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Sample records for retention understanding experiments

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Final report of the first stage of the tracer retention understanding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, A. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, Peter [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Grundteknik, Solna (Sweden); Byegaard, Johan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Cvetkovic, V. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering; Birgersson, Lars [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-03-15

    The first stage of the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) was performed as a SKB funded project. The overall objectives of TRUE are to develop the understanding of radionuclide migration and retention in fractured rock, to evaluate the realism in applied model concepts, and to assess whether the necessary input data to the models can be collected from site characterisation. Further, to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of different model approaches, and finally to provide in situ data on radionuclide migration and retention. The strive for address with multiple approaches is facilitated through a close collaboration with the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. The TRUE programme is a staged programme which addresses various scales from laboratory (< 0.5 m), detailed scale (< 10 m) and block scale (10-50 m). The First TRUE Stage was performed in the detailed scale with the specific objectives of providing data and conceptualising the investigated feature using conservative and sorbing tracers. Further, to improve methodologies for performing tracer tests, and to develop and test a methodology for obtaining pore volume/aperture data from epoxy resin injection, excavation and subsequent analyses. The experimental site is located at approximately 400 m depth in the northeastern part of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The identification of conductive fractures and the target feature has benefited from the use of BIPS borehole TV imaging combined with detailed flow logging. The assessment of the conductive geometry has been further sustained by cross-hole pressure interference data. The investigated target feature (Feature A) is a reactivated mylonite which has later undergone brittle deformation. The feature is oriented northwest, along the principal horizontal stress orientation, and is a typical conductor for Aespoe conditions. Hydraulic characterisation shows that the feature is relatively well isolated

  2. The Retention of Meaningful Understanding of Meiosis and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This study investigated the retention of meaningful understanding of the biological topics of meiosis, the Punnett square method and the relations between these two topics. This study also explored the predictive influence of students' general tendency to learn meaningfully or by rote (meaningful learning orientation), prior knowledge of meiosis,…

  3. Understanding Retention in US Graduate Programs by Student Nationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences in selected retention constructs by student nationality in US graduate programs. Surveys administered at four universities across the United States during fall 2010 resulted in responses from 685 PhD students from six international regions. Using univariate ANOVA, responses were…

  4. Understanding customer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  5. Understanding Popper's experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Tabish

    2005-06-01

    An experiment proposed by Karl Popper is considered by many to be a crucial test of quantum mechanics. Although many loopholes in the original proposal have been pointed out, they are not crucial to the test. We use only the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics to point out what is fundamentally wrong with the proposal, and demonstrate that Popper's basic premise was faulty.

  6. Understanding Popper's Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, T

    2004-01-01

    An experiment, proposed by Karl Popper, is considered by many, to be a crucial test of quantum mechanics. While many loop holes have been pointed out in the original proposal, it turned out that they are not crucial to the test. We point out what is fundamentally wrong with the proposal. Using just the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, we demonstrate that Popper's basic premise was faulty.

  7. Understanding Teacher Attraction and Retention Drivers: Addressing Teacher Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiedu, Jennifer A.; Scott-Ladd, Brenda D.

    2012-01-01

    The attraction and retention of teachers is a problem faced by schools worldwide and possibly more so in the public sector. One possible solution to this problem is likely to be better targeting of attraction and retention drivers of value to teachers. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study conducted in Australia. The study used…

  8. Understanding and optimizing the floating body retention in FDSOI UTBOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoulaiche, M.; Simoen, E.; Caillat, C.; Witters, L.; Bourdelle, K. K.; Nguyen, B.-Y.; Martino, J.; Claeys, C.; Fazan, P.; Jurczak, M.

    2016-03-01

    The floating body retention time is investigated on fully depleted SOI devices with UTBOX. The retention is occurring through the junctions and strongly assisted by defects in the junction space charge region during the holding state at a negative gate voltage. For standard devices with a gate overlap, the junction field is high and the dominant mechanism in this case is the generation by band-to-band tunneling. For optimized extensionless devices with lower junction field, the Shockley-Read-Hall generation enhanced by the field and Poole-Frenkel mechanism takes over the band-to-band tunneling. Therefore, reducing the concentration of Si impurities closer to the junctions is the key to approach an ideal retention time only due to band-to-band tunneling with the Si bandgap as the energy barrier for tunneling.

  9. Retention in STEM: Understanding the Effectiveness of Science Posse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsoe, Kimberly

    One of the major areas of debate in higher education is how to best support underrepresented racial minority students in their study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. In 2008, Brandeis University began a new program in conjunction with the Posse Foundation for students interested in studying science at the college-level. The research used a mixed methods design. A detailed quantitative analysis was conducted to understand how being part of Science Posse impacted the probability of doing well in initial science classes, influenced perceptions of the difficulty of studying science, and predicted the probability of majoring in STEM at Brandeis. The qualitative data was drawn from 89 student interviews, including 38 Science Posse Scholars, 24 students from backgrounds similar to the Scholars, and 25 students from well-resourced families. The qualitative analysis demonstrated how students had been exposed to the sciences prior to enrollment, how they navigated the sciences at Brandeis, and how they demonstrated resilience when science becomes challenging. This research study had four key findings. The first was in the quantitative analysis which demonstrated that Science Posse Scholars experience strong feelings of doubt about their academic abilities; based on previous research, this should have resulted in their not declaring majors in STEM disciplines. Instead, Science Posse Scholars were more likely to earn a B+ or above in their entry level science courses and declare a major in a STEM discipline, even when factors such as math and verbal SAT scores were included in the analysis. The second finding was in the qualitative analysis, which demonstrated that the cohort model in which Science Posse Scholars participate was instrumental to their success. The third finding was that students who attended academically less rigorous high schools could succeed in the sciences at a highly selective research institution such as Brandeis without academic remediation

  10. Effects on nurse retention. An experiment with scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, T; Jameson, H; Brekke, M L; Podratz, R O; Mundahl, H

    1986-11-01

    Four randomly selected nursing groups were assigned to three experimental groups and one control group to test the relative impact of three experimental nursing schedules, using a before-after design. The three experimental treatments were straight shifts; regular schedule but with unlimited requests for changes; and individual station-designed schedules. Before treatment, score differences between the experimental and control groups were limited to one of 36 highly reliable scales specifically constructed and pretested to gauge effects of scheduling. This single difference was judged not to be significantly related to experimental outcomes. Because of a poor job market situation, retention was not affected significantly by any of the three treatments, but root causes of turnover were. Results of the experiment showed that individual station-designed schedules triggered the most changes that favor retention. In contrast, the other two treatments unexpectedly increased nurses' own sense of marketability and reduced teamwork among nurses. Reasons accounting for the results are discussed in the text.

  11. A Look into Students' Retention of Acquired Nature of Science Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2015-07-01

    Having the learning and retention of science content and skills as a goal of scientific literacy, it is significant to study the issue of retention as it relates to teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS). Then, the purpose of this study was to investigate the development of NOS understandings of students, and the retention of these understandings four months after being acquired through explicit reflective instruction in relation to two contexts. Participants were 24 tenth-grade students at a private high school in a city in the Middle East. Explicit NOS instruction was addressed within a six-week unit about genetic engineering. Three NOS aspects were integrated and dispersed across the unit. A questionnaire, together with semi-structured interviews, was administered as pre-, post-, and delayed post-test to assess the retention of participants' NOS understandings. The questionnaire had two open-ended scenarios addressing controversial socioscientific issues about genetically modified food and water fluoridation. Results showed that most students improved their naïve understandings of NOS in relation to the two contexts following the six-week unit with the explicit NOS instruction. However, these newly acquired NOS understandings were not retained by all students four months after instruction. Many of the students reverted back to their earlier naïve understandings. Conclusions about the factors facilitating the process of retention as the orientation to meaningful learning and the prolonged exposure to the domain were discussed in relation to practical implications in the classroom.

  12. Background or Experience? Using Logistic Regression to Predict College Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synco, Tracee M.

    2012-01-01

    Tinto, Astin and countless others have researched the retention and attrition of students from college for more than thirty years. However, the six year graduation rate for all first-time full-time freshmen for the 2002 cohort was 57%. This study sought to determine the retention variables that predicted continued enrollment of entering freshmen…

  13. Visualization of microscale phase displacement proceses in retention and outflow experiments: nonuniquensess of unsaturated flow properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Annette Pia; Glass, R.J.; Hollenbeck, K.J.;

    2001-01-01

    Methods to determine unsaturated hydraulic properties can exhibit random and nonunique behavior. We assess the causes for these behaviors by visualizing microscale phase displacement processes that occur during equilibrium retention and transient outflow experiments. For both types of experiments...

  14. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business fun

  15. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business

  16. Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemon, Katherine N.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding customer experience and the customer journey over time is critical for firms. Customers now interact with firms through myriad touch points in multiple channels and media, and customer experiences are more social in nature. These changes require firms to integrate multiple business fun

  17. Integrated Analysis of Permeability Reduction Caused by Polymer Retention for Better Understanding Polymer Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ByungIn Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer retention is one of the most important factors to govern polymer propagation through porous media, determining whether successful or not. The focus of previous studies has been limited to polymer concentration loss caused by the retention; not only change in polymer concentration, but also reduction in reservoir permeability is the main issue for theoretical transport study. Due to the lack of accuracy of Langmuir isotherm describing the polymer retention mechanisms, this study proposes a new type of matching interpretation method to correlate the permeability reduction factors from experiments to permeability. In order to solve the problem of poorly matching results between estimation and observation, use of nonadsorptive constant conditionally selected in matching process was made. Based on the threshold permeability reduction factors, approximate critical permeability can be calculated to which nonadsorptive constant would be applied. Results showed significant improvements in the estimation of permeability reduction for both low and high permeability cores. In addition, effects of permeability reduction on polymer transport in field scale were analyzed using the proposed matching model. Thus, not only does this interpretation method help to evaluate prediction for accurate flow behavior, but also unwanted risk can be evaluated.

  18. Students' Understanding of Stern Gerlach Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    The Stern Gerlach experiment has played a central role in the discovery of spin angular momentum and it has also played a pivotal role in elucidating foundational issues in quantum mechanics. Here, we discuss investigation of students' difficulties related to the Stern Gerlach experiment by giving written tests and interviewing advanced undergraduate and graduate students in quantum mechanics. We also discuss preliminary data that suggest that the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) related to the Stern Gerlach experiment is helpful in improving students' understanding of these concepts.

  19. Understanding Brand and Dealer Retention in the New Car Market: The Moderating Role of Brand Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); F. Langerak (Fred); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDealers are assumed to contribute positively to brand retention. We argue that the type of brand moderates the effect of dealer performance on brand retention. Moreover, dealer retention is determined by different drivers for dealers selling different types of brands. To analyze our clai

  20. Understanding Brand and Dealer Retention in the New Car Market: The Moderating Role of Brand Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); F. Langerak (Fred); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDealers are assumed to contribute positively to brand retention. We argue that the type of brand moderates the effect of dealer performance on brand retention. Moreover, dealer retention is determined by different drivers for dealers selling different types of brands. To analyze our

  1. Understanding Brand and Dealer Retention in the New Car Market: The Moderating Role of Brand Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); F. Langerak (Fred); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDealers are assumed to contribute positively to brand retention. We argue that the type of brand moderates the effect of dealer performance on brand retention. Moreover, dealer retention is determined by different drivers for dealers selling different types of brands. To analyze our clai

  2. Immediate And Retention Effects Of Teaching Games For Understanding Approach On Basketball Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosová Gabriela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU links tactics and skills by emphasizing the appropriate timing and application within the tactical context of the game. It has been linked to the development of enhanced tactical knowledge. The purpose of the study was to determine immediate and delayed effects of TGfU on procedural and declarative knowledge of basketball and to compare it with a technical approach. Experimental group (EG (11 fifth graders + 18 sixth graders was taught by TGfU and a control group (CG (16 fifth graders + 24 sixth graders was taught by a technical approach for 8 weeks in Physical Education (PE classes, both. A written test was constructed to evaluate pupils’ declarative and procedural knowledge of basketball. The test was applied after the intervention to determine immediate effects and 8 months after the intervention to determine retention effects of the experimental programme. Shapiro-Wilk test, Wilcoxon T-test, Man-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis of obtained data. Cohen’s d was used to calculate effect size. Generally basketball knowledge was better in EG than in CG after the intervention (p<0.05 what confirms moderate effect size. When declarative and procedural knowledge were analysed separately there was no significant difference between EG and CG. Nevertheless, moderate effect sizes indicate that the data are particularly meaningful in terms of school practice. Retention effects of both approaches were similar. Total knowledge and declarative knowledge were worse after 8 months than immediately after the intervention in both groups (p<0.01. In both groups, there was no significant difference in procedural knowledge between the test written immediately after the intervention and 8 months later. Differences of changes were not significant between the groups.

  3. Use of isopycnic plots to understand the role of density in SFC - I. Effect of pressure variation on retention factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Abhijit; Hill, Jason F; Iraneta, Pamela C; Fountain, Kenneth J

    2015-08-07

    This paper aims to demonstrate the effect of pressure variations in modifying analyte retention behavior in SFC. There is a general understanding that in SFC increasing pressure decreases the retention factor (k'), and vice versa. What is not clearly discussed or explained in any recent literature is that these variations can be very different at different operating pressures, temperatures and modifier concentrations. It is important to have a clearer understanding on these variabilities during method development and results analysis. In this paper the nature of k' variation with pressure, at different temperatures and modifier concentrations, will be explained with the help of isopycnic plots of CO2 and CO2+methanol mixtures.

  4. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water

  5. The Irreplaceables: Understanding the Real Retention Crisis in America's Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Andy; Vidyarthi, Elizabeth; Carroll, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    "Irreplaceables" are teachers who are so successful they are nearly impossible to replace, but who too often vanish from schools as the result of neglect and inattention. To identify and better understand the experience of these teachers, the authors started by studying 90,000 teachers across four large, geographically diverse urban school…

  6. Understanding brand and dealer retention in the new car market : The moderating role of brand tier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Langerak, Fred; Donkers, Bas

    2007-01-01

    Dealers may contribute to brand retention through their sales and service efforts. In this study we investigate the degree to which dealers contribute to brand retention and how this contribution is moderated by brand tier. To this end we distinguish between economy, volume and prestige brands. We a

  7. Understanding brand and dealer retention in the new car market : The moderating role of brand tier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Langerak, Fred; Donkers, Bas

    2007-01-01

    Dealers may contribute to brand retention through their sales and service efforts. In this study we investigate the degree to which dealers contribute to brand retention and how this contribution is moderated by brand tier. To this end we distinguish between economy, volume and prestige brands. We a

  8. Understanding brand and dealer retention in the new car market : The moderating role of brand tier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Langerak, Fred; Donkers, Bas

    2007-01-01

    Dealers may contribute to brand retention through their sales and service efforts. In this study we investigate the degree to which dealers contribute to brand retention and how this contribution is moderated by brand tier. To this end we distinguish between economy, volume and prestige brands. We

  9. The Effectiveness and Retention of Teachers with Prior Career Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Ing, Marsha; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; O'Brien, Rachel; Wyckoff, James

    2011-01-01

    As schools and districts seek to recruit teachers, individuals in non-teaching professions are an appealing possible pool. These potential teachers come with work experience and may have expertise that would serve them well in the classroom. While there has been substantial rhetoric assailing the virtues of teachers with prior professional…

  10. Experiences That Predict Early Career Teacher Commitment to and Retention in High-Poverty Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipp, Joan L.; Geronime, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Correlation analysis was used to analyze what experiences before and during teacher preparation for 72 graduates of an urban teacher education program were associated with urban commitment, first job location, and retention in urban schools for 3 or more years. Binary logistic regression was then used to analyze whether urban K-12 schooling,…

  11. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Powell, Michael R.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Karri, Naveen K.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Tran, Diana N.; Sande, Susan; Heldebrant, David J.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Smet, Dave; Bryan, Wesley E.; Calmus, Ronald B.

    2014-05-16

    Gas generation in Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which typically has hydrogen as the major component together with other flammable species, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge in a waste tank is undesirable and limits the amount of tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge may potentially result in an unacceptable release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. Rapid release of large amounts of flammable gases could endanger personnel and equipment near the tank. For this reason, a thorough understanding of the circumstances that can lead to a potentially problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers is needed. To respond to this need, the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Program (DSGREP) was commissioned to examine gas release behavior in sludges.

  12. How Come the Best Job I Ever Had Was When I Worked at a Summer Camp?: Understanding Retention Among Camp Counselors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Whitacre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When attempting to discover a manner in which to maintain employment during the summer, many individuals have realized the job of camp counselor. What begins as a seasonal position may transform into a lifelong commitment to both person and place. For years, individuals have come to appreciate and understand the experiences that occur when approaching particular places. Data, for this study, was collected via in-depth interviews from twenty-four camp counselors from three separate, but similar camps. Phenomenological analysis on the qualitative data was performed to explore the staff retention amongst counselors. This study links sense of place as a salient component of employee retention among camp counselors. By developing a strong sense of community amongst staff, camp administrators may be promoting a deeper, more long-term, commitment among the staff and towards the camp.

  13. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for

  14. Mathematics Teachers' Support and Retention: Using Maslow's Hierarchy to Understand Teachers' Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to…

  15. "Making the Difficult Choice": Understanding Georgia's Test-Based Grade Retention Policy in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The author uses Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, and habitus to analyze how students, parents, teachers, and administrators are responding to Georgia's test-based grade retention policy in reading at one Georgia elementary school. In this multiple case study, the author interviewed, observed, and collected documents regarding ten fifth…

  16. Mathematics Teachers' Support and Retention: Using Maslow's Hierarchy to Understand Teachers' Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to…

  17. Rayleigh-Taylor Instability within Sediment Layers Due to Gas Retention: Preliminary Theory and Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rassat, Scot D.

    2013-03-21

    In Hanford underground waste storage tanks, a typical waste configuration is settled beds of waste particles beneath liquid layers. The settled beds are typically composed of layers, and these layers can have different physical and chemical properties. One postulated configuration within the settled bed is a less-dense layer beneath a more-dense layer. The different densities can be a result of different gas retention in the layers or different degrees of settling and compaction in the layers. This configuration can experience a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability where the less dense lower layer rises into the upper layer. Previous studies of gas retention and release have not considered potential buoyant motion within a settle bed of solids. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of RT instabilities, discuss predictions of RT behavior for sediment layers, and summarize preliminary experimental observations of RT instabilities in simulant experiments.

  18. Peeling the onion: understanding others' lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Maureen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Society and some healthcare professionals often marginalise pregnant women who take illicit substances. Midwives who care for these women are often viewed as working on the edge of society. This research aimed to examine the lived experiences of midwives who care for pregnant women who take illicit drugs. A phenomenological study informed by Heidegger, Gadamer and Merleau-Ponty was chosen to frame these lived experiences. Using face-to-face interviews, data were collected from 12 midwives making a difference, establishing partnerships and letting go and refining practice. Lived experiences are unique and can be difficult, intangible and couched in metaphor and difficult to grasp. This paper aims to discuss lived experience and suggests that like an onion, several layers have to be peeled away before meaning can be exposed; each cover reveals another layer beneath that is different from before and different from the next. The study provides exemplars that explain lived experiences.

  19. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Sima; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-10-07

    Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons' job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary's provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes. Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons' attraction and retention in rural areas. A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons' retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas.

  20. Policy interventions to improve rural retention among neurosurgeons in Iran: A discrete choice experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Rafiei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health workforce shortages in rural and remote areas are a global challenge that almost every health system has to deal with. This study aimed to discover neurosurgeons’ job preferences and propose policy interventions that could possibly increase their retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas.Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE was conducted in November 2014 with a sample of Iranian neurosurgeons selected from five contrary’s provinces representing the geographical diversity. Job attributes included income, dual practice opportunities, workload, proximity to family, clinical infrastructure, housing, educational facilities, and work location. Probit regression model was used to estimate the importance of different job attributes and examine the extent to which neurosurgeons were willing to tradeoff between monetary and nonmonetary attributes.Results: Findings indicated that increased salary, permission to undertake dual practice and access to adequate clinical infrastructure were the most important retention policies. Provision of subsidized housing and educational facilities also increased neurosurgeons’ attraction and retention in rural areas.Conclusion: A range of policy interventions focusing on both monetary and nonmonetary incentives are required to increase neurosurgeons’ retention in rural, remote, or underserved areas.

  1. The first year experience of occupational therapy students at an Australian regional university: Promoting student retention and developing a regional and remote workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Jackie; Cordier, Reinie; Thomas, Yvonne; Tanner, Bronwyn; Salata, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Student retention at regional universities is important in addressing regional and remote workforce shortages. Students attending regional universities are more likely to work in regional areas. First year experience at university plays a key role in student retention. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the first year experience of occupational therapy students at a regional Australian university. Surveys were administered to 58 second year occupational therapy students in the first week of second year. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics (Pearson χ(2) ; Spearman rho) and summarising descriptive responses. An Australian regional university. Second year undergraduate occupational therapy students. Factors influencing students' decisions to study and continue studying occupational therapy; factors enhancing first year experience of university. Fifty-four students completed the survey (93.1%). A quarter (25.9%) of students considered leaving the course during the first year. The primary influence for continuing was the teaching and learning experience. Most valued supports were orientation week (36.7%) and the first year coordinator (36.7%). The importance of the first year experience in retaining occupational therapy students is highlighted. Engagement with other students and staff and academic support are important factors in facilitating student retention. It is important to understand the unique factors influencing students' decisions, particularly those from regional and remote areas, to enter and continue in tertiary education to assist in implementing supports and strategies to improve student retention. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  2. Strengthening organizational commitment. Understanding the concept as a basis for creating effective workforce retention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Jo

    2004-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges facing any health care leader today is that of building commitment among followers. The last decade, with its tumultuous changes in our organizations, left many employees emotionally detached from their workplace. Mistrust, increasing cynicism, escalating financial pressures, and continuing challenges adversely impact our workforce's organizational commitment. The author explores the concept of commitment, which can serve as a basis for developing practical effective retention strategies.

  3. Beyond "Culture Clash" Understandings of Immigrant Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Bic

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the ways in which the experiences of immigrant youth and families in U.S. schools and society have been conceptualized primarily as conflicts between immigrant cultures and dominant U.S. culture. Exemplified by the discourse of culture clash or of immigrants being torn between two worlds, this prevalent understanding…

  4. Understanding Credit Risk: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatka, Maros; Theocharides, George

    2011-01-01

    This classroom experiment introduces students to the notion of credit risk and expected return, by allowing them to trade on comparable corporate bond issues from two types of markets: investment-grade and high-yield markets. Investment-grade issues have a lower probability of default than high-yield issues and thus provide a lower yield.…

  5. Designing Learning Experiences for Deeper Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Barbara K.; Harada, Violet H.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is the less visible part of the teaching and learning process; however, it serves as the blueprint for student learning. To conceptualize the unit or project as a holistic learning experience, the authors created the C.L.E.A.R. G.O.A.L.S. guidelines that address the major elements of unit planning. An essential step is identifying the…

  6. Understanding Credit Risk: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatka, Maros; Theocharides, George

    2011-01-01

    This classroom experiment introduces students to the notion of credit risk and expected return, by allowing them to trade on comparable corporate bond issues from two types of markets: investment-grade and high-yield markets. Investment-grade issues have a lower probability of default than high-yield issues and thus provide a lower yield.…

  7. Effect of Two-Tier Diagnostic Tests on Promoting Learners' Conceptual Understanding of Variables in Conducting Scientific Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Taking a test generally improves the retention of the material tested. This is a phenomenon commonly referred to as testing effect. The present research investigated whether two-tier diagnostic tests promoted student teachers' conceptual understanding of variables in conducting scientific experiments, which is a scientific process skill. In this…

  8. The impact of program experiences on the retention of women engineering students in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Maria Del Carmen Garcia

    This qualitative study sought to describe and understand the experiences of female students attending engineering colleges in Mexico and the sources of support and strategies that helped them persist in their programs. The participants were 20 women engineering students enrolled in at least their third year in selected colleges of engineering in Mexico, in both public and private universities, and pursuing a variety of engineering majors. Findings focus on the experiences of female students that helped them stay in their programs. Participants described their experiences in college as very challenging and perceived the environment as hostile and uncertain. In addition, patriarchal Mexican cultural values and stereotypes were identified by students as influencing and helping shape the engineering environment. However, in this context, participants were able to find sources of support and use strategies that helped them remain in their majors, such as a strong desire to succeed, a perceived academic self-ability; and support from their families, peers, institutions, and---most importantly---their professors. Furthermore, the fact that participants were able to persist in their programs gave them a sense of pride and satisfaction that was shared by their families, peers, and faculty. In addition, participants experienced contradictory forces and were constantly negotiating between rejecting traditional gender norms and upholding the norms that are so deeply engrained in Mexican society. Finally, as the students advanced in their programs and became "accepted to the club," they tended to reproduce the male-dominated value system present in engineering colleges accepting their professors' expectations of being "top students," accepting the elitist culture of engineering superiority, and embracing the protection given by their male peers. Retention of Mexican female engineering students is important for all engineering colleges, but cultural factors must be taken into

  9. In-situ experiments to investigate rock matrix retention properties in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutilainen, Mikko; Helariutta, Kerttuli [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry; Poteri, Antti [Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT (Finland); and others

    2015-07-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants, owned by TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy) and Fortum, is planned to be disposed to a repository at a depth of more than 400 meters in the bedrock of Olkiluoto (Eurajoki, Finland). The repository system of multiple release barriers consists of both manmade and natural barriers. The surrounding rock acts as the last barrier if other barriers fail during passage of the millennia. Therefore, safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel requires information on the radionuclide transport and retention properties within the porous and water-containing rock matrix along the water conducting flow paths. To this end, various types of experiments are being performed and planned within ONKALO, the underground rock characterization facility in Olkiluoto, as part of the project @''rock matrix REtention PROperties'' (REPRO). The research site is located at a depth of 420 meters close to the repository site. The aim is to study the diffusion and sorption properties of nuclear compounds in the rock matrix under real in-situ conditions. The first in-situ experiment was performed during 2012 using HTO, Na-22, Cl-36 and I-125 as tracer nuclides. Breakthrough curves show retention and asymptotic behavior that are in-line with those caused by matrix diffusion and sorption were observed in their breakthrough curves. Weak sorption was also observed in the breakthrough curves of Na-22 and I-125.

  10. International student complaint behaviour: Understanding how East-Asian business and management students respond to dissatisfaction during their university experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, David; Coates, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    The higher education sector is characterised by intense global competition for international students. This is driving universities to place greater priority on the student experience and, in particular, student satisfaction and retention. However, an under-researched area is student complaint behaviour. By understanding how students react to poor experiences; the likely impact on the learning and teaching experience, satisfaction ratings and ultimately international student recruitment can b...

  11. Why Death Matters: Understanding Gameworld Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Klastrup

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the staging and implementation of death and the death penalty in a number of popular MMOGs and relates it to players general experience of gameworlds. Game mechanics, writings and stories by designers and players, and the results of an online survey are analysed and discussed. The study shows that the death penalty is implemented much in the same way across worlds; that death can be both trivial and non-trivial, part of the grind of everyday life, or essential in the creation of heroes, depending on context. In whatever function death may serves, it is argued that death plays an important part in the shaping and emergence of the social culture of a world, and in the individual players experience of life within it.

  12. Reactive transport modeling for Cs retention: from batch to field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pourcq, K.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.; García-Gutiérrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.

    2012-04-01

    A Permeable Reactive Barrier has been designed to treat 137Cs polluted groundwater. In order to check both reactivity and permeability, laboratory batch and column tests combined with reactive transport modeling have been performed. The trapping mechanism is based on the sorption of cesium mainly on illite-containing clays. Batch experiments were conducted to obtain the partition coefficients (Kd) of different clay samples in solutions with different potassium concentration. A clear correlation of Kd values with potassium content was observed. The results were modeled with a cation-exchange model. The permeability of the reactive material is provided by the dispersion of the clay on a matrix of wooden shavings. Constant head tests allowed obtaining permeability values. Several column experiments with different flow rates were conducted to confirm the 137Cs retention under different conditions. A blind 1D reactive transport model based on the cation-exchange model was able to predict reasonably well the results of column experiments. The reactive transport model, validated with the column experiments, was used to investigate the performance and duration of 1m thick barrier under different scenarios (flow, clay proportion, 137Cs and K concentration). As expected, the sensitivity tests proved that the retention capacity of dissolved 137Cs in groundwater depends linearly on the amount of clay used in the filling material. As well, the operation time increases linearly when decreasing the flow rate. Finally, the concentration of potassium in inflow water has a remarkable and non-linear influence in the retention of 137Cs. Very high concentrations of potassium are the greatest threat and can lead to the unfeasibility of a permeable reactive barrier. Due to the Cs-K competition, the barrier is comparatively more efficient to treat high concentrations of 137Cs. Up to now, preliminary results from a field scale experiment have confirmed the reactivity and permeability

  13. Mathematics teachers' support and retention: using Maslow's hierarchy to understand teachers' needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-10-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to develop a hierarchy of teachers' needs that resembles Maslow's hierarchy, which can be used to better support teachers in various stages of their careers. The interviews revealed both non content-specific and content-specific needs within the hierarchy. The responses show that teachers found different schools foster different stress levels and that as teachers they used a number of resources for reducing stress. Other mathematics-specific ideas are also discussed such as the amount of content and pedagogy courses required for certification.

  14. Taming theory with thought experiments: Understanding and scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    I claim that one way thought experiments contribute to scientific progress is by increasing scientific understanding. Understanding does not have a currently accepted characterization in the philosophical literature, but I argue that we already have ways to test for it. For instance, current pedagogical practice often requires that students demonstrate being in either or both of the following two states: 1) Having grasped the meaning of some relevant theory, concept, law or model, 2) Being able to apply that theory, concept, law or model fruitfully to new instances. Three thought experiments are presented which have been important historically in helping us pass these tests, and two others that cause us to fail. Then I use this operationalization of understanding to clarify the relationships between scientific thought experiments, the understanding they produce, and the progress they enable. I conclude that while no specific instance of understanding (thus conceived) is necessary for scientific progress, understanding in general is.

  15. Understanding the student veterans' college experience: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy; Badger, Karen; McCuddy, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Students with active duty military experience are a unique and growing population on college campuses in the United States. This study explores student veterans' perceptions of their transition to and experience in higher education. This mixed methods study used a sample of 10 active military and reserve component student veterans to explore their perceptions of their personal strengths, challenges, factors impacting participation in university resource programs, and suggestions for ideal resources to support their academic success. Content analysis yielded primary themes such as the strength of self-discipline, the challenge of social interactions, and the desire for programs that connect student-veterans and assist with social integration. Implications for education, retention, and transition from active duty are discussed.

  16. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001 and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58 respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001. On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001, was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on

  17. Improving Pharmacy Students' Understanding and Long-term Retention of Acid-Base Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Victoria F.

    2007-01-01

    Despite repeated exposure to the principles underlying the behavior of organic acids and bases in aqueous solution, some pharmacy students remain confused about the topic of acid-base chemistry. Since a majority of organic drug molecules have acid-base character, the ability to predict their reactivity and the extent to which they will ionize in a given medium is paramount to students' understanding of essentially all aspects of drug action in vivo and in vitro. This manuscript presents a med...

  18. Understanding the Role of Uncertainty in Jealousy Experience and Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Walid A.; Reichert, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Confirms the value of uncertainty for understanding jealousy. Finds that subjects were more likely to experience and less likely to directly express jealousy at high, versus low, levels of relational state uncertainty. Highlights the importance of differentiating jealousy experience from expression, and corroborates recent evidence showing a…

  19. UNDERSTANDING VISITOR EXPERIENCES AND MOTIVATIONS IN SUBURBAN TAIPEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Tzu Lucetta TSAI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to cultivate higher-qualified human resources within the tourism field and provide plaining and developing direction based on the understanding of tourism features in San-ying area. There is a growing research interest in understanding the individual consumer's preferences, as well as management approaches of experiences and therefore, it has explored the understanding of the many different facets of experiences in tourism and hispitality business in suburban Taipei in particular the impact of the Sanxia and Yingge area. There is an attempt to examine the service quality of tourist attractions, moreover, the perceptions and travel experiences of tourists who visit Sanxia and Yingge area. Tourism and hospitality business in Sanxia and Yingge area present culture images and this study has discussed how this has influenced tourists' experiences, motivation and consumer behavior during their visit.

  20. Female peer mentors early in college increase women’s positive academic experiences and retention in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2017-01-01

    Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women’s experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students (n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women’s belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college—the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women’s success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time. PMID:28533360

  1. Integration of the interaction model of client health behavior and transactional model of stress and coping as a tool for understanding retention in HIV care across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lucy J

    2015-01-01

    Retaining people living with HIV (PLWH) in care over the lifespan is critical to quality and longevity of life. Individual health behavior decisions that affect care retention are complicated and multifactorial. Current health behavior theories are inadequate in isolation to guide retention in care research. Two existing models, Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior, and Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model of Stress and Coping have both guided research with PLWH, although not related to retention in care. Integration of these models may more comprehensively inform care retention research and practice across the lifespan as it incorporates not only intra- and inter-personal characteristics and relationships but also the stress and coping experiences inevitable when living with a chronic illness such as HIV.

  2. Learning on the Job: Understanding the Cooperative Education Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison I. Griffith

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning programs in Ontario provide on the job learning experiences for students. This paper analyzes three cases of student work placements described in extensive interviews with students, teachers and co-workers. Some students had enjoyed their work experience while others had not. When the student experiences were situated in the socially organized work processes of the work sites, the diverse experiences were found to have a common theme. When students are able to participate in and make sense of the work process, their work placement experience was seen to be useful for making future employment decisions. Where students were marginal to the work process, their lack of knowledge often translates into an unpleasant work experience and decisions about employment based on an experience of failure. This article suggests that our understanding of student learning on the job would be strengthened by a focus on the socially organized work process.

  3. Is personality the missing link in understanding recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael P; Humphreys, John S; Nicholson, Tahnee

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about the role of personality and related constructs in general practitioners' (GPs) choices of geographic location of medical practice. There is however some theory suggesting a role for personality in career decision making and some limited empirical evidence that this applies in medical career decisions. The aim of this study is to gain insight into whether personality plays a role in GPs' decisions to work in rural areas and the length of time that they intend to remain as a rural practitioner. Samples of rural (n=372) and urban (n=100) GPs from New South Wales (Australia) completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness--Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and Adjective Checklist personality instruments and answered questions about demographics and rural upbringing. Rural GPs scored, on average, more highly than urban GPs with respect to conscientiousness and agreeableness but lower on openness, which can also be taken to mean a more 'down-to-earth' personality. Personality together with age, gender, experience as a GP, time in current location and rural childhood yield an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 in discriminating rural from urban GPs. Among rural GPs openness (P=0.007) was positively correlated with intended longevity as a rural doctor as was nurturing (P=0.06). Personality appears to play some role both in discriminating rural from urban GPs and in how long existing rural GPs intend to remain as rural GPs. Consideration of personality might assist in selection of individuals who will better fit the professional and social environment of rural life. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  4. Retaining customers in a managed care market. Hospitals must understand the connection between patient satisfaction, loyalty, retention, and revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemme, E M

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, health care patients have been treated by health care professionals as people with needs rather than as customers with options. Although managed care has restricted patient choice, choice has not been eliminated. The premise of this article is that patients are primary health care consumers. Adopting such a premise and developing an active customer retention program can help health care organizations change their culture for the better, which may lead to higher customer retention levels and increased revenues. Customer retention programs based on service excellence that empower employees to provide excellent care can eventually lead to a larger market share for health care organizations trying to survive this era of intense competition.

  5. The Contemporary Understanding of User Experience in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hellweger, Stefan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    User Experience (UX) has been a buzzword in agile literature in recent years. However, often UX remains as a vague concept and it may be hard to understand the very nature of it in the context of agile software development. This paper explores the multifaceted UX literature, emphasizes the multi-dimensional nature of the concept and organizes the current state-of-the-art knowledge. As a starting point to better understand the contemporary meaning of UX assigned by practitioners, we selected f...

  6. Distributed Revisiting: An Analytic for Retention of Coherent Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihla, Vanessa; Wester, Michael J.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Designing learning experiences that support the development of coherent understanding of complex scientific phenomena is challenging. We sought to identify analytics that can also guide such designs to support retention of coherent understanding. Based on prior research that distributing study of material over time supports retention, we explored…

  7. Understanding of the life experience of homeless women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Ribeiro Biscotto

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To understand the life experience of homeless women. METHOD A social phenomenological study was conducted with 10 women assisted by a shelter. The analysis of the interviews was based on the theoretical framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz and thematic literature. RESULTS The participants face adversities in the street context, with emphasis on the risk of physical and sexual abuse, and seek shelters as a possibility for minimizing difficulties experienced. They hope to leave the streets; however, they see themselves trapped in this social reality, due to the addiction to alcohol and other drugs. CONCLUSION The understanding of the life experience of homeless women shows daily confrontations and reveals the conflict between the desire for leaving and remaining on the streets, given the complexity of the reality that keeps them in this condition.

  8. Nurses' and Midwives' - Understanding and Experiences of Empowerment in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2003-01-01

    Nurses’ and Midwives’ Understanding and Experiences of Empowerment in Ireland With the recently launched national health strategy (Department of Health and Children, 2001) and a tightening fiscal policy there is a requirement for a more innovative use of existing resources dedicated to healthcare in Ireland. Nurses and midwives, one of the largest professional groups within the health service, will play a critical role in developing this â?onewâ?Âù health service. Click he...

  9. The Influence of Principal Gender, Teachers' Years of Experience, and Retention on Teacher Perceptions of Principal Leadership Style, Qualities, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, Gregg M.

    2012-01-01

    One main challenge for many school districts in these tough economic times is teacher retention and all the costs associated. This study looks the influence of principal gender, teacher years of experience, and teacher retention based on teachers' perceptions of their principal's leadership style, transformational leadership qualities,…

  10. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witter Sophie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage and contingent valuation (third stage. For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents; in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents; and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants. Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions. It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and

  11. Understanding the Role of Identity and the Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Juan, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic narrative inquiry explored the role of identity and the retention of Mexican American students in higher education. Leadership identity, a dimension of identity, was explored using narratives provided by 13 Mexican American students, attending a university in the northwest United States. Interview data was compiled,…

  12. Using a Complexity-Based Perspective to Better Understand the Relationships among Mentoring, School Conflicts, and Novice Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Sheryn Elaine Spencer

    2011-01-01

    In this study I used complexity-thinking, ecologically-based sustainable capacity-building, narrative methodology, and pragmatism to explore the relationships among mentoring, conflict, and novice retention. In order to explore these relationships, I constructed stories from my interviews with six mentor-novice dyads in a southeastern 9-12 high…

  13. Creating meaningful learning experiences: Understanding students' perspectives of engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, Richard James Chung Mun

    , relevance, and transfer. With this framework of student learning, engineering educators can enhance learning experiences by engaging all three levels of students' understanding. The curriculum studies orientation applied the three holistic elements of curriculum---subject matter, society, and the individual---to conceptualize design considerations for engineering curriculum and teaching practice. This research supports the characterization of students' learning experiences to help educators and students optimize their teaching and learning of design education.

  14. Understanding of the life experience of homeless women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscotto, Priscilla Ribeiro; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Silva, Marcelo Henrique da; Oliveira, Deíse Moura de; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    To understand the life experience of homeless women. A social phenomenological study was conducted with 10 women assisted by a shelter. The analysis of the interviews was based on the theoretical framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz and thematic literature. The participants face adversities in the street context, with emphasis on the risk of physical and sexual abuse, and seek shelters as a possibility for minimizing difficulties experienced. They hope to leave the streets; however, they see themselves trapped in this social reality, due to the addiction to alcohol and other drugs. The understanding of the life experience of homeless women shows daily confrontations and reveals the conflict between the desire for leaving and remaining on the streets, given the complexity of the reality that keeps them in this condition. Compreender a vivência de mulheres em situação de rua. Pesquisa fenomenológica social realizada com 10 mulheres assistidas por um albergue. A análise das entrevistas ancorou-se no referencial teórico da fenomenologia social de Alfred Schütz e literatura temática. As participantes enfrentam adversidades no contexto da rua, com destaque para o risco de violência física e sexual, e buscam o albergue como possibilidade de minimizar as dificuldades vivenciadas. Elas têm como expectativa sair da rua, porém se veem presas a esta realidade social em virtude do vício em álcool e outras drogas. A compreensão da vivência de mulheres em situação de rua aponta enfrentamentos cotidianos e revela o conflito entre o desejo de sair e permanecer na rua, dada a complexidade da realidade que as mantém nesta condição.

  15. Understanding Community: thoughts and experiences of young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Yerbury

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic study of members of Generation X and Generation Y seeks to explore the ways they understand and experience community. Their comments and stories were gathered through interviews collected towards the end of 2006 and the early part of 2007. These provide richly textured evidence of their need to belong, to maintain everyday relationships and to collaborate with others at the same time as they commodify relationships or share information but not necessarily beliefs and values. Consequences of globalisation such as individualisation, transience in relationships, immediacy in communication, the blurring of boundaries between work and leisure, between public and private and the reliance on information and communication technologies are part of their everyday lives. Some study participants feel dis-embedded from their traditional social relationships and seek to establish new ones, whereas others feel comfortable joking with anonymous others. Their intellectualised constructs of community and descriptions of the lived reality of community find reflections in a range of theoretical constructs in the literature, both reinforcing and shifting scholarly understandings of the concept of community.

  16. FCI experiments and analysis. Contributions to basic understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Cho, D.; Magallon, D.; Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    Past safety analyses considered the hazard from vapor explosions in a conservative manner where engineering judgement and conservative analyses were used to estimate the likelihood of nuclear reactor containment failure from explosion-induced missile generation (alpha-mode failure). However, recent safety analyses may require less conservative methods to determine the hazard from vapor explosions; thus, one may need to consider more detailed scaling of vapor explosion energetics, considering fuel-coolant mixing and explosion propagation. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission is supporting a coordinated set of experiments to address this issue, given a lack of appropriate benchmark data and associated analyses. These experiments, KROTOS, WFCI and ZrEX are mutually complimentary and provide the first consistent set of data for FCI phenomena under controlled conditions for a wide range of simulant materials that approximate the fuel melt. The scaling logic for these tests is that essentially one-dimensional geometry with rigid constraints would maximize the explosion energetics for a given set of mixing conditions. Thus, only variations in the axial boundary conditions and fuel-coolant initial conditions (mass, composition and temperatures) can affect the mixing and energetics. Our hypothesis is that clear limits to energetics below thermodynamic values can be identified for these high temperature fuel melts along with fundamental understanding, which can aid in issue resolution. (author)

  17. Cootie Genetics: Simulating Mendel's Experiments to Understand the Laws of Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Katelyn; Anderson, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    "Cootie Genetics" is a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that enables students to learn the Mendelian laws of inheritance and gain an understanding of genetics principles and terminology. The activity begins with two true-breeding Cooties of the same species that exhibit five observable trait differences. Students observe the retention or…

  18. Cootie Genetics: Simulating Mendel's Experiments to Understand the Laws of Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Katelyn; Anderson, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    "Cootie Genetics" is a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that enables students to learn the Mendelian laws of inheritance and gain an understanding of genetics principles and terminology. The activity begins with two true-breeding Cooties of the same species that exhibit five observable trait differences. Students observe the retention or…

  19. Temperature effects on the retention of n-alkanes and arenes in helium-squalane gas-liquid chromatography. Experiment and molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Collin D; Siepman, J Ilja; Klotz, Wendy L; Schure, Mark R

    2002-04-19

    Experiments and molecular simulations were carried out to study temperature effects (in the range of 323 to 383 K) on the absolute and relative retention of n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, benzene, toluene and the three xylene isomers in gas-liquid chromatography. Helium and squalane were used as the carrier gas and retentive phase, respectively. Both the experiments and the simulations show a markedly different temperature dependence of the retention for the n-alkanes compared to the arenes. For example, over the 60 K temperature range studied, the Kovats retention index of benzene is found to increase by about 16 or 18+/-10 retention index units determined from the experiments or simulations, respectively. For toluene and the xylenes, the experimentally measured increases are similar in magnitude and range from 14 to 17 retention index units for m-xylene to o-xylene. The molecular simulation data provide an independent method of obtaining the transfer enthalpies and entropies. The change in retention indices is shown to be the result of the larger entropic penalty and the larger heat capacity for the transfer of the alkane molecules.

  20. Comparison of the Volume Charge Density of Nanofiltration Membranes Obtained from Retention and Conductivity Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, J.; Silva, V.; Pradanos, P.

    2010-01-01

    A version of the Donnan steric-partitioning pore model with dielectrical exclusion (DSPM-DE) has been used to get information on the pore size and charge density of a commercial membrane, NF45 from FilmTec, from its retention of KCl solutions. The conductivity inside the pores has been measured...... of the membrane. These two methods give results in fair accordance which probes that the sometimes controversial method of DSPM-DE can give accurate results for the charge as well as for the mean pore size of a nanofiltration membrane. Sonic clues to improve the way this model can be used are given as well....

  1. High-fidelity simulation enhances pediatric residents' retention, knowledge, procedural proficiency, group resuscitation performance, and experience in pediatric resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David M; Wu, Chang L; Williams, Daniel C; King, Lydia; Dobson, Joseph V

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) pediatric resuscitation training on resident performance and self-reported experience compared with historical controls. In this case-control study, pediatric residents at a tertiary academic children's hospital participated in a 16-hour HFS resuscitation curriculum. Primary outcome measures included cognitive knowledge, procedural proficiency, retention, and self-reported comfort and procedural experience. The intervention group was compared with matched-pair historical controls. Forty-one residents participated in HFS training with 32 matched controls. The HFS group displayed significant initial and overall improvement in knowledge (P historical controls but also reported increased real-life resuscitation experiences and related procedures.

  2. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carla A; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a "chilly climate," devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism - being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting - require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee's specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1) and perceived information sharing (Study 2) among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia.

  3. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A. Zimmerman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a chilly climate, devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism – being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting – require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences are affected significantly by the gender composition of an employee’s specific department. Participants were recruited at two time points to complete campus climate surveys that were distributed to faculty at a large, public, research university. We examined the number of reported ostracism experiences (Study 1 and perceived information sharing (Study 2 among male and female university faculty. The findings indicated that female faculty members perceived more workplace ostracism than male faculty members. Analyses of department gender ratios suggested that the proportion of women in the department did not reduce the amount of workplace ostracism experienced by women. No gender differences were found in perceived information sharing. However, we found that Faculty of Color, both men and women, reported more frequent information exclusion than White faculty. These results have important implications for theoretical and practical understandings of workplace demography and suggest that it is necessary to look at subtle, ambiguous forms of discrimination in order to increase retention of faculty from underrepresented groups in academia.

  4. Retention of Concepts Resulting from Learning by Experience. Preliminary Investigation of the Retention of Selected Reading and Mathematical Concepts Resulting from Students Enrolled in a Traditional Learning Environment and in a Learning-in-Work Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Michael R.; Harvey, R. J.

    A study investigated the retention of mathematical and reading concepts of students enrolled in a learning-in-work environment (Experience-Based Career Education) and a traditional classroom learning environment on a measure of academic achievement using a twelve-month longitudinal design. The performance of twenty-seven students in each…

  5. Understanding Solar Coronal Heating through Atomic and Plasma Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Arthanayaka, Thusitha; Bose, Sayak; Hahn, Michael; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Gekelman, Walter; Vincena, Steve

    2017-08-01

    Recent solar observations suggest that the Sun's corona is heated by Alfven waves that dissipate at unexpectedly low heights in the corona. These observations raise a number of questions. Among them are the problems of accurately quantifying the energy flux of the waves and that of describing the physical mechanism that leads to the wave damping. We are performing laboratory experiments to address both of these issues.The energy flux depends on the electron density, which can be measured spectroscopically. However, spectroscopic density diagnostics have large uncertainties, because they depend sensitively on atomic collisional excitation, de-excitation, and radiative transition rates for multiple atomic levels. Essentially all of these data come from theory and have not been experimentally validated. We are conducting laboratory experiments using the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that will provide accurate empirical calibrations for spectroscopic density diagnostics and which will also help to guide theoretical calculations.The observed rapid wave dissipation is likely due to inhomogeneities in the plasma that drive flows and currents at small length scales where energy can be more efficiently dissipated. This may take place through gradients in the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, which causes wave reflection and generates turbulence. Alternatively, gradients in the Alfvén speed across the field can lead to dissipation through phase-mixing. Using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California Los Angeles, we are studying both of these dissipation mechanisms in the laboratory in order to understand their potential roles in coronal heating.

  6. Improving Retention of Very Old Participants in Longitudinal Research: Experiences from the Newcastle 85+ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen; Kingston, Andrew; Robinson, Louise; Hughes, Joan; Hunt, Judith M.; Barker, Sally A. H.; Edwards, June; Collerton, Joanna; Jagger, Carol; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background People aged 85 and over are often excluded from research on the grounds of being difficult to recruit and problematic to retain. The Newcastle 85+ study successfully recruited a cohort of 854 85-year-olds to detailed health assessment at baseline and followed them up over 3 phases spanning 5 years. This paper describes the effectiveness of its retention strategies. Methods Primary retention strategies involved meticulous management of contact information and active maintenance of contact with participants between research visits and between phases of the study. For statistical analysis, data on post-inclusion attrition over the 3 follow-up phases was separated into ‘death’ and ‘withdrawal’ categories, with sub-categories ‘health’ and ‘non-health’ reasons created for ‘withdrawal’. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine if particular socio-demographic and health characteristics were associated with post-inclusion attrition due to withdrawal at each of the 3 phase-to-phase transition points. Results For both sexes, at successive follow-up phases there was a decrease in attrition due to withdrawal and an increase due to death. Withdrawal was most prevalent between baseline and phase 2. Across the 5 years of the study total post-inclusion (post-baseline) attrition due to death accounted for a 40% (344/854) loss to cohort and total post-inclusion attrition due to withdraw a 19% (166/854) loss to cohort, with health reasons for withdrawal becoming more dominant over time. Adjusting for sex, parsimonious modelling showed only occupational class (National Statistics Socio-economic Classification) to be associated with withdrawal and only between baseline and phase 2 (routine/manual compared to managerial (OR 3.41; 95% CI [1.23 to 9.44]). Conclusion Following successful recruitment, we retained a high proportion of participants from a very old age group over 5 years of longitudinal research. No strong predictors of post

  7. Improving retention of very old participants in longitudinal research: experiences from the Newcastle 85+ study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Davies

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People aged 85 and over are often excluded from research on the grounds of being difficult to recruit and problematic to retain. The Newcastle 85+ study successfully recruited a cohort of 854 85-year-olds to detailed health assessment at baseline and followed them up over 3 phases spanning 5 years. This paper describes the effectiveness of its retention strategies. METHODS: Primary retention strategies involved meticulous management of contact information and active maintenance of contact with participants between research visits and between phases of the study. For statistical analysis, data on post-inclusion attrition over the 3 follow-up phases was separated into 'death' and 'withdrawal' categories, with sub-categories 'health' and 'non-health' reasons created for 'withdrawal'. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine if particular socio-demographic and health characteristics were associated with post-inclusion attrition due to withdrawal at each of the 3 phase-to-phase transition points. RESULTS: For both sexes, at successive follow-up phases there was a decrease in attrition due to withdrawal and an increase due to death. Withdrawal was most prevalent between baseline and phase 2. Across the 5 years of the study total post-inclusion (post-baseline attrition due to death accounted for a 40% (344/854 loss to cohort and total post-inclusion attrition due to withdraw a 19% (166/854 loss to cohort, with health reasons for withdrawal becoming more dominant over time. Adjusting for sex, parsimonious modelling showed only occupational class (National Statistics Socio-economic Classification to be associated with withdrawal and only between baseline and phase 2 (routine/manual compared to managerial (OR 3.41; 95% CI [1.23 to 9.44]. CONCLUSION: Following successful recruitment, we retained a high proportion of participants from a very old age group over 5 years of longitudinal research. No strong predictors of post

  8. Effective Recruiting and Intrusive Retention Strategies for Diversifying the Geosciences through a Research Experiences for Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Norouzi, H.; Yuen-Lau, L.; Ikramova, M.

    2016-12-01

    Worse than in most Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, underrepresented minority (URM) groups in the geosciences are reported to be farthest beneath the national benchmarks. Even more alarming, the geosciences have the lowest diversity of all the STEM disciplines at all three levels of higher education. In order to increase the number of underrepresented groups in the geosciences, a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program at the New York City College of Technology has implemented effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain diverse student cohorts. Recruitment efforts include: 1) establishing partnership with the local community colleges; 2) forging collaborations with scientists of color; 3) reaching out to the geoscience departments; and 4) forming relationships with STEM organizations. Unlike the other REU programs which primarily provide a summer-only research experience, this REU program engages students in a year-long research experience. Students begin their research in the summer for nine weeks, and they continue their research one day a week in the fall and spring semesters. During the academic year, they present their projects at conferences. They also serve as STEM ambassadors to community and high school outreach events. This one-year triad connection of 1) professional organizations/conferences, 2) continual research experience, and 3) service constituent has resulted in higher retention and graduation rates of URMs in the STEM disciplines. Both formative and summative program assessment have uncovered and shown that strong recruitment efforts accompanied by intrusive retention strategies are essential to: a) sustain and support STEM URMs in developing confidence as scientists; b) create formal and informal STEM communities; and c) provide a clear pathway to advanced degrees and to the geoscience workforce. This project is supported by NSF REU Grant #1560050.

  9. The Effects of Primary Sources and Field Trip Experience on the Knowledge Retention of Multicultural Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    Although small in scope, this study attempted to analyze the impacts of primary sources and field trip experiences on multicultural education through first-hand narrative interviews, one year after the experience. In particular, it assessed the recollections of students who participated in a one-half-day field trip to George Washington Carver…

  10. Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used.

  11. Mobile Learning and Student Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Inder Fozdar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Student retention in open and distance learning (ODL is comparatively poor to traditional education and, in some contexts, embarrassingly low. Literature on the subject of student retention in ODL indicates that even when interventions are designed and undertaken to improve student retention, they tend to fall short. Moreover, this area has not been well researched. The main aim of our research, therefore, is to better understand and measure students’ attitudes and perceptions towards the effectiveness of mobile learning. Our hope is to determine how this technology can be optimally used to improve student retention at Bachelor of Science programmes at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in India. For our research, we used a survey. Results of this survey clearly indicate that offering mobile learning could be one method improving retention of BSc students, by enhancing their teaching/ learning and improving the efficacy of IGNOU’s existing student support system. The biggest advantage of this technology is that it can be used anywhere, anytime. Moreover, as mobile phone usage in India explodes, it offers IGNOU easy access to a larger number of learners. This study is intended to help inform those who are seeking to adopt mobile learning systems with the aim of improving communication and enriching students’ learning experiences in their ODL institutions.

  12. Beyond "Option B+": Understanding Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Adherence, Retention in Care and Engagement in ART Services Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women Initiating Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Landon; Phillips, Tamsin K

    2017-06-01

    Several studies from sub-Saharan Africa have highlighted significant challenges in providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to pregnant and postpartum women, with specific concerns around maintaining optimal levels of adherence to ART and/or retaining women in long-term services. However, there are few conceptual frameworks to help understand nonadherence and nonretention, as well as the drivers of these, among HIV-infected women, particularly in the postpartum period. This review provides an overview of the key issues involved in thinking about ART adherence, retention in care and engagement in ART services among pregnant and postpartum women. The related behaviors of adherence and retention may be understood as components of effective engagement of patients in ART services, which share the goal of achieving and maintaining suppressed maternal viral load on ART. Under this framework, the existing literature indicates that disengagement from care is widespread among postpartum women, with strikingly similar data emerging from ART services around the globe and indications that similar challenges may be encountered by postpartum care services outside the context of HIV. However, the drivers of disengagement require further research, and evidence-based intervention strategies are limited. The challenges of engaging women in ART services during pregnancy and the postpartum period seem pervasive, although the determinants of these are poorly understood. Looking forward, a host of innovative intervention approaches are needed to help improve women's engagement, and in turn, promote maternal and child health in the context of HIV.

  13. Investigating the Retention and Time-Course of Phonotactic Constraint Learning From Production Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warker, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults can rapidly learn artificial phonotactic constraints such as /f/ only occurs at the beginning of syllables by producing syllables that contain those constraints. This implicit learning is then reflected in their speech errors. However, second-order constraints in which the placement of a phoneme depends on another characteristic of the syllable (e.g., if the vowel is /æ/, /f/ occurs at the beginning of syllables and /s/ occurs at the end of syllables but if the vowel is /I/, the reverse is true) require a longer learning period. Two experiments question the transience of second-order learning and whether consolidation plays a role in learning phonological dependencies. Using speech errors as a measure of learning, Experiment 1 investigated the durability of learning, and Experiment 2 investigated the time-course of learning. Experiment 1 found that learning is still present in speech errors a week later. Experiment 2 looked at whether more time in the form of a consolidation period or more experience in the form of more trials was necessary for learning to be revealed in speech errors. Both consolidation and more trials led to learning; however, consolidation provided a more substantial benefit. PMID:22686839

  14. Understanding Trajectories of Experience in Situated Learning Field Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Canova Calori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role context plays in promoting engagement and exploration in situated learning experiences during field trips. We look at field trips where children engage with the physical and social context in order to learn about cultural and social aspects of the city they live in. By drawing on empirical data collected by means of qualitative methods, we discuss how learning unfolds along trajectories of experience towards pre-defined and emerging learning objectives. We reflect of the role technology can play in sup-porting learning experiences outside the classroom.

  15. Phosphorus retention and fractionation in an eutrophic wetland: A one-year mesocosms experiment under fluctuating flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, María Del Carmen; Álvarez-Rogel, José; Conesa, Héctor Miguel; Párraga-Aguado, Isabel; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the response of salt marshes to pulses of PO4(3-)-enriched water, with and without the presence of Phragmites australis. A one-year mesocosms experiment was performed in simulated soil profiles (fine-textured surface layers and sandy subsurface layers) from a coastal salt marsh of the Mar Menor lagoon under alternating flooding-drying conditions with eutrophic water, under low (1.95 mg L(-1) P-PO4(3-)) and high (19.5 mg L(-1) P-PO4(3-)) P load, and with the presence/absence of Phragmites. The PO4(3-) concentrations in soil porewater and drainage water were regularly measured, and P accumulated in soils (including a fractionation procedure) and plants (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves) were analyzed. The experimental mesocosms were highly effective in the removal of P from the eutrophic flooding water (>90% reduction of the P added to the system both in the soil pore water and drainage water), regardless of the nutrient load, the season of the year and the presence/absence of Phragmites. The soil was the main sink of the P added to the system, while Phragmites had a minor role in P removal. The biomass of Phragmites accumulated ∼27% of the P added with the flooding water in the treatment with water of low P load while ∼12% of P in that of high P load; the rhizomes were the organs that contributed the most (∼67-72% of the total P retained by the plants). Ca/Mg compounds were the main contributors to the retention of P in the soil compartment, especially in the fine-textured surface soil layers (∼34-53% of the total P in the soil was present in this fraction). Phragmites favored the retention of P onto metal oxides (∼12% increase of the P retained in the metal oxides fraction in the treatment with water of high P load). Hence, the use of constructed wetlands to ameliorate the negative impacts of P-enriched waters in the Mar Menor lagoon and similar areas is recommended. We propose the incorporation of fine

  16. Fostering Intercultural Understanding through Secondary School Experiences of Cultural Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jessica; Paradies, Yin; Priest, Naomi; Wertheim, Eleanor H.; Freeman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with many nations' education policies, national education policies in Australia seek to foster students' intercultural understanding. Due to Australia's location in the Asia-Pacific region, the Australian government has focused on students becoming "Asia literate" to support Australia's economic and cultural engagement with…

  17. An Experiment of Student Understanding of Accruals versus Cash Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Lopez, Jose Eduardo; Nichols, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of both accrual accounting and cash basis accounting need to be thoroughly understood by accounting graduates as they enter the workplace. In making decisions, both managers and investors often may need to make adjustments from one basis to the other. But do students really understand these concepts? This study uses an experimental…

  18. A Simple Calorimetric Experiment that Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S.

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, general chemistry students measure the heating curves for three different systems: (i) 500 g of room-temperature water heated by a small desk lamp, (ii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture warmed by conduction with room-temperature surroundings, and (iii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture heated by a small desk lamp and by…

  19. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  20. Higher Education Teachers' Experiences with Learning Analytics in Relation to Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Deborah; Huijser, Henk; Heath, David; Lizzio, Alf; Toohey, Danny; Miles, Carol; Searle, Bill; Bronnimann, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of Australian and New Zealand academics (n = 276) that teach tertiary education students. The study aimed to explore participants' early experiences of learning analytics in a higher education milieu in which data analytics is gaining increasing prominence. Broadly speaking participants were asked about:…

  1. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  2. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-04-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  3. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okine Abdul Razak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC, which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27 with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively, and their silages (n = 81. These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus, a root tuber source (potato pulp, a fruit source (apple pomace and a cereal source (brewer’s grain, respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3. Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01, with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76 between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  4. Speculative Fictions for Understanding Global Change Environments: Two Thought Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Gough

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a thought experiment, as the term was used by quantum and relativity physicists in the early part of the twentieth century, was not prediction (as is the goal of classical experimental science, but more defensible representations of present ‘realities’. Speculative fictions, from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to the Star Wars cinema saga, can be read as sociotechnical thought experiments that produce alternative representations of present circumstances and uncertainties, and anticipate and critique possible futures. In this essay I demonstrate how two examples of popular speculative fictions, Frank Herbert's Dune (1965 and Ursula Le Guin's The Telling (2000, function as thought experiments that problematise global transitions in their respective eras. I argue that critical readings of such stories can help us to anticipate, critique, and respond constructively to social and cultural changes and change environments within nation-states that constitute, and are constituted by, global change processes and their effects.

  5. Understanding Student Attitudes toward Bible Reading: A Philippine Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Rito V.

    2008-01-01

    Reflecting from the Philippine experience, this article explores an emerging picture that characterizes contemporary Bible reading attitudes of college students. Six new attitude factor definitions are developed following the development of the Bible Reading (BR) attitude scale for college students constructed by this author in a separate study.…

  6. Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: A survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, E.L.C.; Roto, V.; Hassenzahl, M.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Kort, J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in user experience (UX), it has been hard to gain a common agreement on the nature and scope of UX. In this paper, we report a survey that gathered the views on UX of 275 researchers and practitioners from academia and industry. Most respondents agree that UX is dynamic,

  7. Understanding Marine Biocorrosion: Experiments with Artificial and Natural Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting...potential (OCP) for a series of metals exposed in two US coastal locations: Delaware Bay, DE, USA and KW. Their experiments are particularly enlightening

  8. Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: A survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, E.L.C.; Roto, V.; Hassenzahl, M.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Kort, J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in user experience (UX), it has been hard to gain a common agreement on the nature and scope of UX. In this paper, we report a survey that gathered the views on UX of 275 researchers and practitioners from academia and industry. Most respondents agree that UX is dynamic,

  9. Understanding Students' Experiences of Statistics in a Service Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sue

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we explore issues surrounding university students' experiences of statistics drawing on data related to learning statistics as a compulsory component of psychology. Over 250 students completed a written survey which included questions on their attitudes to learning statistics and their conceptions of statistics. Results indicated…

  10. Understanding Students' Experiences of Well-Being in Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Alisa; Zandvliet, David; Dhaliwal, Rosie; Black, Tara

    2016-01-01

    With the recent release of a new international charter on health promoting universities and institutions of higher education, universities and colleges are increasingly interested in providing learning experiences that enhance and support student well-being. Despite the recognition of learning environments as a potential setting for creating and…

  11. Towards an Understanding of Muslim American Adolescent High School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…

  12. Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) - Understanding Sampling Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, W. A.; Banta, R. M.; Hardesty, M.; Pichugina, Y.; Senff, Christoph; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Carroll, B.; Delgado, R.; Muschinski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Coherent Doppler LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been widely used to provide measurements of several boundary layer parameters such as profiles of wind speed, wind direction, vertical velocity statistics, mixing layer heights and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). An important aspect of providing this wide range of meteorological data is to properly characterize the uncertainty associated with these measurements. With the above intent in mind, the Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) was conducted at Erie, Colorado during the period June 23rd to July 13th, 2014. The major goals of this experiment were the following: Characterize sampling error for vertical velocity statistics Analyze sensitivities of different Doppler lidar systems Compare various single and dual Doppler retrieval techniques Characterize error of spatial representativeness for separation distances up to 3 km Validate turbulence analysis techniques and retrievals from Doppler lidars This experiment brought together 5 Doppler lidars, both commercial and research grade, for a period of three weeks for a comprehensive intercomparison study. The Doppler lidars were deployed at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) site in Erie, site of a 300 m meteorological tower. This tower was instrumented with six sonic anemometers at levels from 50 m to 300 m with 50 m vertical spacing. A brief overview of the experiment outline and deployment will be presented. Results from the sampling error analysis and its implications on scanning strategy will be discussed.

  13. Knowledge retention in capstone experiences: An analysis of online and face-to-face courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Girard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research chronicles the development of a capstone experience by a regional comprehensive university. The process began with a multi-year project during which the faculty annually reviewed the results with a view to determining if the class provided the deep learning culminating experiences anticipated. A major measure of success was the desire to replicate the deep learning common in face-to-face classes in the online environment. The results of 166 students were analyzed, 82 online and 84 face-to-face, to determine if a difference existed. A one-way ANOVA tested the score differences among 10 sections and determined the students’ scores did not differ significantly. Finally, a two-sample t-test between proportions determined that there was not a significant difference between the online and face-to-face students with respect to the level of assessment scores earned. Given that online and face-to-face students demonstrate the same level of knowledge, does this beg the question, what value does face-to-face class time offer?

  14. Understanding cosmic rays with Balloon and Space Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picozza, P., E-mail: piergiorgio.picozza@roma2.infn.it [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Physics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Di Felice, V. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Measurements of cosmic rays provide important information on their sources and on the mechanisms of acceleration and propagation of cosmic particles through the Galaxy. Positrons and antiprotons in cosmic rays are also the major candidates for searching signals from annihilation of dark matter and contributions from other exotic sources as nearby pulsars. Many balloon-borne experiments have been performed since the sixties, obtaining important results that strongly suggested the realization of the PAMELA and Fermi satellite missions, the latter mainly for gamma rays, and AMS-02 on the ISS. The precision of the measurements and the high statistics highlighted unexpected features in the cosmic particle energy spectra that are setting strong constraints to the nature of Dark Matter and are contributing to change our basic vision of their origin and propagation. The continuous particle detection in space experiments is allowing a constant monitoring of the solar activity and detailed study of the solar modulation for a long period, giving important improvements to the comprehension of the heliosphere mechanisms.

  15. Understanding Alginate Gel Development for Bioclogging and Biogeophysical Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdel Aal, G. Z.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sarkisova, S.; Patrauchan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation strategies to mitigate the transport of heavy metals and radionuclides in subsurface sediments have largely targeted to increase the mobility and/or solubility of these compounds by the stimulation of biogeochemical activity of the metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter secrete and/or release out diverse biochemical molecule including, first of all, organic acids and biopolymers such as alginic acid, proteins and DNA. Alginate gel is one of the major components determining the structure of biofilm which causes clogging in porous media. Biopolymers composing biofilm having, at least, two main functions: to be a scaffold for a microbial biofilm, and to regulate the exchange of metabolites and ions between an environment and bacterial cells. Additionally, the accumulation of biopolymers and a matured biofilm within porous media was shown to contribute to a detectable biogeophysical signal, spectral induced polarization (SIP), in particular. Our objective is to understand the role of different biofilm components on the SIP response as the latter has been proposed as a non-invasive tool to monitor biofilm development and rate of clogging in the subsurface. Understanding the process of alginate gel development may aid in the understanding of the fate and transport of mineralized heavy metals and radionuclides in contaminated soils. Here we describe the reciprocal relationship between environmental chemistry and alginate gel development. Commercial (Sigma) alginic acid (AA) was used as a substratum for the preparation of a model gel. AA was solubilized by adjusting solutions with pH up to 4 with 0.1 NaOH. Both Ca(OH)2 or CaCl2 were used to initiate the gelation of alginate. pH, fluid conductivity, soluble Ca2+ concentration, and a yield of gelated alginate were monitored in both liquid and porous media after the interaction of calcium compounds with alginate. This study confirms the critical role of Ca2+ for alginate gelation, biofilm development

  16. Epidural analgesia during labour - maternal understanding and experience - informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, K; Chin, D; Drew, A

    2015-01-01

    Women obtain information on epidural analgesia from various sources. For epidural for pain relief in labour this is provided by the anaesthetist as part of the consenting process. There is much discussion about the inadequacy of this consenting process; we report on women's knowledge, experience and recall of this process at a regional hospital with a 24-h epidural service. Fifty-four women were interviewed within 72 h of a vaginal birth. 91% of the women had acquired information from friends, relatives and antenatal classes. Lack of recall of benefits of epidural analgesia accounted for 26 (38%) and 25 (26%) of the responses, respectively. Similarly in terms of amount of pain relief they could expect, 13 (21%) could not remember and 13 (21%) thought that it may not work. We suggest use of varying methods of disseminating information and wider utilisation of anaesthetists in the antenatal educational programmes.

  17. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  18. Using discrete choice experiments to understand preferences in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Whenever processes are reconfigured or new products are designed the needs and preferences of patients and consumers have to be considered. Although at times neglected, this becomes more and more relevant in health care settings: Which modes of health care delivery will be accepted? What are the patients' priorities and what is the willingness to pay? To which degree are patients mobile and for which kind of services are they willing to travel? Preferences, however, are difficult to measure, as they are latent constructs. This becomes even more difficult, when no past choices can be analyzed either as the service or the product is yet to be developed or as in the past there has not been free choice for patients. In such cases, preferences cannot be surveyed directly. Asking individuals openly for their attitudes towards certain services and products, the results are likely biased as individuals are not confronted with budget constraints and trade-offs. For this reason, discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are frequently used to elicit patient preferences. This approach confronts patients with hypothetical scenarios of which only one can be chosen. Over the past few years, this tool to reveal patients' preferences for health care has become very popular in health economics. This contribution aims at introducing the principles of DCEs, highlighting the underlying theory and giving practical guidance for conducting a discrete choice experiment in health economics. Thereby we focus on three major fields of patient demand: designing health insurance, assessing patient utility of new pharmaceuticals and analyzing provider choice. By having a closer look at selected international studies, we discuss the application of this technique for the analysis of the supply and the demand of health care as well as the implications for assessing patient mobility across different health care systems.

  19. Assessment of selected bioretention blends for nutrient retention using mesocosm experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Sample, David J; Owen, James S; Li, Jinling; Evanylo, Gregory

    2014-09-01

    This study compares the performance of three bioretention media blends for N and P removal from simulated urban runoff in experimental mesocosms. TerraSolve, Biofilter, and "VT Mix" (Virginia Tech) were compared with and without vegetation at varying hydraulic residence times (HRTs). Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted. TerraSolve and VT Mix included water treatment residuals (WTRs), Biofilter and VT Mix included yard-waste compost (YWC), and TerraSolve included a mix of coir and peat. TerraSolve removed the highest amount of total P (>95%), which is attributed to the high quantity of WTRs. Results were similar for VT Mix, likely due to WTR content. Adsorption isotherms indicate a substantial difference due to this factor. Vegetative mesocosms were found to be less effective at P removal at an HRT of 6 to 12 h but not at an HRT of 24 h. VT Mix had the highest removal of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), significantly different than the other blends. Interactive effects with vegetation were observed, generally improving TKN removal at all HRTs, with the highest at 24 h. Substantial export of nutrients when using compost was not observed. The addition of YWC appeared to increase N removal, possibly by denitrification. It is recommended that bioretention media contain <10% fines, a source of amorphous Al for P adsorption, at least 3 to 5% total organic C in the form of a low P, relatively stable compost, and a minimum concentration of plant-available nutrients for establishment of vegetation. For systems that use HRT, optimum residence time is influenced by media composition.

  20. Engagement and detachment: understanding patients' experiences with nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, D; Koch, T; Wotton, K

    1997-08-01

    This study aimed to understand what post-operative patients perceived was important about the nursing care they had experienced. The participants were nine women recovering from total hip replacement surgery which had been performed in a large public, acute care hospital in south Australia. Participants volunteered to be involved in the study and were interviewed pre- and post-operatively and interviews continued in their home environment following discharge. The study took place during 1995 within a 10-month time frame. Methodological guidance was sought from the phenomenology literature, with the ideas from Husserl and Heideggar providing shape for the interpretive framework. The analysis of data utilized Colaizzi's (1978) seven procedural steps. For the purposes of this paper the authors have selected to focus only on the findings of this study. Two major themes emerged from the conversations with women. Patients described nurses as being engaged or detached with their nursing care. These themes will be explicated in this paper. In the light of these dominant themes the nursing literature around engagement and detachment are examined. The implications for nursing practice are discussed.

  1. Understanding digital natives' learning experiences Conhecendo as experiências de aprendizagem de nativos digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio de Paiva Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a better understanding of digital natives' perspectives on English learning. The present case study analyzes data from a group of Brazilian learners of English who study at a federal, public high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data collection includes: (a a questionnaire to examine the profile of the participants and (b learner narratives. This study privileges an interpretive approach based on Complexity Theory in an attempt to understand participants' learning experiences from a more holistic, whole-systems approach. Results indicate that the complex adaptive learning system of digital natives is self-organizing and chaotic. Moreover, the final remarks stress a pressing concern regarding English teaching in Brazil and suggest that the current pedagogical practices no longer serve the needs of the digital generation.Este trabalho tem por objetivo fornecer uma melhor compreensão das perspectivas de nativos digitais sobre a aprendizagem de inglês. O presente estudo de caso analisa dados de um grupo de aprendizes brasileiros de inglês que estudam em uma escola federal de Ensino Médio, localizada no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A coleta de dados é feita por meio de (a um questionário para traçar o perfil dos participantes, e (b as narrativas dos alunos. Este estudo privilegia uma abordagem interpretativa com base na teoria da complexidade, de modo a tentar entender as experiências de aprendizagem dos participantes a partir de uma forma mais holística, de sistemas. Os resultados indicam que o sistema adaptativo complexo de aprendizagem de nativos digitais é auto-organizante e caótico. Além disso, as considerações finais destacam uma preocupação séria com o ensino de inglês no Brasil e sugerem que as atuais práticas pedagógicas já não atendem às necessidades da geração digital.

  2. Cultural Immersion Experience: Promoting an Understanding of Mexican American Nutrition and Food Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboy, Mary Beth; Bill, Debra E.

    2011-01-01

    A week long immersion experience in Guanajuato, Mexico provided an opportunity for public health and nutrition students to improve their understanding of Mexican culture, nutrition, and food traditions. The experience positively impacted the students' understanding of the importance of cultural sensitivity in working with the local Mexican…

  3. Impact of Experiments on 13-Year-Old Pupils' Understanding of Selected Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, Matej; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish what impact experimental work has on the understanding of scientific concepts, what pupils remember about the experiments they carried out and how they are able to formulate and understand the experiment plan. A sample of 386 pupils aged 13+ participated in the research, of which 162 in the experimental…

  4. Cultural Immersion Experience: Promoting an Understanding of Mexican American Nutrition and Food Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboy, Mary Beth; Bill, Debra E.

    2011-01-01

    A week long immersion experience in Guanajuato, Mexico provided an opportunity for public health and nutrition students to improve their understanding of Mexican culture, nutrition, and food traditions. The experience positively impacted the students' understanding of the importance of cultural sensitivity in working with the local Mexican…

  5. Impact of Experiments on 13-Year-Old Pupils' Understanding of Selected Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, Matej; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish what impact experimental work has on the understanding of scientific concepts, what pupils remember about the experiments they carried out and how they are able to formulate and understand the experiment plan. A sample of 386 pupils aged 13+ participated in the research, of which 162 in the experimental…

  6. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  7. Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  8. Creating Socionas: Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  9. Engaging older adults in high impact volunteering that enhances health: recruitment and retention in The Experience Corps Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iveris L; Frick, Kevin; Glass, Thomas A; Carlson, Michelle; Tanner, Elizabeth; Ricks, Michelle; Fried, Linda P

    2006-09-01

    Engagement in social and generative activities has benefits for the well-being of older adults; hence, methods for broadly engaging them in such activities are desired. Experience Corps Baltimore, a social model for health promotion for older adult volunteers in public schools, offers insight to such successful recruitment and retention. We report on data over a 4-year period in Baltimore City, Maryland, and describe a five-stage screening process implemented to recruit a diverse group of senior volunteers who would remain in the program for at least 1 year. The sample consisted of 443 older adults expressing an interest in and screened for volunteering. Comparisons were made with Chi-square and Fisher's t-test between those who entered the program and those who did not and those who were retained in the program. Gender, race, age group, and prior volunteering were significant in ultimate volunteer service in the schools. Overall, 38% of 443 persons recruited entered the schools; 94% of participants were over 60 years (p = 0.05) with a mean age of 69 years; 90% were women (p = 0.03), and 93% African-American (p = 0.005); 57% had not volunteered in the past year (p = 0.004). Ninety-two percent were retained in the first year; 80% returned a second year. Among the latter, 83% had volunteering regardless of baseline MMSE score, self-reported health, and motivation for volunteering. In conclusion, it is possible to recruit and retain a diverse pool of older adults to participate in a high-intensity volunteer program, including non-traditional volunteers. Of special note is the success in recruiting African-American women and those with lower education, who may particularly benefit from health promotion.

  10. Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1...

  11. Phenomenology as a philosophical orientation for understanding the transformative experience of disabling illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Kaufman's ground-breaking work in the 1980s introduced the phenomenology of disability. In my commentary, I describe phenomenology as a philosophy of understanding the world around us and as a methodology for understanding the lived experiences of patients with life-changing disabilities. Like Kaufman, my focus for the use of phenomenology in health care is to capture the existential and transformative experience of illness. As such, I agree with Kaufman that phenomenology can help health care professionals expand their understanding of patient experiences to provide a fuller and richer, holistic response to care.

  12. Nursing care and understanding the experiences of others: a Gadamerian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brian

    2007-03-01

    A personal and professional issue that confronts all nurses is that of attempting to understand the experiences of our patients or clients. The position taken here is that understanding another person as a human being is much more than being able to explain their experience according to a particular model of ill-health. Rather, it is an issue of human dignity and respectfulness. Gadamerian hermeneutics has been used in nursing research to articulate the process of understanding and to develop interpretations of particular experiences. Gadamer's exposition of understanding shows that we need to be aware that our understanding of other people is developed through a fusion of our own history, language and culture with that of the other person. This occurs through a hermeneutic question-answer dialogue in which we put our ideas at risk of being modified or rejected in the process. Understanding then, is a perceptual and conceptual process in which we fully participate. In this way, the experience of understanding those we nurse increases our understanding of ourselves as well as enhancing our ability to further understand others.

  13. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Carla A. Zimmerman; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R.; Xiaohong eXu

    2016-01-01

    Research on the retention of women in academia has focused on challenges, including a “chilly climate,” devaluation, and incivility. The unique consequences of workplace ostracism – being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting – require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia. The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the faculty experiences and outcomes of workplace ostracism, and to determine if these experiences ar...

  14. Particulate organic matter quality influences nitrate retention and denitrification in stream sediments: evidence from a carbon burial experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Robert S.; Scott, J. Thad; Bartsch, Lynn; Parr, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Organic carbon supply is linked to nitrogen transformation in ecosystems. However, the role of organic carbon quality in nitrogen processing is not as well understood. We determined how the quality of particulate organic carbon (POC) influenced nitrogen transformation in stream sediments by burying identical quantities of varying quality POC (northern red oak (Quercus rubra) leaves, red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves, red maple wood) in stream mesocosms and measuring the effects on nitrogen retention and denitrification compared to a control of combusted sand. We also determined how POC quality affected the quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved oxygen concentration in groundwater. Nitrate and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) retention were assessed by comparing solute concentrations and fluxes along groundwater flow paths in the mesocosms. Denitrification was measured by in situ changes in N2 concentrations (using MIMS) and by acetylene block incubations. POC quality was measured by C:N and lignin:N ratios and DOC quality was assessed by fluorescence excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. POC quality had strong effects on nitrogen processing. Leaf treatments had much higher nitrate retention, TDN retention and denitrification rates than the wood and control treatments and red maple leaf burial resulted in higher nitrate and TDN retention rates than burial of red oak leaves. Leaf, but not wood, burial drove pore water to severe hypoxia and leaf treatments had higher DOC production and different DOC chemical composition than the wood and control treatments. We think that POC quality affected nitrogen processing in the sediments by influencing the quantity and quality of DOC and redox conditions. Our results suggest that the type of organic carbon inputs can affect the rates of nitrogen transformation in stream ecosystems.

  15. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  16. Teacher's Understanding, Perceptions, and Experiences of Students in Foster Care: A Forgotten Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Davis, Darneika

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine elementary teacher's understanding, perceptions, and experiences of working with students in foster care. The researcher examined whether teachers are informed about students in foster care, determined teacher's understanding of the foster care system, and how their students are affected. The results…

  17. Students' Experiences and Perceptions of In-Depth Approaches in Teaching and Understanding Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    Students' experiences and perceptions of good teaching and understanding in literature and physics during one school year were investigated through in-depth interviews with students in eight Greek high school classes in the first, second and third grade. The pedagogical quality of in-depth teaching and understanding of subject matter, as described…

  18. Introductory Psychology: How Student Experiences Relate to Their Understanding of Psychological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Thomas; Richardson, Deborah; Hammock, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Many students who declare a psychology major are unaware that they are studying a scientific discipline, precipitating a need for exercises and experiences that help students understand the scientific nature of the discipline. The present study explores aspects of an introductory psychology class that may contribute to students' understanding of…

  19. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  20. Real Experiments versus Phet Simulations for Better High-School Students' Understanding of Electrostatic Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajredini, Fadil; Izairi, Neset; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence of computer simulations (virtual experiments) on one hand and real experiments on the other hand on the conceptual understanding of electrical charging. The investigated sample consists of students in the second year (10th grade) of three gymnasiums in Macedonia. There were two experimental groups and one…

  1. Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Narrative Inquiry into Understanding Immigrant Students' Educational Experience in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillion, JoAnn

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of narrative inquiry to contribute to an understanding of immigrant students' educational experience. Research on immigrant students' education is reviewed and the need for detailed examination of these students' experiences in schools, such as is done in a narrative inquiry, is demonstrated.…

  2. Education as Service: The Understanding of University Experience through the Service Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Irene C. L.; Forbes, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    With the marketization of UK higher education, this paper develops a framework from services marketing that can assist universities in understanding what market orientation means and how students would value their offerings. Our study shows that the core service in a university experience is a learning experience that is cocreated and that the…

  3. Understanding Special Olympics Experiences from the Athlete Perspectives Using Photo-Elicitation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Burnham Riosa, Priscilla; Robinson, Suzanne; Ryan, Stephanie; Tint, Ami; Viecili, Michelle; MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Shine, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities experience challenges to participating in organized sport, despite its known benefits. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of participating in sport (Special Olympics) from the perspectives of athletes with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Five…

  4. The impact of presentation style on the retention of online health information: a randomized-controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Anne-Linda; Camerini, Luca; Schulz, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    The Internet plays an increasingly important role in health education, providing laypeople with information about health-related topics that range from disease-specific contexts to general health promotion. Compared to traditional health education, the Internet allows the use of multimedia applications that offer promise to enhance individuals' health knowledge and literacy. This study aims at testing the effect of multimedia presentation of health information on learning. Relying on an experimental design, it investigates how retention of information differs for text-only presentation, image-only presentation, and multimedia (text and image) presentation of online health information. Two hundred and forty students were randomly assigned to four groups each exposed to a different website version. Three groups were exposed to the same information using text only, image only, or text and image presentation. A fourth group received unrelated information (control group). Retention was assessed by the means of a recognition test. To examine a possible interaction between website version and recognition test, half of the students received a recognition test in text form and half of them received a recognition test in imagery form. In line with assumptions from Dual Coding Theory, students exposed to the multimedia (text and image) presentation recognized significantly more information than students exposed to the text-only presentation. This did not hold for students exposed to the image-only presentation. The impact of presentation style on retention scores was moderated by the way retention was assessed for image-only presentation, but not for text-only or multimedia presentation. Possible explanations and implications for the design of online health education interventions are discussed.

  5. Rapid Method Development in Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography for Pharmaceutical Analysis Using a Combination of Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships and Design of Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraji, Maryam; Haddad, Paul R; Amos, Ruth I J; Talebi, Mohammad; Szucs, Roman; Dolan, John W; Pohl, Chris A

    2017-02-07

    A design-of-experiment (DoE) model was developed, able to describe the retention times of a mixture of pharmaceutical compounds in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) under all possible combinations of acetonitrile content, salt concentration, and mobile-phase pH with R(2) > 0.95. Further, a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) model was developed to predict retention times for new analytes, based only on their chemical structures, with a root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) as low as 0.81%. A compound classification based on the concept of similarity was applied prior to QSRR modeling. Finally, we utilized a combined QSRR-DoE approach to propose an optimal design space in a quality-by-design (QbD) workflow to facilitate the HILIC method development. The mathematical QSRR-DoE model was shown to be highly predictive when applied to an independent test set of unseen compounds in unseen conditions with a RMSEP value of 5.83%. The QSRR-DoE computed retention time of pharmaceutical test analytes and subsequently calculated separation selectivity was used to optimize the chromatographic conditions for efficient separation of targets. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the risk of uncertainty in the model's prediction, and to define the design space where the desired quality criterion was met. Experimental realization of peak selectivity between targets under the selected optimal working conditions confirmed the theoretical predictions. These results demonstrate how discovery of optimal conditions for the separation of new analytes can be accelerated by the use of appropriate theoretical tools.

  6. Understanding the experiences of hearing voices and sounds others do not hear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhovde, Anne Martha; Elstad, Ingunn; Talseth, Anne-Grethe

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we aim to contribute to the understanding of how people with mental illness experience hearing voices and sounds that others do not hear in daily life. We conducted in-depth interviews with 14 people and analyzed the interviews using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The themes we arrived at included the following: hearing someone else or myself, am I losing my mind?, and daily life recurrently dominated by opposing voices. Our overall understanding of how the voices and sounds were experienced in daily life was that the intentions of others resounded intrusively in the participants and disrupted their lives. The tones and contents of these perplexing perceptions echoed and amplified past, present, and future experiences and concerns. The results elucidate the value that exploring and attempting to understand people's daily life experiences of hearing voices and sounds might have for the voice hearer, his or her family, and health care providers.

  7. Do Computer Simulations Allow a Better Understanding of Basic Electrical Circuits than Real Lab Experiments?

    CERN Document Server

    Schmekel, Bjoern S

    2010-01-01

    Several Authors have demonstrated that substituting computer simulations for real experiments conducted in a lab may help to improve students' understanding of the material. In the present work we try to understand the reasons for this intriguing finding and investigate possible prerequisites necessary to achieve this outcome. The study was conducted in an introductory college-level physics class in Germany. All simulations were performed using PSPICE.

  8. Social simulation theory: a framework to explain nurses' understanding of patients' experiences of ill-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental aim in caring practice is to understand patients' experiences of ill-health. These experiences have a qualitative content and cannot, unlike thoughts and beliefs with conceptual content, directly be expressed in words. Nurses therefore face a variety of interpretive challenges when they aim to understand patients' subjective perspectives on disease and illness. The article argues that theories on social simulation can shed light on how nurses manage to meet these challenges. The core assumption of social simulationism is that we do not understand other people by forming mental representations of how they think, but by putting ourselves in their situation in a more imaginative way. According to simulationism, any attempt to understand a patient's behavior is made on the basis of simulating what it is like to be that patient in the given context. The article argues that this approach to social interpretation can clarify how nurses manage to achieve aims of patient understanding, even when they have limited time to communicate and incomplete knowledge of patients' perspectives. Furthermore, simulation theory provides a normative framework for interpretation, in the sense that its theoretical assumptions constitute ideals for how nurses should seek to understand patients' experiences of illness.

  9. Celan's poetics of alterity: lyric and the understanding of illness experience in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2007-10-01

    Psychopathology can render people strange and difficult to understand. Communication can lead to empathic understanding, which in turn can guide compassionate action. But communication depends on a shared conceptual world. How can language convey meanings that are not shared, that mark a divide between human beings or whole communities? A consideration of the poetics of Paul Celan sheds light on the power of language to bridge disparate worlds and on the ethical stance needed when empathy fails. Celan's poetics of alterity has implications for our efforts to understand individuals' illness experience as a grounding for the ethics of the clinical encounter.

  10. Understanding Medical Students' Experience with Stress and Its Related Constructs: A Focus Group Study from Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Julia; Lie, Desiree; Chan, Angelique; Ow, Mandy; Vidyarthi, Arpana

    2017-04-18

    In order to protect medical students from burnout and its untoward psychiatric effects, it is imperative to understand their stress, burnout, coping, and resilience experiences. This study aimed to derive collective definitions from the medical student perspective, to identify common themes of students' experiences, and to distinguish pre-clinical and clinical year students' experiences relating to these four constructs. The authors conducted focus groups of medical students in Singapore across 4 years using a semi-structured question guide. Participants shared their understanding, experiences, and the relationships between stress, burnout, coping, and resilience. Coders independently evaluated construct definitions and derived common themes through an iterative process, and compared transcripts of pre-clinical and clinical year students to determine differences in experience over time. Nine focus groups (54 students, 28 females, mean age 24.3) were conducted. Students identified common definitions for each construct. Nine themes emerged within three domains: (1) relating constructs to personal experience, (2) interrelating stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, and (3) understanding the necessity of stress. Compared to clinical students, pre-clinical students reported theory-based rather than reality-based experiences and exam-induced stress, defined constructs using present rather than future situations, and described constructs as independent rather than interrelated. This sample of medical students in Singapore shares a common understanding of stress, burnout, coping, and resilience, but experiences these uniquely. They perceive a positive role for stress. These findings build upon prior literature, suggesting an interrelationship between stress and its related constructs and adding the novel perspective of students from an Asian country.

  11. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chylomicron retention disease based on a review of the literature and the experience of two centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castagnetti Justine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Familial hypocholesterolemia, namely abetalipoproteinemia, hypobetalipoproteinemia and chylomicron retention disease (CRD, are rare genetic diseases that cause malnutrition, failure to thrive, growth failure and vitamin E deficiency, as well as other complications. Recently, the gene implicated in CRD was identified. The diagnosis is often delayed because symptoms are nonspecific. Treatment and follow-up remain poorly defined. The aim of this paper is to provide guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of children with CRD based on a literature overview and two pediatric centers 'experience. The diagnosis is based on a history of chronic diarrhea with fat malabsorption and abnormal lipid profile. Upper endoscopy and histology reveal fat-laden enterocytes whereas vitamin E deficiency is invariably present. Creatine kinase (CK is usually elevated and hepatic steatosis is common. Genotyping identifies the Sar1b gene mutation. Treatment should be aimed at preventing potential complications. Vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal distension improve on a low-long chain fat diet. Failure to thrive is one of the most common initial clinical findings. Neurological and ophthalmologic complications in CRD are less severe than in other types of familial hypocholesterolemia. However, the vitamin E deficiency status plays a pivotal role in preventing neurological complications. Essential fatty acid (EFA deficiency is especially severe early in life. Recently, increased CK levels and cardiomyopathy have been described in addition to muscular manifestations. Poor mineralization and delayed bone maturation do occur. A moderate degree of macrovesicular steatosis is common, but no cases of steatohepatitis cirrhosis. Besides a low-long chain fat diet made up uniquely of polyunsaturated fatty acids, treatment includes fat-soluble vitamin supplements and large amounts of vitamin E. Despite fat malabsorption and the absence of postprandial chylomicrons

  12. Understanding Machine Learning Performance with Experiment Databases (Het verwerven van inzichten in leerperformantie met experiment databanken):Understanding Machine Learning Performance with Experiment Databases

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Research in machine learning and data mining can be speeded up tremendously by moving empirical research results out of people’s heads and labs, onto the network and into tools that help us structure and filter the information. The massive streams of experiments that are being executed to benchmark new algorithms, test hypotheses or model new datasets have many more uses beyond their original intent, but are often discarded or their details are lost over time.In this thesis, we developed a fr...

  13. In vitro experiment of retention strength attenuation of three attachments%三种附着体固位力衰减的体外实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德芳; 董正杰; 包向军; 叶荣荣

    2011-01-01

    was observed and analysed. Results The initial retention strength of magnetic attachment, Mini-SG attachment and ERA attachment was 2. 67 N, 7. 30 N and 40. 20 N respectively. There was no significant change in retention strength of magnetic attachment during 2 000 times of stretching. The curve of retention strength of Mini-SG attachment was relatively smooth, and the retention strength exhibited a downward trend. The retention strength of ERA attachment decreased significantly during the first 500 times of stretching, and the curve of retention strength turned to be smooth later. The attenuation rates of retention strength of magnetic attachment, Mini-SG attachment and ERA attachment were 0. 75% , 45.75% and 69. 95% respectively. Conclusion The retention strength of magnetic attachment may not be influenced by times of dislocation, and the initial retention strength and attenuation rate of Mini-SG attachment were smaller than those of ERA attachment. The results of this experiment provide reference for attachment selection for both dentists and patients.

  14. How Can Consumer Research Contribute to Increased Understanding of Tourist Experiences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Øystein; Lindberg, Frank; Østergaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article contributes to the conceptual debate on tourist experiences. The article offers an overview of the developments within the field of consumer or consumption experience with stress on “consumer culture theory” (CCT) and discusses how this research could contribute to alternative...... creation is constituted by a mixed configuration of individual, social, and cultural meaning. It is finally suggested that the CCT research can offer significant contributions to extend the understanding of tourists’ movements in time and space between different experience arenas both in an ontological...

  15. Understanding Patient Experience Using Internet-based Email Surveys: A Feasibility Study at Mount Sinai Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew; Lau, Davina; Jivraj, Tanaz; Principi, Tania; Dietrich, Sandra; Bell, Chaim M

    2015-01-01

    Email is becoming a widely accepted communication tool in healthcare settings. This study sought to test the feasibility of Internet-based email surveys of patient experience in the ambulatory setting. We conducted a study of email Internet-based surveys sent to patients in selected ambulatory clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Our findings suggest that email links to Internet surveys are a feasible, timely and efficient method to solicit patient feedback about their experience. Further research is required to optimally leverage Internet-based email surveys as a tool to better understand the patient experience.

  16. Making Sense of Place Attachment : Towards a Holistic Understanding of People-Place Relationships and Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2016-01-01

    The article is an attempt to make sense of the different interdisciplinary perspectives associated with people’s attachment to places with a view to construct a holistic template for understanding people-place relationships and experiences. The author took note of the theoretical contributions of

  17. Children's experiences of food insecurity can assist in understanding its effect on their well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of the experience of food insecurity by children is essential for better measurement and assessment of its effect on children's nutritional, physical, and mental health. Our qualitative study explored children's perceptions of household food insecurity to identify these perceptions ...

  18. Digital Journeys: A Perspective on Understanding the Digital Experiences of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shanton; Gomes, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The authors in this conceptual paper draw on the literature on information seeking behavior, social media use, and international student experiences to propose Digital Journeys as a framework which helps us understand the online behavior of international students. Here we theorize that the Digital Journey is the transition that individuals make…

  19. A Practical Example Aiding Understanding Momentum in 1D: The Water Gun Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Katarin

    2007-01-01

    The law of conservation of momentum is one that students often have difficulties understanding. This experiment allows students to use childhood toys to examine and calculate the muzzle velocity of their favourite water gun by using an air track, a spark timer or data logger and the law of conservation of momentum in a one-dimensional case, a…

  20. Making Sense of Place Attachment : Towards a Holistic Understanding of People-Place Relationships and Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2016-01-01

    The article is an attempt to make sense of the different interdisciplinary perspectives associated with people’s attachment to places with a view to construct a holistic template for understanding people-place relationships and experiences. The author took note of the theoretical contributions of Jo

  1. Board Games Play Matters: A Rethinking on Children's Aesthetic Experience and Interpersonal Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju

    2017-01-01

    There has been a growing awareness of the contribution of play to the young children's learning and development. This study aims to investigate the implement of board games play on children's aesthetic experience and interpersonal understanding in Montessori and Constructivist classrooms. With the underlying framework follows a developmentally…

  2. Using Online Tools for Communication and Collaboration: Understanding Educators' Experiences in an Online Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Erica C.; Holan, Erica; Horbatt, Brent; Hough, Mary; Jean-Louis, Jennifer; Khurana, Chesta; Krinsky, Hindi; Spiezio, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This designed-based research study explored educators' experiences in an online course to better understand how course design and pedagogical delivery can best support student learning. Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (Collins et al., 1987) as a theoretical lens, researchers investigated the following: 1) What methods of instruction, as…

  3. What are you doing? How active and observational experience shape infants' action understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Bekkering, H.

    2014-01-01

    From early in life, infants watch other people's actions. How do young infants come to make sense of actions they observe? Here, we review empirical findings on the development of action understanding in infancy. Based on this review, we argue that active action experience is crucial for infants' de

  4. Understanding the Role of Openness to Experience in Study Abroad Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniela; Katz-Buonincontro, Jennifer; Livert, David

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on a study of 59 undergraduate students who completed a survey assessing aspects of openness to experience, race and cultural understanding, and critical thinking before and after they studied abroad for 3 months. Results showed an increase in students' knowledge of and ability to comprehend new cultures,…

  5. An Inside View: The Utility of Quantitative Observation in Understanding College Educational Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Corbin M.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes quantitative observation as a method for understanding college educational experiences. Quantitative observation has been used widely in several fields and in K-12 education, but has had limited application to research in higher education and student affairs to date. The article describes the central tenets of quantitative…

  6. Photoelectric effect experiment for understanding the concept of quantization of radiation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Gerardine Berrios Saavedra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study forms part of research on the teaching of physics. The question that directed it was: How a proposed classroom, based on the photoelectric effect experiment helps pres-service teachers of physics of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional to expand their understanding of the concept of quantization energy of radiation? The construction of the theoretical framework developed on the one hand, with scientific ideas about the quantization of energy, and moreover, with the educational proposals of teaching for understanding. This pedagogical approach was guided by the investigative gaze of the study methodology based on design, taking as main element the use of learning tools such as the task to Predict, Experiment and Explain (PEE. It was found that these tasks fomented the initial understandings of students about the concept, while they enriched and transformed progressively their models and scientific ideas, promoting aspects of scientific work in developing curiosity, imagination and motivation.

  7. Areas Recruited during Action Understanding Are Not Modulated by Auditory or Sign Language Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuxing; Chen, Quanjing; Lingnau, Angelika; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-01-01

    The observation of other people's actions recruits a network of areas including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG). These regions have been shown to be activated through both visual and auditory inputs. Intriguingly, previous studies found no engagement of IFG and IPL for deaf participants during non-linguistic action observation, leading to the proposal that auditory experience or sign language usage might shape the functionality of these areas. To understand which variables induce plastic changes in areas recruited during the processing of other people's actions, we examined the effects of tasks (action understanding and passive viewing) and effectors (arm actions vs. leg actions), as well as sign language experience in a group of 12 congenitally deaf signers and 13 hearing participants. In Experiment 1, we found a stronger activation during an action recognition task in comparison to a low-level visual control task in IFG, IPL and pMTG in both deaf signers and hearing individuals, but no effect of auditory or sign language experience. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of the first experiment using a passive viewing task. Together, our results provide robust evidence demonstrating that the response obtained in IFG, IPL, and pMTG during action recognition and passive viewing is not affected by auditory or sign language experience, adding further support for the supra-modal nature of these regions.

  8. Comment on: Ten experiments that would make a difference in understanding immune mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Colin C

    2012-02-01

    Melvin Cohn provides a list of experiments to test predictions of his associative antigen recognition (AAR) and Tritope models in relation to standard models of immunity. The manuscript highlights important questions and some decisive experiments testing the competing models. A central aspect of good science is the ability to pinpoint the important questions, something Cohn has, and continues here, to do with great clarity. The problems posed are presented succinctly, although knowledge of Cohn's previous theoretical contributions are needed in some areas to fully understand the path he is taking here. The importance of theory, as championed by Cohn, is a message that needs repeating, as it seems increasingly that immunologists favor description over theory. I briefly comment on each of Cohn's ten experiments and then discuss in detail a critical experiment that is missing from his list-an experiment testing the timing of antigen encounter in ontogeny as a central principle of the self non-self discrimination.

  9. Beyond Academic and Social Integration: Understanding the Impact of a STEM Enrichment Program on the Retention and Degree Attainment of Underrepresented Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Tonisha B

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a case study methodological approach, including document analysis, semistructured interviews, and participant observations, to investigate how a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enrichment program supported retention and degree attainment of underrepresented students at a large, public, predominantly white institution. From this study, a model emerged that encompassed four components: proactive care, holistic support, community building, and catalysts for STEM identity development. These components encompassed a number of strategies and practices that were instrumental in the outcomes of program participants. This paper concludes with implications for practice, such as using models to inform program planning, assessment, and evaluation.

  10. Are Generation Y Nurses Satisfied on the Job? Understanding Their Lived Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo-Witzel, Sonia; Orshan, Susan A; Heitner, Keri L; Bachand, Jeanie

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of job satisfaction among Generation Y nurses in the workplace. Job satisfaction in nursing is at an all-time low. With an increasing shortage of nurses, there is a need for more awareness and understanding of job satisfaction and intent to stay among Generation Y nurses who are the future generation of nurses. Descriptive phenomenology-guided, in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted to explore the lived experiences of job satisfaction among 10 Generation Y nurses. Four main themes and 6 subthemes that emerged brought meaning to the nurses' experiences. The 4 main themes were experiences of feeling good, relationships, job strain, and having choices. Findings indicated Generation Y nurses want to fulfill inner feelings of job satisfaction. If these inner feelings are not met, they will seek other opportunities to fulfill job satisfaction.

  11. Estimate of the soil water retention curve from the sorptivity and β parameter calculated from an upward infiltration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret-Fernández, D.; Latorre, B.

    2017-01-01

    The water retention curve (θ(h)), which defines the relationship between the volumetric water content (θ) and the matric potential (h), is of paramount importance to characterize the hydraulic behaviour of soils. Because current methods to estimate θ(h) are, in general, tedious and time consuming, alternative procedures to determine θ(h) are needed. Using an upward infiltration curve, the main objective of this work is to present a method to determine the parameters of the van Genuchten (1980) water retention curve (α and n) from the sorptivity (S) and the β parameter defined in the 1D infiltration equation proposed by Haverkamp et al. (1994). The first specific objective is to present an equation, based on the Haverkamp et al. (1994) analysis, which allows describing an upward infiltration process. Secondary, assuming a known saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, calculated on a finite soil column by the Darcy's law, a numerical procedure to calculate S and β by the inverse analysis of an exfiltration curve is presented. Finally, the α and n values are numerically calculated from Ks, S and β. To accomplish the first specific objective, cumulative upward infiltration curves simulated with HYDRUS-1D for sand, loam, silt and clay soils were compared to those calculated with the proposed equation, after applying the corresponding β and S calculated from the theoretical Ks, α and n. The same curves were used to: (i) study the influence of the exfiltration time on S and β estimations, (ii) evaluate the limits of the inverse analysis, and (iii) validate the feasibility of the method to estimate α and n. Next, the θ(h) parameters estimated with the numerical method on experimental soils were compared to those obtained with pressure cells. The results showed that the upward infiltration curve could be correctly described by the modified Haverkamp et al. (1994) equation. While S was only affected by early-time exfiltration data, the β parameter had a

  12. Curriculum development through understanding the student nurse experience of suicide intervention education--A phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Inga; Webster, Brian J; Tee, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Suicide remains a global public health issue and a major governmental concern. The World Health Organisation argues for continued investment in education for front-line professionals, with a particular focus on nurses, to address the rising suicide levels. Considering this rate, it could be argued that suicide has impacted on the lives of many, including the student nurse population. Understanding the psychological impact, and influence on learning, whilst developing suicide intervention knowledge is crucial. However, little is known of the student experience in this complex and challenging area of skills development. This phenomenographic study examines the experiences of second year Bachelor of Nursing (mental health) students who participated in the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST). Experiences were illuminated through two focus groups, Experiences were distilled and categorised through hierarchically relationships to construct a group experiential field to illustrate understandings of the impact this approach has on learning Students found ASIST to be emotionally challenging yet an extremely positive experience through bonding, peer learning, and class cohesion. The supportive workshop facilitation was essential allowing for full immersion into role simulation thus developing student confidence. Appropriate pedagogy and student support must be considered whilst developing suicide intervention in the pre-registration curricula.

  13. Understanding the experience of stroke: a mixed-method research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-06-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research.

  14. Understanding the Experience of Stroke: A Mixed-Method Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-01-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research. PMID:19386828

  15. Understanding God images and God concepts: Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Counted

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent�child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns. The article points out that insecure God images often develop head-to-head with God concepts in a believer�s emotional experience of God. On the other hand, the author describes God concepts as indicators of a religious faith and metaphorical standards for regulating insecure attachment patterns. The goals of this article, however, is to highlight the relationship between God images and God concepts, and to provide a hermeneutical process for interpreting and surviving the God image experience.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Given that most scholars within the discipline of Practical Theology discuss the subject of God images from cultural and theological perspectives, this article has discussed God images from an attachment perspective, which is a popular framework in psychology of religion. This is rare. The study is therefore interdisciplinary in this regards. The article further helps the reader to understand the intrapsychic process of the God image experience, and thus provides us with hermeneutical answers for dealing with the God image experience from methodologies grounded in Practical Theology and pastoral care.

  16. Using biographical research to understand experiences of crisis among homeless people in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Šikić-Mićanović, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to show how biographical research can be used to understand experiences of crisis among homeless people and how their personal biographies uncover different contexts and processes. Following an overview of biographical research, an analysis of the post-transition period and homelessness will be discussed. ' is article specifically explores and traces the social transformations and crises in personal biographies obtained through ethnographic research with people who sl...

  17. Understanding recovery in the context of lived experience of personality disorders: a collaborative, qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Steve; Turner, Kati; Neffgen, Marion

    2015-07-31

    Concepts of recovery increasingly inform the development and delivery of mental health services internationally. In the UK recent policy advocates the application of recovery concepts to the treatment of personality disorders. However diagnosis and understanding of personality disorders remains contested, challenging any assumption that mainstream recovery thinking can be directly translated into personality disorders services. In a qualitative interview-based study understandings of recovery were explored in extended, in-depth interviews with six people purposively sampled from a specialist personality disorders' service in the UK. An interpretive, collaborative approach to research was adopted in which university-, clinical- and service user (consumer) researchers were jointly involved in carrying out interviews and analysing interview data. Findings suggested that recovery cannot be conceptualised separately from an understanding of the lived experience of personality disorders. This experience was characterised by a complexity of ambiguous, interrelating and conflicting feelings, thoughts and actions as individuals tried to cope with tensions between internally and externally experienced worlds. Our analysis was suggestive of a process of recovering or, for some, discovering a sense of self that can safely coexist in both worlds. We conclude that key facilitators of recovery - positive personal relationships and wider social interaction - are also where the core vulnerabilities of individuals with lived experience of personaility disorders can lie. There is a role for personality disorders services in providing a safe space in which to develop positive relationships. Through discursive practice within the research team understandings of recovery were co-produced that responded to the lived experience of personality disorders and were of applied relevance to practitioners.

  18. Understanding Creep Mechanisms in Graphite with Experiments, Multiscale Simulations, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eapen, Jacob [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Murty, Korukonda [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Burchell, Timothy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Disordering mechanisms in graphite have a long history with conflicting viewpoints. Using Raman and x-ray photon spectroscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction experiments and atomistic modeling and simulations, the current project has developed a fundamental understanding of early-to-late state radiation damage mechanisms in nuclear reactor grade graphite (NBG-18 and PCEA). We show that the topological defects in graphite play an important role under neutron and ion irradiation.

  19. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  20. Barriers to tacit knowledge retention: An understanding of the perceptions of the knowledge management of people inside and outside the organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Bessick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge loss causes challenges for organisations that wish to remain competitive. These organisations must identify the risks that could lead to knowledge loss and become aware of issues that affect knowledge retention.Objectives: The objective of this research was to identify tacit knowledge retention barriers that could cause knowledge loss in an organisation. The paper presents a framework for the assessment of the impact of these barriers and discusses the research findings in order to critique that framework.Method: A quantitative strategy was used to interpret the findings. The target population is information technology (IT professionals in a government organisation. Interviews were conducted in order to produce a more context-sensitive interpretation of the findings. A quantitative research approach was used to ensure the findings would precisely reflect the target population.Results: The majority of respondents confirmed that career development requires professional development, training prospects and improves the employability of employees. The agreed result was that respondents seek autonomy, that is, the ability to make decisions. Job stress and burnout are experienced because of problems with in filling posts, and the competition between the private and public sectors for experienced IT employees.Conclusion: Certain determinants were found that affect barriers in knowledge management: organisational commitment, job satisfaction, job characteristics and talent management. These need to be measured to prevent barriers from occurring. Implications are drawn from the study; these provide a focus for further research to bridge some gaps in information technology that currently limit the widespread use of knowledge management.

  1. The role of appraisals and emotions in understanding experiences of workplace incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, Jennifer A; Magley, Vicki J

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically grounded in both the cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions and affect events theory, the present research used multiple analytic techniques and positioned appraisals and emotions as key variables in understanding the experience of incivility at work. Data consisted of survey responses from a stratified random sample of 522 U.S. working adults. K-means cluster analyses revealed interindividual differences in cognitive/emotional responding to workplace incivility experiences. In addition, multiple mediation analyses revealed that optimism and emotionality may play important roles in showing why the experience of incivility is related to job-related outcomes. The results help to advance workplace mistreatment research and suggest possible strategies for organizations to maintain civil working environments.

  2. Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of solar geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, John A; Keith, David W; Anderson, James G; Weisenstein, Debra

    2014-12-28

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) through stratospheric aerosol methods has the potential to mitigate impacts of climate change, our current knowledge of stratospheric processes suggests that these methods may entail significant risks. In addition to the risks associated with current knowledge, the possibility of 'unknown unknowns' exists that could significantly alter the risk assessment relative to our current understanding. While laboratory experimentation can improve the current state of knowledge and atmospheric models can assess large-scale climate response, they cannot capture possible unknown chemistry or represent the full range of interactive atmospheric chemical physics. Small-scale, in situ experimentation under well-regulated circumstances can begin to remove some of these uncertainties. This experiment-provisionally titled the stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment-is under development and will only proceed with transparent and predominantly governmental funding and independent risk assessment. We describe the scientific and technical foundation for performing, under external oversight, small-scale experiments to quantify the risks posed by SRM to activation of halogen species and subsequent erosion of stratospheric ozone. The paper's scope includes selection of the measurement platform, relevant aspects of stratospheric meteorology, operational considerations and instrument design and engineering.

  3. Retention of Nickel in Soils: Sorption-Desorption and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption and desorption of heavy metals in soils are primary factors that influence their bioavailability and mobility in the soil profile. To examine the characteristics of nickel (Ni) adsorption-desorption in soils, kinetic batch experiments were carried out followed by Ni re...

  4. Anguish, Yearning, and Identity: Toward a Better Understanding of the Pregnant Hispanic Woman's Prenatal Care Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Moran; Cronin, Sherill Nones; Boccella, Sarah Hess

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to seek a better understanding of needs and access issues among pregnant, low-income Hispanic women. Hispanic women who attended a community prenatal education program participated in follow-up focus groups to explore their experiences regarding prenatal education, pregnancy resources, access to, and satisfaction with, the care available to them. Focus groups were facilitated by a leader, bilingual in English and Spanish, with knowledge of the Hispanic culture. Sessions were audiotaped, then translated into English for transcription. Data were analyzed according to guidelines by Colaizzi and three themes emerged: pregnant Hispanic women experienced a sense of anguish (la angustia) from questions and unknowns rampant during pregnancy, leading to a yearning (el anhelo) to learn and understand more, but with a desire to do so without sacrificing native identity (la identidad). Implications of these themes for improving prenatal care for this population are explored.

  5. Understanding Care Giving and Care Receiving Experiences throughout the Life Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Makiko

    the social network of their everyday lives. These interactions are long-term changing processes as both the systems and wide-ranging conditions in everyday life are neither static nor immutable. In particular, the present paper draws attention to how older people understand the ways that the welfare systems...... and expectations for the future. Guided by life course approach, the analysis focuses on older couples in Denmark and Japan, and explores the following questions; how have older Danish and Japanese couples experienced care giving and care taking over the life course? How do they perceive these experiences? How...... have older Danish and Japanese couples experienced mutual support and communication with children, grandchildren, parents, neighbours and friends? How do their understandings exert influence on the forming of expectations and views for the future? The empirical core of the analysis is the qualitative...

  6. Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells: understanding linker molecules through theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Johannes T; Ruland, Andrés; Sgobba, Vito; Guldi, Dirk M; Clark, Timothy

    2013-02-19

    We have investigated the role of linker molecules in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using density-functional theory (DFT) and experiments. Linkers not only govern the number of attached QDs but also influence charge separation, recombination, and transport. Understanding their behavior is therefore not straightforward. DFT calculations show that mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and cysteine (Cys) exhibit characteristic binding configurations on TiO(2) surfaces. This information is used to optimize the cell assembly process, yielding Cys-based cells that significantly outperform MPA cells, and reach power conversion efficiencies (PCE) as high as 2.7% under AM 1.5 illumination. Importantly, the structural information from theory also helps understand the cause for this improved performance.

  7. Understanding the Effects of Collisional Evolution and Spacecraft Impact Experiments on Comets and Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S.M.; Jensen, E.A.; Fane, M.; Smith, D.C.; Holmes, J.; Keller, L.P.; Lindsay, S.S.; Wooden, D.H.; Whizin, A.; Cintala, M.J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Comets and asteroids have endured impacts from other solar system bodies that result in outcomes ranging from catastrophic collisions to regolith evolution due to micrometeorid bombardment of the surface ices and refactory components. Experiments designed to better understand these relics of solar system formation have been conducted on Earth in a laboratory setting, as well as in space through, e.g., the Deep Impact Mission to Comet Tempel 1. Deep Impact fired a high-speed impactor into the roughly 6 km nucleus of the comet. The ejecta plume generated by the impact was studied by both spacecraft instrumentation and groundbased telescopes.

  8. Using LGI experiments to achieve better understanding of pedestal-edge coupling in NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    PowerPoint presentation. Latest advances in granule or dust injection technologies, fast and high-resolution imaging, together with micro-/nano-structured material fabrication, provide new opportunities to examine plasma-material interaction (PMI) in magnetic fusion environment. Some of our previous work in these areas is summarized. The upcoming LGI experiments in NSTX-U will shed new light on granular matter transport in the pedestal-edge region. In addition to particle control, these results can also be used for code validation and achieving better understanding of pedestal-edge coupling in fusion plasmas in both NSTX-U and others.

  9. Demonstrating Understanding, a Whole Body Experience? Can Year One Children Show Their Science Understanding through the Use of Gestures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This research project uses the methods of Crowder and Callinan and Sharp to assess year one children's (age 5-6) personal understanding of scientific concepts. This research project uses video recording as a primary resource of data collection within a case study approach using a participant observer method. Analysis supports the work of Crowder…

  10. A Case Study of Understanding the Influence of Cultural Patterns on International Students' Perception and Experience with Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralejas, Cynthia G.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to understand the influence of cultural patterns on international students' perception and experience with online learning. This case study utilized Hofstede's cultural dimension model as an interpretative framework to understand what are the international students' perceptions and experiences with online courses. Two…

  11. Young children's experiences of living with a parent with bipolar disorder: Understanding the child's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Clare; Murphy, Rebecca; Fox, John R E; Ulph, Fiona; Calam, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    To explore the experiences of young children of living with a parent with bipolar disorder (BD) and how this impacts on their emotional well-being. Qualitative study using a computer-assisted semi-structured interview, 'In My Shoes' (IMS). Ten children aged between 4 and 10 years with a parent with BD identified via self-help groups were interviewed about their experience of family life. Thematic analysis was used following transcription. Four main themes emerging from thematic analysis were as follows: perception of parents; knowledge and awareness of BD; managing family life with a 'bipolar' parent; and living in a family with BD. Four-year-old children could participate in the IMS interviews and discuss their parent's mood, behaviour, and mental health. Children had candid and insightful discussions about their parent's BD including symptoms and parenting, and could reflect on how having a parent with BD affected them emotionally and practically. Older children were better able to articulate their parent's illness and its impact. This exploratory study represents an important step in examining directly experiences of young children whose parents have BD. Using IMS, it was possible to gather insightful information from children to generate hypotheses and influence service development. Children of all ages had some knowledge and understanding of their parent's illness, describing both positive and negative experiences in the family. Further research to build understanding of children's perspectives and the support they feel they and their family would benefit from would enhance the development of appropriate services and interventions. Using age-appropriate tools, it is possible to elicit the views of young children about their parent's mental health and parenting. Young children have insight into the impact of bipolar disorder in the family on themselves and family members. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Nurses’ experiences and understanding of workplace violence in a trauma and emergency department in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Kennedy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence in South African society has reached epidemic levels and has permeated the walls of the workplace. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how nurses experience and understand workplace violence perpetrated by patients, and to make recommendations to reduce this type of violence. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to explore the experiences and coping mechanisms of nurses regarding workplace violence. The purposive sample comprised eight nurses working in the Trauma and Emergency Department in the Western Cape, South Africa. Thematic analysis was done of the semi-structured interviews. Four main themes and 10 categories were identified. Nurses are experiencing physical threats, verbal abuse and psychological and imminent violence on a regular basis. They tend to ‘normalise’ abusive patient behaviour because of the perception that workplace abuse ‘comes with the territory’, which resulted in under-reporting. However, perpetrators received compromised care by being avoided, ignored or given only minimal nursing care. Coping mechanisms ranged from using colleagues as sounding boards, helping out with duties, taking a smoke break and using friends and family to get it ‘off their chest’. The tolerance of non-physical violence and the absence of policies to deal with the violence, contribute to under-reporting.

  13. The Voluntariat: A Freirean framework to understand the nature of undergraduate international (medical experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemi Qaiser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite literature documenting limited and asymmetrical benefits along with ethical issues, short-term international volunteering is increasingly popular among North American university students as a perceived advantage when applying to professional healthcare schools or the job market. Academic institutions are also encouraging students to pursue international experiences in order to cultivate values as global citizens. These experiences are most typically limited to economically privileged students. Furthermore, international activities in developing countries often lack a pedagogy of social justice and may confirm a simplistic understanding of development. Brazilian educator Paulo Freire’s “liberation pedagogy” provides a framework for understanding the limitations of international volunteering, whereby the presence of privileged volunteers implementing Western models of development may hinder aspects of local movements. Regardless, university students face intense competition in accessing opportunities, such as medical school, and pay large sums to participate in volunteering to strengthen their academic credentials. We propose that these students form “the voluntariat.” They simultaneously play two roles by, first, contributing to the conditions that oppress the very communities in which they volunteer and, second, by playing a role as objects of oppression by the liberal institutions of learning and employment to which they are attempting to gain access.

  14. Understanding the life experiences of Brazilian women after bariatric surgery: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno, Ronis; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    The increase in bariatric surgeries has called into question the aspects that contribute to or impair the results. Psychosocial factors directly influence the results of the surgery, but a lot of controversy exists in relation to the degree of influence of these factors. We propose a qualitative investigation to understand the significance of the surgery for women and how these factors influence the outcomes. This study is a clinical-qualitative method, through the semi-directed interview with open-ended questions in an intentional sample, closed by saturation, with seven women operated in a period of 1.5-3 years, following the definition of emergent categories and qualitative content analysis. The experience of acceptance and social reinsertion is a motivating factor to keep up the challenge of weight loss; social discrimination is a risk factor leading to losing the stimulus to continue the process; the recuperation of self-esteem and personal identity is a factor that improves the quality of life and psychopathological symptoms; disillusionment is an important risk factor, linked principally to the experiences of failure. We observe the necessity of qualitative studies that serve the health team in the handling of these patients, aiming for a greater understanding of their psychological dynamics and of the meanings that weight loss has for them.

  15. Forty years of experiments on aquatic invasive species: are study biases limiting our understanding of impacts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Thomsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasions by non-native species are a threat to biodiversity because invaders can impact native populations, communities and entire ecosystems. To manage this threat, it is necessary to have a strong mechanistic understanding of how non-native species affect local species and communities. We reviewed 259 published papers (1972–2012 that described field experiments quantifying the impact of aquatic non-native species, to examine whether various types of study biases are limiting this understanding. Our review revealed that invasion impacts had been experimentally quantified for 101 aquatic non-native species, in all major freshwater and marine habitats, on all continents except Antarctica and for most higher taxonomic groupings. Over one-quarter (26% of studies included tests for impacts on local biodiversity. However, despite this extensive research effort, certain taxa, habitats and regions remain poorly studied. For example, of the over one hundred species examined in previous studies, only one was a marine fish and only six were herbivores. Furthermore, over half (53% the studies were from the USA and two-thirds (66% were from experiments conducted in temperate latitudes. By contrast, only 3% of studies were from Africa and <2% from high latitudes. We also found that one-fifth (20% of studies were conducted in estuaries, but only 1% from coral reefs. Finally, we note that the standard procedure of pooling or not reporting non-significant treatments and responses is likely to limit future synthetic advancement by biasing meta-analysis and severely limiting our ability to identify non-native species with none or negligible ecological impacts. In conclusion, a future focus on poorly-studied taxa, habitats and regions, and enhanced reporting of results, should improve our understanding and management of impacts associated with aquatic non-native species.

  16. Classroom virtual lab experiments as teaching tools for explaining how we understand planetary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C. N.; Schools, H.; Research Team Members

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will report on a classroom pilot study in which we teamed with school teachers in four middle school classes to develop and deploy course modules that connect the real-world to virtual forms of laboratory experiments.The broad goal is to help students realize that seemingly complex Earth system processes can be connected to basic properties of the planet and that this can be illustrated through idealized experiment. Specifically the presentation will describe virtual modules based on on-demand cloud computing technologies that allow students to test the notion that pole equator gradients in radiative forcing together with rotation can explain characteristic patterns of flow in the atmosphere. The module developed aligns with new Massachusetts science standard requirements regarding understanding of weather and climate processes. These new standards emphasize an appreciation of differential solar heating and a qualitative understanding of the significance of rotation. In our preliminary classroom pilot studies we employed pre and post evaluation tests to establish that the modules had increased student knowledge of phenomenology and terms. We will describe the results of these tests as well as results from anecdotal measures of student response. This pilot study suggests that one way to help make Earth science concepts more tractable to a wider audience is through virtual experiments that distill phenomena down, but still retain enough detail that students can see the connection to the real world. Modern computer technology and developments in research models appear to provide an opportunity for more work in this area. We will describe some follow-up possibilities that we envisage.

  17. Shifting goals: effects of active and observational experience on infants’ understanding of higher order goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Mahajan, Neha; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Matz, Lauren; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Action perception links have been argued to support the emergence of action understanding, but their role in infants’ perception of distal goals has not been fully investigated. The current experiments address this issue. During the development of means-end actions, infants shift their focus from the means of the action to the distal goal. In Experiment One, we evaluated whether this same shift in attention (from the means to the distal goal) when learning to produce multi-step actions is reflected in infants’ perception of others’ means-end actions. Eight-months-old infants underwent active training in means-end action production and their subsequent analysis of an observed means-end action was assessed in a visual habituation paradigm. Infants’ degree of success in the training paradigm was related to their subsequent interpretation of the observed action as directed at the means versus the distal goal. In Experiment Two, observational and control manipulations provided evidence that these effects depended on the infants’ active engagement in the means-end actions. These results suggest that the processes that give rise to means-end structure in infants’ motor behavior also support the emergence of means-end structure in their analysis of others’ goals. PMID:25852622

  18. Shifting goals: effects of active and observational experience on infants' understanding of higher order goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A; Mahajan, Neha; Sommerville, Jessica A; Matz, Lauren; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    Action perception links have been argued to support the emergence of action understanding, but their role in infants' perception of distal goals has not been fully investigated. The current experiments address this issue. During the development of means-end actions, infants shift their focus from the means of the action to the distal goal. In Experiment One, we evaluated whether this same shift in attention (from the means to the distal goal) when learning to produce multi-step actions is reflected in infants' perception of others' means-end actions. Eight-months-old infants underwent active training in means-end action production and their subsequent analysis of an observed means-end action was assessed in a visual habituation paradigm. Infants' degree of success in the training paradigm was related to their subsequent interpretation of the observed action as directed at the means versus the distal goal. In Experiment Two, observational and control manipulations provided evidence that these effects depended on the infants' active engagement in the means-end actions. These results suggest that the processes that give rise to means-end structure in infants' motor behavior also support the emergence of means-end structure in their analysis of others' goals.

  19. Experience-Dependent Brain Development as a Key to Understanding the Language System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Gert

    2016-04-01

    An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language as a core principle of the organization of the language system. In this view, embodied in a recent neuroconstructivist neural network of past tense development and processing, initial domain-general predispositions enable the development of functionally specialized brain structures through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and statistical learning in a structured environment. Together, these processes shape a biological adult language system that appears to separate into distinct mechanism for processing rules and exceptions, whereas in reality those subsystems co-develop and interact closely. This view puts experience-dependent brain development in response to a specific language environment at the heart of understanding not only language development but adult language processing as well.

  20. Understanding the experience of adult daughters caring for an ageing parent, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Anthierens, Sibyl; Van Assche, Elisa; Welvaert, Joanna; Verhoeven, Véronique; Wens, Johan; Remmen, Roy

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to describe how adult daughters experience caring for a frail older parent at home. In the near future the ageing of the population will have a major impact on the demand for formal and informal long-term care. Relatives, especially spouses and adult children are the main providers of informal care. Qualitative research methodology was used to study the experience of adult daughters caring for their frail older parents. A phenomenological research perspective was used to better understand the daily experiences of caring for an ageing parent. Data were collected using open-ended interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were subject to thematic analysis. Eleven women between 40-70 years of age participated in this study. Inductive coding of the interview data led to four main themes: being a caregiver as a natural process in life, the perception and consequences of caregiving activities, sharing care and finding a good balance between caring for an ageing parent and other responsibilities. Caregiving activities could be divided into visible and invisible activities and generated different feelings. The visible activities were more easily shared with other family members and professionals than the invisible ones. The women who struggled the most and tended to have a higher level of burden were those who experienced less support from their family. This study provided more insight into the experiences women have when caring for a parent. Supporting family networks that help in both visible and invisible activities may prevent overburden. Consumer-led care and the active participation of the informal caregiver in the decision-making process for building the care plan need to become more prominent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Understanding Canadian Punjabi-speaking South Asian women's experience of breast cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurm, Balbir Kaur; Stephen, Joanne; MacKenzie, Gina; Doll, Richard; Barroetavena, Maria Cristina; Cadell, Susan

    2008-02-01

    Knowledge of women's experience with breast cancer is based on studies on middle-class Caucasian women. Generalizations are drawn from the few studies of South Asian women such as lack of desire to discuss personal and family issues. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experience of Canadian Punjabi-speaking South Asian women in order to inform health care practices. Twenty women were recruited mainly through the local cancer center and word of mouth to participate in four focus groups conducted in Punjabi. All women spoke Punjabi and/or English, were involved in/or had completed cancer treatment and lived within driving distance of the local Cancer Center. The themes that emerged from focus group data were all psychosocial: spiritual beliefs, patient inclusion, family systems, psychosocial distress and emotional expression. All women: (1) formed a strong spiritual connection, believed that it was fate or karma and that their cancer diagnosis was the will of God and women used this strength of spirituality to help them cope and (2) women were distressed by the diagnosis and prior to being exposed to cancer believed that cancer equals death. There was in-group difference amongst the women with the remaining themes: being alone to hear the diagnosis alone versus having family members present and feeling supported by family members versus being stressed by family and degree of inclusion desired in the decision-making process. The key findings which are contrary to previous research, is the women's desire to discuss their experience openly and the variation in experience within the group. The implication for practice for all professionals is not to make assumptions regarding therapeutic interactions with patients but to individually assess the clients and learn about their specific values and beliefs and incorporate spirituality in health care delivery.

  2. As(V)/Cr(VI) retention on un-amended and waste-amended soil samples: competitive experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Pérez, Ivana M; Conde-Cid, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on simultaneous arsenic and chromium pollution, we used batch-type experiments to study As(V)/Cr (VI) competitive sorption on soil samples, pyritic material, mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark and hemp waste, as well as on binary mixtures (50 % mussel shell and 50 % another material-oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste), and on forest and vineyard soil samples and pyritic material amended with 48 t ha(-1) of mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark, or hemp waste. Equal As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations (0 to 6 mmol L(-1)) were added to the individual materials, binary mixtures, and 48 t ha(-1) amended materials. The individual forest soil sample, pyritic material, and oak ash showed clearly higher As(V) sorption, whereas Cr(VI) sorption was higher on pine bark. Sorption was up to 50 % higher for As(V) than for Cr(VI) on the forest soil sample, oak ash, and pyritic material, while pine bark sorbed 95 % more Cr(VI). Regarding binary mixtures, the presence of mussel shell increased As(V) sorption on pine bark and Cr(VI) sorption on hemp waste. As regards the amendments, in the case of the forest soil sample, the amendments with oak ash and mussel shell increased As(V) sorption, while pine bark amendment increased Cr(VI) sorption; in the vineyard soil sample, the mussel shell amendment increased As(V) sorption; in the pyritic material, pine bark amendment increased Cr(VI) sorption. These results could be useful to appropriately manage the soils and individual or mixed by-products assayed when As(V) and Cr(VI) pollution occurs.

  3. Opportunities for understanding of aerosol cloud interactions in the context of Marine Cloud Brightening Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Wood, Robert; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosol impacts on clouds constitute the largest source of uncertainty in radiative forcing of climate, confounding estimates of climate sensitivity to increases in greenhouse gases. Projections of future warming are also thus strongly dependent on estimates of aerosol effects on clouds. I will discuss the opportunities for improving estimates of aerosol effects on clouds from controlled field experiments where aerosol with well understood size, composition, amount, and injection altitude could be introduced to deliberately change cloud properties. This would allow scientific investigation to be performed in a manner much closer to a lab environment, and facilitate the use of models to predict cloud responses ahead of time, testing our understanding of aerosol cloud interactions.

  4. Understanding H isotope adsorption and absorption of Al-alloys using modeling and experiments (LDRD: #165724)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Donald K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, Xiaowang [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Karnesky, Richard A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolasinski, Robert [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Michael E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Thurmer, Konrad [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chao, Paul [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Epperly, Ethan Nicholas [Livermore Valley Charter Preparatory High School, Livermore, CA (United States); Zimmerman, Jonathan A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, Bryan M. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Sills, Ryan B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Current austenitic stainless steel storage reservoirs for hydrogen isotopes (e.g. deuterium and tritium) have performance and operational life-limiting interactions (e.g. embrittlement) with H-isotopes. Aluminum alloys (e.g.AA2219), alternatively, have very low H-isotope solubilities, suggesting high resistance towards aging vulnerabilities. This report summarizes the work performed during the life of the Lab Directed Research and Development in the Nuclear Weapons investment area (165724), and provides invaluable modeling and experimental insights into the interactions of H isotopes with surfaces and bulk AlCu-alloys. The modeling work establishes and builds a multi-scale framework which includes: a density functional theory informed bond-order potential for classical molecular dynamics (MD), and subsequent use of MD simulations to inform defect level dislocation dynamics models. Furthermore, low energy ion scattering and thermal desorption spectroscopy experiments are performed to validate these models and add greater physical understanding to them.

  5. Consolidation effect of the processing of declarative knowledge during human sleep: evidence from long-term retention of interrelated contents of mental sleep experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Fagioli, Igino; Mazzetti, Michela; Tuozzi, Giovanni

    2005-03-15

    Sleep may partly exert a positive influence on memory through the processing underlying the transformation of items of declarative knowledge into contents of mental sleep experience (MSE). This hypothesis implies that the level of consolidation (and thus, long-term retention) should be enhanced for those items which are repeatedly processed and transformed into identical or very similar (so-called interrelated) contents of distinct MSEs developed over the same night. To test this prediction, we examined accessibility at delayed recall (i.e., the next morning) of the interrelated contents of MSEs reported (immediate recall) by 14 subjects who were awakened during the first four periods of rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep in two experimental nights. Interrelated contents were much more frequent, and at delayed recall much better retained, than other, non-interrelated contents in report pairs of MSEs. Moreover, they were also more frequent and better retained than by-chance similar or identical contents, as estimated in report pairs of MSEs of different subjects. These findings provide partial but coherent evidence in favour of the hypothesis that a generation effect occurs during sleep, with a further consolidation of the input and the output of MSE processing (respectively, the items of declarative knowledge and the contents of MSEs resulting from their elaboration during sleep).

  6. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS' EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians' experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians' frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take.

  7. Understanding 'Education for All' in Contexts of Extreme Poverty: Experiences from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Charvon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the meanings attached to Education for All from the often ignored or misunderstood perspectives of people living in extreme poverty. Allowing people to voice their own understandings of the difficulties they face offers new insights into the essence of the tension between the worlds of reproduction and innovation and the possibilities of achieving harmony between them. Community meanings attached to Education for All were explored by way of a major participatory, action-oriented research project conducted in contexts of poverty in Burkina Faso. The study noted that the experience of poverty and famine influence the value that parents and children attached to formal education, and therefore their interest and ability to engage with it. Community-based education, for example, helped to reproduce knowledge associated with day-to-day living and achieving, at least, a basic livelihood. Formal schooling, on the other hand, was associated with developing new understandings and ambitions, yet also distanced children and young people from local knowledge, social networks and sources of support often needed if the outcomes of school-based education did not lead to improved livelihoods.

  8. Understanding cultural competence in a multicultural nursing workforce: registered nurses' experience in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Adel F; McCarthy, Alexandra; Gardner, Glenn E

    2015-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the health system is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Given the potential risks this situation poses for patient care, it is important to understand how cultural diversity can be effectively managed in this multicultural environment. The purpose of this study was to explore notions of cultural competence with non-Saudi Arabian nurses working in a major hospital in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face, audio-recorded, semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 non-Saudi Arabian nurses. Deductive data collection and analysis were undertaken drawing on Campinha-Bacote's cultural competence model. The data that could not be explained by this model were coded and analyzed inductively. Nurses within this culturally diverse environment struggled with the notion of cultural competence in terms of each other's cultural expectations and those of the dominant Saudi culture. The study also addressed the limitations of Campinha-Bacote's model, which did not account for all of the nurses' experiences. Subsequent inductive analysis yielded important themes that more fully explained the nurses' experiences in this environment. The findings can inform policy, professional education, and practice in the multicultural Saudi setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslach, Christina; Leiter, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally‐specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focused on human service occupations, and particularly health care. Research on the burnout experience for psychiatrists mirrors much of the broader literature, in terms of both sources and outcomes of burnout. But it has also identified some of the unique stressors that mental health professionals face when they are dealing with especially difficult or violent clients. Current issues of particular relevance for psychiatry include the links between burnout and mental illness, the attempts to redefine burnout as simply exhaustion, and the relative dearth of evaluative research on potential interventions to treat and/or prevent burnout. Given that the treatment goal for burnout is usually to enable people to return to their job, and to be successful in their work, psychiatry could make an important contribution by identifying the treatment strategies that would be most effective in achieving that goal. PMID:27265691

  10. Technique and Understanding: Paul Ricoeur on Freud and the Analytic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin Carney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For Ricœur any study of Freud, or of psychoanalysis more generally, needs to take into account the crucial dimension of the analytic experience itself. Psychoanalysis, as a “mixed discourse,” aims to anticipate questions of meaning and explication alongside technical questions of energies, repression, displacement, and so on. The analytic experience is one which is practical and intersubjective, but which is also guided by various techniques or methods. These techniques, I will argue, should be understood as a type of techne, one which is less concerned with hermeneutic questions of meaning than with quasi-scientific questions of force, feedback, struggle, and process. The practice of psychoanalysis, on the other hand, deals with the ways in which these forces or drives become meaningful for a particular subject, and within a singular context or history. This article will aim to draw out both the interrelationship between techniques and practical understanding, and also the productive incommensurability between the two.

  11. Understanding Transgender Men's Experiences with and Preferences for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Rapid Assessment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Julia; Ranck, Atticus; Weiss, Roy; Salgado, Christopher; Fein, Lydia; Kobetz, Erin

    2017-08-01

    Transgender men are less likely than cisgender women to receive cervical cancer screening. The purpose of the current study was to understand experiences with and preferences for cervical cancer screening among transgender men. Ninety-one transgender men ages 21-63 completed the survey. The survey evaluated experiences with and preferences for screening, including opinions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as a primary cervical cancer screening. Half (50.5%) of participants did not have Pap smear screening within the past 3 years. The majority (57.1%) of participants preferred HPV self-sampling over provider-collected Pap smear screening. Participants who reported discrimination were more likely to prefer HPV self-sampling (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval 1.38-7.84, P = 0.007). Primary HPV testing via HPV self-sampling may improve cervical cancer screening uptake among transgender men. Future work should pilot this innovative cervical cancer screening method within this population.

  12. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslach, Christina; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally-specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focused on human service occupations, and particularly health care. Research on the burnout experience for psychiatrists mirrors much of the broader literature, in terms of both sources and outcomes of burnout. But it has also identified some of the unique stressors that mental health professionals face when they are dealing with especially difficult or violent clients. Current issues of particular relevance for psychiatry include the links between burnout and mental illness, the attempts to redefine burnout as simply exhaustion, and the relative dearth of evaluative research on potential interventions to treat and/or prevent burnout. Given that the treatment goal for burnout is usually to enable people to return to their job, and to be successful in their work, psychiatry could make an important contribution by identifying the treatment strategies that would be most effective in achieving that goal.

  13. Using Teleducation and Field Experiences to further the Understanding of Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Szuba, T. A.; Shugart, H.

    2007-05-01

    This project is an outreach and education program with a partner in the K-12 schools at Accomack County on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. It endeavors to build a community knowledgeable of the importance the ocean plays daily in our lives, and our own impact on the ocean. It is an program built in stages that: 1) Establish high speed live interactive classes (teleducation) linkages with the Eastern Shore High Schools with earth science teachers enabling them to remotely participate in University of Virginia classes in Oceanography (designed on a faculty development basis or acquire NSTA certification in Earth Science Education, as well as participation by seniors in the Accomack Schools; 2) Establish field experiences for teachers and selected students that involve travel to both the Virginia Coast Reserve Long Term Ecological Research (VCR/LTER) Center, UVA to observe first- hand the science programs at those locations and participate in cutting edge coastal marine research efforts. These experiences improve student understanding of the ocean-atmosphere biogeophysical system and encourage students to explore the sciences as a field of study and possible vocation. Advanced high school students and science teachers from Accomack County Public Schools participated in an experience involving field and laboratory methods employed in a NSF-sponsored study of the coupled natural-human dynamics on the Eastern Shore of Virginia over the past 500 years (NSF-Biocomplexity). Students and teachers worked with researchers of the VCR facility in Oyster, VA, collected sediment cores from Chesapeake Bay tributaries, and traveled to the Organic Geochemistry Laboratory at UVA, in Charlottesville, VA to prepare and analyze samples for isotopic and palynological information. In a first of its kind connectivity, in June/July, 2006, using high speed internet connections, a summer class in Oceanography was live, interactively broadcast (teleducation) from UVA to Arcadia High School on

  14. A Study of Understandings in Care Work with Elderly People: Experiences using the Sophos Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Krogh

    2004-01-01

    At study about understandings in Care Work. Using Second Order Phenomenological Observation Scheme......At study about understandings in Care Work. Using Second Order Phenomenological Observation Scheme...

  15. Confounding Impacts of Iron Reduction on Arsenic Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufano, K.J.; Fendorf, S.

    2009-05-26

    A transition from oxidizing to reducing conditions has long been implicated to increase aqueous As concentrations, for which reductive dissolution of iron (hydr)oxides is commonly implicated as the primary culprit. Confounding our understanding of processes controlling As retention, however, is that reductive transformation of ferrihydrite has recently been shown to promote As retention rather than release. To resolve the role iron phases have in regulating arsenic concentrations, here we examine As desorption from ferrihydrite-coated sands presorbed with As(lll); experiments were performed at circumneutral pH under Fe-reducing conditions with the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN-32 over extended time periods. We reveal that with the initial phase of iron reduction, ferrihydrite undergoes transformation to secondary phases and increases As(lll) retention (relative to abiotic controls). However, with increased reaction time, cessation of the phase transitions and ensuing reductive dissolution result in prolonged release of As(III) to the aqueous phase. Our results suggest that As(lll) retention during iron reduction is temporally dependent on secondary precipitation of iron phases; during transformation to secondary phases, particularly magnetite, As(lll) retention is enhanced even relative to oxidized systems. However, conditions that retard secondary transformation (more stable iron oxides or limited iron reducing bacterial activity), or prolonged anaerobiosis, will lead to both the dissolution of ferric (hydr)oxides and release of As(lll) to the aqueous phase.

  16. Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miccoli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI. Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL. The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs. When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.

  17. Understanding the distinct experience of rural interprofessional collaboration in developing palliative care programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, A; Kelley, M L; Williams, A M

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is one component of rural generalist practice that requires interprofessional collaboration (IPC) amongst practitioners. Previous research on developing rural palliative care has created a four-phase capacity development model that included interprofessional rural palliative care teams; however, the details of rural team dynamics had not been previously explored and defined. A growing body of literature has produced models for interprofessional collaborative practice and identified core competencies required by professionals to work within these contexts. An Ontario College of Family Physicians discussion paper identifies seven essential elements for successful IPC: responsibility and accountability, coordination, communication, cooperation, assertiveness, autonomy, and mutual trust and respect. Despite the fact that IPC may be well conceptualized in the literature, evidence to support the transferability of these elements into rural health care practice or rural palliative care practice is lacking. The purpose of this research is to bridge the knowledge gap that exists with respect to rural IPC, particularly in the context of developing rural palliative care. It examines the working operations of these teams and highlights the elements that are important to rural collaborative processes. For the purpose of this qualitative study, naturalistic and ethnographic research strategies were employed to understand the experience of rural IPC in the context of rural palliative care team development. Purposive sampling was used to recruit key informants as participants who were members of rural palliative care teams. The seven elements of interprofessional collaboration, as outline above, provided a preliminary analytic framework to begin exploring the data. Analysis progressed using a process of interpretive description to embrace new ideas and conceptualizations that emerged from the patterns and themes of the rural health providers' narratives. The

  18. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  19. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karyono, E-mail: karyonosu@gmail.com [Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta (Indonesia); OSLO University (Norway); Padjadjaran University (UNPAD), Bandung (Indonesia); Mazzini, Adriano; Sugiharto, Anton [OSLO University (Norway); Lupi, Matteo [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Syafri, Ildrem [Padjadjaran University (UNPAD), Bandung (Indonesia); Masturyono,; Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli,; Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat [Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green’s functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  20. Using discrete choice experiments to understand preferences for quality of life. Variance-scale heterogeneity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Terry Nicholas; Louviere, Jordan J; Peters, Tim J; Coast, Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Health services researchers are increasingly using discrete choice experiments (DCEs) to model a latent variable, be it health, health-related quality of life or utility. Unfortunately it is not widely recognised that failure to model variance heterogeneity correctly leads to bias in the point estimates. This paper compares variance heterogeneity latent class models with traditional multinomial logistic (MNL) regression models. Using the ICECAP-O quality of life instrument which was designed to provide a set of preference-based general quality of life tariffs for the UK population aged 65+, it demonstrates that there is both mean and variance heterogeneity in preferences for quality of life, which covariate-adjusted MNL is incapable of separating. Two policy-relevant mean groups were found: one group that particularly disliked impairments to independence was dominated by females living alone (typically widows). Males who live alone (often widowers) did not display a preference for independence, but instead showed a strong aversion to social isolation, as did older people (of either sex) who lived with a spouse. Approximately 6-10% of respondents can be classified into a third group that often misunderstood the task. Having a qualification of any type and higher quality of life was associated with smaller random component variances. This illustrates how better understanding of random utility theory enables richer inferences to be drawn from discrete choice experiments. The methods have relevance for all health studies using discrete choice tasks to make inferences about a latent scale, particular QALY valuation exercises that use DCEs, best-worst scaling and ranking tasks. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyono, Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Masturyono, Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli, Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat; Sugiharto, Anton

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green's functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  2. The social life of health records: understanding families' experiences of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Amber M; Solomon, Olga

    2014-09-01

    Outside of the epidemiological surveillance studies of autism prevalence, health records of children diagnosed with autism have not been sufficiently examined, yet they provide an important lens for showing how autism diagnosis, services and interventions are negotiated, coordinated and choreographed by families and practitioners across multiple settings. This article provides a multifaceted understanding of these processes from an ethnographic and discourse analytic perspective that reveals structural and interactional phenomena contributing to disparities in autism diagnosis and services. We consider health records as dualistic, material-discursive artifacts that are socio-interactionally co-constructed and variably interpreted, contested and utilized across home, school and clinic contexts. We chronicle several families' experiences of their children's autism diagnoses and interventions and describe ways in which health records are socially constructed, curated and placed in the middle of clinical encounters. We show how the parents in our study draw upon health records' material-discursive properties to display epistemic authority, expertise and knowledge in interactions with healthcare and school professionals involved in authorizing and planning their children's care. We describe how the parents experience the health records' clinical portrayals of their children and themselves, and how the parents' portrayals of their children are tacitly ratified or negated in the health records. The data include health record reviews, narrative interviews with parents and practitioners, and clinical observations. These data were collected between October 2009 and August 2012 as part of a larger study on disparities in autism diagnosis, interventions and services experienced by African American children with autism and their families living in Los Angeles County, California. Our analysis reveals the central role of health records in maintaining continuity of an autism

  3. Petmanship: Understanding Elderly Filipinos' Self-Perceived Health and Self-Esteem Captured from Their Lived Experiences with Pet Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Cucueco, Denise S.; Cuenco, Ian Benedict V.; Cunanan, Nigel Gerome C.; Dabandan, Robel T.; Dacanay, Edgar Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the lived experiences of geriatric clients with pets, particularly in the Western cultures, has been the subject of many studies. However, little is known about how Asian cultures, particularly the Filipino elderly, view their experiences with their pets in regard to their self-esteem and self-perceived health. This…

  4. Understanding the Learning Assistant experience with Physics Identity and Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Eleanor; Close, Hunter; Donnelly, David

    2012-10-01

    Learning Assistants (LAs) have been shown to have better conceptual understanding and more favorable beliefs about science than non-LAs, and are more likely to choose a career in K-12 science teaching [1]. We propose that connections between elements of identity, persistence, and participation in an LA program can be explained using the concept of the community of practice and its intimate relationship to identity [2]. In separate work, Hazari et al. found that physics identity was highly correlated to expressed career plans in physics [3]. We hypothesize that a thriving LA program has many features of a well-functioning community of practice and contributes to all four elements of physics identity: personal interest, student performance, competence, and recognition by others. We explore how this analysis of the LA experience might shape decisions and influence outcomes of adoption and adaptations of the LA model.[4pt] [1] Otero, Pollock, & Finkelstein, Am. J. Phys. 78 (11), 1218-1224 (2010).[0pt] [2] Wenger, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998).[0pt] [3] J. Res. Sci. Teach. 47 (8), 978-1003 (2010).

  5. Understanding community and solidarity tourism: a dialog with experiences in Marraquech and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cioce Sampaio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Discussion on community tourism and solidarity tourism reflects on others such as: cultural tourism, ethnic tourism, ecotourism and rural tourism, many times expropriated by darwinean logics and capitalist dynamics which limit tourist experiences potentialities to the conservation of traditional ways of life. This article intends to dialog with commercial exchange ceremonies experienced in Marraquech in Dezember 2008 to understand community and solidarity tourism in Latin America. Tourism in Marraquech is divided through a wall. Inside it, at the Medina, socio cultural beriberi and Arabian culture is predominant, under the only commercial ceremonial: you never know if you are doing big deal. Outside, west prone socio-cultural circuit is predominant, with hotel chains, restaurants and international shops known as the more expensive, the best! Reflection is made about the way ceremonies, turned into ways of life are similar or not. No doubt real wall is not as big as the symbolic wall between villages: western and communitarian, and between tourisms, conventional and solidarity local based one.

  6. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  7. Networks of conscious experience: computational neuroscience in understanding life, death, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry; Koch, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate brain locations appearing to correlate with consciousness, but not being directly responsible for it. Technology reveals that brain activity is associated with consciousness but is not equivalent to it. We examine how consciousness occurs at critical levels of complexity. Conventional explanations portray consciousness as an emergent property of classical computer-like activities in the brain's neural networks. Prevailing views in this camp are that patterns of neural network activities correlate with mental states, that synchronous network oscillations in the thalamus and cerebral cortex temporally bind information, and that consciousness emerges as a novel property of computational complexity among neurons. A hard-wired theory is enigmatic for explaining consciousness because the nature of subjective experience, or 'qualia'- 'inner life' - is a "hard problem" to understand; binding spatially distributed brain activity into unitary objects, and a coherent sense of self, or 'oneness' is difficult to explain as is the transition from pre- to conscious states. Consciousness is non-computable and involves factors that are neither random nor algorithmic - consciousness cannot be simulated; explanations are also needed for free will and for subjective time flow. Convention argues that neurons and their chemical synapses are the fundamental units of information in the brain, and that conscious experience emerges when a critical level of complexity is reached in the brain's neural networks. The basic idea is that the mind is a computer functioning in the brain. In fitting the brain to a computational view, such explanations omit incompatible neurophysiological details, including widespread apparent randomness at all levels of neural processes (is it really noise, or underlying levels of complexity?); glial cells (which account for some 80% of the brain); dendritic-dendritic processing; electrotonic gap junctions; cytoplasmic/cytoskeletal activities; living

  8. A qualitative study of Iranian nurses' understanding and experiences of professional power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Fazlollah

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are expected to empower their clients, but they cannot do so if they themselves feel powerless. They must become empowered before they can empower others. Some researchers have emphasized that understanding the concept of power is an important prerequisite of any empowerment program. While many authors have tried to define the concept of power, there is no comprehensive definition. This paper is an attempt to clarify the concept of power in nursing. It also would present a model describing the factors affecting nurse empowerment. Methods We chose the grounded-theory approach for analysis of the participants' experiences and their viewpoints regarding the concept of professional power in nursing. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation methods were used to gather the data. Forty-four participants were interviewed and 12 sessions of observation were carried out. The constant comparative analysis method was used. Results Six main themes emerged from the data: "Application of knowledge and skills", "Having authority", "Being self-confident", "Unification and solidarity", "Being supported" and "Organizational culture and structure". According to the participants, nurses' power is influenced by these six variables. A theoretical model was designed to represent the interrelationships between these six variables. Conclusions Nurses' power depends on gaining and applying professional knowledge and skills. Delegating authority and enhancing self-confidence of the nurses also help them to apply their knowledge in practice. Unification of the nurses and their mutual support play the key roles in development of their collective power and provide a base for better working conditions, professional independence and self-regulation.

  9. Seventh Grade Students' Qualitative Understanding of the Concept of Mass Influenced by Real Experiments and Virtual Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovski, Sasha; Zajkov, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This research is conducted among 65 seventh graders (12-14 years old) who attend introductory course on physics. Tests and interviews are used to trace the roots of the students' misconceptions about mass. Results from the research reveal serious weaknesses in students' understanding of concept of mass, and its confusion with concepts of…

  10. Understanding God images and God concepts : Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2015-01-01

    The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent–child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns.

  11. Understanding God images and God concepts : Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2015-01-01

    The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent–child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns. T

  12. Understanding the Seed-Mediated Growth of Gold Nanorods through a Fractional Factorial Design of Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Nathan D; Harvey, Samantha; Idesis, Fred A; Murphy, Catherine J

    2017-02-28

    Since the development of simple, aqueous protocols for the synthesis of anisotropic metal nanoparticles, research into many promising, valuable applications of gold nanorods has grown considerably, but a number of challenges remain, including gold-particle yield, robustness to minor impurities, and precise control of gold nanorod surface chemistry. Herein we present the results of a composite fractional factorial series of experiments designed to screen seven additional potential avenues of control and to understand the seed-mediated silver-assisted synthesis of gold nanorods. These synthesis variables are the amount of sodium borohydride used and the rate of stirring when producing seed nanoparticles, the age of and the amount of seeds added, the reaction temperature, the amounts of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid added, and the age of the reduced growth solution before seed nanoparticles are added to initiate rod formation. This statistical experimental design and analysis method, besides determining which experimental variables are important and which are not when synthesizing gold nanorods (and quantifying their effects), gives further insight into the mechanism of growth by measuring the degree to which variables interact with each other by mapping out their mechanistic connections. This work demonstrates that when forming gold nanorods by the reduction of auric ions by ascorbic acid onto seed nanoparticles, ascorbic acid determines how much gold is reduced, and the amount of seeds determine how it is divided, yet both influence the intrinsic growth rates, in both width and length, of the forming nanorods. Furthermore, this work shows that the reduction of gold proceeds via direct reduction on the surface of seeds and not through a disproportionation reaction. Further control over the length of gold nanorods can be achieved by tuning the amount of silver nitrate or the reaction temperature. This work shows that silver does not directly influence rod length or

  13. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the Science Process Skills Questionnaire (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88. The findings showed that the teachers' conceptual understanding of SPS was much weaker than their practical application of SPS. The teachers' understanding of SPS differed by their teaching qualifications but not so much by their teaching experience. Emphasis needs to be given to both conceptual and operational understanding of SPS during pre-service and in-service teacher education to enable science teachers to use the skills and implement inquiry-based lessons in schools.

  14. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the Science Process Skills Questionnaire (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88. The findings showed that the teachers' conceptual understanding of SPS was much weaker than their practical application of SPS. The teachers' understanding of SPS differed by their teaching qualifications but not so much by their teaching experience. Emphasis needs to be given to both conceptual and operational understanding of SPS during pre-service and in-service teacher education to enable science teachers to use the skills and implement inquiry-based lessons in schools.

  15. A Pedagogical Experience to Delve Into Students’ Sense of Cultural Belonging and Intercultural Understanding in a Rural School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Ramos Holguín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural education has been the focus for several research studies which reveal a tendency to include students’ home context in the curriculum. Considering the aforementioned statement, this article aims to share a pedagogical experience which was carried out in a rural school in Guavatá, Santander, Colombia. The main purpose of this experience was to integrate eleventh graders’ rural context through the design of curricular units. After implementing the curricular units, information was collected through a journal, a semi-structured interview, and students’ surveys. The outcomes of the experience showed that aspects such as students’ sense of cultural belonging and intercultural understanding were enhanced.

  16. Understanding Accounting as a Career: An Immersion Work Experience for Students Making Career Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Dianne; Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which is designed to increase the participation of high school students in accounting work experience placements. The focus of the paper is on an Australian-based project which overcomes the identified barriers to offering high school accounting work experience placements with a resultant increase in the number and…

  17. Understanding Students' Experiments--What Kind of Support Do They Need in Inquiry Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades,…

  18. Understanding Women's Differing Experiences of Distress after Colposcopy: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Mairead

    2015-01-01

    Women who have an abnormal cervical cytology test may be referred for a colposcopy. Accumulating evidence suggests some women may experience distress after colposcopy. This exploratory study examined women\\'s differing experiences of post-colposcopy distress with the aim of identifying factors that are predictive of, or protective against, distress.

  19. What Do We See?: Extending Understanding of Visual Experience in the Art Therapy Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience and meaning making in art therapy constitute more than looking at the image created. Clients and therapists utilize the environment of therapy in ways that have been hitherto unrecognized. This article presents a key finding from an art-based study of the experience of the art therapy room from the perspectives of client and…

  20. Postcards from Heaven and Hell: Understanding the Near-Death Experience through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Art making offers the opportunity to reflect upon ineffable experiences, including those surrounding death and dying. This article examines the artwork of two research participants who each reported a near-death experience (NDE). A trans-personal model was used to elicit the narratives and artwork of two individuals: one who experienced a pleasant…

  1. Understanding statin non-adherence: knowing which perceptions and experiences matter to different patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, H.; Dijk, L. van; Geers, H.C.J.; Winters, N.A.; Geffen, E.C.G. van; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Bouvy, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to statins is substantial and is associated with numerous perceptions and experiences. However, time limits in clinical practice constrain in depth explorations of these perceptions and experiences. Objectives: To propose and examine a strategy aimed at an efficient

  2. What Do We See?: Extending Understanding of Visual Experience in the Art Therapy Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Visual experience and meaning making in art therapy constitute more than looking at the image created. Clients and therapists utilize the environment of therapy in ways that have been hitherto unrecognized. This article presents a key finding from an art-based study of the experience of the art therapy room from the perspectives of client and…

  3. Understanding Students' Experiences in Their Own Words: Moving beyond a Basic Analysis of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arch Chee Keen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the lived experiences of students as expressed in their reflections on their experiences of learning at Ambrose University in Calgary. It uses quantitative outcomes-related data from the National Survey of Student Engagement and the Theological School Survey of Student Engagement to illuminate qualitative data obtained through…

  4. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  5. Understanding hospital meal experiences by means of Participant-Driven-Photo-Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2014-01-01

    photographs and the participants’ engagement with the photographs were analysed by means of a Reflexive Content Analysis. The study found that PDPE is a research method that can be used for expanding the conceptualisation of hospital meal experiences, revealing the significance of the meal context......A patients’ hospital meal experiences can be complex and often difficult to capture using traditional methods. This study investigated patients’ hospital meal experiences using participant-driven-photo-elicitation (PDPE). PDPE invites respondents to photograph their daily lives and combines...... this with interviews, which can provide deeper insight into multisensory experiences beyond verbal or written discourse. The sample consisted of eight hospitalised patients. Patients completed a photo-essay of their hospital meal experience during a single day at a Danish hospital and afterwards participated...

  6. How Can Consumer Research Contribute to Increased Understanding of Tourist Experiences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Øystein; Lindberg, Frank; Østergaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article contributes to the conceptual debate on tourist experiences. The article offers an overview of the developments within the field of consumer or consumption experience with stress on “consumer culture theory” (CCT) and discusses how this research could contribute to alternative...... and complementary ideas for conceptualizing tourist experiences as presented in tourism literature. Within the latter, the home/strangerhoodperspective and the perspective of traveling in time and space are referred to in particular. The article describes how movements in the early 1980s have been imperative...... for the now comprehensive focus on experiences within consumer research, and elucidates the emergence of and the contributions from two main approaches within CCT, the individual and the sociocultural approach. The authors suggest that tourist experience is about how meaning is created and argue that meaning...

  7. Influence of student-designed experiments with fast plants on their understanding of plants and of scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akey, Ann Kosek

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation investigates the influence of student designed experiments with Fast Plants in an undergraduate agroecology course on the students' conceptual understanding of plant life cycles and on their procedural understanding of scientific experimentation. It also considers students' perspectives on the value of these experiences. Data sources included semi-structured interviews with students and the instructor, a written task, course evaluations, and observations of class meetings. Students came into the course having strong practical experience with plants from their agricultural backgrounds. Students did not always connect aspects of plant biology that they studied in class, particularly respiration and photosynthesis, to plant growth requirements. The instructor was able to bridge the gap between some practical knowledge and textbook knowledge with experiences other than the Fast Plant project. Most students held an incomplete picture of plant reproduction that was complicated by differences between agricultural and scientific vocabulary. There is need for teaching approaches that help students tie together their knowledge of plants into a cohesive framework. Experiences that help students draw on their background knowledge related to plants, and which give students the opportunity to examine and discuss their ideas, may help students make more meaningful connections. The Fast Plant project, a positive experience for most students, was seen by these undergraduate students as being more helpful in learning about scientific experimentation than about plants. The process of designing and carrying out their own experiments gave students insight into experimentation, provoked their curiosity, and resulted in a sense of ownership and accomplishment.

  8. Understanding tuberculosis: perspectives and experiences of the people of Sabah, East Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundi, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Malaysia is a country with the intermediate burden of tuberculosis (TB). TB is still a public-health problem in Sabah, one of the two states in East Malaysia. In 2007, the state of Sabah contributed slightly more than 3,000 of 16,129 new and relapse cases reported in the country. It has a notification rate of two and a half times that of the country's. Very few studies on TB have been conducted in Sabah, and there is little documentation on the perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB on the people of Sabah. A qualitative study was conducted in 2006 in seven districts in Sabah to assess the knowledge and perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, also to know the experiences of healthcare services, and to examine the impact of TB on patients and families. Purposive sampling identified 27 TB patients and 20 relatives and community members who were interviewed using a set of questions on knowledge, perceptions about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB. A further 11 health staff attended informal discussions and feedback sessions. Most interviews were taped and later translated. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Ninety-six percent of the respondents did not know the cause of TB. Some thought that TB occurred due to a 'tear' in the body or due to hard work or inflammation while others thought that it occurred due to eating contaminated food or due to sharing utensils or breathing space with TB patients. Although the germ theory was not well-known, 98% of the respondents believed that TB was infectious. Some patients did not perceive the symptoms they had as those of TB. The prevailing practice among the respondents was to seek modem medicine for cure. Other forms of treatment, such as traditional medicine, were sought if modem medicine failed to cure the disease. TB was still a stigmatizing disease, and the expression of this was in both perceived and enacted ways

  9. Understanding the experiences of a group of Yemeni students in an ESL science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradi, Gihan

    American classrooms are experiencing an influx of diverse language speaking students while for science educators the study of EBL students' learning in science classrooms is a relatively new field (Lee & Buxton, 2010). At the same time there is a growing emphasis on the importance of science practices (NGSS). This poses significant challenges for science educators who are enacting science curriculum that supports all students' learning. Supporting EBL students' academic achievement is significant because literacy is important for students' access to economic and social benefits that come with science literacy (Atwater, 1996). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-linguistic challenges that a specific group of EBL students (Yemeni) faced and the extent to which such challenges affected their academic performance in science. These challenges are related to linguistic and cultural interactions, which can lead to conflicts between student and school, thereby interfering with the effectiveness of their education. This study also examined these students' and their science teacher's perspectives on strategies that can be used to facilitate their language acquisition during science class and help them become active participants in the school and classroom communities. The study used a qualitative interpretive research methodology and involved four Arab-American EBL students (two males and two females) from Yemen, who had been in the US for different periods of time. The amount of time these students had been in the US was important to examine differences in their acculturation and challenges they faced. Similarly, the use of female and male student participants was important to understand the impact of gender in the lived experiences of these students. The results of the study indicated that all the participants struggled with linguistic, social, and cultural aspects of their life in an American high school. These in turn led to a sense of being different

  10. Understanding the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans Australians living with dementia, and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Catherine; Crameri, Pauline; Lambourne, Sally; Latham, J R; Whyte, Carolyn

    2015-10-01

    To outline the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) Australians living with dementia - and their partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with LGBT people, their partners and service providers. LGBT people living with dementia experience unique challenges including the failure of some families of origin and service providers to understand and value their sexual orientation or gender identity. The fear of discrimination by service providers results in greater reliance on intimate partners for care and compounds social isolation. The unique experiences of LGBT people with dementia are not well understood. There is a need to recognise historical experiences, including familial relationships, and provide advocacy to ensure sexual and gender rights are not violated. There is also a need to ensure that the experiences and perspectives of LGBT people living with dementia inform the development of services. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  11. Understanding the breast cancer experience: a qualitative study of Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Azlina; Ab Hadi, Imi Sairi; Mahamood, Zainal; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Keng, Soon Lean

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common and leading cause of cancer mortality among Malaysian women. Despite good survival rates, the diagnosis of cancer still invokes the feeling of stress, fear and uncertainty. Because very little is known about the experiences of Malaysian women with breast cancer, a qualitative study using semi- structured interviews to explore the lived experience of newly diagnosed breast cancer. Using a purposive sampling method, 20 Malaysian women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, including Malays (n=10) and Chinese (n=10) were recruited in two main public hospitals in Kelantan. Similarities and divergence in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Three themes emerged from the data: uncertainty experience of the illness, transition process and fatalistic view of breast cancer. In many ways, these findings were parallel with previous studies, suggesting that the experience of breast cancer is to a certain extent similar among women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. This study adds to the sparse literature concerning the experience of illness following breast cancer diagnosis among the Malays and Chinese. More importantly, this study addressed areas that were previously lacking, specifically in depth information on breast cancer experience from a developing country with a multi-ethnic population. The results of this investigation provide preliminary information to healthcare professionals on the impact of illness and cultural influence on survivorship to plan for appropriate education and supportive programme in order to meet the needs of breast cancer women more effectively.

  12. What Factors Determine the Retention Behavior of Engineered Nanomaterials in Saturated Porous Media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Eli; McNew, Coy; Scheringer, Martin; Bucheli, Thomas D; Nelson, Peter; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-02-16

    A fundamental problem associated with the vertical transport of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in saturated porous media is the occurrence of nonexponential, for example, nonmonotonic or linearly increasing, retention profiles. To investigate this problem, we compiled an extensive database of ENMs transport experiments in saturated porous media. Using this database we trained a decision tree that shows the order of importance, and range of influence, of the physicochemical factors that control the retention profile shape. Our results help identify domains where current particle-transport models can be used, but also highlight, for the first time, large domains where nonexponential retention profiles dominate and new approaches are needed to understand ENM transport. Importantly, highly advective flow and high ENM influent mass can mask the influence of other physicochemical factors on the retention profile shape; notably, this occurs in 50% of the experiments investigated. Where the relationship between physicochemical factors and retention profile shape can be investigated in detail, our results agree with, and provide validation for, the current understanding of how these factors influence ENM transport.

  13. Toward a more complete understanding of the link between multicultural experience and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, William W; Leung, Angela Ka-Yee; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Galinsky, Adam D

    2009-01-01

    Responds to G. J. Rich's comments on the current author's original article which presented evidence supporting the idea that multicultural experience can facilitate creativity. Rich has argued that our review, although timely and important, was somewhat limited in scope, focusing mostly on smaller forms of creativity ("little c": e.g., paper-and-pencil measures of creativity) as well as on larger forms of multicultural experience ("Big M": e.g., living in a foreign country). We agree with many aspects of Rich's assessment. The issue of whether different forms of multicultural experience can affect Big C creativity is of interest to both scholars and laypeople because creative breakthroughs can literally alter the course of human progress. The response to our article, including Rich's reply, supports our view that the interest in multicultural experience and creativity is far from exhausted; future research will certainly uncover important new insights.

  14. Understanding of the late Michelson's experiments that confirmed the aether existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rek, Radosław

    2016-06-01

    This paper contains a brief discussion of results of two experiments made by Albert Michelson in the years of 1923-1925. According to the paper written by the Nobel Prize winner the aether dragging should exist.

  15. Using the Five Senses of Success framework to understand the experiences of midwifery students enroled in an undergraduate degree program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, M; Fenwick, J; Carter, A; Gamble, J

    2015-01-01

    developing a student's sense of capability, purpose, resourcefulness, identity and connectedness (five-senses of success) are key factors that may be important in predicting student satisfaction and progression within their university program. the study aimed to examine the expectations and experiences of second and third year midwifery students enroled in a Bachelor of Midwifery program and identify barriers and enablers to success. a descriptive exploratory qualitative design was used. Fifty-six students enroled in either year 2 or 3 of the Bachelor of Midwifery program in SE Queensland participated in an anonymous survey using open-ended questions. In addition, 16 students participated in two year-level focus groups. Template analysis, using the Five Senses Framework, was used to analyse the data set. early exposure to 'hands on' clinical midwifery practice as well as continuity of care experiences provided students with an opportunity to link theory to practice and increased their perception of capability as they transitioned through the program. Students' sense of identity, purpose, resourcefulness, and capability was strongly influenced by the programs embedded meta-values, including a 'woman centred' approach. In addition, a student's ability to form strong positive relationships with women, peers, lecturers and supportive clinicians was central to developing connections and ultimately a sense of success. A sense of connection not only fostered an ongoing belief that challenges could be overcome but that students themselves could initiate or influence change. the five senses framework provided a useful lens through which to analyse the student experience. Key factors to student satisfaction and retention within a Bachelor of Midwifery program include: a clearly articulated midwifery philosophy, strategies to promote student connectedness including the use of social media, and further development of clinicians' skills in preceptorship, clinical teaching and

  16. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment With Undergraduate Student By Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Maya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings of  a  post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach  on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding  task  for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task.  The study also found there were not differences  between students’  abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of  the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive  opinion toward  modified Moore learning approach. They  were  active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities,  but  there were  quite strong  association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords:  modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.751.231-250

  17. Understanding Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments Reveals Signatures of Translation Dynamics in Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Hussmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome profiling produces snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes on messenger RNAs. These snapshots can be used to make inferences about translation dynamics. Recent ribosome profiling studies in yeast, however, have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the average translation rate of each codon. Some experiments have used cycloheximide (CHX to stabilize ribosomes before measuring their positions, and these studies all counterintuitively report a weak negative correlation between the translation rate of a codon and the abundance of its cognate tRNA. In contrast, some experiments performed without CHX report strong positive correlations. To explain this contradiction, we identify unexpected patterns in ribosome density downstream of each type of codon in experiments that use CHX. These patterns are evidence that elongation continues to occur in the presence of CHX but with dramatically altered codon-specific elongation rates. The measured positions of ribosomes in these experiments therefore do not reflect the amounts of time ribosomes spend at each position in vivo. These results suggest that conclusions from experiments in yeast using CHX may need reexamination. In particular, we show that in all such experiments, codons decoded by less abundant tRNAs were in fact being translated more slowly before the addition of CHX disrupted these dynamics.

  18. Do Signers Understand Regional Varieties of a Sign Language? A Lexical Recognition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Rose

    2016-01-01

    The degree of mutual intelligibility of British Sign Language (BSL) regional varieties has been a subject of some debate. Recent research in which dyads of signers from contrasting regional backgrounds engaged in a conversational task showed no problems understanding one another. The present study investigated signers' knowledge of different BSL…

  19. The Role of Motor Experience in Understanding Action Function: The Case of the Precision Grasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adults and infants selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object. The current research investigated whether this bias stems from infants' processing of the functional consequences of grasps: understanding that different grasps afford different future actions. A habituation paradigm…

  20. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  1. An Intuitive Graphical Approach to Understanding the Split-Plot Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timothy J.; Brenneman, William A.; Myers, William R.

    2009-01-01

    While split-plot designs have received considerable attention in the literature over the past decade, there seems to be a general lack of intuitive understanding of the error structure of these designs and the resulting statistical analysis. Typically, students learn the proper error terms for testing factors of a split-plot design via "expected…

  2. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  3. Gateways to Understanding: A Model for Exploring and Discerning Meaning from Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research methodologies comprise distinct traditions, each of which is based on its own assumptions and discrete methods for collecting, analyzing and reporting data. This paper examines a distinctive approach to qualitative research that was employed in a recent study to open a gateway to understanding the impact of the shootings at…

  4. Understanding learning in natural resource management : experiences with a contextualised responsive evaluation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouévi, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation may be located in the wide debate on the effectiveness of policy interventions in developing countries, in the field of natural resource management (NRM). It is especially concerned with contributing to the understanding of the limited effectiveness of fishery management

  5. Experience, Recursive Awareness and Understanding in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights of Parents and Teachers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Klieve, Helen; Kearney, Patrick; Saggers, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Provision of an individually responsive education requires a comprehensive understanding of the inner worlds of learners, such as their feelings and thoughts. However, this is difficult to achieve when learners, such as those with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and cognitive difficulties, have problems with communication. To address this issue,…

  6. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment with Undergraduate Student by Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Rippi; Sumarmo, Utari

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students' mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subjects of study were 56 undergraduate students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course.…

  7. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics via the Stern-Gerlach Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    The Stern-Gerlach experiment has played a central role in the discovery of spin angular momentum. It can also play a pivotal role in teaching the formalism of quantum mechanics using a concrete example involving a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. Using this context, students can learn about how to prepare a specific quantum state starting from an arbitrary state, issues related to the time evolution of the wave function, and quantum measurement. It can also be exploited to teach students about the distinction between the physical space where one performs the experiment and the Hilbert space where the state of the system lies and how the information about the state of the system in the Hilbert space can be exploited to interpret the possible outcomes of the experiment in the physical space. Students can learn the advantages of choosing an appropriate basis to make suitable predictions about the outcomes of experiments with different arrangements of Stern-Gerlach devices. This experiment can also help students...

  8. 保水性铺装材料表面蒸发冷却效果的室内实验研究%Indoor Experiments on Surface Evaporation Cooling Effect of Water Retention Pavement Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟娇; 楼胜芳; 水谷章夫

    2011-01-01

    保水性铺装是一种通过表面蒸发冷却来有效降低铺装表面温度的方法,可以缓解城市热岛现象.保水材料的种类不同,效果各异,若进行室外蒸发冷却实验会受到气候条件的制约.本文以日光灯模拟太阳照射,制作了室内蒸发冷却实验装置,并针对此装置的可行性进行了实验及数值计算分析.而后,应用此装置进行了实验,分析了开粒度沥青表面铺装材料和具有吸水/保水性沥青表面铺装材料的表面蒸发冷却效果.%Water retention pavement is an effective method to decrease the surface temperature,which could relieve the heat island phenomenon.Different water retention materials have different evaporation cooling effects, and their outdoor evaporation cooling experiments are restricted by climatic conditions.In this paper, using the fluorescent lamp to simulate the solar radiation, the indoor evaporation cooling test facility was set up.The experiments and numerical analysis were carried out to validate the feasibility of this facility.Furthermore, surface evaporation cooling experiments for asphalt and water absorption/retention asphalt pavement materials were implemented and the effects were discussed.

  9. Understanding Doctoral Nursing Students' Experiences of Blended Learning: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Emami Sigaroudi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of blended learning in the field of nursing and medicine has been accepted. Blended learning has been extensively used thanks to the development of communication technologies and the availability of Internet services. Meanwhile, experiences-based research, by all accounts, can help the expansion of such a learning modality. Therefore, this study was designed to explain nursing doctoral students’ experiences of blended learning. To attain this goal, a descriptive phenomenology method was used to illustrate experiences as they are experienced by the participants in the study. With regard to the nature of the investigated phenomena and the existing methods for the inductive analysis, Colaizzi’s method of data analysis was used. The findings of the study led to the discovery of three main themes: "failure", "synergy" and "specific interaction". Each of the themes has been further divided into some sub-themes.

  10. Understanding Doctoral Nursing Students' Experiences of Blended Learning: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami Sigaroudi, Abdolhossein; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Nikbakht Nasabadi, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    The concept of blended learning in the field of nursing and medicine has been accepted. Blended learning has been extensively used thanks to the development of communication technologies and the availability of Internet services. Meanwhile, experiences-based research, by all accounts, can help the expansion of such a learning modality. Therefore, this study was designed to explain nursing doctoral students' experiences of blended learning. To attain this goal, a descriptive phenomenology method was used to illustrate experiences as they are experienced by the participants in the study. With regard to the nature of the investigated phenomena and the existing methods for the inductive analysis, Colaizzi's method of data analysis was used. The findings of the study led to the discovery of three main themes: "failure", "synergy" and "specific interaction". Each of the themes has been further divided into some sub-themes.

  11. Using narratives to understand the motivational factors and experience of being a self-initiated academic expatriate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinashe T. Harry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A growing movement of foreign nationals is settling in South Africa. Given this, there is a need to understand not only those factors influencing foreign nationals to settle in South Africa but also their lived experiences as a basis for individual career development.Research purpose: To investigate the expatriation motivational factors and experiences of selfinitiated academic expatriates in South Africa.Motivation for the study: Calls have been made within the careers literature for more empirical focus on understanding career development using some of the neglected sample groups.Research approach, design and method: The interpretive paradigm was adopted to understand the main purpose of the study. Guided by study objectives, unstructured interviews were conducted using a sample of foreign academics working in South Africa (n = 25.Main findings: Individual stories and narratives highlighted that academics relocated for the following reasons: (1 individual preference, (2 economic meltdown and (3 political conditions. Furthermore, the lived experiences of the expatriates reflected discrimination within the workplace and the community of residences in South Africa.Practical and managerial implications: Research findings indicate that the human resources (HR function can come up with interventions that positively influence the lived experience and career development of foreign academics working in South Africa.Contribution: The expatriate experience framed in this study provides a picture of the career development processes of neglected sample groups in the extant literature. Such an understanding is key in advancing literature and proposing interventions. All this is important given the global trend on labour and skills movement added to the role South Africa plays in the international arena. 

  12. Understanding the Experience of Stroke: A Mixed-Method Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-01-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appro...

  13. Gendering and schizophrenia: Negotiating power relations, gender understandings and experience in psychiatric/patient interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Linda Jane

    2002-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis uses a discursive approach to examine psychiatric understandings of gender and schizophrenia in clinical encounters between professionals and patients. Chief reasons for undertaking the research were an unease about the concept of schizophrenia and a lack of attention to interactive psychiatric contexts in feminist work on gender and madness. This study attempts to move b...

  14. Understanding (Galactic) Foreground Emission: A Road To Success For The LOFAR-EoR Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelic, Vibor; Lofar Eor Team, [Unknown

    The LOFAR-EoR experiment will use the innovative technology and capabilities of the radio telescope LOFAR to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). However, feeble cosmological radiation is swamped by the prominent foreground emission of our Galaxy and other extragalactic radio sources. This

  15. Analyzing through Resonant Experience - Becoming the one to understand the other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    study) other. The paper presents a case of being newcomer (to research communities) researching newcomer innovation (of others) (Revsbaek, 2014). Suggesting that researcher’s resonant experience is an issue of research validity raises the question of researcher qualifications not only being about...

  16. Understanding Care Giving and Care Receiving Experiences throughout the Life Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Makiko

    and expectations for the future. Guided by life course approach, the analysis focuses on older couples in Denmark and Japan, and explores the following questions; how have older Danish and Japanese couples experienced care giving and care taking over the life course? How do they perceive these experiences? How...

  17. The Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Framework for Understanding Parental Experiences with Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sharon A.; Knoll, Monja A.

    2015-01-01

    Research into parental homework-related experiences has predominantly focused on parental attitudes to homework. This research has shown that parental attitudes can affect the formation of attitudes in children and subsequently their academic success. Most research has focused on a secondary school context, but there is still a lack of knowledge…

  18. Understanding Fluorescence Measurements through a Guided-Inquiry and Discovery Experiment in Advanced Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna; Salin, Eric Dunbar

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on fluorescence spectroscopy suitable for an advanced analytical laboratory is presented. Its conceptual development used a combination of the expository and discovery styles. The "learn-as-you-go" and direct "hands-on" methodology applied ensures an active role for a student in the process of visualization and discovery of concepts.…

  19. School Counsellors' Understanding of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: Experiences and International Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Jamie M.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.; Ross, Shana

    2011-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a concern among professionals working with youth. The present study examined school counsellors' experiences, training and school preparedness, perceived knowledge, beliefs, and intervention approaches related to NSSI. Participants were 470 school counsellors (417 female, 53 male) from across North America (156…

  20. Race and Assessment Practice in South Africa: Understanding Black Academic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawitz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to transform the racialised system of higher education in South Africa inherited from apartheid, there has been little research published that interrogates the relationship between race and the experience of academic staff within the South African higher education environment. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and critical…

  1. Experiments and Analyses for Determining Fibre/Matrix Interface Parameters – Understanding Debonding Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Gupta, Mohit; Lilholt, Hans

    2013-01-01

    A new experimental technique is developed to monitor the initiation and propagation of adebond crack during a fibre pull-out experiment. The advanced experimental setup consists of a high resolution video camera and a laser extensometer mounted at a tensile test machine. The test setup enables...

  2. Towards Understanding the Two Way Interaction Effects of Extraversion and Openness to Experience on Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined potential two-way interaction effects of the Big Five personality traits extraversion and openness to experience on career commitment measured in terms of three components of career identity, career resilience, and career planning. Participants included 450 managers from public and private sector organizations in North…

  3. Physical Pendulum Experiments to Enhance the Understanding of Moments of Inertia and Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Tim H.; Brittle, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments aimed at overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by students learning about the topics of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion, both of which are often perceived to be complex topics amongst students during their first-year university courses. By combining both subjects in a discussion…

  4. Managing Meanings of Embodied Experiences Theory: Toward a Discursive Understanding of Becoming Healthier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-Springer, Kimberly; Margavio Striley, Katie

    2017-04-12

    We advance a new theoretical approach for interpreting health communication from an embodied, intersubjective perspective. We propose individuals experience the world as bodied beings and must make sense of their embodied experiences by managing meanings of who they are in the world (being), the actions they perform (doing), and who they want to become (directed becoming). We call this theory managing meanings of embodied experiences (MMEE). Guided by the philosophies of phenomenology, pragmatism, and feminism, we provide a three-fold framework for exploring individuals' management of health meanings during interactions with others in society. The first layer-being-demonstrates a mutually constituting, intersubjective presence with others, whereby we attend to our own and another's embodied expressions accomplished communicatively. The second layer-doing-appreciates experiences directed by personal and social values both perceived and conceived during the unfolding of coordinated communicative events. The third layer-directed becoming-highlights our ability to mindfully direct changes to our identity and actions through critical reflection; it is the transformative potential of our reflective synthesis of being and doing.

  5. Understanding the Motivation of Vietnamese International Students and Their Higher Education Experiences in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randy Scott

    2012-01-01

    This research describes what motivates Vietnamese students to come to the U.S. to study for a degree, what outcomes they expect, and what they experience academically and culturally while studying in the U.S. Currently the surge of international students from Vietnam has reached an all time high of 13,112 students to the U.S. This moves the…

  6. Understanding the Lived Experiences of Novice Teachers in an Urban Texas School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepisto-Wood, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    In an urban Texas Independent School District (TXISD), novice teachers leave the field of education for different careers within the first 3 years of employment at a rate that is nearly twice the Texas average and near the top of the national novice teacher attrition rate range. This study examined the lived experiences of 23 TXISD novice teachers…

  7. Understanding the Experiences of Latina/o Students: A Qualitative Study for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos, Alyssa G.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative study with nine Latina/o college students was conducted to determine their experiences with their high school teachers. After careful data analysis, the following themes emerged: (a) some Latina/o students receive high expectations and others receive low expectations, (b) low expectations for non-AP students exist, and (c) some…

  8. Definitions of Bullying: Age Differences in Understanding of the Term, and the Role of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Claire P.; Smith, Peter K.

    2006-01-01

    We report two studies that examine age differences in pupils' and parents' definitions of the term "bullying," and possible reasons for these including the role of specific experiences. Study 1 compared definitions of "bullying" given by participants in four age groups; 4 to 6 years, 8 years, 14 years and adult. Participants were shown/read 17…

  9. Using Soil Incubation Experiments to Enhance Urban Elementary School Student Understanding of Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittinghill, K. A.; van Vleck, H. E.; Dechaine, J. M.; Faber, N.

    2007-12-01

    Soil incubations provide a simple and low-cost way to introduce inquiry into the elementary school curriculum. As part of the University of Minnesota's NSF-funded GK-12 program, we used a replicated soil experiment to enhance a unit on global warming and carbon cycling for a 4th grade enrichment group at an urban elementary school. After completing several global warming related, inquiry based activities, the students designed an experiment to test their hypothesis that increasing temperature increases soil respiration. Students used soil from the playground placed at different temperatures within the school (computer server room, classroom, and refrigerator) to carry out their experiment. With the help of GK-12 graduate fellows, students used an infrared gas analyzer to quantify the production of carbon dioxide by the soil within mason jars. The students analyzed their data and discussed the relevance of their findings to previous lessons on global climate change. We will discuss the incubation experiment in the context of our collaboration between scientists and elementary school classrooms, inquiry based science education, and our 4th grade unit on global climate change.

  10. Calibrating the human instrument: understanding the interviewing experience of novice qualitative researchers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peredaryenko, Margarita S; Krauss, Steven Eric

    2013-01-01

    ... researchers perceived themselves as the research instrument in the process of their first qualitative interviewing experiences. The findings from interviews with four such novices were that their initial calibration gravitated towards one of two states - being "researcher-centered" or "informant-centered." Their proximity to either of these ...

  11. The Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Framework for Understanding Parental Experiences with Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sharon A.; Knoll, Monja A.

    2015-01-01

    Research into parental homework-related experiences has predominantly focused on parental attitudes to homework. This research has shown that parental attitudes can affect the formation of attitudes in children and subsequently their academic success. Most research has focused on a secondary school context, but there is still a lack of knowledge…

  12. Understanding Hong Kong Chinese Families' Experiences of an Autism/ASD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Kathleen; Fung, Francis; Hu, Aihua; Sweller, Naomi; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the experience of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) living in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Seventy-five parents of children (aged 6 months-18 years) with ASD diagnoses completed the Family Quality of Life Scale. Forty-five parents from the original surveyed cohort, also…

  13. The Effects of Clinical Experiences on the Understanding of Classroom Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Carey Anne Aycock; Kempy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    For teacher educators, classroom management education is one of the least researched aspects of the profession. The purpose of this study was to determine if classroom management was most effectively learned through textbook analysis coupled with classroom discussion, or the experience of observing and practicing classroom management in the…

  14. How Can Consumer Research Contribute to Increased Understanding of Tourist Experiences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Øystein; Lindberg, Frank; Østergaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    and complementary ideas for conceptualizing tourist experiences as presented in tourism literature. Within the latter, the home/strangerhoodperspective and the perspective of traveling in time and space are referred to in particular. The article describes how movements in the early 1980s have been imperative...

  15. The Voices behind the Numbers: Understanding the Experiences of Homeless Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Erica; Shields, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    In a given year, approximately 1.6 million children in the United States experience homelessness, and research shows that their living conditions generally place these children at risk for educational underperformance and failure at school (Hall, 2007; Love, 2009). Although lack of education or low levels of education on the part of a head of…

  16. Employability and Higher Education: Contextualising Female Students' Workplace Experiences to Enhance Understanding of Employability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Current political and economic discourses position employability as a responsibility of higher education, which deploys mechanisms such as supervised work experience (SWE) to embed employability skills development into the undergraduate curriculum. However, workplaces are socially constructed complex arenas of embodied knowledge that are gendered.…

  17. Enhancing Intercultural Understanding for Pre-Service Teachers through Developing and Sustaining Education Abroad Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan S.; Moss, David M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses two education abroad programs that afford pre-service teachers with purposeful opportunities to enhance their intercultural competence through immersion in teaching internships in British schools. The programs, in London and Nottingham, provide pre-service teachers with direct experiences that engage them with diverse…

  18. Picturing Leisure: Using Photovoice to Understand the Experience of Leisure and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoe, M. Rebecca; Dupuis, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Interviews and participant observation are commonly used to explore the experience of dementia, yet may not adequately capture perspectives of persons with dementia as communication changes. We used photovoice (i.e., using cameras in qualitative research) along with interviews and participant observation to explore meanings of leisure for persons…

  19. Experimental Approaches to Understanding Surficial Processes on Mars: The Stony Brook Experience 2000-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, S. M.; Dehouck, E.; Hurowitz, J.; Lindsley, D. H.; Schoonen, M. A.; Tosca, N. J.; Zhao, Y. Y. S.

    2016-12-01

    Starting with Pathfinder and Global Surveyor, recent missions to Mars have provided great opportunity for low-temperature experimental geochemistry investigations of the Martian sedimentary record by providing geochemical and mineralogical data that can be used as meaningful tests for experiments. These missions have documented a long-lived, complex and dynamic sedimentary rock cycle, including "source-to-sink" sedimentary systems and global paleoenvironmental transitions through time. We designed and constructed an experimental facility, beginning in 2000, specifically to evaluate surficial processes on Mars. Our experimental philosophy has been to (1) keep apparatus simple and flexible, and if feasible maintain sample access during experiments; (2) use starting materials (minerals, rocks) close to known Mars compositions (often requiring synthesis); (3) address sedimentary processes supported by geological investigations at Mars; (4) begin with experiments at standard conditions so they are best supported by thermodynamics; (5) support experiments with thermodynamic-kinetic-mass balance modeling in both design and interpretation, and by high quality chemical, mineralogical and textural lab analyses; (6) interpret results in the context of measurements made at Mars. Although eliciting much comment in proposal and manuscript reviews, we have not attempted to slavishly maintain "Mars conditions", doing so only to the degree required by variables being tested in any given experiments. Among the problems we have addressed are (1) Amazonian alteration of rock surfaces; (2) Noachian-Hesperian chemical weathering; (3) epithermal alteration of `evolved' igneous rocks; (4) mineral surface chemical reactivity from aeolian abrasion; (5) evaporation of mafic brines; (6) early diagenesis of sedimentary iron mineralogy; (7) trace element and halogen behavior during chemical weathering and diagenesis; (8) photochemical influences on halogen distribution and speciation; (9) post

  20. Understanding Statin Non-Adherence: Knowing Which Perceptions and Experiences Matter to Different Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Wouters

    Full Text Available Non-adherence to statins is substantial and is associated with numerous perceptions and experiences. However, time limits in clinical practice constrain in depth explorations of these perceptions and experiences.To propose and examine a strategy aimed at an efficient assessment of a wide array of perceptions and experiences regarding the efficacy, side effects, and practical problems of statins. Furthermore, to assess associations between this wide array of experiences and perceptions and non-adherence and to examine whether patients' 'perceived self-efficacy' moderated these associations.Patients were recruited through community pharmacies. A wide array of specific patient perceptions and experiences was efficiently assessed using the electronic Tailored Medicine Inventory that allows people to skip irrelevant questions. Adherence was measured through self-report and pharmacy refill data.Of the two-hundred twenty-nine patients who participated (mean age 63.9, standard deviation 10.2, 40%-70% doubted the necessity of or lacked knowledge about the efficacy of statins, 20%-35% of the patients were worried about joint and muscle side effects or had experienced these, and 23% had encountered practical problems regarding information about statins, intake of tablets, the package, or the blister. Experiencing more practical problems was associated with increased unintentional non-adherence (Odds ratio 1.54, 95%CI:1.13-2.10, P < 0.01, whereas worrying about side effects was associated with increased intentional non-adherence (Odds ratio 1.90, 95%CI:1.17-3.08, P < 0.01. Higher 'perceived self-efficacy' did not moderate these associations.Insight into patients' specific barriers with regard to appropriate statin use may reveal personal reasons for being non-adherent. The Tailored Medicine Inventory is a promising tool to devise individualized intervention strategies aimed at improving adherence by the clinician-patient alliance.

  1. Understanding Statin Non-Adherence: Knowing Which Perceptions and Experiences Matter to Different Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hans; Van Dijk, Liset; Geers, Harm C J; Winters, Nina A; Van Geffen, Erica C G; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2016-01-01

    Non-adherence to statins is substantial and is associated with numerous perceptions and experiences. However, time limits in clinical practice constrain in depth explorations of these perceptions and experiences. To propose and examine a strategy aimed at an efficient assessment of a wide array of perceptions and experiences regarding the efficacy, side effects, and practical problems of statins. Furthermore, to assess associations between this wide array of experiences and perceptions and non-adherence and to examine whether patients' 'perceived self-efficacy' moderated these associations. Patients were recruited through community pharmacies. A wide array of specific patient perceptions and experiences was efficiently assessed using the electronic Tailored Medicine Inventory that allows people to skip irrelevant questions. Adherence was measured through self-report and pharmacy refill data. Of the two-hundred twenty-nine patients who participated (mean age 63.9, standard deviation 10.2), 40%-70% doubted the necessity of or lacked knowledge about the efficacy of statins, 20%-35% of the patients were worried about joint and muscle side effects or had experienced these, and 23% had encountered practical problems regarding information about statins, intake of tablets, the package, or the blister. Experiencing more practical problems was associated with increased unintentional non-adherence (Odds ratio 1.54, 95%CI:1.13-2.10, P non-adherence (Odds ratio 1.90, 95%CI:1.17-3.08, P patients' specific barriers with regard to appropriate statin use may reveal personal reasons for being non-adherent. The Tailored Medicine Inventory is a promising tool to devise individualized intervention strategies aimed at improving adherence by the clinician-patient alliance.

  2. Psychologist Retention Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RETENTION(PSYCHOLOGY), *JOB SATISFACTION, *ALL VOLUNTEER, MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND CONTROL, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), DEMOGRAPHY, ATTRITION, SURVEYS, QUESTIONNAIRES, PERCEPTION (PSYCHOLOGY), PSYCHOLOGISTS .

  3. Colloid retention mechanisms in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S N; Dickson, S E; Qu, J

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of fractured aquifers is commonly limited to the methodologies developed for unconsolidated porous media aquifers, which results in many uncertainties. Recent work indicates that fractured rocks remove more particulates than they are conventionally credited for. This research was designed to quantify the number of Escherichia coli RS2-GFP retained in single, saturated, variable-aperture fractures extracted from the natural environment. Conservative solute and E. coli RS2-GFP tracer experiments were used to elucidate the relationships between dominant retention mechanisms, aperture field characteristics, and flow rate. A non-destructive method of determining a surrogate measure of a coefficient of variation (COV(S)) for each fracture was used to better understand the transport behaviour of E. coli RS2-GFP. The results from this research all point to the importance of aperture field characterization in understanding the fate and transport of contaminants in fractured aquifers. The mean aperture was a very important characteristic in determining particulate recovery, so were matrix properties, COV(s), and flow rate. It was also determined that attachment is a much more significant retention mechanism than straining under the conditions employed in this research. Finally, it was demonstrated that the dominant retention mechanism in a fracture varies depending on the specific discharge. An improved understanding of the mechanisms that influence the fate and transport of contaminants through fractures will lead to the development of better tools and methodologies for the characterization of fractured aquifers, as well as the ability to manipulate the relevant mechanisms to increase or decrease retention, depending on the application.

  4. The Value of Understanding Students’ Prior Writing Experience in Teaching Undergraduate Science Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumani Clarke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How should undergraduate science students’ writing be understood when it does not meet the conventions of scientific writing? Studies have shown that the writing that students produce in their course work on tasks that imitate authentic scientific writing practices often do not match the tone, vocabulary and grammatical choices made by professional scientists. However, from the perspective of looking at the students’ word and grammar choices alone, it is not easy to understand why students make their particular and varied word and grammar choices and how those choices can be related to their understanding of the goals and discourses that are typical of science practices. Studying the writing of four first year earth and geographical sciences students on a science faculty’s alternative access program, from an assignment in a course that introduced them to the research article, it seems that the students persist with the social purposes of their various school writing practices in attempting their new university writing tasks. It is this variety in the social purposes of the writing that the students continue to draw on in university that can explain some of the ways in which student writing does not meet even the broadest writing conventions of the discourses of science. Yet it seems that some of the social purposes and the related writing practices of some students can help them transition their writing more easily into a form that has the usual characteristics of a typical science genre. Therefore, understanding the social purposes that students bring with them can be crucial to successfully introducing them to the discourses of science and showing them how the social purposes of scientific practice can be served in a genre such as the research article. 

  5. Mapping the urban asthma experience: Using qualitative GIS to understand contextual factors affecting asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddem, Shimrit; Barg, Frances K; Glanz, Karen; Jackson, Tara; Green, Sarah; George, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Asthma is complex and connected to a number of factors including access to healthcare, crime and violence, and environmental triggers. A mixed method approach was used to examine the experiences of urban people with asthma in controlling their asthma symptoms. The study started with an initial phase of qualitative interviews in West Philadelphia, a primarily poor African American community. Data from qualitative, semi-structured interviews indicated that stress, environmental irritants, and environmental allergens were the most salient triggers of asthma. Based on the interviews, the team identified six neighborhood factors to map including crime, housing vacancy, illegal dumping, tree canopy and parks. These map layers were combined into a final composite map. These combined methodologies contextualized respondents' perceptions in the framework of the actual community and built environment which tells a more complete story about their experience with asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Living through a volcanic eruption: Understanding the experience of survivors as a phenomenological existential phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Mount Merapi in Indonesia is the most active volcano in the world with its 4-6-year eruption cycle. The mountain and surrounding areas are populated by hundreds of thousands of people who live near the volcano despite the danger posed to their wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of people who survived the most recent eruption of Mount Merapi, which took place in 2010. Investigators conducted interviews with 20 participants to generate textual data that were coded and themed. Three themes linked to the phenomenological existential experience (temporality and relationality) of living through a volcanic eruption emerged from the data. These themes were: connectivity, disconnection and reconnection. Results indicate that the close relationship individuals have with Mount Merapi and others in their neighbourhood outweighs the risk of living in the shadow of an active volcano. This is the first study to analyze the phenomenological existential elements of living through a volcanic eruption.

  7. Ups and downs of the expatriate experience? Understanding work adjustment trajectories and career outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Wanberg, Connie R; Harrison, David A; Diehn, Erica W

    2016-04-01

    We examine changes in work adjustment among 179 expatriates from 3 multinational organizations from predeparture through the first 9 months of a new international assignment. Our 10-wave results challenge classic U-shaped theories of expatriate adjustment (e.g., Torbiorn, 1982). Consistent with uncertainty reduction theory, our results instead suggest that expatriates typically experience a gradual increase in work adjustment over time. Two resources that expatriates bring to their assignments (previous culture-specific work experience and core self-evaluations) moderate the trajectory of work adjustment. Trajectory of adjustment predicts Month 9 career instrumentality and turnover intention, as well as career advancement (job promotion) 1.5 years further. Implications for theory, as well as for changes in expatriate management practices, are discussed.

  8. Experimenting with semantic web services to understand the role of NLP technologies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, V

    2006-01-01

    NLP technologies can play a significant role in healthcare where a predominant segment of the clinical documentation is in text form. In a graduate course focused on understanding semantic web services at West Virginia University, a class project was designed with the purpose of exploring potential use for NLP-based abstraction of clinical documentation. The role of NLP-technology was simulated using human abstractors and various workflows were investigated using public domain workflow and semantic web service technologies. This poster explores the potential use of NLP and the role of workflow and semantic web technologies in developing healthcare IT environments.

  9. Pakistani mothers’ and fathers’ experiences and understandings of the diagnosis of Down syndrome for their child

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Kiran Jan; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Jafri, Hussain S; Raashid, Yasmin; Ahmed, Shenaz

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a relatively common chromosomal condition, which can be diagnosed prenatally. However, little is known about the diagnosis of the condition in developing countries. This qualitative study explored parents’ experiences of the diagnosis of DS in Pakistan. Fifteen mothers and fifteen fathers of children with DS had semi-structured interviews, which were analysed using thematic analysis. All the parents received their child’s diagnosis after birth, ranging from the postnatal...

  10. Post operative pain experiences of central Australian aboriginal women. What do we understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Clare; Stevens, John

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the postoperative pain experiences of Central Australian Aboriginal women and the subsequent interpretation of that pain experience by non-Aboriginal female nurses. Qualitative study using grounded theory methodology. Postoperative surgical setting of a Central Australian regional hospital. Five Aboriginal female clients who had undergone a surgical procedure, eight non-Aboriginal female nurses and four Aboriginal female health workers employed by a Central Australian regional hospital. Aboriginal women have culturally appropriate ways of expressing and managing pain that are not well understood by non-Aboriginal female nurses. In addition, the Aboriginal women inappropriately endow non-Aboriginal nurses with the same powers and skills expected of healers from their culture. This phenomenon resulted in the non-Aboriginal nurses lacking the cultural insight and the appropriate knowledge and tools required to assess and manage the postoperative pain of Central Australian Aboriginal women effectively or efficiently. Non-Aboriginal nurses have a profound knowledge deficit about the postoperative pain experiences of Central Australian Aboriginal women. This deficit is evident through the use of culturally inappropriate and unreliable pain assessment strategies and tools and the misinterpretation of traditional pain relief strategies, such as the use of pituri, rubbing and centreing. The findings of this study suggested that nurse/client interactions related to language and role interpretation were in cultural conflict. The nurses expected the Aboriginal women to adopt pain behaviours as understood from the nurses' culture. The nurses anticipated that the client would contribute to their own care by communicating pain experiences in ways that are familiar and are believed to be universal. The Aboriginal women expected the nurses to conduct business similar to that of their own traditional tribal healers, 'to see within' and to 'just

  11. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    processes in the soil have been modelled with simulation model SWAP. The experiment started in 2010 and is ongoing. Data, collected so far show that the plots with controlled drainage (all compared with plots equipped with conventional drainage) conserve more rain water (higher groundwater tables in early spring), lower discharges under average weather conditions and storm events, reduce N-loads and saline seepage to surface waters, enhance denitrification, show a different 'first flush' effect and show similar crop yields. The results of the experiments will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of controlled drainage on complex hydrological en geochemical processes in agricultural clay soils, the interaction between ground- en surface water and its effects on drain water quantity, quality and crop yield.

  12. Practical web analytics for user experience how analytics can help you understand your users

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Practical Web Analytics for User Experience teaches you how to use web analytics to help answer the complicated questions facing UX professionals. Within this book, you'll find a quantitative approach for measuring a website's effectiveness and the methods for posing and answering specific questions about how users navigate a website. The book is organized according to the concerns UX practitioners face. Chapters are devoted to traffic, clickpath, and content use analysis, measuring the effectiveness of design changes, including A/B testing, building user profiles based on search hab

  13. Understanding the patient experience through the power of film: A mixed method qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri; Baume, Kath; Clarke, Chris; Heng, Simon

    2016-11-01

    For decades film has proved to be a powerful form of communication. Whether produced as entertainment, art or documentary, films have the capacity to inform and move us. Films are a highly attractive teaching instrument and an appropriate teaching method in health education. It is a valuable tool for studying situations most transcendental to human beings such as pain, disease and death. The objectives were to determine how this helps students engage with their role as health care professionals; to determine how they view the personal experience of illness, disease, disability or death; and to determine how this may impact upon their provision of patient care. The project was underpinned by the film selection determined by considerate review, intensive scrutiny, contemplation and discourse by the research team. 7 films were selected, ranging from animation; foreign, documentary, biopic and Hollywood drama. Each film was shown discretely, in an acoustic lecture theatre projected onto a large screen to pre-registration student nurses (adult, child and mental health) across each year of study from different cohorts (n=49). A mixed qualitative method approach consisted of audio-recorded 5-minute reactions post film screening; coded questionnaires; and focus group. Findings were drawn from the impact of the films through thematic analysis of data sets and subjective text condensation categorised as: new insights looking through patient eyes; evoking emotion in student nurses; spiritual care; going to the moves to learn about the patient experience; self discovery through films; using films to link theory to practice. Deeper learning through film as a powerful medium was identified in meeting the objectives of the study. Integration of film into pre registration curriculum, pedagogy, teaching and learning is recommended. The teaching potential of film stems from the visual process linked to human emotion and experience. Its impact has the power to not only help in

  14. Understanding the life experience of people on hemodialysis: adherence to treatment and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Guerrerro, Verónica; Plazas, Maria del Pilar Camargo; Cameron, Brenda L; Salas, Anna Valeria Santos; González, Carmen Gloria Cofre

    2014-01-01

    This hermeneutic-phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of patients on hemodialysis in regard to the adherence to treatment and quality of life. Fifteen patients were interviewed, including six women and nine men from three dialysis centers in Chile. Two main themes derived from the analysis: 1) embracing the disease and dialysis, and 2) preventing progression of the disease through treatment management. The findings suggest that patients recognize adherence to treatment and quality of life as conditions that derive from self-care and environmental conditions, which the healthcare provider must constantly assess for care planning to improve the adherence and quality of life in this population.

  15. Interactive tutorial to improve student understanding of single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-03-01

    We have developed and evaluated a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary quantum optics applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations in quantum optics and explore the differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about counter-intuitive quantum optics phenomena with single photons including a quantum eraser setup and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We discuss findings from in-class evaluations.

  16. Interactive tutorial to improve student understanding of single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Marshman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and evaluated a Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT) on a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with single photons to expose upper-level students in quantum mechanics courses to contemporary quantum optics applications. The QuILT strives to help students develop the ability to apply fundamental quantum principles to physical situations in quantum optics and explore the differences between classical and quantum ideas. The QuILT adapts visualization tools to help students build physical intuition about counter-intuitive quantum optics phenomena with single photons including a quantum eraser setup and focuses on helping them integrate qualitative and quantitative understanding. We discuss findings from in-class evaluations.

  17. The role of social marketing in understanding access to primary health care services: perceptions and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Fevzi; Healey, Bernard J

    2004-01-01

    Using the concept of social marketing, this study examined the determinants of access to primary health care services in order to better understand the perceived access problems and unmet service needs of an entire city in Northeastern Pennsylvania. Consistent with previous research, lack of access to health insurance coverage represents an important financial barrier to access to health care services in this community. This study also highlights the role of perceived need in explaining the presence or absence of a physician consultation.While increased attention to access issues at the national level is important, there also needs to be more emphasis on collecting local data for local decision-making regarding access issues.

  18. From necessity to sufficiency in memory research: when sleep helps to understand wake experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Marie Masako; De Lavilléon, Gaetan; Benchenane, Karim

    2015-12-01

    Memory is the ability to adapt our behavior by using the stored information, previously encoded. The first investigations of the neuronal bases of the memory trace concerned its properties (location, cellular and molecular mechanisms, among others). However, to understand how this is achieved at the scale of neurons, we must provide evidence about the necessity of a neuronal subpopulation to support the memory trace, but also its sufficiency. Here, we will present past and recent studies that provide information about the neuronal nature of memories. We will show that research on sleep, when cells assembly supposedly carrying information from the past are replayed, could also provide valuable information about the memory processes at stake during wake.

  19. Bringing first-hand experience one step closer to theoretical understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Myers, Mike; Luo's lab Team

    2016-11-01

    Many theoretical concepts and analytical approaches in fluid mechanics are challenging to teach. Classroom demos are very useful to engage and motivate students, but they do not necessarily lead straightforwardly to higher level understanding of model abstraction that is expressed with mathematical equations. To facilitate the process, we have designed a few demos and integrated them with quantitative measurements and theoretical analysis. These demos, usually generated from daily life examples, are of low cost and simple to implement, and the experimental procedures do not take significant time in a 50-min lecture. When combining them with classroom interactions, problem solving, and discussions, we found that these modules are effective in helping students in the learning process. Supported by the NSF.

  20. The death of a young son in violent circumstance: understanding the experience of the mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcão, Ana Carolina Jacinto; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the life of a mother who lost their child in violent circumstances. The methodological proceedings were supported on phenomenology. The study population was constituted by five mothers who had lost its young children for homicide. These homicides occurred different times ranging from 50 days to 10 years. I used as instrument of collection of data open interview the phenomenological method guided by a orienting question. The analysis phenomenology in their discourses showed the comprehension of essential meanings which were systematized in categories: the child's mummification in the memory; the two ways followed by the publicity concerning the death; fondness to spirituality to endure the pain from the child's death; maternal complicity and impunity. The results of this study can contribute to elaboration of intervention proposals close to the mothers in the sense of helping them in the reorganization of their lives after son's death.

  1. Similarities and mutual understanding: exchange experiences in Malawi for host and guest students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, L; Munkhondya, B; Myhre, K

    2009-12-01

    A Malawian nursing college and a Norwegian university college have agreed to cooperate in facilitating clinical exchanges for nursing students at their respective institutions. This study describes the experiences of students in an innovative exchange. Norwegian and Malawian nursing students shared clinical placement in pairs of two in Malawi for 8 weeks. This study shows that both host and guest students benefit from the clinical placement as it enhances development of clinical competence. The design of the study is phenomenological/hermeneutical. The theoretical foundation is based upon Campinha-Bacote's model for the development of cultural competence. All participating nursing students were interviewed. Their stories provided the rationale for the three main categories that are discussed. Students experience both similarities and differences in practice, but similarities are regarded as the stronger impression. Learning relational skills is the primary learning outcome, but learning how to nurse patients is also an important outcome. During the exchange period all students developed cultural competence. This way of organizing shared placements for guest and host students from different countries is valuable for all students. It also met the curricular demands in both countries.

  2. A Survey Study of Pre-Professionals' Understanding of the Canadian Music Therapy Internship Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Cortes, Amy

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research to date on the clinical music therapy internship experience from the perspective of the pre-professional. Further study is required to advance this significant stage in clinician development, as it is an intense period when pre-professionals apply and integrate theoretical knowledge about music therapy into their clinical practice. This study aimed to: (1) assess the skills, competence, comfort, concerns, issues, challenges, and anxieties of Canadian undergraduate students at two stages in the internship process (pre- and post-internship); and (2) examine whether these perceptions are consistent with published research on internship. Thirty-five pre-professionals, from a pool of 50 eligible respondents (70% response rate), completed a 57-question survey using a five-point Likert scale ranking pre- and post-internship experience and participated in an interview post-study. Survey results indicate a statistically significant increase in pre-professionals' perceived clinical, music, and personal skill development from pre- to post-internship. Areas of desired skill development included counseling, functional guitar, and clinical improvisation. Recommendations for educators and supervisors are provided with respect to areas of focus in undergraduate education and during clinical internship. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration.

  4. Understanding the Influence of Environment on Adults’ Walking Experiences: A Meta-Synthesis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadpour, Sara; Pakzad, Jahanshah; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    The environment has an important impact on physical activity, especially walking. The relationship between the environment and walking is not the same as for other types of physical activity. This study seeks to comprehensively identify the environmental factors influencing walking and to show how those environmental factors impact on walking using the experiences of adults between the ages of 18 and 65. The current study is a meta-synthesis based on a systematic review. Seven databases of related disciplines were searched, including health, transportation, physical activity, architecture, and interdisciplinary databases. In addition to the databases, two journals were searched. Of the 11,777 papers identified, 10 met the eligibility criteria and quality for selection. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis of the results. The four themes identified as influencing walking were “safety and security”, “environmental aesthetics”, “social relations”, and “convenience and efficiency”. “Convenience and efficiency” and “environmental aesthetics” could enhance the impact of “social relations” on walking in some aspects. In addition, “environmental aesthetics” and “social relations” could hinder the influence of “convenience and efficiency” on walking in some aspects. Given the results of the study, strategies are proposed to enhance the walking experience. PMID:27447660

  5. Understanding First Generation College Student Experiences and Interaction with Belongingness, Identity, and Social Capital: An Explanatory Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Hank Joseph Reyes

    This master's thesis is a mixed method explanatory study focusing on First Generation College student's (FGS) engineering degree experiences. Constructs used to understand their experiences were future time perspective, belongingness, engineering identity, social capital, and social identity complexity. An upper level engineering students' communications class was surveyed at a western land grant institution. Analysis showed FGS had more engineering belongingness than peers having at least one parent graduate college. The qualitative population was then upper level engineering FGS who reported high belongingness. Data showed the five interview participants communicated belongingness in terms of engineering identity. They became an engineer when they had experiences using engineering knowledge. Participants often accessed parents and family to make academic and career decisions, but some accessed more individuals (i.e. professors, engineers, peers). Lastly, participants appeared to compartmentalize their FGS identity to outside the engineering classroom while they formed their engineering identity through the degree program.

  6. Qualitatively Understanding Patients' and Health Professionals' Experiences of the BRECONDA Breast Reconstruction Decision Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, Kerry A; Shaw, Laura-Kate; Jørgensen, Lone

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women diagnosed with breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and those with a genetic susceptibility to developing this disease, face the challenging decision of whether or not to undergo breast reconstruction following mastectomy. As part of a large randomized controlled trial......, this qualitative study examined women's experiences of using the Breast RECONstruction Decision Aid (BRECONDA), and health professionals' feedback regarding the impact of this resource on patients' knowledge and decision-making about breast reconstruction. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted...... with women who accessed the BRECONDA intervention (N = 36), and with their healthcare providers (N = 6). All interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis by three independent coders. RESULTS: Participants reported an overall positive impression, with all interviewees endorsing...

  7. Inside the Belly of the Penal Beast: Understanding the Experience of Imprisonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Crewe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the striking characteristics of much ‘big picture’ penal scholarship is that it stops at the gates of the prison, or breaches its surface somewhat barely or briefly. This article proposes that such work could be advanced and made more compelling if its insights were married with – and modified through – those provided by empirical and ethnographic analyses of the practice and experience of penal power. It then sets out a framework which would enable this form of engagement and analysis, first providing an account of the development of the main components of the framework, before elaborating in more detail how its constituent parts – depth, weight, tightness, and breadth – might be conceptualised. It concludes by offering some reflections on the practical implications of this agenda for prison researchers.

  8. Understanding Hong Kong Chinese Families' Experiences of an Autism/ASD Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Kathleen; Fung, Francis; Hu, Aihua; Sweller, Naomi; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the experience of Chinese parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) living in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Seventy-five parents of children (aged 6 months-18 years) with ASD diagnoses completed the Family Quality of Life Scale. Forty-five parents from the original surveyed cohort, also participated in semi-structured interviews. Parents' perceptions of their child's disability were influenced both by their cultural background and by the limited and expensive, pre- and post-diagnostic services available. Longer waiting times to diagnosis were associated with lower emotional well-being and perceived disability-related support. Clinicians are encouraged to become part of the support network for parents of children with ASD, to help parents to adjust to caring for their child.

  9. Understanding patient experiences with scarring alopecia: a qualitative study with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Alessandra; Aguh, Crystal; Okoye, Ginette A

    2017-06-01

    Alopecia can have a significant negative impact on patient's lives. The objective of this study is to describe some of the emotional and psychological challenges that affect women with scarring alopecia (SA). A qualitative study design was used with open-ended, individual interviews with 10 women with biopsy-proven SA. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti analysis software. Four overarching major themes (with several subthemes) emerged including the following: the negative emotional impact of SA, difficulties with concealing hair loss, negative experiences with diagnosis/management, and the importance of support from others. Patients reported that many of these issues were under-emphasized during doctor visits. Analysis of patient responses indicated that patients with SA contend with significant emotional and psychological sequelae of their diagnosis.

  10. Understanding Pediatric Dentists' Dental Caries Management Treatment Decisions: A Conjoint Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateeb, E T; Warren, J J; Gaeth, G J; Momany, E T; Damiano, P C

    2016-04-01

    When traditional ranking and rating surveys are used to assess dentists' treatment decisions, the patient's source of payment appears to be of little importance. Therefore, this study used the marketing research tool conjoint analysis to investigate the relative impact of source of payment along with the child's age and cooperativeness on pediatric dentists' willingness to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) to restore posterior primary teeth. A conjoint survey was completed by 707 pediatric dentists. Three factors (age of the child, cooperativeness, type of insurance) were varied across 3 levels to create 9 patient scenarios. The relative weights that dentists placed on these factors in the restorative treatment decision process were determined by conjoint analysis. "Cooperativeness" (52%) was the most important factor, "age of the child" (26%) the second-most important factor, followed by "insurance status of the child" (22%). For the third factor, insurance, pediatric dentists were least willing to use ART with publicly insured children (-0.082), and this was significantly different from their willingness to use ART with uninsured children (0.010) but not significantly different than their willingness to use ART for children with private insurance (0.073). Unlike traditional ranking and rating tools, conjoint analysis found that the insurance status of the patient appeared to be an important factor in dentists' decisions about different restorative treatment options. When pediatric dentists were forced to make tradeoffs among different patients' factors, they were most willing to use ART technique with young, uncooperative patients when they had no insurance. Knowledge Transfer Statement: The present study suggests the feasibility of using techniques borrowed from marketing research, such as conjoint analysis, to understand dentists' restorative treatment decisions. Results of this study demonstrate pediatric dentists' willingness to use a particular

  11. Understanding the experiences and quality of life issues of Bahraini women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Ghufran A; Whitford, David L

    2014-04-01

    We explored the experiences of Bahraini women who have survived breast cancer and their perception of quality of life after diagnosis. We conducted in depth, semi-structured face-to-face interviews with twelve women diagnosed with breast cancer. A qualitative method using semi-structured interviews on a purposive sample of 12 Bahraini women with breast cancer was conducted. Similarities and differences in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts using a constant comparative approach. The themes identified were meaning of cancer and quality of life, spirituality and beliefs about causes of breast cancer, coping mechanisms, impact of illness and change in relationships. Quality of life was framed in terms of the ability to perform daily duties with emphasis on the physical component of quality of life. Themes that differed from previous western studies included a heavy emphasis on spiritual practices for comfort; the use of traditional clothing (hijab and abaya) to hide hair and body changes; the important role played by the family and husband in treatment decisions and concerns regarding satisfying the sexual needs of the husband, which were related to a fear of losing the husband to a second wife. Evil eye, stress and God's punishment were believed to be fundamental causes of the disease. The emotional shock of the initial diagnosis, concerns about whether to reveal the diagnosis and a desire to live a normal life were consistent with previous studies. However, cultural and religious issues such as role of the husband and impact of prayers were also important here. These themes are important to healthcare professionals for ensuring an individualized approach to the treatment of women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retention in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C D; Littlewood, S J

    2015-02-16

    Retention is necessary following orthodontic treatment to prevent relapse of the final occlusal outcome. Relapse can occur as a result of forces from the periodontal fibres around the teeth which tend to pull the teeth back towards their pre-treatment positions, and also from deflecting occlusal contacts if the final occlusion is less than ideal. Age changes, in the form of ongoing dentofacial growth, as well as changes in the surrounding soft tissues, can also affect the stability of the orthodontic outcome. It is therefore essential that orthodontists, patients and their general dental practitioners understand the importance of wearing retainers after orthodontic treatment. This article will update the reader on the different types of removable and fixed retainers, including their indications, duration of wear, and how they should be managed in order to minimise any unwanted effects on oral health and orthodontic outcomes. The key roles that the general dental practitioner can play in supporting their patients wearing orthodontic retainers are also emphasised.

  13. Do Signers Understand Regional Varieties of a Sign Language? A Lexical Recognition Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Rose

    2016-01-01

    The degree of mutual intelligibility of British Sign Language (BSL) regional varieties has been a subject of some debate. Recent research in which dyads of signers from contrasting regional backgrounds engaged in a conversational task showed no problems understanding one another. The present study investigated signers' knowledge of different BSL regional varieties. Twenty-five participants from Belfast, Glasgow, Manchester, and Newcastle took part in a computer-based lexical recognition task in which they had to identify the meaning of 47 color signs from various regions in the United Kingdom. The results indicate that overall signers have a poor knowledge of regional signs for colors when signs are presented in isolation and without mouthing. Furthermore, signers with deaf parents performed better in the recognition task than signers with hearing parents and varieties from London and Birmingham were easiest to recognize. This article discusses how signers cope with regional differences and considers the features that facilitate in the recognition of regional varieties in BSL.

  14. Understanding the mixing process in 3D microfluidic nozzle/diffuser systems: simulations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Abdeljalil; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2016-11-01

    We characterise computationally and experimentally a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic passive mixer for various Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 100, corresponding to primary flow rates of 10-870 µl min-1. The 3D mixing channel is composed of multiple curved segments: circular arcs situated in the substrate plane and curved nozzle/diffuser elements normal to the substrate plane. Numerical simulation provides a detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism resulting from the geometrical topology of the mixer. These Comsol software-based simulations reveal the development of two secondary flows perpendicular to the primary flow: a swirling flow resulting from tangential injection of the flow into the nozzle holes and Dean vortices present in the circular arcs. These phenomena are particularly important at a Reynolds number larger than 30, where mixing occurs by chaotic advection. Experimentally, the 3D mixer is fabricated in a monolithic glass substrate by powder blasting machining, exploiting eroding powder beams at various angles of impact with respect to the substrate plane. Experimental mixing was characterised using two coloured dyes, showing nearly perfect mixing for a microfluidic footprint of the order of a few mm2, in good agreement with the simulations.

  15. Complex emotions, complex problems: understanding the experiences of perinatal depression among new mothers in urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andajani-Sutjahjo, Sari; Manderson, Lenore; Astbury, Jill

    2007-03-01

    In this article, we explore how Javanese women identify and speak of symptoms of depression in late pregnancy and early postpartum and describe their subjective accounts of mood disorders. The study, conducted in the East Java region of Indonesia in 2000, involved in-depth interviews with a subgroup of women (N = 41) who scored above the cutoff score of 12/13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during pregnancy, at six weeks postpartum, or on both occasions. This sample was taken from a larger cohort study (N cohort = 488) researching the sociocultural factors that contribute to women's emotional well-being in early motherhood. The women used a variety of Indonesian and Javanese terms to explain their emotional states during pregnancy and in early postpartum, some of which coincided with the feelings described on the EPDS and others of which did not. Women attributed their mood variations to multiple causes including: premarital pregnancy, chronic illness in the family, marital problems, lack of support from partners or family networks, their husband's unemployment, and insufficient family income due to giving up their own paid work. We argue for the importance of understanding the context of childbearing in order to interpret the meaning of depression within complex social, cultural, and economic contexts.

  16. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method.

  17. Understanding Crew Decision-Making in the Presence of Complexity: A Flight Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Evans, Emory; deHaag, Maarten Uijt; Duan, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Crew decision making and response have long been leading causal and contributing factors associated with aircraft accidents. Further, it is anticipated that future aircraft and operational environments will increase exposure to risks related to these factors if proactive steps are not taken to account for ever-increasing complexity. A flight simulation study was designed to collect data to help in understanding how complexity can, or may, be manifest. More specifically, an experimental apparatus was constructed that allowed for manipulation of information complexity and uncertainty, while also manipulating operational complexity and uncertainty. Through these manipulations, and the aid of experienced airline pilots, several issues have been discovered, related most prominently to the influence of information content, quality, and management. Flight crews were immersed in an environment that included new operational complexities suggested for the future air transportation system as well as new technological complexities (e.g. electronic flight bags, expanded data link services, synthetic and enhanced vision systems, and interval management automation). In addition, a set of off-nominal situations were emulated. These included, for example, adverse weather conditions, traffic deviations, equipment failures, poor data quality, communication errors, and unexpected clearances, or changes to flight plans. Each situation was based on one or more reference events from past accidents or incidents, or on a similar case that had been used in previous developmental tests or studies. Over the course of the study, 10 twopilot airline crews participated, completing over 230 flights. Each flight consisted of an approach beginning at 10,000 ft. Based on the recorded data and pilot and research observations, preliminary results are presented regarding decision-making issues in the presence of the operational and technological complexities encountered during the flights.

  18. Quantum interactive learning tutorial on the double-slit experiment to improve student understanding of quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Sayer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning quantum mechanics is challenging, even for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. Research-validated interactive tutorials that build on students’ prior knowledge can be useful tools to enhance student learning. We have been investigating student difficulties with quantum mechanics pertaining to the double-slit experiment in various situations that appear to be counterintuitive and contradict classical notions of particles and waves. For example, if we send single electrons through the slits, they may behave as a “wave” in part of the experiment and as a “particle” in another part of the same experiment. Here we discuss the development and evaluation of a research-validated Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT which makes use of an interactive simulation to improve student understanding of the double-slit experiment and strives to help students develop a good grasp of foundational issues in quantum mechanics. We discuss common student difficulties identified during the development and evaluation of the QuILT and analyze the data from the pretest and post test administered to the upper-level undergraduate and first-year physics graduate students before and after they worked on the QuILT to assess its effectiveness. These data suggest that on average, the QuILT was effective in helping students develop a more robust understanding of foundational concepts in quantum mechanics that defy classical intuition using the context of the double-slit experiment. Moreover, upper-level undergraduates outperformed physics graduate students on the post test. One possible reason for this difference in performance may be the level of student engagement with the QuILT due to the grade incentive. In the undergraduate course, the post test was graded for correctness while in the graduate course, it was only graded for completeness.

  19. Understanding students visions about environmental global problems. Experience and lessons learned of teaching in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Siarova, Hanna; Misiūnė, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, environment is accepted to be an important element of our welfare. Our activities and societal status are strongly related with the quality of the environment where we live. On the other hand historical and cultural backgrounds shape importantly our views about the environment and how we act towards it in our daily life. In a context of globalization and increase of competition at international level, knowledge appears to be one of the key components for the advance of the word. Most of the knowledge produced comes from high level education institutions and research centres, which have responsibility to create and encourage critical thinking. Individuals aware of the problems can be more active and can push things forward. We think that environmental knowledge and awareness are fundamental for the future of the society. In order to develop better methodologies are developed if we have a better perception of students understanding of environmental problems. The objective of this work is to study the Lithuanian university level student's perception about some environmental challenges of our society. We selected several questions for the students rate according the relevance of the question, as "Air Pollution", "Waste Management", "Resources overexplotation", "Biodiversity reduction", "Human Overpopulation" "Poverty", "Global Warming/Climate change", Natural disasters", "Terrorism", "Economical crisis", "War and armed conflicts" and the "Spread of infectious diseases". We ask to the respondents to rate the importance using a likert scale (1=Not Important, 2= not so important, 3=important, 4=very important, 5=the most important). Among all the questions, the most rated where the Water pollution, the Spread of infectious diseases and Air Pollution and the less important where Biodiversity Reduction, Human overpopulation and climate change. These results helped us to identify where some efforts should be taken to raise student's awareness about global

  20. The existential dimension in general practice: identifying understandings and experiences of general practitioners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Søndergaard, Jens; Ammentorp, Jette; Bjerrum, Lars; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Olesen, Frede; Pedersen, Susanne S; Timm, Helle; Timmermann, Connie; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to identify points of agreement and disagreements among general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark concerning how the existential dimension is understood, and when and how it is integrated in the GP-patient encounter. A qualitative methodology with semi-structured focus group interviews was employed. General practice setting in Denmark. Thirty-one GPs from two Danish regions between 38 and 68 years of age participated in seven focus group interviews. Although understood to involve broad life conditions such as present and future being and identity, connectedness to a society and to other people, the existential dimension was primarily reported integrated in connection with life-threatening diseases and death. Furthermore, integration of the existential dimension was characterized as unsystematic and intuitive. Communication about religious or spiritual questions was mostly avoided by GPs due to shyness and perceived lack of expertise. GPs also reported infrequent referrals of patients to chaplains. GPs integrate issues related to the existential dimension in implicit and non-standardized ways and are hindered by cultural barriers. As a way to enhance a practice culture in which GPs pay more explicit attention to the patients' multidimensional concerns, opportunities for professional development could be offered (courses or seminars) that focus on mutual sharing of existential reflections, ideas and communication competencies. Key points Although integration of the existential dimension is recommended for patient care in general practice, little is known about GPs' understanding and integration of this dimension in the GP-patient encounter. The existential dimension is understood to involve broad and universal life conditions having no explicit reference to spiritual or religious aspects. The integration of the existential dimension is delimited to patient cases where life-threatening diseases, life crises and unexplainable patient

  1. Medical providers' understanding of sex trafficking and their experience with at-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Megan E; Lineer, Megan M; Melzer-Lange, Marlene; Simpson, Pippa; Nugent, Melodee; Rabbitt, Angela

    2015-04-01

    Sex trafficking (ST) victims have unique medical and mental health needs and are often difficult to identify. Our objectives were to evaluate knowledge gaps and training needs of medical providers, to demonstrate the importance of provider training to meet the pediatric ST victim's specific needs, and to highlight barriers to the identification of and response to victims. A survey was sent to providers in specialties that would be most likely to encounter victims of ST. Participants included physicians, nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient and family advocates at multiple hospitals and medical clinics in urban, suburban, and rural locations. Of ∼ 500 survey recipients, 168 participants responded. In 2 clinical vignettes, 48% correctly classified a minor as an ST victim, and 42% correctly distinguished an ST victim from a child abuse victim. In all, 63% of respondents said that they had never received training on how to identify ST victims. Those with training were more likely to report ST as a major problem locally (P ≤ .001), to have encountered a victim in their practice (P ≤ .001), and to have greater confidence in their ability to identify victims (P ≤ .001). The greatest barriers to identification of victims reported were a lack of training (34%) and awareness (22%) of ST. Health care providers demonstrate gaps in knowledge and awareness of ST, specifically of pediatric victims, that correlate with their limited experience and training. Training is crucial to improve identification of these victims and provide appropriate care for their specific needs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The temperature and ion energy dependence of deuterium retention in lithium films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Luxherta; Koel, Bruce E.; Skinner, Charles H.

    2016-10-01

    Lithium conditioning of plasma facing components in magnetic fusion devices has improved plasma performance and lowered hydrogen recycling. For applications of lithium in future high heat flux and long pulse duration machines it is important to understand and parameterize deuterium retention in lithium. This work presents surface science studies of deuterium retention in lithium films as a function of surface temperature, incident deuterium ion energy and flux. Initial experiments are performed on thin (3-30 ML) lithium films deposited on a single crystal molybdenum substrate to avoid effects due to grain boundaries, intrinsic defects and impurities. A monoenergetic and mass-filtered deuterium ion beam was generated in a differentially pumped Colutron ion gun. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the elemental composition and temperature programmed desorption was used to measure the deuterium retention under the different conditions. Support was provided through DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Allowing for Psychosis to be Approachable and Understandable as a Human Experience: A Role for the Humanities in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Bethany L; Hamm, Jay A; Fogley, Rebecca L; Buck, Kelly D; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry and related mental health fields, in particular psychotherapy, have a long history of close ties with the humanities. That bond has weakened, however, over the last few decades as medicalized views of mental health and treatment have emerged. In this paper, we explore the potential of the reintroduction of the humanities, specifically novels and related literary genre, into the supervision of student clinicians working with clients who have psychosis. We believe that incorporation of novels and related literary genre into supervision can lead to unique and deepened understanding of the experience of psychosis, and can create an opportunity for a working therapeutic alliance. The potential mechanisms that create these unique opportunities to understand psychopathology are explored, and considerations for the implications for treatment, training, and future research are presented.

  4. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P products and dairy farming.

  5. Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

    2010-05-01

    the outburst of landslide-dammed lakes) remains a challenge: • The knowledge about the onset of the process is often limited (bathymetry of the lakes, subsurface water, properties of dam (content of ice), type of dam breach, understanding of process chains and interactions). • The size of glacial lakes may change rapidly but continuously, and many lakes break out within a short time after their development. Continuous monitoring is therefore required to keep updated on the existing hazards. • Also the outburst of small glacial lakes may lead to significant debris floods or even debris flows if there is plenty of erodible material available. • The available modeling software packages are of limited suitability for lake outburst floods: e.g. software developed by the hydrological community is specialized to simulate (debris) floods with input hydrographs on moderately steep flow channels and with lower sediment loads. In contrast to this, programs for rapid mass movements are better suited on steeper slopes and sudden onset of the movement. The typical characteristics of GLOFs are in between and vary for different channel sections. In summary, the major bottlenecks remain in deriving realistic or worst case scenarios and predicting their magnitude and area of impact. This mainly concerns uncertainties in the dam break process, involved volumes, erosion rates, changing rheologies, and the limited capabilities of available software packages to simulate process interactions and transformations such as the development of a hyperconcentrated flow into a debris flow. In addition, many areas prone to lake outburst floods are located in developing countries with a limited scope of the threatened population for decision-making and limited resources for mitigation.

  6. Diffusive retention of atmospheric gases in chert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, E.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Schaller, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Throughout Earth's history, the volatile contents (N2, CO2, Ar) of both deep and shallow terrestrial reservoirs has been dynamic. Volatiles are important chemical constituents because they play a significant role in regulating Earth's climate, mediating the evolution of complex life, and controlling the properties of minerals and rocks. Estimating levels of atmospheric volatiles in the deep geological past requires interrogation of materials that have acquired and retained a chemical memory from that time. Cherts have the potential to trap atmospheric components during formation and later release those gases for analysis in the laboratory. However, cherts have been underexploited in this regard, partly because their ability to retain a record of volatile components has not been adequately evaluated. Before cherts can be reliably used as indicators of past levels of major atmospheric gases, it is crucial that we understand the diffusive retentiveness of these cryptocrystalline silica phases. As the first step toward quantifying the diffusivity and solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in chert, we have performed 1-atmosphere diffusive-uptake experiments at temperatures up to 450°C. Depth profiles of in-diffusing gases are measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to help us understand the molecular-scale transport of volatiles and thus the validity of using chert-bound volatiles to record information about Earth history. Data collected to date suggest that at least some cherts are ideal storage containers and can retain volatiles for a geologically long time. In addition to these diffusion experiments, preliminary online-crush fast-scan measurements using a quadrupole mass spectrometer indicate that atmospheric volatiles are released upon crushing various chert samples. By coupling such volatile-release measurements made by mass spectrometry with diffusion experiments, we are uniquely able to address the storage and fidelity of volatiles bound in crustal

  7. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  8. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  9. Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A.; Kim, Hyunjung

    2012-09-01

    Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1 μm) and microorganisms (coliphage φX174 and E. coli D21g) under various transient solution chemistry conditions, and 360 μm Ottawa sand that was subject to different levels of cleaning, namely, a salt cleaning procedure that removed clay particles, and a salt + acid cleaning procedure that removed clay and reduced microscopic heterogeneities due to metal oxides and surface roughness. Comparison of results from the salt and salt + acid treated sand indicated that microscopic heterogeneity was a major contributor to colloid retention hysteresis. The influence of this heterogeneity increased with IS and decreasing colloid/microbe size on salt treated sand. These trends were not consistent with calculated mean interaction energies (the secondary minima), but could be explained by the size of the electrostatic zone of influence (ZOI) near microscopic heterogeneities. In particular, the depth of local minima in the interaction energy has been predicted to increase with a decrease in the ZOI when the colloid size and/or the Debye length decreased (IS increased). The adhesive interaction was therefore largely irreversible for smaller sized 0.1 μm CML colloids, whereas it was reversible for larger 1.1 μm CML colloids. Similarly, the larger E. coli D21g exhibited greater reversibility in retention than φX174. However, direct comparison of CML colloids and microbes was not possible due to differences in size, shape, and surface properties. Retention and release behavior of CML colloids on salt + acid treated sand was much more consistent with mean interaction energies due to reduction in microscopic heterogeneities.

  10. All for one and one for all: understanding health professionals' experience in individual versus collaborative online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Heather; Telner, Deanna; Sparaggis-Agaliotis, Alexandra; Hanna, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) may facilitate continuing interprofessional education while overcoming barriers of time and place for busy health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences, advantages, and challenges of group versus individual online learning. Fifteen multidisciplinary health professionals participated in a 12-week online course on either diabetes or traumatic brain injury. This consisted of background e-modules and a longitudinal build-a-case exercise, done either individually or as a group. Focus group sessions exploring participants' experiences after course completion and at 4 months were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for recurring themes. Participant reflection homework and video-recorded group sessions were used for triangulation of results. Individual learners appreciated the flexibility and control, but experienced decreased motivation. Group learners appreciated the immediate feedback from their co-learners and felt social pressure to come to the weekly sessions prepared but expressed challenges in determining group goal-setting for the session. Both groups felt they learned about interprofessional roles; however, group learners described a richer learning experience and understanding of interprofessional roles through the online collaboration exercise. The intense resources necessary for interprofessional CSCL, including time, faculty development, and technological issues, are described. CSCL is a valuable educational strategy in online learning. While individual online learning may be better suited for short and simple educational interventions such as knowledge acquisition, CSCL seems to allow for richer and deeper learning in complex and interprofessional educational experiences. However, strategies, resources, and faculty development required to enhance CSCL need to be addressed carefully. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society

  11. When grief turns into love: understanding the experience of parents who have revived after losing a child due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Paula; Rivera, Maria Soledad; González, Rina

    2014-01-01

    A child's death caused by cancer generates a deep impact on his/her parents, who can be affected by serious health problems due to an impairment of their lifestyle. Notwithstanding their suffering, some parents manage to overcome it and discover a new meaning for their lives. The goal of this phenomenological study is to understand the lived experiences that help parents to revive after the death of their child due to cancer. The participants were fathers and mothers who believe that they have elaborated their mourning. Their lived experiences were collected in interviews they had previously agreed to give. The question that steered the interview was: "What is the experience you went through that helped you to revive after your child died due to cancer?" Data were analyzed using Streubert's method. Analyzing the interviews of the participants, 3 interweaved essences were detected: transition from surviving to reviving themselves; ascribing a sense and meaning to the life, agony, and death of a child; and helping other parents through one's own experience.

  12. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.

  13. Shadowing the wandering mind: how understanding the mind-wandering state can inform our appreciation of conscious experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mahiko; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The mind-wandering state illustrates two fundamental aspects of consciousness: its generative nature, which is reflected by the stimulus-independent content of thought that occurs when our minds wander; and metacognition, the unique capacity of the mind to reflect and understand itself. Self-generated thought, which allows us to consider people and events that are not present in the immediate environment, and metacognition, allowing us to introspect and report our inner experiences, are both essential to the scientific study of mind-wandering. Nevertheless, they also inevitably lead to specific issues that mirror more general problems in the field of consciousness research. The generative nature of consciousness makes it difficult to have direct control on the phenomenon, and the act of introspecting on inner experience has the potential to influence the state itself. We illustrate how the field of mind-wandering research can overcome these problems. Its generative nature can be understood by triangulating the objective measures (such as neural function) with subjective measures of experience and it can be manipulated indirectly by varying the demands of the external environment. Furthermore, we describe candidate covert markers for the mind-wandering state, which allow the phenomenon to be observed without direct interference, minimizing the concern that instructions to introspect necessarily change conscious experience. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:233-246. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1392 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Understanding women's experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj

    2016-05-01

    Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery.

  15. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  16. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  17. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  18. Strong-Sludge Gas Retention and Release Mechanisms in Clay Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Probert, Samuel G.; Owen, Antionette T.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2012-02-24

    The Hanford Site has 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) and 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. The mission of the Department of Energy's River Protection Project is to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms. A key aspect of the mission is to retrieve and transfer waste from the SSTs, which are at greater risk for leaking, into DSTs for interim storage until the waste is transferred to and treated in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. There is, however, limited space in the existing DSTs to accept waste transfers from the SSTs, and approaches to overcoming the limited DST space will benefit the overall mission. The purpose of this study is to summarize and analyze the key previous experiment that forms the basis for the relaxed controls and to summarize progress and results on new experiments focused on understanding the conditions that result in low gas retention. The previous large-scale test used about 50 m3 of sediment, which would be unwieldy for doing multiple parametric experiments. Accordingly, experiments began with smaller-scale tests to determine whether the desired mechanisms can be studied without the difficulty of conducting very large experiments. The most significant results from the current experiments are that progressively lower gas retention occurs in tests with progressively deeper sediment layers and that the method of gas generation also affects the maximum retention. Based on the results of this study, it is plausible that relatively low gas retention could occur in sufficiently deep tank waste in DSTs. The current studies and previous work, however, have not explored how gas retention and release will behave when two or more layers with different properties are present.

  19. Understanding the school experiences of children and adolescents with serious chronic illness: a systematic meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, A; Wakefield, C E; Donnan, B; Burns, M A; Fardell, J E; Marshall, G M

    2017-09-01

    Serious chronic illness can have a detrimental effect on school attendance, participation and engagement, leaving affected students at risk of failing to meet their developmental potential. An improved understanding of factors that help to explain or mitigate this risk can help educators and health professionals deliver the most effective support. This meta-review critiqued the available evidence examining the link between six chronic illnesses (asthma, cancer, chronic kidney diseases, heart diseases, cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal diseases) and children's and adolescents' school experiences and outcomes, as well as investigating the medical, school, psychosocial and sociodemographic factors that are linked to poorer or better school outcomes. We searched CINAHL, Cochrane Database, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, ProQuest Theses and Dissertations, and PsycINFO (2000-2015). Systematic and narrative reviews, and meta-analyses, of original studies examining students' subjective school experiences and objective school outcomes were eligible. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses criteria to critically appraise all systematic reviews. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system guided our recommendations for practice and research. Eighteen reviews of 172 studies including more than 40 000 students were eligible. Therefore, we chose to conduct a meta-review to provide an overview of the literature on the relationship between chronic illness and school experiences and outcomes. We also explored the associated medical, school, psychosocial and sociodemographic factors affecting the relationship between illness and school experiences and outcomes. Students with chronic illness demonstrate mixed school experiences and outcomes that are often worse than students without chronic illness. Modifiable factors, such as students' engagement with school, may be novel yet appropriate targets of educational

  20. “Out of My Comfort Zone”: Understanding the Impact of a Service-Learning Experience in Rural El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J. Beckman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study was designed to explore the impact of a two-week service-learning experience in rural El Salvador on students' perceptions of its impact on them personally, professionally and their global awareness. Students stayed in an economically impoverished village in rural El Salvador and worked on projects that promoted education for children in the village. Participants included 15 graduate and undergraduate students; 13 from the College of Education of a large university in the northeastern part of the United States. Multiple data sources were used to understand these impacts including: open-ended interviews conducted two to four months after the trip; field notes from participant observations in large and small group activities, group reflections; and informal incidents and conversations; review of documents related to the class (student journals; student final papers, and daily activity and health logs. While the initial process of adjustment was difficult for some students, all students felt that their participation in this experience had an important, positive impact on them. Data indicated that this impact occurred in all three major areas addressed in this study, including: personal (e.g. sense of appreciation, gaining perspective, rethinking consumption, clarifying values, and learning they “could do it”/self-efficacy, professional (affirming career choices, ability to work with Latino children and families; improving professional skills and global awareness (e.g. perspectives on poverty and social justice, views of immigration, understanding of the world. Findings will be discussed in terms of exant literature related to the impact of short-term service experiences.

  1. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  2. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  3. The Effect of Testing on the Retention of Coherent and Incoherent Text Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Mario; Tabbers, Huib K.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that testing during learning can enhance the long-term retention of text material. In two experiments, we investigated the testing effect with a fill-in-the-blank test on the retention of text material. In Experiment 1, using a coherent text, we found no retention benefit of testing compared to a restudy (control) condition. In…

  4. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Amy Jane

    2014-05-01

    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed.

  5. How children with experiences of intimate partner violence towards the mother understand and relate to their father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staf, Anna Georgsson; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how, in the aftermath of intimate partner violence against the mother, children understand and relate to their father. Face-to-face interviews with four girls and four boys, aged between eight and twelve, were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. All of the children had been exposed to the father's violence towards the mother. Two super ordinate themes were identified in the analysis: the disjunctive image of the father and being entangled in a conflict. The children's understanding of the father and their relationship with him was built on different versions of the father and his actions; those experienced by the child and those recounted to them. The situational context surrounding the described experience pervaded the image of the father. An ambiguity appeared to exist in the sense of different versions of the father and children described different emotions that could both hinder and elicit other feelings connected to the father. Children also conveyed the sense of being trapped or entangled in a conflict where their own needs and desires could be deemed as unsafe to express, and that they felt responsibility for dealing with the father's influence.

  6. Using Freire's Participatory Educational Method to Understand the Experience of Living With Chronic Illness in the Current Age of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Plazas, Maria del Pilar; Cameron, Brenda L

    2015-06-01

    Many approaches and efforts have been used to better understand chronic diseases worldwide. Yet, little is known about the meaning of living with chronic illness under the pressures of globalization and neoliberal ideologies. Through Freire's participatory educational method, this article presents an innovative approach to understanding the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. In this way, we hope to use an innovative approach to address the impact of globalization on the daily life of chronically ill people and thus expand to the body of knowledge on nursing. This article uses Freire's participatory educational method to understand the multiple dimensions of living with chronic illness. This qualitative study follows an interpretive inquiry approach and uses a critical hermeneutic phenomenological method and critical research methodologies. Five participants were recruited for this participatory educational activity. Data collection methods included digitally recorded semistructured individual interviews and a Freire's participatory educational method session. Data analysis included a thematic analysis. Participants reported lacking adequate access to healthcare services because of insurance policies; a general perception that they were an unwanted burden on the healthcare system; and a general lack of government support, advocacy, and political interest. This research activity assisted participants to gain a new critical perspective about the condition of others with chronic diseases and thus provided an enlightening opportunity to learn about the illnesses and experiences of others and to realize that others experienced the same oppression from the healthcare system. Participants became agents of change within their own families and communities. Chronic diseases cause many economic and social consequences in their victims. These findings urge us to move from merely acknowledging the difficulties of people who live with chronic illness in an age of

  7. Meningitis retention syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented with signs and symptoms of meningitis preceded by a 3 day history of flu-like symptoms and progressive difficulty with urination. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis. She was found to have a significant urinary retention secondary to atonic bladder. MRI of the brain and spine were normal and CSF-PCR (polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-2. Urinary retention in the context of meningitis and CSF pleocytosis is known as Meningitis Retention Syndrome (MRS. MRS is a rare but important complication of meningitis most commonly associated with HSV-2. Involvement of central pathways may have a role in the pathogenesis of MRS but this is poorly documented. MRS is different from Elsberg syndrome wherein patients display features of lumbosacral polyradiculitis or radiculomyelitis. Early treatment with antiviral therapy was associated with a favorable outcome in our patient.

  8. Dynamic force microscopy simulator (dForce: A tool for planning and understanding tapping and bimodal AFM experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio V. Guzman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a simulation environment, dForce, which can be used for a better understanding of dynamic force microscopy experiments. The simulator presents the cantilever–tip dynamics for two dynamic AFM methods, tapping mode AFM and bimodal AFM. It can be applied for a wide variety of experimental situations in air or liquid. The code provides all the variables and parameters relevant in those modes, for example, the instantaneous deflection and tip–surface force, velocity, virial, dissipated energy, sample deformation and peak force as a function of time or distance. The simulator includes a variety of interactions and contact mechanics models to describe AFM experiments including: van der Waals, Hertz, DMT, JKR, bottom effect cone correction, linear viscoelastic forces or the standard linear solid viscoelastic model. We have compared two numerical integration methods to select the one that offers optimal accuracy and speed. The graphical user interface has been designed to facilitate the navigation of non-experts in simulations. Finally, the accuracy of dForce has been tested against numerical simulations performed during the last 18 years.

  9. Dynamic force microscopy simulator (dForce): A tool for planning and understanding tapping and bimodal AFM experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Horacio V; Garcia, Pablo D; Garcia, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    We present a simulation environment, dForce, which can be used for a better understanding of dynamic force microscopy experiments. The simulator presents the cantilever-tip dynamics for two dynamic AFM methods, tapping mode AFM and bimodal AFM. It can be applied for a wide variety of experimental situations in air or liquid. The code provides all the variables and parameters relevant in those modes, for example, the instantaneous deflection and tip-surface force, velocity, virial, dissipated energy, sample deformation and peak force as a function of time or distance. The simulator includes a variety of interactions and contact mechanics models to describe AFM experiments including: van der Waals, Hertz, DMT, JKR, bottom effect cone correction, linear viscoelastic forces or the standard linear solid viscoelastic model. We have compared two numerical integration methods to select the one that offers optimal accuracy and speed. The graphical user interface has been designed to facilitate the navigation of non-experts in simulations. Finally, the accuracy of dForce has been tested against numerical simulations performed during the last 18 years.

  10. Understanding the impact of gendered roles on the experiences of infertility amongst men and women in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Zubia

    2013-01-01

    childlessness for men and women in Punjab, Pakistan. The insight obtained into the range of experiences can potentially contribute to deeper understanding of the social construction of infertility and childlessness in pronatalistic and patriarchal societies as well as the ways in which gender ideologies operationalise to marginalise women.

  11. Understanding the impact of gendered roles on the experiences of infertility amongst men and women in Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Shahid, Umber; Levay, Adrienne

    2013-01-15

    Punjab, Pakistan. The insight obtained into the range of experiences can potentially contribute to deeper understanding of the social construction of infertility and childlessness in pronatalistic and patriarchal societies as well as the ways in which gender ideologies operationalise to marginalise women.

  12. Inputs from in situ experiments to the understanding of the unsaturated behaviour of Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French national radioactive waste management agency (Andra research program is dedicated to preparing the construction and operation of a deep geological disposal facility for high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste (HL, IL-LLW in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone (COx. The characterization of the COx thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM behavior, at different scales of interest, must gradually give relevant data for design and safety calculations. The effects of saturation and desaturation of COx claystone are studied in laboratory conditions (sample scale and in situ (drift scale, in order to improve knowledge on ventilation effect at gallery wall as galleries will remains open during operational phase (more than 100 years for some specific galleries in the repository. The Saturation Damaged Zone (SDZ experiment is outlined and its results are discussed. This experimentation aims to change the relative humidity in an isolated portion of a gallery in order to follow the HM behavior of the surrounding rock mass. Drying and wetting cycles could induce in certain cases cracks and swelling and modify the hydromechanical behavior of the claystone around the gallery (Young modulus, strength, creep…. The long term behavior of the COx claystone at the vicinity of gallery is then studied by performing climatic, hydraulic, geological and geomechanical measurements. Results of the in situ experiment are discussed with respect to the identified process on samples. The discussion given on this paper intends to highlights the inputs from 7 years of an in situ experiment to better understand the unsaturated behavior of the COx claystone.

  13. Laboratory and Field Investigations of Dynamic Effects in Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Tseng, Yen-Huiang; Ye, Jiun-Yan

    2015-04-01

    The unsaturated soil is a multi-phase system and the embedded physical mechanisms and chemical reactions are very complicated. The characteristics of groundwater flow and mechanisms of mass transport are still ambiguous so far. In order to fully understand the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone, the soil water retention curve plays an important role in description of water flow. However, the measurements and calculations of soil water retention curve are usually obtained under the static condition or steady state (equilibrium), in which the dynamic effects (non-equilibrium) are not considered, and the obtained relationship between capillary pressure and saturation is skeptical. Therefore, the sandbox experiments and field tests will be conducted to discuss the dynamic effects in the soil water retention curve and hysteresis effect in this study. In the laboratory, the relations between capillary pressure, saturation, the rate of change of water content, and dynamic constant are evaluated through different setting of boundary conditions and different sizes of particles. In the field, the tests are conducted to describe the soil water retention curve through the rain simulator and artificial evaporation. Besides, the dynamic dewpoint potentiameter is used to analyze the hysteresis effect of soil samples, and its results are compared with the results obtained from sandbox and field experiments. Finally, through a series of experiments, the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation under the dynamic effects is established, and the associated theories and mechanisms are discussed. The works developed in this study can provide as reference tools for the hydrogeological investigation and contaminated site remediation in the future. Keywords: capillary pressure, saturation, soil water retention curve, hysteresis, sandbox experiment, field test

  14. Using Maps to Retrieve Text: A Test of Conjoint Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Raymond W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments with 129 college undergraduates tested the conjoint retention model by having subjects learn an intact map and text and then see the map as a retrieval cue in its original or reorganized form. Subjects remember more when cued by the original, supporting the conjoint retention theory. (SLD)

  15. Conjoint Retention of Maps and Related Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Raymond, W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments used fifth grade students to test the hypothesis that conjointly presented verbal/spatial information facilitates retrieval from either stimulus format. Results support the notion of conjoint retention which assumes that related verbal/spatial arrays are stored in a fashion which allows separate use of both formats during…

  16. The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment: Observing, Understanding, and Predicting Social-Ecological Change in the Far North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kimball, J. S.; Boelman, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the high northern latitudes, climate is warming more rapidly than anywhere else on Earth, transforming vulnerable arctic tundra and boreal forest landscapes. These changes are altering the structure and function of energy, water and carbon cycles, producing significant feedbacks to regional and global climate through changes in energy, water and carbon cycles. These changes are also challenging local and global society. At the local level, communities seek to adapt to new social-ecological regimes. At the global level, changing arctic and boreal systems are increasing becoming the focus of policy discussions at all levels of decision-making. National and international scientific efforts associated with a new NASA field campaign, the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABOVE) will advance our ability to observe, understand and predict the complex, multiscale and non-linear processes that are confronting the natural and social systems in this rapidly changing region. Over the next decade, the newly assembled ABOVE Science Team will pursue this overarching question: "How vulnerable or resilient are ecosystems and society to environmental change in the Arctic and boreal region of western North America?" Through integration of remote sensing and in situ observations with modeling of both ecological and social systems, the ABOVE Science Team will advance an interdisciplinary understanding of the Far North. In this presentation, we will discuss the conceptual basis for the ABOVE Field Campaign, describe Science Team composition and timeline, and update the community on activities. In addition, we will reflect on the visionary role of Dr. Diane Wickland, retired NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program Manager and lead of the Carbon Cycle & Ecosystems Focus Area, in the development and commencement of ABOVE.

  17. Rheometrical experiments with monitoring of resistivity: for a better understanding of the solid-fluid transition in clayey landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Simon; Bièvre, Grégory; Chambon, Guillaume; Jongmans, Denis; Lebourg, Thomas; Larose, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are natural and complex phenomena which affect all types of geological formations and present a large variety of size, morphology and displacements rates. Among these phenomena, flow-like events in clay-rich formations are particularly complex due to the unpredictable acceleration and fluidization that characterize them. Because of their suddenness, such landslides constitute serious threat for population living in these areas. The forecast and the understanding of these events has then been an active topic of research in the scientific community during the past decades. In that respect, rheometrical experiments in the laboratory bring some insight into the processes occurring during the solid-fluid transition. In creep tests, the evolution of the shear strain rate is measured under constant levels of shear stress, allowing to follow changes in apparent viscosity with time and to observe fluidization. Rheometrical oscillatory tests have been designed to capture the evolution of the elastic shear modulus G (and hence the shear wave velocity Vs) during these creep phases. Previous results have shown that Vs exhibits a drop at the solid-fluid transition, with complex time-dependent effects which could lead, under transient loading, to the occurrence of Vs variations prior to the transition. A complementary way to understand the processes is to measure the electrical resistivity during these rheometrical tests. This parameter, which depends on the water content and salinity, as well as on the amount of clay particles, could also exhibit some changes before or during the solid-fluid transition. For that purpose, the metallic plates of the rotational rheometer have been replaced by new ones made in an electrically insulating material (PVC) with a configuration of four inserted circular electrodes. Rheometrical tests made with this new apparatus provide similar rheological results. For the electrical tests, the geometrical factor has been computed using Finite

  18. Qualitative research and its methods in epilepsy: Contributing to an understanding of patients' lived experiences of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Frances; Clement, Clare; Doel, Marcus A; Hutchings, Hayley A

    2015-04-01

    This review paper makes the case for the usefulness of qualitative research methods in the context of epilepsy research. It begins with an assessment of the current state of epilepsy literature and identifies gaps especially in the following: research in 'developing' countries and research around surgery for adults with epilepsy. It makes the case that disclosure of people's behaviors, actions, and reactions in different, often complex health-care situations can indicate how they bring meaning to their disease experiences and support needs. It shows the value of encouraging work that clarifies how patients manage their illness and how they understand changes in their health and well-being over the life course of their illness and how health-care professionals and other stakeholder groups care for those with epilepsy. The paper suggests a range of methods for addressing gaps in the literature and highlights a range of data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation and synthesis techniques that are appropriate in this context. It pays particular attention to the strengths of qualitative applications in mixed-methods research using an example from a recent ulcerative colitis drug trial that indicates how they can be integrated into study findings, add rich description, and enhance study outcomes. Ethnographic methodology is also presented, as a way of offering rare access to the 'lived experience' dimension, before the paper concludes with an assessment of the qualitative criteria of credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability for judging a study's 'trustworthiness'. The criteria evidence not only the trustworthiness of data and findings but also the ways in which a study has approached any challenges inherent in its research design.

  19. Nothing changes, nobody cares: understanding the experience of emergency nurses physically or verbally assaulted while providing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lisa A; Delao, Altair M; Perhats, Cydne

    2014-07-01

    Workplace violence has been recognized as a violent crime that requires targeted responses from employers, law enforcement, and the community. According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the most common source of nonfatal injuries and illnesses requiring days away from work in the health care and social assistance industry was assault on the health care worker. What is not well understood are the precursors and sequelae of violence perpetrated against emergency nurses and other health care workers by patients and visitors. The purpose of this study was to better understand the experience of emergency nurses who have been physically or verbally assaulted while providing patient care in US emergency departments. The study was conducted using a qualitative descriptive exploratory design. The sample consisted of 46 written narratives submitted by e-mail by emergency nurses describing the experience of violence while providing care at work. Narrative analysis and constant comparison were used to identify emerging themes in the narratives. "Environmental," "personal," and "cue recognition" were identified as the themes. Overall, nurses believed that violence was endemic to their workplace and that both limited recognition of cues indicating a high-risk person or environment and a culture of acceptance of violence were barriers to mitigation. These findings are consistent with the extant literature but with an added contribution of clearly identifying an underlying cultural acceptance of violence in the emergency department, as well as a distinct lack of cue recognition, in this sample of emergency nurses. Copyright © 2014 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding bolus insulin dose timing: the characteristics and experiences of people with diabetes who take bolus insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborlane, William V; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M; Brod, Meryl; Nikolajsen, Annie; Sandberg, Anna; Peters, Anne L; Van Name, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Despite the increased popularity of newer, fast-acting bolus insulin treatment options that allow for more flexibility in the timing of bolus insulin dosing in recent years, relatively little is known about people with diabetes who administer bolus insulin at differing times in relation to their meals. The purpose of this study was to investigate bolus insulin dose timing in relation to meals among people with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes, as well as to better understand the characteristics and experiences of people who bolus dose at differing times. A web-based survey of adults with T1D and T2D treated with bolus insulin therapy in Germany, the UK, and USA was conducted. A total of 906 respondents completed the survey (39% T1D; 61% T2D). A majority of respondents reported bolus dosing before meals in the previous week (57.0%), followed by after meals (18.9%), with meals (12.7%), and at varying times (11.5%). Compared to respondents who dosed with or after meals, those who dosed before meals were significantly less likely to experience hypoglycemia (before, 55.7%; with, 72.8%; after, 68.7%; p insulin with or after meals. Key limitations of all self-report surveys include potential bias in responses and generalizability of findings. However, the study was designed to help mitigate these limitations. The findings have implications for clinicians and suggest opportunities for improving diabetes education and care.

  1. Grade 12 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Mental Models of Galvanic Cells before and after Learning by Using Small-Scale Experiments in Conjunction with a Model Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supasorn, Saksri

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop the small-scale experiments involving electrochemistry and the galvanic cell model kit featuring the sub-microscopic level. The small-scale experiments in conjunction with the model kit were implemented based on the 5E inquiry learning approach to enhance students' conceptual understanding of electrochemistry. The…

  2. Understanding the Use and Impact of Social Media Features on the Educational Experiences of Higher-Education Students in Blended and Distance-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialdone, Michael John

    2014-01-01

    Students are increasingly expecting social media to be a component of their educational experiences both outside and inside of the classroom. The phenomenon of interest in this dissertation is understanding how the educational experiences of students are affected when social media are incorporated into online and blended course activities.…

  3. Grade 12 Students' Conceptual Understanding and Mental Models of Galvanic Cells before and after Learning by Using Small-Scale Experiments in Conjunction with a Model Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supasorn, Saksri

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop the small-scale experiments involving electrochemistry and the galvanic cell model kit featuring the sub-microscopic level. The small-scale experiments in conjunction with the model kit were implemented based on the 5E inquiry learning approach to enhance students' conceptual understanding of electrochemistry. The…

  4. General Reviews of Vocabulary Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper will try to review two important theories (repletion and retrieval) which are crucial for vocabulary retention. These two methods are well connected and each of them cannot lead to successful vocabulary retention without sensible utilization of the other.

  5. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadata. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of...

  6. Mercury retention, a trait of chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V.L.; Bearse, G.E.; Hammermeister, K.E.

    1959-01-01

    Experiments were performed in order to gain further information on the mercury retention of two strains of chickens, the reciprocal crosses of these lines and sex differences in retention. White Leghorns were selected for resistance and susceptibility to the avian leukosis complex. Approximately 6 males and 6 females from each of the strains and reciprocal crosses were injected in the breast muscle with phenylmercury acetate at the rate of 3.0 mg. mercury per kg. body weight. The kidneys were excised and analyzed for total mercury. Results indicate that the first generation cross chicks resembled the parent that retained mercury poorly more closely than they did the one retaining large amounts of mercury. There was no significant differences between sexes in mercury retention. 4 references, 1 table.

  7. Factor structure of the Benton Visual retention tests: dimensionalization of the Benton Visual retention test, Benton Visual retention test - multiple choice, and the Visual Form Discrimination Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Courtney A; Mansoor, Yael; Homer-Smith, Elizabeth; Moses, James A

    2011-01-01

    Six sequential experiments were conducted on archival data of 610 U.S. Veterans seen at the Palo Alto Veteran's Affairs Hospital, to understand the dimensionalization of the Benton Visual retention test in both the recall (BVRT) and multiple-choice (BVRT-MC) format as well as the Visual Form Discrimination Test (VFDT). These tests were dimensionalized by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) revealing a four-component model that explains 81.04% of the shared variance: the moderately difficult items (BVRT-MC and VFDT items 13-16) loaded with the WAIS-R Perceptual Organization, the easiest items (VFDT items 1-12, BVRT-MC items 1-12, and BVRT items 1-4) loaded separately with both WAIS-R Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility, and the most difficult items (BVRT items 3-10) loaded weakly with WAIS-R Perceptual Organization.

  8. The influence of authentic leadership on newly graduated nurses' experiences of workplace bullying, burnout and retention outcomes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol A; Grau, Ashley L

    2012-10-01

    Retaining skilled and engaged nurses is critical during a time of shortage, however growing reports of workplace bullying threaten nurses' health and wellbeing, especially the transition of newly graduated nurses entering the profession. High rates of burnout and turnover among new nurses puts additional strain on limited financial resources in healthcare organizations and can compromise the quality of care provided to patients. The purpose of this study is to test a model linking authentic leadership to new graduate nurses' experiences of workplace bullying and burnout, and subsequently, job satisfaction and intentions to leave their jobs. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with 342 new graduate nurses (defined as less than two years of practice experience) working in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a questionnaire with measures of authentic leadership, workplace bullying, burnout, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. The model was tested using path analysis techniques within structural equation modeling. The model fit indices suggested that the original hypothesized model did not adequately fit the data (χ(2)=33.59, df=5, p=.000, χ(2)/df=6.72, IFI=.937, CFI=.937, RMSEA=.130), thus an additional theoretically justified direct path from authentic leadership to job satisfaction was added, which improved the fit substantially (χ(2)=5.26, df=4, p=.261, χ(2)/df=1.32, IFI=.997, CFI=.997, RMSEA=.030). Authentic leadership had a negative direct effect on workplace bullying, which in turn had a direct positive effect on emotional exhaustion. Authentic leadership also influenced job satisfaction indirectly through bullying and emotional exhaustion. Authentic leadership, workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion all had significant direct effects on job satisfaction, which in turn, was related to lower turnover intentions. The findings from this study demonstrate the fundamental importance of authentic leadership in

  9. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  10. Retention of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and heavy metals from industrial waste water by using the low cost adsorbent pine bark in a batch experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M; Allard, B

    2011-01-01

    Pine bark is a low cost sorbent originating from the forest industry. In recent years, it has been found to show promise as an adsorbent for metals and organic substances in contaminated water, especially landfill leachates and storm water. This study aims to investigate if pine bark can replace commercial adsorbents such as active carbon. An industrial effluent, collected from a treatment plant of a demilitarization factory, was diluted to form concentration ranges of contaminants and shaken with pine bark for 24 hours. Metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Ni) and explosives, e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), were analysed before and after treatment. The aim of the experiment was twofold; firstly, it was to investigate whether metals are efficiently removed in the presence of explosives and secondly, if adsorption of explosive substances to pine bark was possible. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption process where this was possible. It was found that metal uptake was possible in the presence of TNT and other explosive contaminants. The uptake of TNT was satisfactory with up to 80% of the TNT adsorbed by pine bark.

  11. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkirala Revathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD. The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth.

  12. Biofilm roughness determines Cryptosporidium parvum retention in environmental biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCesare, E A Wolyniak; Hargreaves, B R; Jellison, K L

    2012-06-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales.

  13. DRAINAGE AND RETENTION ENHANCEMENT OF A WHEAT STRAW PULP CONTAINING FURNISH USING MICROPARTICLE RETENTION AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hultholm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The usage of non-wood pulps in furnishes for the production of various paper grades is a real alternative for the substitution of wood pulp in papermaking. In terms of the papermaking process, the main limiting factor for non-wood pulp utilization is poor dewatering. This problem can be partially solved by means of retention aids, and the modern microparticle-based retention aids are very promising for this application. In this study the main aim was to characterize how the microparticle retention systems affect the retention, dewatering, and formation of a non-wood pulp furnish and how these effects and mechanisms differ when compared to normal wood pulp. The performance of several commercially available retention aids was studied by making dynamic sheet forming tests for reference and an organosolv wheat straw furnish. The emphasis in the experiments was on drainage enhancement. The maximum drainage gain obtained with the bentonite-CPAM retention aid system was about 5%. Despite the improved drainage, dewatering of the reference furnish was better than for the non-wood containing furnish.

  14. Understanding patients' experiences of the wish to hasten death: an updated and expanded systematic review and meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Prat, Andrea; Balaguer, Albert; Booth, Andrew; Monforte-Royo, Cristina

    2017-09-29

    Patients with advanced disease sometimes express a wish to hasten death (WTHD). In 2012, we published a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining the experience and meaning of this phenomenon. Since then, new studies eligible for inclusion have been reported, including in Europe, a region not previously featured, and specifically in countries with different legal frameworks for euthanasia and assisted suicide. The aim of the present study was to update our previous review by including new research and to conduct a new analysis of available data on this topic. Eligible studies originated from Australia, Canada, China, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Thailand and USA. Studies of patients with life-threatening conditions that had expressed the WTHD. The search strategy combined subject terms with free-text searching of PubMed MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsycInfo. The qualitative synthesis followed the methodology described by Noblit and Hare, using the 'adding to and revising the original' model for updating a meta-ethnography, proposed by France et al. Quality assessment was done using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. 14 studies involving 255 participants with life-threatening illnesses were identified. Five themes emerged from the analysis: suffering (overarching theme), reasons for and meanings and functions of the WTHD and the experience of a timeline towards dying and death. In the context of advanced disease, the WTHD emerges as a reaction to physical, psychological, social and existential suffering, all of which impacts on the patient's sense of self, of dignity and meaning in life. The WTHD can hold different meanings for each individual-serving functions other than to communicate a genuine wish to die. Understanding the reasons for, and meanings and functions of, the WTHD is crucial for drawing up and implementing care plans to meet the needs of individual patients. © Article author(s) (or their

  15. GABA[subscript A] Receptors Determine the Temporal Dynamics of Memory Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Gavan P.; Augustyn, Katarzyna A.; Richardson, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments studied the role of GABA[subscript A] receptors in the temporal dynamics of memory retention. Memory for an active avoidance response was a nonmonotonic function of the retention interval. When rats were tested shortly (2 min) or some time (24 h) after training, retention was excellent, but when they were tested at intermediate…

  16. New Educational Environments Aimed at Developing Intercultural Understanding While Reinforcing the Use of English in Experience-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruguier Leonard R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    New learning environments with communication and information tools are increasingly accessible with technology playing a crucial role in expanding and reconceptualizing student learning experiences. This paper reviews the outcome of an innovative course offered by four universities in three countries: Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Course objectives focused on broadening the understanding
    of indigenous and non-indigenous peoples primarily in relation to identity as it encouraged students to reflect on their own identity while improving their English skills in an interactive and experiential manner and thus enhancing their intercultural competence.


    Cada vez es más fácil tener acceso a nuevos entornos de aprendizaje que utilizan herramientas de comunicación e información en las que la tecnología desempeña un papel crucial en la expansión y la reconceptualización de las experiencias de aprendizaje del estudiante. En este artículo se revisa el resultado de un curso innovador que se ofreció en cuatro universidades de tres países: Canadá, Estados 
    Unidos y México. Los objetivos del curso se centraron en ampliar la comprensión de los pueblos indígenas y no indígenas, en particular en relación con la identidad. Esto alentó a los estudiantes a reflexionar sobre su propia identidad, a la vez que mejoraban sus habilidades del inglés de una manera interactiva y experimental, logrando así mejorar su competencia intercultural.

  17. The Medical School Retention Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    grades (quota 1), while the other half went through a composite non-grade based admission test (quota 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor parent, origin in the developed world, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit, university educated parents) were also examined...... association between admission-test survival and program retention – a program specific admission test survivability factor - regardless of admission-test content, prior education, and program priority. The generalisability and other important limitations of the results (e.g. missing data, potential...... scores and dropout. REFERENCES 1.O’Neill L, Wallstedt B, Eika B, Hartvigsen J. Factors associated with dropout in medical education: a literature review. Med Educ (In press). 2.Urlings-Strop LC, Stijnen T, Themmen APN, Splinter TAW. Selection of medical students: a controlled experiment. Med Educ 2009...

  18. Learning and retention of quantum concepts with different teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Wieman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured mastery and retention of conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in a modern physics course. This was studied for two equivalent cohorts of students taught with different pedagogical approaches using the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey. We measured the impact of pedagogical approach both on the original conceptual learning and on long-term retention. The cohort of students who had a very highly rated traditional lecturer scored 19% lower than the equivalent cohort that was taught using interactive engagement methods. However, the amount of retention was very high for both cohorts, showing only a few percent decrease in scores when retested 6 and 18 months after completion of the course and with no exposure to the material in the interim period. This high level of retention is in striking contrast to the retention measured for more factual learning from university courses and argues for the value of emphasizing conceptual learning.

  19. Learning and retention of quantum concepts with different teaching methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Louis; Wieman, Carl

    2011-06-01

    We measured mastery and retention of conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in a modern physics course. This was studied for two equivalent cohorts of students taught with different pedagogical approaches using the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey. We measured the impact of pedagogical approach both on the original conceptual learning and on long-term retention. The cohort of students who had a very highly rated traditional lecturer scored 19% lower than the equivalent cohort that was taught using interactive engagement methods. However, the amount of retention was very high for both cohorts, showing only a few percent decrease in scores when retested 6 and 18 months after completion of the course and with no exposure to the material in the interim period. This high level of retention is in striking contrast to the retention measured for more factual learning from university courses and argues for the value of emphasizing conceptual learning.

  20. Simulation of arsenic retention in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles-Aragón, M C; Alarcón-Herrera, M T; Llorens, E; Obradors-Prats, J; Leyva, A

    2017-01-01

    The software RCB-arsenic was developed previously to simulate the metalloid behavior in a constructed wetland (CW). The model simulates water flow and reactive transport by contemplating the major processes of arsenic (As) retention inside of CW. The objective of this study was to validate the RCB-arsenic model by simulating the behavior of horizontal flow CW for As removal from water. The model validation was made using data from a 122-day experiment. Two CWs prototypes were used: one planted with Eleocharis macrostachya (CW_planted) and another one unplanted (CW_unplanted) as a control. The prototypes were fed with synthetic water prepared using well water and sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). In the RCB-arsenic model, a CW prototype was represented using a 2D mesh sized in accordance with the experiment. For simulation of As retention in CW, data addition was established in two stages that considered the mechanisms in the system: (1) aqueous complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and adsorption on granular media and (2) retention by plants: uptake (absorption) and rhizofiltration (adsorption). Simulation of As outlet (μg/L) in stage_1 was compared with CW_unplanted; the experimental mean was 40.79 ± 7.76 and the simulated 39.96 ± 6.32. As concentration (μg/L) in stage_2 was compared with CW_planted, the experimental mean was 9.34 ± 4.80 and the simulated 5.14 ± 0.72. The mass-balance simulation and experiment at 122 days of operation had a similar As retention rate (94 and 91%). The calibrated model RCB-arsenic adequately simulated the As retention in a CW; therefore, it constitutes a powerful tool of design.

  1. Retention in care and medication adherence: current challenges to antiretroviral therapy success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Carol W; Brady, Kathleen A; Yehia, Baligh R

    2015-04-01

    Health behaviors such as retention in HIV medical care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) pose major challenges to reducing new HIV infections, addressing health disparities, and improving health outcomes. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use provides a conceptual framework for understanding how patient and environmental factors affect health behaviors and outcomes, which can inform the design of intervention strategies. Factors affecting retention and adherence among persons with HIV include patient predisposing factors (e.g., mental illness, substance abuse), patient-enabling factors (e.g., social support, reminder strategies, medication characteristics, transportation, housing, insurance), and healthcare environment factors (e.g., pharmacy services, clinic experiences, provider characteristics). Evidence-based recommendations for improving retention and adherence include (1) systematic monitoring of clinic attendance and ART adherence; (2) use of peer or paraprofessional navigators to re-engage patients in care and help them remain in care; (3) optimization of ART regimens and pharmaceutical supply chain management systems; (4) provision of reminder devices and tools; (5) general education and counseling; (6) engagement of peer, family, and community support groups; (7) case management; and (8) targeting patients with substance abuse and mental illness. Further research is needed on effective monitoring strategies and interventions that focus on improving retention and adherence, with specific attention to the healthcare environment.

  2. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  3. Understanding the Journey: A Phenomenological Study of College Students' Lived Experiences during the Weight-Loss Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on understanding various aspects of the science of weight loss and weight gain in college students, understanding how the weight-loss process affects college students psychologically and behaviorally may help administrators and student affairs professionals to better work with students on their campuses. The…

  4. Understanding the Journey: A Phenomenological Study of College Students' Lived Experiences during the Weight-Loss Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on understanding various aspects of the science of weight loss and weight gain in college students, understanding how the weight-loss process affects college students psychologically and behaviorally may help administrators and student affairs professionals to better work with students on their campuses. The…

  5. Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Science Process Skills in Relation to Their Teaching Qualifications and Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Edy H. M.; Halim, Lilia; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the understanding of science process skills (SPS) of 329 science teachers from 52 primary schools selected by random sampling. The understanding of SPS was measured in terms of conceptual and operational aspects of SPS using an instrument called the "Science Process Skills Questionnaire" (SPSQ) with a Cronbach's…

  6. Connecting Bourdieu, Winnicott, and Honneth: Understanding the Experiences of Non-Traditional Learners through an Interdisciplinary Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Linden; Fleming, Ted; Finnegan, Fergal

    2013-01-01

    This paper connects Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, dispositions and capital with a psychosocial analysis of how Winnicott's psychoanalysis and Honneth's recognition theory can be of importance in understanding how and why non-traditional students remain in higher education. Understanding power relations in an interdisciplinary way makes…

  7. Leveraging Fourth and Sixth Graders' Experiences to Reveal Understanding of the Forms and Features of Distributed Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzer, Tina A.; Derbiszewska, Katarzyna; Solis, S. Lynneth

    2017-01-01

    Research has focused on students' difficulties understanding phenomena in which agency is distributed across actors whose individual-level behaviors converge to result in collective outcomes. Building on Levy and Wilensky (2008), this study identified features of distributed causality students understand and that may offer affordances for…

  8. Connecting Bourdieu, Winnicott, and Honneth: Understanding the Experiences of Non-Traditional Learners through an Interdisciplinary Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Linden; Fleming, Ted; Finnegan, Fergal

    2013-01-01

    This paper connects Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, dispositions and capital with a psychosocial analysis of how Winnicott's psychoanalysis and Honneth's recognition theory can be of importance in understanding how and why non-traditional students remain in higher education. Understanding power relations in an interdisciplinary way…

  9. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  10. Employee Engagement as a Predictor of Seafarer Retention: A Study among Indian Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Bhattacharya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a study of employee engagement and its relationship with seafarer safety, performance and retention. This section focuses on the impact of seafarer turnover, identifies and understands drivers of retention and their relevance in shipping, and explores the relationship of engagement with retention. It determines the correlation between retention and engagement and analyses drivers of retention from the seafarer's perspective. It also identifies aspects of shipboard life that can contribute towards higher retention. The study confirms that engagement was significantly and positively related with retention levels, while factor analysis isolated six contributory factors. The study also reveals that retention levels of officers employed directly by ship owners and by managers did not differ significantly, nor did they significantly differ between senior and junior officers.

  11. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  12. Learning and retention of quantum concepts with different teaching methods

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Wieman; Louis Deslauriers

    2011-01-01

    We measured mastery and retention of conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in a modern physics course. This was studied for two equivalent cohorts of students taught with different pedagogical approaches using the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey. We measured the impact of pedagogical approach both on the original conceptual learning and on long-term retention. The cohort of students who had a very highly rated traditional lecturer scored 19% lower than the equivalent cohort that w...

  13. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Whitehead, Taylor; Irwin, George M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  14. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    OpenAIRE

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Whitehead, Taylor; Irwin, George

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  15. The Effects of a Single Reminder Trial on Retention of a Motor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Jeffrey T.; Shea, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of a single reminder trial on immediate and delayed retention. Experiment 1 determined if beneficial effects of a reminder mat were a function of task order. Immediate retention performance benefited only when the reminder trial was practiced in the first block of trials. Experiment 2 added a 24-hr delayed…

  16. Towards a Molecular Scale Understanding of Surface Chemistry and Photocatalysis on Metal Oxides: Surface Science Experiments and First Principles Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, Ulrike [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This project has provided an increased understanding of molecular processes and structure-activity relationships in photocatalytic systems. This could ultimately lead to guidelines on how to make TiO2-based photocatalytic systems more efficient. This directly relates to the Program’s mission to develop a mechanistic understanding of chemical reactions that pertain to environmental remediation and pollution control; energy production (photoelectrochemical and production of hydrogen); and novel materials synthesis.

  17. Nursing experience of lactulose retention enema in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy%乳果糖保留灌肠治疗肝性脑病的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文英

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析讨论乳果糖保留灌肠治疗肝性脑病的效果。方法:随机将78例肝性脑病患者分为观察组和对照组,两组均用保肝降酶及抗肝昏迷处理。观察组采用乳果糖保留灌肠,并改进保留灌肠方法,对照组采用生理盐水保留灌肠方法,观察两组治疗及护理效果。结果:改进保留灌肠方法后,延长了乳果在肠道内的保留时间,血氨浓度下降明显。结论:乳果糖保留灌肠,提高了肝性脑病的治疗效果。%Objective:To analyze and discuss the effect of lactulose retention enema in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Methods:78 patients with hepatic encephalopathy were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group.The two groups were given protecting liver and reducing enzyme and resisting hepatic coma treatment.The observation group were given lactulose retention enema,and the retention enema method was improved.The control group were given normal saline retention enema method.The treatment effect and nursing of two groups were observed.Results:After improving retention enema method,it prolonged the retention time of lactulose in the intestine,the blood ammonia concentration decreased significantly.Conclusion:Lactulose retention enema improves the treatment effect of hepatic encephalopathy.

  18. "Getting sick has been good to me, not bad": understanding the experience of growth in face of adversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hoppe

    2009-01-01

    In the literature and public opinion chronic illness is mostly presented as a negative experience. However, this article shows that people can experience their illness also in a positive way. Posttraumatic growth and adversity-activated-development are concepts, which derive from psychology and desc

  19. Constructing a Theory of Individual Space: Understanding Transnational Migration through the Experience of Return Chinese Immigrants from Canada in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yueya

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on life history research, this study critically examines the transnational experiences of return Chinese immigrants from Canada in Beijing. Through the accounts of their experiences, it explores different integration and reintegration strategies, including self-adjustment, lifelong learning and flexible citizenship. A native concept of…

  20. A Pedagogical Experience to Delve into Students' Sense of Cultural Belonging and Intercultural Understanding in a Rural School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Holguín, Bertha; Aguirre Morales, Jahir; Matilde Hernández, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Rural education has been the focus for several research studies which reveal a tendency to include students' home context in the curriculum. Considering the aforementioned statement, this article aims to share a pedagogical experience which was carried out in a rural school in Guavatá, Santander, Colombia. The main purpose of this experience was…

  1. Facilitating Conceptual Understanding of Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient through a Simple Experiment Involving Dissolution of Carbon Dioxide in Water in a Surface Aeration Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utgikar, Vivek P.; MacPherson, David

    2016-01-01

    Students in the undergraduate "transport phenomena" courses typically have a greater difficulty in understanding the theoretical concepts underlying the mass transport phenomena as compared to the concepts of momentum and energy transport. An experiment based on dissolution of carbon dioxide in water was added to the course syllabus to…

  2. Facilitating Conceptual Understanding of Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient through a Simple Experiment Involving Dissolution of Carbon Dioxide in Water in a Surface Aeration Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utgikar, Vivek P.; MacPherson, David

    2016-01-01

    Students in the undergraduate "transport phenomena" courses typically have a greater difficulty in understanding the theoretical concepts underlying the mass transport phenomena as compared to the concepts of momentum and energy transport. An experiment based on dissolution of carbon dioxide in water was added to the course syllabus to…

  3. How Do You Like Your Science, Wet or Dry? How Two Lab Experiences Influence Student Understanding of Science Concepts and Perceptions of Authentic Scientific Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Maureen; Knuth, Randy; Van Horne, Katie; Shouse, Andrew W.; Levias, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how two kinds of authentic research experiences related to smoking behavior--genotyping human DNA (wet lab) and using a database to test hypotheses about factors that affect smoking behavior (dry lab)--influence students' perceptions and understanding of scientific research and related science concepts. The study used pre and…

  4. How Do You Like Your Science, Wet or Dry? How Two Lab Experiences Influence Student Understanding of Science Concepts and Perceptions of Authentic Scientific Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Maureen; Knuth, Randy; Van Horne, Katie; Shouse, Andrew W.; Levias, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how two kinds of authentic research experiences related to smoking behavior—genotyping human DNA (wet lab) and using a database to test hypotheses about factors that affect smoking behavior (dry lab)—influence students’ perceptions and understanding of scientific research and related science concepts. The study used pre and post surveys and a focus group protocol to compare students who conducted the research experiences in one of two sequences: genotyping before database and database before genotyping. Students rated the genotyping experiment to be more like real science than the database experiment, in spite of the fact that they associated more scientific tasks with the database experience than genotyping. Independent of the order of completing the labs, students showed gains in their understanding of science concepts after completion of the two experiences. There was little change in students’ attitudes toward science pre to post, as measured by the Scientific Attitude Inventory II. However, on the basis of their responses during focus groups, students developed more sophisticated views about the practices and nature of science after they had completed both research experiences, independent of the order in which they experienced them. PMID:28572181

  5. Examining Workplace Ostracism Experiences in Academia: Understanding How Differences in the Faculty Ranks Influence Inclusive Climates on Campus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Carla A; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    .... The unique consequences of workplace ostracism - being ignored and excluded by others in an organizational setting - require focus on this experience as another interpersonal challenge for women in academia...

  6. 绿化屋顶的产流规律及雨水滞蓄效果模拟研究%Study on Runoff and Rainwater Retention Capacity of Green Roof by Experiment and Model Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐莉华; 倪广恒; 刘茂峰; 孙挺

    2011-01-01

    As "the fifth facade" of city, the building roof is an important aspect for the cubist urban afforesting and greening. The rainwater retention and storage capacity of vegetation and soil layer on green roofs, to some extent, can reduce the urban stormwater runoff, delay the runoff generation, and improve the microclimate condition as well. In this study, an artificial raining experiment was carried out on green roof to analyze its rainwater storage capacity by measuring the rainfall and runoff. Then, a HYDRUS-1D model was established based on the greened roof structure. After model calibration and validation, it was used to simulate and analyze the influences of some key factors, including the rainfall, soil depth and soil characteristics. According to the experimental and calculated results, the green roof has good rainwater retention and storage capacity. For the green roofs with 10cm soil layer in this study, it varies from 16.1mm to 21.6mm according to different rainfall frequency. The capacity has an increase trend with the increase of soil depth. For the water storage effectiveness, loam is more suitable for roof greening than sandy soil and silt clay. These results can supply helpful information for the widespread implementation of green roofs in urban area.%建筑物屋顶作为城市的“第五面”,是城市立体化绿化的重要方面.通过屋顶绿化植被和土壤层的蓄滞作用,可在一定程度上延缓产流时间,减少城市径流,并改善局地微气候条件.开展了绿化屋顶的人工降雨径流观测实验,通过对降雨、径流的观测分析了绿化屋顶的雨水滞蓄效果.建立了描述绿化屋顶降雨产流过程的一维入渗模型HYDRUS-1D,利用实验数据进行了模型的率定和验证;并应用模型模拟分析了降雨频率、土层厚度和土壤类型等因素对绿化屋顶雨水滞蓄效果的影响.实验和模拟结果表明,绿化屋顶具有较好的雨水滞蓄效果,10cm土层厚度的绿化

  7. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  8. Improving student retention in computer engineering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozinski, Russell Ivan

    The purpose of this research project was to improve student retention in the Computer Engineering Technology program at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology by reducing the number of dropouts and increasing the graduation rate. This action research project utilized a mixed methods approach of a survey and face-to-face interviews. The participants were male and female, with a large majority ranging from 18 to 21 years of age. The research found that participants recognized their skills and capability, but their capacity to remain in the program was dependent on understanding and meeting the demanding pace and rigour of the program. The participants recognized that curriculum delivery along with instructor-student interaction had an impact on student retention. To be successful in the program, students required support in four domains: academic, learning management, career, and social.

  9. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from countries…

  10. Engineers and Their Role in Public Policy: An Active Learning Experience for Enhancing the Understanding of the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Jorge; Barros, Ricardo; Ramirez, Catalina; Realpe, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    To achieve effective intervention of engineers in the public sector, engineers should develop skills to comprehend their ethical and professional responsibility, and they should gain the necessary education to understand the possible impact of engineering solutions in a global and social context. An active learning process has been conceived,…

  11. 5 CFR 9901.356 - Pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retention. (b) Pay retention will be based on the employee's rate of base salary in effect immediately... the range of rates of base salary applicable to the employee's position. (c) Pay retention will be... the 104-week retention limit. (d) Under NSPS, pay retention will be granted when an employee's base...

  12. Fluctuations of the experience of togetherness within the team over time: task-cohesion and shared understanding throughout a sporting regular season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbousson, Jérôme; Fortes-Bourbousson, Marina

    2016-09-06

    Based on a diagnosis action research design, the present study assessed the fluctuations of the team experience of togetherness. Reported experiences of 12 basketball team members playing in the under-18 years old national championship were studied during a four-month training and competitive period. Time series analysis (Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average procedures) served to describe temporal properties of the way in which the fluctuations of task-cohesion and shared understanding were step-by-step experienced over time, respectively. Correlations, running-correlations and cross-lagged correlations were used to describe the temporal links that governed the relationships between both phenomena. The results indicated that the task-cohesion dimensions differed mainly for shared understanding dynamics in that their time fluctuations were not embedded in external events, and that the variations in shared understanding tend to precede 'individual attractions to the task' variations with seven team practical sessions. This study argues for further investigation of how 'togetherness' is experienced alternatively as a feeling of cohesion or shared understanding. Practitioner Summary: The present action research study investigated the experience that the team members have to share information during practice, and the subsequent benefices on team cohesion. Results call for specific interventions that make team members accept the fluctuating nature of team phenomena, to help them maintaining their daily efforts.

  13. Toward a Record Retention Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    An academic library working group was charged in 2005 to create a records retention schedule and policy applicable to records containing personally identifiable information of library patrons. This group conducted a survey and extensive research, culminating in an adopted library records retention schedule and policy implemented in 2006.

  14. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  15. The game of catapult to understand the design of experiments: one proposal of playful approach for teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Torres Júnior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of the Catapult game for teaching design of experiments. This game consists of a small catapult capable of launching small objects. This can have different settings, so up to five control variables can be changed. The possibility of introducing different adjustments to the catapult allows driving of several types of treatments and the use of various DOE techniques. In this direction, one 2k factorial experiment was performed and is presented. Moreover, the text addresses the DOE through the Multiple Linear Regression using the regression coefficient R2 as a measure for assessing the significance of the factors and the interaction between them. Despite the simplicity of the catapult device, several existing activities in conducting industrial experiments are present in this game. This work provides several important concepts of this technique through play.

  16. Using physiological measures in conjunction with other UX approaches for better understanding of the player's gameplay experiences

    CERN Document Server

    Mirza-Babaei, Pejman

    2011-01-01

    The goal of video games is to challenge and entertain the players. Successful video games deliver experience that impact players on a level of arousal. Therefore undertaking a user experience (UX) study is crucial to ensure that a game achieves both critical and financial success. However, traditional usability methods (observation, subjective reporting, questionnaire, and interview) have a number of limitations on game user research. In this study we capture player's physiological measures during a gameplay session, to indicate micro-events that have caused changes in their body signals. At the post-gameplay interviews we ask participants to comment and describe their feelings on the selected events. The aim of this study is not to over-interpret physiological measures, but on using blips in measures to help identify key points in a game, which we then use to investigate further with the participant. This approach provides a method that can identify not only the negative user experience and usability issues ...

  17. Understanding the Educational Experiences of Science Teachers in a Five-Year Teacher Education Program: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nitin

    This qualitative study provides an overview of educational experiences of six in-service and three pre-service secondary science teachers in the Benedum Collaborative Five-Year Teacher Education Program at a land-grant university. The researcher interviewed secondary science teachers on the experiences they found meaningful in various program components that influenced their teacher identity, beliefs about science pedagogy, and their sense of preparedness for teaching. Document analysis of teachers' journals and lesson plans supplemented the qualitative data in addition to the researcher's role and knowledge as an outsider (non-Benedum graduate) and insider (facilitator and instructor in the technology integration based classes for one year) of the Benedum Collaborative Five-Year Teacher Education Program. Findings also supported the Holmes (1986) and Goodlad (1990) views for extended field experiences and "collaborative culture" in teacher education for well-prepared teachers.

  18. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  19. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  20. The researcher as experimental subject: using self-experimentation to access experiences, understand social phenomena, and stimulate reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Reddy, Geetha; Choi, Ellen; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-06-01

    The current article argues that researcher-as-subject self-experimentation can provide valuable insight and systematic knowledge to social psychologists. This approach, the modus operandi of experimental psychology when the field was in its infancy, has been largely eclipsed by an almost exclusive focus on participant-as-subject other-experimentation. Drawing from the non-experimental first-person traditions of autoethnography, participant observation, and phenomenology, we argue that participating as both observer and subject within one's own social psychological experiment affords researchers at least three potential benefits: (1) access to "social qualia," that is, the subjective experience of social phenomena; (2) improved mental models of social phenomena, potentially stimulating new research questions; and (3) an enhanced ability to be reflexive about the given experiment. To support our position, we provide first-person self-reflections from researchers who have self-experimented with transformed social interactions involving Milgram's cyranoid method. We close by offering guidelines on how one might approach self-experimentation, and discuss a variety of first-person perspective ethnographic technologies that can be incorporated into the practice.

  1. Effects of Conceptual Change Texts and Laboratory Experiments on Fourth Grade Students' Understanding of Matter and Change Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Jale; Bayraktar, Sule

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether conceptual change texts and laboratory experiments are effective in overcoming misconceptions and whether the concepts were acquired permanently when these methods were utilized. In this study, we addressed some topics from the "Matter and Change" unit in science and technology class of…

  2. Understanding drivers of peatland extracellular enzyme activity in the PEATcosm experiment: mixed evidence for enzymic latch hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl J. Romanowicz; Evan S. Kane; Lynette R. Potvin; Aleta L. Daniels; Randy Kolka; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Our objective was to assess the impacts of water table position and plant functional groups on peatland extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) framed within the context of the enzymic latch hypothesis. Methods. We utilized a full factorial experiment with 2 water table (WT) treatments (high and low) and 3 plant functional...

  3. Exploring How Research Experiences for Teachers Changes Their Understandings of the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn R.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of science is a prevalent theme across United States national science education standards and frameworks as well as other documents that guide formal and informal science education reform. To support teachers in engaging their students in authentic scientific practices and reformed teaching strategies, research experiences for teachers…

  4. Understanding the Complexity of Becoming a Teacher Educator: Experience, Belonging, and Practice within a Professional Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Judy; Ritter, Jason; Bullock, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a literature review of self-studies by beginning teacher educators examining their experiences of the transition from classroom teaching to teacher educator. The authors conclude that becoming a teacher educator involves several complex and challenging tasks: examining beliefs and values grounded in personal biography,…

  5. Instructional Experiences That Align with Conceptual Understanding in the Transition from High School Mathematics to College Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Carol H.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Hazari, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the first National study on high school preparation for college calculus success, the Factors Influencing College Success in Mathematics (FICSMath) project, this article connects student high school instructional experiences to college calculus performance. The findings reported here reveal that students were better prepared for…

  6. Understanding the Lived Experience of a Sioux Indian Male Adolescent: Toward the Pedagogy of Hermeneutical Phenomenology in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a resurgence of interests in phenomenology in education. This article sheds light on the importance of hermeneutical phenomenology in teaching and learning based on the lived experience of a Sioux Indian adolescent boy, elicited from an ethnographic case study conducted at an alternative high school in the US. Employing…

  7. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  8. Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial on the Double-Slit Experiment to Improve Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Ryan; Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Learning quantum mechanics is challenging, even for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. Research-validated interactive tutorials that build on students' prior knowledge can be useful tools to enhance student learning. We have been investigating student difficulties with quantum mechanics pertaining to the double-slit experiment in…

  9. Understanding the Relationship between Singapore Preservice Teachers' ICT Course Experiences and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) through ICT Course Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling; Woo, Huay-Lit; Lim, Wei-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education institutions conduct information and communications technology (ICT) courses to prepare preservice teachers (or initial teacher education candidates) to support their teaching practice with appropriate ICT tools. ICT course evaluations based on preservice teachers' perception of course experiences are limited in indicating the…

  10. Veterans' Perspectives on Interventions to Improve Retention in HIV Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie G Minick

    Full Text Available Poor retention in HIV medical care is associated with increased mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS. Developing new interventions to improve retention in HIV primary care is needed. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA is the largest single provider of HIV care in the US. We sought to understand what veterans would want in an intervention to improve retention in VA HIV care. We conducted 18 one-on-one interviews and 15 outpatient focus groups with 46 patients living with HIV infection from the Michael E. DeBakey VAMC (MEDVAMC. Analysis identified three focus areas for improving retention in care: developing an HIV friendly clinic environment, providing mental health and substance use treatment concurrent with HIV care and encouraging peer support from other Veterans with HIV.

  11. A design-of-experiments approach for the optimization and understanding of the cross-metathesis reaction of methyl ricinoleate with methyl acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Thao T T; Jacobs, Tina; Meier, Michael A R

    2009-01-01

    A design-of-experiments approach for the investigation of the cross-metathesis of methyl ricinoleate with methyl acrylate is described. Two second-generation metathesis initiators were studied using different reaction conditions, revealing optimal reaction conditions for each catalyst. Interestingly, the two catalysts showed completely different temperature response profiles. As a result of these investigations, suitable reaction conditions for the sustainable production of two value-added chemical intermediates were derived. Moreover, the design-of-experiments approach provided valuable information for a thorough understanding of catalytic reactions that would be more difficult to obtain by classic approaches.

  12. Understanding the Use-wears on Non-retouched Shells Mytilus galloprovincialis. and Ruditapes decussatus by Performing Wood Working Experiment: An Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumung, Laxmi; Bazgir, Behrouz; Ahmadi, Kamran; Shadmehr, Abdolkarim

    2012-07-01

    This paper is an experimental attempt to understand the use-wear comes on non-retouched shells Ruditapes decussatus and Mytilus galloprovincialis. These species have been selected due to their variation in shape, size and edge type. In wood working experiment Celtus australis wood is used to perform the activities like scrapping and cutting wood. The ESEM results show the usewears in the form of linear marks, edge rounding, edge facture, polish and micro-pitting. Experiments also showed some macro-fractures.

  13. Retention and release mechanisms of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkofler, M.; Reinelt, M.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2011-06-01

    The fraction of deuterium (D) that is retained upon irradiation of beryllium (Be) as well as the temperatures at which implanted D is released are of importance for the international fusion experiment ITER, where Be will be used as an armor material. The influence of single parameters on retention and release is investigated in laboratory experiments performed under well defined conditions with the aim to identify dominant underlying mechanisms and thus be able to predict the behavior of the Be wall in ITER. Recent progress in the quantification of retained fractions and release temperatures as well as in the understanding of the governing mechanisms is presented. The retained fraction upon implantation of D at 1 keV into Be(1 1 2¯ 0) to fluences far below the saturation threshold of 10 21 m -2 is almost 95%, the remaining 5% being attributed to reflection at the surface. At these low fluences, no dependence of the retained fractions on implantation energy is observed. At fluences of the order of 10 21 m -2 and higher, saturation of the irradiated material affects the retention, leading to lower retained fractions. Furthermore, at these fluences the retained fractions decrease with decreasing implantation energies. Differences in the retained fractions from implanted Be(1 1 2¯ 0) and polycrystalline Be are explained by anisotropic diffusion of interstitials during implantation, leading to an amount of surviving D-trap complexes that depends on surface-orientation. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectra are recorded after implantation of fluences of the order of 10 19 m -2 at various energies and simulated by means of a newly developed code based on coupled reaction-diffusion systems (CRDS). The asymmetric shape of the TPD peaks is reproduced by introducing a local D accumulation process into the model.

  14. Gas bubble retention and its effect on waste properties: Retention mechanisms, viscosity, and tensile and shear strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Rassat, S.D.; Powell, M.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Several of the underground nuclear storage tanks at Hanford have been placed on a flammable gas watch list, because the waste is either known or suspected to generate, store, and episodically release flammable gases. Because retention and episodic release of flammable gases from these tanks containing radioactive waste slurries are critical safety concerns, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying physical mechanisms and waste properties that contribute to the episodic gas release from these storage tanks. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNL Flammable Gas project. Previous investigations have concluded that gas bubbles are retained by the slurry or sludge that has settled at the bottom of the tanks; however, the mechanisms responsible for the retention of these bubbles are not well understood. Understanding the rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles and the dynamics of how these bubbles are released from the waste. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, specifically its viscosity and tensile and shear strengths, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. The objectives of this study were to conduct experiments and develop theories to understand better how bubbles are retained by slurries and sludges, to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of simulated slurries, and to measure the effect of gas bubbles on the tensile and shear strengths of simulated slurries and sludges. In addition to accomplishing these objectives, this study developed correlations, based on the new experimental data, that can be used in large-scale computations of waste tank physical phenomena.

  15. Working with the ineffable: Toward a process of understanding and communicating qualitative research knowledge and experience through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coxon, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this paper addresses the conference call for "New processes, tools or approaches that facilitate knowledge exchange and collaboration" between academia and creative people. It introduces a research-for-design program that we at the Experience-based Designing Centre in Denmark...... have been working on and with for the past year. It will present a program of teaching, research and industry collaboration that is essentially a knowledge gathering and information exchange program that is in itself a work-in-progress. We refer to this work as the four pillars of Experience...... thinking. All of these stages involve researchers either academic or from practice, trying to communicate ineffable forms of knowledge to others. It is difficult enough to gain access to this knowledge in the first place, then to know what to do with it when you find it or how to communicate what you have...

  16. Working with the ineffable: Toward a process of understanding and communicating qualitative research knowledge and experience through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coxon, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this paper addresses the conference call for "New processes, tools or approaches that facilitate knowledge exchange and collaboration" between academia and creative people. It introduces a research-for-design program that we at the Experience-based Designing Centre in Denmark...... have been working on and with for the past year. It will present a program of teaching, research and industry collaboration that is essentially a knowledge gathering and information exchange program that is in itself a work-in-progress. We refer to this work as the four pillars of Experience...... thinking. All of these stages involve researchers either academic or from practice, trying to communicate ineffable forms of knowledge to others. It is difficult enough to gain access to this knowledge in the first place, then to know what to do with it when you find it or how to communicate what you have...

  17. Understanding agency and developing historical thinking through labour history in elementary school: A local history learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Demers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Local history has been much neglected in many social studies curricula, in spite of its potential for providing students with authentic and proximal objects of study for the development of historical thinking and understanding of historical agency. This paper presents the results of a collaborative research endeavor, conducted with two teachers and their fifth grade students, and centered around a local history learning unit. The unit included a field enquiry and role-play based on the use of primary source evidence. The unit proved favorable for the development of some structural concepts of historical thinking (Seixas, 1996 and helped students see themselves as historical agents.

  18. Understanding involvement in surgical orthopaedic randomized controlled trials: A qualitative study of patient and health professional views and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Jeremy; Johnson, Emma; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Background Factors influencing patients' motivations for enrolling in, and their experiences of, orthopaedic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are not fully understood. Less is known about healthcare professionals' (HCP) experiences of RCT involvement. Aim This study investigates patients' and HCPs' views and experiences of RCT participation and delivery to inform the planning of future RCTs. Methods Total hip or knee replacement patients (n = 24) participating in the single-center double-blind APEX RCTs of an intra-operative anesthetic intervention and HCPs (n = 15) involved in trial delivery were interviewed. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymized and thematically analyzed. Results Although altruistic reasons for RCT participation were common, patients also weighed up demands of the RCT with the potential benefits of taking part, demonstrating the complex and conditional nature of trial participation. HCPs were interested in RCT involvement as a means of contributing towards advances in medical knowledge and also considered the costs and benefits of RCT involvement. Conclusion Patients and HCPs value involvement in RCTs that they see as relevant and of value, while imposing minimum burden. These findings have important implications for the design of methods to recruit patients to RCTs and for planning how an RCT might best interface with HCP clinical commitments. PMID:26772763

  19. Objectives, Outlines, and Preparation for the Resist Tubule Space Experiment to Understand the Mechanism of Gravity Resistance in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Akamatsu, Haruhiko; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hasegawa, Katsuya; Yano, Sachiko; Omori, Katsunori; Ishioka, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Shohei; Kasahara, Haruo; Shimazu, Toru; A. Baba, Shoji; Hashimoto, Takashi

    Gravity resistance is a principal graviresponse in plants. In resistance to hypergravity, the gravity signal may be perceived by the mechanoreceptors located on the plasma membrane, and then transformed and transduced via the structural continuum or physiological continuity of cortical microtubules-plasma membrane-cell wall, leading to an increase in the cell wall rigidity as the final response. The Resist Tubule experiment, which will be conducted in the Kibo Module on the International Space Station, aims to confirm that this hypothesis is applicable to resistance to 1 G gravity. There are two major objectives in the Resist Tubule experiment. One is to quantify the contributions of cortical microtubules to gravity resistance using Arabidopsis tubulin mutants with different degrees of defects. Another objective is to analyze the modifications to dynamics of cortical microtubules and membrane rafts under microgravity conditions on-site by observing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Arabidopsis lines with the fluorescence microscope in the Kibo. We have selected suitable mutants, developed necessary hardware, and fixed operation procedure for the experiment.

  20. In-services and empty threats: The roles of organizational practices and workplace experiences in shaping U.S. educators' understandings of students' rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jason; Arum, Richard; Edelman, Lauren B; Morrill, Calvin; Tyson, Karolyn

    2015-09-01

    This paper applies theoretical frameworks from organizational sociology and sociolegal studies to examine factors associated with educators' conceptions of students' rights to due process in disciplinary actions. We analyze a unique representative data set of 402 teachers and 200 administrators in U.S. high schools to investigate how educators understand the rights to due process articulated in the Supreme Court case of Goss v. Lopez (1975). We then examine whether individual characteristics and participation in organizational processes are associated with educators' understandings of students' due process rights. Findings suggest that educators' understandings of students' entitlements to due process vary with educators' level of education, experience of school-related legal threats, and participation in district or diocese in-service training programs on students' rights. Results point to organizational climate as a key factor in shaping educators' rights conceptions and the role of law in American schools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling Polymer Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Transport Experiments in Porous Media to Understand the Transport Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, P.; Krol, M.; Sleep, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of groundwater contaminants can be treated with nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). However, delivery of nZVI in the subsurface to the treatment zones is challenging as the bare nZVI particles have a higher tendency to agglomerate. The subsurface mobility of nZVI can be enhanced by stabilizing nZVI with polymer, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to evaluate CMC stabilized nZVI transport behavior in porous media. The numerical simulations were based on a set of laboratory-scale transport experiments that were conducted in a two-dimensional water-saturated glass-walled sandbox (length - 55 cm; height - 45 cm; width - 1.4 cm), uniformly packed with silica sand. In the transport experiments: CMC stabilized nZVI and a non-reactive dye tracer Lissamine Green B (LGB) were used; water specific discharge and CMC concentration were varied; movements of LGB, and CMC-nZVI in the sandbox were tracked using a camera, a light source and a dark box. The concentrations of LGB, CMC, and CMC-nZVI at the sandbox outlet were analyzed. A 2D multiphase flow and transport model was applied to simulate experimental results. The images from LGB dye transport experiments were used to determine the pore water velocities and media permeabilities in various layers in the sand box. These permeability values were used in the subsequent simulations of CMC-nZVI transport. The 2D compositional simulator, modified to include colloid filtration theory (CFT), treated CMC as a solute and nZVI as a colloid. The simulator included composition dependent viscosity to account for CMC injection and mixing, and attachment efficiency as a fitting parameter for nZVI transport modeling. In the experiments, LGB and CMC recoveries were greater than 95%; however, CMC residence time was significantly higher than the LGB residence time and the higher CMC concentration caused higher pressure drops in the sandbox. The nZVI recovery was lower than 40

  2. Gain in Student Understanding of the Role of Random Variation in Evolution Following Teaching Intervention Based on Luria-Delbruck Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Robson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate students in introductory biology classes are typically saddled with pre-existing popular beliefs that impede their ability to learn about biological evolution. One of the most common misconceptions about evolution is that the environment causes advantageous mutations, rather than the correct view that mutations occur randomly and the environment only selects for mutants with advantageous traits. In this study, a significant gain in student understanding of the role of randomness in evolution was observed after students participated in an inquiry-based pedagogical intervention based on the Luria-Delbruck experiment. Questionnaires with isomorphic questions regarding environmental selection among random mutants were administered to study participants (N = 82 in five separate sections of a sophomore-level microbiology class before and after the teaching intervention. Demographic data on each participant was also collected, in a way that preserved anonymity. Repeated measures analysis showed that post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores with regard to the questions about evolution (F(1, 77 = 25.913, p < 0.001. Participants' pre-existing beliefs about evolution had no significant effect on gain in understanding of this concept. This study indicates that conducting and discussing an experiment about phage resistance in E. coli may improve student understanding of the role of stochastic events in evolution more broadly, as post-test answers showed that students were able to apply the lesson of the Luria-Delbruck experiment to other organisms subjected to other kinds of selection.

  3. The “ Journey to Becoming” Pre - Service T eachers’ Experiences and Understandings of Rural School Practicum in a South African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Grace Mukeredzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available That rural schools suffer from issues of “hard to staff” and “harder to stay” has been well documented in extant literature. However, the literature seems to indicate inadequate teacher preparation for work in rural schools. Literature also demonstrates that teaching in rural settings ostensibly requires relevant knowledge and, skills to cope with various eventualities, and complexities in those contexts. One way to cope with these complexities is for teacher education programmes to adequately prepare pre-service teachers for work in rural environments. This paper reports the experiences and understandings of 15 Bachelor of Education student teachers who took part in a four-week residential teaching practice whilst living alongside the community in a rural South African setting. The researcher sought to understand their experiences and conceptions of rural school teaching during their professional “journeys to becoming” professionals through this form of residential practicum in a rural setting. The pre-service teachers’ daily reflective journals and audio-taped collaborative reflection sessions constitute the data of evolving constructions of the value of this rural residential practicum towards their understanding of rurality, rural teaching and rural life as they develop as teachers. The paper illustrates that exposure to rurality in teacher preparation promotes better understanding of rural issues and pedagogy, dispelling myths and misconceptions and, broadening students’ career prospects in these settings which may ultimately foster interest in country teaching

  4. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  5. Embodied Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Leonard Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  6. Using a qualitative approach for understanding hospital-affiliated integrated clinical and fitness facilities: characteristics and members' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Kingsbury, Diana; Nichols, Matthew; Grimm, Kristin; Ding, Kele; Hallam, Jeffrey

    2015-06-19

    With health care shifting away from the traditional sick care model, many hospitals are integrating fitness facilities and programs into their clinical services in order to support health promotion and disease prevention at the community level. Through a series of focus groups, the present study assessed characteristics of hospital-affiliated integrated facilities located in Northeast Ohio, United States and members' experiences with respect to these facilities. Adult members were invited to participate in a focus group using a recruitment flyer. A total of 6 focus groups were conducted in 2013, each lasting one hour, ranging from 5 to 12 participants per group. The responses and discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim, then analyzed independently by research team members. Major themes were identified after consensus was reached. The participants' average age was 57, with 56.8% currently under a doctor's care. Four major themes associated with integrated facilities and members' experiences emerged across the six focus groups: 1) facility/program, 2) social atmosphere, 3) provider, and 4) member. Within each theme, several sub-themes were also identified. A key feature of integrated facilities is the availability of clinical and fitness services "under one roof". Many participants remarked that they initially attended physical therapy, becoming members of the fitness facility afterwards, or vice versa. The participants had favorable views of and experiences with the superior physical environment and atmosphere, personal attention, tailored programs, and knowledgeable, friendly, and attentive staff. In particular, participants favored the emphasis on preventive care and the promotion of holistic health and wellness. These results support the integration of wellness promotion and programming with traditional medical care and call for the further evaluation of such a model with regard to participants' health outcomes.

  7. Contribution of long-term hydrothermal experiments for understanding the smectite-to-chlorite conversion in geological environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser-Ruck, Régine; Pignatelli, Isabella; Bourdelle, Franck; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Barres, Odile; Guillaume, Damien; Charpentier, Delphine; Rousset, Davy; Cathelineau, Michel; Michau, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    The smectite-to-chlorite conversion is investigated through long-duration experiments (up to 9 years) conducted at 300 °C. The starting products were the Wyoming bentonite MX80 (79 % smectite), metallic iron and magnetite in contact with a Na-Ca chloride solution. The predominant minerals in the run products were an iron-rich chlorite (chamosite like) and interstratified clays interpreted to be chlorite/smectite and/or corrensite/smectite, accompanied by euhedral crystals of quartz, albite and zeolite. The formation of pure corrensite was not observed in the long-duration experiments. The conversion of smectite into chlorite over time appears to take place in several steps and through several successive mechanisms: a solid-state transformation, significant dissolution of the smectite and direct precipitation from the solution, which is over-saturated with respect to chlorite, allowing the formation of a chamosite-like mineral. The reaction mechanisms are confirmed by X-ray patterns and data obtained on the experimental solutions (pH, contents of Si, Mg, Na and Ca). Because of the availability of some nutrients in the solution, total dissolution of the starting smectite does not lead to 100 % crystallization of chlorite but to a mixture of two dominant clays: chamosite and interstratified chlorite/smectite and/or corrensite/smectite poor in smectite. The role of Fe/(Fe + Mg) in the experimental medium is highlighted by chemical data obtained on newly formed clay particles alongside previously published data. The newly formed iron-rich chlorite has the same composition as that predicted by the geothermometer for diagenetic to low-grade metamorphic conditions, and the quartz + Fe-chlorite + albite experimental assemblage in the 9-year experiment is close to that fixed by water-rock equilibrium.

  8. Pay Attention: Children’s Understanding, Experience and Attitudes to Having a Say in Their Everyday Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Paying attention to children’s participation rights has gained momentum during the late 20th century. The study explored the views and experiences of children between 10 and 12 years in relation to ‘children having a voice in matters that affect them and their views will be given due weight in accordance with their age and maturity’ 10 years on from the National Children’s Strategy (NCS, 2000). Focus groups were employed to carry out the research. Children in the study demonstrated a limited ...

  9. Improved understanding of the dynamic response in anisotropic directional composite materials through the combination of experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. S.; Key, C. T.; Schumacher, S. C.

    2014-05-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in the dynamic response of composite materials; specifically low density epoxy matrix binders strengthened with continuous reinforcing fibers. This is in part due to the widespread use of carbon fiber composites in military, commercial, industrial, and aerospace applications. The design community requires better understanding of these materials in order to make full use of their unique properties. Planar impact testing was performed resulting in pressures up to 15 GPa on a unidirectional carbon fiber - epoxy composite, engineered to have high uniformity and low porosity. Results illustrate the anisotropic nature of the response under shock loading. Along the fiber direction, a two-wave structure similar to typical elastic-plastic response is observed, however, when shocked transverse to the fibers, only a single bulk shock wave is detected. At higher pressures, the epoxy matrix dissociates resulting in a loss of anisotropy. Greater understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed response has been achieved through numerical modeling of the system at the micromechanical level using the CTH hydrocode. From the simulation results it is evident that the observed two-wave structure in the longitudinal fiber direction is the result of a fast moving elastic precursor wave traveling in the carbon fibers ahead of the bulk response in the epoxy resin. Similarly, in the transverse direction, results show a collapse of the resin component consistent with the experimental observation of a single shock wave traveling at speeds associated with bulk carbon. Experimental and simulation results will be discussed and used to show where additional mechanisms, not fully described by the currently used models, are present.

  10. EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES' EXPERIENCES WITH STRESS: UNDERSTANDING VARIATIONS WITHIN A HIGH-RISK, LOW-INCOME SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae

    2017-09-01

    The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Timeslice experiments for understanding regional climate projections: applications to the tropical hydrological cycle and European winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Robin; Douville, Hervé; Skinner, Christopher B.

    2017-01-01

    A set of atmosphere-only timeslice experiments are described, designed to examine the processes that cause regional climate change and inter-model uncertainty in coupled climate model responses to CO_2 forcing. The timeslice experiments are able to reproduce the pattern of regional climate change in the coupled models, and are applied here to two cases where inter-model uncertainty in future projections is large: the tropical hydrological cycle, and European winter circulation. In tropical forest regions, the plant physiological effect is the largest cause of hydrological cycle change in the two models that represent this process. This suggests that the CMIP5 ensemble mean may be underestimating the magnitude of water cycle change in these regions, due to the inclusion of models without the plant effect. SST pattern change is the dominant cause of precipitation and circulation change over the tropical oceans, and also appears to contribute to inter-model uncertainty in precipitation change over tropical land regions. Over Europe and the North Atlantic, uniform SST increases drive a poleward shift of the storm-track. However this does not consistently translate into an overall polewards storm-track shift, due to large circulation responses to SST pattern change, which varies across the models. Coupled model SST biases influence regional rainfall projections in regions such as the Maritime Continent, and so projections in these regions should be treated with caution.

  12. Information Technology Strategies for Honor Society and Organization Membership Retention in Online Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Emily E; Wasco, Jennifer J

    Membership retention in an honor society or organization is of utmost importance for sustainability. However, retaining members in organizations that serve online education nursing students can be a challenging task. Understanding the importance of creating a sense of community to promote retention within an honor society chapter, nursing faculty at a small private university implemented different online approaches. This article highlights successful information technology strategies to promote membership retention in organizations for online nursing students.

  13. Understanding and improving patient experience: a national survey of training courses provided by higher education providers and healthcare organizations in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Glenn; Waite, Richard; Cornwell, Jocelyn; Morrow, Elizabeth; Maben, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and improving 'patient experience' is essential to delivering high quality healthcare. However, little is known about the provision of education and training to healthcare staff in this increasingly important area. This study aims to ascertain the extent and nature of such provision in England and to identify how it might be developed in the future. An on-line survey was designed to explore training provision relating to patient experiences. To ensure that respondents thought about patient experience in the same way we defined patient experience training as that which aims to teach staff: 'How to measure or monitor the experience, preferences and priorities of patients and use that knowledge to improve their experience'. Survey questions (n=15) were devised to cover nine consistently reported key aspects of patient experience; identified from the research literature and recommendations put forward by professional bodies. The survey was administered to (i) all 180 providers of Higher Education (HE) to student/qualified doctors, nurses and allied health professionals, and (ii) all 390 National Health Service (NHS) trusts in England. In addition, we added a single question to the NHS 2010 Staff Survey (n=306,000) relating to the training staff had received to deliver a good patient experience. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals responded to the on-line survey representing a total of 159 different organizations from the HE and healthcare sectors. Respondents most commonly identified 'relationships' as an 'essential' aspect of patient experience education and training. The biggest perceived gaps in current provision related to the 'physical' and 'measurement' aspects of our conceptualization of patient experience. Of the 148,657 staff who responded to the Staff Survey 41% said they had not received patient experience training and 22% said it was not applicable to them. While some relevant education courses are in place in England, the results suggest

  14. Fuzzy indicators for customer retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Fernández, Leslier; Nicolas, Carolina; Gil-Lafuente, Jaime; Merigó, José M

    2016-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, one cannot ignore the existence of a gap on how to measure this relationship. Following this idea, this study proposes six fuzzy key performance indicators that aims to measure customer retention and loyalty of the portfolio...

  15. Post-operative urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  16. Understanding the relationships between self-esteem, experiential avoidance, and paranoia: structural equation modelling and experience sampling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udachina, Alisa; Thewissen, Viviane; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Fitzpatrick, Sam; O'kane, Aisling; Bentall, Richard P

    2009-09-01

    Hypothesized relationships between experiential avoidance (EA), self-esteem, and paranoia were tested using structural equation modeling in a sample of student participants (N = 427). EA in everyday life was also investigated using the Experience Sampling Method in a subsample of students scoring high (N = 17) and low (N = 15) on paranoia. Results showed that paranoid students had lower self-esteem and reported higher levels of EA than nonparanoid participants. The interactive influence of EA and stress predicted negative self-esteem: EA was particularly damaging at high levels of stress. Greater EA and higher social stress independently predicted lower positive self-esteem. Low positive self-esteem predicted engagement in EA. A direct association between EA and paranoia was also found. These results suggest that similar mechanisms may underlie EA and thought suppression. Although people may employ EA to regulate self-esteem, this strategy is maladaptive as it damages self-esteem, incurs cognitive costs, and fosters paranoid thinking.

  17. Moving beyond the "perpetual novice": understanding the experiences of novice hemodialysis nurses and cannulation of the arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara; Harwood, Lori; Oudshoorn, Abe

    2013-01-01

    Cannulation of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an essential skill for hemodialysis (HD) nurses. With declining rates of AVFs, opportunities to develop expert cannulation skills have become limited. This study explored the concept of perpetual novice and AVF cannulation from the perspective of the novice cannulator. Nine hemodialysis nurses were interviewed using ethnographic methodology. The study identified the interplay between personal and environmental/contextual factors that hindered skill acquisition. Personal attributes identified by participants included HD nurses' approach to learning and previous experience, emotional reaction to stress, and interpersonal relationships with colleagues. Environmental/contextual factors identified as impediments to cannulation skill development included limited learning opportunities, attitudes and demands from patients, unit flow and time pressures, and limitations imposed by the current model of nursing care. This study will be helpful in directing future educational, operational, and supportive interventions for novice HD nurses around cannulation skill development.

  18. Retention of perceptual generalization of fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappens, Meike; Schroijen, Mathias; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse

    2015-12-01

    Fear reduction obtained during a fear extinction procedure can generalize from the extinction stimulus to other perceptually similar stimuli. Perceptual generalization of fear extinction typically follows a perceptual gradient, with increasing levels of fear reduction the more a stimulus resembles the extinction stimulus. The current study aimed to investigate whether perceptual generalization of fear extinction can be observed also after a retention interval of 24h. Fear was acquired to three geometrical figures of different sizes (CS(+), CS1(+) and CS2(+)) by consistently pairing them with a short-lasting suffocation experience (US). Three other geometrical figures that were never followed by the US served as control stimuli (CS(-), CS1(-), CS2(-)). Next, only the CS(+) was extinguished by presenting it in the absence of the US. One day later, fear responses to all stimuli were assessed without any US-presentation. Outcome measures included startle blink EMG, skin conductance, US expectancy, respiratory rate and tidal volume. On day 2 spontaneous recovery of fear was observed in US expectancy and tidal volume, but not in the other outcomes. Evidence for the retention of fear extinction generalization was present in US expectancy and skin conductance, but a perceptual gradient in the retention of generalized fear extinction could not be observed.

  19. Understanding of Nursing Diabetes Complicated with Neurogenic Retention of Urine and Urinary Tract Mycotic Infection%糖尿病合并神经源性尿潴留、泌尿道真菌感染的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李柳芳; 顾华英; 巫织娥; 蔡秀英

    2002-01-01

    To treat patients with diabetic nearogenie bladder and neurogenic retention of urine by treating diabetes and evacuatingneurogenic retention of urine and restoring the function of the bladder. When the disease is complicated with urinary tract mycotic infection,the nursing become more important for the treatment.

  20. The construction and validation of an instrument to measure "community understanding": Interdependence among community members, awareness of sustainability issues, and experience of connection with the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerly-Kolb, Susan Jessamyn

    Statement of the problem. Research in the areas of environmentalism and environmental education indicate the need to understand the concepts of environmental attitude and environmental action in order to better facilitate their positive development in students. This research indicates that environmental attitude is connected to certain characteristics found in persons who exhibit positive attitude toward the environment and who tend toward positive environmental action. These characteristics include interdependence among members of a community, awareness of sustainability issues, and experience of connection with nature. For this research, the above characteristics, taken together, are called Community Understanding. The purpose of this research was the development of an instrument to examine the construct of Community Understanding and to utilize the instrument to look at a possible correlation between Community Understanding and environmental attitudes and action. The instrument was also used to examine the differences in Community Understanding among rural and urban students. Methods. The Community Understanding Questionnaire was developed utilizing the method created by Dr. William Curlette at Georgia State University (Curlette, 1996). The questionnaire was then administered to 500 10sp{th} grade students in rural and urban Colorado. After the administration of a group difference study and the questionnaire, the results were analyzed using factor analysis to determine the fit of the questions into the original constructs of Interdependence, Awareness of Sustainability Issues, and Connection to Nature. The analysis resulted in the elimination of certain questions and the rearrangement of other questions to create a better fit into the three scales. Reliability analysis conducted on this new formation of questions resulted in a stronger instrument. Results. Statistical analyses of the Community Understanding Questionnaire imply the presence of a construct

  1. Turnover: strategies for staff retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SnowAntle, S

    1990-01-01

    This discussion has focused on a number of areas where organizations may find opportunities for more effectively managing employee retention. Given the multitude of causes and consequences, there is no one quick fix. Effective management of employee retention requires assessment of the entire human resources process, that is, recruitment, selection, job design, compensation, supervision, work conditions, etc. Regular and systematic diagnosis of turnover and implementation of multiple strategies and evaluation are needed (Mobley, 1982).

  2. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabit, Suzette A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Katz, Andrea M. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Tolokh, Igor S. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; Drozdetski, Aleksander [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; Baker, Nathan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Onufriev, Alexey V. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA

    2016-05-24

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively char- acterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight in understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  3. Understanding barriers to involving community midwives in identifying research participants; experience of the first steps randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jane; Barnes, Jacqueline; Spiby, Helen; Elbourne, Diana

    2015-08-01

    to explore barriers to the involvement of community midwives in identifying women in early pregnancy as potential participants in the first steps study, a randomised controlled trial of a new intervention to provide health and parenting support to potentially vulnerable women. descriptive qualitative investigation using semi-structured audio-recorded interviews. community midwifery offices. volunteer sample of 13 community midwives. themes derived from content analysis. understanding of their role in the research process was unclear to many midwives. Confusion arose about the difference between potential participant identification and trial recruitment. There were concerns about the eligibility criteria and it was suggested that there was insufficient time during booking appointments, and sometimes insufficient information, to determine potential eligibility. Midwives had concerns about some aspects of the intervention, which incorporated routine midwifery care, and had expectations that women may not like a group programme. This may have led some not to mention the trial. They were, however positive about the programme׳s potential for beneficial impacts on mothers and infants. dedicated research midwives may be the best option if research studies need to identify potential participants early in pregnancy, so that they can communicate with all their colleagues. if community midwives are asked to be involved in time-critical research they are likely to need additional local resources and support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comparative Study of Campus Experiences of College Students with Mental Illnesses versus a General College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine campus experiences and relationships of college students with mental illnesses compared to general student norms using the College Student Experiences Questionnaire to understand potential sources of distress and retention issues. Participants: Responses were obtained from 449 former and current students with mental illnesses…

  5. Retention and academic performance of undergraduate nursing students with advanced standing: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northall, Tiffany; Ramjan, Lucie M; Everett, Bronwyn; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-04-01

    Undergraduate nursing students enter university through a variety of pathways. For some students, this includes the granting of advanced standing based on recognition of prior qualifications. The impact of advanced standing on nursing students' transition, retention and success at university is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the retention, academic success and experiences of students who commenced their undergraduate nursing studies with advanced standing. A sequential exploratory mixed-methods design was used in this study, which involved undergraduate nursing students enrolled at a multi-campus university in Australia. Nursing students who enrolled in 2014 and did not opt out of program level research were included in the study. Students with advanced standing were older (mean 31.6 versus 25.8 years, ppredictor of low GPA [OR: 1.69 (95% CI: 1.06 to 2.69]. Most students with advanced standing commenced directly into second year (45%) missing first year student connections and programs. Students reported feeling apprehensive, forgotten and ill-prepared for the expectations of university. Some showed significant strength and resilience while others were struggling to cope with the workload with minimal knowledge or understanding of supports available to them. The widening participation agenda is a commendable strategy; however, students who enter university with advanced standing need targeted support to promote their transition, retention and success at university. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining long term field experiments and nanoscale analysis to enhance process understanding of root litter stabilization by mineral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, Abad; Baumann, Karen; Remusat, Laurent; Barre, Pierre; Dignac, Marie-France; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    Mineral interaction may affect the stabilisation of root litter directly or indirectly after microbial decomposition and transformation. The importance of both processes may vary within the soil profile. In this study we studied C stabilisation of isotopically labelled root litter (13C and 15N), which was incubated during 3 year in the field at different soil depth. Samples from this field experiment were recovered and subjected to nanoscale analyses in order to elucidate mineral interactions occurring in different parts of the soil profile. Our results showed enrichment of mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons. However, material derived from new plant litter may be stabilised at similar rates in top- and subsoil horizons. N-containing compounds are enriched in the mineral associated fraction of subsoil horizons, indicating enrichment of microbial derived material with depth. Nano scale analyses showed that indeed plant-derived material may be associated with metal oxides in topsoil horizons, whereas the mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons may consist of microbial cells. Interestingly, in contrast to short term laboratory analysis, decoupling of C and N through stabilisation with soil minerals was observed during this long term field experiment. Our results indicate that the nature of OM stabilised by mineral interactions is depth specific. Therefore, we suggest, that plant derived lignocellulosic material may be preserved by mineral interactions in topsoil given its incomplete degradation, thereby leading to the formation of functional groups and favouring adsorption to soil minerals. This is consistent with the higher state of lignin-degradation observed in topsoil horizons as compared to subsoil. At depth, where microorganisms are most likely energy limited, degradation of fresh plant litter may be complete, thereby diminishing the formation of lignocellulosic compounds capable of sorption onto metal oxides. As a result

  7. Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott; Croucher, Tom; Bani Mustafa, Ahmed; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Understanding factors that motivate young athletes to continue participation in sport can help key stakeholders cultivate an environment that fosters long-term participation. This investigation sought to determine the performance and participation factors that influenced continued participation in junior cricket. Administration-level data were collected each annual season across a seven-year period by a community-level junior cricket association in Australia and analysed to identify the performance and participation-based predictors of player retention. All players were males aged <16 years. Players were categorised according to whether they remained in (or departed from) the association at the end of each playing season. A multivariate logistic regression model with a stepwise variable selection was employed to identify significant independent predictors of player retention. The number of innings batted and overs bowled were significant participation-related contributors to junior cricket player retention. Performance factors such as the number of wickets taken and the number of runs scored also significantly influenced player retention. Finally, team age group, the number of previous seasons played and age were also significant factors in player retention. This demonstrates that sufficient opportunity for children to participate in the game and expression of skills competence are key factors for retention in cricket.

  8. Soot effects on clouds and solar absorption: Understanding the differences in recently published soot mitigation experiments. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S. E.; Menon, S.

    2010-12-01

    Attention has been drawn to black carbon aerosols, as a target for short-term mitigation of climate warming. This measure seems attractive because soot is assumed to warm the atmosphere and at the same time has a lifetime of just a few days. Therefore regulating soot emissions could, as a short-term action, potentially buy time by slowing global warming until regulations for longer lived greenhouse gases are set in place. Currently the scientific community debates the impacts of such mitigation measures, especially when considering indirect effects. We tested with the GISS/MATRIX model, a global climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics, the effect of reducing fossil fuel emissions and bio-fuel emissions and found that opposite changes in cloud droplet number concentration lead to positive cloud forcing numbers in the bio-fuel reduction case and negative forcing numbers in the diesel mitigation case. Similar experiments have been carried out and have recently been published by other modeling groups, finding partly similar partly contradicting results to our study. In this presentation we want to explain the differences in black carbon research carried out with complex microphysical models, by focusing on the treatment of mixing state, and separation between forcings and feedbacks.

  9. Experience and understanding of high-speed PCB design%高速PCB设计经验与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐志强

    2011-01-01

    High-speed PCB design has become the main stream in digital system design,and it affects the performance directly even the function of the system.Following the step of PCB design,the principles of the PCB design are classified with the experience of author according to the high speed PCB design requirement.The principles for high-speed PCB design about PCB stackup,components' placement,ground method and PCB layout are given out in detail,it also shows some problems that should be noticed during PCB design.The high speed PCB designed follows the rules mentioned in this paper and has low ground bouncing and good EMC performance.%高速PCB设计已成为数字系统设计中的主流技术,PCB的设计质量直接关系到系统性能的好坏乃至系统功能的实现。针对高速PCB的设计要求,结合笔者设计经验,按照PCB设计流程,对PCB设计中需要重点关注的设计原则进行了归类。详细阐述了PCB的叠层设计、元器件布局、接地、PCB布线等高速PCB设计中需要遵循的设计原则和设计方法以及需要注意的问题等。按照笔者所述方法设计的高速复杂数模混合电路,其地噪很低,电磁兼容性很好。

  10. Student retention in athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M

    2009-01-01

    The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r = 0.515, P students. Understanding student retention in athletic training is important for our profession. Results from this study suggest 3 key factors associated with student persistence in athletic training education programs: (1) student motivation, (2) clinical and academic integration, and (3) the presence of a peer-support system. Educators and program

  11. Understanding innovators' experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Julie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare service innovations are considered to play a pivotal role in improving organisational efficiency and responding effectively to healthcare needs. Nevertheless, healthcare organisations encounter major difficulties in sustaining and diffusing innovations, especially those which concern the organisation and delivery of healthcare services. The purpose of the present study was to explore how healthcare innovators of process-based initiatives perceived and made sense of factors that either facilitated or obstructed the innovation implementation and diffusion. Methods A qualitative study was designed. Fifteen primary and secondary healthcare organisations in the UK, which had received health service awards for successfully generating and implementing service innovations, were studied. In-depth, semi structured interviews were conducted with the organisational representatives who conceived and led the development process. The data were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Four main themes were identified in the analysis of the data: the role of evidence, the function of inter-organisational partnerships, the influence of human-based resources, and the impact of contextual factors. "Hard" evidence operated as a proof of effectiveness, a means of dissemination and a pre-requisite for the initiation of innovation. Inter-organisational partnerships and people-based resources, such as champions, were considered an integral part of the process of developing, establishing and diffusing the innovations. Finally, contextual influences, both intra-organisational and extra-organisational were seen as critical in either impeding or facilitating innovators' efforts. Conclusions A range of factors of different combinations and co-occurrence were pointed out by the innovators as they were reflecting on their experiences of implementing, stabilising and diffusing novel service initiatives. Even though the innovations

  12. Aleitamento materno: o desafio de compreender a vivência Breastfeeding: the challenge to understand the experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Amaral Araújo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa contribuir para uma reflexão sobre o papel dos profissionais de saúde perante a mulher que vivencia o processo da amamentação. Foram utilizadas publicações acerca do tema, oriundas de revistas científicas, teses, dissertações, livros técnicos e publicações de organismos nacionais e internacionais. Essa reflexão parte das evidências científicas acerca das demandas da assistência em amamentação, no que se refere à vivência da mulher nesse processo. São apontadas as limitações dos profissionais de saúde, inclusive do nutricionista, diante das exigências no assistir em amamentação. Evidenciou-se, neste estudo, a necessidade da capacitação dos profissionais de saúde para atuar na assistência em amamentação, numa abordagem que ultrapasse as fronteiras do biológico, compreendendo a nutriz em todas as dimensões do ser mulher. Da mesma forma, urge que se amplie o debate, ainda escasso, sobre a atuação do nutricionista na assistência à amamentação.This work aims to contribute to a reflection on the role of health professionals regarding women who breastfeed. Publications from scientific journals, theses, dissertations, textbooks and papers from national and international organizations were consulted. This reflection originates from the scientific evidences on the requirements of breastfeeding assistance regarding what the woman experiences during this process. The limitations of health professionals, including nutritionists, are pointed out, in respect to the requirements of providing breastfeeding assistance. This study evidenced the need to train health professionals to provide breastfeeding assistance that goes beyond the biological aspect, encompassing all facets of womanhood. In the same manner, we urge that the debate on the nutritionist's role in breastfeeding assistance be expanded as it is still scarce.

  13. Understanding innovators' experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Julie; Vasileiou, Konstantina; Djemil, Fayika; Brooks, Laurence; Young, Terry

    2011-12-16

    Healthcare service innovations are considered to play a pivotal role in improving organisational efficiency and responding effectively to healthcare needs. Nevertheless, healthcare organisations encounter major difficulties in sustaining and diffusing innovations, especially those which concern the organisation and delivery of healthcare services. The purpose of the present study was to explore how healthcare innovators of process-based initiatives perceived and made sense of factors that either facilitated or obstructed the innovation implementation and diffusion. A qualitative study was designed. Fifteen primary and secondary healthcare organisations in the UK, which had received health service awards for successfully generating and implementing service innovations, were studied. In-depth, semi structured interviews were conducted with the organisational representatives who conceived and led the development process. The data were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Four main themes were identified in the analysis of the data: the role of evidence, the function of inter-organisational partnerships, the influence of human-based resources, and the impact of contextual factors. "Hard" evidence operated as a proof of effectiveness, a means of dissemination and a pre-requisite for the initiation of innovation. Inter-organisational partnerships and people-based resources, such as champions, were considered an integral part of the process of developing, establishing and diffusing the innovations. Finally, contextual influences, both intra-organisational and extra-organisational were seen as critical in either impeding or facilitating innovators' efforts. A range of factors of different combinations and co-occurrence were pointed out by the innovators as they were reflecting on their experiences of implementing, stabilising and diffusing novel service initiatives. Even though the innovations studied were of various contents and originated from diverse

  14. Experiencing 'pathologized presence and normalized absence'; understanding health related experiences and access to health care among Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Lawthom, Rebecca; Mountian, Ilana; Shahrin, Afifa

    2015-09-19

    Asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status have been reported to experience a range of difficulties when accessing public services and supports in the UK. While research has identified health care barriers to equitable access such as language difficulties, it has not considered the broader social contexts of marginalization experienced through the dynamics of 'othering'. The current study explores health and health care experiences of Somali and Iraqi asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status, highlighting 'minoritization' processes and the 'pathologization' of difference as analytical lenses to understand the multiple layers of oppression that contribute to health inequities. For the study, qualitative methods were used to document the lived experiences of asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and five focus groups were used to explore personal accounts, reveal shared understandings and enable social, cognitive and emotional understandings of on-going health problems and challenges when seeking treatment and care. A participatory framework was undertaken which inspired collaborative workings with local organizations that worked directly with asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. The analysis revealed four key themes: 1) pre-departure histories and post-arrival challenges; 2) legal status; 3) health knowledges and procedural barriers as well as 4) language and cultural competence. Confidentiality, trust, wait times and short doctor-patient consultations were emphasized as being insufficient for culturally specific communications and often translating into inadequate treatment and care. Barriers to accessing health care was associated with social disadvantage and restrictions of the broader welfare system suggesting that a re-evaluation of the asylum seeking process is required to improve the situation. Macro- and micro-level intersections of accustomed societal

  15. Learning and Retention of Quantum Concepts with Different Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Louis; Wieman, Carl

    2011-01-01

    We measured mastery and retention of conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in a modern physics course. This was studied for two equivalent cohorts of students taught with different pedagogical approaches using the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey. We measured the impact of pedagogical approach both on the original conceptual learning…

  16. Knowledge Retention of Exercise Physiology Content between Athletes and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian; Webster, Collin; Druger, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Based on the idea that learning is linked to personal relevance, this study examined knowledge retention of exercise physiology content between college athletes and nonathletes. No differences were observed between the groups. These findings have implications on understanding the relationship between personal relevance and memory. (Contains 1…

  17. Transport and Retention of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots in Saturated Sand: Effects of Organic Ligands, pH and Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Snee, Preston; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The presence of nanomaterials in soil, water, and air systems following their life cycle or accidents and their effects on the environment and public health are inevitable. Ability to forecast the public health and ecological impacts of these nanomaterials encountered in the environment is limited. Therefore, it is critical to be able to predict the fate and transport on nanomaterials in the environment, in particular the subsurface, in order to conduct risk assessments. To assess the transport and retention of nanomaterials in the subsurface environment, we selected quantum dots (QDs). QDs are metal and semiconductor based nanomaterials that are essential to nanoscience and nanotechnology. Understanding the parameters that effect the transport and retention of QDs in the soil water environment is critical. Natural organic ligands are commonly found in soils and impact the soil physico-chemical processes through multifaceted reactions with metal ions present in soil solution and ligand exchange reactions on soil surfaces. Therefore, ligands may modify the surface properties of QDs and effect their stability, transport and retention in the subsurface environment. In this research, size, surface charge, and stability of CdSe/ZnS QDs in water solutions are monitored in batch experiments. The influence of organic ligands (acetate, oxalate, and citrate) on the stability of QDs at different pHs (1.5, 3.5, 5, 7 and 9) and ionic strengths (0.05 and 0.1 M) conditions were examined. The stability and aggregation phenomena of QDs were studied using UV-vis and DLS methods. Parameters from batch studies were selected to establish chemical conditions to be used in transport experiments to produce breakthrough curves and retention profiles in order to characterize the fate and transport of QDs in saturated sand. These transport experiments are essential to understand the mobility and retention processes in porous media where QD interactions with surfaces of heterogeneous

  18. Quantifying flow retention due to vegetation in an earthen experimental channel using the Aggregated Dead Zone (ADZ) dilution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Paul; Kleinhans, Maarten; Leyland, Julian; Besozzi, Louison; Duranton, Pierre; Trieu, Hai; Teske, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of flow resistance of forested floodplains is essential for floodplain flow routing and floodplain reforestation projects. Although the flow resistance of grass-lined channels is well-known, flow retention due to flow-blocking by trees is poorly understood. Flow behaviour through tree-filled channels or over forested floodplain surfaces has largely been addressed using laboratory studies of artificial surfaces and vegetation. Herein we take advantage of a broad, shallow earthen experimental outdoor channel with headwater and tailwater controls. The channel was disused and left undisturbed for more than 20 years. During this time period, small deciduous trees and a soil cover of grass, herbs and leaf-litter established naturally. We measured flow resistance and fluid retention in fifteen controlled water discharge experiments for the following conditions: (a) natural cover of herbs and trees; (b) trees only and; (c) earthen channel only. In the b-experiments the herbaceous groundcover was first removed carefully and in the c-experiments the trees were first cut flush with the earthen channel floor. Rhodamine-B dye was used to tag the flow and the resultant fluorescence of water samples were systematically assayed through time at two stations along the length of the channel. Dilution-curve data were analysed within the Aggregated Dead Zone (ADZ) framework to yield bulk flow parameters including dispersion, fluid retention and flow resistance parameters after the procedure of Richardson & Carling (2006). The primary response of the bulk flow to vegetation removal was an increase in bulk velocity, with depth and wetted width decreasing imperceptibly at the resolution of measurement. An overall reduction in flow resistance and retention occurred as discharge increased in all experiments and flow retention. Retentiveness was more prominent during low flow and for all three experimental conditions tended to converge on a constant low value for high

  19. Accurate prediction of retention in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) by back calculation of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) gradient profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nu; Boswell, Paul G

    2017-08-26

    Gradient retention times are difficult to project from the underlying retention factor (k) vs. solvent composition (φ) relationships. A major reason for this difficulty is that gradients produced by HPLC pumps are imperfect - gradient delay, gradient dispersion, and solvent mis-proportioning are all difficult to account for in calculations. However, we recently showed that a gradient "back-calculation" methodology can measure these imperfections and take them into account. In RPLC, when the back-calculation methodology was used, error in projected gradient retention times is as low as could be expected based on repeatability in the k vs. φ relationships. HILIC, however, presents a new challenge: the selectivity of HILIC columns drift strongly over time. Retention is repeatable in short time, but selectivity frequently drifts over the course of weeks. In this study, we set out to understand if the issue of selectivity drift can be avoid by doing our experiments quickly, and if there any other factors that make it difficult to predict gradient retention times from isocratic k vs. φ relationships when gradient imperfections are taken into account with the back-calculation methodology. While in past reports, the accuracy of retention projections was >5%, the back-calculation methodology brought our error down to ∼1%. This result was 6-43 times more accurate than projections made using ideal gradients and 3-5 times more accurate than the same retention projections made using offset gradients (i.e., gradients that only took gradient delay into account). Still, the error remained higher in our HILIC projections than in RPLC. Based on the shape of the back-calculated gradients, we suspect the higher error is a result of prominent gradient distortion caused by strong, preferential water uptake from the mobile phase into the stationary phase during the gradient - a factor our model did not properly take into account. It appears that, at least with the stationary phase

  20. Psychosocial framework for understanding psychological distress among survivors of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack: beyond traumatic experiences and emergency medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacquleen; Jaswal, Surinder

    2014-06-01

    The field of "Public Health in Disasters and Complex Emergencies" is replete with either epidemiological studies or studies in the area of hospital preparedness and emergency care. The field is dominated by hospital-based or emergency phase-related literature, with very little attention on long-term health and mental health consequences. The social science, or the public mental health perspective, too, is largely missing. It is in this context that the case report of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack survivors is presented to bring forth the multi-dimensional and dynamic long-term impacts, and their consequences for psychological well-being, two years after the incident. Based on literature, the report formulates a theoretical framework through which the lived experiences of the survivors is analyzed and understood from a social science perspective. This report is an outcome of the ongoing work with the survivors over a period of two years. A mixed methodology was used. It quantitatively captures the experience of 231 families following the attack, and also uses a self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ), SRQ20, to understand the psychological distress. In-depth qualitative case studies constructed from the process records and in-depth interviews focus on lived experiences of the survivors and explain the patterns emerging from the quantitative analysis. This report outlines the basic profile of the survivors, the immediate consequences of the attack, the support received, psychological consequences, and the key factors contributing to psychological distress. Through analysis of the key factors and the processes emerging from the lived experiences that explain the progression of vulnerability to psychological distress, this report puts forth a psychosocial framework for understanding psychological distress among survivors of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack.