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Sample records for reticulatum pulmonata stylommatophora

  1. The Effect of Grazing by the Slug Arion Vulgaris, Arion Rufus and Deroceras Reticulatum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora on Leguminous Plants and other Small-Area Crops

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    Kozłowski Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous slugs do significant damage to many species of crop plants. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the rate and extent of damage caused to 16 plant species by Arion vulgaris, Arion rufus, and Deroceras reticulatum. It was found, that levels of damage caused to young plants of Brassica napus, Sorghum bicolor, Vicia faba, and Sinapis alba by the slugs A. vulgaris, A. rufus, and D. reticulatum were similar, while levels of damage caused to the other studied plants by particular slug species differed significantly. Based on the results of the damage by the investigated slug species, plants were categorised as heavily or lightly damaged.

  2. The effect of climate manipulations on the herbivory of the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774) (Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

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    El-Danasoury, H.; Iglesias-Piñeiro, J.; Córdoba, M.

    2016-10-01

    The pestiferous status of the terrestrial slug Deroceras reticulatum and the strong dependence of its biology and ecology on climatic factors have driven research on the potential responses of the slug to predicted scenarios of climate change. Here, we report two short-term experiments performed outdoors, under seminatural conditions, to assess the behavioural response of D. reticulatum to different climate manipulations in terms of herbivory, by measuring over 7 days the damage inflicted by slug populations to lettuce seedlings. The climate manipulations tested emulate predicted climatic conditions for northwest Spain, specifically winter warming and increased summer rainfall, in contrast respectively with normal winter conditions and summer without rain conditions. In a winter experiment, we compared a normal winter treatment with a winter warming treatment; with respect to the normal winter treatment, the winter warming treatment was characterised by higher temperature, lower relative humidity and the absence of rainfall. In a summer experiment, we compared a summer drought treatment with an increased summer rainfall treatment; with respect to the summer drought treatment, the increased summer rainfall treatment was characterised by the presence of rainfall, while the conditions of temperature and relative humidity were similar in both treatments. Neither winter warming nor increased summer rainfall did lead to a significant increase on the number of seedlings damaged by the slugs. However, with both treatments, we found a moderate increase on the amount of damage suffered by the seedlings. The results are discussed in the context of the potential responses of D. reticulatum to future climatic conditions.

  3. Cebos molusquicidas y molusquicidas líquidos para el control de Deroceras reticulatum (Pulmonata: Stylomatophora, plaga en el cultivo de colza

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    GARAVANO, M.E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil seed rape (Brassica napus under No Tillage (NT represents an alternative in the current crop rotationsystems. Deroceras reticulatum “gray slug” is a one of the present pest in this crop under NT. The aim of thisstudy was to evaluate combined action bait and liquid Metaldehyde as an alternative strategy control of the specie. Laboratory and fields traits were carried out with the following treatments: control treatment without chemicals, chemical co tro (4 kg ha-1 of Metaldehyde 4 %, 3, 4 and 5 kg ha-1 combined action bait (Carbaryl8 % y Metaldehyde 4 % and 1, 2 and 3 l ha-1 of liquid formulations (20 % Metaldehyde. The number of dead individuals of D. reticulatum and the number of damaged and undamaged plants were evaluated. In the laboratory,up to 3 days after application (DAA it was observed higher control rates at all doses of liquid formulationthan all solids treatment. In both, solid and liquid treatments did not have doses effect. The proportion of damaged plants did not differ between treatments. In the field, at 2, 8 and 14 DAA liquid treatments showed lower control rates compared with the Metaldehyde baits and combined action bait. Both treatments solids and liquids were no effect of dose. The proportion of damaged plants was higher than that observed in laboratoryconditions. There were not observed differences in the proportion of damaged plants under chemical treatments and in the control with slugs. The application of liquid formulations may be carrying out close to crops sowing, while baits should be applied before sowing.

  4. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

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    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  5. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

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    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  6. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  7. Histologia das glândulas salivares dos Limacoidea e Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata Histology of the salivary glands of the Limacoidea and Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The histology of the salivary glands of six species of Limacoidea, Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774, Deroceras rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965, Malacolimax tenellus (Müller, 1774 and Lehmannia marginata (Müller, 1774, and a species of Milacidae, Tandonia budapestensis (Hazay, 1881 is comparatively described herein. In the glandular parenchyme four to five secretory cell types are distinguished and characterised, besides a cell type which is probably undifferentiated. The secretory cell types are classified into two groups, mucous and serous cells. Two types of mucous cells and two to three types of serous cells are distinguished. The salivary glands of the herein studied Limacoidea and Milacidae show a duct system composed of intralobular, interlobular and main ducts, each one presenting a characteristic type of epithelial lining. The results are comparatively discussed with the data available in the literature, in order to verify the correspondence between the different cell types described for other Pulmonata.

  8. A new approach to an old conundrum--DNA barcoding sheds new light on phenotypic plasticity and morphological stasis in microsnails (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Carychiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Alexander M; Jochum, Adrienne; Pfenninger, Markus; Steinke, Dirk; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2011-03-01

    The identification of microsnail taxa based on morphological characters is often a time-consuming and inconclusive process. Aspects such as morphological stasis and phenotypic plasticity further complicate their taxonomic designation. In this study, we demonstrate that the application of DNA barcoding can alleviate these problems within the Carychiidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). These microsnails are a taxon of the pulmonate lineage and most likely migrated onto land independently of the Stylommatophora clade. Their taxonomical classification is currently based on conchological and anatomical characters only. Despite much confusion about historic species assignments, the Carychiidae can be unambiguously subdivided into two taxa: (i) Zospeum species, which are restricted to karst caves, and (ii) Carychium species, which occur in a broad range of environmental conditions. The implementation of discrete molecular data (COI marker) enabled us to correctly designate 90% of the carychiid microsnails. The remaining cases were probably cryptic Zospeum and Carychium taxa and incipient species, which require further investigation into their species status. Because conventional reliance upon mostly continuous (i.e. nondiscrete) conchological characters is subject to fallibility for many gastropod species assignments, we highly recommend the use of DNA barcoding as a taxonomic, cutting-edge method for delimiting microsnail taxa.

  9. Biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Voogt, P.A.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters were studied in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis after injection of Na-1-14C-acetate. 2. 2. Free and esterified sterols appeared to be synthesized by the animals, whilst the specific radioactivity of the sterols from the esters was

  10. Biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Voogt, P.A.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters were studied in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis after injection of Na-1-14C-acetate. 2. 2. Free and esterified sterols appeared to be synthesized by the animals, whilst the specific radioactivity of the sterols from the esters was

  11. Genetic variability of two populations of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum from the Upper Paraguay River Basin

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    Marcia Matos de Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catfishes of the genus Pseudoplatystoma are very important species due to both their high commercial value and their ecological role as voracious predators. They undertake lengthy migratory movements during their life-cycle, this including reproductive migration which occurs from October to December in the rainy season. In the present study, seven microsatellite loci were analyzed to access genetic variability in two samples of P. reticulatum from the Upper Paraguay Basin. The loci were highly polymorphic (mean = 7.28. According to all analysis, the two samples of P. reticulatum revealed pronounced genetic differentiation. Fst value was 0.2290, Rst value 0.1067 and AMOVA 22.90% (Fst and 10.67% (Rst, all being highly significant (p < 0.001. The division of the fishes into two groups was confirmed by microsatellite multi-locus Bayesian assignment testing. The results obtained present evidence of genetic structuring in a P. reticulatum population.

  12. Sobre a anatomia do sistema genital de Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Bradybaenidae ocorrentes em Porto Alegre, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Mônica Picoral

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base em material coletado em Porto Alegre, apresenta-se um estudo anatômico detalhado do sistema genital de Bradybena similaris (Férussac, 1821, comparado com trabalhos anteriores, propondo-se uma padronização da nomenclatura dos diversos órgãos e regiões, destacando-se a estrutura da região da encruzilhada ("carrefour", do ovispermioducto até a vagina e do pênis e assinalando-se a independência das aberturas do pênis, vagina e saco do dardo num átrio genital.

  13. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

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    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  14. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  15. Plastomes of the green algae Hydrodictyon reticulatum and Pediastrum duplex (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae

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    Hilary A. McManus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Comparative studies of chloroplast genomes (plastomes across the Chlorophyceae are revealing dynamic patterns of size variation, gene content, and genome rearrangements. Phylogenomic analyses are improving resolution of relationships, and uncovering novel lineages as new plastomes continue to be characterized. To gain further insight into the evolution of the chlorophyte plastome and increase the number of representative plastomes for the Sphaeropleales, this study presents two fully sequenced plastomes from the green algal family Hydrodictyaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae, one from Hydrodictyon reticulatum and the other from Pediastrum duplex. Methods Genomic DNA from Hydrodictyon reticulatum and Pediastrum duplex was subjected to Illumina paired-end sequencing and the complete plastomes were assembled for each. Plastome size and gene content were characterized and compared with other plastomes from the Sphaeropleales. Homology searches using BLASTX were used to characterize introns and open reading frames (orfs ≥ 300 bp. A phylogenetic analysis of gene order across the Sphaeropleales was performed. Results The plastome of Hydrodictyon reticulatum is 225,641 bp and Pediastrum duplex is 232,554 bp. The plastome structure and gene order of H. reticulatum and P. duplex are more similar to each other than to other members of the Sphaeropleales. Numerous unique open reading frames are found in both plastomes and the plastome of P. duplex contains putative viral protein genes, not found in other Sphaeropleales plastomes. Gene order analyses support the monophyly of the Hydrodictyaceae and their sister relationship to the Neochloridaceae. Discussion The complete plastomes of Hydrodictyon reticulatum and Pediastrum duplex, representing the largest of the Sphaeropleales sequenced thus far, once again highlight the variability in size, architecture, gene order and content across the Chlorophyceae. Novel intron insertion sites and unique

  16. Molecular diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in the marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum.

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    Passarini, Michel R Z; Miqueletto, Paula B; de Oliveira, Valéria M; Sette, Lara D

    2015-02-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the diversity of bacteria and filamentous fungi of southern Atlantic Ocean marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum using cultivation-independent approaches. Fungal ITS rDNA and 18S gene analyses (DGGE and direct sequencing approaches) showed the presence of representatives of three order (Polyporales, Malasseziales, and Agaricales) from the phylum Basidiomycota and seven orders belonging to the phylum Ascomycota (Arthoniales, Capnodiales, Dothideales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Pleosporales, and Saccharomycetales). On the other hand, bacterial 16S rDNA gene analyses by direct sequencing approach revealed the presence of representatives of seven bacterial phyla (Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Lentisphaerae, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes). Results from statistical analyses (rarefaction curves) suggested that the sampled clones covered the fungal diversity in the sponge samples studied, while for the bacterial community additional sampling would be necessary for saturation. This is the first report related to the molecular analyses of fungal and bacterial communities by cultivation-independent approaches in the marine sponges D. reticulatum. Additionally, the present work broadening the knowledge of microbial diversity associated to marine sponges and reports innovative data on the presence of some fungal genera in marine samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

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    Benoit Banga N′Guessan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC 50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea.

  18. Ailadinium reticulatum gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), a New Thecate, Marine, Sand-Dwelling Dinoflagellate from the Northern Red Sea.

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    Saburova, Maria; Chomérat, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    A new photosynthetic, sand-dwelling marine dinoflagellate, Ailadinium reticulatum gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Jordanian coast in the Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea, based on detailed morphological and molecular data. A. reticulatum is a large (53-61 μm long and 38-48 μm wide), dorsoventrally compressed species, with the epitheca smaller than the hypotheca. The theca of this new species is thick and peculiarly ornamented with round to polygonal depressions forming a foveate-reticulate thecal surface structure. The Kofoidian thecal tabulation is APC (Po, cp), 4', 2a, 6'', 6c, 4s, 6''', 1p, 1'''' or alternatively it can be interpreted as APC, 4', 2a, 6'', 6c, 4s, 6''', 2''''. The plate pattern of A. reticulatum is noticeably different from described dinoflagellate genera. Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU and LSU rDNA genes did not show any supported affinities with currently known thecate dinoflagellates.

  19. EMBRYONARY DEVELOPMENT OF HELISOMA PERUVIANUM (BRODERIP, 1832 (PULMONATA: PLANORBIDAE UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

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    Matzunaga, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic development stages of Helisoma peruvianum (Broderip, 1832 (Pulmonata: Planorbidae reared under controlled conditions is described. 1 250 embryos located in 31 capsules (Mean = 40. 32 were maintained at 20 ± 1ºC, 24 h of continued artificial light. 7 embryonic stages were recognized: 2 cells, 4 cells, morulae, blastula, gastrula, trochophore "veliger" and juvenile. The greatest mortality occurs at 192 h after being placed on the juvenile. The number of eggs per capsule had a significant difference in comparison to H. trivolvis.

  20. 青海华蜗牛属一新种记述(肺螺亚纲:柄眼目:巴蜗牛科)%DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF CATHAICA FROM QINGHAI, CHINA( GASTROPODA: PULMONATA: STYLOMMATOPHORA: BRADYBAENIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岷

    2002-01-01

    A new species of pulmonate gastropods, Cathaica (Campylocathaica) darlagensis sp. nov. collected from Qinghai Province, China, is described in the present paper. Compared with Cathaica (Campylocathaica) cunlunensis (Mllendorff, 1899), its most affinitive species, the new species has a larger value of H/D, a much straighter lower lip and different pattern of color bands. All the specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.%记述采自青海省达日县华蜗牛属蜗牛1新种:达日华蜗牛Cathaica (Campylocathaica) darlagensis sp. nov..新种壳相与Cathaica (Campylocathaica) cunlunensis (Mllendorff, 1899) 相近,但新种壳高/壳径之比值较大,唇下部较平直,贝壳色带不同于后者.正模成螺,青海省达日县城,海拔3*!980*!m,1997-08-17,采集人李维平;副模5只成螺,采集数据同正模.模式标本保存于中国科学院动物研究所.

  1. 中国光螺属一新种记述(肺螺亚纲,柄眼目,拟阿勇蛞蝓科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS XESTA ALBERS, 1850 FROM CHINA (PULMONATA, STYLOMMATOPHORA, ARIOPHANTIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晶; 周卫川; 陈德牛

    2007-01-01

    在整理陕西师范大学生命科学学院许升全先生赠送的陆生贝类标本时,经鉴定发现1新种,即太白山光螺Xesta taibaishanensis sp.nov..隶属腹足纲、肺螺亚纲、柄眼目、拟阿勇蛞蝓科、光螺属.对新种形态特征、栖息环境进行了记述,并与近似种进行了比较和讨论.

  2. 中国真管螺属一新种记述(肺螺亚纲,柄眼目,烟管螺科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS EUPHAEDUSA FROM YANNAN PROVINCE,CHINA (PULMONATA, STYLOMMATOPHORA, CLAUSILLIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明; 范彪; 陈元晓

    2011-01-01

    记述采自云南省石林县陆生贝类1新种,大叠水真管螺Euphaedusa Dadieshuiensis sp.nov.,文中对新种形态特征、栖息环境进行了描述,并对其相似种进行了分析和讨论.%In the present paper a new spedes of land snail is described. The materials were collected by the authors in Shilin County, Yunnan Province, China,July 1996. Type specimens are deposited in the Kunming Medical University, China.Euphaedusa dadieshuiensis sp. nov. ( Figs 1 - 6Shell small, slender, fusiform. Sinistral, thin,1translucence, fragile. Whorls 11 1/2, moderetely convex with high spiral part, pagoda-formed, under the suture with a annular raga in each whorl, body whorl expand, and with thick rib-stria on the back of body whorl. Shell yellowish brown or chestnut-yellow in colour, surface with very distinct obliquely spiral line and growth line, with distinct thick spiral lines on aperture nearby; protoconch smooth, without spiral line. Apex blunt, suture deep. Aperture small, pearshaped, peristome thick, white in color. Superior iamella small, inferior lamella large, both lamellae visible in aperture, and both lamella distance very near, and the superior !amelia continues into spiral lamella. Subcolumellar lamella not visible in front aperture view. Principal plica long and thin, and an short and oblique lower palatal plica visible in the right side of the last whorl (Principal plica extend to the back of the last whorl); lunella plicae is not visible.The clausilium soup spoon-formed, and thick,without a small gap on front; pedide long and thin. At present, a total of 75 species and subspecies of genus Euphaedusa were found in China. The new species closely resembles Euphaedusa beresowskii (Moellendorff, 1902) in general structure, but differs fi;om the latter chiefly in the shell being much bigger 1and with 11 1/2 whorls, ( alt. 14. 76 mm, diana.3.30 mm, alt. of aperture 2. 88 mm, diam. of aperture 2. 06 mm). Superior lamella small, inferior lamella large, both lamellae visible in aperture, and both lamella distance very near, and the superior lamella continues into spiral lamella. Subcolumellar lamella not visible in front aperture view. Principal plica long and thin, and a short and oblique lower palatal plica visible in the right side of the last whorl;lunell plicae is not visible. The clausilium soup spoonformed, and without a small gap on from; pedicle long and thin. The latter shell being much smaller (alt. 12.9 - 14. Sram, diam. 3.0 mm, alt. of aperture 2. 3 mm, diam. of aperture 2. 0 mm) , with 112 1/2 whorls, with long principal plica and 4 - 5 short plicae. The clausilium small, leaf-form, acute and smooth, and without a small gap.Holotype. alt. 14. 76 mm, diam. 3.30 mm, alt.of aperture 2. 88 mm, diam, of aperture 2. 06 mm collected fi;om Dadieshui Town, Shilin County (24'40'N, 103' 11 'E), Ytmnan Province, China, 2 July 1996. Paratypes: 167 adult specimens, 76 young specimens, alt. 13.90 - 16. 70 mm, diam. 2. 96 3.48 mm, alt. of aperture 2. 54 - 2. 94 mm, diam. of aperture 1.70 - 2. 16 mm, collected fi;om Dadieshul Town, Shilin County (24'40'N, 103II'E), YunnanProvince, China, 2 July 1996. and 9 Aug. 2010.Etymology. The name of the new species is basedon collected fi;om Dadieshui Shilin County.

  3. 云南管螺属一新种记述(肺螺亚纲,柄眼目,烟管螺科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PHAEDUSA FROM YUNNAN (PULMONATA,STYLOMMATOPHORA, CLAUSILIIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明; 范彪; 陈元晓

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper a new species of land snail is described. The materials were collected by the authors in Shilin County, Yunnan Province, China,Aug. 2010. Type specimens are deposited in the Kunming Medical University, China.Phaedusa shilinensis sp. nov. ( Figs 1 - 7 ) Holotype, alt. 17. 20 mm, diam. 3.24 mm, alt.of aperture 3.08 mm, diam. of aperture 2. 04 mm,collected from Shilin Town, Shilin County (24°49′N,103°19′E ), Yunnan Province, China, 9 Aug. 2010.Paratypes, 276 adult specimens, 101 young specimens. alt. 14. 22 - 18.98 mm, diam. 2. 94 -3.42 mm, alt. of aperture 2.60 - 3.08 mm, diam. of aperture 1.78 -2. 16 mm, same data as holotype.Shell small, sinistral, thin, fr'agile, slender, 1fusiform. Whorls 141-2, moderetely convex with high spiral part, pagoda-formed, body whorl expand, and with thick rib-stria on the back of body whorl. Shell yellowish brown or dark brown in colour, surface with very distinct spiral line and growth line; protoconch smooth, without spiral line. Apex blunt, suture slightly deep. Aperturee small, pear-shaped,peristome thick. Superior lamella small, inferior lamella large, both lamellae visible in aperture, and both lamella distance very far, and the superior lamella thick continues into spiral lamella. The principal plica long and thin and with 1 short lower palatal plica on the right side of the last whorl; other plicae and lamellae is not visible. The clausilium soup spoonformed, thick, without a small gap on the front;pedicle long and thin. Reproductive system: penis well developed, penial sheath thick, Epiphallus slender than penial sheath, becomes short narrow at the junction between penial sheath and epiphallus;retractor muscle of penis firmly attached to middle of posterior part of penial epiphallus; vas deferens rather slender, tortuous and whitish, firmly attached to proximal end of penial sheath, and communicated with epiphallus; spermatheca yellowish, long, thick and globular; diverticulum whitish, very long, slender,and thin, extends further than spermatheca after branching out from spermatheca; the new species ovoviviparous, with 1 - 2 junior found in some mature snails.The new species closely resembles Phaedusa danbanensis Chen and Zhang, 1999 in general structure. The new species shell is big (alt.17.20 mm, diam. 3.24 mm, alt. of aperture 3.08mm, diam. of aperture 2.04 mm ), with 141-2 whorls. The latter shell is small (alt. 15.0 mm,diam. 4. 1 mm, alt of aperture 4. 0 mm, diam. of aperture 3. 1 mm ), with 91/2 whorls, with 1 long principal plica and 3 short plicae.%记述采自云南省石林县陆生贝类1新种,即石林管螺Phaedusa shilinensis sp.nov.,文中对新种形态特征、栖息环境进行了描述,并对其相似种进行了分析和讨论.

  4. 中国婴螺属一新种记述(腹足纲,肺螺亚纲,柄眼目,艾纳螺科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PUPINIDIUS (MOELLENDORFF, 1901 ) FROM CHINA ( PULMONATA, STYLOMMATOPHORA, ENIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宏涛; 宋克林; 周卫川

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper a new species of land snail is described. The materials were collected by the authors in Tiaushui City, Gansu Province, China, July 2010. Type specimens are deposited in the Fujian Entry-Exit Inspection & Quaratine Bureau, Fuzhou, China.Pupinidius Moellendorff, 1901 is a small group in Enidae and known to be distributed in the Northwest of Sichuan Province and Northwest of China. In the present paper a new species of land snail is described. The materials were collected by the authors in Tianshui City, Gansu Province, China, July 2010. Type specimens are deposited in the Fujian Entry-Exit Inspection & Quaratine Bureau, Fuzhou , China. Pupinidius tianshuiensis sp. nov. ( Figs 1 - 5 ) Holotype. Height 14. 0 mm, diameter 6. 0 mm, aperture height 3.9 mm, aperture width 3. 5 mm, collected from Pingnan Town, Tianshui City (34。06'N, 105。07'E ), Gansu Province, China, 14 July 2010. Paratypes. 80 specimens, height 12. 0 - 15.0 mm, diameter 5.0 - 7.5 mm, aperture height 3.3 -4.1 mm, aperture width 2.9 -4.0 mm, collected from Pingnan Town, Tianshui City (34。06'N, 105。07'E), Gansu Province, China, 14 July 2010. Shell medium, thick, lustrous, subcylindrical. Whorls 6 1-2,moderately convex, spire depressedconical; embryonic whorl I -2, increased slowly, smooth; body whorl cylindric; penultimate expanding. Shell yellowish or yellow-brown in colour, regularly and weakly striatulate, silky, with chesmut and pallid-yellow stripes on spire. Apex acute. Suture deep. Aperture rounded-oval, apermral margin broadened, sharp, shortly interrupted, outer margin with a callous thickening at the base. Umbilicus small, crevice-formed. Penis cylindrical, epiphallus long, cylindrical, without whip-shaped and blind papilla, penial appendix developed, penial retractor with two, and adhere to epiphallus, penial retractor and appendix retractor retractor fixed on diaphraqgm. Vagina and free oviduct short, spermathecal stalk long, curveed, spermathecal handle short; wall of spermathecal stalk thin, short; end with pocket- shaped and folds. Penis and diverticle spermathecal stalk light greyish white, penial appendix dark grey, other milky white, and without colour-spot. The new species resembles Pupinidius pupinidius ( Moellendorff, 1901 ), but the latter has a larger shell (height 23.0 nun, diameter 13.0 mm; aperture height 12. 0 mm, aperture width 10. 0 mm), more whorls 1(7 1-2 whorls ) and chesmut and pallid-yellow stripes on shell. In addition, the new species compared with Pupinidius. gregorii( Moellendorff, 1901 ), the latter has a larger shell (height 21.50 mm, diameter 11.0 mm; aperture height 10. 0 mm, aperture width 8. 0 mm ), more whorls (8 whorls ), and ashen-yellow on shell, and with few comer-brown, with tape of chestnut colour on suture base, outer margin without a callous thickening at the base. But the new species with yellowish or yellow-brown in colour, regularly and weakly striatulate, silky, with chestnut and pallidyellow stripes on spire, outer margin with a callous thickening at the base. Etymology. The name of the new species is based on the type locality Pingnan Town, Tianshui City.%记述采自甘肃省陆生贝类l新种,天水婴螺Pupilnidius tianshuiensis sp.nov.,文中对新种形态特征、栖息环境进行了描述,并与其相似种进行了比较和讨论.

  5. 中国喇叭螺属一新种记述(肺螺亚纲,柄眼目,虹蛹螺科)%A NEW BORSIDIA SPECIES FROM CHINA (PULMONATA, STYLOMMATOPHORA,PUPILLIDAE )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗禄; 张卫红; 罗泰昌

    2011-01-01

    记述了采自贵州的陆生贝类1新种,南江贝喇叭螺Boysidia(Bensonella) nanjiangensis sp.nov.,新种与潼关贝喇叭螺Bousidia(Bensonella)tongguanensis Chen&Zhang,2002近似,文中附新种特征图.模式标本均保存于中国科学院动 物研究所.%A new species of Pupillidae land snail, Boysidia (Bensonella) nanjiangensis sp. Nov. Is described from Kaiyang County, Guizhou Province, China.The main feature; having 6 - whorls, 6 teeth in theaperture, including 1 large flat-shaped slightly winding parietal lamella, 1 strong flat-shaped winding columellar lamella, 1 small nipple-formed basal fold, 1 bigger nipple-formed infrapalatal fold and 2 small nipple-form interpalatal folds. Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.Boysidia was built by Ancey C. F. In 1881. The Boysidia has following principal character, shell smaller,conical, whorls 5 - 6 1/2, half the body whorlstraighdy extends or sometimes bends down. Shell face crude. In the most case, Aperture with 6 teeth. Peristome expand, free or close. Species of this genus mainly distribute in more limestone of the vast south of the Yellow River in China, South Asia and Southeast Asia (Chen and Gao, 1987; Chen et al., 1999; Guo et al., 2006; Thompson and Dance, 1983). In Pilsbry 1916 - 1918 (Pilsbry, 1916 - 1918), divided the Boysidia into Boysidia ( Boysidia) and Boysidia (Bensonella). The former's feature; the two lamellae on the penultimate whorl are fused to form a bilobed lamella; columellar lamella downwardly curved interiorly. The laters' feature: the two lamellae on the penultimate whorl separated, body whorl not detached; Boysidia ( Paraboysidia) the main character: Aperture teeth are not hook-shaped. Thompsom F. G. And Dance S. P. (Thompson and Dance, 1983) built Boysidia (Dasypupa) again in 1983. Species of this subgenus only distribute in Soudieast Asian countries. 357 specimens of the Boysidi were collected by LUO Tai-Chang in Kaiyang County, Guizhou Province, China, 3 Oct. 2005. The specimens were identified new species, and named Boysidia ( Bensonella ) nanjiangensis sp. Nov.Boysidia (Bensonella) nanjiangensis sp. Nov. (Figs 1-3)Morphological character. Shell small-sized, dextral, slighdy thick, opaque, lustrous, easilysmashing, long conical, Whorls 6 1/2. Uniformgrowth of the whorl is obvious protrusion, suture deep. Spire high conic. Protoconch smooth, apex blunt. Body whorl oncoides, and it almost 3 times higher than penultimate whorl. Shell chestnut brown or tan, regularly and weakly striated. Aperture rounded-oval. Peristome scarcely reflected, well expanded, continuous. Aperture with 6 teeth: 1 large flat-shaped slighdy winding parietal tooth; 1 strong flat-shaped winding columellar toodi on columellar margin shallow; 1 small nipple-formed basal tooth; 1 bigger nipple-formed infrapalatal tooth on aperture deeply and 2 small nipple-form interpalatal teeth. Umbilicus broad, deep, cavity-like.Habitat. The new species generally live in the limestone area. It not only inhabits the surface of limestone rocks of moisture, mosses and lichens place, but also lives in the rock crevices, under leaves and twigs.Discussion. The new species and Boysidia ( Bensonella) tongguanensis Chen & Zhang, 2002, are similar on the morphology, but the latter species' shell is broader (height 3.89 mm, diameter 2.56 mm; aperture height 1.56 mm, aperture breadth1. 30 mm) , have whorls 5 1/2, aperture with 5 teeth:the angular and parietal toodi are concrescent into 1 large stout, flexuous, lamellae reaching to the margin, 1 bigger lamellate supracolumellar toodi on columellar margin, 1 big nipple-shaped lower palatal tooth and 1 upper palatal toodi, and 1 small infrapalatal tooth. Compared with another species Boysidia (Bensonella) xiuwenensis Zhang, Luo 8c Zhou, 2010, they are similar on the morphology too, but the latter species has 6 whorls, and aperture with 4 teeth: 1 large stout flake-formed angular tooth, 1 bigger flexuous, flake-formed columellar tooth, 1 small nipple-formed lower palatal tooth, 1 small nipple-formed upper palatal tooth.Holotype. Height 3. 75 mm, diameter 2. 00 mm, aperture height 1. 50 mm, aperture breaddi 1. 40 mm. Type locality; China, Nanjiang Gorge, Kaiyang County (27°01'N, 106° 58'E; alt. 1 234 m ), Guizhou Province. Adult collected by LUO Tai-Chang, 3 Oct. 2005.Paratypes. 356 specimens. Including 87 adult snails, 269 juvenile snails. Height 3. 50 - 4. 00 mm, diameter 1. 86 - 2. 20 mm, aperture height 1. 37 - 1. 65 mm, aperture breadth 1. 26 - 1. 47 mm ( note; measured 50 adult snail specimens, the number of whorl is the number of suture plus 1). The collection data was same as holotype.Etymology. The new species is named after its locality "Nanjiang Gorge".Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome from South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and its impact in Siluriformes phylogenetic tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Luciana Cristine Vasques; Alves, Anderson Luis; Varela, Eduardo Sousa; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Naiara Milagres Augusto; Ponzetto, Josi Margarete; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    The cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) is a Neotropical freshwater catfish from family Pimelodidae (Siluriformes) native to Brazil. The species is of relative economic importance for local aquaculture production and basic biological information is under development to help boost efforts to domesticate and raise the species in commercial systems. The complete cachara mitochondrial genome was obtained by assembling Illumina RNA-seq data from pooled samples. The full mitogenome was found to be 16,576 bp in length, showing the same basic structure, order, and genetic organization observed in other Pimelodidae, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rNA genes, 22 trNAs, and a control region. Observed base composition was 24.63% T, 28.47% C, 31.45% A, and 15.44% G. With the exception of NAD6 and eight tRNAs, all of the observed mitochondrial genes were found to be coded on the H strand. A total of 107 SNPs were identified in P. reticulatum mtDNA, 67 of which were located in coding regions. Of these SNPs, 10 result in amino acid changes. Analysis of the obtained sequence with 94 publicly available full Siluriformes mitogenomes resulted in a phylogenetic tree that generally agreed with available phylogenetic proposals for the order. The first report of the complete Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum mitochondrial genome sequence revealed general gene organization, structure, content, and order similar to most vertebrates. Specific sequence and content features were observed and may have functional attributes which are now available for further investigation.

  7. La production de sorgho dans un parc à Piliostigma reticulatum en zone nord-soudanienne du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yélémou, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum production in a Piliostigma reticulatum Park in the North Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso. En zone sahélo-soudanienne, les systèmes de production sont des associations cultures-ligneux. Les ligneux sélectionnés sont des espèces fruitières et/ou à rôle écologique prouvé. Face à l'aridification climatique, les populations adoptent de plus en plus l'espèce Piliostigma reticulatum. De manière à quantifier l'impact de cette espèce sur la production du sorgho, principale culture de la région, quinze pieds de Piliostigma reticulatum, âgés de 7 ans ont été suivis en association avec le sorgho blanc, pendant trois ans. Les paramètres suivis sont: la croissance et les composantes du rendement. Des échantillons de sol ont été prélevés pour déterminer les effets de l'espèce sur les propriétés du sol. Les trois traitements comparés étaient: culture sous houppier, culture à la limite du houppier et culture hors houppiers. Sous le houppier de Piliostigma reticulatum, le statut du carbone organique est amélioré de 67 % dans l'horizon 0-10 cm et de 46% dans l'horizon 10-20 cm. Le taux d'azote total est amélioré de 62% dans l'horizon 0-10 cm. En outre, le rapport C/N présente des valeurs relativement faibles. A 30 jour après le semis, on constate une meilleure croissance du sorgho sous houppier par rapport aux placettes hors houppier. Cependant, selon les années, la meilleure croissance initiale sous houppier ne se traduit pas nécessairement par des gains de production en paille et en grains du sorgho par rapport aux autres placettes. Des investigations complémentaires sont nécessaires pour expliquer ces observations et évaluer l'intérêt de cette association pour les agriculteurs.

  8. Determinants of distribution and abundance of two shrub species, Guiera senegalensis and Piliostigma reticulatum, in Peanut Basin, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufafa, A.; Diédhiou, I.; Ndiaye, N.; Kizito, F.; Dick, R.; Noller, J. S.

    2005-05-01

    The ability to predict and manage the course of landscape-level ecological change and its longer-term consequences on ecosystem functions (e.g. carbon stabilization and soil degradation mitigation) depends on the ability to understand how a particular ecosystem functions and the mechanisms that control the distribution, configuration and abundance of key species. Guiera senegalensis and Piliostigma reticulatum are two native shrub species that are widely found in Sub-Saharan Africa but unrecognized in their potential role in regulating hydrological and carbon cycles in both natural and agro-ecosystems. Our objective was to conduct a study on the determinants of landscape-level distribution and abundance of these shrub species as a basis for ecological modeling and management of this fragile semiarid environment. Formal Recursive Inference Modeling was used to adduce determinants of species presence while logistic regression and geostatistical approaches were used to estimate shrub abundance within their communities. The results showed that distribution of the shrubs is controlled by four factors: geological substrate, mean annual temperature, mean annual rainfall and landform (profile convexity). Relative abundance within the shrub communities is under the influence of mean annual rainfall, maximum annual temperature and elevation (for G. senegalensis) and mean annual rainfall, mean annual temperature, elevation and landform (profile convexity) (for P. reticulatum). Predictive models for shrub distribution and abundance were generally poor, probably highlighting the weakness of statistical models in analysis and quantification of the spatial structure of ecosystems.

  9. Characterization of the early development of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from the Paraguay River Basin

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    Fernanda F. Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study described the initial development of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum, as well as changes in growth patterns. Morphometric and meristic variables were analyzed during embryonic, larval and juvenile periods, even as allometric growth coefficients for larvae and juveniles. Eggs showed an average diameter of 1.79 mm and broad perivitelline space (23.41%. The total length (TL of the larvae ranged from 3.05 to 25.72 mm, and the total number of myomeres ranged from 45 to 50 (preanal = 13-16 and postanal = 30-35. Initial pigmentation is poor, concentrated at the extremities of the yolk sac. In the flexion stage, the pigmentation intensifies and forms a longitudinal stripe extending from the snout to the operculum and two longitudinal stripes on the body, one dorsal and the other ventral, that unite at the caudal peduncle. At first, there is a differential growth of the head and tail, and then there is the growth of the body, which shows changes in the ontogenetic priorities of feeding, swimming, and breathing capacities. Our results are very important for ecology, systematics, and hatchering, especially in terms of ontogenetic variation in morphology, growth, feeding, behavior, and mortality of P. reticulatum.

  10. Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonal; Nawaz, Kashif; Parween, Sabiha; Roy, Riti; Sahu, Kamlesh; Kumar Pole, Anil; Khandal, Hitaishi; Srivastava, Rishi; Kumar Parida, Swarup; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2017-02-01

    Cicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  11. A new species of Pseudocrepidobothrium (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Pisces: Siluriformes) in the Paraná River basin (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Nathalia J; De Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; De Chambrier, Alain

    2014-10-01

    This study describes the proteocephalidean tapeworm Pseudocrepidobothrium chanaorum sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Proteocephalinae), which was found in the intestine of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann et Eigenmann) from the Colastiné River, a tributary of the Paraná River. The new species differs from the two other species of the genus, P. eirasi (Rego et de Chambrier, 1995) and P. ludovici Ruedi et de Chambrier, 2012, parasites of Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch et Schneider) from the Amazon River in Brazil, in having fewer proglottides (4-8 without ventral appendages vs 7-12 with ventral appendages and 20-36 without ventral appendages, respectively), a smaller scolex (350-450 μm wide vs 495-990 μm and 515-1020 μm wide, respectively), in the total number of testes (21-25 vs 21-51 and 37-79, respectively), a cirrus-sac usually directed anteriorly if the vagina is posterior to the cirrus-sac vs transversely situated in the known species. The study of the tegumental surface of Pseudocrepidobothrium spp. revealed the presence of four types of microtriches: papilliform, acicular and capilliform filitriches, and gladiate spinitriches. The three species have a similar microthrix pattern, with minor differences on the immature proglottis surface. Pseudocrepidobothrium chanaorum sp. n. is the ninth proteocephalid reported from P. reticulatum.

  12. Taxonomy of the Caribbean sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Porifera, Demospongiae, Axinellida), with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Sven; Pulido, Alejandra

    2016-05-25

    Although there is a long history of taxonomic investigation in Caribbean sponges, there are still many undescribed species. Furthermore, field observations and corroborating morphological analyses are revealing that what was believed to be single, somewhat variable species, may consist of two or more species, often easier to distinguish once well characterized. This is the case for Dragmacidon reticulatum (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Porifera, Demospongiae, Axinellida, Axinellidae), a rather well-known sponge, with an ample distribution and presence in rocky and reef environments of the tropical and subtropical Western Atlantic, with local records in the majority of the countries of the area, from Bermuda to Brazil. Field observations and a detailed review of material from different areas, including some type specimens, led us to the distinction of two different species in terms of external morphology, size of spicules, and skeletal architecture. The distinction was confirmed in the Bahamas and Santa Marta, Colombia, where the two species coexist. One of the species is Dragmacidon reticulatum sensu stricto, but for the other there is need to erect a new name, for which we propose Dragmacidon alvarezae n. sp. The purpose of the present work is to describe, illustrate and compare these two species.

  13. Interação entre abelha Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae e Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus, 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae em Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Hiroiuki Oda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A cigarrinha do pedúnculo Aethalion reticulatum (Linnaeus, 1767 é um inseto que se alimenta da seiva de várias espécies vegetais e pode viver em simbiose com formigas do gênero Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Formicinae, atacando folhas e ramos de inúmeras plantas cultivadas e nativas, tais como acácia-negra, algodoeiro, aroeira, cafeeiro, eucalipto, citros, etc. Algumas relações aparentemente comensais podem ocorrer entre cigarrinhas e abelhas sem ferrão, principalmente Trigona. No presente estudo, observamos a interação entre a abelha irapuá, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 e a cigarrinha do pedúnculo, A. reticulatum em Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (sombreiro. A interação entre T. hyalinata e A. reticulatum foi registrada por meio de fotografias digitais. A estimulação da cigarrinha para a liberação de exsudato iniciava-se quando as abelhas pousavam sobre as colônias de ninfas e adultos de A. reticulatum e estimulavam os indivíduos andando por cima deles, principalmente da região anterior (cabeça para a posterior (abdome do corpo da cigarrinha. Posteriormente, as abelhas tocavam as antenas na parte distal do abdome estimulando a secreção de exsudato e prontamente sugavam essa substância. Esta interação é mutuamente benéfica, sem implicar necessariamente dependência ou interdependência obrigatória, e pode promover uma proteção contra os inimigos naturais da cigarrinha. Todavia, a ocorrência de uma alta infestação de cigarrinhas, associada à intensa atividade de abelhas solicitando honeydew pode levar a depleção de nutrientes da planta, afetando o desenvolvimento e/ou reprodução de C. fairchildiana.Interaction between Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and Aethalion reticulatum Linnaeus, 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae in Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Papilionoideae.Abstract. The Aethalion reticulatum (Linnaeus, 1767 is an insect that feeds of the sap of several vegetal

  14. Modelling of multi-nutrient interactions in growth of the dinoflagellate microalga Protoceratium reticulatum using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, L; Gallardo-Rodríguez, J J; Sánchez-Mirón, A; Contreras-Gómez, A; García-Camacho, F; Molina-Grima, E

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the use of artificial neural networks as predictive tools for the growth of the dinoflagellate microalga Protoceratium reticulatum. Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks (FBN), using Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation or Bayesian regularization as training functions, offered the best results in terms of representing the nonlinear interactions among all nutrients in a culture medium containing 26 different components. A FBN configuration of 26-14-1 layers was selected. The FBN model was trained using more than 500 culture experiments on a shake flask scale. Garson's algorithm provided a valuable means of evaluating the relative importance of nutrients in terms of microalgal growth. Microelements and vitamins had a significant importance (approximately 70%) in relation to macronutrients (nearly 25%), despite their concentrations in the culture medium being various orders of magnitude smaller. The approach presented here may be useful for modelling multi-nutrient interactions in photobioreactors.

  15. Cargols terrestres (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora del Parc Natural de la Muntanya de Montserrat (Barcelona, NE península ibèrica

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    Bros, V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora in the Natural Park of Montserrat (Barcelona, NE Iberian peninsula The inventory of 73 land snails in the Natural Park of Montserrat was updated following the review of 130 publications. Planned field study was also conducted in areas of different habitats on the Montserrat mountain to provide a preliminary description of the communities of land snails in the study area. A total of 342 samples of land snails were studied and 50 species were identified. The most frequent were Pomatias elegans, Helicigona lapicida, Pseudotachea splendida, Abida polyodon and Otala punctata. In this region of the prelittoral Catalan mountain range, the level of endemism was high for Abida secale bofilli, Montserratina bofilliana and Xerocrassa montserratensis.The results of the field work extend the faunistic catalogue of the Natural Park of Montserrat to include references to Hygromia cinctella, Microxeromagna lowei, Paralaoma servilis and Punctum pygmaeum in the area. Finally, investigation and conservation programmes are suggested for the endemic species Xerocrassa montserratensis, protected by the Plan for Areas of Natural Interest (PEIN approved by Decree 328/1992.

  16. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  17. Age and growth parameters of cachara Pseudoplastystoma reticulatum (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae from the Cuiabá River, Brazil

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    Talitha M. Francisco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters of cachara Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae (males and females were estimated through the analysis of growth rings in spines of pectoral fins. Fish were collected from January to December 2007, in the area directly influenced by the Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso (APM Manso and in the Cuiabá River (upper parts of the Pantanal. The maximum number of growth rings was seven for males, and eight, for females. The analysis of temporal variations in mean marginal increment showed that rings found in the spines were formed annually, in December. Growth rings were associated to spawning (in the study region from November to March of the species. The growth curve in length was obtained by the von Bertalanffy model adjusted by the Ford-Walford transformation. The equations are: Ls = 72.7*[1-e-0.44(t+1.5974] for males, and Ls = 84.5*[1-e-0.33(t+2.0943] for females. The equations that describe the growth curve in weight are: Wt = 4991.61*[1-e-0.44 (t+1.5974] 2.70 for males and Wt = 7503.17*[1-e-0.33 (t+2.0943] 2.99 for females.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of euthyneuran gastropods from sea to land mainly based on comparative mitogenomic of four species of Onchidiidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bian Na; Wei, Luan Luan; Shen, He Ding; Wu, Hong Xi; Wang, Dong Feng

    2016-09-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences data for 4 genera (Onchidium, Platevindex, Paraoncidium and Peronia) in Onchidiidae to construct a phylogenetic tree in conjunction with other 9 existing data among gastropods. The topology showed that the taxa clustered into two main groups of four species, one of which included Onchidium struma and the Platevindex mortoni, the other Paraoncidium reevesii and Peronia verruculata. The process in Pulmonata from sea to land in accordance with the evolution of respiratory organs from branchial gills to pulmonary cavity has been shown. This will also constitute a framework for phylogeny evolution analysis, systematic classfication of Onchidiidae and other euthyneurans (pulmonates and opisthobranchs).

  19. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

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    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  20. Detecção de Aethalion reticulatum (L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae em alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. e observações sobre sua ocorrência Detection of Aethalion reticulatum (L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae in clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and observations of its occurrence

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    J.S.S Rando

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência da cigarrinha Aethalionidae em alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. no município de Bandeirantes-PR. Plantas com cerca de dois anos, na fase reprodutiva, com inflorescências, flores, frutos e sementes, serviram como fonte para a coleta de ninfas e adultos das cigarrinhas. Registrou-se em alfavaca-cravo a espécie Aethalion reticulatum e a interação com as formigas Camponotus rufipes e C. crassus.The aim of this work was to report the occurrence of the leafhopper Aethalionidae in clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum in Bandeirantes Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. Plants around two years old, in the reproductive phase, presenting inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds, were used as source for collection of leafhopper nymphs and adults. In clove basil, the species Aethalion reticulatum was recorded, in addition to its interaction with the ants Camponotus rufipes and C. crassus.

  1. Comparing the efficacy of morphologic and DNA-based taxonomy in the freshwater gastropod genus Radix (Basommatophora, Pulmonata

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    Streit Bruno

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable taxonomic identification at the species level is the basis for many biological disciplines. In order to distinguish species, it is necessary that taxonomic characters allow for the separation of individuals into recognisable, homogeneous groups that differ from other such groups in a consistent way. We compared here the suitability and efficacy of traditionally used shell morphology and DNA-based methods to distinguish among species of the freshwater snail genus Radix (Basommatophora, Pulmonata. Results Morphometric analysis showed that shell shape was unsuitable to define homogeneous, recognisable entities, because the variation was continuous. On the other hand, the Molecularly defined Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTU, inferred from mitochondrial COI sequence variation, proved to be congruent with biological species, inferred from geographic distribution patterns, congruence with nuclear markers and crossing experiments. Moreover, it could be shown that the phenotypically plastic shell variation is mostly determined by the environmental conditions experienced. Conclusion Contrary to DNA-taxonomy, shell morphology was not suitable for delimiting and recognising species in Radix. As the situation encountered here seems to be widespread in invertebrates, we propose DNA-taxonomy as a reliable, comparable, and objective means for species identification in biological research.

  2. 中国金丝雀螺属研究及一新种记述(腹足纲,肺螺亚纲,柄眼目,艾纳螺科)%ON THE GENUS SERINA GREDLER FROM CHINA WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF A NEW SPECIES (GASTROPODA, PULMONATA, STYLOMMATOPHORA, ENIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德牛; 周卫川; 罗泰昌; 张卫红

    2003-01-01

    对我国金丝螺属9种和5亚种进行了整理和厘订,对德钦金丝螺新种进行了描述,并附有我国金丝螺属9种和5亚种的检索表.模式标本保存在中国科学院动物研究所无脊椎动物标本馆.%The present paper describes the 15 species of genus Serina Gredler, 1898 found in China, including one species,Serina deginensis, that is described as new to science. A key to the Chinese species is given. Type specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.

  3. Isolation of probiotic bacteria from the hybrid South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum × Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: A haematological approach

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    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated bacterial strains with probiotic potential isolated from the middle portion of healthy hybrid surubim catfish foregut (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum female × P. corruscans male. Twenty surubims weighing 1.5 ± 0.3 kg were used for bacterial isolation. In total, 41 strains of bacteria were selected in vitro. Ten strains had inhibition zones >10 mm against Aeromonas hydrophila. Five of those strains presented inhibition zones > 9 mm against other pathogenic bacteria and reached concentrations greater than 105 CFU mL−1 in tubes containing de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS medium. In particular, Weissella cibaria (P36 reached 106 CFU mL−1 in MRS and was able to reduce the pH of the medium to 3.85. In the in vivo intestinal colonization studies, 72 healthy hybrid surubims were fed with a commercial diet supplemented with probiotic W. cibaria for 15 days. Changes in gut community composition were then analyzed, and probiotic profile of W. cibaria was determined molecularly by amplification of rRNA 16S gene was performed using PCR. Compared to control fish, W. cibaria-supplemented fish showed an increase in RBC. These results show the efficacy of our haematological approach to probiotic screening in hybrid sorubim.

  4. Bioremediation of cadmium-contaminated water systems using intact and alkaline-treated alga (Hydrodictyon reticulatum) naturally grown in an ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Tarek G; Al-Atiyat, Marrwa; Abu-Nameh, Eyad S; Ghrair, Ayoup; Jaradat, Da'san; Abu-Romman, Saeid

    2017-05-04

    Cadmium can enter water, soil, and food chain in amounts harmful to human health by industrial wastes. The use of intact and NaOH-treated dried algal tissues (Hydrodictyon reticulatum), a major ecosystem bio-component, for Cd removal from aqueous solutions was characterized. Cadmium biosorption was found to be dependent on solution pH, bioadsorbent dose, the interaction between pH and dose, contact time, and initial Cd concentration. The experimental results indicated that the biosorption performance of alkaline-treated algal tissues was better than that of intact tissues. The maximum biosorption capacities were 7.40 and 12.74 mg g(-1) for intact and alkaline-treated bioadsorbents, respectively, at optimum operating conditions. Biosorption reaches equilibrium after 24 and 240 minutes of contact, respectively, for alkaline-treated and intact bioadsorbents. Cadmium biosorption was best fitted to Langmuir isotherm model (R(2) ≈ 0.99) and the kinetic study obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which suggests chemisorption as the rate-limiting step in the biosorption process. Alkaline-treated algal tissues can be used as a new material of low-cost bioadsorbent for continuous flow rate treatment systems.

  5. Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Borredà, V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata We describe a new endemic limacid slug, Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus n. sp. and we compare it with the nearest species, particularly with Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis, another Balearic endemism. Characteristic features of this new species include its small size, translucid and smooth body, and totally grey dorsum with no bands or spots. The reproductive system shows a well developed vas deferens surrounded by the distal part of prostatic gland, a thin penial retractor muscle, swollen prostate and small distal genitalia. The recent redescription of Limax majoricensis by Wiktor et al. (2007 is discussed and we consider that these authors refer to G. benjaminus n. sp., and so we dessign the neotype of Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis.

  6. An antioxidant extract of tropical lichen, Parmotrema reticulatum, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7.

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    Nikhil Baban Ghate

    Full Text Available This report highlights the phytochemical analysis, antioxidant potential and anticancer activity against breast carcinoma of 70% methanolic extract of lichen, Parmotrema reticulatum (PRME. Phytochemical analysis of PRME confirms the presence of various phytoconstituents like alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, and ascorbic acid; among which alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids are found in abundant amount. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of PRME revealed the presence of catechin, purpurin, tannic acid and reserpine. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by nine separate methods. PRME showed excellent hydroxyl and hypochlorous radical scavenging as well as moderate DPPH, superoxide, singlet oxygen, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite scavenging activity. Cytotoxicity of PRME was tested against breast carcinoma (MCF-7, lung carcinoma (A549 and normal lung fibroblast (WI-38 using WST-1 method. PRME was found cytotoxic against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value 130.03 ± 3.11 µg/ml while negligible cytotoxicity was observed on A549 and WI-38 cells. Further flow cytometric study showed that PRME halted the MCF-7 cells in S and G2/M phases and induces apoptosis in dose as well as time dependent manner. Cell cycle arrest was associated with downregulation of cyclin B1, Cdk-2 and Cdc25C as well as slight decrease in the expression of Cdk-1 and cyclin A1 with subsequent upregulation of p53 and p21. Moreover PRME induced Bax and inhibited Bcl-2 expression, which results in increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase cascade. This ultimately leads to PARP degradation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. It can be hypothesised from the current study that the antioxidant and anticancer potential of the PRME may reside in the phytoconstitutents present in it and therefore, PRME may be used as a possible source of natural antioxidant that may be developed to an anticancer agent.

  7. Anatomical and genetic variation of western Oxyloma (Pulmonata: Succineidae) concerning the endangered Kanab ambersnail (Oxyloma haydeni kanabense) in Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Herrmann, Hans-Werner; Miller, Mark; Roth, Barry; Sorenson, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The land snail genus Oxyloma (Pulmonata: Succineidae) includes the Federally endangered Kanab ambersnail (Oxyloma haydeni kanabense Pilsbry), which is known at the time of this study from only two locations in the United States: Three Lakes, Utah, and Vaseys Paradise, Arizona, on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Since 1994, the Kanab ambersnail has received much attention because its presence at Vaseys Paradise has implications for the ecosystem-wide management of the Colorado River. This attention is primarily because an experimental high-flow release of water from Glen Canyon Dam in 1996 destroyed or degraded Kanab ambersnail habitat at Vaseys Paradise. This experimental high flow was designed to replicate natural flow regimes throughout the Grand Canyon river corridor. However, as a result of the habitat destruction at Vaseys Paradise, in 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ruled that no further experimental high-discharge floods could be carried out until additional Kanab ambersnail populations were discovered or established. This mandate created a situation where the management of a single endangered species conflicted directly with the management of an entire ecosystem. Although since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has permitted the use of flows as high as stage heights equivalent to 44,000 cubic feet per second, higher flows were requested by various Grand Canyon stakeholders and scientists but were not possible owing to low storage of Lake Powell. Adding to the controversy about Oxyloma and the Kanab ambersnail were previous anatomical and genetic analyses of the genus, which showed that genetic characteristics of specimens did not correspond with their identifications based on traditional taxonomic criteria, raising questions about the validity of the taxonomy of Oxyloma and the protected status of Kanab ambersnails. Specifically, a previous study suggested that the endangered Kanab ambersnail population at Three Lakes was

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae): a novel location of putative control regions (CR) in the mitogenome within Pulmonate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhang-Ping; Dai, Xia-Bin; Zhang, Shuai; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The whole sequence (15,057 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica (order Stylommatophora) was determined. The mitogenome, as the typical metazoan mtDNA, contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA). The tRNA genes include two trnS without standard secondary structure. Interestingly, among the known mitogenomes of Pulmonata species, we firstly characterized an unassigned lengthy sequence (551 bp) between the cox1 and the trnV which may be the CR for the sake of its AT bases usage bias (65.70%) and potential hairpin structure.

  9. A second record of Selenochlamys (Stylommatophora: Trigonochlamydidae from Crimea

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    Ilya Turbanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A live specimen of Selenochlamys was collected in a cave on the Ai-Petri massif of the Crimean Mountains in 2014. It is described and compared with the first Crimean specimen that was collected in 1989 on the Babugan massif. Both specimens are juvenile. Both seem to be more similar to S. ysbryda than S. pallida, and are considered as S. cf. ysbryda. Distribution and habitat preferences in Crimea are discussed. A second finding of Selenochlamys in Crimea suggests the first was not accidental and this slug is likely to be native in Crimea.

  10. Recharacterization of Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Subulinidae

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    Norma Campos Salgado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer, 1846 is characterized by anatomy, synonymy and geographical distribution. Shell and soft parts were studied and important taxonomic characters evaluated and illustrated. These studies give conditions to characterize the species and include it in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896 and distinguish S. hanleyi from the other species of Synapterpes s.s. known only by their shells, respectively from Brazil and Colombia: S.(S. coronatus (Pfeiffer, 1846 and S.(S. wallisi (Mousson, 1869.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the land snail Cornu aspersum (Helicidae: Mollusca: intra-specific divergence of protein-coding genes and phylogenetic considerations within Euthyneura.

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    Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia

    Full Text Available The complete sequences of three mitochondrial genomes from the land snail Cornu aspersum were determined. The mitogenome has a length of 14050 bp, and it encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes. It also includes nine small intergene spacers, and a large AT-rich intergenic spacer. The intra-specific divergence analysis revealed that COX1 has the lower genetic differentiation, while the most divergent genes were NADH1, NADH3 and NADH4. With the exception of Euhadra herklotsi, the structural comparisons showed the same gene order within the family Helicidae, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in order Pulmonata. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered Basommatophora as polyphyletic group, whereas Eupulmonata and Pulmonata as paraphyletic groups. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed that C. aspersum is a close relative of Cepaea nemoralis, and with the other Helicidae species form a sister group of Albinaria caerulea, supporting the monophyly of the Stylommatophora clade.

  12. Physa Marmorata Guilding, 1828 (Pulmonata: Physidae

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828, based on material collected at its type-locality, the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent, is presented. The shell is thin, horn-colored, surface very glossy, diaphanous. Spire acute, elevated; protoconch distinct, rounded-conical, reddish-brown; five not shouldered, broadly convex whorls with subobsolete spiral lines and thin growth lines. Aperture elongated, 1.4-2.0 times as long as the remaining shell length, narrow obovate-lunate; upper half acute-angled,lower half oval,narrowly rounded at the base, outer lip sharp, inner lip completely closing the umbilical region; a very distinct callus on the parietal wall; columellar lip with a low ridge gradually merging into the callus. ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.44 - 0.52 (mean 0.47; spire length /shell lenght = 0.33-0.41 (mean 0.39; aperture length/shell lenght = 0.59-0.67 (mean 0.62. Oral lappets laterally mucronate, foot spatulate with deeply pigmented acuminate tail. Mantle reflection with 6-10 short triangular dentations covering nearly half the right surface of the body whorl, and 4-6 covering a part of the ventral wall. Body surface with tiny dots of greenish-yellow pigment besides melanin. Renal tube tightly folded in toa zigzag course. Ovotestis diverticula acinous, laterally pressed against each other around a collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with well-developed seminal vesicle. oviduct highly convoluted, merging into a less convoluted nidamental gland which narrows to a funnel-shaped uterus and a short vagina. Spermathecal body oblong, more or less constricted in the middle and somewhat curved; spermathecal duct uniformly narrow, a little longer than be body. About 20 prostatic diverticula, simple, bifurcate or divided into a few short branches, distalmost ones assembled into a cluster. Penis long, nearly uniformly narrow; penial canal with lateral opening about the junction of its middle and lower thirds. Penial sheath with a bulbous terminal expasion the tip of which isinserted into the caudal end of the prepuce. Prepuce shouldered, much wider than the narrow portion of the penial sheath. Penial sheath/prepuce ratio about 2.08 (1.45-2.75. The main extrinsic muscles of the penial complex are a retractor, with a branch attached to the bulb, and another to the caudal end of the penial sheath; and a protractor, with a branch attached to the shoulder of the prepuce and adjoining area of the penial sheath, and another to the caudal end of the penial sheath. Egg capsule C-shaped, with 10-30 elliptical eggs (snails 10mm long measuring about 1.10 mm (0.90-1.32 through the long axis and surrounded by an inner and an outer lamellate membranes. Jaw a simple obtusely V-shaped plate. radula will be described separately.É apresentada uma descrição da espécie physa marmorata Guilding, 1828, baseada em material coletado na sua localidade-tipo, a ilha Saint Vincent, no Caribe. A concha é delgada, de coloração córnea, superfície muito lustrosa, diáfana. Espira aguda, elevada; protoconcha distinta, cônica-arredondada, parda-avermelhada; cinco giros sem ombro, largament convexos, com linhas espirais pouco espirais perceptíveis e linhas de crescimento delgadas. Abertura alongada, 1.4-2.0 vezes mais longa que o resto do comprimento da concha, em crescente oboval; metade superior acutangular, metade inferior oval, estreitamente arredondada na base; lábio externo cortante, lábio interno fechando completamente a região umbilical; calo bem aparente na superfície parietal; lábio columelar com crista baixa fundindo-se gradualmente com o calo. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha = 0.44-0.52 (média 0.47; comprimento da espira/comprimento da concha = 0.33-0.41 (média 0.39; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha = 0.59-067 (média 0.62. Mufla mucronada lateralmente, pé espatulado com cauda acuminada intensamente pigmentada. Reflexão do manto com 6-10 deteações triangulares curtas cobrindo quase metade da superfície direita do giro corporal, e 4-6 cobrindo parte da parede ventral. Superfície do corpo com minúsculos pontos de pigmento amarelo-esverdeado além da melanina. Divertículos do ovoteste acinosos, comprimidos lateralmente uns contra os outros em torno do canal coletor. Ovispermiduto com vesícula seminal bem desenvolvida. Oviduto muito sinuoso, continuando-se na glândula nidamental menos sinuosa que se estreita para dar lugar ao útero afunilado e a curta vagina. corpo da espermateca oblongo, mais ou menos cinturado na parte média e um tanto curvo; canal da espermateca uniformemente estreito, um pouco mais longo que o corpo. Cerca de 20 divertículos prostáticos simples, bifurcados ou divididos em poucos ramos curtos, os mais distais reunidos em um cacho. Pênis longo, quase uniformemente estreito; canal peniano com abertura lateral amis ou menos na junção dos terços médio e inferior. Bainha do pêniscom expansão terminal bulbosa cuja ponta se insere na extremidade caudal do prepúcio. Prepúcio com ombro, muito mais largo que a porção estreita da bainha do pênis. Razão bainha do pênis/prepúcio cerca de 2.08 (1.45-2.75. Os músculos extrínsecos principais do complexo peniano são um retrator, com um ramo inserido no bulbo e outro ramo na extremidade caudal da bainha do pênis; e um protrator, com um ramo inserido no ombro do prepúcio e área adjacente da bainha do pênis e outro ramo na extremidade caudal da bainha do pênis. Cápsulas ovíferas em C, com 10-30 ovos elípticos (de caramujos com 10 mm de comprimento medindo cerca de 1.10mm (0.90-1.32 no eixo mais longo e envolvidos por duas membranas lameladas, interna e externa. A mandíbula é uma placa simples em V obtuso. A rádula será descrita em outro trabalho.

  13. Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839 (Pulmonata: Physidae

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available A description of Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839, based on 15 speciments collected in Havana, Cuba, is presented. The shell, measuring 9.0 x 4,8mm to 12.3 x 6.4mm, is ovate-oblong, thin, diaphanous, horncolored, shining. Spire elevated, broadly conical; protoconch distinct, roundish, reddish-brown. About five moderately shouldered, roundly convex whorls, penultimate whorl expanded; spiral striation subobsolete; growth line faint on the intermediate whorls, clearly visible on the body whorl, crowded here and there. Suture well impressed. Aperture elongated 2.05 - 2.67 (mean 2.27 times as long as the remaining length of the shell, narrow obovulate-lunate; upper half acute-angled, lower half oval, narrowly rounded at the base; outer lip sharp, inner lip completely closing the umbilical region; a thick callus on the parietal wall; columellar plait well marked. Ratios: shell width/shell length - 0.52-0.61 (mean 0.55; spire length/shell length = 0.27 - 0.33 (mean 0.31; aperture length/shell length = 0.67 - 0.73 (mean 0.69. Oral lappets laterally mucronate; foot spatulate with acuminate tail. Mantle relection with 6 - 8 short triangular dentations in the right lobe (columellar side and 4 - 6 in the left lobe (near the pneumostome. Renal tube tightly folded into a zigzag course. Ovotestis, ovispermiduct, seminal vesicle, oviduct, nidamental gland, uterus and vagina as in Physa marmorata (see Paraense, 1986, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 81: 459-469. Spermathecal body egg-shaped or pear-shaped; spermathecal ducta uniformly narrow with expanded base, a little longer than the body. Spermiduct, prostate and vas deferens as in P. marmorata (Paraense, loc. cit.. Penis wide proximally, narrowing gradually apicad; penial canal with subterminal outlet. Penial sheath following the width of the penis and ending up by a bulbous expansion somewhat narrower than the proximal portion. Penaial sheath/prepuce ration = 1,25 - 1,83 (mean 1.49. Prepuce much wider than the bulb of the penial shealth, moderately shouldered owing to the intromission of the bulb, and with a large gland in one side of its proximal half occupating about a third of its length. Extrinsic muscles of the penial complex as in P. marmorata. Jaw a simple obtusely V-shaped plate. Radula to be described separetely.É apresentada uma descrição da espécie Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839, baseada em material coletado em Havana, Cuba. Foram examinados 15 exemplares medindo de 9.0 x 4.8 mm a 12.3 x 6.4 mm, com os seguintes caracteres: Concha oval-oblonga, delgada, diáfana, de coloração córnea, superfície lustrosa. Espira elevada, largamente cônica; protoconcha distinta, arredondada, parda-avermelhada. Cerca de cinco giros com ombro moderadamente saliente, convexos-arredondados, o penúltimo expandido; linhas espirais pouco perceptíveis; linhas de crescimento delgadas nos giros intermediários, mais nítidas no giro corporal, aglomeradas em algumas áreas. Sutura bem impressa. Abertura alongada, 2.05 a 2.67 vezes (média 2.27 mais longa que o resto do comprimento da concha, em crescente oboval; metade superior acutangular, metade inferior oval, estreitamente arredondada na base; lábio externo cortante, lábio interno fechando completamente a região umbilical; calo espesso na superfície parietal; dobra columelar saliente. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha = 0.52 - 0.61 (média 0.55; comprimento da espira/comprimento da concha = 0.27 - 0.33 (média 0.31; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha = 0.67 - 0.73 (média 0.69. Mufla mucronada lateralmente. Pé espatulado com cauda acuminada. Reflexão do manto com 6 - 8 denteações triangulares curtas no lobo direito (lado columelar e 4 - 6 no lobo esquerdo (perto do pneumóstomo. Tubo renal descrevendo curvas muito unidas, em ziguezague. Ovoteste, ovespemiduto, vesícula seminal, oviduto, glândula nidamental, útero e vagina como em Physa marmorata (ver Paraense, 1986, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 81: 459-469. Corpo da espermateca ovóide ou piriforme, canal uniformemente estreito, dilatado na base e pouco mais longo que o corpo. Espermiduto, próstata e canal deferente como em P. marmorata (Paraense, loc. cit.. Pênis grosso na parte proximal, diminuido gradualmente de diâmetro para a extremidade livre, percorrido por um canal axial com abertura subterminal. Bainha do pênis acompanhando a largura do pênis e terminando por uma expansão bulbóide glandular um pouco mais estreita que a parte proximal. Razão entre comprimentos da bainha do pênis e do prepúcio = 1.25 - 1.83 (média 1.49. Prepúcio muito mais largo que o bulbo da bainha do pênis, com ombro pouco saliente resultante da intromissão do bulbo, e com volumosa glândula em um lado da metade proximal da parede do prepúcio, ocupando cerca de um terço do comprimento deste órgão. Músculos extrínsecos do complexo peniano como em P. marmorata. Mandíbula formada por uma placa simples em V obtuso. Rádula a ser descrita em outro trabalho.

  14. Growth of juvenile Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum and Pseudoplatystoma spp. in pond

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    Aline Mayra da Silva Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the fish is an important factor that determines the potential of various species for economic exploitation. The aim this work was evaluates the growth juvenile cachara and hybrid grown in pond. Information was collected of weight and morphometric measures during the experimental period. Total length gain, body height gain, body width gain, weight gain, growth index, morphometric ratios and body percentage were calculated. The methodology of generalized linear models was used, considering Gamma distribution and inverse link function. The variances and averages of variables were submitted tests F of the Snedecor and Chi-Square, respectively. The hybrids gained more weight in second and third biometrics, beyond of presented greater total length gain and body percentage. The head size and head width of cacharas were higher in three biometrics. The variances of hybrids were higher in the second and third biometrics. The hybrids presented better performance, but lesser standardization for traits evaluated than pure specie, confirming the need development genetic improvement programs that performs pure species selection for increased commercial production.

  15. [Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca) in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María José; Cuezzo, María Gabriela

    2010-09-01

    Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas) and dry forest (Chaco) areas of Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2) were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the degree of undersampling and spatial aggregation of the data. Diversity was also calculated using Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker and Jaccard indices. The richness of the San Javier Park was estimated to be 32 species distributed into 13 families and 21 genera. From the total number of species collected, a single one belongs to Caenogastropoda, while the rest of the species are classified into Pulmonata Stylommatophora and Systellommatophora. The most representative family was the micromollusc Charopidae, while the most relatively abundant species was another micromollusc snail, Adelopoma tucma. Richness and diversity were slightly more elevated in dry forest areas of the Chacoan Ecoregion than in cloud forest areas of Yungas. Non parametric estimators showed that the inventory was complete. Diversity values obtained were high in comparison to previously studied areas of Northwestern Argentina. The total number of specimen collected (22 169 specimens), was higher than other published studies.

  16. Well-known and little-known: miscellaneous notes on Peruvian Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.; Mogollón Avila, V.

    2010-01-01

    The family Orthalicidae is well represented in Peru but, like in other families, some species are wellknown and others have not been reported on since their original descriptions. In this paper we present new records for well-known species and elucidate the status of several lesser known taxa. Four

  17. Dynamics of DDT in the terrestrial snail Otala lactea (Stylommatophora:Helicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzinger, K.H. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Dindal, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Seventy specimens of Otala lactea (Mueller) were fed 40 ..mu..g radiolabelled DDT.gram/sup -1/ body weight and analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry to determine the body distribution and dynamics of the DDT within the snail's tissues. More than 50% of the pesticide fed to the animals was excreted in the feces after 1 to 2 days. Residues in the body accumulated mostly in the hepatopancreas. All tissues assayed contained measureable quantities of DDT. Five patterns of residue distribution/time were apparent. Pattern I, exhibited by the buccal mass, esophagus, crop, stomach and intestine, showed a general decrease in residue concentrations over the 14 day test period. Pattern II, exhibited by the hepatopancreas, kidney, ovotestis, sperm-oviduct, albumen gland and mucous gland, showed a general increase in residue concentrations. Pattern III, exhibited by the salivary gland, spermatheca, circumesophageal nerve ring, lung, collar (mantle edge), foot and vagina + dart sack, showed a fairly constant level of residues. Pattern IV, exhibited by the retractor muscles, epidermis and heart, showed a cyclical distribution of residue levels. Pattern V, exhibited by the penis, showed a cyclical distribution of residue levels that were different from Pattern IV. A double compartment scheme was utilized to explain those trends. Period A, corresponding to the fast compartment, is due to the initial ingestionof insecticide. Periods B and C, corresponding to the slow compartment, are due to the redistribution of residues within the organism.

  18. Lymnaea Diaphana; a study of Topotypic specimens (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available A description of the species Lymnaea diaphana King, 1830 is presented, on the basis of material collected at its type-locality, San Gregorio, on the north coast of the Strait of Magellan, in the Chilean province of Magallanes. It may be identified by the following characters taken together: adult shell over 10 mm in length, whorls inflated, regularly convex, separated by a well-marked suture, aperture ovate occupying about half the shell length; renal organ forming an approximately right angle with the ureter; pouch of the oviduct well noticeable high on the right ventral surface and on the right side of the nidamental gland; uterus bent to the right into an approximately right angle; body of the spermatheca projected into the pulmonary cavity and adhered to the pericardium and to the roof of the pulmonary cavity; spermiduct highly sinuous, folding dorsalward between the left half of the oviduct and the left shoulder of the nidamental gland, and then winding on ventralward to reach the prostate on the middle line; prostate voluminous, convex on the left, pushed in on the right, with a deep dorsal furrow corresponding to a fold which projects into the prostatic lumen and is more developed at the fore half of the organ; apical end of the penial sheath with about six minute protuberances corresponding to inner chambers; prepuce from about as long about twice as long as the penial sheath, with some variation beyond those limits; lateral teeth of the radula basically tricuspid, with a usually simple ectocone which may show a bifid or trifid point. A diagnosis between lymnaea diaphana and three other lymnaeids which also occur in South America and were previously studied by the author - L. columella, L. viatrix and L. rupestris - is presented.É apresentada uma descrição da espécie lymnaea diaphana king, 1830, baseada em material coletado na sua localidade-tipo, San Gregorio, na costa norte do Estreito de Magalhães, província chilena de Magallanes. Sua identificação específica pode ser feita pelo seguinte conjunto de caracteres: concha do adulto acima de 10 mm de comprimento, giros inflados, regularmente convexos e separados por sutura bem marcada, abertura ovóide ocupando cerca de metade do comprimento da concha; órgão renal formando com o ureter um ângulo aproximadamente reto; bolsa do oviduto bem visível no alto da parte ventral direita e do alto direito da glândula nidamental; útero defletido em curva formando um ângulo aproximadamente reto para a direita; corpo da espermateca projetado na cavidade pulmonar e aderido ao pericárdio e ao teto da cavidade pulmonar; espermiduto muito sinuoso, formando voltas na direção dorsal entre a metade esquerdado oviduto e o ombro esquerdo da glândula nidamental, e depois volteando na direção ventral até atingir a próstata na linha mediana; próstata volumosa, convexa à esquerda, variavelmente côncova à direita, com uma ranhura dorsal correspondente a uma prega que se projeta na luz prostática e é mais desenvolvida na metade cefálica do órgão; ápice da bainha do pênis com cerca de seis minúsculas protuberãncias correspondentes a cãmaras internas; comprimento do prepúcio de mais ou menos igual a duas vezes maior que o comprimento da bainha do pênis, podendo entretanto variar além desses limites; rádula com dentes laterais basicamente tricúspides, podendo o ectocone, simples na grande maioria dos laterais, apresentar a ponta bifurcada ou trifurcarda. São indicadas as diferenças entre os caracteres diagnósticos da concha, do órgão renal, do sitema genital e da rádula da l. diaphana e de outros três limneídeos que ocorrem na América do Sul, previamente estudados pelo autor - lymnaea columella, L. viatrix e l. rupestris.

  19. New data on southern African Achatinidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1972-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the genital anatomy of the species of the African land snail family Achatinidae has greatly improved our understanding of the delimitation of the species and the intricate interrelationships of the various taxa (Mead, 1950). The genitalia of many achatinids are still unknown

  20. Tandonia kusceri (Pulmonata: Milacidae, a slug new for Slovakia

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    Ondřej Korábek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tandonia kusceri (Wagner, 1931 is reported from Slovakia for the first time. The slug was found in the Ružinov and Petržalka housing estates, Bratislava, in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Our observations suggest that the species is well established in the Slovak capital. This finding calls for verification of some of the older reports of a similar species Tandonia rustica beyond the eastern border of its native range. Owing to unresolved taxonomic issues, the name T. kusceri should be applied only tentatively.

  1. Hydrocarbons in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Oudejans, R.C.H.M.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis of hydrocarbons in the snail Cepaea nemoralis was studied after injection of the 14C-labelled precursors acetate, valine, isoleucine and palmitic acid. 2. 2. The highest incorporation was achieved with palmitic acid, although with the other precursors the hydrocarbons were al

  2. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae

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    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked fauna of the Caatinga.

  3. Lymnaea rupestris sp. n. from Southern Brazil (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of South American lymnaeid snail, Lymnaea rupestris, is described. So far it has been found only in its type-locality, Nova TeuTõnia, a village in the municipality of Seara (27° 07' S, 52° 17' W, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is distinguishable, by characteristics of the shell and internal organs, from the other two lymnaeid species known to occur in the area, Lymnaea columella and L. viatrix. Its shell has 4 markedly shouldered whorls, deep suture, ovoid or rounded aperture occupying about half the length of the shell, and reaches about 6 mm in length in adults; in columella and viatrix the shell has 4-5 rounded whorls, shallow suture, and reaches over 10 mm in adults; the aperture is ovoid, occupying about half the length of the shell in viatrix, about two thirds in columella. Anatomically it is readily separated from L. columella by the shape of the ureter, straight in rupestris, with a double flexure in columella. Comparison with L. viatrix shows the following main differences: distalmost portion of the oviduct with a low, caplike lateral swelling in rupestris, with a well-developed pouch in viatrix; uterus bent abruptly caudalward in rupestris, only slightly curved rightward in viatrix; basal half of the spermathecal duct hidden by the prostate in rupestris, wholly visible or nearly so in viatrix; spermiduct sinuous and uniformly wide in rupestris, straight and gradually narrowing in viatrix; prostate more than half as long and nearly as wide as the nidamental gland, and with a slit-like lumen in cross-section in rupestris, less than half as long as and much narrower than the nidamental gland, and with an inward fold in cross-section in viatrix; penial sheath about as long and as wide as the prepuce in rupesris, shorter and narrower than the prepuce in viatrix. An important ecological characteristic of L. rupestris is its habitat on wet rocks most often outside bodies of water, although in close proximity to them. Specimens were deposited in the following malacological collections: Instituto OswaldoCruz, Rio de Janeiro; Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan; and British Museum (Natural History.É descrita uma nova espécie de limneídeo sul-americano, Lymnaea rupestris. Até agora só foi encontrada na sua localidade-tipo, Nova Teutônia, distrito do município de Seara (27° 07'S, 52° 17'W, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Distingue-se, pelos caracteres da concha e dos órgãos internos, das outras duas espécies conhecidas na área - Lymnaea columella e L. viatrix. A concha de L. rupestris tem 4 giros subangulosos, sutura profunda, abertura ovóide ou arredondada ocupando cerca de metade do comprimento da concha, e atinge cerca de 6mm de comprimento nos adultos; em columella e viatrix a concha tem 4-5 giros arredondados, sutura rasa, e atinge mais de 10 mm nos adultos; a abertura é ovóide,ocupando cerca de metade do comprimento da concha em viatrix, cerca de dois terços em columella. Anatomicamente é fácil distingui-la de L. columella pela forma do ureter, reto em rupestris, com dupla flexão em columella. Comparada com L. viatrix apresenta as seguintes diferenças principais: porção mais distal do oviduto com baixa protuberância lateral em forma de barrete em rupestris, com uma bolsa bem desenvolvida em viatrix; útero dobrado abruptamente na direção caudal em rupestris, apenas ligeiramente curvado para a direita em viatrix; metade basal do canal da espermateca oculta pela próstata em rupestris, inteiramente ou quase inteiramente visível em viatrix; espermiduto sinuoso e de largura uniforme em rupestris, reto e estreitando-se gradualmente em viatrix; próstata com mais de metade do comprimento e quase da mesma largura da glândula nidamental, e com luz simples em forma de fenda em corte transversal em rupesris, com menos de metade do comprimento e muito mais estreita que a glândula nidamental, e com uma prega da parede projetando-se na luz em corte transversal em viatrix; bainha do pênis mais ou menos do mesmo comprimento e da mesma largura que o prepúcio em rupestris, mais curta e mais estreita que o prepúcio em viatrix. Importante característica ecológica de L. rupestris é seu habitat em rochedos muito úmidos, localizados mais freqüentemente fora das coleções hídricas porém contíguos a elas. Foram depositados exemplares nas seguintes coleções malacológicas: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro; Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan; British Museum (Natural History.

  4. Recharacterization of Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Strophocheilidae

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    Meire Silva Pena

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Stropocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 is recharacterized by the conchology and morphology of the soft parts, the latter for the first time. Palial complex, reproductive and digestive systems provide important characteristics to enrich the knowledge of the genus Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. The presence of four arched folds in the posterior region of the pediose mass and the morphology of the suprapediose gland offered more data to identify and diagnose the species.Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 é recaracterizado pela conquiologia e pela primeira vez a morfologia das partes moles. Complexo palial, sistemas reprodutor e digestivo forneceram importantes caracteres para enriquecer o conhecimento sobre Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. A presençca de quatro pregas arqueadas na região posterior da massa cefalopediosa e a morfologia da glândula suprapediosa acrescentaram dados para a diagnose da espécie.

  5. ‘Kilauea’ and ‘Red Button’, Ohelo, Vaccinium reticulatum, cultivars from Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new ohelo cultivars were selected from an open pollinated seedling population and released by USDA/ARS. ‘Kilauea’ has a low spreading canopy with light green leaves, bright crimson shoots and buds, and orange to salmon berries. Average monthly berry production of ‘Kilauea’ was 14 grams per pla...

  6. Revision of Partulidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) of Palau, with description of a new genus for an unusual ground-dwelling species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapcinsky, John; Kraus, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new stylommatophoran land snail of the family Partulidae from Palau. The new species has a combination of morphological and ecological characters that do not allow its placement in any existing partulid genus, so we describe a new genus for it. The new genus is characterized by a large (18–23 mm) obese-pupoid shell; smooth protoconch; teleoconch with weak and inconsistent, progressively stronger, striae; last half of body whorl not extending beyond the penultimate whorl; widely expanded and reflexed peristome; relatively long penis, with longitudinal pilasters that fuse apically into a fleshy ridge that divides the main chamber from a small apical chamber; and vas deferens entering and penial-retractor muscle attaching at the apex of the penis. Unlike all other partulids, the new species is strictly associated with rocks in contact with the ground. Comparing the other three Palauan species – currently assigned to Partula – to our new genus and to other partulids makes it clear that they require their own genus because their morphology is quite different from that of true Partula and from that of all other genera. Hence, we resurrect the name Palaopartula Pilsbry for these snails. PMID:27667931

  7. Karyotype Analysis of Hippeastrum reticulatum var.striatifolium%白肋朱顶红染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞娇

    2013-01-01

    以白肋朱顶红根尖为试材,采用常规压片法制备染色体玻片标本,并对其进行染色体核型分析.结果表明:白肋朱顶红染色体数目为2n=22,核型公式为K(2n)=2x=8m+ 6sm+ 8st,核型不对称系数(As.K%)为69.96%,核型类型为3B型.

  8. The anatomy and phylogeny of the African land snail Limicena Connolly, 1925 (Pulmonata: Cerastidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mordan, P.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of the anatomy of Limicena confirms its position as a monotypic genus in the Cerastidae. Phylogenetic analysis places Limicena as the most plesiomorphic member of a clade characterised by a pseudosigmurethrous excretory system, the more advanced members of which are Rhachistia, Amim

  9. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that jud

  10. Linking immune patterns and life history shows two distinct defense strategies in land snails (gastropoda, pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jacqueline; Madec, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Life history integration of the defense response was investigated at intra- and interspecific levels in land snails of the family Helicidae. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) fitness consequences of defense responses are closely related to life history traits such as size at maturity and life span; (ii) different pathways of the immune response based on "nonspecific" versus "specific" responses may reflect different defense options. Relevant immune responses to a challenge with E. coli were measured using the following variables: blood cell density, cellular or plasma antibacterial activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and bacterial growth inhibition. The results revealed that the largest snails did not exhibit the strongest immune response. Instead, body mass influenced the type of response in determining the appropriate strategy. Snails with a higher body mass at maturity had more robust plasma immune responses than snails with a lower mass, which had greater cell-mediated immune responses with a higher hemocyte density. In addition, ROS appeared also to be a stress mediator as attested by differences between sites and generations for the same species.

  11. Color polymorphism in a land snail Cepaea nemoralis (Pulmonata: Helicidae) as viewed by potential avian predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmacki, Adrian; Ożarowska-Nowicka, Agata; Rosin, Zuzanna M.

    2013-06-01

    Avian predation is one of the most probable factors maintaining polymorphism of shell coloration in Cepaea nemoralis. This assumption is justified by the fact that birds frequently forage on snails and their prey choice varies with morph coloration. However, in all preceding studies, the conspicuousness of morphs was determined only by using human vision which is significantly different from birds' visual perception. In this study, we assessed how birds perceive colors of four Cepaea nemoralis morphs using physiological models of avian color vision. We calculated combined chromatic and achromatic contrast between shells and three habitat background types as a measure of shell conspicuousness. The degree of background color matching in Cepaea nemoralis depended on both shell morph and habitat type. On average, banded morphs were more conspicuous than unbanded morphs. Morphs were the most cryptic against dry vegetation and the most conspicuous on bare ground. We also found a significant interaction between habitat type and color morph. The relative conspicuousness of shell morphs depended on habitat and was the most variable against green vegetation. Our study provides the first insight into how potential avian predators view Cepaea nemoralis morphs. The results are discussed in light of multiple hypotheses explaining selective predation on Cepaea nemoralis morphs.

  12. A new Deroceras species from North_Western spain (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Deroceras ercinae spec. nov. is described from the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain. The characters used to define the subgenera of Deroceras are discussed. It is demonstrated that the present subdivision of this genus into subgenera is not based on synapomorphic characters.

  13. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

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    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  14. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.boshoff@ua.ac.be [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Royal Museum for Central Africa (JEMU), Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Backeljau, Thierry [University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (JEMU), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Filip [Ghent University, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 265, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Bart [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the digestive gland and foot respectively). Our study emphasizes that background metal levels should be taken into account when using invertebrates as bioindicators of metal contamination and that bioindicators may show substantial differences in accumulation patterns even if they have a highly comparable ecology. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of accumulated metals differ among localities and between the snail species in the foot. ► Organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. ► Total metal concentrations and soil physicochemical properties alone are not enough to explain organ bioaccumulation.

  15. A new species of Gulella (Pulmonata: Streptaxidae) from montane forest in the Ndoto Mountains, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowson, B.; Seddon, M.B.; Tattersfield, P.

    2009-01-01

    Gulella mkuu spec. nov. is described from montane forest in the isolated Ndoto Mountains of northern Kenya. Although exceptionally large for the genus, shell, genitalia and radula features suggest it is more closely related to the "G. sellae-ugandensis" complex than to other very large East African

  16. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.

  17. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C.; Apte, Deepak; Bhave, Vishal; Joseph Comendador; Qua,ng, Ngô Xuân; Tan, Siong Kiat; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species Onchidium typhae Buchannan, 1800, Onchidium stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883), and Onchidium reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850). With the exception of a re-description of Onchidium typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935) and Onchidium nigrum (Plate, 1893) are regarded as junior synonyms of Onchidium stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species. PMID:27917062

  18. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) lineages in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psonis, Nikolaos; Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Mylonas, Moisis; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2015-10-01

    The land snails of the genus Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 that includes, in Greece, the (sub)genera Cattania, Josephinella and Thiessea, are highly diversified and present high levels of endemism. However, their evolutionary history is unknown and their taxonomy is complex and continuously revised. The aim of this study is to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the lineages of the genus Chilostoma distributed in Greece based on partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial DNA (16S rRNA and COI) genes. Complete sequences of one nuclear gene (ITS1) representing the major mitochondrial lineages were also analyzed. The phylogenetic trees revealed three distinct major clades that correspond to the three (sub)genera. Several taxonomical incongruencies were made obvious, thus, raising questions about the "true" number of species in each clade, while rendering a taxonomic re-evaluation necessary. From a phylogeographic point of view, it seems that the three major phylogenetic clades were separated in the late Miocene. They started differentiating into distinct species during the Pliocene and Pleistocene through several vicariance and dispersal events.

  19. Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., eine neue Nacktschneckenart aus Griechenland (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1986-01-01

    Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., probably belonging to the subgenus Deroceras s.str., is described. The species is known from the islands of Aegina and Moni (Saronic Gulf) and from the adjacent NE. Peloponnesus, Greece. It is compared with Deroceras maltzani (SIMROTH), a similar species from southern

  20. A Pyrenean Monacha species Monacha (Metatheba) Atacis spec. nov. (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Winter, de A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Monacha (Metatheba) atacis spec. nov. is described from the French NE Pyrenees. The status of Metatheba, hitherto known from Caucasia and Asia Minor only, as well as that of other Monacha "subgenera" is discussed.

  1. Size clines and subspecies in the Streptaxid Genus Gulella PFR. (Mollusca, Gastropoda pulmonata) in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1980-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction.................. 3 2. Systematic part................. 6 Gulella adamsiana................. 7 Gulella darglensis................. 14 Gulella elliptica................. 19 Gulella farquhari................. 27 Gulella infrendens................ 33 Gulella planti.............

  2. [Expression of genes encoding defense factors in the snail Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) infested with trematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorova, E E; Tsymbalenko, N V; Ataev, G L

    2010-01-01

    Because many species of gastropods are intermediate hosts for trematodes, these molluscs are often used as model-organisms in the studies of invertebrate immune system. Revealing of the ways in which the defense factors functioning became possible due to the use of the methods of molecular biology. Contemporary molecular methods allow analyzing the defense factors allocations and levels of their expression. We investigated the expression of genes encoding defense factors in gastropods by the example of the snail Planorbarius corneus from water bodies of the Leningrad Oblast under infestation with trematods. The snails naturally infested with the parthenites of trematode species belonging to the families Strigeidae, Notocotylidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Schistosomatida were used as the experimental sample. Uninfested snails were used as a control sample. Several genes encoding the factors, which have been recently found involved in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates, were chosen, namely fibrinogen-related protein, C-lectin, calcium-binding protein, and cystatin-like protein. The genes' expression was analyzed on total mRNA samples by the reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction. It was shown than expression levels of the genes under consideration are different in uninfested snails and in the snails infested with different trematode species. Thus, in the mollusks infested with the parthenites of Cotylurus sp. and Bilharziella polonica, the expression levels of the genes of all factors under study were increased, while in the infested Notocotylus sp. n Plagiorchis sp., only expression levels of C-lectin and cystatin-like protein were increased. Results of the expression analysis confirm the role of hemocytes and cells of hepatopancreas in the production of humoral defense factors. In the snails infested with trematodes, the expression levels of C-lectin and calcium-binding protein genes are increased in haemocytes, while the genes of fibrinogen-related and cystatin-like proteins are activated in the hepatopancreas. Our data also confirm the role of the factors examined in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates.

  3. Two problematic, troglophilous gastropods from the Peloponnese, Greece (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Zonitidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    2008-01-01

    Two species of pulmonate gastropods are described as new to science although their generic classification remains uncertain since only shells are available for study. The species might be troglodytes. Their shells indicate the presence of subterraneous material.

  4. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic parte of female duct to penial complex = 1.36 to 2.81 ((mean 1.90 +- 0.33; penial sheath to prepuce = 042 to 0.96 (mean 0.67 +- 0.13. Comparison with Morelet’s type specimens of Planorbis orbiculus and P. retusus points to the identity of those nominal species with B. obstructa.

  5. Cercariae of the lakes Maarsseveen (Netherlands) infecting Bithynia spp. (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) and Physa fontinalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, Stef M.A.

    1981-01-01

    In 1978 cercariae have been collected from four species of freshwater snails in two lakes near Utrecht (Netherlands). Eleven species are recorded, of which six are described in detail. Five of these are new: Cercaria gutta n. sp. (Psilostomidae), C. cana n. sp. (Notocotilydae), C. quadrata n. sp.

  6. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P; Noya, O; Alarcón de Noya, B; Théron, A

    2009-08-01

    An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  7. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata, intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Pointier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  8. Eine neue Deroceras-Art (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) von der Griechischen Insel Samos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1983-01-01

    Im Frühjahr 1982 sammelte Herr Jens Hemmen aus Wiesbaden (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) auf der Insel Samos zahlreiche Individuen einer noch unbekannten Deroceras-Art, die ihren anatomischen Merkmalen nach zur Untergattung Plathystimulus Wiktor, 1973 gehört. Die Tiere waren fast alle erwachsen und erm

  9. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  10. Anatomy of predator snail Huttonella bicolor, an invasive species in Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomy of the micro-predator Huttonella bicolor (Hutton, 1838 is investigated in detail. The species is a micro-predator snail, which is splaying in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world, the first report being from the Amazon Rainforest region of northern Brazil. The shell is very long, with complex peristome teeth. The radula bears sharp pointed teeth. The head lacks tentacles, bearing only ommatophores. The pallial cavity lacks well-developed vessels (except for pulmonary vessel; the anus and urinary aperture are on pneumostome. The kidney is solid, with ureter totally closed (tubular; the primary ureter is straight, resembling orthurethran fashion. The buccal mass has an elongated and massive odontophore, of which muscles are described; the odontophore cartilages are totally fused with each other. The salivary ducts start as one single duct, bifurcating only prior to insertion. The mid and hindguts are relatively simple and with smooth inner surfaces; there is practically no intestinal loop. The genital system has a zigzag-fashioned fertilization complex, narrow prostate, no bursa copulatrix, short and broad vas deferens, and simple penis with gland at distal tip. The nerve ring bears three ganglionic masses, and an additional pair of ventral ganglia connected to pedal ganglia, interpreted as odontophore ganglia. These features are discussed in light of the knowledge of other streptaxids and adaptations to carnivory.A morfo-anatomia do micro-predador Huttonella bicollor (Hutton, 1838 é investigada em detalhe. A espécie é um caracol micro-predador que está se espalhando pelas áreas tropicais e subtropicais pelo mundo, sendo este o primeiro registro para a Floresta Amazônica, região Norte do Brasil. A concha é muito longa, com complexos dentes no perístoma. A rádula possui dentes pontiagudos. A cabeça carece de tentáculos, possuindo somente omatóforos. A cavidade palial carece de vasos bem desenvolvidos (exceto a veia pulmonar; o ânus e a abertura urinária estão sobre o pneumóstoma. O rim é maciço, com ureter totalmente fechado (tubular; o ureter primário é reto, lembrando o modelo orturetra. A massa bucal tem um odontóforo alongado e maciço, cujos músculos estão descritos; as cartilagens do odontóforo são totalmente fundidas uma com a outra. Os ductos das glândulas salivares começam como único ducto, bifurcando somente antes da inserção. Os tubos digestivos médio e posterior são relativamente simples e com superfície interna lisa; praticamente não há alça intestinal. O sistema reprodutor possui um complexo de fertilização em zigzag, próstata estreita, ausência de bursa copulatrix, vaso deferente curto e grosso e pênis simples com glândula no topo. O anel nervoso possui três massas ganglionares e um par adicional ventral conectado aos gânglios pediosos, interpretados com gânglios odontofóricos. Estas características são discutidas sob a luz do conhecimento atual sobre outros Streptaxidae e adaptações à carnivoria.

  11. On Cyprian Helicellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Helicidae), making a new start

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1991-01-01

    Our fragmentary knowledge concerning the Cyprian Helicellinae is revised and summarized, while new data are added. "Helicella (Xerotricha) conspurcata distinguenda" Haas, 1936, is a Helicopsis species that has to be called H. cypriola (Westerlund, 1889) as a consequence of the selection of a neotype

  12. Milax Clerxi nov. spec., eine neue Nacktschnecke aus Südjugoslawien (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Milacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Durch das Entgegenkommen von Herrn Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena, Leiden, erhielt der Verfasser eine Serie juveniler, fast erwachsener und erwachsener Nacktschnecken aus der Gattung Milax zur Bearbeitung, welche aus der Umgebung der Stadt Ohrid in Mazedonien stammen und dort im Sommer 1974 von Drs.

  13. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

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    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63; shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55; shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  14. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intidhar Abbes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and S. tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of S. tunetana with S. cariosa from Lebanon showed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of S. baetica and S. otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria.

  15. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

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    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf Elastizitaet und Kontraktilitaet des Plasmalemmas. 6. Das zum Kopf zurueckgekehrte Protoplasma wird mit restlichen Mitochondrien als Kugel ausgeschieden und von den Naehrzellen phagocytiert. 7. Der Golgi-Koerper wird vor Beendigung der Protoplasmawanderung bereits in der letzten Haelfte der Geissel eliminiert.

  16. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    OpenAIRE

    Intidhar Abbes; Said Nouira; Eike Neubert

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and S. tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Co...

  17. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Intidhar; Nouira, Said; Neubert, Eike

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and Sphincterochila tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of Sphincterochila tunetana with Sphincterochila cariosa from Lebanonshowed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of Sphincterochila baetica and Sphincterochila otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria. PMID:22368450

  18. Intraspecific variation in cellular and biochemical heat response strategies of Mediterranean Xeropicta derbentina [Pulmonata, Hygromiidae].

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    Sandra Troschinski

    Full Text Available Dry and hot environments challenge the survival of terrestrial snails. To minimize overheating and desiccation, physiological and biochemical adaptations are of high importance for these animals. In the present study, seven populations of the Mediterranean land snail species Xeropicta derbentina were sampled from their natural habitat in order to investigate the intraspecific variation of cellular and biochemical mechanisms, which are assigned to contribute to heat resistance. Furthermore, we tested whether genetic parameters are correlated with these physiological heat stress response patterns. Specimens of each population were individually exposed to elevated temperatures (25 to 52°C for 8 h in the laboratory. After exposure, the health condition of the snails' hepatopancreas was examined by means of qualitative description and semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological effects. In addition, the heat-shock protein 70 level (Hsp70 was determined. Generally, calcium cells of the hepatopancreas were more heat resistant than digestive cells - this phenomenon was associated with elevated Hsp70 levels at 40°C.We observed considerable variation in the snails' heat response strategy: Individuals from three populations invested much energy in producing a highly elevated Hsp70 level, whereas three other populations invested energy in moderate stress protein levels - both strategies were in association with cellular functionality. Furthermore, one population kept cellular condition stable despite a low Hsp70 level until 40°C exposure, whereas prominent cellular reactions were observed above this thermal limit. Genetic diversity (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene within populations was low. Nevertheless, when using genetic indices as explanatory variables in a multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis, population structure explained mean differences in cellular and biochemical heat stress responses, especially in the group exposed to 40°C. Our study showed that, even in similar habitats within a close range, populations of the same species use different stress response strategies that all rendered survival possible.

  19. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  20. [Anatomy and morphometry of Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839 (Pulmonata: Physidae) in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, M Y; Ferrer López, J R; Perera de Puga, G

    1994-01-01

    The anatomic description of Physa cubensis, based on specimens collected in 5 different sites in Cuba, is presented. The anatomic characteristics of the reproductive system as well as mantle digitations give ground for affirming that this is a unique species with external morphological variations and thus it should be kept under the Physa genre. Besides, dispersion diagrams and regression lines of the length in the width were analyzed in the five sites; the L/A (length/width) variation quotient was compared using a variance analysis. Significant differences were observed in the different sites probably due to the feeding sources of each biotope.

  1. Anatomy of predator snail Huttonella bicolor, an invasive species in Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomy of the micro-predator Huttonella bicolor (Hutton, 1838 is investigated in detail. The species is a micro-predator snail, which is splaying in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world, the first report being from the Amazon Rainforest region of northern Brazil. The shell is very long, with complex peristome teeth. The radula bears sharp pointed teeth. The head lacks tentacles, bearing only ommatophores. The pallial cavity lacks well-developed vessels (except for pulmonary vessel; the anus and urinary aperture are on pneumostome. The kidney is solid, with ureter totally closed (tubular; the primary ureter is straight, resembling orthurethran fashion. The buccal mass has an elongated and massive odontophore, of which muscles are described; the odontophore cartilages are totally fused with each other. The salivary ducts start as one single duct, bifurcating only prior to insertion. The mid and hindguts are relatively simple and with smooth inner surfaces; there is practically no intestinal loop. The genital system has a zigzag-fashioned fertilization complex, narrow prostate, no bursa copulatrix, short and broad vas deferens, and simple penis with gland at distal tip. The nerve ring bears three ganglionic masses, and an additional pair of ventral ganglia connected to pedal ganglia, interpreted as odontophore ganglia. These features are discussed in light of the knowledge of other streptaxids and adaptations to carnivory.

  2. Effect of self-fertilization on Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 (Pulmonata: Planorbidae

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    Tuan Roseli

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria tenagophila is a simultaneous hermaphrodite freshwater snail, which can breed by self and cross-fertilization. It is, therefore, well suited for studying reproduction as an evolutive strategy. Several characteristics (shell size and age at sexual maturity, egg fecundity and fertility were analyzed in four consecutive self-fertilized generations and compared to cross-fertilized individuals. The reproductive parameters were similar in the two groups. Shell size was significantly greater in the fourth self-fertilized generation than in the cross-fertilized individuals.

  3. Delimitation and phylogenetics of the diverse land snail family Urocoptidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): A reunion with Cerion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uit de Weerd, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme morphological diversity in the land-snail family Urocoptidae has complicated its delimitation from other land-snail families, and has obscured its intra- and interfamilial phylogenetic relationships. Using an independent dataset of 28S rRNA DNA-sequence data, I tested morphologybased hyp

  4. A new species of Leiostracus from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicidae

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    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small Atlantic Rainforest fragment near the city of Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity of land snails. It is described herein as Leiostracus fetidus sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its color pattern of irregular brown to black axial stripes on a white to yellow background, a reddish axial band "separating" the white peristome from the rest of the shell and a broad brown spiral band surrounding the umbilical region. Other diagnostic features include a relatively small size, a proto columellar fold and two very weak folds delimiting the basal region of the aperture. This discovery is a reminder of how little this fauna is known and also an alarm for proper conservation of these forest fragments.

  5. Biomphalaria Tenagophila Guaibensis ssp. n. from Southern Brazil and Uruguay (pulmonata: Planorbidae. I. Morphology

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies of planorbid snail, biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis, is described. It has been found along the coastal belt of the Brazilian state of rio grande do Sul and the middle part of Uruguay, from Porto Alegre to Mercedes. It differs from the nominate subspecies, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, in the appearance of the penial complex (prepuce longer and proportionally slenderer in B. t. guaibensis, shorter and proportionally stouter in b. t. tenagophila, in the ratio between the lengths of the penial sheath and the prepuce, in the ratio between the lengths of the uterine complex and the penial complex, and in a coefficient of difference of 2.44 for the ratio between the penis sheath and prepuce and of 2.02 for the ratio between the uterine complex and penial complex. The shell and the other organs of the genital system are similar in both subspecies. B. t. guaibensis is very similar to Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981, but is readily separated from it by the presence of a vaginal pouch, which is lacking in the latter, besides showing highly significant difference in the penis sheath: prepuce and uterine complex: penial complex ratios. Crossbreeding experiments which lend additional support to the recognition of B. t. guaibensis as a subspecies will be reported elsewhere.É descrita uma nova subespécie de molusco planorbídeo, Biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis, que tem sido encontrada ao longo da faixa costeira do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e da parte média do Uruguai, de Porto Alegre a Mercedes. Distingue-se da espécie nominativa, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, pelo aspecto do complexo peniano (prepúcio mais longo e proporcionalmente mais delgado em B. t. guaibensis, mais curto e proporcionalmente mais grosso em b. t. tenagophila0, pela razão entre os comprimentos da bainha do pênis e do prepúcio, pela razão entre os comprimentos do complexo uterino e do complexo peniano, e por um coeficiente de diferença de 2.44 para a razão entre a bainha do pênis e o prepúcio e de 2.02 para a razão entre o complexo uterino e o complexo peniano. A concha e os outros órgãos do sistema genital são semelhantes nas duas subespécies. A B. t guaibensis tem grande semelhança com a Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981, mas dela se distingue facilmente pela presença de uma bolsa vaginal, que falta na B. occidentalis, além de apresentar diferença altamente significante nas razões bainha do pênis: prepúcio e complexo uterino: complexo peniano. Experiências de cruzamento que trazem apoio adicional ao reconhecimento da B. t. guaibensis como subespécie serão relatadas em outra publicação.

  6. A new species of Leiostracus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicoidea from Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable new species of pulmonate land snail was found in the collection of the Senckenberg Forschungninstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main, Germany and is described here as Leiostracus faerie sp. nov. It can be easily identified by its small and translucent shell with fine axial light brown bands and its protoconch sculpture. It was collected in the Rio Doce ("Doce River" region in Espírito Santo, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity and endemicity of land snails. This discovery shows how little this fauna is known and reinforces the importance of museum collections in the study of biodiversity and conservation.

  7. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae

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    Benoît Dayrat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species O. typhae Buchannan, 1800, O. stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883, and O. reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850. With the exception of a re-description of O. typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935 and O. nigrum (Plate, 1893 are regarded as junior synonyms of O. stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species.

  8. Two new species of Thaumastus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Meire Silva Pena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, are described. They are diagnosed and characterized by the morphology of the shell and soft parts and compared with Brazilian species of the subgenus Thaumastus s.s. Martens, 1860. Thaumastus (T. parvus sp. nov. is similar to T. (T. baixoguanduensis Pena, Coelho & Salgado, 1996 but can be distinguished by the smaller size, smaller number of plates in the jaw, different number of follicle groups in the ovotestis and form of the fertilization complex. Thaumastus (T. caetensis sp. nov. is similar to T. (T. largillierti (Philippi, 1845 but differs by the width and the contour of the parietal side of the shell aperture. T. (T. caetensis is also closer to Thaumastus (T. baixoguanduensis but can be distinguished by the smaller dimensions (height, width and number of protoconch whorls, the lack of a transversal light band on the body whorl, the jaw with smaller number of plates, and the radula with 35 teeth. In the soft parts, this new species differs also in the number of follicle gatherings in ovotestis, fertilization complex with globose shape, and penian retractor muscle terminally and laterally attached to flagellum

  9. Streptaxidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of the Seychelles Islands, Western Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, J.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The taxonomy of the species of the terrestrial carnivorous snail family Streptaxidae of the Seychelles archipelago is reviewed with the exception of the three species of the genus Priodiscus (vide Gerlach, 1995). All 18 species are restricted to the northern, granitic islands. This paper describes 1

  10. Examining the phylogeny of the Australasian Lymnaeidae (Heterobranchia: Pulmonata: Gastropoda) using mitochondrial, nuclear and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puslednik, Louise; Ponder, Winston F; Dowton, Mark; Davis, Andrew R

    2009-09-01

    We examined the species groups relationships of the freshwater snail genus Austropeplea using mitochondrial, nuclear and morphological markers in addition to traditional methods of shell shape analysis. Based primarily on the results of a combined molecular and morphological analysis, samples of the nominal species A. tomentosa form distinct lineages. The New Zealand populations of A. tomentosa are a very distinct lineage from any of the Australian populations attributed to A. tomentosa. Furthermore, within the Australian group, three lineages, south Australia, Tasmania and eastern Australia, appear to have undergone recent and/or rapid speciation events. Samples assigned to A. lessoni were resolved as two distinct lineages, representing the eastern and northern Australian populations. Kutikina hispida was resolved within the Australian A. tomentosa clade. Molecular results for A. viridis suggests that it is also composed of at least two distinct lineages that could be treated as species. Incongruence observed between the single mitochondrial, nuclear and morphological topologies highlight the importance of using a number of different datasets in the delimitation of species-group taxa.

  11. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

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    María José Miranda

    2010-09-01

    degree of undersampling and spatial aggregation of the data. Diversity was also calculated using Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker and Jaccard indices. The richness of the San Javier Park was estimated to be 32 species distributed into 13 families and 21 genera. From the total number of species collected, a single one belongs to Caenogastropoda, while the rest of the species are classified into Pulmonata Stylommatophora and Systellommatophora. The most representative family was the micromollusc Charopidae, while the most relatively abundant species was another micromollusc snail, Adelopoma tucma. Richness and diversity were slightly more elevated in dry forest areas of the Chacoan Ecoregion than in cloud forest areas of Yungas. Non parametric estimators showed that the inventory was complete. Diversity values obtained were high in comparison to previously studied areas of Northwestern Argentina. The total number of specimen collected (22 169 specimens, was higher than other published studies. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 1009- 1029. Epub 2010 September 01.

  12. Effect of Praziquantel on the Tegument and Digestive Epithelium Ultrastructure of Brachylaima sp. Metacercariae Parasitizing the Edible Land Snail Cornu aspersum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gállego, Laia; Gracenea, Mercedes

    2016-10-01

    The edible land snail Cornu aspersum (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) acts as second intermediate host in the cycle of Brachylaima sp. trematode, harboring free metacercariae in its kidney. The ingestion of undercooked infected snails by humans allows metacercariae to develop to adult stage in the intestine, causing brachylaimiasis. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice to treat trematodiasis and it is effective against Brachylaima sp. metacercariae. The objective of this work was to assess, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the ultrastructural changes produced on the tegument and gastrodermis of the Brachylaima metacercariae recovered from C. aspersum treated with PZQ in comparison with untreated ones. Snails naturally infected by Brachylaima sp. metacercariae were treated by PZQ both individually and in groups. Metacercariae recovered from treated and control snails were processed for TEM. The tegument of untreated metacercariae was covered by a regular and thick glycocalyx. The syncytial epithelium contained abundant T2 secretory bodies appearing as membrane-bound biconcave disk-vesicles with high electron-dense and uniform content. The T2 secretory bodies located along the external area of the syncytium were mainly arranged at right angles to the apical plasma membrane. In treated metacercariae, the content of the T2 secretory bodies appeared altered, degenerating from high to low electron density, losing its uniform appearance and forming high electron-dense accumulations scattered around the periphery of the vesicle and separated by low electron-dense spaces. The presence of clusters was detectable in the central area. The characteristic arrangement of the T2 secretory bodies observed in untreated metacercariae was lost in treated ones. Vesicles near the apical area of the tegument no longer maintained their arrangement perpendicular to the apical plasma membrane. The characteristic arrangement of T2 secretory bodies and mitochondria was lost. The T2

  13. Snails in the desert: Assessing the mitochondrial and morphological diversity and the influence of aestivation behavior on lineage differentiation in the Australian endemic Granulomelon Iredale, 1933 (Stylommatophora: Camaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscione, Francesco; Köhler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Progressive aridification since the mid-Miocene has had a significant influence on the evolution of the biota in the arid zone of central Australia. Especially moisture sensitive groups, such as snails, are often restricted to topographically complex areas, which have acted as refugia in an otherwise inhospitable environment. This historical fragmentation is deemed to be a potent agent of allopatric lineage diversification. Camaenid land snails are amongst only a few terrestrial gastropods that have managed to survive in the arid zone probably due to their ability to escape desiccation through aestivation. Here, we present the first study of the mitochondrial lineage differentiation in an endemic land snail genus from the Australian 'Red Centre', Granulomelon Iredale, 1933. Exposing significant incongruence between mtDNA phylogeny and morphology-based taxonomy, we completely revise the species and genus level taxonomy of this camaenid group. We demonstrate that this genus contains three species, G. grandituberculatum, G. adcockianum and G. squamulosum, which have so far been assigned to different genera: Granulomelon Iredale, 1933 (junior synonym: Baccalena Iredale, 1937), Basedowena Iredale, 1937 and Pleuroxia Ancey, 1887. Two of these species are widespread comprising multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages. Based on a molecular clock estimate, these lineages diverged approximately during the mid-Pleistocene, a period of particularly severe aridification. The phylogeographic patterns are consistent with an isolation-by-distance model in one species but not the other. We suggest that these differences can be attributed to their distinctive aestivation behavior.

  14. Serina Gredler (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora: Enidae), the continuous-peristomed mountain snails endemic to the eastern slope of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Xu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we initiate a taxonomic review of the genus Serina Gredler, endemic to the eastern slope of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, namely S Gansu, SW Sichuan, SE Xizang Autonomous Region and N Yunnan of China. We describe the genital anatomy for some species and the shell morphology for all known species: Serina belae (Hilber), S. cathaica Gredler, S. egressa Sturany, S. prostoma (Ancey), S. ser Gredler, S. subser Gredler, S. soluta (Möllendorff) and S. vincentii (Gredler). Based on the re-evaluation of both shell and genitalian differentiations we prefer to classify the taxon egressa as a separate species rather than a subspecies of S. ser. In our study we come to the conclusion that S. soluta inflata Yen and S. soluta stenochila (Möllendorff) should be regarded as synonyms of S. soluta due to the insufficient differentiation among them. Buliminus (Holcauchen) tubios Annandale, Bulimus prostoma leucochila Ancey and Serina deqenensis Chen, Zhou and Luo were conspecific with Serina prostoma and that Serina sobrina (Preston) was conspecific with Clausiliopsis szechenyi (Böttger). We propose a new species Serina denticulata n. sp. from the Southern Gansu Plateau. Furthermore we discuss the phylogenetic relationship among the genera Serina, Clausiliopsis Möllendorff, Pupopsis Gredler, and Pupinidius Mö1lendorff based on the morphological data from twelve relevant species.

  15. Recaracterização do subgênero Toltecia Pilsbry com descrição da conquiliomorfologia e anatomia dos sistemas excretor e reprodutor de Punctum (Toltecia Pilsbryi (Scott, n.comb. (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Punctidae Recharacterization of the subgenus Toltecia Pilsbry with conchomorphology and anatomy of the excretory and reproductive systems of Punctum (Toltecia Pilsbryi (Scott, n.comb. (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Punctidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Luís Müller da Fonseca

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Conchomorphological and anatomic characteristics of species from Punctum (Toltecia are presented and discussed. The brief recharacterization about the conchomorphology and internal anatomy of Toltecia with related species from this subgenus is presented. The data from this species are compared with other related species from Punctidae, Helicodiscidae and Charopidae. Punctum (Toltecia pilsbryi, n.comb. is redescribed and its shells features was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope and commented, as well as the shells dimensions; the anatomy of the excretory and reproductive systems are described too. The anatomic characteristics, mainly from excretory system, characterize Punctum (Toltecia pilsbryi, n.comb. like Punctidae.

  16. Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora): first record of this introduced slug in Chile, with notes on its anatomy and natural history Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora): primer registro de esta babosa introducida en Chile, con notas sobre su anatomía e historia natural

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCISCO J CÁDIZ; CARLOS S GALLARDO

    2007-01-01

    Results and conclusions are presented on morphological and field observations made on a collection of land slugs from the Arboretum and Botanical Garden administered by the Universidad Austral de Chile at Valdivia, as well as various records from other collection sites in southern Chile. Based on some anatomical features, the individuals studied were identified as Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, endemic to eastern Europe, and known from various locations around the world for its invasive cap...

  17. Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: first record of this introduced slug in Chile, with notes on its anatomy and natural history Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: primer registro de esta babosa introducida en Chile, con notas sobre su anatomía e historia natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO J CÁDIZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Results and conclusions are presented on morphological and field observations made on a collection of land slugs from the Arboretum and Botanical Garden administered by the Universidad Austral de Chile at Valdivia, as well as various records from other collection sites in southern Chile. Based on some anatomical features, the individuals studied were identified as Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, endemic to eastern Europe, and known from various locations around the world for its invasive capacity, apparently facilitated by its feeding habits and particularly by its reproductive strategy of strict self fertilization which is unusual in pulmonates. This is the first report of this species, introduced to Chile by human activities, added to previous literature citing the presence of Limacidae, Agriolimacidae, and Helicidae. This slug is a potential threat to agriculture and to native flora and fauna of ChileSe entregan los resultados y conclusiones de las observaciones anatómicas y de campo realizadas sobre un grupo de babosas terrestres capturadas principalmente en el parque Arboretum y Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Austral de Chile, en la ciudad de Valdivia, además de sus hallazgos puntuales en otros puntos del sur de Chile. Los ejemplares analizados corresponden a Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, especie endémica del este de Europa conocida en diversos lugares del mundo por su alta capacidad de colonización e invasión, ello aparentemente facilitado por su hábito de alimentación y particularmente su inusual estrategia reproductiva dentro de los pulmonados (autofecundación estricta. De esta manera, registramos una nueva especie introducida antrópicamente en Chile, sumándose de esta forma la familia Arionidae a las ya conocidas Limacidae, Agriolimacidae y Helicidae como una potencial amenaza a la agricultura y a la flora y fauna nativas chilenas

  18. Lista preliminar de los Punctoideos de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, con descripción de dos especies nuevas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora Preliminar list of the Punctoidea from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with description of two new species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora

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    Sergio Eduardo Miquel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista parcial de gasterópodos terrestres Punctoideos del "Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata" (São Francisco de Paula, Estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (CPCN-PM. Esta lista incluye siete especies, dos de ellas son nuevas. El CPCN-PM se localiza entre los 600 y 950 m de altitud; presenta clima templado superhúmedo a húmedo, lluvias de 2.250 mm anuales y temperatura promedio anual de 14,5ºC; están presentes tres regiones fitoecológicas principales, floresta ombrófila mixta, floresta ombrófila densa y sabana. Los taxones hallados son: Rotadiscus amancaezensis (Hidalgo, 1869, Lilloiconcha tucumana (Hylton Scott, 1963, Radiodiscus cuprinus Fonseca & Thomé, 2000, Radiodiscus tenellus Hylton Scott, 1957, Radiodiscus promatensis sp. nov., Zilchogyra gordurasensis (Thiele, 1927 y Zilchogyra zulmae sp. nov. La conchilla de R. promatensis sp. nov. es muy pequeña, casi plana, con ombligo muy desarrollado, abertura reniforme, con estrías espirales en la teleoconcha y 58-62 costillas axiales en el último anfracto. La conchilla de Z. zulmae sp. nov. es troquiforme alta, con cinco anfractos con fuertes y espaciadas costillas axiales (25-38, ombligo amplio y perspectivo y abertura subcircular angulosa. La fauna de gasterópodos carópidos del CPCN-PM tiene tres especies conocidas sólo del área (R. cuprinus, R. promatensis sp. nov. y Z. zulmae sp. nov., una, que se distribuye también en Paraguay (R. tenellus y tres (L. tucumana, R. amancaezensis y Z. gordurasensis, comunes a otras áreas de América del Sur, principalmente la región de las Yungas.The partial list of the land snails Punctoidea from the "Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata" (São Francisco de Paula, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (CPCN-PM is presented herein. This list includes seven species, two of them new. The CPCN-PM is located between 600 and 950 m of altitude; it has a temperate super humid to humid climate, with 2,250 mm of annual rainfall and means annual temperature of 14.5ºC; three main phytoecological regions are present -mixed ombrophile forest, dense ombrophile forest and savanna. The taxa found are: Rotadiscus amancaezensis (Hidalgo, 1869, Lilloiconcha tucumana (Hylton Scott, 1963, Radiodiscus cuprinus Fonseca & Thomé, 2000, Radiodiscus tenellus Hylton Scott, 1957, Radiodiscus promatensis sp. nov., Zilchogyra gordurasensis (Thiele, 1927 and Zilchogyra zulmae sp. nov. The shell of R. promatensis sp. nov. is very small, almost flat, with very wide umbilicus, reniform aperture, teleoconch with spiral striae and 58-62 axial ribs on the body whorl. The shell of Z. zulmae sp. nov. is trochiform elevated, with five whorls with strong and widely spaced axial ribs (25-38, wide and perspective umbilicus and sub circular angled aperture. The charopid gastropod fauna from the CPCN-PM has three species known only from there (R. cuprinus, R. promatensis sp. nov. and Z. zulmae sp. nov., another one with previous known distribution only in Paraguay (R. tenellus and three common species (L. tucumana, R. amancaezensis and Z. gordurasensis with distribution in other South American areas -mainly Yungas forests.

  19. Influence of a non-copper algicide on the cyanobacterium, Nostoc spongiaeforme, and the green alga, Hydrodictyon reticulatum, in field and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacteria grow in California rice fields where they form large mats that may smoother seedlings or cause them to dislodge, resulting in yield loss. The most troublesome species is Nostoc spongiaeforme. It is very difficult to control using currently accepted methods, i.e., aerial applications of...

  20. Perfil sanguíneo de híbridos de surubim (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum X P. coruscans) criados em diferentes densidades de estocagem

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Rosa Labarrere

    2011-01-01

    Peixes do gênero Pseudoplatystoma são conhecidos por sua elevada taxa de crescimento e bom rendimento de carcaça, assim como por sua carne de sabor delicado e sem mio-espinhos. Muitos estudos têm sido desenvolvidos objetivando determinar as melhores condições de cultivo destes animais. Nestas situações, o perfil sanguíneo pode ser uma ferramenta relevante, uma vez que é considerado um indicador de saúde nos peixes ajudando, desta forma, a determinar a influência do manejo sobre a homeostase d...

  1. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in the northeast of Brazil Ecologia do caracol exótico Achatina fulica (Gastropoda:Pulmonata no nordeste do Brasil

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    FS. Albuquerque

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.O objetivo deste estudo foi documentar a distribuição e o estabelecimento de Achatina fulica, assim como sua preferência alimentar e aspectos comportamentais in situ. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida na cidade de Lauro de Freitas, Estado da Bahia, Brasil, durante os meses de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Usamos o método de esforço de captura determinado por homem/hora para calcular a abundância e distribuição, habitats preferidos, além de preferência alimentar. Vimos que a abundância e distribuição de A. fulica foram mais representativas em áreas urbanas, sobretudo cerca da linha de costa. Os terrenos e jardins de casas foram os locais preferidos pelos caracóis quando estavam em atividade. Os resultados indicaram que os caracóis A. fulica iniciam sua atividade no final da tarde e hibernam no meio da manhã. A comida preferida destes caracóis foram plantas vasculares como Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus Communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Nossos dados sugerem que o A. fulica está plenamente adaptado e estabelecido nesta cidade e, também, que ambientes modificados facilitam seu estabelecimento e dispersão. Entretanto, a perturbação humana, como a limpeza de terrenos pode ser um fator limitante para a persistência da população de A. fulica.

  2. Distribuição de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Notes on the distribution of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 (Pulmonata, Planorbidae in the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas informações atualizadas sobre a distribuição geográfcia de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, em razão do importante papel que tal espécie de planorbídeo desempenha na epidemiologia da esquistossomose mansônica. Registrou-se que a maior área colonizada por B. glabrata corresponde à região abrangida pelos municípios dos limites oeste-sudoeste do Estado, enquadrada na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Paranapanema. São comentados os prováveis mecanismos envolvidos na dispersão do caramujo.It is reported the present distribution of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 in the S. Paulo State. The presence of this intermediate host of schistosomiasis is at the present time recorded in 27 municipalities. This snail had been identified as the most important transmissor of the disease in several places in Brazil. The probable dispersion mechanisms involved in the distribution of the snail are commented on.

  3. New species of Thaumastus from Lagoa Santa region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea Nova espécie de Thaumastus da região de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brasil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea

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    Meire Silva Pena

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus Martens, 1860, from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is described and illustrated, based on the morphology of the shell, jaw, radula and soft parts.Uma nova espécie de Thaumastus (Thaumastus Martens, 1860, do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, é descrita e ilustrada, com base na morfologia da concha, mandíbula, rádula e partes moles.

  4. Developmental toxicity of metaldehyde in the embryos of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) co-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Katrina C; Atfield, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-02-01

    Metaldehyde is a widely used molluscicide in countries where damage to crops from slugs and snails is a major problem associated with warm and wet winters. In the UK it is estimated that over 8% of the area covered by arable crops is treated with formulated granular bait pellets containing metaldehyde as the main active ingredient. Metaldehyde is hydrophilic (log Kow=0.12), water soluble (200 mg·L(-1) at 17 °C) and has been detected in UK surface waters in the concentration range of typically 0.2-0.6 μg·L(-1) (maximum 2.7 μg·L(-1)) during 2008-2011. In the absence of chronic data on potential hazards to non-target freshwater molluscs, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the impact of metaldehyde on embryo development in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain) and using zinc as a positive control. L. stagnalis embryos were exposed to metaldehyde under semi-static conditions at 20±1 °C and hatching success and growth (measured as shell height and intraocular distance) examined after 21 d. Exposure concentrations were verified using HPLC and gave 21 d (hatching)NOEC and (hatching)LOEC mean measured values of 36 and 116 mg MET·L(-1), respectively (equal to the 21 d (shell height)NOEC and (shell height)LOEC values). For basic research purposes, a second group of L. stagnalis embryos was co-exposed to metaldehyde and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Co-exposure to the PBO (measured concentrations between 0.47-0.56 mg·L(-1)) reduced hatching success from 100% to 47% and resulted in a 30% reduction in embryo growth (shell height) in snail embryos co-exposed to metaldehyde at 34-36 mg·L(-1) over 21 d. In conclusion, these data suggest mollusc embryos may have some metabolic detoxication capacity for metaldehyde and further work is warranted to explore this aspect in order to support the recent initiative to include molluscs in the OECD test guideline programme.

  5. Eco-physiological adaptation of the land snail Achatina achatina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in tropical agro-ecosystem

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    Christian O. Chukwuka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival of land snails in an adverse environmental condition depends on the integral physiological, morphological and behavioural adaptations. These adaptations are essential in understanding the species-specific habitat requirements and in predicting their environmental responses. In this study, the monthly and the periodic patterns of eco-physiological adaptation of land snail, Achatina achatina in Nsukka tropical agro-ecosystem were assessed from December 2012 to July 2013. Standard methods were employed in sampling the land snail and determination of the water content, biochemical fuel reserves and enzyme concentrations of the samples. The present results showed that lipids were high at the beginning of aestivation and depleted as the aestivation progressed. Glycogen was significantly low throughout the aestivation months (December–March and increased in the active months (April–July. Protein content recorded a definite pattern all through the months studied. Catabolism of lactate and a decrease in activity of LDH during aestivation and substantial increase upon activation were observed. Data showed that transaminase and aspartate enzymes depleted during the aestivation months indicating that the snails may have developed potential cell injury due to oxidative stress and thermal heat. A disassociation between the physiological responses and climatic data was recorded. The physiological adaptation of A. achatina ensures regular adjustment under extreme conditions and compensates for its metabolic regulation in the tropics. It is concluded that survival of A. achatina is not environmentally predicted; rather it depends on the species-specific inherent process in predicting responses for survival.

  6. Some new species of the genus Helicella (Pulmonata, Helicidae) from the province León, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Manga, M.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Many samples of Helicellinae have been collected by the second author in León, a province in the North of Spain. While trying to identify the species represented in this material, not only the most recent summarizing publications on Spanish Helicellinae by Ortiz de Zárate (1943, 1946, 1950, 1962 196

  7. [The influence of the trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of Planorbarius corneus (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Bulinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnichenko, A P; Girin, V K

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the Trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of the two size groups in the great ramshorn snail Planorbarius corneus, "young" (12-24 mm in diameter) and "old" (24-36.5 mm in diameter), have been investigated.

  8. The effect of isolation on reproduction and growth of Pseudosuccinea columella (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae: a snail-conditioned water experiment

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    Gutiérrez Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A snail-conditioned water experiment was conducted in Pseudosuccinea columella to test the possible role of a chemical interaction between snails on the diminished growth and fecundity rates found for snails raised in pairs compared to those raised in complete isolation. The results permit to discard the hypothesis of an inhibition of growth and reproduction between snails due to factors released into the water.

  9. Observations on the breeding habits, shell development, decollation, and reproductive anatomy of Pontophaedusa funiculum (Mousson 1856 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Clausiliidae, Phaedusinae

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    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The internal and external egg morphology, shell development, decollation process, mating behaviour and reproductive anatomy (genital structure, inner structure of the penis, fine structure of the retractor muscle and the spermatophore of the clausiliid Pontophaedusa funiculum (Mousson 1856 are described, and illustrated by photographs of the laid eggs, their inner structure, juvenile, young adult and old individuals, as well as a schematic drawing of the mating. P. funiculum is the only known clausiliid species with hard shelled eggs and the only known example of the family Clausiliidae which mates face to face. The taxonomic position within the Phaedusinae subfamily is mentioned.

  10. Seasonal bioconcentration of heavy metals in Onchidium struma (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from Chongming Island, the YangtzeEstuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaobo; JIA Linzhi; ZHAO Yunlong; WANG Qun; CHENG Yongxu

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal concentration changes of selected heavy metal Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in five tissues of marine gastropod Onchidium struma were studied in the Chongming Island, the Yangtze Estuary on July 2006, September 2006, and November 2006, April 2007, respectively. The results demonstrated that the bioconcentration factor of Cu (biomass/water) in all selected tissues was about 104 magnitudes, Fe and Cd were 103, Zn was 102, and Mn, Pb, and Cr were 101. Hepatopancreas was proven to be the dominant storage tissue of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn, whereas Fe and Pb were mainly stored in muscle and digenetic gland, and Cd was stored in vitelline gland and albumen gland. Additionally, it was found that Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were concentrated significantly by O. struma (whole-body) in summer or autumn, and Cd, Cr, and Pb increased slightly in spring and winter. Furthermore, the bioconcentration of Cr was nearly 2-fold higher and Zn was 1.6-fold higher in the water compared with the Water Quality Standard for Fisheries. With view of excessive amount of Pb, Cd, and Cu according to seafood standard, the consumption of O. struma might have the risk of health hazard.

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of the gastropods (Gastropoda, Pulmonata of Ilinska and Plakinska Mountains (Republic of Macedonia

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    IVAYLO DEDOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presents results of a collecting trip in July 2008 in the mountains Ilinska and Plakinska (Republic of Macedonia. The work summarizes data for distribution and ecology of 19 species from the mountains. The data collected during the expedition provide the first information for terrestrial gastropods in this region of Macedonia.

  12. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758) (Trematoda: Digenea) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepelitchi, Lucila; Kleiman, Florencia; Pietrokovsky, Silvia M; Moriena, Ricardo A; Racioppi, Oscar; Alvarez, José; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina

    2003-10-01

    We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8%) were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  13. Subgeneric division of the genus Orcula Held 1837 with remarks on Romanian orculid data (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orculidae

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    Barna Pall-Gergely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genital anatomy of Orcula jetschini (Romania, O. zilchi (Bulgaria and O. wagneri (Albania is described. Based on anatomical features (morphology of the penial caecum, shell characters (sculpture and shape and unpublished molecular data, the genus Orcula is subdivided into three subgenera. O. zilchi was classified within the monotypic subgenus Orcula (Hausdorfia subgen. n.; O. jetschini, O. wagneri and O. schmidtii were classified to Orcula (Illyriobanatica subgen. n. (type species: Pupa Schmidtii, whereas the other Orcula species remain in the nominotypical subgenus. Orcula (Hausdorfia is known from South-Eastern Bulgaria and North-Western Turkey, Orcula (Illyriobanatica inhabits Western Romania, North-Western Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro. The nine species of Orcula (Orcula are known mainly from the Alps and the Western Carpathians (from Eastern France to Eastern Hungary and Slovakia.The occurrence of only one Orcula species, namely O. jetschini is verified from Romania. Available information suggests that data on the Romanian occurrence of Orcula dolium and O. gularis were based on wrongly identified specimens. Sphyradium dobrogicum (=Orcula dobrogica is considered as a synonym of S. doliolum.

  14. Comparative shell morphology of Lymnaea (Bullastra) cumingiana (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) and related taxa in the Indo-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon, R B; Kitikoon, V; Thammapalerd, N; Temcharoen, P; Sornmani, S; Viyanant, V

    1993-09-01

    Comparative shell morphology using both quantitative and qualitative parameters was employed to investigate the taxonomic relationship between the endemic Philippine species, Lymnaea (Bullastra) cumingiana and five other lymnaeid "species" in the Indo-Pacific region, namely: L. (Radix) quadrasi (Philippines). L. (Radix) rubiginosa (Indonesia), L. (Radix) rubiginosa (Thailand), L. (Radix) viridis (Guam) and L. (Radix) viridis (Hong Kong). Fifty randomly chosen adult specimens of each species were studied and compared, although only field-collected specimens were studied for the first four groups and laboratory-raised specimens for the last two group. Results strongly suggested that L. cumingiana is a distinct species among the rest. L. quadrasi, L. rubiginosa (Indonesia) and L. rubiginosa (Thailand) exhibited great affinity towards each other. Likewise, the two geographical isolates of L. viridis were practically identical to each other except for some minor size differences.

  15. Gulella adami, a new species of land snail from the Ivory Coast, West Africa (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Gulella adami spec. nov. is described from a classical West African locality, Assini in the Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire). It is most unusual in showing two superficial parietal processes, which may also be interpreted as a double angular lamella, in the aperture of the shell. The shell closely

  16. Field application of a set of cellular biomarkers in the digestive gland of the freshwater snail Radix peregra (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerlet, Edwige [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Ledy, Karine [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France); Giamberini, Laure [Laboratoire Ecotoxicite, Sante Environnementale, CNRS UMR 7146, Universite de Metz, Rue General Delestraint, F-57070 Metz (France)]. E-mail: giamb@sciences.univ-metz.fr

    2006-04-20

    An active biomonitoring study was performed in the vicinity of two pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) released in two different streams in northeastern France. Freshwater gastropods, Radix peregra (=Lymnaea peregra or Lymnaea pereger), were transplanted for 0, 3, 14 and 21 days at two to three sites located upstream and downstream from the mill discharge points in both rivers. Lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, as well as lipofuscin and neutral lipids, were tested using histochemical methods on cryostat sections of digestive gland tissues, and stereological data were obtained by image analysis. Evidence of structural changes in the lysosomal system was found in animals exposed to both effluents, comprising general stress responses such as enlarged and more numerous lysosomes; and also possible specific pluri-phasic effects. Modifications of the lysosomal and cytoplasmic contents of lipid-related materials were also described, namely enhanced lipofuscin deposit and neutral lipid depletion. The peroxisomal proliferation in exposed snails seems to show its implication in oxidative stress detoxication, without preventing higher lipoperoxidation, as indicated by the increased amounts of digestive lipofuscin. Structural changes of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems, digestive lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents have potential for use as early cellular biomarkers in Radix peregra exposed to environmental stressors, which deserve further investigations.

  17. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  18. Drusia (Escutiella alexantoni n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Parmacellidae, a new terrestrial slug from the Atlantic coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez–Ortí, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new parmacellid, Drusia (Escutiella alexantoni n. sp. from the Moroccan Atlantic coast. The species most closely related to the new taxon are D. (E. deshayesii and D. (D. valenciennii. The new parmacellid differs from D. (E deshayesii mainly by the presence of external spots and bands on both the back and the shield, a reproductive system with uneven atrial appendices of the horn–shaped organ, and a different reticulated pattern of the inner epiphallus. It differs from D. (D. valenciennii mainly for the appearance of the shell and the pattern and disposition of the bumps inside the penis, the presence of an elbow–shape in this organ, and the reticulated appearance of the inner wall of the epiphallus. An updated dichotomous key of the family Parmacellidae is provided.

  19. Hemocyte-specific responses to the peroxidizing herbicide fomesafen in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Jacqueline [UMR 6553 Ecobio CNRS Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France); Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz [UMR 985 INRA-Agrocampus Ecobiologie et Qualite des Hydrosystemes Continentaux, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc CS 84215, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France); Lagadic, Laurent [UMR 985 INRA-Agrocampus Ecobiologie et Qualite des Hydrosystemes Continentaux, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc CS 84215, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France)]. E-mail: laurent.lagadic@rennes.inra.fr

    2007-03-15

    Responses of circulating hemocytes were studied in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to 10, 30, 90, and 270 {mu}g/L fomesafen for 24 and 504 h. Flow cytometry was used to quantify fomesafen-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagocytic activity on Escherichia coli, and oxidative burst when hemocytes were challenged by E. coli or phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Lysosomal membrane damage was assessed, using the neutral-red retention time (NRRT) assay. Exposure to fomesafen for 24 h resulted in increase in ROS levels and decreases in phagocytosis and the oxidative burst in PMA-stimulated hemocytes. After 504 h, intracellular levels of ROS returned to normal, but phagocytosis of E. coli was still inhibited and the associated oxidative burst significantly reduced. After both durations of exposure, decreases of NRRT indicated that lysosome membrane fragility increased with fomesafen concentration. Potential implications for the health and survival of the snails and consequences on populations are discussed. - Fomesafen inhibited phagocytosis and the associated oxidative burst, and increased lysosome fragility in L. stagnalis hemocytes.

  20. Austropeplea ollula (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): A new molluscan intermediate host of a human intestinal fluke, Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Park, Yun-Kyu; Hwang, Myung-Ki

    2001-01-01

    Three freshwater snail species of the family Lymnaeidae have been reported from Korea, Radix auricularia coreana, Austropeplea ollula and Fossaria truncatula. Out of 3 lymnaeid snail species, A. ollula was naturally infected with the Echinostoma cinetorchis cercariae (infection rate = 0.7%). In the experiments with the laboratory-bred snails, F. truncatula as well as A. ollula was also susceptible to the E. cinetorchis miracidia with infection rates of 25% and 40%, respectively. All of three lymnaeid snail species exposed to the E. cinetorchis cercariae were infected with the E. cinetorchis metacercariae. It is evident that A. ollula acts as the first molluscan intermediate host of E. cinetorchis in Korea, and F. truncatula may be a possible candidate for the first intermediate host of this intestinal fluke. Also, three lymnaeid snail species targeted were experimentally infected with E. cinetorchis metacercariae. PMID:11590915

  1. The genetic dynamics of the rapid and recent colonization of Denmark by Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Arionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, S; Kömpf, J; Jordaens, K; Tomiuk, J; Parker, E D

    2011-06-01

    We describe the genetic dynamics of the recent establishment of the 'Iberian slug', Arion lusitanicus J. Mabille 1868, in Denmark and compare its population structure to two other members of the 'large Arion complex', Arion ater ater, native to Denmark, and Arion ater rufus, introduced into Denmark in the early 1900s. Assaying allozyme polymorphism at seven enzyme loci, we found that: (1) None of the three taxa reproduce primarily by self-fertilization. Differences among loci and colonies in the pattern of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are most consistent with isolate mixing and perhaps with low amounts of selfing. (2) For both A. lusitanicus and A. a. rufus, gene diversity is lower in Danish colonies than in southern German colonies, implying population bottlenecks in the establishment of Danish colonies. (3) Significant linkage disequilibrium values usually involve the same three loci, viz. PGI, MDH-1 and MDH-2, suggesting physical linkage among these loci. (4) For both A. a. rufus and A. lusitanicus, the overall gene frequencies from Denmark and southern Germany are homogeneous, while variation among colonies within these regions ranges from around 15 to 28% for the three taxa. This indicates strong, local population genetic subdivision but with little restriction to gene flow from possible source areas. The heterogeneity in measures of diversity and differentiation indicates that population structure for all three taxa is dominated by ongoing founder effects, local extinction/colonisation dynamics, and genetic drift processes.

  2. Selected fatty acids as biomarkers of exposure to microdoses of molluscicides in snails Helix pomatia (Gastropoda Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Pecka, Danuta; Pecka, Stanisław; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta

    2017-03-01

    Two stages of selection from a pool of 56 fatty acids analyzed in Helix pomatia yielded a set of 12 biomarker acids undergoing significant changes in contact with three microdoses of toxic substances, i.e. three molluscicides containing metaldehyde, methiocarb, and potassium chloride (PC). The proposed palette of acids, including saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), determined separately in the foot tissues and hepatopancreas of Gastropoda, can be used in ecotoxicological research as a reliable test of the effect of trace doses of stressors. The final set of the biomarker FA comprised C16:0; C18:0; C23:0; C18:1 n-9; C20:1 n-9; C18:2 n-6; C18:3 n-3; C20:2; C20:4 n-6; C20:5 n-3; C22:4 n-6; and C22:5 n-3. A clear physiological response manifested as changes in the content of fatty acids (FA) was observed in the snails even in the case of the lowest doses of the pollutants. All experimental factors analyzed, i.e., the dose (5, 10, or 15 μl 0.01% w/v concentration) and the type of preparation (metaldehyde, methiocarb or PC), had a significant (p ≤ 0.01) impact on the FA composition of the foot and hepatopancreas. Limitation of the analysis to a narrow pool of reactive FA meets the requirements of parameters of biomarkers of exposure and facilitates and accelerates visualization of the bioindicator organism's response to the presence of the stressor in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Some new species of the genus Helicella (Pulmonata, Helicidae) from the province León, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Manga, M.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Many samples of Helicellinae have been collected by the second author in León, a province in the North of Spain. While trying to identify the species represented in this material, not only the most recent summarizing publications on Spanish Helicellinae by Ortiz de Zárate (1943, 1946, 1950, 1962

  4. Drusia (Escutiella) alexantoni n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Parmacellidae), a new terrestrial slug from the Atlantic coast of Morocco

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borredà, Vicent; Martínez-Ortí, A

    2013-01-01

    ...–shaped organ, and a different reticulated pattern of the inner epiphallus. It differs from D. (D.) valenciennii mainly for the appearance of the shell and the pattern and disposition of the bumps inside the penis, the presence of an elbow...

  5. First report of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus,1758 (Trematoda: Digenea in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prepelitchi Lucila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.

  6. On Trichia alpicola (Eder, 1921) from Switzerland (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) and the spiral sculpture on its shell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Neuteboom, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The nominal taxon Fruticicola villosa var. alpicola Eder, 1921, is provisionally considered a separate Trichia species next to T. villosa. The hairs and the spiral sculpture on the shells of both species are illustrated.

  7. Gulella adami, a new species of land snail from the Ivory Coast, West Africa (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Gulella adami spec. nov. is described from a classical West African locality, Assini in the Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire). It is most unusual in showing two superficial parietal processes, which may also be interpreted as a double angular lamella, in the aperture of the shell. The shell closely resemb

  8. Costigulella primennilus spec. nov., a new minute western African terrestrial snail, with remarks on the genus Costigulella (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Costigulella primennilus spec. nov. is the first representative of Costigulella reported from Cameroon. It is probably the smallest species of the family Streptaxidae known world-wide. Arguments are provided to consider Costigulella an independent radiation and genus, rather than a subgenus of Gulel

  9. Exploring species level taxonomy and species delimitation methods in the facultatively self-fertilizing land snail genus Rumina (gastropoda: pulmonata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Prévot

    Full Text Available Delimiting species in facultatively selfing taxa is a challenging problem of which the terrestrial pulmonate snail genus Rumina is a good example. These snails have a mixed breeding system and show a high degree of shell and color variation. Three nominal species (R. decollata, R. saharica and R. paivae and two color morphs within R. decollata (dark and light are currently recognized. The present study aims at evaluating to what extent these entities reflect evolutionary diverging taxonomic units, rather than fixed polymorphisms due to sustained selfing. Therefore, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS1, ITS2 and mitochondrial DNA (COI, CytB, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA sequences was performed. Putative species in Rumina, inferred from the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, were compared with those proposed on the basis of the COI gene by (1 DNA barcoding gap analysis, (2 Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, (3 the species delimitation plug-in of the Geneious software, (4 the Genealogical Sorting Index, and (5 the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model. It is shown that these methods produce a variety of different species hypotheses and as such one may wonder to what extent species delimitation methods are really useful. With respect to Rumina, the data suggest at least seven species, one corresponding to R. saharica and six that are currently grouped under the name R. decollata. The species-level status of R. paivae is rejected.

  10. Taxonomic revision of Aegista subchinensis (Möllendorff, 1884 (Stylommatophora, Bradybaenidae and a description of a new species of Aegista from eastern Taiwan based on multilocus phylogeny and comparative morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aegista subchinensis (Möllendorff, 1884 is a widely distributed land snail species with morphological variation and endemic to Taiwan. Three genetic markers (partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI], the 16S rDNA and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 [ITS2] were analysed to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic divergence of closely related species of the genus Aegista, A. vermis (Reeve, 1852 and A. oculus (Pfeiffer, 1850. A new species from A. subchinensis has been recognized on the basis of phylogenetic and morphological evidences. The nominal new species, A. diversifamilia sp. n. is distinguished from A. subchinensis (Möllendorff, 1884 by its larger shell size, aperture and apex angle; wider umbilicus and flatter shell shape. The northernmost distribution of A. diversifamilia sp. n. is limited by the Lanyang River, which is presumed to mark the geographic barrier between A. diversifamilia sp. n. and A. subchinensis.

  11. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS SERINA FROM SOUTH GANSU, CHINA (STYLOMMATOPHORA, ENOIDEA)%中国甘肃南部金丝雀螺属一新种(柄眼目,艾纳螺总科)描述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房耀欣; 吴岷

    2013-01-01

    描述了栖息于甘肃南部的陆生贝类艾纳螺科1新种,希氏金丝雀螺Serina schileykoi sp.nov..与各已知种相比,新种的的次体螺层最膨大;毗邻缝合线处不具窄带区;轴唇具1向内延伸的钝齿.在生殖系统中,生殖开口牵引肌阙如;交接器细长,内具1个V-形壁柱.本种在形态上与戒金丝雀螺Serina egressa(Sturany,1900)最为接近.希氏金丝雀螺,新种Serina schileykoi sp.nov.(图1~7)鉴别特征 次体螺层最膨大;毗邻缝合线处不具1窄带区;轴唇齿1枚,强壮.生殖开口牵引肌阙如;交接器细长,内具1个V形壁柱.壳高12.3~13.7mm,壳径4.1~4.7mm,螺层数8.750 ~ 9.875,壳高/壳径比2.67 ~3.11,壳口高3.5 ~4.5 mm,壳口宽3.1~3.7 mm.正模HBUMM06669-specimen 1,具软体部成体;甘肃文县(33°05′N,104°21′E;海拔1 269 m),2011-08-09,吴岷、徐沁、Prem B.Buhda采.副模HBUMM06669-specimen 2~15,14头具软体部成体;采集数据同正模.标本保存于河北大学博物馆.词源:新种种名源自俄罗斯贝类学家Prof.Dr.Anatoly A.Schileyko的姓氏;名词.%A new enid species Serina schilekyoi sp.nov.is described from South Gansu.The new species,closely related to Serina egressa (Sturany,1900),is characterized by the markedly swollen penultimate whorl,the absence of narrow defined zone on every beneath whorl,longer and more slender penis in which 1 V-shaped pilasters is present,and the absence of atrial retractor muscle.

  12. Larval trematodes (Digenea of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L., (Gastropoda, Pulmonata in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faltýnková A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.

  13. Molecular study for detecting the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) in northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani-Baran, Abbas; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Malekzadeh Viayeh, Reza; Paktarmani, Razieh

    2012-10-26

    Fasciolosis is an important disease in veterinary medicine worldwide, and is a cause of great economic loss in livestock husbandry in Iran. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in field-collected snails of Radix gedrosiana in northwestern Iran. The snails were collected from 28 perennial and seasonal freshwater habitats from May to December 2010 and identified. A fragment of 618 bp of 28s rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using DraII and AvaII enzymes. PCR-RFLP patterns revealed that 3.12% of the snails were infected with F. gigantica. It was also found that the infected snails had a limited distribution over the water bodies located in the central part of the region. It was concluded that PCR-RFLP was a reliable approach to detect Fasciola infection in pond snails and may be useful to establish control measures for livestock and humans' fasciolosis in the region.

  14. Controle biológico de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 através de Tilapia nilotica (Hasselquist, 1757, em laboratório (Pulmonata, Planorbidae. Pisces, Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milward de Andrade

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available O peixe cichdeo Tilapia nilotica (Hasse/quist, 1757 I = Sarotherodon niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 foi capaz de impedir o crescimento de 4 populações de 20 espécimens (14-16 mm de diâmetro de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, mantidas em aquários de vidro, durante cinco semanas, em laboratório. No Aquário nº 1 foi introduzido um alevino com 55 mm de comprimento (não computada a nadadeira caudal; no de nº 2, um com 63 mm; no de nº 3, dois alevinos: com 40 e 46 mm, respectivamente; e, finalmente, no de nº 4, três espécimens: com 38,39 e 42 mm, respectivamente. Os peixes destruíram as desovas dos planorbíneos depositadas nas paredes de vidro dos aquários - impedindo, assim, as eclosões e, consequentemente, o aumento das quatro populações em estudo. Reversamente, quando retirados, as populações de planorbíneos cresceram em número. Não obstante, salienta-se a necessidade de investigações de campo, afim de avaliar a atividade predatória daquele ciclídeo em condições naturais.

  15. A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean: Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaba, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of land snail is described from pre-human paleosoils at Bellver hill in the island of Mallorca. It is a medium-sized helicodontid with 6 tight coils, dome-shaped spire, obtuse peripheral keel, eccentric umbilicus, narrow aperture inclined forward, sinuous reflected peristome, a low angular tooth, 5 infrapalatal denticles, teleoconch with many regular riblets and widely scattered hair pits, and protoconch with simple wrinkles and very thin spiral lines. This very rare species had been reported as a member of the Iberian-Maghribian Oestophora. Similar Plio-Pleistocene fossils from the Balearics and Sardinia are placed in the new genus. This may constitute a biogeographic link within the Lindholmiolinae, now surviving at both ends of the Mediterranean basin. It remains unknown when, why or whether it became extinct.

  16. Assessing the effects of fluoxetine on Physa acuta (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta, Diptera) using a two-species water-sediment test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Argueello, Paloma [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta, A Coruna km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: arguello@inia.es; Fernandez, Carlos; Tarazona, Jose V. [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of the Environment, INIA, Crta, A Coruna km 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    Fluoxetine has been tested in a two-species water-sediment system, which allowed a two-generation study with Chironomus riparius and a partial life-cycle with the freshwater snail Physa acuta to be performed at the same time. The design considered the continuous application of fluoxetine to overlaying water for nominal concentrations of 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 {mu}g/L. A fifth treatment (87.5 {mu}g/L) level consisted of pulse applications once a week. Measures of water and sediment concentrations were determined once a week and at the end of experiment (day 44), respectively. The fate study demonstrated that water dissipation can be explained by partitioning of fluoxetine to sediment. At the end of experiment, the percentage of detected fluoxetine was up to 10-fold higher in sediment than in overlaying water. The employed two-species test allowed distinguishing, in the same exposure conditions, effects due to waterborne exposure together ingestion at the sediment surface (freshwater grazing snail P. acuta) and exposure by burrowing activities (sediment-dwelling insect larvae C. riparius). The effect assessment showed a stimulation of P. acuta reproduction at lower concentrations (31.25 and 62.5 {mu}g/L), while the opposite effect was observed at the highest treatment (250 {mu}g/L). Additional studies should be conducted to establish if the statistically significant differences observed in F0 sex ratio at the 62.5 {mu}g/L and F1 adult emergence at 31.25 {mu}g/L of C. riparius have a toxicological significance. This study showed that fluoxetine can affect reproduction of freshwater molluscs. The results of the present study may contribute to knowledge on ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals, about which little data is available. The possible consequences and implications for targeting the environmental risk assessment of fluoxetine are discussed.

  17. Substantial incongruence among the morphology, taxonomy, and molecular phylogeny of the land snails Aegista, Landouria, Trishoplita, and Pseudobuliminus (Pulmonata: Bradybaenidae) occurring in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takahiro; Kameda, Yuichi; Kimura, Kazuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of molecular phylogeny have revealed that phenotypically identified taxa do not reflect phylogenetic relationships. Such taxa often are not evolutionary significant and are misleading in describing and evaluating biological diversity. Herein, we investigated the molecular phylogeny of the East Asian bradybaenid land snail genera Aegista, Landouria, Trishoplita, and Pseudobuliminus to test whether morphology and current taxonomy reflect phylogenetic relationships. Our results document extensive parallel evolution and substantial incongruence between taxonomy and molecular phylogeny. Species with an elongated turret shell evolved independently five times, and hair-like ornamentation of the shell was independently gained or lost in a number of lineages. Although genital anatomy reveals phylogenetic conservatism to some extent, love dart and dart-related organs were lost independently at least three times in these genera. Accordingly, classification of these genera based on morphological traits did not reflect phylogenetic relationships, and, overall, these genera except for a few species should be tentatively assigned to a single genus as Aegista. The present findings suggest that radical revision is required for the taxonomy of bradybaenid land snails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ocorrência de Biomphalaria straminea (Pulmonata: Planorbidae na estação de aqüicultura do IBAMA em Uberlândia, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Paula Silveira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a ocorrência de moluscos planorbídeos na estação de psicultura do IBAMA em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Constatou-se a presença de Biomphalaria straminea em 39,5% dos tanques de criação. Nenhum dos caramujos estava infectado por Schistosoma mansoni, mas investigações complementares devem ser realizadas na área.This work evaluates the occurrence of freshwater snails in the IBAMA's fish breeding station in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais State. We verified the presence of Biomphalaria straminea in 39.5% of all breeding tanks. None of the snails were infected by Schistosoma mansoni, but futher investigation should be done in the area.

  19. Southernmost finding of Lymnaea viatrix orbigny, 1835 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Trematoda: Digenea), in urban and rural areas of Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Florencia; Pietrokovsky, Silvia; Paraense, W Lobato; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina

    2004-02-01

    We report the first finding of Lymnaea viatrix south of parallel 41 masculine S, in rural and urban areas from Argentina. Ninety snails were collected during year 2000, from a concrete pond at a Public Square in El Bolsón Village, Río Negro province, and 811 snails in November 1999, and during 2000 from waterbodies within a farm at Cholila locality, Chubut province. Fasciola hepatica infection was detected in 0.9% snails from the rural area. We discuss the potential risk of L. viatrix to public health in urban areas and its epidemiological importance in rural areas of the Andean Patagonian region.

  20. Southernmost finding of Lymnaea viatrix orbigny, 1835 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Digenea, in urban and rural areas of Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiman Florencia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first finding of Lymnaea viatrix south of parallel 41ºS, in rural and urban areas from Argentina. Ninety snails were collected during year 2000, from a concrete pond at a Public Square in El Bolsón Village, Río Negro province, and 811 snails in November 1999, and during 2000 from waterbodies within a farm at Cholila locality, Chubut province. Fasciola hepatica infection was detected in 0.9% snails from the rural area. We discuss the potential risk of L. viatrix to public health in urban areas and its epidemiological importance in rural areas of the Andean Patagonian region.

  1. Comparative horizontal starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis of Lymnaea (Bullastra) cumingiana (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae) and related taxa in the Indo-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon, R B; Thammapalerd, N; Kitikoon, V; Temcharoen, P; Sornmani, S; Viyanant, V

    1994-03-01

    Foot muscle tissue extracts from six lymnaeid species of the Indo-Pacific region [Lymnaea (Bullastra) cumingiana and L. (Radix) quadrasi from the Philippines, L. (R.) rubiginosa from Indonesia and Thailand, and L. (R.) viridis from Guam and Hong Kong] were subjected to horizontal starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis and assayed for seven isoenzymes (AcP, AlP, CA, EST, LAP, CAT and GOT) to elucidate their taxonomic relationships. L. cumingiana exhibited banding patterns for EST, LAP and CAT uniquely different from the rest, thus supporting the hypothesis that it is a distinct species. Zymogram patterns for AlP, CA, EST and LAP attest to the close affinity between L. quadrasi and L. rubiginosa (Indonesia and Thailand). Minor differences suggest a closer relationship between the two geographical strains of L. rubiginosa than with L. quadrasi, lending support to the hypothesis that L. quadrasi is inseparable as a race or variety from the typical L. swinhoei Adams, which in turn is but a race of L. auricularia, which also encompasses L. rubiginosa. The two geographical strains of L. viridis from Guam and Hong Kong showed the greatest consistency with regards to similarity and congruence in banding patterns. Non-specific esterases (EST) were the most useful in distinguishing the six species from each other.

  2. Physiological changes in Biomphalaria glabrata say, 1818 (Pulmonata: Planorbidae caused by sub-lethal concentrations of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B (Euphorbiaceae

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    Clélia Christina Mello-Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Molluscides have been used as one of the strategies to control schistosomiasis. Many plant extracts with molluscidal effects have been tested, but the action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii is considered the most promising because it meets the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO. The objective of this study was to determine the lethal dose and identify the effects of the different doses of latex of E. splendens var. hislopii on the physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata submitted to treatment for 24 h. The concentrations of glucose, uric acid and total proteins in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopodal mass were determined. The LD50 value was 1 mg/l. The highest escape index was found to be at a concentration of 0.6 mg/l. The results showed that the latex of E. splendens var. hislopii caused a sharp reduction in the reserves of glycogen in the digestive gland and elevation of the protein content in the hemolymph of B. glabrata.

  3. Short read Illumina data for the de novo assembly of a non-model snail species transcriptome (Radix balthica, Basommatophora, Pulmonata, and a comparison of assembler performance

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    Rotter Björn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, read lengths on the Solexa/Illumina system were too short to reliably assemble transcriptomes without a reference sequence, especially for non-model organisms. However, with read lengths up to 100 nucleotides available in the current version, an assembly without reference genome should be possible. For this study we created an EST data set for the common pond snail Radix balthica by Illumina sequencing of a normalized transcriptome. Performance of three different short read assemblers was compared with respect to: the number of contigs, their length, depth of coverage, their quality in various BLAST searches and the alignment to mitochondrial genes. Results A single sequencing run of a normalized RNA pool resulted in 16,923,850 paired end reads with median read length of 61 bases. The assemblies generated by VELVET, OASES, and SeqMan NGEN differed in the total number of contigs, contig length, the number and quality of gene hits obtained by BLAST searches against various databases, and contig performance in the mt genome comparison. While VELVET produced the highest overall number of contigs, a large fraction of these were of small size (BLAST searches and the mt genome alignment. The best overall contig performance resulted from the NGEN assembly. It produced the second largest number of contigs, which on average were comparable to the OASES contigs but gave the highest number of gene hits in two out of four BLAST searches against different reference databases. A subsequent meta-assembly of the four contig sets resulted in larger contigs, less redundancy and a higher number of BLAST hits. Conclusion Our results document the first de novo transcriptome assembly of a non-model species using Illumina sequencing data. We show that de novo transcriptome assembly using this approach yields results useful for downstream applications, in particular if a meta-assembly of contig sets is used to increase contig quality. These results highlight the ongoing need for improvements in assembly methodology.

  4. Impact of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria on reproductive success of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) and predicted consequences at the population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Alonzo, Frederic; Tanguy, Marion; Gérard, Claudia; Bormans, Myriam

    2011-06-01

    Our previous studies showed that microcystin (MC)-accumulation in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis and effects on life-history traits (survival, growth, and fecundity) varied according to age, exposure pathway (MC-producing cyanobacteria or dissolved MC), and presence or not of additional non-toxic food. This study investigated effects of exposure to MC-producing cyanobacteria or to dissolved MC of parent and of parent and egg masses of L. stagnalis on hatching success, duration of embryonic development and neonate survival. Secondly, the potential impact of MC-producing cyanobacterial proliferations (blooms) on L. stagnalis population growth, depending on bloom frequencies and recovery duration of life traits after exposure, was evaluated using a modelling approach. Experimental results showed that embryonic development was shortened in case of parent exposure to toxic cyanobacteria. Parent and eggs exposure to dissolved MC extended embryonic development and reduced hatching percentage, suggesting a permeability of egg masses to MC. Whatever exposure, neonate survival was reduced. Neonates exposed to cyanobacteria accumulated MCs 24 h after hatching, suggesting very early cyanobacteria ingestion. Modelling results showed that L. stagnalis population growth was influenced by the recovery time of life-history traits after exposure. When setting the latest at 6 weeks according to previous experiments, a frequency of one to four blooms per year strongly affected population dynamics and induced up to a 80-weeks delay compared to control in time required for populations to grow from 1 to 1000 individuals. Results are discussed in terms of impact of intoxication pathways on parents, eggs and neonates, and on population dynamics of L. stagnalis.

  5. Factors and processes shaping the population structure and distribution of genetic variation across the species range of the freshwater snail radix balthica (Pulmonata, Basommatophora

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    Feldmeyer Barbara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors and processes shaping the population structure and spatial distribution of genetic diversity across a species' distribution range are important in determining the range limits. We comprehensively analysed the influence of recurrent and historic factors and processes on the population genetic structure, mating system and the distribution of genetic variability of the pulmonate freshwater snail Radix balthica. This analysis was based on microsatellite variation and mitochondrial haplotypes using Generalised Linear Statistical Modelling in a Model Selection framework. Results Populations of R. balthica were found throughout North-Western Europe with range margins marked either by dispersal barriers or the presence of other Radix taxa. Overall, the population structure was characterised by distance independent passive dispersal mainly along a Southwest-Northeast axis, the absence of isolation-by-distance together with rather isolated and genetically depauperated populations compared to the variation present in the entire species due to strong local drift. A recent, climate driven range expansion explained most of the variance in genetic variation, reducing at least temporarily the genetic variability in this area. Other factors such as geographic marginality and dispersal barriers play only a minor role. Conclusions To our knowledge, such a population structure has rarely been reported before. It might nevertheless be typical for passively dispersed, patchily distributed taxa (e.g. freshwater invertebrates. The strong local drift implied in such a structure is expected to erode genetic variation at both neutral and coding loci and thus probably diminish evolutionary potential. This study shows that the analysis of multiple factors is crucial for the inference of the processes shaping the distribution of genetic variation throughout species ranges.

  6. Phylogeography of the Land Snail Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Müller, 1774 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata along the Croatian Coast and Islands

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    Jasna Puizina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Müller, 1774, is a typical Mediterranean species of large land snails. Nonindigenous populations of this species, however, are already established in the USA, Australia and elsewhere in the world, where this species is considered to represent a potentially serious threat as a pest and invasive species. The aims of this study were: 1 to determine the pattern of genetic variation within the Croatian E. vermiculata populations based on analyses of sequence diversity of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI, and 2 to shed more light upon the phylogeography of E. vermiculata in this area. Seventy-seven specimens of land snail Eobania vermiculata were sampled at 19 sampling sites along Croatian coastal region and islands. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (379 bp grouped into 14 haplotypes, whereas the partial COI gene sequences (523 bp grouped into 13 haplotypes. The overall population is characterized by relatively high haplotype (gene diversity (0.719±0.042 for 16S rDNA and 0.869±0.020 for COI. Demographic Fu F’s tests and Tajima's D value indicated no significant change in the population size, thus suggesting long historical presence of E. vermiculata in this region. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis, Bayesian inference and median joining haplotype network showed a genetic splitting of Croatian 16S rRNA and COI sequences, with a clear distinction between south-Adriatic and north-Adriatic haplotypes. A possible explanation for the observed phylogeography of E. vermiculata, could be related to the climate change, glaciations and the Adriatic Sea level oscillations during the Quaternary

  7. Gulella johannae spec. nov. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Streptaxidae), a new land snail from the Drakensberg range in Limpopo Province, South Africa, with notes on G. johannesburgensis (M. & P.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Gulella (s.l.) johannae n. sp. is described from a few forest localities in the Tzaneen District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. It is characterized by a cylindrical, costulate shell with an almost entire peristome and a four-fold apertural dentition consisting of a prominent angular lamella (delim

  8. Mitochondrial and morphological differentiation in a previously unrecognized radiation of the land snail genus Parachloritis Ehrmann, 1912 on Timor (Pulmonata: Camaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhler, F.; Kessner, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present work revises the taxonomy of one group of camaenid gastropods from Timor-Leste based on the study of a large number of recently collected ethanol preserved samples as well as historic museum material, including types. By employing comparative analyses of the variation in morphological fe

  9. Trachycystis montissalinarum spec. nov., a new charopid from the Soutpansberg complex in the Northern Province, South Africa (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Charopidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    2002-01-01

    A new species of Trachycystis s.l. (Charopidae) from the Hanglip Forest in the Soutpansberg complex in the Northern Province of South Africa is described. Absence of anatomical data precludes more precise classification. The shell is characterized by a spirally sculpted apex and a somewhat irregular

  10. On the only Greek Sphincterochila species, two Libyan close relatives, Cerigottella subgen. nov., and an extended diagnosis of the Sphincterochilidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1993-01-01

    From Greece, based on conchological characters, a single, endemic Sphincterochila species has been reported about a century ago. Its occurrence is still thought to be restricted to the islet of Andikithira. The structure of the genitalia, hitherto unknown, demonstrates that it concerns a separate sp

  11. The ecology of shell shape difference in chirally dimorphic snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.; Haase, M.; Koops, K.; Looijes, S.M.; Hendrikse, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Southeast-Asian tree snail subgenus Amphidromus s. str. (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Camaenidae) is unusual among all gastropods for its genetic antisymmetry: populations consist of stable mixtures of individuals with clockwise (dextral) and counterclockwise (sinistral) coiling directions. Although pr

  12. Morfologia do sistema muscular e do sistema reprodutor de Anisancylus obliquus (Broderip & Sowerby do Chile, como contribuição à sistemática de Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Basommatophora Morphology of the muscular and reproductive systems of Anisancylus obliquus (Broderip & Sowerby from Chile as a contribution to the systematics of Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Basommatophora

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    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the morphology of the muscular and reproductive systems of Anisancylus obliquus (Broderip & Sowerby, 1832 based on specimens from Chile is presented. Differences are observed in the number of folicules of the ovotestis and prostata when comparing them with specimens from Brazil (chilean specimens: ovotestis = 28 to 32; prostata = 3 to 5; brazilian specimens: ovotestis = 20 to 21; prostata = 6 to 8. In the muscular system, the right aductor muscle scar is often longer than in brazilian specimens. The general morphology of muscular and reproductive systems is similar to that observed to Uncancylus concentricus (d'Orbigny, 1835 and Gundlachia dutrae Santos, 1994 (V-shaped adhesive area; single right anterior muscle with elongated moon-shaped scar; ejaculatory complex with projected ejaculatory duct and differs from G. ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962, G. radiata (Guilding, 1828 and Hebetancylus moricandi (d'Orbigny, 1837 (elongated adhesive area; double right anterior muscle with rounded or oval-shaped muscle scar and ejaculatoiy complex without projected ejaculatory duct. Differences are also observed when comparing them with Ancylus fluviatilis Müller, 1774 where the right muscle scar is continuous with the posterior one, whereas A. obliquus shows three well defined muscle scars. The ejaculatory system of A. fluviatilis presents flagellum duct and ejaculatory duct opening apart into the sheath; there are penis, prepuce with muscular pillars and a muscular flagellum, whereas A. obliquus shows the flagellum duct and ejaculatory duct reaching the sheath together; there are not penis and muscular pillars on prepuce; the flagellum is glandular. These differences shows A. obliquus and others neotropical pateliforms basommatophorans are not closely related to european Ancylus.

  13. Light and electron microscopy study of late embryonic development in the land snail Limicolaria flammea (Müller (Pulmonata, Achatinidae Microscopias óptica e eletrônica dos estágios embrionários do caracol Limicolaria flammea (Müller (Pulmonata, Achatinidae

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    Rosemary I. Egonmwan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The late stages of embryogenesis in the achatinid land snail Limicolariaflammea (Müller, 1774 were described using light and electron microscopy. Embryos at various stages of development were present in the eggs during the first hour after they were laid, from 4-cell blastulae to morulae and fairly advanced stages. The advanced embryo which was fully developed on the second day bears a long cephalic sac, first to be developed, attached to the embryo and a podocyst which is attached to the foot of the embryo. Both of these structures are reduced in size as embryogenesis progresses until they finally disappear at about the 7th day after the egg was deposited. The embryonic shell was apparent on the second day and spiral coiling was apparent at about day 5. The spiral shell had one whorl when formed and more spirals were added so that at hatching the young snails had three whorls.Os estágios finais da embriogênese do caracol Limicolariaflammea (Müller, 1774 foram descritos por meio de observações a partir de microscopia óptica e eletrônica. Embriões em vários estágios de desenvolvimento estavam presentes em ovos durante a primeira hora ou logo após a desova, de blástulas tetra celulares a mórulas e estágios avançados. Embriões avançados, totalmente desenvolvidos no segundo dia, apresentaram uma longa base cefálica, a primeira a desenvolver-se, aderida ao embrião e um podocisto aderido ao pé do embrião. Ambas estruturas reduziram de tamanho à medida que a embriogênese progrediu, até finalmente desaparecer próximo do sétimo dia após a oviposição. A concha embriogênica foi evidenciada no segundo dia e o enrolamento espiral foi aparente próximo ao quinto. A concha espiralada possuia uma volta quando formada e mais espirais foram adicionadas e assim, quando da eclosão, o jovem tinha três voltas.

  14. Sistema reprodutor de Gundlachia concentrica (Orbigny e Gundlachia moricandi (Orbigny, como subsídio para a taxonomia de Ancylidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata Reproductive system of Gundlachia concentrica (Orbigny and Gundlachia moricandi (Orbigny, as subsidy for the taxonomy of Ancylidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Fernanda Pires Ohlweiler

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive system of Gundlachia concentrica (Orbigny, 1835 and Gundlachia moricandi (Orbigny, 1837 are described. The following structures distinguished the specimens of those species: ovotestis, seminal vesicle, tubular prolongation of dorsoposterior region of uterus and duet of the copulation pouch.

  15. [Stages of organogenesis and cytodifferentiation of the albumen gland in the snail Helix aspersa Muller].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtot, A M; Gomot, L

    1982-01-01

    The differentiation of the albumen gland of the pulmonate stylommatophora Helix aspersa has been divided into five stages. An ultrastructural study showed, the differentiation of undifferentiated epithelial cells into two cell types: ciliated cells and secretory cells. The glandular differentiation of epithelial cells was characterized by the development of ergastoplasma and the Golgi apparatus which were both involved in protein and galactogen synthesis.

  16. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

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    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l'année (zones humides, que les écosystèmes secs de haute montagne, profitant de leur climat froid. En revanche, Cepaea nemoralis (sténotherme occupe seulement les habitats de sols humides, de couverture végétale dense et constante, a une altitude inférieure à 1500 m. L'absence de ce type de végétation et les conditions climatiques dures de la haute montagne méditerranéenne empêchent sa présence à une plus haute altitude, contrairement a ce qui se passe dans la haute montagne euro-sibérienne.
    [es]
    A partir del estudio de la corología y ecología de la malacofauna terrestre de Andalucía (sur de la Península Ibérica se determina la presencia en las cordilleras Bélicas Orientales de dos relictos climáticos propios de la región Eurosiberiana: Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Millier, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758. Se expone su ecología y distribución y se muestra que el principal factor que las limita es la sequía estival característica del clima mediterráneo. Sus respuestas adaptativas ante la escasez de agua del verano están definidas por diferencias ecofisiológicas. Vitrina pellucida (euriterma hace uso tanto de los ecosistemas de tierras bajas en los que la disponibilidad de agua es constante a lo largo del año (zonas húmedas como de los secos de alta montaña, gracias al clima frío. Cepaea nemoralis (estenoterma ocupa sólo hábitats de suelos húmedos y cobertura vegetal densa y constante situados por debajo de los 1500 m. La ausencia de este tipo de vegetación y la dureza del clima de la alta montaña mediterránea impiden su presencia a mayor altitud, al contrario de lo que ocurre en las montarías eurosiberianas.

  17. [The occurrence of Biomphalaria straminea (Pulmonata: Planorbidae) on an aquaculture farm of IBAMA in Uberlândia, MG. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente a dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, E de P; Marçal Júnior, O; Machado, M I

    1997-01-01

    This work evaluates the occurrence of freshwater snails in the IBAMA's fish breeding station in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State. We verified the presence of Biomphalaria straminea in 39.5% of all breeding tanks. None of the snails were infected by Schistosoma mansoni, but further investigation should be done in the area.

  18. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae) latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae). 2: limited field-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho; de Amorim, Alziro

    2003-10-01

    The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns) against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches), after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  19. Molluscicidal action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. ("Christ's Crown") (Euphorbiaceae) against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematode: Fasciolidae): 1- test in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho; de Amorim, Alziro

    2003-06-01

    The latex action of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Christ's Crown) against snails Lymnaea columella, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, derived from irrigation ditches of the Station of Pisciculture at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied in the laboratory. Lab bioassays, using aqueous solutions of the latex, varying between 0.1 and 10 mg/l, have proven molluscicidal activity of the product collected on the same day the tests were performed, during the four seasons of the year, finding the following lethal concentrations (LC90): 1.51 mg/l in the spring; 0.55 mg/l in the summer; 0.74 mg/l in the fall and 0.93 mg/l in winter, after 24 h exposure of the snails, showing significant differences among the seasons of the year (ANOVA test, F = 11.01, G.L.= 3/33, p < 0.05), as well as among the concentrations (ANOVA test, F = 27.38, G.L.= 11/33, p < 0.05). In the summer, mortality reached 100% from concentration at 0.6 mg/l, the same during fall and in winter as of 1 mg/l, while in spring it only reached 100% mortality as of 2 mg/l. Mortality in the controls was low, reaching 5% in the summer and winter and 10% in the fall and spring. None of the samples died. During the assay, with an aqueous solution of the latex at a concentration of 5 mg/l, in order to check the time of duration of the product effect, in the laboratory, it was observed that the molluscicidal activity remained stable up to the 15th day after the beginning of the test with 100% mortality of L. columella, gradually losing its effect until the 23rd day, when we no longer observed animal mortality. In the control group, there was a random daily variation in mortality rate ranging 0-50% after 48 h of observation for 30 days.

  20. Molluscicidal action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. ("Christ's Crown" (Euphorbiaceae against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematode: Fasciolidae: 1- test in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Mauricio Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The latex action of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Christ's Crown against snails Lymnaea columella, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, derived from irrigation ditches of the Station of Pisciculture at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied in the laboratory. Lab bioassays, using aqueous solutions of the latex, varying between 0.1 and 10 mg/l, have proven molluscicidal activity of the product collected on the same day the tests were performed, during the four seasons of the year, finding the following lethal concentrations (LC90: 1.51 mg/l in the spring; 0.55 mg/l in the summer; 0.74 mg/l in the fall and 0.93 mg/l in winter, after 24 h exposure of the snails, showing significant differences among the seasons of the year (ANOVA test, F = 11.01, G.L.= 3/33, p < 0.05, as well as among the concentrations (ANOVA test, F = 27.38, G.L.= 11/33, p < 0.05. In the summer, mortality reached 100% from concentration at 0.6 mg/l, the same during fall and in winter as of 1 mg/l, while in spring it only reached 100% mortality as of 2 mg/l. Mortality in the controls was low, reaching 5% in the summer and winter and 10% in the fall and spring. None of the samples died. During the assay, with an aqueous solution of the latex at a concentration of 5 mg/l, in order to check the time of duration of the product effect, in the laboratory, it was observed that the molluscicidal activity remained stable up to the 15th day after the beginning of the test with 100% mortality of L. columella, gradually losing its effect until the 23rd day, when we no longer observed animal mortality. In the control group, there was a random daily variation in mortality rate ranging 0-50% after 48 h of observation for 30 days.

  1. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae. 2: limited field-testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Mauricio Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches, after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  2. Population structure of Uncancylus concentricus (d'Orbigny, 1835) (Ancylidae, Pulmonata, Basommatophora) in the Multiple Use Reserve Martín García Island, Upper Río de la Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S M; Díaz, A C

    2012-02-01

    The present work analyzes the population dynamics of Uncancylus concentricus in natural conditions in the northeastern coastal area of the Multiple Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García (Beach of Basural), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Martín García Island is located in the Upper Río de La Plata, to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay River (34° 11' 25" S and 58° 15'38" W). Monthly collections were made from August 2005 to December 2006. The size frequency of the U. concentricus population throughout the sampling period ranges from 1.2 to 8.3 m. The changes in the size frequencies throughout the months surveyed indicate a variable distribution pattern because of the increase and decrease in water flow, but we observed a peak in the frequency of individuals within the size range 3.5 to 4.5 mm in the population. It can be concluded that this species lives for at least a year in the wild since the juveniles are highly abundant in spring and summer.

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Keyword : Piliostigma reticulatum, seed, heat processing, proximate composition. .... inflammatory conditions or infections. ... valuable but incompletely balance protein, .... storage limit for plant feed stuff (Sena et al., 1998).

  4. ISSN 1816-0573 CAFOBIOS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEG

    Phenology and fruit production of Piliostigma reticulatum (DC), Hochst., an agroforestry forage species in the Sahel. ... [3]; Citrus psyllid, Trioza erytreae Del Guercio. 1918 [7]; ..... Tuthill, L.D. 1943: The Psyllids of America north of Mexico ...

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Group 2 received loperamide, the standard drug (5 mg/kg body weight). ... Table 1: Effects of an ethanol extract of P. reticulatum on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in ..... upon transmucosal water and electrolyte movement in canine jejunum.

  6. Phylogenetic diversity of Mesorhizobium in chickpea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dong Hyun Kim; Mayank Kaashyap; Abhishek Rathore; Roma R Das; Swathi Parupalli; Hari D Upadhyaya; S Gopalakrishnan; Pooran M Gaur; Sarvjeet Singh; Jagmeet Kaur; Mohammad Yasin; Rajeev K Varshney

    2014-06-01

    Crop domestication, in general, has reduced genetic diversity in cultivated gene pool of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as compared with wild species (C. reticulatum, C. bijugum). To explore impact of domestication on symbiosis, 10 accessions of chickpeas, including 4 accessions of C. arietinum, and 3 accessions of each of C. reticulatum and C. bijugum species, were selected and DNAs were extracted from their nodules. To distinguish chickpea symbiont, preliminary sequences analysis was attempted with 9 genes (16S rRNA, atpD, dnaJ, glnA, gyrB, nifH, nifK, nodD and recA) of which 3 genes (gyrB, nifK and nodD) were selected based on sufficient sequence diversity for further phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence diversity for 3 genes demonstrated that sequences from C. reticulatum were more diverse. Nodule occupancy by dominant symbiont also indicated that C. reticulatum (60%) could have more various symbionts than cultivated chickpea (80%). The study demonstrated that wild chickpeas (C. reticulatum) could be used for selecting more diverse symbionts in the field conditions and it implies that chickpea domestication affected symbiosis negatively in addition to reducing genetic diversity.

  7. Environmental Impact Research Program. A Workshop to Investigate Techniques to Analyze Physical and Biological Effects of Commercial Navigation Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    complex system of waterways supporting com- mercial navigation. It is linked to the Gulf of Mexico via the Tennessee- Tombigbee Waterway, and is...Rock Island, IL. McMahon, R. F. and Payne, B. S. 1980. "Variation of Thermal Tolerance Limits in Populations of Physa virgata Gould ( Mollusca : Pulmonata...In general, fecundity is pro- portional to mass in freshwater mollusca (Calow (1983) and references within). Thus, the reproductive value of small but

  8. Ecosystem manipulation for increasing biological N2 fixation by blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA) in lowland rice fields

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, I.F.; Roger, Pierre-Armand; Watanabe, I.

    1986-01-01

    An introduction to the soil/floodwater ecosystem of lowland rice fields is given. Two primary consumers are particularly important in limiting the growth and N2-fixing activities of blue-green algae in irrigated rice ; the OSTRACODA (Class CRUSTACEA) and the PULMONATA (MULUSCA). Control of grazing by neem seeds AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Juss and cultural practices enhanced BGA biomass and increased N2-fixation ten fold. Significant increases in rice grain protein occur if heterocystous algae bloo...

  9. Molecular identification of intergenus crosses involving catfish hybrids: risks for aquaculture production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo T. Hashimoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring of the interspecific hybrid production and trade is essential for the appropriate management of these animals in fish farms. The identification of catfish hybrids by morphological analysis is unreliable, particularly of juveniles and post-F1 individuals. Therefore, in the present study, we used five molecular markers (four nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene to detect hybrids in the trade of pimelodid juvenile fish from different stocks purchased of five seed producers in Brazil. Samples commercialized as pintado (pure species Pseudoplatystoma corruscans from three fish farms were genetically identified as hybrid cachapinta (♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ P. corruscans . In the stocks purchased as cachandiá (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Leiarius marmoratus and cachapira (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Phractocephalus hemioliopterus , we suggested the occurrence of intergenus crosses involving the hybrid cachapinta, which was used instead of the pure species P. reticulatum . The problems involving the hybrid cachapinta production were discussed in the present study, especially because these animals have caused genetic contamination and threatened the genetic integrity of natural and cultivated populations. In order to improve the surveillance of the production and provide criteria for the correct management of catfish hybrids, genetic markers has become an excellent alternative to the morphological identification, including juveniles or post-F1 generations.

  10. 2012-IJBCS-Article-Ebou Madjela Some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Available online at http://ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. ... between male and female during flowering,. (ii) the long duration of ..... decrease plant fitness. P. reticulatum is .... Millogo-Rassolodimbi J, Hien V. 2009. Phenology and ...

  11. Good Crab, Bad Crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are crabs friends or foes of marsh grass, benefit or detriment to the salt marsh system? We examined Uca pugilator (sand fiddler) and Sesarma reticulatum (purple marsh crab) with Spartina patens (salt marsh hay) at two elevations (10 cm below MHW and 10 cm above MHW) in mesocosms...

  12. Chemical fingerprinting of algaenans using RuO4 degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, P.; Ende, H. van den; Leeuw, J.W. de; Versteegh, G.J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater green microalgae, Oocystus solitaria Wittrock f. maior Wille, Pediastrum braunii Wartmann, Pediastrum kawraiskyi Schmidle, Sorastrum spinulosum Na¨geli and Coelastrum reticulatum (Dangeard) Senn were investigated with respect to the presence of algaenan and the corresponding RuO4 chem

  13. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  14. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  15. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae) in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela)

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves,E.; Rondon, M.; Zamora, E.; Salazar M

    2005-01-01

    Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), se determinó una prevalencia ...

  16. Slug control in Australian canola: monitoring, molluscicidal baits and economic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael A; Thomson, Linda J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-09-01

    Exotic slugs have become serious pests of canola, at establishment, in Southern Australian high-rainfall cropping zones. Slugs were monitored using relatively inexpensive 300 mm x 300 mm terracotta tiles acting as refuges. An investigation was made of the effects of the time of application of chelated iron baits on the slug species Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Lehmannia nyctelia Bourguignat. Baits reduced the number of surface-active slug species. A single application at sowing provided greater efficacy than one application before sowing, and efficacy was comparable with that of two applications. Canola seedling densities showed a negative response to D. reticulatum numbers; the presence of even one individual per refuge trap reduced seedling numbers below optimum densities. Thistles and other vegetation were associated with increased numbers of slugs. European guidelines for slug monitoring and damage appear to be at least partly applicable to Australian conditions.

  17. Potential of Sahelian Native Shrub Materials to Suppress the Spiral Nematode Helicotylenchus dihystera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Diakhaté, S.; Djigal, D.; Ba, A. O.; Dick, R. P.; Sembéne, P. M.; Masse, D.

    2015-01-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a drought-tolerant cereal commonly grown for grain and fodder in arid areas throughout the world. Senegalese millet fields are infested with Helicotylenchus. The native evergreen woody shrub Piliostigma reticulatum is widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. Its coppiced residues are used by small farmers as mulch in crop fields. The shrub’s nematicidal effect on the spiral nematode Helicotylenchus dihystera was evaluated in a pearl millet pot experiment. The abundance of nematodes decreased by 64% after application of either leaf powder or a pulverized mixing of leaves and stems, suggesting the use of aboveground materials of P. reticulatum as a potential nematicide. The results show promise for use of a local resource by subsistence farmers in the Sahel. Further research is needed on application to fully develop this approach as a biopesticide. PMID:26527843

  18. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in recent sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India: Influence of environmental characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    1998). Dinocyst abundance data were log (x+1) transformed. A forward selection was performed on the set of environmental variables and statistical significance of each variable was tested using a Monte Carlo permutation test under the reduced model...). These cysts are spherical in shape and have colourless wall with densely ornamented processes that are slender in shape having capitate ends (Fig. 7). P. reticulatum is considered as a potential toxic dinoflagellate that blooms in low numbers (Boni et al...

  19. 中国桑树害虫名录(Ⅺ)%Checklist of Mulberry Pests in China (Ⅺ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦冠勤; 孙兴鲁; 毛建萍; 姜德义; 王军; 谭书生

    2010-01-01

    记述了昆虫纲(Insecta)双翅目(Diptera)、缨翅目(Thysanoptera)、等翅目(Isoptera)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)、革翅目(Dermaptera)、蜚蠊目(Blattaria)的26种桑树害虫,以及蛛形纲(Arachnida)真螨目(Acariformes)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)等足目(Isopoda)、软体动物门(Mollusca)腹足纲(Gastropoda)柄眼目(Stylommatophora)共28种桑树害虫与危害物种,分别介绍了这些害虫及危害物种的中文名称、学名、寄主种类与主要分布区域,为控制桑树各类有害生物的发生与危害提供相关的基础信息.

  20. Ultrasound pretreatment of filamentous algal biomass for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Kong, Mingeun; Park, Ki Young

    2014-06-01

    The filamentous alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum harvested from a bench-scale wastewater treatment pond was used to evaluate biogas production after ultrasound pretreatment. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment at a range of 10-5000 J/mL were tested with harvested H. reticulatum. Cell disruption by ultrasound was successful and showed a higher degree of disintegration at a higher applied energy. The range of 10-5000 J/mL ultrasound was able to disintegrated H. reticulatum and the soluble COD was increased from 250 mg/L to 1000 mg/L at 2500 J/mL. The disintegrated algal biomass was digested for biogas production in batch experiments. Both cumulative gas generation and volatile solids reduction data were obtained during the digestion. Cell disintegration due to ultrasound pretreatment increased the specific biogas production and degradation rates. Using the ultrasound approach, the specific methane production at a dose of 40 J/mL increased up to 384 mL/g-VS fed that was 2.3 times higher than the untreated sample. For disintegrated samples, the volatile solids reduction was greater with increased energy input, and the degradation increased slightly to 67% at a dose of 50 J/mL. The results also indicate that disintegration of the algal cells is the essential step for efficient anaerobic digestion of algal biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined Effects of Ocean Acidification and Light or Nitrogen Availabilities on 13C Fractionation in Marine Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoins, Mirja; Eberlein, Tim; Groβmann, Christian H.; Brandenburg, Karen; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn; Sluijs, Appy; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.

    2016-01-01

    Along with increasing oceanic CO2 concentrations, enhanced stratification constrains phytoplankton to shallower upper mixed layers with altered light regimes and nutrient concentrations. Here, we investigate the effects of elevated pCO2 in combination with light or nitrogen-limitation on 13C fractionation (εp) in four dinoflagellate species. We cultured Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum in dilute batches under low-light (‘LL’) and high-light (‘HL’) conditions, and grew Alexandrium fundyense and Scrippsiella trochoidea in nitrogen-limited continuous cultures (‘LN’) and nitrogen-replete batches (‘HN’). The observed CO2-dependency of εp remained unaffected by the availability of light for both G. spinifera and P. reticulatum, though at HL εp was consistently lower by about 2.7‰ over the tested CO2 range for P. reticulatum. This may reflect increased uptake of (13C-enriched) bicarbonate fueled by increased ATP production under HL conditions. The observed CO2-dependency of εp disappeared under LN conditions in both A. fundyense and S. trochoidea. The generally higher εp under LN may be associated with lower organic carbon production rates and/or higher ATP:NADPH ratios. CO2-dependent εp under non-limiting conditions has been observed in several dinoflagellate species, showing potential for a new CO2-proxy. Our results however demonstrate that light- and nitrogen-limitation also affect εp, thereby illustrating the need to carefully consider prevailing environmental conditions. PMID:27153107

  2. Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae en la zona alta de Mérida, Venezuela (Fasciola hepatica (Trematode: Fasciolidae in zone high of Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves, E*

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudió sobre la presencia de Fasciola hepática en la finca “El Joque” vía La Azulita, Estado Mérida, Venezuela. Un foco natural de fasciolasis fue verificado por la presencia de formas larvales en los caracoles hospedadores intermediarios y por examen coprológico en los bovinos de la finca. Detectandose la presencia de moluscos en todas las áreas muestreadas de la finca, de los cuales, el 77% resultó ser del Genero Lymnaea (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, se determinó una prevalencia de infección de un 42 % en el bebedero, del 43% en el potrero y del 39% en el manantial. Ademas, se detectó un 39% de infección por F. hepática en los bovinos de la finca. La alta prevalencia de F. hepatica en la zona . In the present study was evaluated the presence of Fasciola hepatica in the farm The Joque Merida State, Venezuela. The installation of the natural focus of fascioliasis was verified through of finding the larval forms in the intermediate snail host and coprologics exams in cattle from the farm. The snails were collected in diferents places of the farm, registering the 77% belongs to the Lymnaea genus (Pulmonata:Lymnaeidae intermediator host infected naturally with Fasciola was 42% in the water fill, 43% in the herder and 39% in the source. The results shows that the region presents one prevalence to fascioliasis in cattle of 39%. The very high prevalence of F. hepatica in area studied, suggest that could act as a potential risk to public health.

  3. CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates relates to their inorganic carbon fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoins, Mirja; Eberlein, Tim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Sluijs, Appy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation (εp) between the inorganic carbon source and organic matter has been proposed to be a function of pCO2. To understand the CO2-dependency of εp and species-specific differences therein, inorganic carbon fluxes in the four dinoflagellate species Alexandrium fundyense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum have been measured by means of membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. In-vivo assays were carried out at different CO2 concentrations, representing a range of pCO2 from 180 to 1200 μatm. The relative bicarbonate contribution (i.e. the ratio of bicarbonate uptake to total inorganic carbon uptake) and leakage (i.e. the ratio of CO2 efflux to total inorganic carbon uptake) varied from 0.2 to 0.5 and 0.4 to 0.7, respectively, and differed significantly between species. These ratios were fed into a single-compartment model, and εp values were calculated and compared to carbon isotope fractionation measured under the same conditions. For all investigated species, modeled and measured εp values were comparable (A. fundyense, S. trochoidea, P. reticulatum) and/or showed similar trends with pCO2 (A. fundyense, G. spinifera, P. reticulatum). Offsets are attributed to biases in inorganic flux measurements, an overestimated fractionation factor for the CO2-fixing enzyme RubisCO, or the fact that intracellular inorganic carbon fluxes were not taken into account in the model. This study demonstrates that CO2-dependency in εp can largely be explained by the inorganic carbon fluxes of the individual dinoflagellates.

  4. [Cryptosporidium parvum in wild gastropods as bioindicators of fecal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira O, Patricia; Muñoz S, Nelson; Stanley V, Bárbara; Gosh C, Marianne; Rosales L, M José

    2010-06-01

    Cryptosporidium sp oocysts were detected in snails (Helix aspersa Miller) and slug (Deroceras reticulatum Miller) from the Valparaiso Region, Chile. Snails and slug were collected from public squares and private domestic gardens. Cryptosporidium sp oocysts were recovered from faeces of both species. Ziehl Neelsen stain, nested PCR, and sequencing analysis demonstrated a profile similar to that described for genotype C or 2 of the parasite. These results demonstrate that snails and slug could act as a reservoir and mechanic vector of C. parvum infection for humans and animals. Moreover, gastropods could serve as bioindicators of fecal soil contamination.

  5. Phylogenetic and host-parasite relationship analysis of Henneguya multiplasmodialis n. sp. infecting Pseudoplatystoma spp. in Brazilian Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, E A; Carriero, M M; Maia, A A M; Silva, M R M; Naldoni, J; Ceccarelli, P S; Arana, S

    2012-04-30

    A new species of the genus Henneguya (Henneguya multiplasmodialis n. sp.) was found infecting the gills of three of 89 specimens (3.3%) of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and two of 79 specimens (2.6%) of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum from rivers in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene of the spores obtained from one plasmodium from the gills of P. corruscans and other one from the gills of P. reticulatum, respectively, resulted in a total of 1560 and 1147 base pairs. As the spores of H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. resemble those of Henneguya corruscans, which is also a parasite of P. corruscans, sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene of the spores of H. corruscans found on P. corruscans caught in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland was also provided to avoid any taxonomic pendency between these two species, resulting in 1913 base pairs. The sequences of H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. parasite of P. corruscans and P. reticulatum and H. corruscans did not match any of the Myxozoa available in the GenBank. The similarity of H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. obtained from P. corruscans to that from P. reticulatum was of 99.7%. Phylogeny revealed a strong tendency among Henneguya species to form clades based on the order and/or family of the host fish. H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. clustered in a clade with Henneguya eirasi and H. corruscans, which are also parasites of siluriforms of the family Pimelodidae and, together with the clade composed of Henneguya spp. parasites of siluriforms of the family Ictaluridae, formed a monophyletic clade of parasites of siluriform hosts. The histological study revealed that the wall of the plasmodia of H. multiplasmodialis n. sp. were covered with a stratified epithelium rich in club cells and supported by a layer of connective tissue. The interior of the plasmodia had a network of septa that divided the plasmodia into numerous compartments. The septa were composed of connective tissue also covered on both sides with a stratified

  6. Ecological implication of variation in the secondary metabolites in Parmelioid lichens with respect to altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vertika; Patel, D K; Bajpai, Rajesh; Semwal, Manoj; Upreti, D K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are known to synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Two common lichen extrolites, atranorin and salazinic acid, are known to afford antioxidant as well as photoprotectant nature depending on the abiotic/biotic stress. The present investigation aims to study the influence of altitudinal gradient on the quantitative profile of atranorin and salazinic acid in three lichen species, Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale, Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale and Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) Choisy, Parmeliaceae using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Samples were collected from high-altitude area, usually considered as non-polluted sites of Garhwal Himalaya. Characterization and quantification of the lichen substances in samples were carried out comparing with the standards of atranorin and salazinic acid. Results indicated significant variation in the chemical content with the rising altitude. All the three lichen species showed higher quantities of chemical substances with the altitudinal rise, while among the three lichen species, E. cirrhatum showed the highest quantity of total lichen compounds. The higher abundance and frequency of E. cirrhatum with increasing altitude as compared to B. setschwanensis and P. reticulatum may be attributed due to the presence of higher quantity of photoprotecting/antioxidant chemicals especially salazinic acid. Thus, the present study shows the prominent role of secondary metabolite in wider ecological distribution of Parmelioid lichens at higher altitudes.

  7. High density linkage mapping of genomic and transcriptomic SNPs for synteny analysis and anchoring the genome sequence of chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Jeena, Ganga; Shah, Niraj; Gupta, Shefali; Pradhan, Seema; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Jain, Mukesh; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    This study presents genome-wide discovery of SNPs through next generation sequencing of the genome of Cicer reticulatum. Mapping of the C. reticulatum sequenced reads onto the draft genome assembly of C. arietinum (desi chickpea) resulted in identification of 842,104 genomic SNPs which were utilized along with an additional 36,446 genic SNPs identified from transcriptome sequences of the aforementioned varieties. Two new chickpea Oligo Pool All (OPAs) each having 3,072 SNPs were designed and utilized for SNP genotyping of 129 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs). Using Illumina GoldenGate Technology genotyping data of 5,041 SNPs were generated and combined with the 1,673 marker data from previously published studies, to generate a high resolution linkage map. The map comprised of 6698 markers distributed on eight linkage groups spanning 1083.93 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.16 cM. Utility of the present map was demonstrated for improving the anchoring of the earlier reported draft genome sequence of desi chickpea by ~30% and that of kabuli chickpea by 18%. The genetic map reported in this study represents the most dense linkage map of chickpea , with the potential to facilitate efficient anchoring of the draft genome sequences of desi as well as kabuli chickpea varieties. PMID:26303721

  8. Viability of dried vegetative cells or filaments, survivability and/or reproduction under water and light stress, and following heat and UV exposure in some blue-green and green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S C; Pal, U

    2003-01-01

    Vegetative cells in dried, mucilagenous mass of Gloeocapsa aeruginosa and Aphanothece nidulans, reticulum of Hydrodictyon reticulatum, mucilagenous mass of Chroococcus minor, and filaments of Oedogonium sp. and Scytonema hofmanni died within 1/2, 1/2, 1/2, 1, 3 and 6 h, respectively, while dried vegetative filaments of Phormidium foveolarum retained under similar storage conditions viability for 4 d. P. foveolarum tolerated 1 mol/L NaCl. The resistance to desiccation in P. foveolarum exhibited similar dependence as that to heat or UV light. The water stress imposed on growing algae either on high-agar solid media or in NaCl-containing liquid media reduced at various levels or altogether inhibited the survival of vegetative parts in all, the cell division in C. minor, G. aeruginosa and A. nidulans, formation of heterocyst and false branch in S. hofmanni, oogonium in Oedogonium sp., and daughter net in H. reticulatum. Heat or UV shock of any level also produced similar effects as that by water stress. P. foveolarum tolerated low light level of 10 and 2 mumol m-2 s-1 and no light longer than the rest of other algae studied. Tolerance of microalgal forms to water, heat or UV stress depends primarily upon cell-wall characteristics or cell-sap osmotic properties rather than their habitats, morphology and prokaryotic or eukaryotic nature.

  9. Analysis of the hydrographic conditions and cyst beds in the San Jorge Gulf, Argentina, that favor dinoflagellate population development including toxigenic species and their toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krock, Bernd; Borel, C. Marcela; Barrera, Facundo; Tillmann, Urban; Fabro, Elena; Almandoz, Gastón O.; Ferrario, Martha; Garzón Cardona, John E.; Koch, Boris P.; Alonso, Cecilia; Lara, Rubén

    2015-08-01

    The overlay of cooler nutrient enriched Beagle-Magellan water with warmer nutrient depleted shelf water and a strong stratification of the water column in the San Jorge Gulf region, Argentina, coincided with relatively high dinoflagellate abundances in April 2012, up to 34,000 cells L- 1. This dinoflagellate proliferation was dominated by Ceratium spp., but environmental conditions also favored to a lesser amount the occurrence of toxigenic dinoflagellates, such as Alexandrium tamarense and Protoceratium reticulatum, whose toxins were hardly detected in any other areas along the expedition transect of the R/V Puerto Deseado between 38 and 56°S (Ushuaia-Mar del Plata) in March/April 2012. Generally vegetative cells of A. tamarense and P. reticulatum co-occurred with their respective phycotoxins in the water column and their cysts in the upper sediment layers. Two strains of A. tamarense were isolated from the bloom sample and morphologically characterized. Their PSP toxin profiles consisted of C1/2, gonyautoxins 1/4 and to a lesser amount of neosaxitoxin and confirmed earlier data from this region. The ratios between autotrophic picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were higher in shelf waters in the north than in Beagle-Magellan waters in the south of San Jorge Gulf.

  10. Pests of Palm Plants in Xiamen%厦门棕榈科植物害虫调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谨; 林玉英; 金涛

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the occurrence condition of pests of palm plant in Xiamen, investigations were conducted systematically on mass screening, spot-check and consultancy. The investigation result showed that, there are 45 kinds of palm plant pests belonging to Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Homoptera, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera of Insecta, Acariformes of Arachnida and Stylommatophora of Gastropoda. It offered an important basis for control and further investigation of pests of palm plant in Xiamen.%为了解厦门棕榈科植物害虫的发生情况,采用普查、抽查及咨询的方式进行系统调查。调查结果显示,厦门共有棕榈科植物害虫45种,分别属于昆虫纲的等翅目、直翅目、同翅目、缨翅目、半翅目、鞘翅目、鳞翅目、蛛形纲的真螨目和腹足纲的柄眼目,为厦门棕榈科植物虫害的防治和深入研究提供依据。

  11. Comparative analysis of chromosome counts infers three paleopolyploidies in the mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Nathaniel M; Lindberg, David R

    2011-01-01

    The study of paleopolyploidies requires the comparison of multiple whole genome sequences. If the branches of a phylogeny on which a whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred could be identified before genome sequencing, taxa could be selected that provided a better assessment of that genome duplication. Here, we describe a likelihood model in which the number of chromosomes in a genome evolves according to a Markov process with one rate of chromosome duplication and loss that is proportional to the number of chromosomes in the genome and another stochastic rate at which every chromosome in the genome could duplicate in a single event. We compare the maximum likelihoods of a model in which the genome duplication rate varies to one in which it is fixed at zero using the Akaike information criterion, to determine if a model with WGDs is a good fit for the data. Once it has been determined that the data does fit the WGD model, we infer the phylogenetic position of paleopolyploidies by calculating the posterior probability that a WGD occurred on each branch of the taxon tree. Here, we apply this model to a molluscan tree represented by 124 taxa and infer three putative WGD events. In the Gastropoda, we identify a single branch within the Hypsogastropoda and one of two branches at the base of the Stylommatophora. We also identify one or two branches near the base of the Cephalopoda.

  12. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

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    María José Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se analizaron parámetros de diversidad de la malacofauna terrestre del Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos en parcelas de 10x10m tomadas en transectas altitudinales, para un total de 22 169 especímenes recolectados. Las identificaciones taxonómicas se llevaron a cabo a nivel de especie. Se construyó una matriz de especies por parcela para analizar patrones de diversidad y se utilizaron estimadores no paramétricos (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 y Chao 2 para calcular la diversidad del Parque, el grado de completitud del muestreo y la agregación espacial de los datos. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker y Jaccard. La riqueza del Parque fue estimada en 32 especies distribuidas en 21 géneros y 13 familias. Solo una especie pertenece a Caenogastropoda, el resto son Pulmonados Stylommatophora y Systellommatophora. La familia más representada fue Charopidae mientras que la especie con mayor abundancia relativa fue Adelopoma tucma. La riqueza y diversidad fue levemente mayor en chaco seco que en bosque húmedo de Yungas. Los valores de diversidad obtenidos fueron elevados en comparación con estudios previos realizados en el noroeste Argentino.

  13. The gastropod shell has been co-opted to kill parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, R

    2017-07-06

    Exoskeletons have evolved 18 times independently over 550 MYA and are essential for the success of the Gastropoda. The gastropod shell shows a vast array of different sizes, shapes and structures, and is made of conchiolin and calcium carbonate, which provides protection from predators and extreme environmental conditions. Here, I report that the gastropod shell has another function and has been co-opted as a defense system to encase and kill parasitic nematodes. Upon infection, cells on the inner layer of the shell adhere to the nematode cuticle, swarm over its body and fuse it to the inside of the shell. Shells of wild Cepaea nemoralis, C. hortensis and Cornu aspersum from around the U.K. are heavily infected with several nematode species including Caenorhabditis elegans. By examining conchology collections I show that nematodes are permanently fixed in shells for hundreds of years and that nematode encapsulation is a pleisomorphic trait, prevalent in both the achatinoid and non-achatinoid clades of the Stylommatophora (and slugs and shelled slugs), which diverged 90-130 MYA. Taken together, these results show that the shell also evolved to kill parasitic nematodes and this is the only example of an exoskeleton that has been co-opted as an immune system.

  14. Glándula pediosa de moluscos terrestres y sus implicancias evolutivas, con énfasis en Megalobulimus

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    Victor Borda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la anatomía de la glándula pediosa de cinco especies de Megalobulimus (Megalobulimidae, y son comparadas con gastrópodos pulmonados Succineidae, Orthalicidae, Helicidae y Veronicellidae. Una sinapomorfía considerada para el clado Stylommatophora es la presencia de una membrana que aísla a la glándula pediosa de la cavidad visceral. Las especies estudiadas mostraron un grado variable de sujeción de la glándula al pie, desde apenas sujeta por escasa fibras (Megalobulimus hasta aquella totalmente aislada por una membrana (Cantareus pasando por grados intermedios (Succinea y Bostryx. La glándula pediosa en la seudobabosa Heterovaginia limayana (Systellommatophora no está adherida al piso de la cavidad visceral. En Megalobulimus, la parte glandular es voluminosa y pende del techo de la cápsula, a diferencia de las otras especies en que los acinos glandulares están uniformemente adosados a la pared interna de la cápsula. Se describen nuevos caracteres para la glándula pediosa que mejoran la diagnosis del género Megalobulimus y su evaluación filogenética.

  15. Parasitofauna de cachara cultivado em tanque-rede no rio Paraguai

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    Gabriela Tomas Jeronimo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fauna parasitária de cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum cultivado em tanque-rede, no rio Paraguai. Dez peixes com peso médio de 598,0±81,3 g e comprimento total médio de 38,6±1,6 cm foram examinados. Todos os peixes necropsiados apresentaram infestação por pelo menos duas espécies de parasitos. Entre os parasitos, foram encontrados Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora, Myxobolus sp. e Henneguya sp. (Myxozoa, Monogenoidea, Choanoscolex abscissus e Nominoscolex sudobim (Cestoda, Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea e Digenea. O protozoário Ichthyophthirius multifiliis foi o parasito com maior prevalência.

  16. Effet structurant de la plante hôte chez la bruche de l'arachide, Caryedon serratus (Olivier, 1790 (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

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    Sembène, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Structuring effect of the host plant in the groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus (Olivier, 1790 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Twenty-six samples of the groundnut seed-beetle which were reared from pods of five different host plants (Arachis hypogaea L., Bauhinia rufescens Lam., Cassia sieberiana DC., Piliostigma reticulatum (DC. Hochst. and Tamarindus indica L. in four localities of Senegal were compared using electrophoresis based on six loci of four enzymatic systems. The population structure of Caryedon serratus Olivier was analysed using Weir and Cockerham's estimator of Wright's F-statistics. θ value (0.235 and the dendrogram of Rogers'genetic distances revealed a high degree of genetic differentiation between host plants. Genetic analysis without C. sieberiana samples indicated that populations form host races which are partially isolated according to their host plants (θ = 0.035. Geographical distances between localities are not decisive for genetic structuration of C. serratus populations from a given host plant.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on the shoot length of Cicer seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toker, Cengiz [Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, TR-07059 Antalya (Turkey)]. E-mail: toker@akdeniz.edu.tr; Uzun, Bulent [Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, TR-07059 Antalya (Turkey); Canci, Huseyin [Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, TR-07059 Antalya (Turkey); Oncu Ceylan, F. [Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, TR-07059 Antalya (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    The effects of radiation on the shoot and root lengths of germinated seedling of irradiated seeds of Cicer species, i.e. three kabuli types and four desi types of cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum Ladiz.) and 2 annual wild types (C. reticulatum Ladiz. and C. bijugum K.H. Rech.) were investigated. The seeds were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co gamma source using 0, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses at 1.66 kGy h{sup -1}. At 200 Gy minor effects could be observed, but at 400 Gy an obvious depression of shoot length was observed. The kabuli types were more affected than the desi ones. The critical dose that prevented the shoot and root elongation varied among species and also ranged from genotypes to genotype within species.

  18. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  19. Biodistribution of the Informal Group Basommatophora in the Philippines

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    Patrick Noel Y. Young

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basommatophora is an informal group within the molluscan subclass Pulmonata comprising of air-breathing freshwater snails that are typically characterized by eyespots located at the base of two noncontractile tentacles and two external genital orifices. They also have varied shell structures and habitats, not only within the group but also within families. Families of the Basommatophora are highly ubiquitous and may play a role in the life cycles of various parasites of humans and animals. Basommatophora has a worldwide geographical distribution across freshwater, terrestrial and marine habitats. However, little is known on their distribution in the Philippines. This report focuses on describing the biogeographical distribution of the basommatophorans in the Philippines through data gathered from museum collections, foreign databases accessed online, and identification of species found in various literatures. A qualitative description of the distribution of each Basommatophora family in the Philippines is given by distribution maps, indicating locations where specimens were collected and/or identified. A total of 336 counts of basommatophorans from 22 genera were encountered from available literature, museums and public databases. The majority of the occurrences are from the genera Siphonaria. The data and maps generated describe most of the distribution to be in Luzon, with Visayas and Mindanao having close counts with each other. The Philippines has the third most occurrences and genera of basommatophorans of all tropical countries in the world. However, the true diversity of the group could be higher if a more systematic sampling of the archipelago is conducted.

  20. Development of the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior in Helix aspersa snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Annoscia, Giada; Di Cesare, Angela; Colella, Vito; Brianti, Emanuele; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) and Troglostrongylus brevior (Strongylida, Crenosomatidae) are regarded as important lungworm species of domestic felids, with the latter considered an emerging threat in the Mediterranean region. The present study aimed to assess their concurrent development in the mollusc Helix aspersa (Pulmonata, Helicidae). Thirty snails were infested with 100 first-stage larvae (L1) of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, isolated from a naturally infested kitten. Larval development was checked by digesting five specimens at 2, 6 and 11 days post infestation. Larvae retrieved were morphologically described and their identification was confirmed by specific PCR and sequencing. All H. aspersa snails were positive for A. abstrusus and T. brevior, whose larval stages were simultaneously detected at each time point. In addition, snails were exposed to outdoor conditions and examined after overwintering, testing positive up to 120 days post infestation. Data herein presented suggest that A. abstrusus and T. brevior develop in H. aspersa snails and may eventually co-infest cats. Data on the morphology of both parasitic species in H. aspersa provide additional information on their development and identification, to better understand the population dynamics of these lungworms in receptive snails and paratenic hosts.

  1. Epidermal secretions of terrestrial flatworms and slugs: Lehmannia valentiana mucus contains matrilin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Graham, Lloyd D

    2007-11-01

    We describe the epidermal mucus of two types of terrestrial invertebrates: free-living flatworms (Tricladida: Terricola), and the slug Lehmannia valentiana (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Both exhibited similar dry shear strengths (1.4-1.7 MPa). In denaturing gel electrophoresis, the protein fraction of flatworm mucus migrated mainly as a broad band (200-300 kDa). Slug mucus had a higher protein content than flatworm mucus but it contained more carbohydrate than protein, mainly as large heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans. Proteins and glycosaminoglycans were both essential for the mechanical integrity of the slug hydrogel. The protein fraction of slug mucus contained approximately 12 larger proteins (30-300 kDa) and approximately 6 smaller ones (10-28 kDa). Complete cDNA clones were obtained for the slug mucus 40 kDa protein (Sm40; Genbank accession EF634345) and 85 kDa protein (Sm85; Genbank accession EF634346). Both proteins contain EGF-like repeats and von Willebrand A-domains, and therefore resemble vertebrate matrilins. Many of the larger slug mucus proteins appear to contain A-domains, and these may play a role in the unusual rheological properties of gastropod mucus.

  2. An Assessment of the Effect of Rotenone on Selected Non-Target Aquatic Fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Jordaan, Martine; Froneman, William P; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2015-01-01

    Rotenone, a naturally occurring ketone, is widely employed for the management of invasive fish species. The use of rotenone poses serious challenges to conservation practitioners due to its impacts on non-target organisms including amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Using laboratory studies, we investigated the effects of different rotenone concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 100 μg L-1) on selected invertebrate groups; Aeshnidae, Belostomatids, Decapods, Ephemeroptera, Pulmonata and zooplankton over a period of 18 hours. Based on field observations and body size, we hypothesized that Ephemeropterans and zooplankton would be more susceptible to rotenone than Decapods, Belostomatids and snails. Experimental results supported this hypothesis and mortality and behaviour effects varied considerably between taxa, ranging from no effect (crab Potamonuates sidneyi) to 100% mortality (Daphnia pulex and Paradiaptomus lamellatus). Planktonic invertebrates were particularly sensitive to rotenone even at very low concentrations. Future research should investigate the recovery time of invertebrate communities after the application of rotenone and conduct field assessments assessing the longer term effects of rotenone exposure on the population dynamics of those less sensitive organisms.

  3. Analysis of the secondary structure of mitochondrial LSU rRNA of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae: Gastropoda

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    Jorge Ramirez Ramirez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The alignment of ribosomal genes is difficult due to insertion and deletion events of nucleotides, making the alignment ambiguous. This can be overcome by using information from the secondary structure of ribosomal genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the secondary structure in improving the alignment of the 16S rRNA gene in land snails of the family Orthalicidae. We assessed 10 Orthalicid species (five genera. Total DNA was isolated and the partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using internal primers. The sequences were aligned with ClustalX and manually corrected, in DCSE format, using the 16S rRNA secondary structure of Albinaria caerulea (Pulmonata: Clausiliidae. The sequences obtained ranged from 323 to 345 bp corresponding to parts of both domains IV and V of the 16S rRNA gene. The secondary structure was recovered by homology using RnaViz 2.0. Most stems are conserved, and in general the loops are more variable. The compensatory mutations in stems are related to maintenance of the structure. The absence of a bulge-stem-loop in domain V places the family Orthalicidae within the Heterobranchia.

  4. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana K Jannotti-Passos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA. In addition to sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, regions of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.

  6. Fauna parasitária dos híbridos siluriformes cachapinta e jundiara nos primeiros estágios de desenvolvimento

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    Arlene Sobrinho Ventura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fauna parasitária dos peixes híbridos cachapinta (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans macho x P. reticulatum fêmea e jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus macho x P. reticulatum fêmea no período de larvicultura. Um total de 315 animais, 126 híbridos jundiara e 189 híbridos cachapinta, foram examinados de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento: larvas, pós-larvas e alevinos. Larvas e pós-larvas foram prensadas entre lâmina e lamínula e observadas sob microscopia óptica. Os alevinos foram observados externamente em estereomicroscópio e necropsiados para avaliação interna dos órgãos. Foram aferidos os parâmetros de qualidade de água em todas as fases de cultivo. O exame parasitológico revelou a presença dos protozoários Epistylis sp. e Trichodina sp., no tegumento e nas brânquias, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis no tegumento, dos helmintos Monogenea nas brânquias, e das metacercárias de digenéticos em brânquias, baço, rins, fígado e intestino, em ambos os híbridos analisados. Os parasitos Epystilis sp., Trichodina sp. e metacercária de digenéticos ocorrem com maior frequência nos dois híbridos, nas fases de pós-larvas e alevinos. Há maior prevalência e diversidade de parasitos na fase de alevinagem dos híbridos estudados.

  7. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Phylogenomic interrogation of arachnida reveals systemic conflicts in phylogenetic signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P; Kaluziak, Stefan T; Pérez-Porro, Alicia R; González, Vanessa L; Hormiga, Gustavo; Wheeler, Ward C; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2014-11-01

    , Scorpiones, and Pseudoscorpiones. We demonstrate that outgroup selection without regard for branch length distribution exacerbates long-branch attraction artifacts and does not mitigate gene-tree discordance, regardless of high gene representation for outgroups that are model organisms. Arachnopulmonata (new name) is proposed for the clade comprising Scorpiones + Tetrapulmonata (previously named Pulmonata).

  9. Relationships between physical and chemical factors and aquatic macroinvertebrates in perennial streams in the arid northern mountain basin El Batinah, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boulaaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between physical properties, water chemistry and aquatic macroinvertebrates were investigated in riffles of four perennial streams in the arid northern Oman. Samples were collected monthly in autumn, winter and spring with a Surber net. Thirty two invertebrate taxa were recorded, most species are widely distributed, but few species with very restricted distribution were also captured. Diptera followed by Pulmonata, Coleoptera and Odonata were the most represented taxa, Trichoptera and Heteroptera were a significant component only in one station (the Fezeh, where the lowest mean water temperature (23°C was recorded. In the dry months from May to October, aquatic macroinvertebrates were completely absent. In order to summarise the community response some biotic indices were calculated. The highest diversity was observed in the Fezeh station. A seasonal gradient was also observed, with the highest diversity values in January, April, and December. The low faunal diversity was attributed to the high air and water temperature and the hydrological regime instability. A between station and a between month coinertia analysis was carried out, to analyse the response to spatial and seasonal factors. The first coinertia axis was correlated with altitude and substrate composition, while the second axis was correlated with air and water temperature. The present research emphasizes the urgency for preserving the less disturbed wadis in arid zones, because, despite their species poorness, their uniqueness in faunal composition requires special attention. The presence of few endemic species with very restricted distribution highlights the topicality and the value in investigating these areas, allowing the increase of our knowledge on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography about the benthic macroinvertebrates living in these extreme habitats.

  10. Antioxidant defence and stress protein induction following heat stress in the Mediterranean snail Xeropicta derbentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troschinski, Sandra; Dieterich, Andreas; Krais, Stefanie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2014-12-15

    The Mediterranean snail Xeropicta derbentina (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae), being highly abundant in Southern France, has the need for efficient physiological adaptations to desiccation and over-heating posed by dry and hot environmental conditions. As a consequence of heat, oxidative stress manifests in these organisms, which, in turn, leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we focused on adaptations at the biochemical level by investigation of antioxidant defences and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) induction, both essential mechanisms of the heat stress response. We exposed snails to elevated temperature (25, 38, 40, 43 and 45°C) in the laboratory and measured the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), determined the Hsp70 level and quantified lipid peroxidation. In general, we found a high constitutive level of CAT activity in all treatments, which may be interpreted as a permanent protection against ROS, i.e. hydrogen peroxide. CAT and GPx showed temperature-dependent activity: CAT activity was significantly increased in response to high temperatures (43 and 45°C), whereas GPx exhibited a significantly increased activity at 40°C, probably in response to high levels of lipid peroxides that occurred in the 38°C treatment. Hsp70 showed a maximum induction at 40°C, followed by a decrease at higher temperatures. Our results reveal that X. derbentina possesses a set of efficient mechanisms to cope with the damaging effects of heat. Furthermore, we demonstrated that, besides the well-documented Hsp70 stress response, antioxidant defence plays a crucial role in the snails' competence to survive extreme temperatures.

  11. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Sevigny

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra, two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa. In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda

  12. Interactions between cyanobacteria and gastropods II. Impact of toxic Planktothrix agardhii on the life-history traits of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Paty, Chrystelle; Bormans, Myriam; Brient, Luc; Gérard, Claudia

    2007-03-30

    Hepatotoxins are frequently produced by many cyanobacterial species. Microcystins (MCs) are the most frequent and widely studied hepatotoxins, with potentially hazardous repercussions on aquatic organisms. As a ubiquitous herbivore living in eutrophic freshwaters, the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) is particularly exposed to cyanobacteria. The toxic filamentous Planktothrix agardhii is common in temperate lakes and is therefore, a potential food resource for gastropods. In the first part of this study, we demonstrated the ingestion of toxic P. agardhii by L. stagnalis during a 5 weeks exposure, with concomitant accumulation of, on average, 60% of total MCs ingested. After 3 weeks of non-toxic food (lettuce), approximately 90% of MCs were eliminated from tissues. Here, we investigate the impact of toxic P. agardhii consumption on the life-history traits (survival, growth and fecundity), locomotion and the structure of digestive and genital glands of juvenile and adult L. stagnalis. We observed a decrease of growth regardless of age, although this was more marked in juveniles, and a reduction of fecundity in adults. Survival and locomotion were not affected. Reduction of growth and fecundity continued to be observed even after feeding of non-toxic food for 3 weeks. The structure of the digestive gland was altered during the intoxication period but not irreversibly as cells tended to recover a normal status after the 3-week detoxification period. No histopathological changes occurred in the genital gland and oocytes, and spermatozoids were present in the gonadic acini. The density of cyanobacterial suspensions used in this study was comparable to those regularly observed in lakes, particularly in eutrophic waters. These results are discussed in terms of the negative impact of toxic cyanobacteria on natural communities of freshwater gastropods, and potential cascading effects on the equilibrium and functioning of the ecosystem.

  13. 内蒙古农牧交错区沙蒿根围AM真菌物种多样性%Species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Artemisia sphaerocephala in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺学礼; 郭辉娟; 王银银; 赵丽莉

    2012-01-01

    To study AM fungal species diversity and its spatio-temporal distribution, soil samples were collected in the rhizosphere of Artemisia sphaerocephala from three sites of Inner Mongolia in April, July and October 2009, and morphological and micro-morphological characteristics separation-identification methods were used. The results showed that 20 AM fungal species in three genera were isolated and identified from the rhizosphere of A. Sphaerocephala in Inner Mongolia, 2 species belong to Scutellospora, 4 to Acaulospora and 14 to Glomus. G. Melanosporum and G. Reticulatum were the dominant species in three sites. AM fungal species richness, Shannon-Wiener index and evenness displayed April,JuIyreticulatum).AM真菌物种丰度、香浓-威纳指数和均匀度在时间上表现为4月<7月<10月,空间上表现为元上都<黑城子<大河乡.扫描电镜下不同属种孢子表面纹饰特征差异明显,可作为AM真菌分类的参考依据.

  14. EFECTO DEL MANEJO AGROECOLÓGICO Y CONVENCIONAL SOBRE LA FLUCTUACIÓN DE BABOSA EN CULTIVOS DE LECHUGA EN TENJO CUNDINAMARCA EFFECTS OF AGROECOLOGICAL AND CONVENTIONAL HANDLING IN SLUG POPULATIONS IN LETTUCE IN TENJO CUNDINAMARCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Alexandra Córdoba Vargas

    Full Text Available En una finca ecológica (FE y una convencional (FC se comparó el comportamiento de poblaciones de babosas y su relación con algunos carábidos predadores, la presencia de arvenses, prácticas agrícolas y la productividad de cuatro variedades de lechuga (Lactuca sativa. L.. Semanalmente se realizaron capturas de babosas, conteos de nivel de daño, altura y número de hojas en 10 plantas. Se recolectaron arvenses y coleópteros en las dos fincas. Los conteos totales de babosas en la FE fueron estadísticamente superiores. Se colectaron cuatro especies (Deroceras. reticulatum, Milax gagates, Deroceras. laeve y Limax. maximux frente a dos encontradas en FC. Con excepción de la variedad "Morada Lisa", no se encontraron diferencias significativas en el nivel de daño en las otras variedades entre las dos fincas, pero sí en la variable peso seco de FE. En FE se presentaron 5 especies de carábidos y 25 de arvenses frente a ninguna y 6 en FC, respectivamente. Los datos anteriores se explican en función de las prácticas agronómicas de cada sistema de manejo.In an organic (FE and a conventional (FC farm system the population behavior of slugs and their relationship with some carabids predators was compared, as well as, the presence of weeds, agricultural practices and productivity of four varieties of lettuce. Weekly catches of slugs were made and the damage level, height and the number of leaves in ten plants was measured. Weeds and carabids were collected in both farms. The total number of slugs in the FE was statistically higher and four species (D. reticulatum, Milax gagates, D. and L. laev maximux were collected compared with two found in FC. With the exception of the variety "Morada Lisa", there were no significant differences in the level of damage in the other varieties between the two farms. There were significant differences in the dry weight variable in favour of the organic farm. In FE, 5 carabids species and 25 weeds were presented

  15. Rice field flora and vegetation in the provinces of Valencia and Tarragona

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    Carretero, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty nine emergent and twenty floating or submerged taxa , were found in the rice fields in Valencia and Tarragona provinces. Eleven of the se taxa, all them emergent, are alien Of introduced ones. Echinochloa oryzoides and E. oryzicola are the most important in both areas, together with Cyperus difformis and Echinochloa hispidula in Valencia. The remaining thirty eight taxa belong to the native flora. There are predominantly the emergent Scirpus maritimus, Alisma plantago-aquatica. Echinochloa crus-galli and Paspalum distichum; the floating Lemna minor and L. gibba; the submersed Potamogeton nodosus; Zannichellia palustris and Najas minor; and the macroscopical algae Chara vulgaris, Cladophora glomerata, Oedogonium capilliforme, Spirogyra spp., Pithophora oedogania and Hydrodictyon reticulatum. The flora evolution during the last years is analyzed and the present weed communities are studied. The contribution of the different phytosociological classes to the rice field weed flora is presented.

    De los 49 táxones registrados (29 emergentes y 20 flotantes o sumergidos 11 son exóticos introducidos, de los cuales los más importantes son Echinochloa oryzoides y E. oryzicolaen ambas zonas, además de Cyperus difformis y Echinochloa hispidula en Valencia, y el resto propios de la flora autóctona, predominando Scirpus maritimus, Alisma plantago-aquatica. Echinochloa crus-galli y Paspalum distichum como emergentes, Lemna minor y L. gibba como flotantes, Potamogeton nodosus, Zannichellia palustris y Najas minor como sumergidos y Chara vulgaris, Cladophora glomerata, Oedogonium capilliforme. Spirogyra spp., Pirhophora oedogonia e Hydrodictyon reticulatum como algas macroscópicas. Se analiza la evolución experimentada por la flora en los últimos años, además de estudiar las

  16. UV Screening in Native and Non-native Plant Species in the Tropical Alpine: Implications for Climate Change-Driven Migration of Species to Higher Elevations

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    Paul W. Barnes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing changes in Earth’s climate are shifting the elevation ranges of many plant species with non-native species often experiencing greater expansion into higher elevations than native species. These climate change-induced shifts in distributions inevitably expose plants to novel biotic and abiotic environments, including altered solar ultraviolet (UV-B (280–315 nm radiation regimes. Do the greater migration potentials of non-native species into higher elevations imply that they have more effective UV-protective mechanisms than native species? In this study, we surveyed leaf epidermal UV-A transmittance (TUV A in a diversity of plant species representing different growth forms to test whether native and non-native species growing above 2800 m elevation on Mauna Kea, Hawaii differed in their UV screening capabilities. We further compared the degree to which TUV A varied along an elevation gradient in the native shrub Vaccinium reticulatum and the introduced forb Verbascum thapsus to evaluate whether these species differed in their abilities to adjust their levels of UV screening in response to elevation changes in UV-B. For plants growing in the Mauna Kea alpine/upper subalpine, we found that adaxial TUV A, measured with a UVA-PAM fluorometer, varied significantly among species but did not differ between native (mean = 6.0%; n = 8 and non-native (mean = 5.8%; n = 11 species. When data were pooled across native and non-native taxa, we also found no significant effect of growth form on TUV A, though woody plants (shrubs and trees were represented solely by native species whereas herbaceous growth forms (grasses and forbs were dominated by non-native species. Along an elevation gradient spanning 2600–3800 m, TUV A was variable (mean range = 6.0–11.2% and strongly correlated with elevation and relative biologically effective UV-B in the exotic V. thapsus; however, TUV A was consistently low (3% and did not vary with elevation in the native

  17. THE ROLE OF THREE WILD ANIMALS IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF PREFERRED FORAGE PLANTS IN THE DINDER NATIONAL PARK (D.N.P SUDAN

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    F. A. MOHAMMED

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Dinder National Park (D.N.P. of Sudan during the dry season (March, April and May. Waterbuck (Kobus defassa, warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tiang (Damaliscus korrigum in D.N.P were chosen for this study. Seeds of Acacia nubica, Acacia seyal and Piliostigma reticulatum recovered from the fecal samples of waterbuck showed a highly increased rate of germination above the control. Acacia polycantha and Sesbania sesban showed decreased rate of germination below the control. The germination rate of Acacia siberiana showed no positive effect (zero versus the control. The germination rate of the seeds of Ziziphus-spina-christi remained more or less above the control (53% and 50%, respectively. The germination of seeds of Ziziphus spina-christi from fecal samples of warthog showed higher increased rate of germination. The results of this study confirmed that the three wild herbivores are grazers, but they shift their diets towards forbs, woody plants and fruits of leguminous trees during the dry season. Waterbuck, Tiang and Warthog they depended on the plant diversely around water collecting places in the pank (Mayas for their diets, but they selected other plant species from the surrounding. Also this study provides the information regarding food habits and feed requirements of these wild herbivores. Such information might help in the management of the habitat (Mayas and the protection and sustainability of wild herbivores in D.N.P.

  18. Toxic dinoflagellates and Vibrio spp. act independently in bivalve larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Van Acker, E; Nevejan, N; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2016-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae. Embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (100, 500, 2500 & 12,500 cells ml(-1)) of a dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Karenia mikimotoi, Protoceratium reticulatum, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. lima or P. micans), a known pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate or Vibrio splendidus; 10(5) CFU ml(-1)), or both. After five days of exposure, significant (p larval viability and larval development were found for all dinoflagellates (except P. cordatum) and V. splendidus. Yet, despite the individual effect of each stressor, no significant interactions were found between the pathogens and harmful algae. The larval viability and the phenoloxidase innate immune system responded independently to each stressor. This independence may be related to a differential timing of the effects of HABs and pathogens.

  19. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Olaf; Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a (13)CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified (13)C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly (13)C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more (13)C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic (13)CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. EFECTO DEL MANEJO AGROECOLÓGICO Y CONVENCIONAL SOBRE LA FLUCTUACIÓN DE BABOSA EN CULTIVOS DE LECHUGA EN TENJO, CUNDINAMARCA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CINDY ALEXANDRA CÓRDOBA VARGAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En una finca ecológica (FE y una convencional (FC se comparó el comportamiento de poblaciones de babosas y su relación con algunos carábidos predadores, la presencia de arvenses, prácticas agrícolas y la productividad de cuatro variedades de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.. Semanalmente se realizaron capturas de babosas, conteos de nivel de daño, altura y número de hojas en 10 plantas. Se recolectaron arvenses y coleópteros en las dos fincas. Los conteos totales de babosas en la FE fueron estadísticamente superiores. Se colectaron cuatro especies (Deroceras. reticulatum, Milax gagates, Deroceras. laeve y Limax. maximux frente a dos encontradas en FC. Con excepción de la variedad “Morada Lisa”, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en el nivel de daño en las otras variedades entre las dos fincas, pero sí en la variable peso seco de FE. En FE se pre- sentaron cinco especies de carábidos y 25 de arvenses frente a ninguna y seis en FC, respectivamente. Los datos anteriores se explican en función de las prácticas agro- nómicas de cada sistema de manejo.

  1. Yessotoxin, a Marine Toxin, Exhibits Anti-Allergic and Anti-Tumoural Activities Inhibiting Melanoma Tumour Growth in a Preclinical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobío, Araceli; Alfonso, Amparo; Madera-Salcedo, Iris; Botana, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Yessotoxins (YTXs) are a group of marine toxins produced by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera. They may have medical interest due to their potential role as anti-allergic but also anti-cancer compounds. However, their biological activities remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that the small molecular compound YTX causes a slight but significant reduction of the ability of mast cells to degranulate. Strikingly, further examination revealed that YTX had a marked and selective cytotoxicity for the RBL-2H3 mast cell line inducing apoptosis, while primary bone marrow derived mast cells were highly resistant. In addition, YTX exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the human B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell line MEC1 and the murine melanoma cell line B16F10. To analyse the potential role of YTX as an anti-cancer drug in vivo we used the well-established B16F10 melanoma preclinical mouse model. Our results demonstrate that a few local application of YTX around established tumours dramatically diminished tumour growth in the absence of any significant toxicity as determined by the absence of weight loss and haematological alterations. Our data support that YTX may have a minor role as an anti-allergic drug, but reveals an important potential for its use as an anti-cancer drug. PMID:27973568

  2. Análise química em órgãos de reserva de algumas herbáceas e arbóreas ocorrentes na flora do Espírito Santo, Brasil Chemical analysis of storage organs in herb and tree species from Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscineia Kelli Clippel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a composição de carboidratos não estruturais em órgãos subterrâneos de reserva das herbáceas Dioscorea sp. 1 e Dioscorea sp. 2 (Dioscoreaceae, Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae, Hippeastrum reticulatum (L'Hérit. Herb. (Amaryllidaceae, Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn Raf. (Amaryllidaceae, Prescottia nivalis Barb. Rodr. (Orchidaceae e Sinningia aghensis Chautems (Gesneriaceae. O trabalho objetivou, também, avaliar os teores dos polissacarídeos de reserva de parede celular (PRPC e de nutrientes minerais em sementes de Cassia fistula L., Cassia grandis L.f., Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC., Erythrina variegata L., Hymenaea courbaril L. e Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms pertencentes à família Leguminosae. A espécie que apresentou maior conteúdo de frutose foi a bulbosa H. reticulatum (25% MS sugerindo a presença de frutanos em seus órgãos subterrâneos. Os maiores teores de carboidratos solúveis totais, especialmente a sacarose (63% MS, foram observados em rizomas de P. nivalis, indicando que esse carboidrato desempenhe papel osmorregulador nessa rupestre revivescente. Quanto aos polissacarídeos de reserva de parede celular, maiores valores foram encontrados em sementes de H. courbaril (70% MS, C. grandis (53% MS e C. rosea (40% de MS. Valores intermediários foram obtidos em C. fistula (24% de MS e E. variegata (11% MS. Sementes de O. arborea mostraram os mais baixos teores de PRPC não ultrapassando ao valor de 3% da MS. Trabalhos anteriores denotam que o polissacarídeo de reserva de H. courbaril é do tipo xiloglucano, enquanto o de C. grandis, C. fistula e C. rosea seja do tipo galactomanano. A identificação do tipo de polissacarídeo de E. variegata e de O. arborea depende de análises futuras através da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Dos nutrientes minerais, sementes de C. rosea e E. variegata destacaram pelos elevados teores de N (60 g.kg-1 entre os macronutrientes e de Fe (160-170 mg.g-1 e Zn

  3. 浙江省6种新记录植物%Six newly recorded plant species in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽春; 陈征海; 马丹丹; 林海伦; 李修鹏; 李根有

    2016-01-01

    报道了发现于浙江宁波的6种新记录植物,隶属于6科6属,它们分别是心脏叶瓶尔小草(Ophioglossum reticulatum Linn.)(瓶尔小草科Ophioglossaceae)、银花苋(Gomphrena celosioides Mart.)(苋科Amaranthaceae)、中华萍蓬草(Nuphar sinensis Hand.-Mazz.)(睡莲科Nymphaeaceae)、白花水八角(Gratiola japonica Miq.)(玄参科Scrophulariaceae)、三叶绞股蓝(Gynostemma laxum(Wallich) Cogniaux)(葫芦科Cucurbitaceae)和乳白石蒜(Lycoris albiflora Koidz.)(石蒜科Amaryllidaceae);其中水八角属Gratiola Linn.为浙江新记录属.它们在浙江省的发现丰富了浙江省植物区系的内容,同时也为其在中国的地理分布研究提供了基础资料.

  4. 甘肃几种旱生植物VA菌根真菌的研究%Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Fungi of Xerophyte in Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐明; 薛萐; 杨慧平

    2004-01-01

    对6种旱生植物VA菌根真菌进行了分离,鉴定出12种VA菌根真菌,其中1个中国新纪录种:(1) 巨大巨孢囊霉(Gi.gigantean Gerd. & Trappe);(2) 珍珠巨孢囊霉(Gi. margarita Becker & Hall);(3) 聚丛球囊霉(Gl. aggregatum Schenck & Smith emend);(4) 白色球囊霉(Gl. albidum Walker & Rhodes);(5) 近明球囊霉(Gl. claroideum Schenck & Smith);(6) 缩球囊霉(Gl. constrictum Trappe);(7) 副冠球囊霉(Gl.coronatum Giovannetti);(8) 集球囊霉(Gl. fasciculatu Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske);(9) 根内球囊霉(Gl.intraradices Schenck & Smith);(10) 单孢球囊霉(Gl. monosporum Gerd.& Trappe);(11) 摩西球囊霉(Gl. mosseae Nicolson & Gerdemann);(12) 网状球囊霉(Gl.reticulatum Bhattchar jee & Mukerji).本文对这12种VA菌根真菌的主要形态特征和分布规律进行了描述.

  5. Ammonium nitrogen removal in batch cultures treating digested piggery wastewater with microalgae Oedogonium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiping; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Cheng, Qunpeng; Li, Fanghua

    2013-01-01

    Due to the nutrient characteristics of the high concentration of available ammonium in digested piggery wastewater (DPW), microalgae can be used to treat DPW before its final discharge. Four green microalgae (Hydrodictyaceae reticulatum Lag, Scenedesmus obliquus, Oedogonium sp. and Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and three blue-green algae (Anabaena flos-aquae, Oscillatoria amoena Gom and Spirulina platensis) were used to remove the nutrients (N, P, C), especially ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), from diluted DPW with 300 mg/L algae density in batch tests. The microalgae with the best NH4(+)-N nutrient removal was then selected for further optimization of the variables to improve NH4(+)-N removal efficiency using a central composite design (CCD) experiment. Taking into account the nutrient removal efficiency, Oedogonium sp. showed the best performance (reduction of 95.9% NH4(+)-N, 92.9% total phosphorus (TP) and 62.5% chemical oxygen demand (COD)) based on the results of the batch tests. The CCD results suggested that the optimal values of variables were initial Oedogonium sp. density of 399.2 mg/L and DPW diluted by 16.3, while the predicted value of NH4(+)-N removal efficiency obtained was 97.0%.

  6. Yessotoxins, a Group of Marine Polyether Toxins: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Fernández

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Yessotoxin (YTX is a marine polyether toxin that was first isolated in 1986 from the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. Subsequently, it was reported that YTX is produced by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera. YTXs have been associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP because they are often simultaneously extracted with DSP toxins, and give positive results when tested in the conventional mouse bioassay for DSP toxins. However, recent evidence suggests that YTXs should be excluded from the DSP toxins group, because unlike okadaic acid (OA and dinophyisistoxin-1 (DTX-1, YTXs do not cause either diarrhea or inhibition of protein phosphatases . In spite of the increasing number of molecular studies focused on the toxicity of YTX, the precise mechanism of action is currently unknown. Since the discovery of YTX, almost forty new analogues isolated from both mussels and dinoflagellates have been characterized by NMR or LC-MS/MS techniques. These studies indicate a wide variability in the profile and the relative abundance of YTXs in both, bivalves and dinoflagellates. This review covers current knowledge on the origin, producer organisms and vectors, chemical structures, metabolism, biosynthetic origin, toxicological properties, potential risks to human health and advances in detection methods of YTXs.

  7. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Temporal variation of the algae-associated molluscan assemblage of artificial substrata in Bay of Tunis (Tunisia

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    M. ANTIT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The molluscan assemblage inhabiting the photophilous algae from artificial rocky shores in theBay of Tunis was studied from February 2009 to February 2010. Five monthly replicates were taken with a quadrat of 25 × 25 cm .. A total of 16105 individuals of molluscs, belonging to 93 species, were collected. Gastropods were the most species-rich group, with 66 species (70.96%, followed by bivalves with 26 species (27.95%. Gastropods were also the most abundant with 11529 individuals (71.60%, followed by bivalves with 4575 individuals (28.41%. Nevertheless,Mytilaster minimus was the dominant species overall during the studied period (15.6% of total abundance, followed by Tricolia miniata (11.6%, Bittium reticulatum (11.5%, Gibbula racketti (10.4% and Rissoa similis (9.8%. The high abundance of juveniles of soft (e.g. Venerupis aurea, Nassarius corniculum and hard bottom species (e.g. M. minimus, Fissurella nubecula point out the important role   of this habitat as nursery for species from nearby located habitats. The presence of the alien molluscs Mitrella psilla (2.5% dominance and Arcuatula senhousia highlights the importance of algae as vehicle and/or receptor habitat for alien species. Species richness and abundance displayed significant seasonal changes, with maxima in winter 2009, but the Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed similar values throughout the year. Multivariate analyses also indicated the presence of significant seasonal differences of this molluscan assemblage.

  9. Marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Gulf of México, new records and redescription of Erylus trisphaerus (de Laubenfels, 1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Diana; Gómez, Patricia; Simões, Nuno

    2015-01-19

    Marine sponges usually constitute the most diverse group of the benthic community in coral reefs. Although they are reasonably well studied at the northern Gulf of Mexico (GMx), the southern GMx is poorly known and lacks records from many major reef systems that lie off the Mexican coast. The present taxonomic study is the first sponge account from Alacranes reef, the largest coral reef system in the GMx, and from the shallow reef banks of Sisal, both in the northwest Yucatan Peninsula. The 19 species herein described represent the first sponge fauna records from these reefs. Among these, seven species represent new record for GMx: Erylus formosus, Cliona flavifodina, Spirastrella aff. mollis, Strongylacidon bermuda, Topsentia bahamensis, Agelas tubulata and Chelonaplysilla aff. erecta. Twelve species are new records for the Southern GMx: Erylus trisphaerus, Cliona amplicavata, Chondrilla caribensis, Halichondria lutea, Hymeniacidon caerulea, Axinella corrugata, Dragmacidon reticulatum, Chalinula molitba, Amphimedon caribica, A. complanata, Hyatella cavernosa and Dysidea variabilis. Additionally, a redescription of Erylus trisphaerus is presented which had not been reviewed since its original description in 1953 off Western Florida, except that it was listed for north La Habana, Cuba. 

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis of predation by carabid beetles (Carabidae on nematode infected and uninfected slugs in the field.

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    Bjørn Arild Hatteland

    Full Text Available The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita.

  11. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics linked to Piliostigma species in ferugino-tropical soils in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso,West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barthélémy Yélémou; Sidzabda Djibril Dayamba; Dasmane Bambara; Georges Yaméogo; Salawu Assimi

    2013-01-01

    In the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso,Piliostigma reticulatum (DC) Hochst and Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach) are precursor species of fallow land colonization and they are used by rural villagers.The present study aimed to assess the contribution of Piliostigma species to soil quality improvement.We quantified organic carbon,total nitrogen,soil microbial biomass,soil basal respiration and metabolic quotient from soil samples taken under and outside Piliostigma canopies.We used one-way ANOVA to test for differences in the above parameters between locations (beneath and outside Piliostigma canopies).We recorded increased total organic carbon under Piliostigma from 31%-105% and in total nitrogen from 23%-66%.Microbial biomass was 13%-266% higher beneath canopies as compared to outside canopies.Basal respiration was also higher beneath canopies.The chemical elements varied by class of soil texture.Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was significantly correlated to clay (r =0.80) and silt (r =0.79) content.Piliostigma stands produced abundant litter due to their leaf biomass.Thus,they contribute to improved total organic carbon and total nitrogen content in the different phytogeographic zones and improve soil fertility

  12. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

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    Zardoya Rafael

    2008-02-01

    . dolabrata nor Pulmonata (polyphyletic nor Opisthobranchia (because of the inclusion S. pectinata were recovered as monophyletic groups. The gene order of the Vetigastropoda might represent the ancestral mitochondrial gene order for Gastropoda and we propose that at least three major rearrangements have taken place in the evolution of gastropods: one in the ancestor of Caenogastropoda, another in the ancestor of Patellogastropoda, and one more in the ancestor of Heterobranchia.

  13. Discussion on candidate species of gastropoda organisms in toxicity testing%腹足纲动物毒性测试候选物种的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑师梅; 周启星; 熊红霞

    2011-01-01

    随着对内分泌干扰物在腹足纲动物中危害性的关注,软体动物污染生态问题逐渐受到重视.基于该研究方向现有进展,就几种典型腹足纲动物作为化学品测试受试生物的候选物种进行了论述,认为4种前鳃亚纲生物(新西兰泥蜗、鱼盘螺、福寿螺和铜锈环棱螺)和1种肺螺亚纲生物(静水椎实螺)具有生态意义,可以作为标准受试生物来发展.相对于其他国外学者提议的4种生物,我国学者提议的铜锈环棱螺具有本土意义,在化学品毒性测试过程中应该受到重视.在以上论述基础上,对腹足纲动物毒性测试今后研究的发展方向进行了展望.%With an attention to the hazard of endocrine disrupters on gastropoda organisms, the pollution-ecological problem of mollusks is being concerned gradually. Based on the current progress in the research area, several typical gastropoda organisms were discussed as the candidate species of testing organisms in the toxicity testing of chemicals. In view of their ecological significance, the four candidate prosobranchia species (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Valvata piscinalis, Pomacea lineate and Bellamya aeruginosa) and one pulmonata organism (Lymnaea stagnalis) were suggested to develop as the standard testing organisms. Compared with the four other organisms proposed by foreign scholars, Bellamya aeruginosa proposed by Chinese scholars is of indigenous significance. Thus, attentions should be paid to the species in the toxicity testing of chemicals. On the basis of above discussions, the aspects of research on gastropoda organisms as candidate species in the toxicity testing in the future were prospected.

  14. DIFFERENTIAL TRACER COUPLING BETWEEN PAIRS OF IDENTIFIED NEURONES OF THE MOLLUSC LYMNAEA STAGNALIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewadinger; Syed; Lukowiak; Bulloch

    1994-07-01

    Electrical coupling is a common means of cell-to-cell communication in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues (Lowenstein, 1985). Within the nervous system, many electrically coupled neurones exhibit dye coupling (Bennett, 1973; Stewart, 1978; Glantz and Kirk, 1980; Spencer and Satterlie, 1980; Fraser and Heitler, 1993); however, some electrically coupled cells do not dye-couple (Audesirk et al. 1982; Murphy et al. 1983; Berdan, 1987; Robinson et al. 1993; Veenstra et al. 1993). Electrical coupling and dye coupling, often considered in parallel, are in fact two different parameters that can vary independently (e.g. Audesirk et al. 1982; Perez-Armendariz et al. 1991). The giant identified neurones of pulmonate and opisthobranch molluscs have frequently been used for studies of neuronal communication and its plasticity (Winlow and McCrohan, 1987; Bulloch, 1989). In the present study, we explored the relationship between electrical and tracer coupling in both strongly and weakly coupled pairs of molluscan neurones. Specifically, we examined electrically coupled, identified neurones in a freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L., and tested for tracer coupling with Lucifer Yellow CH and biocytin. The cells examined were the strongly electrically coupled neurones, visceral dorsal 1 (VD1) and right parietal dorsal 2 (RPD2) (Boer et al. 1979; Benjamin and Pilkington, 1986), and the weakly coupled neurones, left buccal 1 (LB1) and right buccal 1 (RB1) (Benjamin and Rose, 1979). The use of these particular neurones made it possible to compare electrical coupling with tracer coupling in the molluscan central nervous system (CNS). All experiments were performed on laboratory-bred Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Pulmonata), maintained as previously described (Ridgway et al. 1991). The CNS was dissected from mature animals (16­18 mm shell length) and pinned to the silicone rubber (RTV 616 GE) base of a recording dish in normal saline (51.3 mmol l-1 NaCl, 1.7 mmol l-1 KCl, 4

  15. A Preliminary Investigation on Species Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Rosary%玫瑰园AM真菌物种多样性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董磊; 李敏; 郭绍霞

    2012-01-01

    丛枝菌根(AM)真菌多样性是当前菌根学领域研究热点之一.玫瑰是世界性花卉,在我国的栽培面积越来越大.为了解玫瑰根区土壤中AM真菌多样性与资源的分布状况,于2010年11月在济南平阴玫瑰园选择样地,采集了5个不同种/品种的蔷薇属(Rosa)植物根区土样,采用湿筛倾注——蔗糖离心法分离AM真菌,测定其物种丰度、频度、孢子密度、相对多度、重要值、多样性指数等.共分离到AM真菌4属28种,球囊霉属(Glomus)出现的频度最高,其次是无梗囊霉属(Acaulospora).AM真菌孢子密度以‘紫枝’玫瑰(R.rugosa‘zizhi’)与山刺玫(R.davurica)根区的最高,野蔷薇(R.multiflora)最低;种丰度以‘丰花’(R.rugosa‘fenghua’)玫瑰最高;黄球囊霉(G.fulvum)是‘丰花’玫瑰的优势种,缩球囊霉(G.constrictum)是‘紫枝’玫瑰的优势种,网状球囊霉(G.reticulatum)是保加利亚白玫瑰(R.damascene)和山刺玫的优势种,双网无梗囊霉(A.bireticulata)是野蔷薇的优势种.认为玫瑰根区土壤中具有丰富的AM真菌物种多样性.本研究为进一步深入研究花卉植物根区AM真菌多样性提供了基础和依据.%Species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of research hots in mycorrhizology. Rose is a global flower, and its growing area increases year by year. In order to understand species diversity and resources distribution of AM fungi in root zone soil of rose plants, sampling sites were selected in Pingyin rosary in Jinan in November 2010, and the root zone soil sample of 5 different varieties of Rosa were collected to determine the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Spores of AM fungi were identiffed to reveal the species richness, frequency, spore density, relative abundance, importance value and Shannon - Wiener indices of AM fungi. A total of 28 species belonging to 4 genera were identified according to the morphological characteristics of the spores

  16. The response of benthic foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc assemblages to environmental conditions: a case study from the Camalti Saltpan (Izmir-Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MERIC

    2012-12-01

    Irelli, B. lacteum Philippi and B. reticulatum Philippi.

  17. Hippeastrum species in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: pollen characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Suzano Candido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The order Asparagales comprises 14 families, five of which occur in Brazil. Amaryllidaceae is a family of economic relevance and includes numerous ornamental genera. The genus Hippeastrum is widely distributed in Brazil and comprises 34 species, 11 of which occur in areas of restinga (coastal woodland and Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The morphology of Hippeastrum has not been extensively studied in Brazil, where only a few systematic floristic surveys have been carried out with native species. In field studies and reviews of herbarium collections, we identified five Hippeastrum species occurring in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The five species identified could be distinguished according to the following palynological characteristics: pollen grain size, polarity, pollen units, shape, aperture (number and type, exine sculpture, colpus length and pattern of sexine ornamentation. Of the five species identified, Hippeastrum aulicum Herb. and H. glaucescens (Ker Gawl. Herb. were not identified in the field. Among the three species that were found in the field, H. striatum had the widest distribution in the study area, whereas the distribution of H. reticulatum was restricted to a single area of restinga, in the Jaconé district of the municipality of Saquarema. Through palynological examinations of specimens from herbaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, we were able to confirm the identity of all five species of Hippeastrum studied. Our data represent a relevant contribution to increasing knowledge of this plant group in the region and will aid in future conservation efforts.

  18. Soil Modification by Native Shrubs Boosts Crop Productivity in Sudano-Sahelian Agroforestry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively.We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture and water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. Hydraulic redistribution is thought to exist in this system and we found diurnal fluctuations in water potential within the intercropped system that increased in magnitude of to 0.4 Mpa per day as the soil dried below 1.0 Mpa during the stress treatment. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting labeled water into shrub roots and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to lower overall magnitude of diurnal soil water potential fluctuations in dry soils. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  19. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Harland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC, and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC, driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP, and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka, given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial.

  20. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Rex; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Morley, Audrey; Morris, Angela; Harris, Anthony; Howe, John A

    2016-05-01

    The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP), Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP), and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP) indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka), given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial.

  1. In Situ Conservation of Some Rare and Endemic Species of Iridaceae Family in National Botanical Garden of Georgia

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    Tamar Nadiradze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers some information on anthropogenic influence upon natural ecosystems that is considered to be one of the strongest factors for reducing biodiversity of Georgian flora. With this purpose, some species of fam. Iridaceae that need to be protected under in situ conditions are being studied. The paper focuses on the fam. Iridaceae. This family is particularly interesting as it unites a considerable number of valuable, beautifully flowering plants with ornamental leaves, representing different biomorphs. Particularly rare and endangered species are: Iris iberica, I. Grossheimii, I. Lycotis, I. Camillae, I. Elegantissima, etc. We have carried out complex studies of bio-ecological peculiarities of bulbous geophytes and ephemeroids of genus Iridodictyum winogradowii, Ir. Reticulatum, Siphonastilis lasica and Iuno caucasica. There has been studied rhythm of growth and development of vital cycle of monocarpic shootings and ways of their propagation in the sub arid zone of East Georgia. There should be mentioned that they have perfectly adapted to the conditions. Such rare species of rootstock plants like Iris iberica, I. Carthalinical. Aphylla, I. graminea, I. imbricata, I. timofejewii, I. prilipkoana, I. musulmanica, Siphonastilis lazica and others even give abundant self-seedlings that undoubtedly makes it possible to protect them from being finally extinct. All the investigated plants can be recommended for using in landscape architecture under the conditions of East Georgia that will contribute to conservation of the valuable genofond of relict and endemic plants of Georgian flora. The work deals with the results of in situ conservation of some of rare and endemic species of fam. Iridaceae from Iridaceae Juss family. According to IUCN categories, the studied taxaare discussed as the endangered species in nature.

  2. The response of benthic foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc assemblages to environmental conditions: a case study from the Camalti Saltpan (Izmir-Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MERIC

    2010-03-01

    Irelli, B. lacteum Philippi and B. reticulatum Philippi.

  3. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  4. Phylogeny of ultra-rapidly evolving dinoflagellate chloroplast genes: a possible common origin for sporozoan and dinoflagellate plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Green, B R; Cavalier-Smith, T

    2000-07-01

    Complete chloroplast 23S rRNA and psbA genes from five peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (Heterocapsa pygmaea, Heterocapsa niei, Heterocapsa rotun-data, Amphidinium carterae, and Protoceratium reticulatum) were amplified by PCR and sequenced; partial sequences were obtained from Thoracosphaera heimii and Scrippsiella trochoidea. Comparison with chloroplast 23S rRNA and psbA genes of other organisms shows that dinoflagellate chloroplast genes are the most divergent and rapidly evolving of all. Quartet puzzling, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and LogDet trees were constructed. Intersite rate variation and invariant sites were allowed for with quartet puzzling and neighbor joining. All psbA and 23S rRNA trees showed peridinin-containing dinoflagellate chloroplasts as monophyletic. In psbA trees they are related to those of chromists and red algae. In 23S rRNA trees, dinoflagellates are always the sisters of Sporozoa (apicomplexans); maximum likelihood analysis of Heterocapsa triquetra 16S rRNA also groups the dinoflagellate and sporozoan sequences, but the other methods were inconsistent. Thus, dinoflagellate chloroplasts may actually be related to sporozoan plastids, but the possibility of reproducible long-branch artifacts cannot be strongly ruled out. The results for all three genes fit the idea that dinoflagellate chloroplasts originated from red algae by a secondary endosymbiosis, possibly the same one as for chromists and Sporozoa. The marked disagreement between 16S rRNA trees using different phylogenetic algorithms indicates that this is a rather poor molecule for elucidating overall chloroplast phylogeny. We discuss possible reasons why both plastid and mitochondrial genomes of alveolates (Dinozoa, Sporozoa and Ciliophora) have ultra-rapid substitution rates and a proneness to unique genomic rearrangements.

  5. Developing biosafety risk hypotheses for invertebrates exposed to GM plants using conceptual food webs: a case study with elevated triacylglyceride levels in ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Todd, Jacqui H; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Malone, Louise A

    2010-01-01

    Regulators are acutely aware of the need for meaningful risk assessments to support decisions on the safety of GM crops to non-target invertebrates in determining their suitability for field release. We describe a process for developing appropriate, testable risk hypotheses for invertebrates in agroecosystems that might be exposed to plants developed by GM and future novel technologies. An existing model (PRONTI) generates a ranked list of invertebrate species for biosafety testing by accessing a database of biological, ecological and food web information about species which occur in cropping environments and their potential interactions with a particular stressor (Eco Invertebase). Our objective in this contribution is to explore and further utilise these resources to assist in the process of problem formulation by identifying potentially significant effects of the stressor on the invertebrate community and the ecosystem services they provide. We propose that for high ranking species, a conceptual food web using information in Eco Invertebase is constructed, and using an accepted regulatory risk analysis framework, the likelihood of risk, and magnitude of impact for each link in the food web is evaluated. Using as filters only those risks evaluated as likely to extremely likely, and the magnitude of an effect being considered as moderate to massive, the most significant potential effects can be identified. A stepwise approach is suggested to develop a sequence of appropriate tests. The GM ryegrass plant used as the "stressor" in this study has been modified to increase triacylglyceride levels in foliage by 100% to increase the metabolisable energy content of forage for grazing animals. The high-ranking "test" species chosen to illustrate the concept are New Zealand native species Wiseana cervinata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), Persectania aversa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and the self-introduced grey field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller).

  6. High-throughput SNP discovery and genotyping for constructing a saturated linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Azam, Sarwar; Jeena, Ganga; Khan, Aamir Waseem; Choudhary, Shalu; Jain, Mukesh; Yadav, Gitanjali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2012-10-01

    The present study reports the large-scale discovery of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chickpea, identified mainly through the next generation sequencing of two genotypes, i.e. Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and its wild progenitor C. reticulatum PI489777, parents of an inter-specific reference mapping population of chickpea. Development and validation of a high-throughput SNP genotyping assay based on Illumina's GoldenGate Genotyping Technology and its application in building a high-resolution genetic linkage map of chickpea is described for the first time. In this study, 1022 SNPs were identified, of which 768 high-confidence SNPs were selected for designing the custom Oligo Pool All (CpOPA-I) for genotyping. Of these, 697 SNPs could be successfully used for genotyping, demonstrating a high success rate of 90.75%. Genotyping data of the 697 SNPs were compiled along with those of 368 co-dominant markers mapped in an earlier study, and a saturated genetic linkage map of chickpea was constructed. One thousand and sixty-three markers were mapped onto eight linkage groups spanning 1808.7 cM (centiMorgans) with an average inter-marker distance of 1.70 cM, thereby representing one of the most advanced maps of chickpea. The map was used for the synteny analysis of chickpea, which revealed a higher degree of synteny with the phylogenetically close Medicago than with soybean. The first set of validated SNPs and map resources developed in this study will not only facilitate QTL mapping, genome-wide association analysis and comparative mapping in legumes but also help anchor scaffolds arising out of the whole-genome sequencing of chickpea.

  7. Large-scale development of cost-effective SNP marker assays for diversity assessment and genetic mapping in chickpea and comparative mapping in legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Pavana J; Kumar, Ashish; Penmetsa, Ramachandra Varma; Farmer, Andrew; Schlueter, Jessica A; Chamarthi, Siva K; Whaley, Adam M; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Gaur, Pooran M; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Shah, Trushar M; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-01-01

    A set of 2486 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compiled in chickpea using four approaches, namely (i) Solexa/Illumina sequencing (1409), (ii) amplicon sequencing of tentative orthologous genes (TOGs) (604), (iii) mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (286) and (iv) sequencing of candidate genes (187). Conversion of these SNPs to the cost-effective and flexible throughput Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays generated successful assays for 2005 SNPs. These marker assays have been designated as Chickpea KASPar Assay Markers (CKAMs). Screening of 70 genotypes including 58 diverse chickpea accessions and 12 BC3F2 lines showed 1341 CKAMs as being polymorphic. Genetic analysis of these data clustered chickpea accessions based on geographical origin. Genotyping data generated for 671 CKAMs on the reference mapping population (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × Cicer reticulatum PI 489777) were compiled with 317 unpublished TOG-SNPs and 396 published markers for developing the genetic map. As a result, a second-generation genetic map comprising 1328 marker loci including novel 625 CKAMs, 314 TOG-SNPs and 389 published marker loci with an average inter-marker distance of 0.59 cM was constructed. Detailed analyses of 1064 mapped loci of this second-generation chickpea genetic map showed a higher degree of synteny with genome of Medicago truncatula, followed by Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. Development of these cost-effective CKAMs for SNP genotyping will be useful not only for genetics research and breeding applications in chickpea, but also for utilizing genome information from other sequenced or model legumes. PMID:22703242

  8. Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-04-01

    Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e

  9. Quantifying bioirrigation using ecological parameters: a stochastic approach†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meile Christof

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation by benthic macrofauna has a major influence on the biogeochemistry and microbial community structure of sediments. Existing quantitative models of bioirrigation rely primarily on chemical, rather than ecological, information and the depth-dependence of bioirrigation intensity is either imposed or constrained through a data fitting procedure. In this study, stochastic simulations of 3D burrow networks are used to calculate mean densities, volumes and wall surface areas of burrows, as well as their variabilities, as a function of sediment depth. Burrow networks of the following model organisms are considered: the polychaete worms Nereis diversicolor and Schizocardium sp., the shrimp Callianassa subterranea, the echiuran worm Maxmuelleria lankesteri, the fiddler crabs Uca minax, U. pugnax and U. pugilator, and the mud crabs Sesarma reticulatum and Eurytium limosum. Consortia of these model organisms are then used to predict burrow networks in a shallow water carbonate sediment at Dry Tortugas, FL, and in two intertidal saltmarsh sites at Sapelo Island, GA. Solute-specific nonlocal bioirrigation coefficients are calculated from the depth-dependent burrow surface areas and the radial diffusive length scale around the burrows. Bioirrigation coefficients for sulfate obtained from network simulations, with the diffusive length scales constrained by sulfate reduction rate profiles, agree with independent estimates of bioirrigation coefficients based on pore water chemistry. Bioirrigation coefficients for O2 derived from the stochastic model, with the diffusion length scales constrained by O2 microprofiles measured at the sediment/water interface, are larger than irrigation coefficients based on vertical pore water chemical profiles. This reflects, in part, the rapid attenuation with depth of the O2 concentration within the burrows, which reduces the driving force for chemical transfer across the burrow walls. Correction for the depletion of O2

  10. Woody plants diversity and type of vegetation in non cultivated plain of Moutourwa, Far-North, Cameroon

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    Gilbert Todou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to valorize the wild vegetal resources for the efficient conservation and sustainable use in sahelo-sudanian zone in Cameroon, a study of non cultivated plain of Moutourwa was carry out to assess the floristic richness, the specific diversity and the type of vegetation. The inventory of all trees and shrubs (dbh ? 2.5 cm and the determination of the vegetation cover were done in five linear transects (20 m × 1000 m. In total, 27 families, 54 genera and 75 species were found. Caesalpinaceae is the most abundant family that relative abundance (pi*100 is 34.41%, the most abundant genus was Piliostigma (pi*100 = 30.66% and the most represented species was Piliostigma reticulatum (pi*100 = 29.56%; D = 53.6 stems/ha. The Simpson index (E= 0.89, the Shannon index (H= 3.2 and the equitability index of Pielou (J= 0.74 indicated that there were moderate diversity with more or less equitable species. The wild fruits species were numerous (pi*100 = 32.76%; D = 59.7 stems/ha. A. senegalensis is was the most represented (pi*100 = 9.04 ; D = 16.4 followed by Hexalobus monopetalus (pi*100 = 5.16 ; D = 9.4 and Balanites aegyptiaca (pi*100 = 3.69 ; D = 6.7. These results contribute efficaciously to valorize the wild vegetal resources for efficient conservation and sustainable use. Keywords: Woody plants diversity, conservation, sustainable use, sahelo-sudanian, Moutourwa

  11. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates: Evaluating the potential for a CO2 proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoins, Mirja; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Eberlein, Tim; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn; Sluijs, Appy

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made regarding the quantification and mechanistic understanding of stable carbon isotope fractionation (13C fractionation) in photosynthetic unicellular organisms in response to changes in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). However, hardly any data is available for organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates while this is an ecologically important group with a unique fossil record. We performed dilute batch experiments with four harmful dinoflagellate species known for their ability to form organic cysts: Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum. Cells were grown at a range of dissolved CO2 concentrations characterizing past, modern and projected future values (∼5-50 μmol L-1), representing atmospheric pCO2 of 180, 380, 800 and 1200 μatm. In all tested species, 13C fractionation depends on CO2 with a slope of up to 0.17‰ (μmol L)-1. Even more consistent correlations were found between 13C fractionation and the combined effects of particulate organic carbon quota (POC quota; pg C cell-1) and CO2. Carbon isotope fractionation as well as its response to CO2 is species-specific. These results may be interpreted as a first step towards a proxy for past pCO2 based on carbon isotope ratios of fossil organic dinoflagellate cysts. However, additional culture experiments focusing on environmental variables other than pCO2, physiological underpinning of the recorded response, testing for possible offsets in 13C values between cells and cysts, as well as field calibration studies are required to establish a reliable proxy.

  12. First records of freshwater molluscs from the ecological reserve El Edén, Quintana Roo, México Primeros registros de moluscos dulceacuícolas de la Reserva Ecológica El Edén, Quintana Roo, México

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    Roberto Cózatl-Manzano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the freshwater molluscs at El Edén was unknown. This is the first treatment of them, allowing us to compare spatial and temporal species distribution. Eleven species of freshwater molluscs were found in 2 surveys carried in March (dry season and September (rainy season 1998 at the reserve El Edén. A total of 266 individuals were collected; 8 pulmonates, Mayabina spiculata, Mexinauta impluviatus, Physa sp., Biomphalaria havanensis, Drepanotrema lucidum, Drepanotrema kermatoides, Planorbella (Pierosoma trivolvis, and Planorbula armigera; 2 prosobranchs, Pyrgophorus sp. and Pomacea flagellata; and one bivalve, Musculium transversum. Pulmonata dominate over Prosobranchia species in diversity. No significant differences were observed in diversity between dry and rainy seasons. However, species abundance recorded in both seasons was very low, probably due to a combination of inadequate food resources and disadvantageous climate (periodic conditions of drought and flooding. Further studies using a combination of different sampling methods and more frequent samplings are needed to confirm or identify these factors. We suggest that future studies should focus on cultivation of species with economic potential such as the apple snail Pomacea flagellata.La diversidad de moluscos dulceacuícolas de la Reserva Ecológica El Edén se desconocía; este estudio constituye su primer registro. Asimismo, esta investigación permite comparar la distribución espacial y temporal de las especies registradas. Las recolectas se efectuaron en marzo (temporada de sequía y septiembre (lluvia de 1998. Se registran 11 especies (266 individuos en total, 8 pulmonados: Mayabina spiculata, Mexinauta impluviatus, Physa sp., Biomphalaria havanensis, Drepanotrema lucidum, Drepanotrema kermatoides, Planorbella (Pierosoma trivolvis y Planorbula armigera; dos prosobranquios: Pyrgophorus sp. y Pomacea flagellata, y un bivalvo: Musculium transversum. Los pulmonados

  13. Development of ESTs from chickpea roots and their use in diversity analysis of the Cicer genus

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    Eshwar K

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea is a major crop in many drier regions of the world where it is an important protein-rich food and an increasingly valuable traded commodity. The wild annual Cicer species are known to possess unique sources of resistance to pests and diseases, and tolerance to environmental stresses. However, there has been limited utilization of these wild species by chickpea breeding programs due to interspecific crossing barriers and deleterious linkage drag. Molecular genetic diversity analysis may help predict which accessions are most likely to produce fertile progeny when crossed with chickpea cultivars. While, trait-markers may provide an effective tool for breaking linkage drag. Although SSR markers are the assay of choice for marker-assisted selection of specific traits in conventional breeding populations, they may not provide reliable estimates of interspecific diversity, and may lose selective power in backcross programs based on interspecific introgressions. Thus, we have pursued the development of gene-based markers to resolve these problems and to provide candidate gene markers for QTL mapping of important agronomic traits. Results An EST library was constructed after subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH of root tissue from two very closely related chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum. A total of 106 EST-based markers were designed from 477 sequences with functional annotations and these were tested on C. arietinum. Forty-four EST markers were polymorphic when screened across nine Cicer species (including the cultigen. Parsimony and PCoA analysis of the resultant EST-marker dataset indicated that most accessions cluster in accordance with the previously defined classification of primary (C. arietinum, C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum, secondary (C. pinnatifidum, C. bijugum and C. judaicum, and tertiary (C. yamashitae, C. chrossanicum and C. cuneatum gene-pools. A large proportion of EST alleles (45% were only

  14. More Yield with Less Water: Increasing Water Use Efficiency by Capitalizing on the Adaptation of Native Shrubs in the Sudano-Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, Nathaniel; Bayala, Roger; Diedhiou, Ibrahima; Dick, Richard; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2016-04-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively. We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Research plots at Keur Matar Arame with no fertilizer added were monitored in 2013 using two soil moisture sensor networks at depths of 10, 20, 40, 60, 100, 200, and 300cm. Cropping season water use total calculated based on beginning and end of season soil moisture and seasonal precipitation data revealed that crop-only plot used 411±32 mm of water, and the crop and shrub plot used 439±42 mm of water. Taking into account the quantity of crop biomass produced and neglecting the shrub biomass produced, the crop and shrub plot had a water use efficiency of 1.60 kg ha-1 mm-1 and the crop only plot had 0.269 kg ha-1 mm-1. Water status was measured three times throughout the season on millet leaves and revealed no significant trends. Handheld NDVI readings revealed significantly higher NDVI values in crop and shrub plots at all measurement dates. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but further increases in crop yields have been shown. Increasing water use efficiency by over 500% can be a great advantage in years of limited water availability such as 2013. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide

  15. Les enjeux socio-économiques autour de l'agroforesterie villageoise à Aguié (Niger

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    Dramé Yayé, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues around Village Agroforestry in Aguié (Niger. In the framework of a partnership between the Abdou Moumouni University of Niamey (Niger, The Catholic University of Louvain (Belgium, The Gembloux Agricultural University (Belgium, The University of Liege (Belgium, The asbl ENDA Intermondes and the PPILDA Project, former PDRAA of Aguié (Niger, studies were conducted in 2003 and 2004 in two villages (Dan Saga and Guidan Bakoye in Aguié, located in the Region of Maradi (Middle South of Niger. These studies were requested by farmers, and aimed at precising the feasibility and conditions for creating a rural wood market. They consisted in the evaluation of the assisted natural regeneration obtained through the protection of tree shoots in the fields. Dan Saga and Guidan Bakoye villages are typical Combretum glutinosum and Piliostigma reticulatum areas where farmers from all social categories practised the assisted natural regeneration, leading to densities of more than 100 trees per hectare in the fields. These densities increase with the increasing distance from the villages. The weekly amount of offered firewood (about 10 to 50 bundles of 25 kg each and timber in the local market could generate more than CFA 1 million income. However, the lack of local purchasers makes it difficult to sell more than the third of the wood production. This is what seems to be another reason for creating a wood market network. This network would be a grouping of villages not always belonging to the same administrative entity, but organized around common social and economical development concerns. The PPILDA Projet calls such a network a "Between-Villages Network". The management of the natural regeneration of tree species in the fields has favoured the emergence of various actors whose conflicting interests destabilized the pre-existing social structures. The only way to adapt to these social mutations is to establish an incentive agroforestry policy, to define

  16. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Yash Paul; Saxena, Maneesha S; Gaur, Rashmi; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Jain, Mukesh; Parida, Swarup K; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777) of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%), experimental validation success rate (81%) and polymorphic potential (55%) of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48%) detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%). An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777) having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM) longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped highest

  17. 山东烟区土壤VA菌根真菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Tobacco Culture Area in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延荣; 方宇澄; 黄镇

    2001-01-01

    从山东烟区的不同类型的植烟土壤中,采集烟草根际土,经湿筛倾倒蔗糖浮选分离VA菌根真菌孢子,单孢接种烟苗在水培条件下,选出在烟草上能形成VA菌根的菌株进行分类研究。鉴定出烟草VA菌根真菌2个属11个种。属于球囊霉属Glomus的种:苏格兰球囊霉G.cale donium( Nicol.& Gerd.)Gerd.& Trappe,近明球囊霉 G.claroideum Schenck & Smith,缩球囊霉 G .constrictum Trappe,德里球囊霉 G.delhiense Mukerji, Bhattacharjee & T ewari,透光球囊霉 G.diaphanum Morton & Walker,幼套球囊霉 G.etunicatum Becker & Gerdmann, 聚集球囊霉G.glomerulatum Sieverding, 根内球囊霉G.intraradices Schenck & Smith,摩西球囊霉 G.mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe, 网状球囊霉G.retic ulatum Bhatta charjee & Mukerji;属于无梗孢囊霉属 Acaulospora的种:詹氏无梗孢囊霉 A.ger demanni i Schenck & Nicolson。其中德里球囊霉、聚集球囊霉、网状球囊霉和詹氏无梗孢囊霉4 个种为我国新纪录种。对各个种的形态特征进行了详细描述。%Chlamydospores and azygospores of vesicular arbuscular mycorr hizal fungi(VAMF) were isolated by wet sieving and decanting method from rhizosp herical soils of tobacco. Tobacco seedlings at four leaf stage were inoculated w ith single spores of fungal isolates and transferred into sterilized sand in bla ck plastic tubes and then cultured in solution with low level of nutrients. VAM on tobacco were reisolated and 11 species in 2 genera were indentified, includin g G. caledoniu, G.claroideum, G.constrictum, G.delhiense, G.diaphanum, G .etunicatum, G.glomerulatum, G.intraradices, G.mosseae and G.reticulat um i n genus Glomus, and A.gerdemannii in genus Acaulospora. Of which, G .delhiense ,G.glome-rulatum, G.reticulatum and A.gerdemannii were first recorded in China.

  18. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Paul Khajuria

    Full Text Available The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777 of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%, experimental validation success rate (81% and polymorphic potential (55% of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48% detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%. An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777 having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped

  19. EFECTO DEL MANEJO AGROECOLÓGICO Y CONVENCIONAL SOBRE LA FLUCTUACIÓN DE BABOSA EN CULTIVOS DE LECHUGA EN TENJO CUNDINAMARCA

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    Cordoba Vargas Cindy Alexandra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En una finca ecológica (FE y una convencional (FC se comparó el comportamiento de poblaciones de babosas y su relación con algunos carábidos predadores, la presencia de arvenses, prácticas agrícolas y la productividad de cuatro variedades de lechuga (Lactuca sativa. L.. Semanalmente se realizaron capturas de babosas, conteos de nivel de daño, altura y número de hojas en 10 plantas. Se recolectaron arvenses y coleópteros en las dos fincas. Los conteos totales de babosas en la FE fueron estadísticamente superiores. Se colectaron cuatro especies (D. reticulatum, Milax gagates, D. laeve y L. maximux frente a dos encontradas en FC. Con excepción de la variedad “Morada Lisa”, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en el nivel de daño en las otras variedades entre las dos fincas, pero sí en la variable peso seco de FE.  En FE se presentaron 5 especies de carábidos y 25 de arvenses frente a ninguna y 6 en FC, respectivamente. Los datos anteriores se explican en función de las prácticas agronómicas de cada sistema de manejo.

  20. Evolution of dinoflagellate unigenic minicircles and the partially concerted divergence of their putative replicon origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoduo; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Green, Beverley R

    2002-04-01

    Dinoflagellate chloroplast genes are unique in that each gene is on a separate minicircular chromosome. To understand the origin and evolution of this exceptional genomic organization we completely sequenced chloroplast psbA and 23S rRNA gene minicircles from four dinoflagellates: three closely related Heterocapsa species (H. pygmaea, H. rotundata, and H. niei) and the very distantly related Amphidinium carterae. We also completely sequenced a Protoceratium reticulatum minicircle with a 23S rRNA gene of novel structure. Comparison of these minicircles with those previously sequenced from H. triquetra and A. operculatum shows that in addition to the single gene all have noncoding regions of approximately a kilobase, which are likely to include a replication origin, promoter, and perhaps segregation sequences. The noncoding regions always have a high potential for folding into hairpins and loops. In all six dinoflagellate strains for which multiple minicircles are fully sequenced, parts of the noncoding regions, designated cores, are almost identical between the psbA and 23S rRNA minicircles, but the remainder is very different. There are two, three, or four cores per circle, sometimes highly related in sequence, but no sequence identity is detectable between cores of different species, even within one genus. This contrast between very high core conservation within a species, but none among species, indicates that cores are diverging relatively rapidly in a concerted manner. This is the first well-established case of concerted evolution of noncoding regions on numerous separate chromosomes. It differs from concerted evolution among tandemly repeated spacers between rRNA genes, and that of inverted repeats in plant chloroplast genomes, in involving only the noncoding DNA cores. We present two models for the origin of chloroplast gene minicircles in dinoflagellates from a typical ancestral multigenic chloroplast genome. Both involve substantial genomic reduction and

  1. Novel SSR markers from BAC-end sequences, DArT arrays and a comprehensive genetic map with 1,291 marker loci for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendar Thudi

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is the third most important cool season food legume, cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The goal of this study was to develop novel molecular markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-end sequences (BESs and diversity arrays technology (DArT markers, and to construct a high-density genetic map based on recombinant inbred line (RIL population ICC 4958 (C. arietinum×PI 489777 (C. reticulatum. A BAC-library comprising 55,680 clones was constructed and 46,270 BESs were generated. Mining of these BESs provided 6,845 SSRs, and primer pairs were designed for 1,344 SSRs. In parallel, DArT arrays with ca. 15,000 clones were developed, and 5,397 clones were found polymorphic among 94 genotypes tested. Screening of newly developed BES-SSR markers and DArT arrays on the parental genotypes of the RIL mapping population showed polymorphism with 253 BES-SSR markers and 675 DArT markers. Segregation data obtained for these polymorphic markers and 494 markers data compiled from published reports or collaborators were used for constructing the genetic map. As a result, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 1,291 markers on eight linkage groups (LGs spanning a total of 845.56 cM distance was developed (http://cmap.icrisat.ac.in/cmap/sm/cp/thudi/. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 68 (LG 8 to 218 (LG 3 with an average inter-marker distance of 0.65 cM. While the developed resource of molecular markers will be useful for genetic diversity, genetic mapping and molecular breeding applications, the comprehensive genetic map with integrated BES-SSR markers will facilitate its anchoring to the physical map (under construction to accelerate map-based cloning of genes in chickpea and comparative genome evolution studies in legumes.

  2. Genome-wide insertion–deletion (InDel) marker discovery and genotyping for genomics-assisted breeding applications in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Gowda, C.L.L.; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    We developed 21,499 genome-wide insertion–deletion (InDel) markers (2- to 54-bp in silico fragment length polymorphism) by comparing the genomic sequences of four (desi, kabuli and wild C. reticulatum) chickpea [Cicer arietinum (L.)] accessions. InDel markers showing 2- to 6-bp fragment length polymorphism among accessions were abundant (76.8%) in the chickpea genome. The physically mapped 7,643 and 13,856 markers on eight chromosomes and unanchored scaffolds, respectively, were structurally and functionally annotated. The 4,506 coding (23% large-effect frameshift mutations) and regulatory InDel markers were identified from 3,228 genes (representing 11.7% of total 27,571 desi genes), suggesting their functional relevance for trait association/genetic mapping. High amplification (97%) and intra-specific polymorphic (60–83%) potential and wider genetic diversity (15–89%) were detected by genome-wide 6,254 InDel markers among desi, kabuli and wild accessions using even a simpler cost-effective agarose gel-based assay. This signifies added advantages of this user-friendly genetic marker system for manifold large-scale genotyping applications in laboratories with limited infrastructure and resources. Utilizing 6,254 InDel markers-based high-density (inter-marker distance: 0.212 cM) inter-specific genetic linkage map (ICC 4958 × ICC 17160) of chickpea as a reference, three major genomic regions harboring six flowering and maturity time robust QTLs (16.4–27.5% phenotypic variation explained, 8.1–11.5 logarithm of odds) were identified. Integration of genetic and physical maps at these target QTL intervals mapped on three chromosomes delineated five InDel markers-containing candidate genes tightly linked to the QTLs governing flowering and maturity time in chickpea. Taken together, our study demonstrated the practical utility of developing and high-throughput genotyping of such beneficial InDel markers at a genome-wide scale to expedite genomics

  3. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Jain, Mukesh; Parida, Swarup K.; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777) of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%), experimental validation success rate (81%) and polymorphic potential (55%) of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48%) detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%). An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777) having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7–23 cM) longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped highest

  4. A Multiple QTL-Seq Strategy Delineates Potential Genomic Loci Governing Flowering Time in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Kumar, Rajendra; Daware, Anurag; Basu, Udita; Shimray, Philanim W.; Tripathi, Shailesh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2017-01-01

    Identification of functionally relevant potential genomic loci using an economical, simpler and user-friendly genomics-assisted breeding strategy is vital for rapid genetic dissection of complex flowering time quantitative trait in chickpea. A high-throughput multiple QTL-seq strategy was employed in two inter (Cicer arietinum desi accession ICC 4958 × C reticulatum wild accession ICC 17160)- and intra (ICC 4958 × C. arietinum kabuli accession ICC 8261)-specific RIL mapping populations to identify the major QTL genomic regions governing flowering time in chickpea. The whole genome resequencing discovered 1635117 and 592486 SNPs exhibiting differentiation between early- and late-flowering mapping parents and bulks, constituted by pooling the homozygous individuals of extreme flowering time phenotypic trait from each of two aforesaid RIL populations. The multiple QTL-seq analysis using these mined SNPs in two RIL mapping populations narrowed-down two longer (907.1 kb and 1.99 Mb) major flowering time QTL genomic regions into the high-resolution shorter (757.7 kb and 1.39 Mb) QTL intervals on chickpea chromosome 4. This essentially identified regulatory as well as coding (non-synonymous/synonymous) novel SNP allelic variants from two efl1 (early flowering 1) and GI (GIGANTEA) genes regulating flowering time in chickpea. Interestingly, strong natural allelic diversity reduction (88–91%) of two known flowering genes especially mapped at major QTL intervals as compared to that of background genomic regions (where no flowering time QTLs were mapped; 61.8%) in cultivated vis-à-vis wild Cicer gene pools was evident inferring the significant impact of evolutionary bottlenecks on these loci during chickpea domestication. Higher association potential of coding non-synonymous and regulatory SNP alleles mined from efl1 (36–49%) and GI (33–42%) flowering genes for early and late flowering time differentiation among chickpea accessions was evident. The robustness and

  5. An Integrated Genomic Approach for Rapid Delineation of Candidate Genes Regulating Agro-Morphological Traits in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Maneesha S.; Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Kujur, Alice; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Mohar; Bansal, Kailash C.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2014-01-01

    The identification and fine mapping of robust quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes governing important agro-morphological traits in chickpea still lacks systematic efforts at a genome-wide scale involving wild Cicer accessions. In this context, an 834 simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism marker-based high-density genetic linkage map between cultivated and wild parental accessions (Cicer arietinum desi cv. ICC 4958 and Cicer reticulatum wild cv. ICC 17160) was constructed. This inter-specific genetic map comprising eight linkage groups spanned a map length of 949.4 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 1.14 cM. Eleven novel major genomic regions harbouring 15 robust QTLs (15.6–39.8% R2 at 4.2–15.7 logarithm of odds) associated with four agro-morphological traits (100-seed weight, pod and branch number/plant and plant hairiness) were identified and mapped on chickpea chromosomes. Most of these QTLs showed positive additive gene effects with effective allelic contribution from ICC 4958, particularly for increasing seed weight (SW) and pod and branch number. One robust SW-influencing major QTL region (qSW4.2) has been narrowed down by combining QTL mapping with high-resolution QTL region-specific association analysis, differential expression profiling and gene haplotype-based association/LD mapping. This enabled to delineate a strong SW-regulating ABI3VP1 transcription factor (TF) gene at trait-specific QTL interval and consequently identified favourable natural allelic variants and superior high seed weight-specific haplotypes in the upstream regulatory region of this gene showing increased transcript expression during seed development. The genes (TFs) harbouring diverse trait-regulating QTLs, once validated and fine-mapped by our developed rapid integrated genomic approach and through gene/QTL map-based cloning, can be utilized as potential candidates for marker-assisted genetic enhancement of chickpea. PMID:25335477

  6. Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jüngling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is

  7. A Preliminary Study on the Diversity of Micro-and Meso-fauna Communities in the Campus of Xinjiang Normal University%新疆师范大学校园中小型土壤动物群落多样性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽布斯坦·努尔买买提; 吾玛尔·阿布力孜; 努尔夏提·努尔买买提

    2013-01-01

    Dormitory building Greenland> P layground greenland >Main building greenland> Li-brary Greenland >Bio-geography building greenland.%  作者分别于2010年9月10日,10月10日,11月10日对新疆师范大学校园选取五种不同绿地对中小土壤动物群落多样性进行初步调查和研究。定时定量采集土样,采用室内Tullgren(干漏斗)法分离,并进行分类共获中小型土壤动物1630只,经初步分类鉴定隶属4门、10纲、18目,其中弹尾目(Collembola,25.77%)、真螨目(Acariformes,17.36%)、鞘翅目(Coleoptera,11.53%)、双翅目( Dipterra,11.17%)等四类为优势类群,占总数的65.83%。柄眼目( Stylommatophora,7.67%)、倍足目(Diplopoda,4.66%)、半翅目(Hemiptera,3.93%)、正蚓目(Lumbricida,3.8%)、蜘蛛目(Araneae,3.25%)、等翅目(Homoptera,2.33%)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera,2.15%)、革翅目(Dermaptera,2.02%)、直翅目(Orthoptera,1.47%)、等足目(Isopoda,1.16%)、等10类为常见类群,占总数的33.62%。其余的综合目( Symphyla,0.31%)、蛭态目( Bdelloidea,0.18%)和缨翅目( Thysanoptera,0.06%)、三类为稀有类群,占总数的0.55%。在五种不同绿地中小型土壤动物类群数和个体数都有差异,其中个体数量顺序为:生地楼绿地>宿舍楼绿地>主楼绿地>图书馆绿地>操场绿地。类群数量顺序为:生地楼绿地>宿舍楼绿地>主楼绿地>图书馆绿地>操场绿地。中小型土壤动物多样性指数( H)顺序为生地楼绿地>宿舍楼绿地>主楼绿地>图书馆绿地>操场绿地;均匀度指数( E)顺序表现为操场绿地>图书馆绿地>主楼绿地>宿舍楼绿地>>生地楼绿地;优势度指数( C)为宿舍楼绿地>操场绿地>主楼绿地>图书馆绿地>生地楼绿地。

  8. Phycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, M A

    1999-01-01

    The 1997-1998 period brought many new developments to the phycotoxin field. There were several reviews on phycotoxins in general, on their toxicological evaluation, and on their analysis. The ecophysiology, biosynthesis, and metabolism of polyether toxins and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were also reviewed. The proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Harmful Algae (Vigo, Spain, June 25-29, 1997) have been published and provide an excellent source of information on phycotoxins and toxic plankton bloom research. In addition, the much anticipated proceedings of the IX International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins (Rome, Italy, May 27-31, 1996) have been published. Further evidence was provided to support the theory that Prorocentrum lima is the source organism for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in Nova Scotian shellfish. In another study, different Prorocentrum species and isolates were analyzed for DSP toxins. In addition to detecting some new compounds, such as a DTX1 isomer, it was found that toxins were produced by both axenic and nonaxenic batch cultures, indicating that bacteria are probably not involved in the biosynthesis. The source organism for the spirolides, a family of fast-acting toxins reported from Nova Scotia, Canada, was determined to be Alexandrium ostenfeldii, a species that is found worldwide. The biogenetic origin of yessotoxin was reported to be Protoceratium reticulatum, another widely occurring organism. A great deal of attention and research funding has been directed at the serious problems associated with Pfiesteria piscicida. Analysts are eagerly awaiting publication of toxin structures, which will then allow the development of analytical methods. An incident of the mass mortality of California sea lions was reported in the Monterey area in May 1998. Analyses of tissue and urine samples revealed the presence of domoic acid. High levels of domoic acid were also found in anchovies and

  9. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus removing from wastewater by six species of algal biofilm%六种藻类膜脱氮除磷的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡元妃; 魏群; 郭莉娜; 孙红云; 周军; 张金莲

    2013-01-01

    The removal effects of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater were investigated with six species of algal biofilm ( Oedogonium sp.,Anabaena flos-aquae,Chlorella pyrenoidosa,Scenedesmus obliqnus,Hydrodictyon reticulatum,Oscillatoria agardhii) under continuous light of 3 500 lx,temper-ature of (25 ±2)℃and PVC as the carrier.The volume of waste water was 1 800 mL ,and regarded NaNO3 , ( NH4 ) 2 SO4 , KH2 PO4 as nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition , the initial concentration of to-tal phosphorus (TP),total nitrogen (TN),ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) reached 10.57,36.56, 19.40 mg/L, respectively .The results showed that Chlorella pyrenoidosa was most suited to form al-gae biofilm ,and the removal efficiencies of TP , TN ,NH4+-N reached 87.88%,87.27%,89.25%, respectively .There were no positive correlation between removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phos-phorus and chlorphyll content of biofilm , chlorphyll content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was lowest , reaching 0.065 4 mg/L, and Anabaena flos-aquae was highest ,reaching 0.245 0 mg/L.%  在连续光照强度为3500 lx,温度为(25±2)℃的实验条件下,以硝酸钠、硫酸铵、磷酸二氢钾为氮磷营养源,配制1800 mL模拟废水,其总磷( TP)、总氮( TN)、氨氮( NH4+-N)的初始浓度分别为10.57、36.56、19.40 mg/L,以立体弹性聚氯乙烯为载体,鞘藻( Oedogonium sp.)、水华鱼腥藻( Anabaena flos-aquae)、蛋白核小球藻( Chlorella pyrenoidosa)、斜生栅藻( Scenedesmus obliquus)、水网藻( Hydrodictyon reticulatum)、阿氏颤藻( Oscillatoria agardhii)等为实验藻种,进行了为期6 d的藻类膜脱氮除磷实验。结果表明:在6种实验藻种中,蛋白核小球藻最适合作为脱氮除磷废水处理的挂膜藻种,其藻类膜的TP、TN、NH4+-N去除率最高,分别为87.88%、87.27%、89.25%;藻类膜脱氮除磷能力与其叶绿素含量无正相关性,蛋白核小球藻藻类膜的

  11. EARLY LIFE-HISTORY OF MELAMPUS AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SEMILUNAR SYNCHRONY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Hunter, W D; Apley, Martyn L; Hunter, R Douglas

    1972-12-01

    1. The salt-marsh pulmonate snail, Melampus bidentatus, is placed in the Ellobiidae which family encompasses the most primitive of living Pulmonata and is regarded as not far removed from the ancestral stem-group of both modern land snails and freshwater pulmonates. Inhabiting the higher levels of salt marshes. Melampus is "amphibious": although an air-breather with a gill-less vascularized mantle-cavity functioning as a lung, if retains an archetypic pattern of reproduction with small eggs and a free-swimming veliger larva. 2. Field and laboratory studies over several years (based on natural populations at Little Sippewisset, Cape Cod, Massachusetts) have shown that egg-laying, hatching, and larval settlement are each confined to cycles of about four days in phase with the spring high tides. Adaptively such semilunar synchronies ensure that these processes occur only during the 2.3% to 4% of each month when the Melampus habitat in the upper 12% of the intertidal zone is bathed by seawater. 3. The annual reproductive period extends from late May or early June through early July. with either three or four cycles of egg-laying occurring at two-week intervals in phase with the tides of new and of full moon. Synchrony of egg-laying (and of the patterned aggregation and copulation which precede it) is obligate. Stocks of Melampus brought into the laboratory in spring will maintain the same semilunar rhythm of reproductive behavior during the summer period. 4. Eggs are small (about 109 ng organic carbon) and are laid in gelatinous egg-masses averaging 850 eggs. Mean numerical fecundity is 33,150 eggs per snail per year. For most freshwater pulmonates fecundity would lie in the range 8-800 eggs per snail per year. At 18° C, development to a well-differentiated and active veliger within the egg-shell takes 11 days. 5. Hatching shows semilunar synchrony in the field: enormous numbers of newly hatched veligers can be collected on the flood of appropriate spring tides. A

  12. First report of the land planarian Diversibipalium multilineatum (Makino & Shirasawa, 1983) (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Menchetti, Mattia; Sluys, Ronald; Solà, Eduard; Riutort, Marta; Tricarico, Elena; Justine, Jean-Lou; Cavigioli, Luca; Mori, Emiliano

    2016-01-26

    planarians (Boag et al. 1998); the microclimatic conditions of the Italian garden were similar to plant nurseries and greenhouses, while an abundance of food was available, such as isopods [Porcellionides pruinosus (Brandt, 1833)], oligochaetes [Dendrobaena attemsi (Michaelsen, 1902) and several juveniles of Lumbricus spp.] and gastropods [Cernuella cisalpina (Rossmassler, 1837), Cornu aspersum (O.F. Müller 1774), Deroceras reticulatum (O.F. Müller, 1774), Discus rotundatus (O.F. Müller, 1774), Limacus flavus (Linnaeus, 1758), Milax nigricans (Philippi, 1836), Papillifera papillaris (Linnaeus, 1758), Pomatias elegans (O.F. Müller, 1774)]. Moreover, winter 2014 reached the highest temperatures and rainfall of the last two decades (source: CNR-ISAC, Bologna), thus favouring establishment and spread of D. multilineatum. The potential environmental impacts of some invasive flatworms are well documented (Álvarez-Presas et al. 2014; Justine et al. 2014) and, even if these effects have not yet been assessed for D. multilineatum, the adoption of precautionary measures and of early intervention is here strongly recommended (Genovesi & Shine 2004). Finally, knowledge of the introduction pathway(s), together with the analysis of prey preference and possible impact on the invertebrate fauna, will be essential to halt or at least to limit the spread of this introduced land flatworm.

  13. 新疆艾比湖流域胡杨幼苗根际AM真菌多样性特征%Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Rhizosphere of Populus euphratica Seedlings in Ebinur Lake Basin,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕杰; 吕光辉; 马媛

    2016-01-01

    rhizosphere soil of 7 P. euphratica. In these species,G. dominikii,G. viscosum,G. reticulatum,G. melanosporum belonged to Glomus,A. morrowae,A. excavata,A. undulata to Acaulospora,and Scu. erythropa to Scutellospora. In addition,13 new AM fungal taxa association with P. euphratica were identified and the Genbank accession number are KJ209699 - KJ209711 . After the analysis of Blast homologous alignment and phylogenetic relationship,the AM fungal taxa in P. euphratica were divided into two groups with less than 93% similarity,and the taxon of two AM fungal groups belong to different species of the genus Rhizophagus.[Conclusion]The P. euphratica with AM fungi can significantly reduce salt concentrations in the rhizosphere soil,and simultaneously increase the organic matter content,as well as the contents of nitrogen,phosphorus and sulfur. In this study,13 new AM fungal taxa association with P. euphratica were separated into two groups belonging to one genus. From this result,in the flora with P. euphratica as the constructive species,the AM fungi associated with constructive species have the host selectivity to avoid nutrition competition to each other,and hence regulate the structure of the plant community in flora.%【目的】通过对胡杨林根围土壤和背景土壤的理化因子测定及数据分析,对其根围土壤中丛枝菌根真菌( arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi,简称AM 真菌)孢子分离与鉴定以及对其根系共生AM 真菌进行群落构成进行分子鉴定,分析荒漠生态系统中胡杨幼苗AM 真菌共生状况和群落结构特点,以探讨荒漠生态系统中胡杨根际共生AM 真菌生态学功能及其对地上植物群落结构的影响。【方法】在新疆艾比湖国家自然湿地保护区,分别采集胡杨保护林中7株胡杨幼苗根围土壤及根组织。对土样理化因子进行测试并采用 SAS 软件对数据进行统计分析。采用湿筛法对胡杨根围土壤中 AM 真菌孢子进行分离,压片法