage, a reduction of standard flash induced a-wave amplitudes and a-wave slopes (p = 0.01 and significant alterations in parameters of the scotopic sensitivity function (e.g. Vmax of the Naka Rushton fit p = 0.03 were observed in non-treated vs. ketamine-xylazine treated animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that pre-treatment with ketamine-xylazine anesthesia protects retinas against light damage, reducing photoreceptor cell death. These data support the notion that anesthesia with ketamine-xylazine provides neuroprotective effects in light-induced cell damage.

  19. Laser-induced damage to thin film dielectric coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-induced damage thresholds of dielectric thin film coatings have been found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the bulk material damage thresholds. Prior damage studies have been inconclusive in determining the damage mechanism which is operative in thin films. A program was conducted in which thin film damage thresholds were measured as a function of laser wavelength (1.06 μm, 0.53 μm, 0.35 μm and 0.26 μm), laser pulse length (5 and 15 nanoseconds), film materials and film thickness. The large matrix of data was compared to predictions given by avalanche ionization, multiphoton ionization and impurity theories of laser damage. When Mie absorption cross-sections and the exact thermal equations were included into the impurity theory excellent agreement with the data was found. The avalanche and multiphoton damage theories could not account for most parametric variations in the data. For example, the damage thresholds for most films increased as the film thickness decreased and only the impurity theory could account for this behavior. Other observed changes in damage threshold with changes in laser wavelength, pulse length and film material could only be adequately explained by the impurity theory. The conclusion which results from this study is that laser damage in thin film coatings results from absorbing impurities included during the deposition process

  20. Laser induced photoreceptor damage and recovery in the high numerical aperture eye of the garter snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, H; Edsall, P; Stuck, B E; Wood, E; Elliott, R; Cheramie, R; Hacker, H

    2008-02-01

    The garter snake provides a unique model for in-vivo imaging of photoreceptor damage induced by laser retinal exposure. Laser thermal/mechanical retinal injury induced alterations in photoreceptor structure and leukocyte cellular behavior. Photoreceptors turned white, lost mode structure, and swelled; leukocyte activity was observed in the vicinity of photoreceptor cells. Non-thermal alterations were identified with a bio-tag for oxidative stress. Mechanisms of photoreceptor recovery and replacement were observed and evaluated for active cytoskeletal systems by using an anti-actin tag that could detect the presence of active cytoskeletal systems resident in photoreceptors as well as other retinal systems.

  1. Treatment of Retinal Separation in HIV-infected Patients with Cytomegalovirus Retinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Onischenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection — is a socially significant problem for many countries, as the infected die in an average of 10-11 years due to the immunodeficiency virus. Up to 20% of patients with AIDS lose their sight because of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV retinitis, which occurs in 70% of HIV-infected people. In some patients with HIV infection blindness occurs because of acute retinal necrosis of CMV etiology. The algorithm of CMV retinitis treatment in HIV-infected patients is described in modern manuals (ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet and others on the background of antiretroviral therapy, but the tactics of treatment of retinal separation in these patients is not clearly defined. It may be “wait and see”, providing conservative treatment with antiviral drugs, and the active tactics — vitreoretinal surgery. In this article the authors present their personal clinical observations of three HIV-infected patients with CMV retinitis at the age of 8 to 36 years with a detailed analysis of the clinical data and the results of the laboratory tests. In particular, the authors give their own results of intravitreal introduction of ganciclovir in patients with CMV retinitis. Given the poor prognosis for the life of these patients, the authors put a deontological question of justification of active treatment of retinal separation in AIDS patients with CMV retinitis.

  2. Retinal Endovascular Surgery with Tissue Plasminogen Activator Injection for Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Takata

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report 2 cases of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO who underwent retinal endovascular surgery with injection of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA into the retinal artery and showed a remarkable improvement in visual acuity and retinal circulation. Methods: Standard 25-G vitrectomy was performed under local anesthesia. Simultaneously, tPA (80,000 units/mL solution was injected into the retinal artery of the optic disc for 2–3 min using a microneedle. Changes in visual acuity, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT, fluorescein angiography, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG results were examined. Results: Both cases could be treated within 12 h after the onset of CRAO. Case 1 was a 47-year-old woman. Her visual acuity improved from counting fingers before operation to 0.08 logMAR 1 month after the surgery. However, thinning of the retina at the macula was observed by OCT. Case 2 was a 70-year-old man. His visual acuity improved from counting fingers to 0.1 logMAR 2 months after the surgery. Both fluorescein angiography and LSFG showed improvement in retinal circulation after the surgery in case 2. Conclusions: Retinal endovascular surgery with injection of tPA into the retinal artery was feasible and may be a way to improve visual acuity and retinal circulation when performed in the acute phase of CRAO.

  3. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  4. Evidence for an enduring ischaemic penumbra following central retinal artery occlusion, with implications for fibrinolytic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David; Beatty, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    The rationale behind hyperacute fibrinolytic therapy for cerebral and retinal arterial occlusion is to rescue ischaemic cells from irreversible damage through timely restitution of tissue perfusion. In cerebral stroke, an anoxic tissue compartment (the "infarct core") is surrounded by a hypoxic compartment (the "ischaemic penumbra"). The latter comprises electrically-silent neurons that undergo delayed apoptotic cell death within 1-6 h unless salvaged by arterial recanalisation. Establishment of an equivalent hypoxic compartment within the inner retina following central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) isn't widely acknowledged. During experimental CRAO, electroretinography reveals 3 oxygenation-based tissue compartments (anoxic, hypoxic and normoxic) that contribute 32%, 27% and 41% respectively to the pre-occlusion b-wave amplitude. Thus, once the anoxia survival time (≈2 h) expires, the contribution from the infarcted posterior retina is irreversibly extinguished, but electrical activity continues in the normoxic periphery. Inbetween these compartments, an annular hypoxic zone (the "penumbra obscura") endures in a structurally-intact but functionally-impaired state until retinal reperfusion allows rapid recovery from electrical silence. Clinically, residual circulation of sufficient volume flow rate generates the heterogeneous fundus picture of "partial" CRAO. Persistent retinal venous hypoxaemia signifies maximal extraction of oxygen by an enduring "polar penumbra" that permeates or largely replaces the infarct core. On retinal reperfusion some days later, the retinal venous oxygen saturation reverts to normal and vision improves. Thus, penumbral inner retina, marginally oxygenated by the choroid or by residual circulation, isn't at risk of delayed apoptotic infarction (unlike hypoxic cerebral cortex). Emergency fibrinolytic intervention is inappropriate, therefore, once the duration of CRAO exceeds 2 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid Onset of Retinal Toxicity From High-Dose Hydroxychloroquine Given for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Loh-Shan B; Neal, Joel W; Wakelee, Heather A; Sequist, Lecia V; Marmor, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    To report rapid onset of retinal toxicity in a series of patients followed on high-dose (1000 mg daily) hydroxychloroquine during an oncologic clinical trial studying hydroxychloroquine with erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer. Retrospective observational case series. Ophthalmic surveillance was performed on patients in a multicenter clinical trial testing high-dose (1000 mg daily) hydroxychloroquine for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The US Food & Drug Administration-recommended screening protocol included only visual acuity testing, dilated fundus examination, Amsler grid testing, and color vision testing. In patients seen at Stanford, additional sensitive screening procedures were added at the discretion of the retinal physician: high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, Humphrey visual field (HVF) testing, and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Out of the 7 patients having exposure of at least 6 months, 2 developed retinal toxicity (at 11 and 17 months of exposure). Damage was identified by OCT imaging, mfERG testing, and, in 1 case, visual field testing. Fundus autofluorescence imaging remained normal. Neither patient had symptomatic visual acuity loss. These cases show that high doses of hydroxychloroquine can initiate the development of retinal toxicity within 1-2 years. Although synergy with erlotinib is theoretically possible, there are no prior reports of erlotinib-associated retinal toxicity despite over a decade of use in oncology. These results also suggest that sensitive retinal screening tests should be added to ongoing and future clinical trials involving high-dose hydroxychloroquine to improve safety monitoring and preservation of vision. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Precipitation Thresholds for Triggering Floods in the Corgo Basin, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thresholds based on critical combinations of amount/duration of precipitation and flood events were estimated for the Corgo hydrographic basin, in northern Portugal. Thirty-one flood events in the Corgo basin were identified between 1865 and 2011 from a database of hydrometeorological disasters in Portugal. The minimum, maximum, and pre-warning thresholds that define the boundaries for flood occurrence were determined. The results show that the ratio between the total number of floods and precipitation events exceeding the minimum threshold denotes a relatively low probability of successful forecasting. This result may be due to the reduced number of flooding events in the floods database, which only include floods that caused damage as reported by the media. The estimated maximum threshold is not adequate for use in floods, since the majority of true positives are below this limit. However, and more interestingly, the retrospective verification of the estimated thresholds suggests that the minimum and pre-warning thresholds are well adjusted. Therefore, the application of these precipitation thresholds may contribute to minimize possible situations of pre-crisis or immediate crisis by reducing the flood consequences and the resources involved in emergency response to flood events.

  7. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the genetic contribution to the pattern of retinal vascular branching expressed by its fractal dimension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 50 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic, same-sex twin pairs aged 20 to 46 years. In 50°, disc-centered fundus photographs, the reti...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0.......0002) in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins (0.108, P = 0.46), corresponding to a heritability h2 for the fractal dimension of 0.79. In quantitative genetic models, dominant genetic effects explained 54% of the variation and 46% was individually environmentally determined. Conclusions: In young adult twins...

  8. Accommodative loss after retinal cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Tsuyoshi; Okuyama, Michiko; Tanabe, Tatsuro; Kawamura, Ryosuke; Ideta, Hidenao

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of peripheral retinal cryotherapy on accommodative amplitude in patients with retinal lattice degeneration. Prospective, observational case series. We studied 92 eyes in 69 patients (age range, 13 to 79 years) treated with cryotherapy for lattice degeneration between December 2001 and September 2004. Pretreatment and posttreatment accommodative amplitudes were measured. Acute accommodative loss was calculated from the difference between accommodative amplitudes before treatment and one week after treatment. We investigated the time course of accommodative amplitudes, acute accommodative loss in different age groups and in pretreatment accommodative amplitude groups, the influence of cryotherapy numbers on accommodative amplitude, and the influence of cryotherapy sites on accommodative amplitude. No significant difference was noted between pretreatment and posttreatment accommodative amplitudes in the overall subject cohort. Dividing subjects by age revealed significant decreases in accommodative amplitude only among patients in their 10s and 20s at one and three weeks after treatment. Accommodative amplitude was lowest among those in their 10s, followed by that among those in their 20s (P < .01). Accommodative amplitudes recovered to pretreatment level by six weeks. Acute accommodative loss was greatest in those in their 10s compared with other age groups (P < .01). A significant correlation was observed between acute accommodative loss and cryotherapy numbers (P = .03; r = 0.41). The decrease in accommodative amplitude was greatest at one week after treatment and recovered to pretreatment levels after six weeks. Accommodative amplitude showed the greatest decrease after cryotherapy among patients in their 10s and 20s. A decrease in accommodative amplitude was observed with increased numbers of cryotherapy spots administered.

  9. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment following intravitreal ocriplasmin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madi, Haifa A.; Haynes, Richard J.; Depla, Diana; de la Cour, Morten D.; Lesnik-Oberstein, Sarit; Muqit, Mahi M. K.; Patton, Niall; Price, Nick; Steel, David H. W.

    2016-01-01

    To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after ocriplasmin (OCP) injection. Retrospective, multi-centre, observational case series with case note review. Eight patients with symptomatic vitreomacular traction (six with

  10. [Paediatric retinal detachment and hereditary vitreoretinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, P

    2013-09-01

    The number of retinal detachments in children is very low in comparison to the number in adults. One predisposing factor for development of paediatric retinal detachment is suffering from hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration (e.g., Stickler syndrome, Wagner syndrome, Kniest dysplasia, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, congenital X-linked retinoschisis, Knobloch syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, Norrie disease). Hereditary vitreoretinopathies are characterised by an abnormal-appearing vitreous gel with associated retinal changes. In most of these eyes further ocular abnormalities can be diagnosed. A group of hereditary disorders is associated with characteristic systemic abnormalities. Allied conditions should be considered in the clinical diagnosis. Vitreoretinopathies are the most common cause of inherited retinal detachment. In most eyes primary vitrectomy is necessary, and disease-specific surgical treatment is discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feb 20, 2018 Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer for People With Inherited Retinal Disease Dec 19, 2017 ... the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  12. Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feb 20, 2018 Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer for People With Inherited Retinal Disease Dec 19, 2017 ... the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  13. Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feb 20, 2018 Gene Therapy May Be a Game-Changer for People With Inherited Retinal Disease Dec 19, 2017 ... the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  14. Adaptive optics imaging of inherited retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Michalis; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Patterson, Emily J; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-11-15

    Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy allows for non-invasive retinal phenotyping on a microscopic scale, thereby helping to improve our understanding of retinal diseases. An increasing number of natural history studies and ongoing/planned interventional clinical trials exploit AO ophthalmoscopy both for participant selection, stratification and monitoring treatment safety and efficacy. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of AO ophthalmoscopy, recent developments and its application to a broad range of inherited retinal diseases, including Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa and achromatopsia. Finally, we describe the impact of this in vivo microscopic imaging on our understanding of disease pathogenesis, clinical trial design and outcome metrics, while recognising the limitation of the small cohorts reported to date. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Regulatory and Economic Considerations of Retinal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankoor R; Williams, George A

    2016-01-01

    The advent of anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion and diabetes mellitus has prevented blindness in tens of thousands of people. However, the costs of these drugs are without precedent in ophthalmic drug therapeutics. An analysis of the financial implications of retinal drugs and the impact of the Food and Drug Administration on treatment of retinal disease must include not only an evaluation of the direct costs of the drugs and the costs associated with their administration, but also the cost savings which accrue from their clinical benefit. This chapter will discuss the financial and regulatory issues associated with retinal drugs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. 75 FR 75911 - Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents/Incidents for Calendar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ..., Notice No. 3] RIN 2130-ZA04 Adjustment of Monetary Threshold for Reporting Rail Equipment Accidents... (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the rail equipment accident/incident reporting threshold from $9,200 to $9,400 for certain railroad accidents/incidents involving property damage that...

  17. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors in Müller glia is protective to retinal neurons and suppresses microglial reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Donika; Zelinka, Christopher Paul; Cebulla, Colleen M; Fischer, Andy J

    2015-11-01

    Reactive microglia and macrophages are prevalent in damaged retinas. Glucocorticoid signaling is known to suppress inflammation and the reactivity of microglia and macrophages. In the vertebrate retina, the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) is known to be activated and localized to the nuclei of Müller glia (Gallina et al., 2014). Accordingly, we investigated how signaling through GCR influences the survival of neurons using the chick retina in vivo as a model system. We applied intraocular injections of GCR agonist or antagonist, assessed microglial reactivity, and the survival of retinal neurons following different damage paradigms. Microglial reactivity was increased in retinas from eyes that were injected with vehicle, and this reactivity was decreased by GCR-agonist dexamethasone (Dex) and increased by GCR-antagonist RU486. We found that activation of GCR suppresses the reactivity of microglia and inhibited the loss of retinal neurons resulting from excitotoxicity. We provide evidence that the protection-promoting effects of Dex were maintained when the microglia were selectively ablated. Similarly, intraocular injections of Dex protected ganglion cells from colchicine-treatment and protected photoreceptors from damage caused by retinal detachment. We conclude that activation of GCR promotes the survival of ganglion cells in colchicine-damaged retinas, promotes the survival of amacrine and bipolar cells in excitotoxin-damaged retinas, and promotes the survival of photoreceptors in detached retinas. We propose that suppression of microglial reactivity is secondary to activation of GCR in Müller glia, and this mode of signaling is an effective means to lessen the damage and vision loss resulting from different types of retinal damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optic Disc Pit with Sectorial Retinitis Pigmentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Taskapili, Muhittin; Yilmaz, Tolga; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and optic disc pit (ODP) are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, ...

  19. Retinal function in deaf-blind syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Malm, Eva

    2011-01-01

    A variety of disorders can cause retinal degeneration and hearing impairment, and it is of great value to have an early diagnosis since there is a large variation in phenotype and prognosis both within and between the different disorders. The general aim of this thesis was to characterize the retinal function, to describe the phenotype, and – where appropriate – to relate the phenotype to genotype in patients with combined visual and hearing impairment. Alström syndrome is a rare auto...

  20. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  1. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  2. CCR7 signaling pathway and retinal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hui Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization diseases are the major causes of blindness. C-C chemokine receptor type 7(CCR7can promote the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFthrough the extracellular signal regulated kinase(ERKpathway, leading to vascular leakage, proliferation of vascular endothelial cell, neovascularization and etc. The detection of CCR7 can guide the diagnosis and treatments of retinal neovascularization diseases.

  3. Safety of iPhone retinal photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng Chiong; Wynn-Williams, Giles; Wilson, Graham

    2017-04-01

    With the advancement in mobile technology, smartphone retinal photography is becoming a popular practice. However, there is limited information about the safety of the latest smartphones used for retinal photography. This study aims to determine the photobiological risk of iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 plus when used in conjunction with a 20Diopter condensing lens for retinal photography. iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 plus (Apple, Cupertino, CA) were used in this study. The geometrical setup of the study was similar to the indirect ophthalmoscopy technique. The phone was set up at one end of the bench with its flash turned on at maximal brightness; a 20 Dioptre lens was placed 15 cm away from the phone. The light that passes through the lens was measured with a spectroradiometer and an illuminance probe at the other end to determine the spectral profile, spatial irradiance, radiant power emitted by the phone's flash. Trigonometric and lens formula were applied to determine the field of view and retinal surface in order to determine the weighted retinal irradiance and weighted retinal radiant exposure. Taking ocular transmission and the distribution of the beam's spatial irradiance into account, the weighted retinal irradiance is 1.40 mW/cm 2 and the weighted retinal radiant exposure is 56.25 mJ/cm 2 . The peak weighted foveal irradiance is 1.61 mW/cm 2 . Our study concluded that the photobiological risk posed by iPhone 6 indirect ophthalmoscopy was at least 1 order of magnitude below the safety limits set by the ISO15004-2.2.

  4. Retinal vascular geometry and its association to microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M L; Broe, Rebecca; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine associations between retinal vascular geometry (tortuosity, branching coefficient [BC] and length-diameter ratio [LDR]) and diabetic proliferative retinopathy (PDR), nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: A cohort...... of patients with T1DM participated in a clinical examination in 2011. Blood and urine analyses were done and retinal images taken. PDR was defined as Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study level 61 or above, nephropathy as albumin-creatinin ratio ≥300 mg/g, and neuropathy as vibration perception threshold.......8% were male. Prevalence of PDR, nephropathy, and neuropathy were 26.5%, 6.8%, and 10.1% , respectively. Patients with increased arteriolar BC had a higher risk of nephropathy (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: [1.01-9.54]). Patients with increased venular BC had a higher risk of neuropathy (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: [1...

  5. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu; Edeh Rolleta Haroen; Rosiliwati Wihardja

    2008-01-01

    The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain ...

  6. Development of an Advanced Aidman Vision Screener (AVS) for selective assessment of outer and inner laser induced retinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Michael W.; Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Edsall, Peter R.; Akers, Andre

    2007-02-01

    The need for tools that can assist in evaluating visual function is an essential and a growing requirement as lasers on the modern battlefield mature and proliferate. The requirement for rapid and sensitive vision assessment under field conditions produced the USAMRD Aidman Vision Screener (AVS), designed to be used as a field diagnostic tool for assessing laser induced retinal damage. In this paper, we describe additions to the AVS designed to provide a more sensitive assessment of laser induced retinal dysfunction. The AVS incorporates spectral LogMar Acuity targets without and with neural opponent chromatic backgrounds. Thus, it provides the capability of detecting selective photoreceptor damage and its functional consequences at the level of both the outer and inner retina. Modifications to the original achromatic AVS have been implemented to detect selective cone system dysfunction by providing LogMar acuity Landolt rings associated with the peak spectral absorption regions of the S (short), M (middle), and L (long) wavelength cone photoreceptor systems. Evaluation of inner retinal dysfunction associated with selective outer cone damage employs LogMar spectral acuity charts with backgrounds that are neurally opponent. Thus, the AVS provides the capability to assess the effect of selective cone dysfunction on the normal neural balance at the level of the inner retinal interactions. Test and opponent background spectra have been optimized by using color space metrics. A minimal number of three AVS evaluations will be utilized to provide an estimate of false alarm level.

  7. Color Difference Threshold of Chromostereopsis Induced by Flat Display Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris eOzolinsh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of chromostereopsis has gained attention in the backdrop of the use of computer displays in daily life. In this context, we analyze the illusory depth sense using planar color images presented on a computer screen. We determine the color difference threshold required to induce an illusory sense of depth psychometrically using a constant stimuli paradigm. Isoluminant stimuli are presented on a computer screen, which stimuli are aligned along the blue-red line in the computer display CIE xyY color chart. Stereo disparity is generated by increasing the color difference between the central and surrounding areas of the stimuli with both areas consisting of random dots on a black background. The observed altering of illusory dept sense, thus also stereo disparity is validated using the center-of-gravity model. The induced illusory sense of the depth effect undergoes color reversal upon varying the binocular lateral eye pupil covering conditions (lateral or medial. Analysis of the retinal image point spread function for the display red and blue pixel radiation validates the altering of chromostereopsis retinal disparity achieved by increasing the color difference, and also the chromostereopsis color reversal caused by varying the eye pupil covering conditions.

  8. Retinal blood vessel extraction using tunable bandpass filter and fuzzy conditional entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil Kar, Sudeshna; Maity, Santi P

    2016-09-01

    Extraction of blood vessels on retinal images plays a significant role for screening of different opthalmologic diseases. However, accurate extraction of the entire and individual type of vessel silhouette from the noisy images with poorly illuminated background is a complicated task. To this aim, an integrated system design platform is suggested in this work for vessel extraction using a sequential bandpass filter followed by fuzzy conditional entropy maximization on matched filter response. At first noise is eliminated from the image under consideration through curvelet based denoising. To include the fine details and the relatively less thick vessel structures, the image is passed through a bank of sequential bandpass filter structure optimized for contrast enhancement. Fuzzy conditional entropy on matched filter response is then maximized to find the set of multiple optimal thresholds to extract the different types of vessel silhouettes from the background. Differential Evolution algorithm is used to determine the optimal gain in bandpass filter and the combination of the fuzzy parameters. Using the multiple thresholds, retinal image is classified as the thick, the medium and the thin vessels including neovascularization. Performance evaluated on different publicly available retinal image databases shows that the proposed method is very efficient in identifying the diverse types of vessels. Proposed method is also efficient in extracting the abnormal and the thin blood vessels in pathological retinal images. The average values of true positive rate, false positive rate and accuracy offered by the method is 76.32%, 1.99% and 96.28%, respectively for the DRIVE database and 72.82%, 2.6% and 96.16%, respectively for the STARE database. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in detecting the various types of vessels and the neovascularization structures. The combination of curvelet transform and tunable bandpass

  9. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  10. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  11. Automated drusen detection in retinal images using analytical modelling algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivannan Ayyakkannu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drusen are common features in the ageing macula associated with exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD. They are visible in retinal images and their quantitative analysis is important in the follow up of the ARMD. However, their evaluation is fastidious and difficult to reproduce when performed manually. Methods This article proposes a methodology for Automatic Drusen Deposits Detection and quantification in Retinal Images (AD3RI by using digital image processing techniques. It includes an image pre-processing method to correct the uneven illumination and to normalize the intensity contrast with smoothing splines. The drusen detection uses a gradient based segmentation algorithm that isolates drusen and provides basic drusen characterization to the modelling stage. The detected drusen are then fitted by Modified Gaussian functions, producing a model of the image that is used to evaluate the affected area. Twenty two images were graded by eight experts, with the aid of a custom made software and compared with AD3RI. This comparison was based both on the total area and on the pixel-to-pixel analysis. The coefficient of variation, the intraclass correlation coefficient, the sensitivity, the specificity and the kappa coefficient were calculated. Results The ground truth used in this study was the experts' average grading. In order to evaluate the proposed methodology three indicators were defined: AD3RI compared to the ground truth (A2G; each expert compared to the other experts (E2E and a standard Global Threshold method compared to the ground truth (T2G. The results obtained for the three indicators, A2G, E2E and T2G, were: coefficient of variation 28.8 %, 22.5 % and 41.1 %, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.92, 0.88 and 0.67, sensitivity 0.68, 0.67 and 0.74, specificity 0.96, 0.97 and 0.94, and kappa coefficient 0.58, 0.60 and 0.49, respectively. Conclusions The gradings produced by AD3RI obtained an agreement

  12. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompromised kidney allograft recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turno-Kręcicka, A; Boratyńska, M; Tomczyk-Socha, M; Mazanowska, O

    2015-06-01

    Ocular complications in patients who underwent renal transplantation are attributed to side effects of the immunosuppressive regimen. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and it occurs almost exclusively in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a case of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who underwent renal transplant and, after a few years, developed bilateral PORN associated with viral infections. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and BK virus were identified by polymerase chain reaction from the vitreous fluid. It is unclear which of the viruses identified had the dominant role in the pathogenesis of PORN and other organ damage, or whether their actions were synergistic. Adequate antiviral immune surveillance, as well as pre-transplant vaccination against VZV, may reduce the incidence of VZV infection and its complications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fabrication of Pillar Shaped Electrode Arrays for Artificial Retinal Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung June Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyimide has been widely applied to neural prosthetic devices, such as the retinal implants, due to its well-known biocompatibility and ability to be micropatterned. However, planar films of polyimide that are typically employed show a limited ability in reducing the distance between electrodes and targeting cell layers, which limits site resolution for effective multi-channel stimulation. In this paper, we report a newly designed device with a pillar structure that more effectively interfaces with the target. Electrode arrays were successfully fabricated and safely implanted inside the rabbit eye in suprachoroidal space. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT showed well-preserved pillar structures of the electrode without damage. Bipolar stimulation was applied through paired sites (6:1 and the neural responses were successfully recorded from several regions in the visual cortex. Electrically evoked cortical potential by the pillar electrode array stimulation were compared to visual evoked potential under full-field light stimulation.

  14. Protection of visual functions by human neural progenitors in a rat model of retinal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Gamm

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A promising clinical application for stem and progenitor cell transplantation is in rescue therapy for degenerative diseases. This strategy seeks to preserve rather than restore host tissue function by taking advantage of unique properties often displayed by these versatile cells. In studies using different neurodegenerative disease models, transplanted human neural progenitor cells (hNPC protected dying host neurons within both the brain and spinal cord. Based on these reports, we explored the potential of hNPC transplantation to rescue visual function in an animal model of retinal degeneration, the Royal College of Surgeons rat.Animals received unilateral subretinal injections of hNPC or medium alone at an age preceding major photoreceptor loss. Principal outcomes were quantified using electroretinography, visual acuity measurements and luminance threshold recordings from the superior colliculus. At 90-100 days postnatal, a time point when untreated rats exhibit little or no retinal or visual function, hNPC-treated eyes retained substantial retinal electrical activity and visual field with near-normal visual acuity. Functional efficacy was further enhanced when hNPC were genetically engineered to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Histological examination at 150 days postnatal showed hNPC had formed a nearly continuous pigmented layer between the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as distributed within the inner retina. A concomitant preservation of host cone photoreceptors was also observed.Wild type and genetically modified human neural progenitor cells survive for prolonged periods, migrate extensively, secrete growth factors and rescue visual functions following subretinal transplantation in the Royal College of Surgeons rat. These results underscore the potential therapeutic utility of hNPC in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases and suggest potential mechanisms underlying their effect in

  15. A novel method for retinal optic disc detection using bat meta-heuristic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ahmad S; Özok, Yasa Ekşioğlu; Rahebi, Javad

    2018-05-09

    Normally, the optic disc detection of retinal images is useful during the treatment of glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, the novel preprocessing of a retinal image with a bat algorithm (BA) optimization is proposed to detect the optic disc of the retinal image. As the optic disk is a bright area and the vessels that emerge from it are dark, these facts lead to the selected segments being regions with a great diversity of intensity, which does not usually happen in pathological regions. First, in the preprocessing stage, the image is fully converted into a gray image using a gray scale conversion, and then morphological operations are implemented in order to remove dark elements such as blood vessels, from the images. In the next stage, a bat algorithm (BA) is used to find the optimum threshold value for the optic disc location. In order to improve the accuracy and to obtain the best result for the segmented optic disc, the ellipse fitting approach was used in the last stage to enhance and smooth the segmented optic disc boundary region. The ellipse fitting is carried out using the least square distance approach. The efficiency of the proposed method was tested on six publicly available datasets, MESSIDOR, DRIVE, DIARETDB1, DIARETDB0, STARE, and DRIONS-DB. The optic disc segmentation average overlaps and accuracy was in the range of 78.5-88.2% and 96.6-99.91% in these six databases. The optic disk of the retinal images was segmented in less than 2.1 s per image. The use of the proposed method improved the optic disc segmentation results for healthy and pathological retinal images in a low computation time. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  16. The Time Course of Deafness and Retinal Degeneration in a Kunming Mouse Model for Usher Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Lin-Song; Liu, Wei; An, Jing; Wang, Bin; Xue, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Zuo-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by congenital deafness and retinitis pigmentosa. In a mouse model for Usher syndrome, KMush/ush, discovered in our laboratory, we measured the phenotypes, characterized the architecture and morphology of the retina, and quantified the level of expression of pde6b and ush2a between postnatal (P) days 7, and 56. Electroretinograms and auditory brainstem response were used to measure visual and auditory phenotypes. Fundus photography and light microscopy were used to measure the architecture and morphology of the retina. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the expression levels of mRNA. KMush/ush mice had low amplitudes and no obvious waveforms of Electroretinograms after P14 compared with controls. Thresholds of auditory brainstem response in our model were higher than those of controls after P14. By P21, the retinal vessels of KMush/ush mice were attenuated and their optic discs had a waxy pallor. The retinas of KMush/ush mice atrophied and the choroidal vessels were clearly visible. Notably, the architecture of each retinal layer was not different as compared with control mice at P7, while the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and other retinal layers of KMush/ush mice were attenuated significantly between P14 and P21. ONL cells were barely seen in KMush/ush mice at P56. As compared with control mice, the expression of pde6b and ush2a in KMush/ush mice declined significantly after P7. This study is a first step toward characterizing the progression of disease in our mouse model. Future studies using this model may provide insights about the etiology of the disease and the relationships between genotypes and phenotypes providing a valuable resource that could contribute to the foundation of knowledge necessary to develop therapies to prevent the retinal degeneration in patients with Usher Syndrome.

  17. The Time Course of Deafness and Retinal Degeneration in a Kunming Mouse Model for Usher Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yao

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome is a group of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by congenital deafness and retinitis pigmentosa. In a mouse model for Usher syndrome, KMush/ush, discovered in our laboratory, we measured the phenotypes, characterized the architecture and morphology of the retina, and quantified the level of expression of pde6b and ush2a between postnatal (P days 7, and 56. Electroretinograms and auditory brainstem response were used to measure visual and auditory phenotypes. Fundus photography and light microscopy were used to measure the architecture and morphology of the retina. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the expression levels of mRNA. KMush/ush mice had low amplitudes and no obvious waveforms of Electroretinograms after P14 compared with controls. Thresholds of auditory brainstem response in our model were higher than those of controls after P14. By P21, the retinal vessels of KMush/ush mice were attenuated and their optic discs had a waxy pallor. The retinas of KMush/ush mice atrophied and the choroidal vessels were clearly visible. Notably, the architecture of each retinal layer was not different as compared with control mice at P7, while the outer nuclear layer (ONL and other retinal layers of KMush/ush mice were attenuated significantly between P14 and P21. ONL cells were barely seen in KMush/ush mice at P56. As compared with control mice, the expression of pde6b and ush2a in KMush/ush mice declined significantly after P7. This study is a first step toward characterizing the progression of disease in our mouse model. Future studies using this model may provide insights about the etiology of the disease and the relationships between genotypes and phenotypes providing a valuable resource that could contribute to the foundation of knowledge necessary to develop therapies to prevent the retinal degeneration in patients with Usher Syndrome.

  18. Evolution of Outer Retinal Folds Occurring after Vitrectomy for Retinal Detachment Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Omo, Roberto; Tan, H. Stevie; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Bijl, Heico M.; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Barca, Francesco; Mura, Marco

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE. To assess the evolution of outer retinal folds (ORFs) occurring after repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (sd-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and to discuss their pathogenesis. METHODS. Twenty patients were operated on

  19. Protein kinase C in porcine retinal arteries and neuroretina following retinal ischemia-reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesslein, Bodil; Gustafsson, Lotta; Wackenfors, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the intracellular signal-transduction pathways activated in retinal ischemia may be important in revealing novel pharmacological targets. To date, most studies have focused on identifying neuroprotective agents. The retinal blood vessels are key organs in circulatory failure, an...

  20. Natural Compounds from Saffron and Bear Bile Prevent Vision Loss and Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-Sánchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All retinal disorders, regardless of their aetiology, involve the activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. The administration of neuroprotective factors is crucial in all phases of the pathology, even when vision has been completely lost. The retina is one of the most susceptible tissues to reactive oxygen species damage. On the other hand, proper development and functioning of the retina requires a precise balance between the processes of proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The life-or-death decision seems to be the result of a complex balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. It has been recently shown the efficacy of natural products to slow retinal degenerative process through different pathways. In this review, we assess the neuroprotective effect of two compounds used in the ancient pharmacopoeia. On one hand, it has been demonstrated that administration of the saffron constituent safranal to P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, preserves photoreceptor morphology and number, the capillary network and the visual response. On the other hand, it has been shown that systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, the major component of bear bile, to P23H rats preserves cone and rod structure and function, together with their contact with postsynaptic neurons. The neuroprotective effects of safranal and TUDCA make these compounds potentially useful for therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.

  1. Natural Compounds from Saffron and Bear Bile Prevent Vision Loss and Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Lax, Pedro; Noailles, Agustina; Angulo, Antonia; Maneu, Victoria; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-07-31

    All retinal disorders, regardless of their aetiology, involve the activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. The administration of neuroprotective factors is crucial in all phases of the pathology, even when vision has been completely lost. The retina is one of the most susceptible tissues to reactive oxygen species damage. On the other hand, proper development and functioning of the retina requires a precise balance between the processes of proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The life-or-death decision seems to be the result of a complex balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. It has been recently shown the efficacy of natural products to slow retinal degenerative process through different pathways. In this review, we assess the neuroprotective effect of two compounds used in the ancient pharmacopoeia. On one hand, it has been demonstrated that administration of the saffron constituent safranal to P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, preserves photoreceptor morphology and number, the capillary network and the visual response. On the other hand, it has been shown that systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), the major component of bear bile, to P23H rats preserves cone and rod structure and function, together with their contact with postsynaptic neurons. The neuroprotective effects of safranal and TUDCA make these compounds potentially useful for therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.

  2. INCOMPLETE REPAIR OF RETINAL STRUCTURE AFTER VITRECTOMY WITH INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Tachibana, Takashi; Notomi, Shoji; Nakatake, Shunji; Fujiwara, Kohta; Murakami, Yusuke; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Enaida, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2017-08-01

    To examine retinal changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, we used a cynomolgus monkey model and focused on surgical damages of ILM peeling for long observational period of 3 years. Vitrectomy was performed followed by ILM peeling similar to clinical settings in humans. Ultrastructural changes of the retina were investigated by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy at 3 months and 3 years after ILM peeling. Ultrastructural study showed that the ILM peeled area was still clearly recognized after 3 years. The Müller cell processes covered most of the retina; however, the nerve fiber layer was partly uncovered and exposed to the vitreous space. The arcuate linear nerve fiber bundles were observed as comparable with dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance. Small round retinal surface defects were also observed around macula, resembling the dimple sign. Forceps-related retinal thinning was also found on the edge of ILM peeling, where we started peeling with fine forceps. The ultrastructural studies showed that most of ILM peeling area was covered with glial cells during wound healing processes. Retinal changes were found comparable with dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance or dimple sign, which were clinically observed with optical coherence tomography.

  3. Giant Retinal Tear With Retinal Detachment in Regressed Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity Treated by Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Parijat; Tewari, Ruchir; Salunkhe, Nitesh; Kumawat, Devesh; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-06-29

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after successfully regressed retinopathy of prematurity is a rare occurrence. Late onset rhegmatogenous retinal detachment has been reported infrequently. The authors report a case of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity that underwent uneventful regression after laser photocoagulation and later developed an inoperable closed funnel retinal detachment due to a giant retinal tear. This case represents the earliest development of such complications in regressed aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity treated by laser. Development of a giant retinal tear has also not been previously reported after laser treatment. This case highlights that successful regression of severe retinopathy of prematurity does not safeguard against future complications and requires frequent long-term follow-up. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e34-e36.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Retinal oxygen saturation in relation to retinal thickness in diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Peto, Tunde; Grauslund, Jakob

    to retinal thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: We included 18 patients with DME that all had central retinal thickness (CRT) >300 µm and were free of active proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Optical coherence tomography (Topcon 3D OCT-2000 spectral domain OCT) was used...... for paracentral edema, the oxygen saturation in the upper and lower temporal arcade branches were compared to the corresponding upper and lower subfield thickness. Spearman’s rank was used to calculate correlation coefficients between CRT and retinal oximetry. Results: Median age and duration of diabetes was 59....... 92.3%, p=0.52). We found no correlation between CRT and retinal oxygen saturation, even when accounting for paracentral edema (p>0.05). Furthermore, there was no difference in retinal oxygen saturation between the macular hemisphere that was more or less affected by DME (p>0.05). Conclusion: Patients...

  5. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  6. Status of SiO2/TiO2 HR coating damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowermilk, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    The data, observations, and conclusions from a number of experiments on high-reflector (HR) coating damage which were done in FY 1979 are summarized. Damage threshold measurements for the experiments described are presented

  7. Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  8. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, Laila A.; Smith, Sylvia B.; El-sherbeny, Amira A.

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  9. Lattice degeneration of the retina and retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semes, L P

    1992-01-01

    Lattice retinal degeneration is considered the most significant peripheral retinal disorder potentially predisposing to retinal breaks and retinal detachment. Lattice degeneration affects the vitreous and inner retinal layers with secondary changes as deep as the retinal pigment epithelium and perhaps the choriocapillaris. Variations in clinical appearance are the rule; geographically, lattice lesions favor the vertical meridians between the equator and the ora serrata. Lattice degeneration begins early in life and has been reported in sequential generations of the same family. Along with its customary bilateral occurrence, lattice shares other characteristics of a dystrophy. The association between the vitreous and retina in lattice lesions may be responsible for the majority of lattice-induced retinal detachments. The tumultuous event of posterior vitreous separation in the presence of abnormally strong vitreoretinal adherence is the trigger for a retinal tear that, in turn, may lead to retinal detachment. Although retinal holes in young patients with lattice degeneration may play a role in the evolution of retinal detachment, the clinical course of lattice degeneration seems to be one of dormancy rather than of progressive change. This discussion outlines the pathophysiology of lattice retinal degeneration and the relationship of pathophysiology to clinical presentation. The epidemiology of lattice degeneration is summarized, as are the possible precursors to retinal detachment. A clinical characterization of the natural history of lattice degeneration is offered, and interventions for complications are described. To conclude, management strategies from a primary-care standpoint are reviewed.

  10. Conceptions of nuclear threshold status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews some alternative definitions of nuclear threshold status. Each of them is important, and major analytical confusions would result if one sense of the term is mistaken for another. The motives for nations entering into such threshold status are a blend of civilian and military gains, and of national interests versus parochial or bureaucratic interests. A portion of the rationale for threshold status emerges inevitably from the pursuit of economic goals, and another portion is made more attraction by the derives of the domestic political process. Yet the impact on international security cannot be dismissed, especially where conflicts among the states remain real. Among the military or national security motives are basic deterrence, psychological warfare, war-fighting and, more generally, national prestige. In the end, as the threshold phenomenon is assayed for lessons concerning the role of nuclear weapons more generally in international relations and security, one might conclude that threshold status and outright proliferation coverage to a degree in the motives for all of the states involved and in the advantages attained. As this paper has illustrated, nuclear threshold status is more subtle and more ambiguous than outright proliferation, and it takes considerable time to sort out the complexities. Yet the world has now had a substantial amount of time to deal with this ambiguous status, and this may tempt more states to exploit it

  11. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  12. Theoretical research of multi-pulses laser induced damage in dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jin; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Ma Ping

    2013-01-01

    The pulse width is different, the mechanism of the laser-matter interaction is different. Damage results from plasma formation and ablation forτ≤10 ps and from heat depositing and conventional melting for τ>100 ps. Two theoretical models of transparent dielectrics irradiated by multi-pulses laser are respectively developed based on the above-mentioned different mechanism. One is the dielectric breakdown model based on electron density evolution equation for femtosecond multi-pluses laser, the other is the dielectric heat-damage model based on Fourier's heat exchange equation for nanosecond multi-pluses laser. Using these models, the effects of laser parameters and material parameters on the laser-induced damage threshold of dielectrics are analyzed. The analysis results show that different parameters have different influence on the damage threshold. The effect of parameters on the multi -pulses damage threshold is not entirely the same to the single-pulse damage threshold. The multi-pulses damage mechanism of dielectrics is discussed in detail, considering the effect of different parameters. The discussion provides more information for understanding its damage process and more knowledge to improve its damage thresholds. And the relationship between damage threshold and pulse number is illustrated, it is in good agreement with experimental results. The illustration can help us to predict the multi-pulses damage threshold and the lifetime of optical components. (authors)

  13. Interventions for asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration for preventing retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Charles P

    2014-09-05

    Asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration are visible lesions that are risk factors for later retinal detachment. Retinal detachments occur when fluid in the vitreous cavity passes through tears or holes in the retina and separates the retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. Creation of an adhesion surrounding retinal breaks and lattice degeneration, with laser photocoagulation or cryotherapy, has been recommended as an effective means of preventing retinal detachment. This therapy is of value in the management of retinal tears associated with the symptoms of flashes and floaters and persistent vitreous traction upon the retina in the region of the retinal break, because such symptomatic retinal tears are associated with a high rate of progression to retinal detachment. Retinal tears and holes unassociated with acute symptoms and lattice degeneration are significantly less likely to be the sites of retinal breaks that are responsible for later retinal detachment. Nevertheless, treatment of these lesions frequently is recommended, in spite of the fact that the effectiveness of this therapy is unproven. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of techniques used to treat asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration for the prevention of retinal detachment. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to February 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2014), PubMed (January 1948 to February 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials

  14. Prevalence and Associations of Retinal Emboli With Ethnicity, Stroke, and Renal Disease in a Multiethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ning; Teo, Kelvin; Zhao, Wanting; Wang, Jie Jin; Neelam, Kumari; Tan, Nicholas Y Q; Mitchell, Paul; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-10-01

    .70-6.99). Based on 88 individuals among 9978 participants of 3 major Asian ethnic populations, retinal emboli were most commonly seen in Indian persons and associated with conventional cardiovascular risk factors, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, its presence may signal vascular embolic event and damage not only in the brain but also in the kidneys. If these data are confirmed in longitudinal studies, they would suggest that persons with retinal emboli may require both general cardiovascular and renal assessment.

  15. Cytomegalovirus retinitis and HIV: Case reviews from KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    untreated, CMV retinitis can progress to retinal detachment with ... 1 Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Doris .... [18] Ocular TB .... patients for publication of these case reviews and accompanying images.

  16. Towards a Completely Implantable, Light-Sensitive Intraocular Retinal Prosthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humayun, M

    2001-01-01

    An electronic retinal prosthesis is under development to treat retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, two presently incurable diseases of the outer retina that afflict millions world-wide...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions NARP Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa ( NARP ) is a condition that causes a variety ...

  18. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  19. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cell loss in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Koronyo, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are photoreceptors driving circadian photoentrainment, and circadian dysfunction characterizes Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated mRGCs in AD, hypothesizing their contribution to circadian dysfunction. METHODS: We assessed retinal nerve...

  20. Personal identification based on blood vessels of retinal fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Biometric technique has been implemented instead of conventional identification methods such as password in computer, automatic teller machine (ATM), and entrance and exit management system. We propose a personal identification (PI) system using color retinal fundus images which are unique to each individual. The proposed procedure for identification is based on comparison of an input fundus image with reference fundus images in the database. In the first step, registration between the input image and the reference image is performed. The step includes translational and rotational movement. The PI is based on the measure of similarity between blood vessel images generated from the input and reference images. The similarity measure is defined as the cross-correlation coefficient calculated from the pixel values. When the similarity is greater than a predetermined threshold, the input image is identified. This means both the input and the reference images are associated to the same person. Four hundred sixty-two fundus images including forty-one same-person's image pairs were used for the estimation of the proposed technique. The false rejection rate and the false acceptance rate were 9.9×10 -5% and 4.3×10 -5%, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed method has a higher performance than other biometrics except for DNA. To be used for practical application in the public, the device which can take retinal fundus images easily is needed. The proposed method is applied to not only the PI but also the system which warns about misfiling of fundus images in medical facilities.

  1. PGC-1α determines light damage susceptibility of the murine retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Egger

    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1 proteins are key regulators of cellular bioenergetics and are accordingly expressed in tissues with a high energetic demand. For example, PGC-1α and PGC-1β control organ function of brown adipose tissue, heart, brain, liver and skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, despite their prominent role in the control of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism, expression and function of the PGC-1 coactivators in the retina, an organ with one of the highest energy demands per tissue weight, are completely unknown. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate energy production with repair processes in the damaged retina remain enigmatic. In the present study, we thus investigated the expression and function of the PGC-1 coactivators in the healthy and the damaged retina. We show that PGC-1α and PGC-1β are found at high levels in different structures of the mouse retina, most prominently in the photoreceptors. Furthermore, PGC-1α knockout mice suffer from a striking deterioration in retinal morphology and function upon detrimental light exposure. Gene expression studies revealed dysregulation of all major pathways involved in retinal damage and apoptosis, repair and renewal in the PGC-1α knockouts. The light-induced increase in apoptosis in vivo in the absence of PGC-1α was substantiated in vitro, where overexpression of PGC-1α evoked strong anti-apoptotic effects. Finally, we found that retinal levels of PGC-1 expression are reduced in different mouse models for retinitis pigmentosa. We demonstrate that PGC-1α is a central coordinator of energy production and, importantly, all of the major processes involved in retinal damage and subsequent repair. Together with the observed dysregulation of PGC-1α and PGC-1β in retinitis pigmentosa mouse models, these findings thus imply that PGC-1α might be an attractive target for therapeutic approaches aimed at retinal

  2. Stem Cell Therapies in Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakriti Garg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has long been considered a promising mode of treatment for retinal conditions. While human embryonic stem cells (ESCs have provided the precedent for regenerative medicine, the development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs revolutionized this field. iPSCs allow for the development of many types of retinal cells, including those of the retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptors, and ganglion cells, and can model polygenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Cellular programming and reprogramming technology is especially useful in retinal diseases, as it allows for the study of living cells that have genetic variants that are specific to patients’ diseases. Since iPSCs are a self-renewing resource, scientists can experiment with an unlimited number of pluripotent cells to perfect the process of targeted differentiation, transplantation, and more, for personalized medicine. Challenges in the use of stem cells are present from the scientific, ethical, and political realms. These include transplant complications leading to anatomically incorrect placement, concern for tumorigenesis, and incomplete targeting of differentiation leading to contamination by different types of cells. Despite these limitations, human ESCs and iPSCs specific to individual patients can revolutionize the study of retinal disease and may be effective therapies for conditions currently considered incurable.

  3. NGF protects corneal, retinal, and cutaneous tissues/cells from phototoxic effect of UV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Maria Luisa; Balzamino, Bijorn Omar; Aloe, Luigi; Micera, Alessandra

    2018-04-01

    Based on evidence that nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts healing action on damaged corneal, retinal, and cutaneous tissues, the present study sought to assess whether topical NGF application can prevent and/or protect epithelial cells from deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Eyes from 40 young-adult Sprague Dawley rats and cutaneous tissues from 36 adult nude mice were exposed to UVA/B lamp for 60 min, either alone or in the presence of murine NGF. Corneal, retinal, and cutaneous tissues were sampled/processed for morphological, immunohistochemical, and biomolecular analysis, and results were compared statistically. UV exposure affected both biochemical and molecular expression of NGF and trkA NGFR in corneal, retinal, and cutaneous tissues while UV exposure coupled to NGF treatment enhanced NGF and trkA NGFR expression as well as reduced cell death. Overall, the findings of this in vivo/ex vivo study show the NGF ability to reduce the potential UV damage. Although the mechanism underneath this effect needs further investigation, these observations prospect the development of a pharmacological NGF-based therapy devoted to maintain cell function when exposed to phototoxic UV radiation.

  4. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M.; Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Haney, Suzanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  5. Prolonged Prevention of Retinal Degeneration with Retinylamine Loaded Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Puntel, Anthony; Maeda, Akiko; Golczak, Marcin; Gao, Song-Qi; Yu, Guanping; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degeneration impairs the vision of millions in all age groups worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that the etiology of many retinal degenerative diseases is associated with impairment in biochemical reactions involved in the visual cycle, a metabolic pathway responsible for regeneration of the visual chromophore (11-cis-retinal). Inefficient clearance of toxic retinoid metabolites, especially all-trans-retinal, is considered responsible for photoreceptor cytotoxicity. Primary amin...

  6. Raised intraocular pressure and recurrence of retinal detachment as complications of external retinal detachment surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawwad, M.; Khan, B.; Shah, M.A.; Qayyum, I.; Aftab, M.; Qayyum, I.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment may develop raised intraocular pressure and recurrence of retinal detachment when they undergo external retinal detachment surgery. The present study was conducted to determine the postoperative rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) and recurrence of retinal detachment. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted at Eye department of Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar on 25 patients of both genders from August 2012 to July 2014. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) developed raised IOP in the immediate postoperative period; this figure decreased to 12 (48%) at one week. Following medical or surgical intervention in these 12 cases, there was only 1 (4%) case with mildly raised IOP at two weeks postoperative. Five (20%) cases developed recurrent retinal detachment which later resolved with treatment. There were no significant differences by age or gender. Conclusion: External Retinal Detachment Surgery raised intraocular pressure postoperatively and caused recurrence of retinal detachment. These complications were treated medically and surgically with resolution within two weeks. (author)

  7. Modulation of radiation injury response in retinal endothelial cells by quinic acid derivative KZ-41 involves p38 MAPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan J Toutounchian

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced damage to the retina triggers leukostasis, retinal endothelial cell (REC death, and subsequent hypoxia. Resultant ischemia leads to visual loss and compensatory retinal neovascularization (RNV. Using human RECs, we demonstrated that radiation induced leukocyte adhesion through mechanisms involving p38MAPK, p53, and ICAM-1 activation. Additional phenotypic changes included p38MAPK-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal adhesion scaffolding protein, paxillin (Tyr118. The quinic acid derivative KZ-41 lessened leukocyte adhesion and paxillin-dependent proliferation via inhibition of p38MAPK-p53-ICAM-1 signaling. Using the murine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR model, we examined the effect of KZ-41 on pathologic RNV. Daily ocular application of a KZ-41-loaded nanoemulsion significantly reduced both the avascular and neovascular areas in harvested retinal flat mounts when compared to the contralateral eye receiving vehicle alone. Our data highlight the potential benefit of KZ-41 in reducing both the retinal ischemia and neovascularization provoked by genotoxic insults. Further research into how quinic acid derivatives target and mitigate inflammation is needed to fully appreciate their therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory retinal vasculopathies.

  8. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid1 receptor antagonist, protects against light-induced retinal degeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomoyo; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Yuki; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Ohno, Yuta; Ogami, Shiho; Yamane, Shinsaku; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-05-15

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. An endogenous constellation of proteins related to cannabinoid 1 receptor signaling, including free fatty acids, diacylglycerol lipase, and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase, are localized in the murine retina. Moreover, the expression levels of endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors are changed in the vitreous fluid. However, the role of the endocannabinoid system in the retina, particularly in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration, remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated involvement of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in light-induced retinal degeneration using in vitro and in vivo models. To evaluate the effect of cannabinoid 1 receptors in light irradiation-induced cell death, the mouse retinal cone-cell line (661W) was treated with a cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Time-dependent changes of expression and localization of retinal cannabinoid 1 receptors were measured using Western blot and immunostaining. Retinal damage was induced in mice by exposure to light, followed by intravitreal injection of rimonabant. Electroretinograms and histologic analyses were performed. Rimonabant suppressed light-induced photoreceptor cell death. Cannabinoid 1 receptor expression was upregulated by light exposure. Treatment with rimonabant improved both a- and b-wave amplitudes and the thickness of the outer nuclear layer. These results suggest that the cannabinoid 1 receptor is involved in light-induced retinal degeneration and it may represent a therapeutic target in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  10. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanie-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Davari, Maliheh; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh; Pakravesh, Jalil; Bagheri, Abouzar

    2012-04-10

    Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1) confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  11. Repetitive magnetic stimulation improves retinal function in a rat model of retinal dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenstreich, Ygal; Tzameret, Adi; Levi, Nir; Kalish, Sapir; Sher, Ifat; Zangen, Avraham; Belkin, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Vision incapacitation and blindness associated with retinal dystrophies affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration is characterized by photoreceptor cell death and concomitant remodeling of remaining retinal cells. Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation (RMS) is a non-invasive technique that creates alternating magnetic fields by brief electric currents transmitted through an insulated coil. These magnetic field generate action potentials in neurons, and modulate the expression of neurotransmitter receptors, growth factors and transcription factors which mediate plasticity. This technology has been proven effective and safe in various psychiatric disorders. Here we determined the effect of RMS on retinal function in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a model for retinal dystrophy. Four week-old RCS and control Spargue Dawley (SD) rats received sham or RMS treatment over the right eye (12 sessions on 4 weeks). RMS treatment at intensity of at 40% of the maximal output of a Rapid2 stimulator significantly increased the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses by up to 6- or 10-fold in the left and right eye respectively, 3-5 weeks following end of treatment. RMS treatment at intensity of 25% of the maximal output did not significant effect b-wave responses following end of treatment with no adverse effect on ERG response or retinal structure of SD rats. Our findings suggest that RMS treatment induces delayed improvement of retinal functions and may induce plasticity in the retinal tissue. Furthermore, this non-invasive treatment may possibly be used in the future as a primary or adjuvant treatment for retinal dystrophy.

  12. Novel method for edge detection of retinal vessels based on the model of the retinal vascular network and mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Hengyi; Yu, Yajun

    1998-09-01

    Accurate edge detection of retinal vessels is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis of subtle morphological changes of retinal vessels under different pathological conditions. A novel method for edge detection of retinal vessels is presented in this paper. Methods: (1) Wavelet-based image preprocessing. (2) The signed edge detection algorithm and mathematical morphological operation are applied to get the approximate regions that contain retinal vessels. (3) By convolving the preprocessed image with a LoG operator only on the detected approximate regions of retinal vessels, followed by edges refining, clear edge maps of the retinal vessels are fast obtained. Results: A detailed performance evaluation together with the existing techniques is given to demonstrate the strong features of our method. Conclusions: True edge locations of retinal vessels can be fast detected with continuous structures of retinal vessels, less non- vessel segments left and insensitivity to noise. The method is also suitable for other application fields such as road edge detection.

  13. Retinal vascular and structural dynamics during acute hyperglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver N; Lauritsen, Tina Vilsbøll; Knop, Filip K

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare retinal vascular dynamics during acute hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with type 2 diabetes and 27 healthy controls were examined with fundus photographic measurement of retinal vessel diameters, retinal...

  14. Low Vision Rehabilitation of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Practice Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundquist, John

    2004-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a rod-cone dystrophy, commonly genetic in nature. Approximately 60-80% of those with retinitis pigmentosa inherit it by an autosomal recessive transmission (Brilliant, 1999). There have been some reported cases with no known family history. The symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa are decreased acuity, photophobia, night…

  15. Progress toward the maintenance and repair of degenerating retinal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugler, Anthony A

    2010-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa remain major causes of severe vision loss in humans. Clinical trials for treatment of retinal degenerations are underway and advancements in our understanding of retinal biology in health/disease have implications for novel therapies. A review of retinal biology is used to inform a discussion of current strategies to maintain/repair neural circuitry in age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis. In age-related macular degeneration/retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive loss of rods/cones results in corruption of bipolar cell circuitry, although retinal output neurons/photoreceptive melanopsin cells survive. Visual function can be stabilized/enhanced after treatment in age-related macular degeneration, but in advanced degenerations, reorganization of retinal circuitry may preclude attempts to restore cone function. In Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis, useful vision can be restored by gene therapy where central cones survive. Remarkable progress has been made in restoring vision to rodents using light-responsive ion channels inserted into bipolar cells/retinal ganglion cells. Advances in genetic, cellular, and prosthetic therapies show varying degrees of promise for treating retinal degenerations. While functional benefits can be obtained after early therapeutic interventions, efforts should be made to minimize circuitry changes as soon as possible after rod/cone loss. Advances in retinal anatomy/physiology and genetic technologies should allow refinement of future reparative strategies.

  16. Vitreo-retinal eye surgery robot : sustainable precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenink, H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Vitreo-retinal eye surgery encompasses the surgical procedures performed on the vitreous humor and the retina. A procedure typically consists of the removal of the vitreous humor, the peeling of a membrane and/or the repair of a retinal detachment. Vitreo-retinal surgery is performed minimal

  17. Retinal Vessels Segmentation Techniques and Algorithms: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Almotiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vessels identification and localization aim to separate the different retinal vasculature structure tissues, either wide or narrow ones, from the fundus image background and other retinal anatomical structures such as optic disc, macula, and abnormal lesions. Retinal vessels identification studies are attracting more and more attention in recent years due to non-invasive fundus imaging and the crucial information contained in vasculature structure which is helpful for the detection and diagnosis of a variety of retinal pathologies included but not limited to: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR, glaucoma, hypertension, and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD. With the development of almost two decades, the innovative approaches applying computer-aided techniques for segmenting retinal vessels are becoming more and more crucial and coming closer to routine clinical applications. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview for retinal vessels segmentation techniques. Firstly, a brief introduction to retinal fundus photography and imaging modalities of retinal images is given. Then, the preprocessing operations and the state of the art methods of retinal vessels identification are introduced. Moreover, the evaluation and validation of the results of retinal vessels segmentation are discussed. Finally, an objective assessment is presented and future developments and trends are addressed for retinal vessels identification techniques.

  18. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aquila, A.; Sobierajski, R.; Ozkan, C.; Hájková, Věra; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Klepka, M.T.; Dlužewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A.P.; Gaudin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 24 (2015), "241905-1"-"241905-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : XFEL * Free Electron Laser * damage threshold * X-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  19. Evidence for Non-Opponent Coding of Colour Information in Human Visual Cortex: Selective Loss of "Green" Sensitivity in a Subject with Damaged Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Franziska G; Plant, Gordon T; James-Galton, Merle; Barbur, John L

    2011-01-01

    Damage to ventral occipito-temporal extrastriate visual cortex leads to the syndrome of prosopagnosia often with coexisting cerebral achromatopsia. A patient with this syndrome resulting in a left upper homonymous quadrantanopia, prosopagnosia, and incomplete achromatopsia is described. Chromatic sensitivity was assessed at a number of locations in the intact visual field using a dynamic luminance contrast masking technique that isolates the use of colour signals. In normal subjects chromatic detection thresholds form an elliptical contour when plotted in the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage, (x-y), chromaticity diagram. Because the extraction of colour signals in early visual processing involves opponent mechanisms, subjects with Daltonism (congenital red/green loss of sensitivity) show symmetric increase in thresholds towards the long wavelength ("red") and middle wavelength ("green") regions of the spectrum locus. This is also the case with acquired loss of chromatic sensitivity as a result of retinal or optic nerve disease. Our patient's results were an exception to this rule. Whilst his chromatic sensitivity in the central region of the visual field was reduced symmetrically for both "red/green" and "yellow/blue" directions in colour space, the subject's lower left quadrant showed a marked asymmetry in "red/green" thresholds with the greatest loss of sensitivity towards the "green" region of the spectrum locus. This spatially localized asymmetric loss of "green" but not "red" sensitivity has not been reported previously in human vision. Such loss is consistent with selective damage of neural substrates in the visual cortex that process colour information, but are spectrally non-opponent.

  20. Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma Masquerading as Refractory Retinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofira Zloto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of a patient with primary vitreoretinal lymphoma masquerading as retinitis. Methods: Retrospective review of the patient's clinical, histopathological and imaging records. Results: Cytopathology was negative for malignancy, and preliminary polymerase chain reaction results supported the diagnosis of varicella zoster virus retinitis. Therefore, the patient was treated with antiviral therapy. However, under this treatment, the retinitis progressed. As a result, primary vitreoretinal lymphoma was suspected, and empirical treatment with intravitreal methotrexate injections was started. Under this treatment, the ocular features improved. Five months after initial ocular presentation and ocular resolution, the patient presented with central nervous system lymphoma. Conclusion: This case should raise the awareness of the variable clinical presentations, the challenging diagnosis and treatment of primary vitreoretinal lymphoma. All cases should be continuously systemically evaluated.

  1. Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petzold, Axel; Balcer, Laura J; Calabresi, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Structural retinal imaging biomarkers are important for early recognition and monitoring of inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. With the introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), supervised automated segmentation of individual retinal...... layers is possible. We aimed to investigate which retinal layers show atrophy associated with neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis when measured with SD-OCT. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for studies in which SD-OCT was used to look at the retina in people...... with multiple sclerosis with or without optic neuritis in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar between Nov 22, 1991, and April 19, 2016. Data were taken from cross-sectional cohorts and from one timepoint from longitudinal studies (at least 3 months after onset in studies of optic neuritis). We classified...

  2. Identification system by eye retinal pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunagawa, Takahisa; Shibata, Susumu

    1987-01-01

    Identification system by eye retinal pattern is introduced from the view-point of history of R and D, measurement, apparatus, evaluation tests, safety and application. According to our evaluation tests, enrolling time is approximately less than 1 min, verification time is a few seconds and false accept rate is 0 %. Evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories in USA show the comparison data of false accept rates such as 0 % for eye retinal pattern, 10.5 % for finger-print, 5.8 % for signature dynamics and 17.7 % for speaker voice. The identification system by eye retinal pattern has only three applications in Japan, but there has been a number of experience in USA. This fact suggests that the system will become an important means for physical protections not only in nuclear field but also in other industrial fields in Japan. (author)

  3. Towards Vision-Based Control of a Handheld Micromanipulator for Retinal Cannulation in an Eyeball Phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Brian C.; Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Injecting clot-busting drugs such as t-PA into tiny vessels thinner than a human hair in the eye is a challenging procedure, especially since the vessels lie directly on top of the delicate and easily damaged retina. Various robotic aids have been proposed with the goal of increasing safety by removing tremor and increasing precision with motion scaling. We have developed a fully handheld micromanipulator, Micron, that has demonstrated reduced tremor when cannulating porcine retinal veins in an “open sky” scenario. In this paper, we present work towards handheld robotic cannulation with the goal of vision-based virtual fixtures guiding the tip of the cannula to the vessel. Using a realistic eyeball phantom, we address sclerotomy constraints, eye movement, and non-planar retina. Preliminary results indicate a handheld micromanipulator aided by visual control is a promising solution to retinal vessel occlusion. PMID:24649479

  4. Retinal Vessel Segmentation Based on Primal-Dual Asynchronous Particle Swarm Optimisation (pdAPSO Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Dada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute damage to the retina vessel has been identified to be main reason for blindness and impaired vision all over the world. A timely detection and control of these illnesses can greatly decrease the number of loss of sight cases. Developing a high performance unsupervised retinal vessel segmentation technique poses an uphill task. This paper presents study on the Primal-Dual Asynchronous Particle Swarm Optimisation (pdAPSO method for the segmentation of retinal vessels. A maximum average accuracy rate 0.9243 with an average specificity of sensitivity rate of 0.9834 and average sensitivity rate of 0.5721 were achieved on DRIVE database. The proposed method produces higher mean sensitivity and accuracy rates in the same range of very good specificity.

  5. Functional Optical Coherence Tomography Enables In Vivo Physiological Assessment of Retinal Rod and Cone Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuxiang; Lu, Rongwen; Wang, Benquan; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Curcio, Christine A.; Yao, Xincheng

    2015-04-01

    Transient intrinsic optical signal (IOS) changes have been observed in retinal photoreceptors, suggesting a unique biomarker for eye disease detection. However, clinical deployment of IOS imaging is challenging due to unclear IOS sources and limited signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Here, by developing high spatiotemporal resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) and applying an adaptive algorithm for IOS processing, we were able to record robust IOSs from single-pass measurements. Transient IOSs, which might reflect an early stage of light phototransduction, are consistently observed in the photoreceptor outer segment almost immediately (retinal stimulation. Comparative studies of dark- and light-adapted retinas have demonstrated the feasibility of functional OCT mapping of rod and cone photoreceptors, promising a new method for early disease detection and improved treatment of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other eye diseases that can cause photoreceptor damage.

  6. SILDENAFIL CITRATE INDUCED RETINAL TOXICITY-ELECTRORETINOGRAM, OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY, AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS FINDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoga, Fatoumata; Gentile, Ronald C; Chui, Toco Y P; Freund, K Bailey; Fell, Millie; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Rosen, Richard B

    2018-02-27

    To report a case of persistent retinal toxicity associated with a high dose of sildenafil citrate intake. Single retrospective case report. A 31-year-old white man with no medical history presented with complaints of bilateral multicolored photopsias and erythropsia (red-tinted vision), shortly after taking sildenafil citrate-purchased through the internet. Patient was found to have cone photoreceptor damage, demonstrated using electroretinogram, optical coherence tomography, and adaptive optics imaging. The patient's symptoms and the photoreceptor structural changes persisted for several months. Sildenafil citrate is a widely used erectile dysfunction medication that is typically associated with transient visual symptoms in normal dosage. At high dosage, sildenafil citrate can lead to persistent retinal toxicity in certain individuals.

  7. Reading visual braille with a retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Thomas Z; Harris, Jordan; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose A; Dorn, Jessy D; McClure, Kelly; Greenberg, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 × 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 × 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera) to create visual percepts of individual braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time) in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

  8. Retinal vascular speed prematurity requiring treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans Pérez de Larraya, Ana M; Ortega Molina, José M; Fernández, José Uberos; Escudero Gómez, Júlia; Salgado Miranda, Andrés D; Chaves Samaniego, Maria J; García Serrano, José L

    2018-03-01

    To analyse the speed of temporal retinal vascularisation in preterm infants included in the screening programme for retinopathy of prematurity. A total of 185 premature infants were studied retrospectively between 2000 and 2017 in San Cecilio University Hospital of Granada, Spain. The method of binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy with indentation was used for the examination. The horizontal disc diameter was used as a unit of length. Speed of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter/week) was calculated as the ratio between the extent of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter) and the time in weeks. The weekly temporal retinal vascularisation (0-1.25 disc diameter/week, confidence interval) was significantly higher in no retinopathy of prematurity (0.73 ± 0.22 disc diameter/week) than in stage 1 retinopathy of prematurity (0.58 ± 0.22 disc diameter/week). It was also higher in stage 1 than in stages 2 (0.46 ± 0.14 disc diameter/week) and 3 of retinopathy of prematurity (0.36 ± 0.18 disc diameter/week). The rate of temporal retinal vascularisation (disc diameter/week) decreases when retinopathy of prematurity stage increases. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.91) for retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment versus not requiring treatment. The best discriminative cut-off point was a speed of retinal vascularisation prematurity may be required. However, before becoming a new standard of care for treatment, it requires careful documentation, with agreement between several ophthalmologists.

  9. Retinal changes in pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Pankaj Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to determine the prevalence of retinal changes in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH and any association between the retinal changes and age, parity, blood pressure, proteinuria, and severity of the disease. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: All the patients admitted with a diagnosis of PIH were included in this study. Age, gravida, gestation period, blood pressure, and proteinuria were noted from the case records. Fundus examination was done with a direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were noted and were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: A total of 150 patients of PIH were examined. The mean age of patients was 25.1 years. The gestation period ranged from 27 weeks to 42 weeks; 76 (50.67% were the primi gravida. 92 (61.33% patients had gestational hypertension, 49 (32.67% patients had preeclampsia, and 9 (6% had eclampsia. Retinal changes (hypertensive retinopathy were noted in 18 (12% patients - Grade 1 in 12 (8% and Grade 2 in 6 (4%. Hemorrhages or exudates or retinal detachment were not seen in any patient. There was statistically significant positive association of retinal changes and blood pressure (P = 0.037, proteinuria (P = 0.0005, and severity of the PIH (P = 0.004. Conclusions: Retinal changes were seen in 12% of patients with PIH. Occurrence of hypertensive retinopathy in PIH cases has been decreased due to better antenatal care and early detection and treatment of PIH cases. There is a greater chance of developing retinopathy with increase in blood pressure, severity of PIH, and proteinuria in cases of PIH.

  10. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  11. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  12. Normal Threshold Size of Stimuli in Children Using a Game-Based Visual Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Ali, Zaria; Subramani, Siddharth; Biswas, Susmito; Fenerty, Cecilia; Henson, David B; Aslam, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and explore the ability of novel game-based perimetry to establish normal visual field thresholds in children. One hundred and eighteen children (aged 8.0 ± 2.8 years old) with no history of visual field loss or significant medical history were recruited. Each child had one eye tested using a game-based visual field test 'Caspar's Castle' at four retinal locations 12.7° (N = 118) from fixation. Thresholds were established repeatedly using up/down staircase algorithms with stimuli of varying diameter (luminance 20 cd/m 2 , duration 200 ms, background luminance 10 cd/m 2 ). Relationships between threshold and age were determined along with measures of intra- and intersubject variability. The Game-based visual field test was able to establish threshold estimates in the full range of children tested. Threshold size reduced with increasing age in children. Intrasubject variability and intersubject variability were inversely related to age in children. Normal visual field thresholds were established for specific locations in children using a novel game-based visual field test. These could be used as a foundation for developing a game-based perimetry screening test for children.

  13. [Retinitis septica Roth--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, T; Spirková, J; Vican, J

    2011-10-01

    We report of a case of retinitis septica in a 37-years old man one month after his tooth's extraction. Because of decreased right eye's central vision and a presence of typical retinal Roth's spots we called internists for a possibility of bacterial endocarditis. Cardiologic examination confirmed this disease together with aortal valve's defect. The course of hearth's disease was weary heavy, with attack of septic fever and cardial decompensation. After acute stage control, defocusation and antibiotic therapy, he underwent a surgical intervention with exchange of aortal valve.

  14. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielgus, Albert R.; Zhao, Baozhong; Chignell, Colin F.; Hu, Dan-Ning; Roberts, Joan E.

    2010-01-01

    The water-soluble nanoparticle hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C 60 (OH) 22-26 ] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have previously found that fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3) and that the endogenous antioxidant lutein blocked some of this phototoxicity. In the present study we have found that fullerol induces cytotoxic and phototoxic damage to human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Accumulation of nano-C 60 (OH) 22-26 in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm, and cell viability, cell metabolism and membrane permeability were estimated using trypan blue, MTS and LDH assays, respectively. Fullerol was cytotoxic toward hRPE cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 10 μM. Exposure to an 8.5 J.cm -2 dose of visible light in the presence of > 5 μM fullerol induced TBARS formation and early apoptosis, indicating phototoxic damage in the form of lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with 10 and 20 μM lutein offered some protection against fullerol photodamage. Using time resolved photophysical techniques, we have now confirmed that fullerol produces singlet oxygen with a quantum yield of Φ = 0.05 in D 2 O and with a range of 0.002-0.139 in various solvents. As our previous studies have shown that fullerol also produces superoxide in the presence of light, retinal phototoxic damage may occur through both type I (free radical) and type II (singlet oxygen) mechanisms. In conclusion, ocular exposure to fullerol, particularly in the presence of sunlight, may lead to retinal damage.

  15. A threshold for dissipative fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The empirical domain of validity of statistical theory is examined as applied to fission data on pre-fission data on pre-fission neutron, charged particle, and γ-ray multiplicities. Systematics are found of the threshold excitation energy for the appearance of nonstatistical fission. From the data on systems with not too high fissility, the relevant phenomenological parameter is the ratio of the threshold temperature T thresh to the (temperature-dependent) fission barrier height E Bar (T). The statistical model reproduces the data for T thresh /E Bar (T) thresh /E Bar (T) independent of mass and fissility of the systems

  16. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  17. Optimization Problems on Threshold Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nechita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, different types of decompositions have been processed in the field of graph theory. Among these we mention: decompositions based on the additivity of some characteristics of the graph, decompositions where the adjacency law between the subsets of the partition is known, decompositions where the subgraph induced by every subset of the partition must have predeterminate properties, as well as combinations of such decompositions. In this paper we characterize threshold graphs using the weakly decomposition, determine: density and stability number, Wiener index and Wiener polynomial for threshold graphs.

  18. Threshold current for fireball generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuis, Geert C.

    1982-05-01

    Fireball generation from a high-intensity circuit breaker arc is interpreted here as a quantum-mechanical phenomenon caused by severe cooling of electrode material evaporating from contact surfaces. According to the proposed mechanism, quantum effects appear in the arc plasma when the radius of one magnetic flux quantum inside solid electrode material has shrunk to one London penetration length. A formula derived for the threshold discharge current preceding fireball generation is found compatible with data reported by Silberg. This formula predicts linear scaling of the threshold current with the circuit breaker's electrode radius and concentration of conduction electrons.

  19. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  20. Rainfall thresholds for the triggering of landslides in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Tina; Jemec Auflič, Mateja; Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Komac, Marko; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Both at the worldwide level and in Slovenia, precipitation and related phenomena represent one of the most important triggering factors for the occurrence of slope mass movements. In the past decade, extreme rainfall events with a very high amount of precipitation occurs in a relatively short rainfall period have become increasingly important and more frequent, that causing numerous undesirable consequences. Intense rainstorms cause flash floods and mostly trigger shallow landslides and soil slips. On the other hand, the damage of long lasting rainstorms depends on the region's adaptation and its capacity to store or infiltrate excessive water from the rain. The amount and, consequently, the intensity of daily precipitation that can cause floods in the eastern part of Slovenia is a rather common event for the north-western part of the country. Likewise, the effect of rainfall is very dependent on the prior soil moisture, periods of full soil saturation and the creation of drifts in groundwater levels due to the slow melting of snow, growing period, etc. Landslides could be identified and to some extent also prevent with better knowledge of the relation between landslides and rainfall. In this paper the definition of rainfall thresholds for rainfall-induced landslides in Slovenia is presented. The thresholds have been calculated by collecting approximately 900 landslide data and the relative rainfall amounts, which have been collected from 41 rain gauges all over the country. The thresholds have been defined by the (1) use of an existing procedure, characterized by a high degree of objectiveness and (2) software that was developed for a test site with very different geological and climatic characteristics (Tuscany, central Italy). Firstly, a single national threshold has been defined, later the country was divided into four zones, on the basis of major the river basins and a single threshold has been calculated for each of them. Validation of the calculated