WorldWideScience

Sample records for retardation nonequilibrium phenomena

  1. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A Surjalal

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.

  2. Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebowitz, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised

  3. Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrano, Matteo

    2015-07-15

    The manipulation of matter with ultrashort laser pulses is a relevant research field from both a fundamental and an applied perspective, owing to the efficient coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom on femtosecond timescales and the ability to induce transient phases that cannot be realized in equilibrium scenarios. Strongly correlated materials are a natural environment for the observation of such novel and emergent out-of-equilibrium physics because small modifications to the electron-electron interactions can induce transitions between remarkably different macroscopic phases. One of the most effective means of modifying the effective electron-electron interactions is to perturb the crystal structure through pressure, strain or even light. However, it remains largely unexplored how perturbing the structural degrees of freedom affects the electron dynamics of the transiently driven states and how the interplay of correlations and electron-lattice interactions determine the intrinsic timescales of these nonequilibrium states. This thesis investigates how to control the light-induced nonequilibrium electronic properties in strongly correlated organics, that are highly tunable with moderate variations of external parameters, by perturbing their structural degrees of freedom, either via static pressures or vibrational excitation. We study the role of correlations in determining the relaxation rate of holes (holons) and double occupancies (doublons) in a solid state Mott insulator, the ET-F{sub 2}TCNQ, driven across a transient insulator-to-metal transition. By mapping holon-doublon lifetimes onto the ground-state electronic interactions, we found that the decay rate of the photoinjected quasiparticles depends on the degree of correlation between carriers and is affected by the presence of a competition between local recombination and delocalization of holon-doublon pairs. By optically controlling the effective correlations in organic molecular crystals through

  4. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in arcs and torches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A general treatment of non-equilibrium plasma aspects is obtained by relating transport fluxes to equilibrium restoring processes in so-called disturbed Bilateral Relations. The (non) equilibrium stage of a small microwave induced plasma serves as case study.

  5. Physical phenomena in a low-temperature non-equilibrium plasma and in MHD generators with non-equilibrium conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Golubev, V.S.; Dykhne, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper assesses the position in 1975 of theoretical and experimental work on the physics of a magnetohydrodynamic generator with non-equilibrium plasma conductivity. This research started at the beginning of the 1960s; as work on the properties of thermally non-equilibrium plasma in magnetic fields and also in MHD generator ducts progressed, a number of phenomena were discovered and investigated that had either been unknown in plasma physics or had remained uninvestigated until that time: ionization instability and ionization turbulence of plasma in a magnetic field, acoustic instability of a plasma with anisotropic conductivity, the non-equilibrium ionization wave and the energy balance of a non-equilibrium plasma. At the same time, it was discovered what physical requirements an MHD generator with non-equilibrium conductivity must satisfy to achieve high efficiency in converting the thermal or kinetic energy of the gas flow into electric energy. The experiments on MHD power generation with thermally non-equilibrium plasma carried out up to 1975 indicated that it should be possible to achieve conversion efficiencies of up to 20-30%. (author)

  6. Basic researches on thermo-hydraulic non-equilibrium phenomena related to nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akira; Kataoka, Isao; Aritomi, Masanori.

    1989-01-01

    A review was made of recent developments of fundamental researches on thermo-hydraulic non-equilibrium phenomena related to light water reactor safety, in relation to problems to be solved for the improvement of safety analysis codes. As for the problems related to flow con ditions, fundamental researches on basic conservation equations and constitutive equations for transient two-phase flow were reviewed. Regarding to the problems related to thermal non-equilibrium phenomena, fundamental researches on film boiling in pool and forced convection, transient boiling heat transfer and flow behavior caused by pressure transients were reviewed. (author)

  7. General Retarded Contact Self-energies in and beyond the Non-equilibrium Green's Functions Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Tillmann; He, Yu; Andrawis, Robert; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Retarded contact self-energies in the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions allow to model the impact of lead structures on the device without explicitly including the leads in the actual device calculation. Most of the contact self-energy algorithms are limited to homogeneous or periodic, semi-infinite lead structures. In this work, the complex absorbing potential method is extended to solve retarded contact self-energies for arbitrary lead structures, including irregular and randomly disordered leads. This method is verified for regular leads against common approaches and on physically equivalent, but numerically different irregular leads. Transmission results on randomly alloyed In0.5Ga0.5As structures show the importance of disorder in the leads. The concept of retarded contact self-energies is expanded to model passivation of atomically resolved surfaces without explicitly increasing the device's Hamiltonian.

  8. Non-equilibrium phenomena near vapor-liquid interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kryukov, Alexei; Puzina, Yulia

    2013-01-01

    This book presents information on the development of a non-equilibrium approach to the study of heat and mass transfer problems using vapor-liquid interfaces, and demonstrates its application to a broad range of problems. In the process, the following peculiarities become apparent: 1. At vapor condensation on the interface from gas-vapor mixture, non-condensable components can lock up the interface surface and condensation stops completely. 2. At the evolution of vapor film on the heater in superfluid helium (He-II), the boiling mass flux density from the vapor-liquid interface is effectively zero at the macroscopic scale. 3. In problems concerning the motion of He-II bridges inside capillaries filled by vapor, in the presence of axial heat flux the He-II bridge cannot move from the heater as would a traditional liquid, but in the opposite direction instead. Thus the heater attracts the superfluid helium bridge. 4. The shape of liquid-vapor interface at film boiling on the axis-symmetric heaters immersed in l...

  9. Analysis of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Panesi, M., E-mail: mpanesi@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61822 (United States); Lani, A. [Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    This work addresses the modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma discharges. In the proposed computational model, the electromagnetic induction equation is solved together with the set of Navier-Stokes equations in order to compute the electromagnetic and flow fields, accounting for their mutual interaction. Semi-classical statistical thermodynamics is used to determine the plasma thermodynamic properties, while transport properties are obtained from kinetic principles, with the method of Chapman and Enskog. Particle ambipolar diffusive fluxes are found by solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations with a simple iterative method. Two physico-mathematical formulations are used to model the chemical reaction processes: (1) A Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) formulation and (2) a thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) formulation. In the TCNEQ model, thermal non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules is accounted for. The electronic states of the chemical species are assumed in equilibrium with the vibrational temperature, whereas the rotational energy mode is assumed to be equilibrated with translation. Three different physical models are used to account for the coupling of chemistry and energy transfer processes. Numerical simulations obtained with the LTE and TCNEQ formulations are used to characterize the extent of non-equilibrium of the flow inside the Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute. Each model was tested using different kinetic mechanisms to assess the sensitivity of the results to variations in the reaction parameters. A comparison of temperatures and composition profiles at the outlet of the torch demonstrates that the flow is in non-equilibrium for operating conditions characterized by pressures below 30 000 Pa, frequency 0.37 MHz, input power 80 kW, and mass flow 8 g/s.

  10. General Retarded Contact Self-energies in and beyond the Non-equilibrium Green's Functions Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Tillmann; He, Yu; Andrawis, Robert; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Retarded contact self-energies in the framework of nonequilibrium Green's functions allow to model the impact of lead structures on the device without explicitly including the leads in the actual device calculation. Most of the contact self-energy algorithms are limited to homogeneous or periodic, semi-infinite lead structures. In this work, the complex absorbing potential method is extended to solve retarded contact self-energies for arbitrary lead structures, including irregular and randomly disordered leads. This method is verified for regular leads against common approaches and on physically equivalent, but numerically different irregular leads. Transmission results on randomly alloyed In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As structures show the importance of disorder in the leads. The concept of retarded contact self-energies is expanded to model passivation of atomically resolved surfaces without explicitly increasing the device's Hamiltonian. (paper)

  11. Non-equilibrium phenomena in confined soft matter irreversible adsorption, physical aging and glass transition at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge experimental and computational results and provides comprehensive coverage on the impact of non-equilibrium structure and dynamics on the properties of soft matter confined to the nanoscale. The book is organized into three main sections: ·         Equilibration and physical aging: by treating non-equilibrium phenomena with the formal methodology of statistical physics in bulk, the analysis of the kinetics of equilibration sheds new light on the physical origin of the non-equilibrium character of thin polymer films. Both the impact of sample preparation and that of interfacial interactions are analyzed using a large set of experiments. A historical overview of the investigation of the non-equilibrium character of thin polymer films is also presented. Furthermore, the discussion focuses on how interfaces and geometrical confinement perturb the pathways and kinetics of equilibrations of soft glasses (a process of tremendous technological interest). ·         Irr...

  12. On nonequilibrium many-body systems 2: ultra fast relaxation phenomena in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarte, A.C.S.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.

    1986-01-01

    The application of the nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method to the study of the irreversible thermodynamics and optical responses of semiconductors probed by ultrafast laser spectroscopy is described. (Author) [pt

  13. Superaging and Subaging Phenomena in a Nonequilibrium Critical Behavior of the Structurally Disordered Two-Dimensional XY Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudnikov, V. V.; Prudnikov, P. V.; Popov, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    A Monte Carlo numerical simulation of the specific features of nonequilibrium critical behavior is carried out for the two-dimensional structurally disordered XY model during its evolution from a low-temperature initial state. On the basis of the analysis of the two-time dependence of autocorrelation functions and dynamic susceptibility for systems with spin concentrations of p = 1.0, 0.9, and 0.6, aging phenomena characterized by a slowing down of the relaxation system with increasing waiting time and the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) are revealed. The values of the universal limiting fluctuation-dissipation ratio (FDR) are obtained for the systems considered. As a result of the analysis of the two-time scaling dependence for spin-spin and connected spin autocorrelation functions, it is found that structural defects lead to subaging phenomena in the behavior of the spin-spin autocorrelation function and superaging phenomena in the behavior of the connected spin autocorrelation function.

  14. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena in inhomogeneous and weakly-coupled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter the authors formulate a microscopic theory of the order parameter suppression effect in a superconductor near the N-S-boundary when T c and T -- T c . The Meissner effect in a normal metal layer making contact with the superconductor is investigated. A microscopic theory of the stationary Josephson effect in various types of SNS - junctions is formulated. Nonstationary and nonequilibrium properties of SNS-junctions with direct conductivity are investigated together with the same properties of SNS - junctions containing a dielectric interlayer. A microscopic theory of the nonstationary Josephson effect in such systems is formulated. The enhancement of supercurrent of such systems in an external microwave field is investigated together with a number of some effects. An expression is derived for the spectrum of minor modes in a system of Josephson junctions in granular superconductors that is not accompanied by a deviation of the quasiparticle distribution function from equilibrium

  15. Phenomena at the QCD phase transition in nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics (NχFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, Marlene [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Herold, Christoph [Suranaree University of Technology, School of Physics, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Heavy-ion collisions performed in the beam energy range accessible by the NICA collider facility are expected to produce systems of extreme net-baryon densities and can thus reach yet unexplored regions of the QCD phase diagram. Here, one expects the phase transition between the plasma of deconfined quarks and gluons and the hadronic matter to be of first order. A discovery of the first-order phase transition would as well prove the existence of the QCD critical point, a landmark in the phase diagram. In order to understand possible signals of the first-order phase transition in heavy-ion collision experiments it is very important to develop dynamical models of the phase transition. Here, we discuss the opportunities of studying dynamical effects at the QCD first-order phase transition within our model of nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics. (orig.)

  16. Collective phenomena in the non-equilibrium quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenke, Bjoern Peter

    2008-07-03

    In this work we study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quark-gluon plasma, as created in heavy-ion collisions. We investigate how big of a role plasma instabilities can play in the isotropization and equilibration of a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we determine, among other things, how much collisions between the particles can reduce the growth rate of unstable modes. This is done both in a model calculation using the hard-loop approximation, as well as in a real-time lattice simulation combining both classical Yang-Mills-fields as well as inter-particle collisions. The new extended version of the simulation is also used to investigate jet transport in isotropic media, leading to a cutoff-independent result for the transport coefficient q. The precise determination of such transport coefficients is essential, since they can provide important information about the medium created in heavy ion collisions. In anisotropic media, the effect of instabilities on jet transport is studied, leading to a possible explanation for the experimental observation that high-energy jets traversing the plasma perpendicular to the beam axis experience much stronger broadening in rapidity than in azimuth. The investigation of collective modes in the hard-loop limit is extended to fermionic modes, which are shown to be all stable. Finally, we study the possibility of using high energy photon production as a tool to experimentally determine the anisotropy of the created system. Knowledge of the degree of local momentum-space anisotropy reached in a heavy-ion collision is essential for the study of instabilities and their role for isotropization and thermalization, because their growth rate depends strongly on the anisotropy. (orig.)

  17. Ordering phenomena and non-equilibrium properties of lattice gas models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiig, T.

    1994-03-01

    This report falls within the general field of ordering processes and non-equilibrium properties of lattice gas models. The theory of diffuse scattering of lattice gas models originating from a random distribution of clusters is considered. We obtain relations between the diffuse part of the structure factor S dif (q), the correlation function C(r), and the size distribution of clusters D(n). For a number of distributions we calculate S dif (q) exactly in one dimension, and discuss the possibility for a Lorentzian and a Lorentzian square lineshape to arise. We discuss the two- and three-dimensional oxygen ordering processes in the high T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x based on a simple anisotropic lattice gas model. We calculate the structural phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulation and compared the results with experimental data. The structure factor of the oxygen ordering properties has been calculated in both two and three dimensions by Monte Carlo simulation. We report on results obtained from large scale computations on the Connection Machine, which are in excellent agreement with recent neutron diffraction data. In addition we consider the effect of the diffusive motion of metal-ion dopants on the oxygen ordering properties on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x . The stationary properties of metastability in long-range interaction models are studied by application of a constrained transfer matrix (CTM) formalism. The model considered, which exhibits several metastable states, is an extension of the Blume Capel model to include weak long-range interactions. We show, that the decay rate of the metastable states is closely related to the imaginary part of the equilibrium free-energy density obtained from the CTM formalism. We discuss a class of lattice gas model for dissipative transport in the framework of a Langevin description, which is capable of producing power law spectra for the density fluctuations. We compare with numerical results obtained from simulations of a

  18. Computational simulation of coupled nonequilibrium discharge and compressible flow phenomena in a microplasma thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, Thomas; Mahadevan, Shankar; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2009-01-01

    The microplasma thruster (MPT) concept is a simple extension of a cold gas micronozzle propulsion device, where a direct-current microdischarge is used to preheat the gas stream to improve the specific impulse of the device. Here we study a prototypical MPT device using a detailed, self-consistently coupled plasma and flow computational model. The model describes the microdischarge power deposition, plasma dynamics, gas-phase chemical kinetics, coupling of the plasma phenomena with high-speed flow, and overall propulsion system performance. Compared to a cold gas micronozzle, a significant increase in specific impulse is obtained from the power deposition in the diverging section of the MPT nozzle. For a discharge voltage of 750 V, a power input of 650 mW, and an argon mass flow rate of 5 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP), the specific impulse of the device is increased by a factor of ∼1.5 to about 74 s. The microdischarge remains mostly confined inside the micronozzle and operates in an abnormal glow discharge regime. Gas heating, primarily due to ion Joule heating, is found to have a strong influence on the overall discharge behavior. The study provides a validation of the MPT concept as a simple and effective approach to improve the performance of micronozzle cold gas propulsion devices.

  19. Nonequilibrium quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Combining the Feynman-Vernon influence functional formalism with the real-time formulation of finite-temperature quantum field theories we present a general approach to relativistic quantum field theories out of thermal equilibrium. We clarify the physical meaning of the additional fields encountered in the real-time formulation of quantum statistics and outline diagrammatic rules for perturbative nonequilibrium computations. We derive a generalization of Boltzmann's equation which gives a complete characterization of relativistic nonequilibrium phenomena. (orig.)

  20. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core

  1. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  2. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevosto, L; Kelly, H; Mancinelli, B

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  3. Nonequilibrium phenomena and determination of plasma parameters in the hot core of the cathode region in free-burning arc discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Gerrit; Kock, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma parameters (electron density n e , electron temperature T e , gas temperature T g , underpopulation factor b) in the hot-core region in front of the cathode of a low-current, free-burning arc discharge in argon under atmospheric pressure. The discharge is operated in the hot-core mode, creating a hot cathode region with plasma parameters similar to high-current arcs in spite of the fact that we use comparatively low currents (less than 20 A). We use continuum emission and (optically thin) line emission to determine n e and T e . We apply relaxation measurements based on a power-interruption technique to investigate deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). These measurements let us determine the gas temperature T g . All measurements are performed side-on with charge-coupled-device cameras as detectors, so that all measured plasma parameters are spatially resolved after an Abel inversion. This yields the first ever spatially resolved observation of the non-LTE phenomena of the hot core in the near-cathode region of free-burning arcs. The results only partly coincide with previously published predictions and measurements in the literature

  4. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds

    1984-01-01

    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  5. Nonequilibrium entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the quite unique entropy concept useful for systems in (local) thermodynamic equilibrium, there is a variety of quite distinct nonequilibrium entropies, reflecting different physical points. We disentangle these entropies as they relate to heat, fluctuations, response, time asymmetry, variational principles, monotonicity, volume contraction or statistical forces. However, not all of those extensions yield state quantities as understood thermodynamically. At the end we sketch how aspects of dynamical activity can take over for obtaining an extended Clausius relation.

  6. Non-dissipative effects in nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, Christian

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces and discusses both the fundamental aspects and the measurability of applications of time-symmetric kinetic quantities, outlining the features that constitute the non-dissipative branch of non-equilibrium physics. These specific features of non-equilibrium dynamics have largely been ignored in standard statistical mechanics texts. This introductory-level book offers novel material that does not take the traditional line of extending standard thermodynamics to the irreversible domain. It shows that although stationary dissipation is essentially equivalent with steady non-equilibrium and ubiquitous in complex phenomena, non-equilibrium is not determined solely by the time-antisymmetric sector of energy-entropy considerations. While this should not be very surprising, this book provides timely, simple reminders of the role of time-symmetric and kinetic aspects in the construction of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  7. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics ensemble method

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    1998-01-01

    In this monograph, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is developed by means of ensemble methods on the basis of the Boltzmann equation, the generic Boltzmann equations for classical and quantum dilute gases, and a generalised Boltzmann equation for dense simple fluids The theories are developed in forms parallel with the equilibrium Gibbs ensemble theory in a way fully consistent with the laws of thermodynamics The generalised hydrodynamics equations are the integral part of the theory and describe the evolution of macroscopic processes in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics of systems far removed from equilibrium Audience This book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, gas dynamics, fluid dynamics, rheology, irreversible thermodynamics and nonequilibrium phenomena

  8. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  9. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...

  10. Nonequilibrium statistical physics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Livi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.

  11. Paranormal phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  12. Non-equilibrium spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V M

    2009-01-01

    In superconductors, recombination of two non-equilibrium quasiparticles into a Cooper pair results in emission of excitation that mediates superconductivity. This is the basis of the proposed new type of 'non-equilibrium' spectroscopy of high T c superconductors, which may open a possibility for direct and unambiguous determination of the coupling mechanism of high T c superconductivity. In case of low T c superconductors, the feasibility of such the non-equilibrium spectroscopy was demonstrated in classical phonon generation-detection experiments almost four decades ago. Recently it was demonstrated that a similar technique can be used for high T c superconductors, using natural intrinsic Josephson junctions both for injection of non-equilibrium quasiparticles and for detection of the non-equilibrium radiation. Here I analyze theoretically non-equilibrium phenomena in intrinsic Josephson junctions. It is shown that extreme non-equilibrium state can be achieved at bias equal to integer number of the gap voltage, which can lead to laser-like emission from the stack. I argue that identification of the boson type, constituting this non-equilibrium radiation would unambiguously reveal the coupling mechanism of high Tc superconductors.

  13. Nonequilibrium constitutive models for RELAP5/MOD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Trapp, J.A.; Riemke, R.A.; Ransom, V.H.

    1983-01-01

    RELAP5/MOD2 is a new version of RELAP5 containing improved modeling features that provide a generic pressurized-water transient simulation capability. In particular, the nonequilibrium modeling capability has been generalized to include conditions that occur in operational transients including repressurization and emergency-feed-water injection with loss-of-coolant accidents. The improvements include addition of a second energy equation to the hydrodynamic model, addition of nonequilibrium heat-transfer models, and the associated nonequilibrium vapor-generation models. The objective of this paper is to describe these models and to report the developmental assessment results obtained from similar of several separate effects experiments. The assessment shows that RELAP5 calculated results are in good agreement with data and the nonequilibrium phenomena are properly modeled

  14. Foundations of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter J.; Iza, Felipe; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2017-12-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas have been intensively studied over the past century in the context of material processing, environmental remediation, ozone generation, excimer lamps and plasma display panels. Research on atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas intensified over the last two decades leading to a large variety of plasma sources that have been developed for an extended application range including chemical conversion, medicine, chemical analysis and disinfection. The fundamental understanding of these discharges is emerging but there remain a lot of unexplained phenomena in these intrinsically complex plasmas. The properties of non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure span over a huge range of electron densities as well as heavy particle and electron temperatures. This paper provides an overview of the key underlying processes that are important for the generation and stabilization of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas. The unique physical and chemical properties of theses discharges are also summarized.

  15. Nonequilibrium statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Röpke, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Authored by one of the top theoretical physicists in Germany, and a well-known authority in the field, this is the only coherent presentation of the subject suitable for masters and PhD students, as well as postdocs in physics and related disciplines.Starting from a general discussion of the nonequilibrium state, different standard approaches such as master equations, and kinetic and linear response theory, are derived after special assumptions. This allows for an insight into the problems of nonequilibrium physics, a discussion of the limits, and suggestions for improvements. Applications

  16. Deterministic thermostats, theories of nonequilibrium systems and parallels with the ergodic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepps, Owen G; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2010-01-01

    Deterministic 'thermostats' are mathematical tools used to model nonequilibrium steady states of fluids. The resulting dynamical systems correctly represent the transport properties of these fluids and are easily simulated on modern computers. More recently, the connection between such thermostats and entropy production has been exploited in the development of nonequilibrium fluid theories. The purpose and limitations of deterministic thermostats are discussed in the context of irreversible thermodynamics and the development of theories of nonequilibrium phenomena. We draw parallels between the development of such nonequilibrium theories and the development of notions of ergodicity in equilibrium theories. (topical review)

  17. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  18. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a

  19. Importance of thermal nonequilibrium considerations for the simulation of nuclear reactor LOCA transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.R.; Nelson, R.A.; Sullivan, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of considering thermal nonequilibrium effects in computer simulations of the refill and reflood portions of pressurized water reactor (PWR) loss-of-coolnat accident (LOCA) transients. Although RELAP4 assumes thermodynamic equilibrium between phases, models that account for the nonequilibrium phenomena associated with the mixing of subcooled emergency cooling water with steam and the superheating of vapor in the presence of liquid droplets have recently been incorporated into the code. Code calculated results, both with and without these new models, have been compared with experimental test data to assess the importance of including thermal nonequilibrium phenomena in computer code simulations

  20. On nonequilibrium many-body systems V: ultrafast transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, V.N.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.

    1989-01-01

    The monequilibrium statistical operator method and its accompanying nonlinear quantum transport theory, are used to perform an analytical study of the ultrafast mobility transient of central-valley photoinjected carriers in direct-gap polar semiconductors. Expressions for the time-resolved mobility of the hot carriers are derived. A brief discussion of the carriers' diffusion coefficient is done. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Nonequilibrium phenomena in QCD and BEC. Boltzmann and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockamp, T.

    2006-12-22

    In chapter 2 we chose the real time formalism to discuss some basic principles in quantum field theory at finite temperature. This enables us to derive the quantum Boltzmann equation from the Schwinger-Dyson series. We then shortly introduce the basic concepts of QCD which are needed to understand the physics of QGP formation. After a detailed account on the bottom-up scenario we show the consistency of this approach by a diagramatical analysis of the relevant Boltzmann collision integrals. Chapter 3 deals with BEC dynamics out of equilibrium. After an introduction to the fundamental theoretical tool - namely the Gross-Pitaevskii equation - we focus on a generalization to finite temperature developed by Zaremba, Nikuni and Griffin (ZNG). These authors use a Boltzmann equation to describe the interactions between condensed and excited atoms and manage in this way to describe condensate growth. We then turn to a discussion on the 2PI effective action and derive equations of motion for a relativistic scalar field theory. In the nonrelativistic limit these equations are shown to coincide with the ZNG theory when a quasiparticle approximation is applied. Finally, we perform a numerical analysis of the full 2PI equations. These remain valid even at strong coupling and far from equilibrium, and thus go far beyond Boltzmann's approach. For simplicity, we limit ourselves to a homogeneous system and present the first 3+1 dimensional study of condensate melting. (orig.)

  2. 14th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saraniti, M; Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    2006-01-01

    International experts gather every two years at this established conference to discuss recent developments in theory and experiment in non-equilibrium transport phenomena. These developments have been the driving force behind the spectacular advances in semiconductor physics and devices over the last few decades. Originally known as "Hot Carriers in Semiconductors," the 14th conference in the series covered a wide spectrum of traditional topics dealing with non-equilibrium phenomena, ranging from quantum transport to optical phenomena in mesoscopic and nano-scale structures. Particular attention was given this time to emerging areas of this rapidly evolving field, with many sessions covering terahertz devices, high field transport in nitride semiconductors, spintronics, molecular electronics, and bioelectronics applications.

  3. Nonequilibrium statistical physics of small systems: fluctuation relations and beyond (annual reviews of nonlinear dynamics and complexity (vch))

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive picture of nonequilibrium phenomena in nanoscale systems. Written by internationally recognized experts in the field, this book strikes a balance between theory and experiment, and includes in-depth introductions to nonequilibrium fluctuation relations, nonlinear dynamics and transport, single molecule experiments, and molecular diffusion in nanopores. The authors explore the application of these concepts to nano- and biosystems by cross-linking key methods and ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics, thermodynamics, stochastic theory, and dynamical s

  4. Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  5. Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R

    1990-01-01

    Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,

  6. Infinite-mode squeezed coherent states and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (phase-space-picture approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, L.

    1992-01-01

    The phase-space-picture approach to quantum non-equilibrium statistical mechanics via the characteristic function of infinite- mode squeezed coherent states is introduced. We use quantum Brownian motion as an example to show how this approach provides an interesting geometrical interpretation of quantum non-equilibrium phenomena

  7. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  8. Modeling, Measurements, and Fundamental Database Development for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above

  9. Nonequilibrium effects in Isoscaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C. O.; Lopez, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we study within a simple model different properties of the system that allow us to understand the properties of the isoscaling observable. We first show that isoscaling is a general property of fragmenting systems. We show this by using a simple generalized percolation model. We show that the usual isoscaling property can be obtained in the case of bond percolation in bichromatic lattices with any regular topology. In this case the probabilities of each color (isospin) are independent. We then explore the effect of introducing 'non-equilibrium' effects

  10. The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1992-03-01

    MOLECULAR DYNAMICS has been generalized in order to simulate a variety of NONEQUILIBRIUM systems. This generalization has been achieved by adopting microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress. Some of the problems already treated include rapid plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, strong shockwaves simulation, and far-from-equilibrium phase transformations. Continuing advances in technique and in the modeling of interatomic forces, coupled with qualitative improvements in computer hardware, are enabling such simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments

  11. Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.

    1987-01-01

    Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)

  12. A thermodynamic derivation of equations for dielectric-relaxation phenomena in anisotropic polarizable media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancio, V.; Kluitenberg, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Using the general methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, a theory for anisotropic polarizable media in which dielectric relaxation phenomena occur is developed. Assuming that ii microscopic phenomena give rise to dielectric relaxation, the contributions of these phenomena to the macroscopic

  13. Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2004-01-01

    From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.

  14. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  15. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  16. Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.

  17. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  18. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  19. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  20. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)

  1. Aeroacoustic and aerodynamic applications of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. Clifton; Smith, Charles A.; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics associated with viscous flows are examined and related to developments to the understanding of specific phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. A key element of the nonequilibrium theory is the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady dissipative processes near equilibrium, and variational calculus is used to apply this principle to several examples of viscous flow. A review of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its role in fluid motion are presented. Several formulations are presented of the local entropy production rate and the local energy dissipation rate, two quantities that are of central importance to the theory. These expressions and the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady viscous flows are used to identify parallel-wall channel flow and irrotational flow as having minimally dissipative velocity distributions. Features of irrotational, steady, viscous flow near an airfoil, such as the effect of trailing-edge radius on circulation, are also found to be compatible with the minimum principle. Finally, the minimum principle is used to interpret the stability of infinitesimal and finite amplitude disturbances in an initially laminar, parallel shear flow, with results that are consistent with experiment and linearized hydrodynamic stability theory. These results suggest that a thermodynamic approach may be useful in unifying the understanding of many diverse phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.

  2. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  3. Replacing leads by self-energies using non-equilibrium Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Fredrick; Johnson, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Open quantum systems consist of semi-infinite leads which transport electrons to and from the device of interest. We show here that within the non-equilibrium Green's function technique for continuum systems, the leads can be replaced by simple c-number self-energies. Our starting point is an approach for continuum systems developed by Feuchtwang. The reformulation developed here is simpler to understand and carry out than the somewhat unwieldly manipulations typical in the Feuchtwang method. The self-energies turn out to have a limited variability: the retarded self-energy Σ r depends on the arbitrary choice of internal boundary conditions, but the non-equilibrium self-energy or scattering function Σ which determines transport is invariant for a broad class of boundary conditions. Expressed in terms of these self-energies, continuum non-equilibrium transport calculations take a particularly simple form similar to that developed for discrete systems

  4. Supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis, nonequilibrium field theory and quantum Boltzmann equations

    CERN Document Server

    Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The closed time-path (CPT) formalism is a powerful Green's function formulation to describe nonequilibrium phenomena in field theory and it leads to a complete nonequilibrium quantum kinetic theory. In this paper we make use of the CPT formalism to write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. These diffusion equations automatically and self-consistently incorporate the CP-violating sources which fuel baryogenesis when transport properties allow the CP-violating charges to diffuse in front of the bubble wall separating the broken from the unbroken phase at the electroweak phase transition. This is a significant improvement with respect to recent approaches where the CP-violating sources are inserted by hand into the diffusion equations. Furthermore, the CP-violating sources and the particle number changing interactions manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transp ort t...

  5. Performance Limiting Effects in Power Generation from Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena

  6. Nonequilibrium and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book concentrates on the properties of the stationary states in chaotic systems of particles or fluids, leaving aside the theory of the way they can be reached. The stationary states of particles or of fluids (understood as probability distributions on microscopic configurations or on the fields describing continua) have received important new ideas and data from numerical simulations and reviews are needed. The starting point is to find out which time invariant distributions come into play in physics. A special feature of this book is the historical approach. To identify the problems the author analyzes the papers of the founding fathers Boltzmann, Clausius and Maxwell including translations of the relevant (parts of ) historical documents. He also establishes a close link between treatment of irreversible phenomena in statistical mechanics and the theory of chaotic systems at and beyond the onset of turbulence as developed by Sinai, Ruelle, Bowen (SRB) and others: the author gives arguments intending t...

  7. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  8. Open problems in non-equilibrium physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnezov, D.

    1997-01-01

    The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions

  9. Open problems in non-equilibrium physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusnezov, D.

    1997-09-22

    The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.

  10. Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sanjiv; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal

  11. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  12. Scientific Affairs Division of NATO Advanced Study Institute: abstracts for nonequilibrium superconductivity, phonons and Kapitza boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the meeting are given. Topics covered include: Kapitza resistance; superconducting tunneling; energy gap enhancement in superconductors; instabilities in nonequilibrium superconducting states; exchange of charge between superconducting pairs and quasiparticles; motion of magnetic flux (flux flow); and other new phenomena

  13. Enhanced flux creep and nonequilibrium optical response in YBaCuO epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldov, E.; Amer, N.M.; Koren, G.

    1989-01-01

    Two novel flux creep related phenomena in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - gd films are presented: a sharp onset of nonequilibrium optical response and a thermally activated electrical resistivity with logarithmic current dependence of the activation energy. This nonlinear current dependence is significantly different from the predictions of standard flux creep model

  14. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-09-18

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  15. Rheology via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1982-10-01

    The equilibrium molecular dynamics formulated by Newton, Lagrange, and Hamilton has been modified in order to simulate rheologial molecular flows with fast computers. This modified Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) has been applied to fluid and solid deformations, under both homogeneous and shock conditions, as well as to the transport of heat. The irreversible heating associated with dissipation could be controlled by carrying out isothermal NEMD calculations. The new isothermal NEMD equations of motion are consistent with Gauss' 1829 Least-Constraint principle as well as certain microscopic equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical formulations due to Gibbs and Boltzmann. Application of isothermal NEMD revealed high-frequency and high-strain-rate behavior for simple fluids which resembled the behavior of polymer solutions and melts at lower frequencies and strain rates. For solids NEMD produces plastic flows consistent with experimental observations at much lower strain rates. The new nonequilibrium methods also suggest novel formulations of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium systems and shed light on the failure of the Principle of Material Frame Indifference

  16. Epidemiology of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Rick

    Prevalence data on mental retardation is presented including international estimates on general prevalence, age directions, geographical variations within the United States, racial and ethnic variations, economic class distributions, family variations, and population distribution in institutions. Statistics are also provided in areas of specific…

  17. COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN* !\\'fRS E. K~SEBOOM, Principal, ADS. LEVIN, M.B., M.R.C.P., D.C.H., Hon. Medical Officer, Hamlet B School for. Retarded Children, Johannesburg. '... silly children, with no understanding .. -'. Jeremiah 4:22. Tt has been observed' that mentally retarded children have.

  18. Nonequilibrium mesoscopic transport: a genealogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Mukunda P; Green, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Models of nonequilibrium quantum transport underpin all modern electronic devices, from the largest scales to the smallest. Past simplifications such as coarse graining and bulk self-averaging served well to understand electronic materials. Such particular notions become inapplicable at mesoscopic dimensions, edging towards the truly quantum regime. Nevertheless a unifying thread continues to run through transport physics, animating the design of small-scale electronic technology: microscopic conservation and nonequilibrium dissipation. These fundamentals are inherent in quantum transport and gain even greater and more explicit experimental meaning in the passage to atomic-sized devices. We review their genesis, their theoretical context, and their governing role in the electronic response of meso- and nanoscopic systems. (topical review)

  19. Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A E

    2014-09-01

    The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.

  20. Experimental intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marthens, E; Harel, S; Zamenshof, S

    1975-01-01

    The effects of experimental intrauterine growth retardation on subsequent fetal development, especially with respect to brain development, were studied in a new animal model. The rabbit was chosen since it has a perinatal pattern of brain development similar to that of the human. Experimental ischemia was induced during the last trimester by ligation of spiral arterioles and the differential effects on fetal development at term (30th gestational day) are reported. Specific brain regions were examined for wet weight, total cell number (DNA) and total protein content. Highly significant decreases in all these parameters were found in both the cortex and cerebellum following experimental intrauterine growth retardation; these two organs were differentially affected. The prospects and advantages of using this animal model for the study of the postnatal "catch-up growth" are discussed.

  1. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  2. Computer simulation of nonequilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, D.C.

    1985-07-01

    The underlying concepts of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, and of irreversible thermodynamics, will be described. The question at hand is then, how are these concepts to be realize in computer simulations of many-particle systems. The answer will be given for dissipative deformation processes in solids, on three hierarchical levels: heterogeneous plastic flow, dislocation dynamics, an molecular dynamics. Aplication to the shock process will be discussed

  3. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  4. Non-equilibrium mean-field theories on scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccioli, Fabio; Dall'Asta, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Many non-equilibrium processes on scale-free networks present anomalous critical behavior that is not explained by standard mean-field theories. We propose a systematic method to derive stochastic equations for mean-field order parameters that implicitly account for the degree heterogeneity. The method is used to correctly predict the dynamical critical behavior of some binary spin models and reaction–diffusion processes. The validity of our non-equilibrium theory is further supported by showing its relation with the generalized Landau theory of equilibrium critical phenomena on networks

  5. Elements of non-equilibrium (ℎ, k)-dynamics at zero and finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubeva, O.N.; Sukhanov, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a method which allows developing some elements of non-equilibrium (ℎ, k)-dynamics without use of Schroedinger equation. It is based on the generalization pf Fokker-Planck and Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Sequential considering of stochastic influence of vacuum is realized in the quantum heat bath model. We show that at the presence of quantum-thermal diffusion non-equilibrium wave functions describe the process of nearing to generalized state of thermal equilibrium at zero and finite temperatures. They can be used as a ground for universal description of transport phenomena

  6. Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune

    Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...

  7. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  8. Emergence of dynamical order synchronization phenomena in complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Manrubia, Susanna C; Zanette, Damián H

    2004-01-01

    Synchronization processes bring about dynamical order and lead tospontaneous development of structural organization in complex systemsof various origins, from chemical oscillators and biological cells tohuman societies and the brain. This book provides a review and adetailed theoretical analysis of synchronization phenomena in complexsystems with different architectures, composed of elements withperiodic or chaotic individual dynamics. Special attention is paid tostatistical concepts, such as nonequilibrium phase transitions, orderparameters and dynamical glasses.

  9. Non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, David S

    2012-01-01

    We discuss non-equilibrium aspects of fluctuation-induced interactions. While the equilibrium behavior of such interactions has been extensively studied and is relatively well understood, the study of these interactions out of equilibrium is relatively new. We discuss recent results on the non-equilibrium behavior of systems whose dynamics is of the dissipative stochastic type and identify a number of outstanding problems concerning non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions.

  10. Retroreflective Phase Retardation Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    resonant cavity of a 1.064 Mm laser. This report shows that it is possible to coat the reflecting surfaces of a porro prism so that incident plane...with controlled phase retardation can be made by coating each reflecting surface of a porro prism with a single dielectric film. The amount of phase...of angle of incidence (n, < n2) S. Phase change on reflection as a function of angle of incidence (n" n ) [RL-0202-’R 6. Porro prism 7. Phase change

  11. Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru

  12. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    The editorial comments on a report published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima updating information on the induction of mental changes in the light of the revised and more detailed estimate of doses of radiation during pregnancies received by those exposed at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The estimated risks are little changed. The likelihood of a threshold for exposure during the 16th to 25th week is confirmed-at 700 mGy (with a lower 95% confidence interval of 200 mGy). For the more sensitive time between the eighth to 15th weeks a linear model with no threshold still gives a statistically adequate fit to the data. Now, however, if linear models are tested without the constraint of postulating a threshold of zero, fits are obtained indicating substantial thresholds below which mental retardation would not result. When data on all children are included the maximum likelihood threshold value averages about 250 mGy on the different criteria tested (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 0 and 550 mGy). Or if the analyses exclude five children with conditions that themselves sometimes cause mental retardation a threshold of about 400 mGy is indicated (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 150 and 600 mGy). (author)

  13. Non-equilibrium phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken

  14. Investigation on non-equilibrium performance of composite adsorbent for resorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L.; Wang, L.W.; Zhou, Z.S.; Zhu, F.Q.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of resorption refrigeration is analyzed based on non-equilibrium reaction process. • The porous matrix improves the heat and mass performance of composite adsorbent. • The actual desorption process has the significant hysteresis phenomenon. • The highest energy efficiency of Manganese and Calcium chloride working pair is 0.272. - Abstract: The aims of this paper is to indicate that the non-equilibrium adsorption testing results is more suitable for prediction of real refrigeration performance than equilibrium data. Therefore, a test unit is constructed to test the non-equilibrium performance of different composite adsorbents. The adsorption and desorption quantity are measured and calculated by smart differential pressure transmitter. The non-equilibrium adsorption performances of working pair of Manganese chloride–ammonia, Calcium chloride–ammonia and Ammonium chloride–ammonia are investigated respectively. Results show that hysteresis phenomena happens obviously in non-equilibrium desorption process, which is related with dual variables rather than single variable. Based on the testing results, resorption refrigeration performance is analyzed, in which Manganese chloride is used as high temperature salt (HTS), and Calcium chloride, Ammonium chloride are selected as low temperature salt (LTS) for comparison. Results show that the highest COP and SCP for resorption refrigeration are about 0.272 and 45.6 W/kg, respectively. Performance of Manganese chloride–Calcium chloride and Manganese chloride–Ammonium chloride working pairs are much lower when compared with theoretical data.

  15. Non-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, T.

    2013-01-01

    number difference appear to have thermalized, while they still remain in a non-thermal state. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate both the wide range of phenomena that can occur in non-equilibrium quantum many-body systems, and the great potential of one-dimensional Bose gases to explore these phenomena. This paves the way for the further study of a universal framework for non-equilibrium dynamics. (author) [de

  16. The Right Brain: Surviving Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes two studies of brain hemisphere development which indicate children retarded in the functions of one hemisphere may not be retarded in the functions of the second hemisphere. Suggests that the left hemisphere functions may inhibit some right hemisphere functions. (SL)

  17. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  18. Statistical thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes

    CERN Document Server

    Keizer, Joel

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the theory ofthermodynamics has changed enormously since its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century. Shortly after Thomson and Clausius enunciated their versions of the Second Law, Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann began actively pursuing the molecular basis of thermo­ dynamics, work that culminated in the Boltzmann equation and the theory of transport processes in dilute gases. Much later, Onsager undertook the elucidation of the symmetry oftransport coefficients and, thereby, established himself as the father of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Com­ bining the statistical ideas of Gibbs and Langevin with the phenomenological transport equations, Onsager and others went on to develop a consistent statistical theory of irreversible processes. The power of that theory is in its ability to relate measurable quantities, such as transport coefficients and thermodynamic derivatives, to the results of experimental measurements. As powerful as that theory is, it is linear and...

  19. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S

    2005-06-01

    In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.

  20. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  1. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  2. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  3. Quantum Coherent Dynamics Enhanced by Synchronization with Nonequilibrium Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Ryo; Uchiyama, Kazuharu; Hori, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of the anomalous enhancement of quantum coherent dynamics (CD) due to a non-Markovian mechanism originating from not thermal-equilibrium phonon baths but nonequilibrium coherent phonons. CD is an elementary process for quantum phenomena in nanosystems, such as excitation transfer (ET) in semiconductor nanostructures and light-harvesting systems. CD occurs in homogeneous nanosystems because system inhomogeneity typically destroys coherence. In real systems, however, nanosystems behave as open systems surrounded by environments such as phonon systems. Typically, CD in inhomogeneous nanosystems is enhanced by the absorption and emission of thermal-equilibrium phonons, and the enhancement is described by the conventional master equation. On the other hand, CD is also enhanced by synchronization between population dynamics in nanosystems and coherent phonons; namely, coherent phonons, which are self-consistently induced by phase matching with Rabi oscillation, are fed back to enhance CD. This anomalous enhancement of CD essentially originates from the nonequilibrium and dynamical non-Markovian nature of coherent phonon environments, and the enhancement is firstly predicted by applying time-dependent projection operators to nonequilibrium and dynamical environments. Moreover, CD is discussed by considering ET from a donor to an acceptor. It is found that the enhancement of ET by synchronization with coherent phonons depends on the competition between the output time from a system to an acceptor and the formation time of coherent phonons. These findings in this study will stimulate the design and manipulation of CD via structured environments from the viewpoint of application to nano-photoelectronic devices.

  4. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  6. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  7. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indekeu, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  8. Light-induced electronic non-equilibrium in plasmonic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Mordechai; Nitzan, Abraham; Seideman, Tamar

    2013-05-07

    We consider the transient non-equilibrium electronic distribution that is created in a metal nanoparticle upon plasmon excitation. Following light absorption, the created plasmons decohere within a few femtoseconds, producing uncorrelated electron-hole pairs. The corresponding non-thermal electronic distribution evolves in response to the photo-exciting pulse and to subsequent relaxation processes. First, on the femtosecond timescale, the electronic subsystem relaxes to a Fermi-Dirac distribution characterized by an electronic temperature. Next, within picoseconds, thermalization with the underlying lattice phonons leads to a hot particle in internal equilibrium that subsequently equilibrates with the environment. Here we focus on the early stage of this multistep relaxation process, and on the properties of the ensuing non-equilibrium electronic distribution. We consider the form of this distribution as derived from the balance between the optical absorption and the subsequent relaxation processes, and discuss its implication for (a) heating of illuminated plasmonic particles, (b) the possibility to optically induce current in junctions, and (c) the prospect for experimental observation of such light-driven transport phenomena.

  9. Non-equilibrium properties of Josephson critical current in Nb-based three terminal superconducting tunnel devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, G.; Parlato, L.; Peluso, G.; Pepe, G.

    1998-01-01

    Tunnel quasi-particle injection into a superconducting film provides useful information on the non-equilibrium state inside the perturbed superconductor as well as on the potential application to electronic devices. Three terminal injector-detector superconducting devices have a long history in non-equilibrium superconductivity. In the recent past non-equilibrium phenomena have attracted again considerable attention because of many superconducting based detectors involve processes substantially non-equilibrium in nature. The possibility of using a stacked double tunnel junction to study the influence of non-equilibrium superconductivity on the Josephson critical current is now considered. An experimental study of the effect of quasi-particle injection on the Josephson current both in steady-state and pulsed experiments down to T=1.2 K is presented using 3 terminal Nb-based stacked double tunnel devices. The feasibility of a new class of particle detectors based on the direct measurement of the change in the Josephson current following the absorption of a X-ray quantum is also discussed in terms of non-equilibrium theories. (orig.)

  10. Non-equilibrium spin and charge transport in superconducting heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmann, Marcel; Rudolf, Marcel; Braun, Julian; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheer, Elke [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78464 Konstanz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Ferromagnet Superconductance (F/S) junctions are rich in exciting quantum-physical-phenomena, which are still poorly understood but may provide bright prospects for new applications. In contrast to conventional normal-metal proximity systems, Andreev reflection is suppressed for singlet cooper pairs in F/S heterostructures. However, long-range triplet pairing may be observed in S/F systems with non-collinear magnetization or spin-active interfaces. Herein, we investigate non-equilibrium transport properties of lateral S/F heterojunctions, defined via electron beam lithography. In particular we focus microwave- and magneto-transport spectroscopy on conventional type-I (Al, Pb, Zn) and type-II (Nb) superconductors in combination with strong transition metal ferromagnets (Ni, Co, Fe). A cryogenic HF readout platform and advanced electronic filtering is developed and results on Al-based heterojunctions are shown.

  11. Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Henkel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.

  12. Link prediction based on nonequilibrium cooperation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanxi; Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Link prediction in complex networks has become a common focus of many researchers. But most existing methods concentrate on neighbors, and rarely consider degree heterogeneity of two endpoints. Node degree represents the importance or status of endpoints. We describe the large-degree heterogeneity as the nonequilibrium between nodes. This nonequilibrium facilitates a stable cooperation between endpoints, so that two endpoints with large-degree heterogeneity tend to connect stably. We name such a phenomenon as the nonequilibrium cooperation effect. Therefore, this paper proposes a link prediction method based on the nonequilibrium cooperation effect to improve accuracy. Theoretical analysis will be processed in advance, and at the end, experiments will be performed in 12 real-world networks to compare the mainstream methods with our indices in the network through numerical analysis.

  13. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: The first 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1992-08-01

    Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics has been generalized to simulate Nonequilibrium systems by adding sources of thermodynamic heat and work. This generalization incorporates microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress, and augments atomistic forces with special boundary, constraint, and driving forces capable of doing work on, and exchanging heat with, an otherwise Newtonian system. The underlying Lyapunov instability of these nonequilibrium equations of motion links microscopic time-reversible deterministic trajectories to macroscopic time-irreversible hydrodynamic behavior as described by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Green-Kubo linear-response theory has been checked. Nonlinear plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, shockwave propagation, and nonequilibrium phase transformation have all been simulated. The nonequilibrium techniques, coupled with qualitative improvements in parallel computer hardware, are enabling simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments

  14. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  15. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  16. Non-equilibrium dog-flea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2017-11-01

    We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.

  17. Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... of the injected electrons that maximizes the growth rate increases with increasing | q |. We compare the range and strength of the instability in graphene to that of two- and three-dimensional parabolic band systems....

  18. Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-27

    We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.

  19. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of green flame retardant cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totolin, Vladimir

    The natural fiber-containing fabrics and composites are more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation (automobiles, aerospace), military applications, construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards), consumer products, etc. Therefore, the flammability characteristics of the composites based on polymers and natural fibers play an important role. This dissertation presents the development of plasma assisted - green flame retardant coatings for cellulosic substrates. The overall objective of this work was to generate durable flame retardant treatment on cellulosic materials. In the first approach sodium silicate layers were pre-deposited onto clean cotton substrates and cross linked using low pressure, non-equilibrium oxygen plasma. A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the plasma parameters. The modified cotton samples were tested for flammability using an automatic 45° angle flammability test chamber. Aging tests were conducted to evaluate the coating resistance during the accelerated laundry technique. The samples revealed a high flame retardant behavior and good thermal stability proved by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In the second approach flame retardant cellulosic materials have been produced using a silicon dioxide (SiO2) network coating. SiO 2 network armor was prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), prior coating the substrates, and was cross linked on the surface of the substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) technique. Due to protection effects of the SiO2 network armor, the cellulosic based fibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties and improved flame retardancy. In the third approach, the TEOS/APP treatments were extended to linen fabrics. The thermal analysis showed a higher char content and a strong endothermic process of the treated samples compared with control ones, indicating a good thermal stability. Also, the surface analysis proved

  20. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  1. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  2. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Mesoscale and Interfacial Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsev, Nikolai Dimitrov

    With rapidly emerging technologies that feature interfaces modified at the nanoscale, traditional macroscopic models are pushed to their limits to explain phenomena where molecular processes can play a key role. Often, such problems appear to defy explanation when treated with coarse-grained continuum models alone, yet remain prohibitively expensive from a molecular simulation perspective. A prominent example is surface nanobubbles: nanoscopic gaseous domains typically found on hydrophobic surfaces that have puzzled researchers for over two decades due to their unusually long lifetimes. We show how an entirely macroscopic, non-equilibrium model explains many of their anomalous properties, including their stability and abnormally small gas-side contact angles. From this purely transport perspective, we investigate how factors such as temperature and saturation affect nanobubbles, providing numerous experimentally testable predictions. However, recent work also emphasizes the relevance of molecular-scale phenomena that cannot be described in terms of bulk phases or pristine interfaces. This is true for nanobubbles as well, whose nanoscale heights may require molecular detail to capture the relevant physics, in particular near the bubble three-phase contact line. Therefore, there is a clear need for general ways to link molecular granularity and behavior with large-scale continuum models in the treatment of many interfacial problems. In light of this, we have developed a general set of simulation strategies that couple mesoscale particle-based continuum models to molecular regions simulated through conventional molecular dynamics (MD). In addition, we derived a transport model for binary mixtures that opens the possibility for a wide range of applications in biological and drug delivery problems, and is readily reconciled with our hybrid MD-continuum techniques. Approaches that couple multiple length scales for fluid mixtures are largely absent in the literature, and

  4. Exploring the nonequilibrium dynamics of ultracold quantum gases by using numerical tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian

    Numerical tools such as exact diagonalization or the density matrix renormalization group method have been vital for the study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. Moreover, they provided unique insight for the interpretation of quantum gas experiments, whenever a direct comparison with theory is possible. By considering the example of the experiment by Ronzheimer et al., in which both an interaction quench and the release of bosons from a trap into an empty optical lattice (sudden expansion) was realized, I discuss several nonequilibrium effects of strongly interacting quantum gases. These include the thermalization of a closed quantum system and its connection to the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, nonequilibrium mass transport, dynamical fermionization, and transient phenomena such as quantum distillation or dynamical quasicondensation. I highlight the role of integrability in giving rise to ballistic transport in strongly interacting 1D systems and in determining the asymptotic state after a quantum quench. The talk concludes with a perspective on open questions concerning 2D systems and the numerical simulation of their nonequilibrium dynamics. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 801.

  5. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  6. Sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    A review of experimental and theoretical investigaions of sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks is presented. Different types of sawtooth oscillations, scaling laws and methods of interanl disruption stabilization are described. Theoretical models of the sawtooth instability are discussed. 122 refs.; 4 tabs

  7. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  8. Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states. Part II: Applications in chemical biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Hao; Qian Min; Qian Hong

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) has a natural application in open biochemical systems which have sustained source(s) and sink(s) in terms of a difference in their chemical potentials. After a brief introduction in Section , in Part II of this review, we present the widely studied biochemical enzyme kinetics, the workhorse of biochemical dynamic modeling, in terms of the theory of NESS (Section ). We then show that several phenomena in enzyme kinetics, including a newly discovered activation–inhibition switching (Section ) and the well-known non-Michaelis–Menten-cooperativity (Section ) and kinetic proofreading (Section ), are all consequences of the NESS of driven biochemical systems with associated cycle fluxes. Section is focused on nonlinear and nonequilibrium systems of biochemical reactions. We use the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), one of the most important biochemical signaling networks, as an example (Section ). It starts with a brief introduction of the Delbrück–Gillespie process approach to mesoscopic biochemical kinetics (Sections ). We shall discuss the zeroth-order ultrasensitivity of PdPC in terms of a new concept — the temporal cooperativity (Sections ), as well as PdPC with feedback which leads to biochemical nonlinear bistability (Section ). Also, both are nonequilibrium phenomena. PdPC with a nonlinear feedback is kinetically isomorphic to a self-regulating gene expression network, hence the theory of NESS discussed here could have wide applications to many other biochemical systems.

  9. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  10. Manifest and Subtle Cyclic Behavior in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, R K P; Weiss, Jeffrey B; Mandal, Dibyendu; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2016-01-01

    Many interesting phenomena in nature are described by stochastic processes with irreversible dynamics. To model these phenomena, we focus on a master equation or a Fokker-Planck equation with rates which violate detailed balance. When the system settles in a stationary state, it will be a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), with time independent probability distribution as well as persistent probability current loops. The observable consequences of the latter are explored. In particular, cyclic behavior of some form must be present: some are prominent and manifest, while others are more obscure and subtle. We present a theoretical framework to analyze such properties, introducing the notion of “probability angular momentum” and its distribution. Using several examples, we illustrate the manifest and subtle categories and how best to distinguish between them. These techniques can be applied to reveal the NESS nature of a wide range of systems in a large variety of areas. We illustrate with one application: variability of ocean heat content in our climate system. (paper)

  11. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Billy D

    2017-01-01

    Written by two specialists with over twenty-five years of experience in the field, this valuable text presents a wide range of topics within the growing field of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). It introduces theories which are fundamental to the field - namely, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics - and provides state-of-the-art algorithms and advice for designing reliable NEMD code, as well as examining applications for both atomic and molecular fluids. It discusses homogenous and inhomogenous flows and pays considerable attention to highly confined fluids, such as nanofluidics. In addition to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, the book covers the themes of temperature and thermodynamic fluxes and their computation, the theory and algorithms for homogenous shear and elongational flows, response theory and its applications, heat and mass transport algorithms, applications in molecular rheology, highly confined fluids (nanofluidics), the phenomenon of slip and...

  12. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S. P.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  13. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S P

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  14. Chaotic phenomena in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.

    1991-08-01

    It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)

  15. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  16. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews in broad terms the concept of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) phenomena, outlines what we currently know about the properties of stars showing such phenomena and indicates the directions in which future work is leading. He begins by listing the characteristics of W-R spectra and then considers the following specific problems: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions; the mass loss rates; the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. He discusses briefly our current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R stars. (Auth.)

  17. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  18. Experimental signatures of a nonequilibrium phase transition governing the yielding of a soft glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hima Nagamanasa, K; Gokhale, Shreyas; Sood, A K; Ganapathy, Rajesh

    2014-06-01

    We present direct experimental signatures of a nonequilibrium phase transition associated with the yield point of a prototypical soft solid-a binary colloidal glass. By simultaneously quantifying single-particle dynamics and bulk mechanical response, we identified the threshold for the onset of irreversibility with the yield strain. We extracted the relaxation time from the transient behavior of the loss modulus and found that it diverges in the vicinity of the yield strain. This critical slowing down is accompanied by a growing correlation length associated with the size of regions of high Debye-Waller factor, which are precursors to yield events in glasses. Our results affirm that the paradigm of nonequilibrium critical phenomena is instrumental in achieving a holistic understanding of yielding in soft solids.

  19. Amorphous ices explained in terms of nonequilibrium phase transitions in supercooled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the phase diagram of supercooled water out-of-equilibrium using concepts from space-time thermodynamics and the dynamic facilitation theory of the glass transition, together with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that when water is driven out-of-equilibrium, it can exist in multiple amorphous states. In contrast, we find that when water is at equilibrium, it can exist in only one liquid state. The amorphous non-equilibrium states are solids, distinguished from the liquid by their lack of mobility, and distinguished from each other by their different densities and local structure. This finding explains the experimentally observed polyamorphism of water as a class of nonequilibrium phenomena involving glasses of different densities. While the amorphous solids can be long lived, they are thermodynamically unstable. When allowed to relax to equilibrium, they crystallize with pathways that pass first through liquid state configurations and then to ordered ice.

  20. Shear Viscosity of Benzene, Toluene, and p-Xylene by Non-equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song Hi

    2004-01-01

    Green and Kubo showed that the phenomenological coefficients describing many transport processes and time dependent phenomena in general could be written as integrals over a certain type of function called a time correlation function. The Green-Kubo formulas are the formal expressions for hydrodynamic field variables and some of the thermodynamic properties in terms of the microscopic variables of an N-particle system. The identification of microscopic expressions for macroscopic variables is made by a process of comparison of the conservation equations of hydrodynamics with the microscopic equations of change for conserved densities. The importance of these formulas is three-fold: they provide an obvious method for calculating transport coefficients using computer simulation, a convenient starting point for constructing analytic theories for non-equilibrium processes, and an essential information for designing non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) algorithm.

  1. Stochastic linearization of turbulent dynamics of dispersive waves in equilibrium and non-equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shixiao W; Lu, Haihao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing dispersive wave turbulence in the long time dynamics is central to understanding of many natural phenomena, e.g., in atmosphere ocean dynamics, nonlinear optics, and plasma physics. Using the β -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam nonlinear system as a prototypical example, we show that in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium steady state the turbulent state even in the strongly nonlinear regime possesses an effective linear stochastic structure in renormalized normal variables. In this framework, we can well characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics, which are dominated by long-wavelength renormalized waves. We further demonstrate that the energy flux is nearly saturated by the long-wavelength renormalized waves in non-equilibrium steady state. The scenario of such effective linear stochastic dynamics can be extended to study turbulent states in other nonlinear wave systems. (paper)

  2. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  3. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  4. Linking Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Glass-Forming Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauro, John C.; Guo, Xiaoju; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    , we show that the nonequilibrium glassy dynamics are intimately connected with the equilibrium liquid dynamics. This is accomplished by deriving a new functional form for the thermal history dependence of nonequilibrium viscosity, which is validated against experimental measurements of industrial...

  5. Research on flame retardation of wool fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Ametani, Kazuo; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Flame retardant, vinyl phosphonate oligomer, was uniformly impregnated in wool fibers, and by irradiating low energy electron beam or cobalt-60 gamma ray, the flame retardation of fabrics was attempted, as the results, the following knowledges were obtained. At the rate of sticking of flame retardant lower than that in cotton fabrics, sufficient flame retarding property can be given. The flame retarding property withstands 30 times of washing. The lowering of strength due to the processing hardly arose. For the flame retardation, gamma-ray was more effective than electron beam. Since the accidents of burning clothes have occurred frequently, their flame retardation has been demanded. So far the flame retardation of cotton fabrics has been advanced, but this time the research on the flame retardation of wool fabrics was carried out by the same method. The experimental method is explained. As for the performance of the processed fabrics, the rate of sticking of the flame retardant, the efficiency of utilization, the flame retarding property, the endurance in washing and the tensile and tearing strength were examined. As the oxygen index was higher, the flame retarding property was higher, and in the case of the index being more than 27, the flame retarding property is sufficient, that is, the rate of sticking of 6% in serge and 5% in muslin. (K.I.)

  6. Canonical operator formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrafarin, M.

    1992-09-01

    A novel formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed which emphasises the fundamental role played by the Boltzmann constant k in fluctuations. The equivalence of this and the stochastic formulation is demonstrated. The k → 0 limit of this theory yields the classical deterministic description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The new formulation possesses unique features which bear two important results namely the thermodynamic uncertainty principle and the quantisation of entropy production rate. Such a theory becomes indispensable whenever fluctuations play a significant role. (author). 7 refs

  7. Nonideal plasmas as non-equilibrium media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Valuev, A A; Valuev, I A

    2003-01-01

    Various aspects of the collective behaviour of non-equilibrium nonideal plasmas are studied. The relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method for two-component non-degenerate strongly non-equilibrium plasmas. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration and the subsequent exponential stage of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of ion charge, nonideality parameter and ion mass. A simulation model of the nonideal plasma excited by an electron beam is proposed. An approach is developed to calculate the dynamic structure factor in non-stationary conditions. Instability increment is obtained from MD simulations

  8. On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.

  9. Characterization of nonequilibrium states of trapped Bose–Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Novikov, A. N.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2018-06-01

    The generation of different nonequilibrium states in trapped Bose–Einstein condensates is studied by numerically solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Inducing nonequilibrium states by shaking a trap creates the following states: weak nonequilibrium, the state of vortex germs, the state of vortex rings, the state of straight vortex lines, the state of deformed vortices, vortex turbulence, grain turbulence, and wave turbulence. A characterization of nonequilibrium states is advanced by introducing effective temperature, Fresnel number, and Mach number.

  10. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  11. Epilepsy and Comorbid Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Preventable and unpreventable causes of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with mental retardation were determined in 692 patients with epilepsy onset between 1977 and 1985 in a Nova Scotia population-based cohort studied in the Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

  12. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  13. Simulation and experimental investigation of mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium effect on choking flow at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H.J.; Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    in subcooling, whereas the code predictions showed rapid decrease of the choking mass flux of subcooled water with decrease in subcooling. This indicates that the thermal non-equilibrium effect on subcooled water critical flow is underestimated in the code. The code model is much closer to the thermal equilibrium than the actual phenomena in choked flow. (author)

  14. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  15. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  16. Quantification of natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero Alvarez, Javier

    1997-01-01

    The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories

  17. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  18. Acoustic phenomena during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic flow phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Eckert, S.

    1995-01-01

    The MHD group of the Institute of Safety Research performs basic studies on fluid dynamics and heat/mass transfer in fluids, particularly for electrically conducting fluids (liquid metals) exposed to external magnetic fields (Magnetohydrodynamics - MHD). Such a contactless influence on transport phenomena is of principal importance for a variety of applied problems including safety and design aspects in liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, fast reactors, and chemical systems. Any electrically conducting flow can be influenced without any contact by means of an external electromagnetic field. This, of course, can change the known hydromechanically flow patterns considerably. In the following two examples of such magnetic field influence are presented. (orig.)

  20. Random phenomena; Phenomenes aleatoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C.E.N.G., Service d' Electronique, Section d' Electronique, Grenoble (France)

    1963-07-01

    This document gathers a set of conferences presented in 1962. A first one proposes a mathematical introduction to the analysis of random phenomena. The second one presents an axiomatic of probability calculation. The third one proposes an overview of one-dimensional random variables. The fourth one addresses random pairs, and presents basic theorems regarding the algebra of mathematical expectations. The fifth conference discusses some probability laws: binomial distribution, the Poisson distribution, and the Laplace-Gauss distribution. The last one deals with the issues of stochastic convergence and asymptotic distributions.

  1. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  2. Quantum distribution function of nonequilibrium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogo, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yasushi.

    1990-03-01

    A path integral representation is derived for the Wigner distribution function of a nonequilibrium system coupled with heat bath. Under appropriate conditions, the Wigner distribution function approaches an equilibrium distribution, which manifests shifting and broadening of spectral lines due to the interaction with heat bath. It is shown that the equilibrium distribution becomes the quantum canonical distribution in the vanishing coupling constant limit. (author)

  3. Nonequilibrium Molecular Energy Coupling and Conversion Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-28

    resolved temperature measurements, by pure rotational picosecond broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy ( CARS ), and kinetic modeling...rotational ps CARS for thermometry measurements in highly transient nonequilibrium plasmas. Rotational-translational temperatures are measured for time...primarily on localized flow heating on sub-acoustic time scale, and for assessing feasibility of high-speed aerodynamic flow control by vibrational

  4. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bikkin, Halid

    2014-01-01

    This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field.

  5. Introduction to the nonequilibrium functional renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, J.; Mesterházy, D.

    2012-01-01

    In these lectures we introduce the functional renormalization group out of equilibrium. While in thermal equilibrium typically a Euclidean formulation is adequate, nonequilibrium properties require real-time descriptions. For quantum systems specified by a given density matrix at initial time, a generating functional for real-time correlation functions can be written down using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path. This can be used to construct a nonequilibrium functional renormalization group along similar lines as for Euclidean field theories in thermal equilibrium. Important differences include the absence of a fluctuation-dissipation relation for general out-of-equilibrium situations. The nonequilibrium renormalization group takes on a particularly simple form at a fixed point, where the corresponding scale-invariant system becomes independent of the details of the initial density matrix. We discuss some basic examples, for which we derive a hierarchy of fixed point solutions with increasing complexity from vacuum and thermal equilibrium to nonequilibrium. The latter solutions are then associated to the phenomenon of turbulence in quantum field theory.

  6. Generators of nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautov, G.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Results are described of a study and of the characteristics of sources of a non-equilibrium gas-discharge plasma. The plasma generators considered include glow, high frequency, and arc discharge generators. Thermodynamic, ionic, and electronic processes occurring in the plasmas are evaluated

  7. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R

    1997-01-01

    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  8. Evolution and non-equilibrium physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the stochastic dynamics of interacting agents which replicate, mutate and die constitutes a non-equilibrium physical process akin to aging in complex materials. Specifically, our study uses extensive computer simulations of the Tangled Nature Model (TNM) of biological evolution...

  9. Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Condensation Phenomena in Tuneable 3D and 2D Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    on Atomic Physics (ICAP), the biennial BEC Conference (“Frontiers in Quantum Gases ”) in Sant Feliu, DAMOP and the APS March Meeting. Our results can...turbulence have been studied in a wide variety of physical systems (from classical gases and water to superfluid helium) for many years. However, a system...112.040403 Featured in Physics Today [6] Observing properties of an interacting homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate: Heisenberg-limited momentum

  10. Electron Energy Distribution and Transfer Phenomena in Non-Equilibrium Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Zhang, W. Van Gaens, B. Van Gessel, S. Hofmann, E. Van Veldhuizen , A. Bogaerts and P. Bruggeman, "Spatially resolved ozone densities and gas...34 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, Vol. 57, No. 1 (2015) 014026. [4] B. Van Gessel, R. Brandenburg and P. Bruggeman, "Electron properties and air mixing...025031. [32] M. Van de Sande, Laser Scattering on Low Temperature Plasmas, Netherlands: Eindhoven, University of Technology, 2002. 40 DISTRIBUTION

  11. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  12. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  13. The retardation effect of structural graphite on the release of fission products in case of hypothetical accidents of HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniotakis, N.; Decken, C.B. von der

    1982-01-01

    In case of a hypothetical core heat up accident of an HTR the structural graphite of the reactor causes under certain circumstances a very important retardation of the release of fission products into the containment building of the plant. A model is presented which describes the transport phenomena in the graphite structure extensively taking into account specially the macro-structure of the graphite. It is shown by parameter variations under which conditions one can expect a large retardation effect and quantitative values of this retardation, which can be very important, are given. (author)

  14. Self-organization phenomena in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Popescu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The self-assembling in nature and laboratory of structures in systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium is one of the problems that mostly fascinates the scientists working in all branches of science. In this context a substantial progress has been obtained by investigating the appearance of spatial and spatiotemporal patterns in plasma. These experiments revealed the presence of a scenario of self-organization able to suggest an answer to the central problem of the 'Science of Complexity', why matter transits spontaneously from a disordered into an ordered state? Based on this scenario of self-organization we present arguments proving the possibility to explain the challenging problems of nonequilibrium physics in general. These problems refer to: (i) genuine origin of phase transitions observed in gaseous conductors and semiconductors; (ii) the elucidation of the role played by self-organization in the simulation of oscillations; (iii) the physical basis of anomalous transport of matter and energy with special reference to the possibilities of improving the economical performance of fusion devices; (iv) the possibility to use self-confined gaseous space charged configurations as an alternative to the magnetically confined plasma used at present in fusion devices. In other branches of sciences, as for instance in Biology, the self-organization scenario reveals a new insight into a mechanism able to explain the appearance of the simplest possible space charge configuration able to evolve, under suitable conditions, into prebiotic structures. Referring to phenomena observed in nature, the same self-organization scenario suggests plausible answers to the appearance of ball lightening but also to the origin of the flickering phenomena observed in the light emission of the Sun and stars. For theory the described self-organization scenario offers a new physical basis for many problems of nonlinear science not solved yet and also a new model for the so-called 'self

  15. Parental Attitude Towards Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEOKADIA WIATROWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/puChild's developmental retardation is an undoubted condition for the absence of educational attainment and its unpleasant mental state. Due to the nature of multidimensional state of that, parental attitudes become relevant, as they affect the acceleration or retardation of development. Positive parental attitudes are the strong weapon for the child and his struggles on the way to an equal start and equal development opportunities. For this reason you should emphasize those factors that build the structures supporting developmental progression.An ecosystem approach to human development emphasizes each factor as relevant component for growth and expansion, without denying its own human activity and his self-determination rightblisher/metadata

  16. Implementation of a nonequilibrium condensation model in RELAP4/MOD7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.R.; Chow, H.; Van Arsdall, G.

    1979-01-01

    RALAp, which is used to simulate the thermal hydraulic behavior of light water reactors subjected to various LOCA transients, is based on the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium between liquid and vapor within fluid volumes. This assumption, while being appropriate for much of a LOCA transient, is not adequate during the ECC accumulator injection phase as determined by comparisons of code calculations with experimental data. To overcome this limitation, a general model to simulate the nonequilibrium phenomena associated with the mixing of subcooled water with saturated steam has been developed and is operational on preliminary versions of RELAP4/MOD7

  17. Mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady states on the frontier of probability and dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Da-Quan; Qian, Min-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a systematic mathematical exposition of the conceptual problems of nonequilibrium statistical physics, such as entropy production, irreversibility, and ordered phenomena. Markov chains, diffusion processes, and hyperbolic dynamical systems are used as mathematical models of physical systems. A measure-theoretic definition of entropy production rate and its formulae in various cases are given. It vanishes if and only if the stationary system is reversible and in equilibrium. Moreover, in the cases of Markov chains and diffusion processes on manifolds, it can be expressed in terms of circulations on directed cycles. Regarding entropy production fluctuations, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem is rigorously proved.

  18. Two phase nonequilibrium heat transfer in the TRAC-PD2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, D.A.; Liles, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    TRAC is a best-estimate, multidimensional, nonequilibrium computer code intended for the analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA's) in light water reactors. TRAC-PD2 is the third, detailed, pressurized water reactor version of the code. The TRAC code is modular both by components and by function. That is, vessels, pipes, pumps, etc. can be coupled together in any manner in order to simulate a reactor or a particular experimental facility. Individual physical phenomena are also coded in separate subroutines. This paper discusses the wall to fluid heat transfer coefficient correlations, the interfacial heat transfer models, and presents results for several experimental facilities

  19. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  20. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  1. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  2. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Christian.

    1982-03-01

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr

  3. Radiation accompanied by self absorption in nonequilibrium argon plasma flow in a circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroyuki; Tabei, Katsuine; Koaizawa, Hisashi.

    1983-01-01

    In high temperature, nonequilibrium plasma flow, generally strong radiation arises, but the radiation phenomena are complicated by the thermo-chemical nonequilibrium of gas and the self absorption in light path, accordingly it is important to correctly understand and estimate their effects. In this research, for the radiation from the argon afterglow plasma flow with large nonequilibrium property in a circular tube, the experimental and theoretical studies were carried out taking the self absorption in consideration. Experimentally, the absolute intensity distribution of the radiated spectrum lines was measured from outside of the tube, and converted to the true radial distribution of atom number density at excited level using the mathematical conversion theory for the radiation accompanied by absorption of Elder et al. Theoretically, the radial distributions of electron temperature, electron density and atom temperature measured in the tube were applied to the collision-radiation process model including self absorption, and the distribution of the atom number density at excited level was calculated. Fairly good agreement was obtained between both results, and it was found that the consideration of self absorption was important. The theory, the experiment, the numerical examination of a number of physical quantities and the simplification of the theory, and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. Entropy generation of viscous dissipative flow in thermal non-equilibrium porous media with thermal asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, Yi Shen; Ting, Tiew Wei; Hung, Yew Mun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of thermal asymmetrical boundaries on entropy generation of viscous dissipative flow of forced convection in thermal non-equilibrium porous media is analytically studied. The two-dimensional temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analysed comprehensively to provide insights into the underlying physical significance of the effect on entropy generation. By incorporating the effects of viscous dissipation and thermal non-equilibrium, the first-law and second-law characteristics of porous-medium flow are investigated via various pertinent parameters, i.e. heat flux ratio, effective thermal conductivity ratio, Darcy number, Biot number and averaged fluid velocity. For the case of symmetrical wall heat flux, an optimum condition with a high Nusselt number and a low entropy generation is identified at a Darcy number of 10 −4 , providing an ideal operating condition from the second-law aspect. This type of heat and fluid transport in porous media covers a wide range of engineering applications, involving porous insulation, packed-bed catalytic process in nuclear reactors, filtration transpiration cooling, and modelling of transport phenomena of microchannel heat sinks. - Highlights: • Effects of thermal asymmetries on convection in porous-medium are studied. • Exergetic effectiveness of porous media with thermal asymmetries is investigated. • 2-D temperature, Nusselt number and entropy generation contours are analyzed. • Significance of viscous dissipation in entropy generation is scrutinized. • Significance of thermal non-equilibrium in entropy generation is studied

  5. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  6. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified

  7. Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S

    2015-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion.

  8. Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Pankaj; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like an atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in an arbitrary nonequilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the nonequilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions. These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples. -- Highlights: ► Derived efficiency bounds for heat engines working with a single reservoir. ► Analyzed both ergodic and non-ergodic engines. ► Showed that non-ergodic engines can be more efficient. ► Extended fundamental thermodynamic relation to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes

  9. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    polymerases) catalyzing the growth of a DNA primer strand (the nascent chain of nucleotides complementary to the template strand) based on the Watson ...the fraction (error rate) of monomers for which y, where y is the correct Watson - Crick complementary base of , can be obtained by ¼ X...Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication Hyung-June Woo* and Anders Wallqvist Biotechnology High Performance Computing

  10. Nonequilibrium statistical averages and thermo field dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinaro, A.; Scarpetta, Q.

    1984-01-01

    An extension of thermo field dynamics is proposed, which permits the computation of nonequilibrium statistical averages. The Brownian motion of a quantum oscillator is treated as an example. In conclusion it is pointed out that the procedure proposed to computation of time-dependent statistical average gives the correct two-point Green function for the damped oscillator. A simple extension can be used to compute two-point Green functions of free particles

  11. On the Occurrence of Thermal Nonequilibrium in Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froment, C.; Auchère, F.; Mikić, Z.; Aulanier, G.; Bocchialini, K.; Buchlin, E.; Solomon, J.; Soubrié, E.

    2018-03-01

    Long-period EUV pulsations, recently discovered to be common in active regions, are understood to be the coronal manifestation of thermal nonequilibrium (TNE). The active regions previously studied with EIT/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and AIA/SDO indicated that long-period intensity pulsations are localized in only one or two loop bundles. The basic idea of this study is to understand why. For this purpose, we tested the response of different loop systems, using different magnetic configurations, to different stratifications and strengths of the heating. We present an extensive parameter-space study using 1D hydrodynamic simulations (1020 in total) and conclude that the occurrence of TNE requires specific combinations of parameters. Our study shows that the TNE cycles are confined to specific ranges in parameter space. This naturally explains why only some loops undergo constant periodic pulsations over several days: since the loop geometry and the heating properties generally vary from one loop to another in an active region, only the ones in which these parameters are compatible exhibit TNE cycles. Furthermore, these parameters (heating and geometry) are likely to vary significantly over the duration of a cycle, which potentially limits the possibilities of periodic behavior. This study also confirms that long-period intensity pulsations and coronal rain are two aspects of the same phenomenon: both phenomena can occur for similar heating conditions and can appear simultaneously in the simulations.

  12. Non-equilibrium Green function method: theory and application in simulation of nanometer electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Van-Nam

    2014-01-01

    We review fundamental aspects of the non-equilibrium Green function method in the simulation of nanometer electronic devices. The method is implemented into our recently developed computer package OPEDEVS to investigate transport properties of electrons in nano-scale devices and low-dimensional materials. Concretely, we present the definition of the four real-time Green functions, the retarded, advanced, lesser and greater functions. Basic relations among these functions and their equations of motion are also presented in detail as the basis for the performance of analytical and numerical calculations. In particular, we review in detail two recursive algorithms, which are implemented in OPEDEVS to solve the Green functions defined in finite-size opened systems and in the surface layer of semi-infinite homogeneous ones. Operation of the package is then illustrated through the simulation of the transport characteristics of a typical semiconductor device structure, the resonant tunneling diodes. (review)

  13. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  14. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  15. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  16. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, H J; Farhat, M; Luo, X W; Chen, Y L; Xu, H Y

    2012-01-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  17. Haters Phenomena in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Pradipta, Angga; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul

    2016-01-01

    Social media is internet-basic media, functioned as interaction media room based on multimedia technology. And social media created some effects. One of the negative effects of social media is haters phenomena. Haters are a person who easily said dirty words, harass, and humiliate to others. This phenomena causes anxiety—especially in Indonesia, even the Government issued public policy and letter of regulation about this phenomena, through Paragraph 27 verse (3) IT Constitution, Paragraph 45 ...

  18. Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method and Generalized Kinetic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzemsky, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    We consider some principal problems of nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics in the framework of the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator approach. We present a brief comparative analysis of some approaches to describing irreversible processes based on the concept of nonequilibrium Gibbs ensembles and their applicability to describing nonequilibrium processes. We discuss the derivation of generalized kinetic equations for a system in a heat bath. We obtain and analyze a damped Schrödinger-type equation for a dynamical system in a heat bath. We study the dynamical behavior of a particle in a medium taking the dissipation effects into account. We consider the scattering problem for neutrons in a nonequilibrium medium and derive a generalized Van Hove formula. We show that the nonequilibrium statistical operator method is an effective, convenient tool for describing irreversible processes in condensed matter.

  19. Transport phenomena in environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Aleksandra; Kardum, Jasna Prlić; Matijašić, Gordana; Žižek, Krunoslav

    2018-01-01

    A term transport phenomena arises as a second paradigm at the end of 1950s with high awareness that there was a strong need to improve the scoping of chemical engineering science. At that point, engineers became highly aware that it is extremely important to take step forward from pure empirical description and the concept of unit operations only to understand the specific process using phenomenological equations that rely on three elementary physical processes: momentum, energy and mass transport. This conceptual evolution of chemical engineering was first presented with a well-known book of R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960 [1]. What transport phenomena are included in environmental engineering? It is hard to divide those phenomena through different engineering disciplines. The core is the same but the focus changes. Intention of the authors here is to present the transport phenomena that are omnipresent in treatment of various process streams. The focus in this chapter is made on the transport phenomena that permanently occur in mechanical macroprocesses of sedimentation and filtration for separation in solid-liquid particulate systems and on the phenomena of the flow through a fixed and a fluidized bed of particles that are immanent in separation processes in packed columns and in environmental catalysis. The fundamental phenomena for each thermal and equilibrium separation process technology are presented as well. Understanding and mathematical description of underlying transport phenomena result in scoping the separation processes in a way that ChEs should act worldwide.

  20. Exciton correlations and input–output relations in non-equilibrium exciton superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jinwu; Sun, Fadi; Yu, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Wuming

    2013-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) measurements on photons and the transport measurements on excitons are the two types of independent and complementary detection tools to search for possible exciton superfluids in electron–hole semi-conductor bilayer systems. In fact, it was believed that the transport measurements can provide more direct evidences on superfluids than the spectroscopic measurements. It is important to establish the relations between the two kinds of measurements. In this paper, using quantum Heisenberg–Langevin equations, we establish such a connection by calculating various exciton correlation functions in the putative exciton superfluids. These correlation functions include both normal and anomalous greater, lesser, advanced, retarded, and time-ordered exciton Green functions and also various two exciton correlation functions. We also evaluate the corresponding normal and anomalous spectral weights and the Keldysh distribution functions. We stress the violations of the fluctuation and dissipation theorem among these various exciton correlation functions in the non-equilibrium exciton superfluids. We also explore the input–output relations between various exciton correlation functions and those of emitted photons such as the angle resolved photon power spectrum, phase sensitive two mode squeezing spectrum and two photon correlations. Applications to possible superfluids in the exciton–polariton systems are also mentioned. For a comparison, using conventional imaginary time formalism, we also calculate all the exciton correlation functions in an equilibrium dissipative exciton superfluid in the electron–electron coupled semi-conductor bilayers at the quantum Hall regime at the total filling factor ν T =1. We stress the analogies and also important differences between the correlations functions in the two exciton superfluid systems. - Highlights: ► Establish the relations between photoluminescence and transport measurements. ► Stress the

  1. On nonequilibrium many-body systems. 1: The nonequilibrium statistical operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarte, A.C.S.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.; Sampaio, A.J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical aspects involved in the treatment of many-body systems strongly departed from equilibrium are discussed. The nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method is considered in detail. Using Jaynes' maximum entropy formalism complemented with an ad hoc hypothesis a nonequilibrium statistical operator is obtained. This approach introduces irreversibility from the outset and we recover statistical operators like those of Green-Mori and Zubarev as particular cases. The connection with Generalized Thermodynamics and the construction of nonlinear transport equations are briefly described. (Author) [pt

  2. Dressing effects on the occurrence scattering time retardation and advance in a dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae; Hanyang Plasma Team

    2017-10-01

    The dressing effects on the occurrence scattering time for the dust-dust interaction are investigated in a complex plasma. The first-order eikonal analysis is applied to obtain the scattering amplitude and the occurrence scattering time for the dust-dust interaction. The result shows that dressing effect enhances the retardation phenomena of the occurrence scattering time in the forward scattering domain. It is shown that the oscillatory behavior of the scaled occurrence scattering time is getting more significant with an increase of the Debye length. It is also found that the retardation domain of the occurrence scattering time increases with a decrease of the Debye length. The variation of the occurrence scattering time retardation and advance due to the dressing effect is also discussed.

  3. Simulations of Biomechanical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose Cruz

    Recent studies have published breakthroughs in the application of finite element (FEA) studies in the design and analysis of advanced orthodontics. However, FEA has not captured bone remodeling responses to advanced orthodontics. The results of these simulations report unrealistic displacement around the nasal bridge, which impeded correlation with clinical data. Bone remodeling has been previously documented in FEA and has shown bone response to mechanical stimulus in femur bone models. However, the relationship between mechanical stimulus and bone remodeling has not been reported in orthodontic studies due to the complexity of the skull. In the current study, strain energy is used as the mechanical stimulus to control remodeling, from which density and modulus evolve. Due to the localization of forces in orthodontics, current remodeling algorithms have limited application. In turn, we developed an algorithm that dynamically collects, sorts, and bins stresses in all elements for regional remodeling based on the proximity of the element to the load. The results demonstrate that bone response to orthodontic appliances is different than that of an FEA without bone remodeling, due to load path changes based upon evolution of the bone properties. It was also found that density and moduli proximal to the load application site exhibit faster remodeling than those located remotely. Modeling another biomechanical phenomena, a 3D simulation was created to simulate recent experimental results that discovered a difference in impact mitigation properties of dense-polymer/foam bilayer structure based on the orientation of the dense-polymer with respect to the impact site. The impact energy transmitted varied in time of arrival and amplitude depending on the orientation of the structure (thin layer up or down). By creating a 3D explicit dynamic FEA simulation, it is expected to reduce costly experiments and time consumed in set up, and offer opportunities for optimization for

  4. Phase transitions, scaling and renormalisation in nonequilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanney, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    Nonequilibrium phase transitions and critical phenomena in simple lattice-based interacting particle models are considered. Specific models of interest are exclusion models in low dimensions, with particular reference to the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) which provides a testbed for many of the calculations. The aim of the thesis is to devise approximate scaling techniques for such models which account for fluctuations and which are more widely applicable than methods pursuing an exact solution. Scaling techniques which have been applied to models described by a linear equation of motion are extended to the case where the equation of motion is nonlinear. These methods capture the dynamic transition in the ASEP but fail to properly account for the nonlinearity in their predictions for the dynamic exponent, z. A new and widely applicable real space renormalisation group procedure is developed. It provides a direct and transparent scaling method to extract universal and non-universal properties of the steady state and dynamic critical behaviour in the boundary-driven ASEP in one dimension. In particular, we obtain a flow diagram for the problem from which we can interpret all the qualitative features of the (exactly known) steady state phase diagram and which predicts the exact value for the critical point. Further, the dynamic scaling is consistent with a crossover between diflusive behaviour near the zero current fixed point and z = 3/2 dynamics at the critical fixed point. Extensions to include disorder, to higher dimensions, and to other models are all possible using the method. Using the mapping between the Master equation and the Schroedinger equation in imaginary time, this scaling procedure is rephrased as a new blocking for quantum-spin systems. Existing methods of real space renormalisation for quantum-spin systems are applied to a variety of previously unconsidered exclusion models. In particular, it is shown how such techniques can be applied

  5. Introductory lectures on critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajehpour, M.R.H.

    1988-09-01

    After a presentation of classical models for phase transitions and critical phenomena (Van der Waals theory, Weiss theory of ferromagnetism) and theoretical models (Ising model, XY model, Heisenberg model, spherical model) the Landau theory of critical and multicritical points and some single applications of renormalization group method in static critical phenomena are presented. 115 refs, figs and tabs

  6. Mental Retardation; Its Social Context and Social Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Bernard

    Concerned with mental retardation as a social product, the following topics are discussed: mental retardation as a social phenomenon, the concept of the retarded as surplus population, labeling and incompetence in relation to life chances, mental retardation as deviance and as incompetence, and findings on the prevalence of retardation in the…

  7. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2011-07-01

    Soft matter is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field covering a range of subject areas including physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and engineering. Some of the important universal features of these materials are their mesoscopic structures and their dynamics. Due to the existence of such large-scale structures, which nevertheless exhibit interactions of the order of the thermal energy, soft matter can readily be taken out of equilibrium by imposing a weak external field such as an electric field, a mechanical stress or a shear flow. The importance of the coexistence of microscopic molecular dynamics and the mesoscopic/macroscopic structures and flows requires us to develop hierarchical approaches to understand the nonlinear and nonequilibrium phenomena, which is one of the central issues of current soft matter research. This special section presents selected contributions from the 'International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010' held from 17-20 August 2010 in Nara, Japan, which aimed to describe recent advances in soft matter research focusing especially on its nonequilibrium aspects. The topics discussed cover statics and dynamics of a wide variety of materials ranging from traditional soft matter like polymers, gels, emulsions, liquid crystals and colloids to biomaterials such as biopolymers and biomembranes. Among these studies, we highlighted the physics of biomembranes and vesicles, which has attracted great attention during the last decade; we organized a special session for this active field. The work presented in this issue deals with (1) structure formation in biomembranes and vesicles, (2) rheology of polymers and gels, (3) mesophases in block copolymers, (4) mesoscopic structures in liquid crystals and ionic liquids, and (5) nonequilibrium dynamics. This symposium was organized as part of a research project supported by the Grant-in-Aid for the priority area 'Soft Matter Physics' (2006-2010) from the Ministry of Education

  8. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  9. Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruschke, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio

  10. Universality in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems Theoretical Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ódor, Géza

    2008-01-01

    Universal scaling behavior is an attractive feature in statistical physics because a wide range of models can be classified purely in terms of their collective behavior due to a diverging correlation length. This book provides a comprehensive overview of dynamical universality classes occurring in nonequilibrium systems defined on regular lattices. The factors determining these diverse universality classes have yet to be fully understood, but the book attempts to summarize our present knowledge, taking them into account systematically.The book helps the reader to navigate in the zoo of basic m

  11. Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruschke, Jens

    2010-06-16

    The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio

  12. A Lagrangian formalism for nonequilibrium ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobouti, Y.

    1989-08-01

    It is suggested to formulate a nonequilibrium ensemble theory by maximizing a time-integrated entropy constrained by Liouville's equation. This leads to distribution functions of the form f = Z -1 exp(-g/kT), where g(p,q,t) is a solution of Liouville's equation. A further requirement that the entropy should be an additivie functional of the integrals of Liouville's equation, limits the choice of g to linear superpositions of the nonlinearly independent integrals of motion. Time-dependent and time-independent integrals may participate in this superposition. (author). 14 refs

  13. Origins of scaling relations in nonequilibrium growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, Carlos; Korutcheva, Elka

    2012-01-01

    Scaling and hyperscaling laws provide exact relations among critical exponents describing the behavior of a system at criticality. For nonequilibrium growth models with a conserved drift, there exist few of them. One such relation is α + z = 4, found to be inexact in a renormalization group calculation for several classical models in this field. Herein, we focus on the two-dimensional case and show that it is possible to construct conserved surface growth equations for which the relation α + z = 4 is exact in the renormalization group sense. We explain the presence of this scaling law in terms of the existence of geometric principles dominating the dynamics. (paper)

  14. Orthognathic surgery for mentally retarded patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, A. G.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The surgical treatment of mentally retarded children for esthetic reasons is discussed. In mentally retarded adults a facial deformity can give rise to functional problems; in some cases a facial deformity can stigmatize the mental state. In selected cases orthognathic surgery may offer a solution

  15. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  16. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  17. Noncitizen: Plight of the Mentally Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarnulis, Ed

    1974-01-01

    Mentally retarded citizens have been denied their human and civil rights, not only by the public, but by professionals--including social workers. The author claims that most programs for the mentally retarded are, at best, dehumanizing. Professionals have an ethical obligation to refuse to refer children to such programs. (Author)

  18. Sustained Attention of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Allison, Pamela

    1988-01-01

    The sustained attention of 23 young adults with mild mental retardation and nonretarded subjects was assessed. Findings suggested that the sustained attention of the retarded differs from that of the nonretarded on those vigilance tasks that place demands on memory abilities. (Author/DB)

  19. The Mentally Retarded Offender and Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamour, Miles; West, Bernadette

    The booklet provides an overview of the issues involved in correctional rehabilitation for the mentally retarded offender. Reviewed are clinical and legal definitions of criminal behavior and retardation, and discussed are such issues as law enforcement and court proceedings problems, pros and cons of special facilities, labeling, normalization,…

  20. AUTISTIC FEATURES IN CHILDREN WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Khanna, Rakesh; Kar, Gopal Chandra

    1997-01-01

    Most of the autistic disorder patients are also mentally retarded and many mentally retarded persons exhibit autistic symptoms. By using a standard instrument (Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating Scale) the autistic features of the mentally retarded children were studied. The study also examined the influence of age, sex and level of mental retardation on the occurrence of autistic symptoms. Children who came for consultation to child psychiatric unit were compared with those at a school for children with mental retardation receiving stimulation. Male children from child psychiatric unit had significantly higher scores than those from the school. Social and language impairment could be reliably identified and grouped. It was possible to diagnose the syndrome of autism in children with mental retardation in a significant number (9.6%)as compared to that was possible only clinically (1.9%). More number of children with severe/ profound mental retardation could be diagnosed as autistic. The autistic syndrome in children with mental retardation can be picked up more effectively by the use of structured instrument. PMID:21584097

  1. Polar Coordinate Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Modeling of Detonation Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chuan-Dong; Li Ying-Jun; Xu Ai-Guo; Zhang Guang-Cai

    2014-01-01

    A novel polar coordinate lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for detonation phenomena is presented and applied to investigate typical implosion and explosion processes. In this model, the change of discrete distribution function due to local chemical reaction is dynamically coupled into the modified lattice Boltzmann equation which could recover the Navier—Stokes equations, including contribution of chemical reaction, via the Chapman—Enskog expansion. For the numerical investigations, the main focuses are the nonequilibrium behaviors in these processes. The system at the disc center is always in its thermodynamic equilibrium in the highly symmetric case. The internal kinetic energies in different degrees of freedom around the detonation front do not coincide. The dependence of the reaction rate on the pressure, influences of the shock strength and reaction rate on the departure amplitude of the system from its local thermodynamic equilibrium are probed. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. CT findings of mentally retarded patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Cranial CT findings were compared according to the age group in 192 mentally retarded patients aged from 15 to 59 years and in 132 control subjects. Enlargement of the ventricles, cisterns or fissures was judged. The incidence of ''enlargement'' was higher, irrespective of age, in mentally retarded group than in the control group. When the mentally retarded patients were divided into the group with pathologic symptoms and the group without them, the incidence of ''enlargement'' was higher in the former group than in the control group, but there was no significant difference between the latter group and the control group. There was no consistent relationship between the degree of mental retardation and the incidence of ''enlargement''. Many of the mentally retarded patients with pathologic symptoms tended to have a wide range of enlargement, while many of the patients without them had narrowed lateral ventricle. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. CASE REPORT OF A MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka GALEVSKA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is a complex individual and social problem. According to WHO, around 1-3 % of world population are mentally retarded people and the percentage between school children is around 2 %.The development of a mentally retarded child depends on factors related to the disability itself, all the limitations and characteristics which results from that. But, physical, psychical, educational and social development of a mentally retarded child, also, depend on other conditions, such as the family and the wider environment, their reactions, attitudes, awareness and sensitivity for special needs of the child, as well as their preparedness and possibilities to respond.At the same time, it is necessary that the mentally retarded child is detected and diagnosed in time, as well as the early start of an adequate treatment.

  4. Numerical Analysis on Thermal Non-Equilibrium Process of Laser-Supported Detonation Wave in Axisymmetric Nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Numerical Analyses on Laser-Supported Plasma (LSP) have been performed for researching the mechanism of laser absorption occurring in the laser propulsion system. Above all, Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), categorized as one type of LSP, is considered as one of the most important phenomena because it can generate high pressure and high temperature for performing highly effective propulsion. For simulating generation and propagation of LSD wave, I have performed thermal non-equilibrium analyses by Navier-stokes equations, using a CO 2 gasdynamic laser into an inert gas, where the most important laser absorption mechanism for LSD propagation is Inverse Bremsstrahlung. As a numerical method, TVD scheme taken into account of real gas effects and thermal non-equilibrium effects by using a 2-temperature model, is applied. In this study, I analyze a LSD wave propagating through a conical nozzle, where an inner space of an actual laser propulsion system is simplified

  5. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  6. Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro

    2001-01-01

    Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)

  7. Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Nordblad, P.

    2000-01-01

    Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle sample, exhibiting a low-temperature spin-glass-like phase, has been studied by low-frequency ac susceptibility and magnetic relaxation experiments. The nonequilibrium behavior shows characteristic spin-glass features, but some qualitative...

  8. Exploring Chemical and Thermal Non-equilibrium in Nitrogen Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S; Das, A K

    2012-01-01

    Plasma torches operating with nitrogen are of special importance as they can operate with usual tungsten based refractory electrodes and offer radical rich non-oxidizing high temperature environment for plasma chemistry. Strong gradients in temperature as well as species densities and huge convective fluxes lead to varying degrees of chemical non-equilibrium in associated regions. An axi-symmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model of a nitrogen plasma torch has been developed to understand the effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium in arcs. A 2-D finite volume CFD code in association with a non-equilibrium property routine enabled extraction of steady state self-consistent distributions of various plasma quantities inside the torch under various thermal and chemical non-equilibrium conditions. Chemical non-equilibrium has been incorporated through computation of diffusive and convective fluxes in each finite volume cell in every iteration and associating corresponding thermodynamic and transport properties through the scheme of 'chemical non-equilibrium parameter' introduced by Ghorui et. al. Recombination coefficient data from Nahar et. al. and radiation data from Krey and Morris have been used in the simulation. Results are presented for distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity, current density, electric potential, species densities and chemical non-equilibrium effects. Obtained results are compared with similar results under LTE.

  9. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-01-01

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop

  10. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Martin

    2009-12-21

    The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)

  11. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)

  12. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  13. Phase transitions in nonequilibrium traffic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper uses the center difference scheme of Lax-Friedrichs to numerically solve a newly developed continuum traffic flow theory and the kinematic theory of Lighthill and Whitham, and Richards, and it studies the flow-concentration phase transitions in flow containing both shock and rarefaction waves. A homogeneous road with finite length was modeled by both theories. Numerical simulations show that both theories yield nearly identical results for two representative Riemann problems--one has a shock solution and the other a rarefaction wave solution. Their phase transition curves, however, are different: those derived from the new theory have two branches--one for acceleration flow and one for deceleration flow, whereas those derived from the LWR theory comprise a single curve--the equilibrium curve. The phase transition curves in the shock case agree well with certain experimental observations but disagree with others. This disagreement may be resolved by studying transitions among nonequilibrium states, which awaits further development of a more accurate finite difference approximation of the nonequilibrium theory.

  14. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-09-22

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.

  15. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under non-equilibrium conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberthur, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) for the study of systems under non-equilibrium conditions is illustrated by three types of experiments in the field of polymer research: - the relaxation of a system from an initial non-equilibrium state towards equilibrium, - the cyclic or repetitive installation of a series of non-equilibrium states in a system, - the steady non-equilibrium state maintained by a constant dissipation of energy within the system. Characteristic times obtained in these experiments with SANS are compared with the times obtained from quasi-elastic neutron and light scattering, which yield information about the equilibrium dynamics of the system. The limits of SANS applied to non-equilibrium systems for the measurement of relaxation times at different length scales are shown and compared to the limits of quasielastic neutron and light scattering

  16. Micro transport phenomena during boiling

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    "Micro Transport Phenomena During Boiling" reviews the new achievements and contributions in recent investigations at microscale. It presents some original research results and discusses topics at the frontier of thermal and fluid sciences.

  17. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao

    2017-01-01

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration

  18. Renormalization group and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing

    2004-01-01

    The basic clue and the main steps of renormalization group method used for the description of critical phenomena is introduced. It is pointed out that this method really reflects the most important physical features of critical phenomena, i.e. self-similarity, and set up a practical solving method from it. This way of setting up a theory according to the features of the physical system is really a good lesson for today's physicists. (author)

  19. The measurement of retardation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantchev, N; Widlöcher, D J

    1998-01-01

    The description of clinical features helps to distinguish between depressive illness and nondepressive psychic pain and enables the clinician to decide whether prescription of an antidepressant is beneficial. Psychomotor retardation is probably a central feature of depression, and this review discusses the methods available for measuring it. The Salpêtrière Retardation Rating Scale (SRRS) specifically measures psychomotor retardation; the scale and applications are described. Means of measuring motor and speech activity and an experimental approach for understanding the process underlying psychomotor retardation are reviewed. Comparison of the SRRS and other rating scale scores demonstrates that retardation is related to depression severity and therapeutic change and is a good criterion for prediction of therapeutic effect. The SRRS has been used to show that selective antidepressants target specific clinical dimensions of depression depending on the patient subgroup treated. Measures of motor and speech activity are sensitive to therapeutic response. Choice Reaction Time and Simple Reaction Time tasks are particularly suited for examining psychomotor retardation because they test the decision process while avoiding motivation and attention interference. Psychomotor retardation is a constant and probably central feature of depression. Means available for measuring it can be used to assess the effects of antidepressants on specific clinical dimensions.

  20. SLEEP DISORDERS IN MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the association between sleep disturbances and mental retardation in children. Attention is paid to the instant connection between sleep neurophysiology and intellectual progress, as well as between sleep disorders and the pathogenesis of mental retardation in children. The data on characteristic forms of sleep disturbances, including bed-time resistance, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, abnormal sleep structure, and notably reduced REM-sleep proportion are provided. The potential role of abnormal melatonin production in the origins of sleep disturbances in children with mental retardation is discussed. Certain approaches to pharmacological and non-pharmacological corrections of sleep disorders are outlined.

  1. Education of Mentally Retarded Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Jelenc

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult education of people with severe, modest and profound mental retardation got only recently an important place in the special education theory and practice. It could be established that in this area both in the intentional as well as in the contentual field the meaningfull shift has been achieved. Today we are talking about authonomy and rights of these people to taking part in a decission-making about the way of their living, but on the other  side the fast development and changes in society are again and again compelling this people to the decisions which they are not able to put into effect and which are burdening them and making them dependent of others. This could partly be prevented by continuing education as it is also true for them that in the stage of initial education they cannot subdue everything what they would need later in their life. Next to the findings of the foreign experts this has been confirmed as well in the first our investigations in this area. Some of the findings will be presented in our paper.

  2. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  3. Preface: Special issue featuring papers from the International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, L.; Bordone, P.; Brunetti, R.

    2004-02-01

    The International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors (HCIS-13) celebrates 30 years since it first took place in Modena. Nonequilibrium dynamics of charge carriers, pioneered by the hot-electron concept, is an important issue for understanding electro-optic transport properties in semiconductor materials and structures. In these 30 years several topics have matured, and new ones have emerged thus fertilizing the field with a variety of physical problems and new ideas. The history of the conference is summarized in the opening paper `30 years of HCIS'. The future of the conference seems secure considering the continued lively interest of the participants. The conference addressed eleven major topics which constitute the backbone of the proceedings and are summarized as follows: carrier transport in low dimensional and nanostructure systems, nonequilibrium carriers in superlattices and devices, small devices and related phenomena, carrier dynamics and fluctuations, carrier quantum dynamics, coherent/incoherent carrier dynamics of optical excitations and ultra-fast optical phenomena, nonlinear optical effects, transport in organic matter, semiconductor-based spintronics, coherent dynamics in solid state systems for quantum processing and communication, novel materials and devices. Nanometric space scale and femtosecond time scale represent the ultimate domains of theoretical, experimental and practical interest. Traditional fields such as bulk properties, quantum transport, fluctuations and chaotic phenomena, etc, have received thorough and continuous attention. Emerging fields from previous conferences, such as quantum processing and communication, have been better assessed. New fields, such as spintronics and electron transport in organic matter, have appeared for the first time. One plenary talk, 11 invited talks, 230 submitted abstracts covering all these topics constituted a single-session conference. Following scientific selection

  4. Non-equilibrium effects in the plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.

    1975-01-01

    Radial dependences of non-equilibrium effects of a He plasma were studied in a wall-stabilized short-time discharge. The electron density (nsub(e) = 2.5 x 10 22 m -3 ), the electron temperature and the equilibrium shift were determined by calculations of the continuum beam density and the beam densities of one He-I and one He-II line, respectively. In the discharge axis, the overpopulation factors of the ground state of He-I and He-II are about 75. As the distance to the axis increases, they increase for He-I and decrease for He-II. Except for the usual errors of measurement, the overpopulation factors found here correspond to those calculated from the balance equations (Drawin). (orig./AK) [de

  5. Non-equilibrium in flowing atmospheric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.C.M. de.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aspects of two different plasmas applied in technological processes. The first one is the cesium seeded argon plasma in a closed cycle Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, the second is the thermal argon plasma in a cascade arc with an imposed flow. In Chapter 2 the influence of non-equilibrium on the mass and energy balances of a plasma is worked out. The general theory presented there can be applied to both the plasma in an MHD generator and to the cascade arc with imposed flow. Introductions to these plasmas are given in the Chapters 3 and 6 respectively. These chapters are both followed by two chapters which treat the theoretical and the experimental investigations. The results are summarized in Chapter 9. (Auth.)

  6. Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wreszinski, Walter F.

    2015-01-01

    We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system

  7. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David

    2015-11-01

    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound.

  8. Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)

  9. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Driven Disordered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchbinder, Eran

    2011-03-01

    We present a nonequilibrium thermodynamic framework for describing the dynamics of driven disordered solids (noncrystalline solids near and below their glass temperature, soft glassy materials such as colloidal suspensions and heavily dislocated polycrystalline solids). A central idea in our approach is that the set of mechanically stable configurations, i.e. the part of the system that is described by inherent structures, evolves slowly as compared to thermal vibrations and is characterized by an effective disorder temperature. Our thermodynamics-motivated equations of motion for the flow of energy and entropy are supplemented by coarse-grained internal variables that carry information about the relevant microscopic physics. Applications of this framework to amorphous visco-plasticity (Shear-Transformation-Zone theory), glassy memory effects (the Kovacs effect) and dislocation-mediated polycrystalline plasticity will be briefly discussed.

  10. Nonequilibrium Chromosome Looping via Molecular Slip Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackley, C. A.; Johnson, J.; Michieletto, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Nicodemi, M.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of molecular slip links. These mimic the behavior of molecules like cohesin, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which contribute to organizing the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable nonequilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favor of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. We also find that the diffusive motion of multiple slip links along chromatin is rectified by an intriguing ratchet effect that arises if slip links bind to the chromatin at a preferred "loading site." This emergent collective behavior favors the extrusion of loops which are much larger than the ones formed by single slip links.

  11. Magnetic polarons in a nonequilibrium polariton condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietki, Paweł; Matuszewski, Michał

    2017-09-01

    We consider a condensate of exciton polaritons in a diluted magnetic semiconductor microcavity. Such a system may exhibit magnetic self-trapping in the case of sufficiently strong coupling between polaritons and magnetic ions embedded in the semiconductor. We investigate the effect of the nonequilibrium nature of exciton polaritons on the physics of the resulting self-trapped magnetic polarons. We find that multiple polarons can exist at the same time, and we derive a critical condition for self-trapping that is different from the one predicted previously in the equilibrium case. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approximation, we calculate the excitation spectrum and provide a physical explanation in terms of the effective magnetic attraction between polaritons, mediated by the ion subsystem.

  12. Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A

    2005-01-01

    A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil

  13. Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David

    2015-01-01

    Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound. (paper)

  14. MMS two-phase nonequilibrium pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.J.; Sursock, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The pressurizer of a nuclear steam supply system establishes and maintains the nuclear plant primary loop pressure within the prescribed limit. It is a vertical cylindrical vessel which provides a water reserve and a steam surge chamber to accommodate coolant density changes during operation. To adjust the pressure to a desired value, electric heaters are provided in its lower section and the spray nozzles are provided in its upper section. Also, to protect against the buildup of the excess pressure, the pressurizer has two different types of relief valves, i.e., power operated relief valve and the safety relief valve. The pressurizer model implemented to the MMS is described in detail. In particular, the handling of the nonequilibrium condition, surgeline CCFL (Counter-current Flooding Limitation), and the level tracking model are described in detail. Next, the simulation of the Shippingport pressurizer load drop test is reported

  15. Stochastic approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J

    2015-04-01

    We develop the stochastic approach to thermodynamics based on stochastic dynamics, which can be discrete (master equation) and continuous (Fokker-Planck equation), and on two assumptions concerning entropy. The first is the definition of entropy itself and the second the definition of entropy production rate, which is non-negative and vanishes in thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on these assumptions, we study interacting systems with many degrees of freedom in equilibrium or out of thermodynamic equilibrium and how the macroscopic laws are derived from the stochastic dynamics. These studies include the quasiequilibrium processes; the convexity of the equilibrium surface; the monotonic time behavior of thermodynamic potentials, including entropy; the bilinear form of the entropy production rate; the Onsager coefficients and reciprocal relations; and the nonequilibrium steady states of chemical reactions.

  16. Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2018-03-19

    Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.

  17. The Political Values of Mentally Retarded Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barbara B.; Klein, Nancy K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings indicated that the retarded are affected by the process of political socialization much like their nonretarded peers. In forming a ranking of goal-values, age and socioeconomic status outweighed differences in cognitive ability. (Author/DLS)

  18. Nanocellular foam with solid flame retardant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Kelly-Rowley, Anne M.; Bunker, Shana P.; Costeux, Stephane

    2017-11-21

    Prepare nanofoam by (a) providing an aqueous solution of a flame retardant dissolved in an aqueous solvent, wherein the flame retardant is a solid at 23.degree. C. and 101 kiloPascals pressure when in neat form; (b) providing a fluid polymer composition selected from a solution of polymer dissolved in a water-miscible solvent or a latex of polymer particles in a continuous aqueous phase; (c) mixing the aqueous solution of flame retardant with the fluid polymer composition to form a mixture; (d) removing water and, if present, solvent from the mixture to produce a polymeric composition having less than 74 weight-percent flame retardant based on total polymeric composition weight; (e) compound the polymeric composition with a matrix polymer to form a matrix polymer composition; and (f) foam the matrix polymer composition into nanofoam having a porosity of at least 60 percent.

  19. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  20. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  1. Kinetic theory and transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    This textbook presents kinetic theory, which is a systematic approach to describing nonequilibrium systems. The text is balanced between the fundamental concepts of kinetic theory (irreversibility, transport processes, separation of time scales, conservations, coarse graining, distribution functions, etc.) and the results and predictions of the theory, where the relevant properties of different systems are computed. The book is organised in thematic chapters where different paradigmatic systems are studied. The specific features of these systems are described, building and analysing the appropriate kinetic equations. Specifically, the book considers the classical transport of charges, the dynamics of classical gases, Brownian motion, plasmas, and self-gravitating systems, quantum gases, the electronic transport in solids and, finally, semiconductors. Besides these systems that are studied in detail, concepts are applied to some modern examples including the quark–gluon plasma, the motion of bacterial suspen...

  2. Contribution from the interaction Hamiltonian to the expectation value of particle number with the non-equilibrium quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Ryuuichi; Morozumi, Takuya; Takata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We develop the method analyzing particle number non-conserving phenomena with non-equilibrium quantum field-theory. In this study, we consider a CP violating model with interaction Hamiltonian that breaks particle number conservation. To derive the quantum Boltzmann equation for the particle number, we solve Schwinger-Dyson equation, which are obtained from two particle irreducible closed-time-path (2PI CTP) effective action. In this calculation, we show the contribution from interaction Hamiltonian to the time evolution of expectation value of particle number.

  3. Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundlach Carsten

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term 'critical phenomena'. They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. This review gives an introduction to the phenomena, tries to summarize the essential features of what is happening, and then presents extensions and applications of this basic scenario. Critical phenomena are of interest particularly for creating surprising structure from simple equations, and for the light they throw on cosmic censorship and the generic dynamics of general relativity.

  4. Mental Retardation, Poverty and Community Based Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Helander

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A person with moderate mental retardation would, in a western country, be "diagnosed" early on in life. Consequently, such a child is likely to be sent for special education. Given the high level of job requirements, such a person is unlikely to be employed in the open market later in life. Mental retardation is one of the most frequent disabilities in most studies, mental retardation is found in about three percent of the population. Persons even with mild mental retardation have very large difficulties finding employment and are for this reason often deprived of opportunities for suitable and productive income generation this is why most stay poor. But disability does not only cause poverty poverty itself causes disability. This study follows an analysis, based on a review of the Swedish programme for mental retardation during the period 1930-2000. It is concluded that in Sweden a very large proportion of mild and moderate mental retardation has been eliminated though the combination of poverty alleviation with a community-based rehabilitation programme. For these situations a pro-active programme analysing and meeting the needs of the target groups should be useful as a means to achieve poverty alleviation.

  5. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  6. Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Helliwell, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of

  7. The influence of non-equilibrium fluctuations on radiation damage and recovery of metals under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Klepikov, V.F.

    2007-01-01

    In the conventional theory of radiation damage, it is assumed that the main effect of irradiation is due to formation of Frenkel pairs of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and their clusters. The difference in absorption of vacancies and SIAs by primary or radiation-induced extended defects (EDs) is thought to be the main reason of microstructural evolution under irradiation. On the other hand, the recovery of radiation damage is thought to be driven exclusively by thermal fluctuations resulting in the vacancy evaporation from voids (void annealing) or dislocations (thermal creep) and in the fluctuation-driven overcoming of obstacles by gliding dislocations (plastic strain). However, these recovery mechanisms can be efficient only at sufficiently high temperatures. At lower irradiation temperatures, the main driving force of the recovery processes may be due to nonequilibrium fluctuations of energy states of the atoms surrounding EDs arising as a result of scattering of radiation-induced excitations of atomic and electronic structure at EDs. In the present paper, the mechanisms of nonequilibrium fluctuations that result in such phenomena as the void shrinkage under irradiation at low temperatures (or high dose rates), irradiation creep and irradiation-induced increase of plasticity under sub-threshold irradiation was considered

  8. The second-order description of rotational non-equilibrium effects in polyatomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myong, Rho Shin

    2017-11-01

    The conventional description of gases is based on the physical laws of conservation (mass, momentum, and energy) in conjunction with the first-order constitutive laws, the two-century old so-called Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equation based on a critical assumption made by Stokes in 1845 that the bulk viscosity vanishes. While the Stokes' assumption is certainly legitimate in the case of dilute monatomic gases, ever increasing evidences, however, now indicate that such is not the case, in particular, in the case of polyatomic gases-like nitrogen and carbon dioxide-far-from local thermal equilibrium. It should be noted that, from room temperature acoustic attenuation data, the bulk viscosity for carbon dioxide is three orders of magnitude larger than its shear viscosity. In this study, this fundamental issue in compressible gas dynamics is revisited and the second-order constitutive laws are derived by starting from the Boltzmann-Curtiss kinetic equation. Then the topology of the second-order nonlinear coupled constitutive relations in phase space is investigated. Finally, the shock-vortex interaction problem where the strong interaction of two important thermal (translational and rotational) non-equilibrium phenomena occurs is considered in order to highlight the rotational non-equilibrium effects in polyatomic gases. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of South Korea (NRF 2017-R1A2B2-007634).

  9. On a unified presentation of the non-equilibrium two-phase flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    If the various existing one-dimensional two-phase flow models are consistent, they must appear as particular cases of more general models. It is shown that such is the case if, and only if, the mathematical form of the laws of the transfers between the phases is sufficiently general. These transfer laws control the non-equilibrium phenomena. A convenient general model is a particular form of the two-fluid model. This particular form involves three equations and three dependent variables characterizing the mixture, and three equations and three dependent variables characterizing the differences between the phases (slip, thermal non-equilibriums). The mathematical expressions of the transfert terms present in the above equations involve first-order partial derivatives of the dependent variables. The other existing models may be deduced from the general model by making assumptions on the fluid evolution. Several examples are given. The resulting unified presentation of the existing model enables a comparison of the implicit assumptions made in these models on the transfer laws. It is therefore, a useful tool for the appraisal of the existing models and for the development of new models [fr

  10. A tightly coupled non-equilibrium model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munafò, A.; Alfuhaid, S. A.; Panesi, M.; Cambier, J.-L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work is the development of a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State approach. A multi-temperature formulation is used to account for thermal non-equilibrium between translation of heavy-particles and vibration of molecules. Excited electronic states of atoms are instead treated as separate pseudo-species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. Free-electrons are assumed Maxwellian at their own temperature. The governing equations for the electro-magnetic field and the gas properties (e.g., chemical composition and temperatures) are written as a coupled system of time-dependent conservation laws. Steady-state solutions are obtained by means of an implicit Finite Volume method. The results obtained in both LTE and NLTE conditions over a broad spectrum of operating conditions demonstrate the robustness of the proposed coupled numerical method. The analysis of chemical composition and temperature distributions along the torch radius shows that: (i) the use of the LTE assumption may lead to an inaccurate prediction of the thermo-chemical state of the gas, and (ii) non-equilibrium phenomena play a significant role close the walls, due to the combined effects of Ohmic heating and macroscopic gradients

  11. Novel non-equilibrium modelling of a DC electric arc in argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, M.; Benilov, M. S.; Almeida, N. A.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2016-06-01

    A novel non-equilibrium model has been developed to describe the interplay of heat and mass transfer and electric and magnetic fields in a DC electric arc. A complete diffusion treatment of particle fluxes, a generalized form of Ohm’s law, and numerical matching of the arc plasma with the space-charge sheaths adjacent to the electrodes are applied to analyze in detail the plasma parameters and the phenomena occurring in the plasma column and the near-electrode regions of a DC arc generated in atmospheric pressure argon for current levels from 20 A up to 200 A. Results comprising electric field and potential, current density, heating of the electrodes, and effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium are presented and discussed. The current-voltage characteristic obtained is in fair agreement with known experimental data. It indicates a minimum for arc current of about 80 A. For all current levels, a field reversal in front of the anode accompanied by a voltage drop of (0.7-2.6) V is observed. Another field reversal is observed near the cathode for arc currents below 80 A.

  12. Novel non-equilibrium modelling of a DC electric arc in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeva, M; Uhrlandt, D; Benilov, M S; Almeida, N A

    2016-01-01

    A novel non-equilibrium model has been developed to describe the interplay of heat and mass transfer and electric and magnetic fields in a DC electric arc. A complete diffusion treatment of particle fluxes, a generalized form of Ohm’s law, and numerical matching of the arc plasma with the space-charge sheaths adjacent to the electrodes are applied to analyze in detail the plasma parameters and the phenomena occurring in the plasma column and the near-electrode regions of a DC arc generated in atmospheric pressure argon for current levels from 20 A up to 200 A. Results comprising electric field and potential, current density, heating of the electrodes, and effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium are presented and discussed. The current–voltage characteristic obtained is in fair agreement with known experimental data. It indicates a minimum for arc current of about 80 A. For all current levels, a field reversal in front of the anode accompanied by a voltage drop of (0.7–2.6) V is observed. Another field reversal is observed near the cathode for arc currents below 80 A. (paper)

  13. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Hydrate Growth on a Gas-Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2018-04-01

    We develop a continuum-scale phase-field model to study gas-liquid-hydrate systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We design a Gibbs free energy functional for methane-water mixtures that recovers the isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The proposed free energy is incorporated into a phase-field model to study the dynamics of hydrate formation on a gas-liquid interface. We elucidate the role of initial aqueous concentration in determining the direction of hydrate growth at the interface, in agreement with experimental observations. Our model also reveals two stages of hydrate growth at an interface—controlled by a crossover in how methane is supplied from the gas and liquid phases—which could explain the persistence of gas conduits in hydrate-bearing sediments and other nonequilibrium phenomena commonly observed in natural methane hydrate systems.

  14. On atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets and plasma bullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X; Laroussi, M; Puech, V

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets (APNP-Js), which generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined discharge gap, have recently been a topic of great interest. In this paper, the development of APNP-Js will be reviewed. Firstly, the APNP-Js are grouped based on the type of gas used to ignite them and their characteristics are discussed in detail. Secondly, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the ‘plasma bullet’, is discussed and its behavior described. Thirdly, the very recent developments on the behavior of plasma jets when launched in a controlled environment and pressure are also introduced. This is followed by a discussion on the interaction between plasma jets. Finally, perspectives on APNP-J research are presented. (paper)

  15. Non-equilibrium coherence dynamics in one-dimensional Bose gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofferberth, S.; Lesanovsky, Igor; Fischer, B.

    2007-01-01

    Low-dimensional systems provide beautiful examples of many-body quantum physics. For one-dimensional (1D) systems, the Luttinger liquid approach provides insight into universal properties. Much is known of the equilibrium state, both in the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. However......, the coherence factor is observed to approach a non-zero equilibrium value, as predicted by a Bogoliubov approach. This coupled-system decay to finite coherence is the matter wave equivalent of phase-locking two lasers by injection. The non-equilibrium dynamics of superfluids has an important role in a wide...... range of physical systems, such as superconductors, quantum Hall systems, superfluid helium and spin systems. Our experiments studying coherence dynamics show that 1D Bose gases are ideally suited for investigating this class of phenomena....

  16. Picosecond dissociation of amyloid fibrils with infrared laser: A nonequilibrium simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Viet, Man; Roland, Christopher, E-mail: cmroland@ncsu.edu; Sagui, Celeste, E-mail: sagui@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Derreumaux, Philippe; Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail: phuong.nguyen@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, SBI Building, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2015-10-21

    Recently, mid-infrared free-electron laser technology has been developed to dissociate amyloid fibrils. Here, we present a theoretical framework for this type of experiment based on laser-induced nonequilibrium all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the fibril is destroyed due to the strong resonance between its amide I vibrational modes and the laser field. The effects of laser irradiation are determined by a balance between fibril formation and dissociation. While the overall rearrangements of the fibril finish over short time scales, the interaction between the peptides and the solvent continues over much longer times indicating that the waters play an important role in the dissociation process. Our results thus provide new insights into amyloid fibril dissociation by laser techniques and open up new venues to investigate the complex phenomena associated with amyloidogenesis.

  17. Molecular sieving through a graphene nanopore: non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengzhen Sun; Bofeng Bai

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphene nanopores have shown great promise as ultra-permeable molecular sieves based on their size-sieving effects.We design a nitrogen/hydrogen modified graphene nanopore and conduct a transient non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation on its molecular sieving effects.The distinct time-varying molecular crossing numbers show that this special nanopore can efficiently sieve CO2 and H2S molecules from CH4 molecules with high selectivity.By analyzing the molecular structure and pore functionalization-related molecular orientation and permeable zone in the nanopore,density distribution in the molecular adsorption layer on the graphene surface,as well as other features,the molecular sieving mechanisms of graphene nanopores are revealed.Finally,several implications on the design of highly-efficient graphene nanopores,especially for determining the porosity and chemical functionalization,as gas separation membranes are summarized based on the identified phenomena and mechanisms.

  18. Critical dynamics a field theory approach to equilibrium and non-equilibrium scaling behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Täuber, Uwe C

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a unified framework for describing and understanding complex interacting systems common in physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, and the social sciences, this comprehensive overview of dynamic critical phenomena covers the description of systems at thermal equilibrium, quantum systems, and non-equilibrium systems. Powerful mathematical techniques for dealing with complex dynamic systems are carefully introduced, including field-theoretic tools and the perturbative dynamical renormalization group approach, rapidly building up a mathematical toolbox of relevant skills. Heuristic and qualitative arguments outlining the essential theory behind each type of system are introduced at the start of each chapter, alongside real-world numerical and experimental data, firmly linking new mathematical techniques to their practical applications. Each chapter is supported by carefully tailored problems for solution, and comprehensive suggestions for further reading, making this an excellent introduction to critic...

  19. Non-equilibrium physics and evolution—adaptation, extinction, and ecology: a Key Issues review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussell, E; Vucelja, M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in nature constitute an immensely complex non-equilibrium process. We review the application of physical models of evolution, by focusing on adaptation, extinction, and ecology. In each case, we examine key concepts by working through examples. Adaptation is discussed in the context of bacterial evolution, with a view toward the relationship between growth rates, mutation rates, selection strength, and environmental changes. Extinction dynamics for an isolated population are reviewed, with emphasis on the relation between timescales of extinction, population size, and temporally correlated noise. Ecological models are discussed by focusing on the effect of spatial interspecies interactions on diversity. Connections between physical processes—such as diffusion, turbulence, and localization—and evolutionary phenomena are highlighted. (key issues reviews)

  20. Nonequilibrium Transport and the Bernoulli Effect of Electrons in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ismet I.

    2013-02-01

    Nonequilibrium transport of charged carriers in a two-dimensional electron gas is summarized from an experimental point of view. The transport regime in which the electron-electron interactions are enhanced at high bias leads to a range of striking effects in a two-dimensional electron gas. This regime of transport is quite different than the ballistic transport in which particles propagate coherently with no intercarrier energy transfer and the diffusive transport in which the momentum of the electron system is lost with the involvement of the phonons. Quite a few hydrodynamic phenomena observed in classical gasses have the electrical analogs in the current flow. When intercarrier scattering events dominate the transport, the momentum sharing via narrow angle scattering among the hot and cold electrons lead to negative resistance and electron pumping which can be viewed as the analog of the Bernoulli-Venturi effect observed classical gasses. The recent experimental findings and the background work in the field are reviewed.

  1. Laser Thomson scattering diagnostics of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, K.; Uchino, K.; Bowden, M.D.; Noguchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    For various applications of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas, knowledge of electron properties, such as electron density, electron temperature and/or electron energy distribution function (eedf), is prerequisite for any rational approach to understanding physical and chemical processes occurring in the plasmas. For this purpose, laser Thomson scattering has been successfully applied for the first time to measure the electron properties in plasmas for excimer laser pumping and in microdischarges. Although this diagnostic technique is well established for measurements in high temperature plasmas, its applications to these glow discharge plasmas have had various inherent difficulties, such as a presence of high density neutral particles (>10 21 m -3 ) in the excimer laser pumping discharges and an extremely small plasma size (<0.1 mm) and the presence of nearby walls for microdischarges. These difficulties have been overcome and clear signals have been obtained. The measured results are presented and their implications in the respective discharge phenomena are discussed

  2. Rate of tunneling nonequilibrium quasiparticles in superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohammad H

    2015-01-01

    In superconducting qubits the lifetime of quantum states cannot be prolonged arbitrarily by decreasing temperature. At low temperature quasiparticles tunneling between the electromagnetic environment and superconducting islands takes the condensate state out of equilibrium due to charge imbalance. We obtain the tunneling rate from a phenomenological model of non-equilibrium, where nonequilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling stimulates a temperature-dependent chemical potential shift in the superconductor. As a result we obtain a non-monotonic behavior for relaxation rate as a function of temperature. Depending on the fabrication parameters for some qubits, the lowest tunneling rate of nonequilibrium quasiparticles can take place only near the onset temperature below which nonequilibrium quasiparticles dominate over equilibrium one. Our theory also indicates that such tunnelings can influence the probability of transitions in qubits through a coupling to the zero-point energy of phase fluctuations. (paper)

  3. Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim

    2005-01-01

    Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how...

  4. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Self-Replicating Protocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hansen, Per Lyngs

    2018-01-01

    We provide a non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of the life-cycle of a droplet based, chemically feasible, system of protocells. By coupling the protocells metabolic kinetics with its thermodynamics, we demonstrate how the system can be driven out of equilibrium to ensure protocell growth...... and replication. This coupling allows us to derive the equations of evolution and to rigorously demonstrate how growth and replication life-cycle can be understood as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cycle. The process does not appeal to genetic information or inheritance, and is based only on non......-equilibrium physics considerations. Our non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of simple, yet realistic, processes of protocell growth and replication, represents an advance in our physical understanding of a central biological phenomenon both in connection to the origin of life and for modern biology....

  5. Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.G.

    1980-12-01

    This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions

  6. Some recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    : ... This canonical prescription is the starting point for studying a system in ... abilistic approach to non-equilibrium dynamics by treating the case of Markovian ..... equation in this network between the incoming flux and the outgoing flux at each.

  7. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  8. Discovery potential for new phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, S.; Price, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    The authors examine the ability of future facilities to discover and interpret non-supersymmetric new phenomena. The authors first explore explicit manifestations of new physics, including extended gauge sectors, leptoquarks, exotic fermions, and technicolor models. They then take a more general approach where new physics only reveals itself through the existence of effective interactions at lower energy scales

  9. Strings, fields and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1987-07-01

    The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)

  10. Atomistic-level non-equilibrium model for chemically reactive systems based on steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guanchen; Al-Abbasi, Omar; Von Spakovsky, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines an atomistic-level framework for modeling the non-equilibrium behavior of chemically reactive systems. The framework called steepest- entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEA-QT) is based on the paradigm of intrinsic quantum thermodynamic (IQT), which is a theory that unifies quantum mechanics and thermodynamics into a single discipline with wide applications to the study of non-equilibrium phenomena at the atomistic level. SEA-QT is a novel approach for describing the state of chemically reactive systems as well as the kinetic and dynamic features of the reaction process without any assumptions of near-equilibrium states or weak-interactions with a reservoir or bath. Entropy generation is the basis of the dissipation which takes place internal to the system and is, thus, the driving force of the chemical reaction(s). The SEA-QT non-equilibrium model is able to provide detailed information during the reaction process, providing a picture of the changes occurring in key thermodynamic properties (e.g., the instantaneous species concentrations, entropy and entropy generation, reaction coordinate, chemical affinities, reaction rate, etc). As an illustration, the SEA-QT framework is applied to an atomistic-level chemically reactive system governed by the reaction mechanism F + H 2 ↔ FH + H

  11. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  12. Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.

    2002-01-01

    the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme...... wires connected to aluminum electrodes with extended or finite cross section, (ii) single atom gold wires, and finally (iii) large carbon nanotube systems with point defects....

  13. Non-equilibrium dynamics from RPMD and CMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Ralph; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang; Althorpe, Stuart C; Miller, Thomas F

    2016-11-28

    We investigate the calculation of approximate non-equilibrium quantum time correlation functions (TCFs) using two popular path-integral-based molecular dynamics methods, ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). It is shown that for the cases of a sudden vertical excitation and an initial momentum impulse, both RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs for linear operators that are exact for high temperatures, in the t = 0 limit, and for harmonic potentials; the subset of these conditions that are preserved for non-equilibrium TCFs of non-linear operators is also discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that for these non-equilibrium initial conditions, both methods retain the connection to Matsubara dynamics that has previously been established for equilibrium initial conditions. Comparison of non-equilibrium TCFs from RPMD and CMD to Matsubara dynamics at short times reveals the orders in time to which the methods agree. Specifically, for the position-autocorrelation function associated with sudden vertical excitation, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 4 ) and O(t 1 ), respectively; for the position-autocorrelation function associated with an initial momentum impulse, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 5 ) and O(t 2 ), respectively. Numerical tests using model potentials for a wide range of non-equilibrium initial conditions show that RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs with an accuracy that is comparable to that for equilibrium TCFs. RPMD is also used to investigate excited-state proton transfer in a system-bath model, and it is compared to numerically exact calculations performed using a recently developed version of the Liouville space hierarchical equation of motion approach; again, similar accuracy is observed for non-equilibrium and equilibrium initial conditions.

  14. Complex Dynamics in Nonequilibrium Economics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kehong

    Complex dynamics provides a new approach in dealing with economic complexity. We study interactively the empirical and theoretical aspects of business cycles. The way of exploring complexity is similar to that in the study of an oscillatory chemical system (BZ system)--a model for modeling complex behavior. We contribute in simulating qualitatively the complex periodic patterns observed from the controlled BZ experiments to narrow the gap between modeling and experiment. The gap between theory and reality is much wider in economics, which involves studies of human expectations and decisions, the essential difference from natural sciences. Our empirical and theoretical studies make substantial progress in closing this gap. With the help from the new development in nonequilibrium physics, i.e., the complex spectral theory, we advance our technique in detecting characteristic time scales from empirical economic data. We obtain correlation resonances, which give oscillating modes with decays for correlation decomposition, from different time series including S&P 500, M2, crude oil spot prices, and GNP. The time scales found are strikingly compatible with business experiences and other studies in business cycles. They reveal the non-Markovian nature of coherent markets. The resonances enhance the evidence of economic chaos obtained by using other tests. The evolving multi-humped distributions produced by the moving-time -window technique reveal the nonequilibrium nature of economic behavior. They reproduce the American economic history of booms and busts. The studies seem to provide a way out of the debate on chaos versus noise and unify the cyclical and stochastic approaches in explaining business fluctuations. Based on these findings and new expectation formulation, we construct a business cycle model which gives qualitatively compatible patterns to those found empirically. The soft-bouncing oscillator model provides a better alternative than the harmonic oscillator

  15. Differentiation of retarded integrals and the divergence theorem for retarded functions with discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Lim, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Theorems expressing the time derivatives of retarded volume and surface integrals are presented as well as the Gauss divergence theorem for retarded functions with discontinuities. These theorems greatly facilitate the analysis of gravitational radiation from the motion of disjoint matter distributions in general relativity and could find useful application in other branches of physics

  16. Achieving Radiation Tolerance through Non-Equilibrium Grain Boundary Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterick, Gregory A; Gruber, Jacob; Suri, Pranav K; Baldwin, Jon K; Kirk, Marquis A; Baldo, Pete; Wang, Yong Q; Misra, Amit; Tucker, Garritt J; Taheri, Mitra L

    2017-09-25

    Many methods used to produce nanocrystalline (NC) materials leave behind non-equilibrium grain boundaries (GBs) containing excess free volume and higher energy than their equilibrium counterparts with identical 5 degrees of freedom. Since non-equilibrium GBs have increased amounts of both strain and free volume, these boundaries may act as more efficient sinks for the excess interstitials and vacancies produced in a material under irradiation as compared to equilibrium GBs. The relative sink strengths of equilibrium and non-equilibrium GBs were explored by comparing the behavior of annealed (equilibrium) and as-deposited (non-equilibrium) NC iron films on irradiation. These results were coupled with atomistic simulations to better reveal the underlying processes occurring on timescales too short to capture using in situ TEM. After irradiation, NC iron with non-equilibrium GBs contains both a smaller number density of defect clusters and a smaller average defect cluster size. Simulations showed that excess free volume contribute to a decreased survival rate of point defects in cascades occurring adjacent to the GB and that these boundaries undergo less dramatic changes in structure upon irradiation. These results suggest that non-equilibrium GBs act as more efficient sinks for defects and could be utilized to create more radiation tolerant materials in future.

  17. Progress in Non-equilibrium Green's Functions (PNGF VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The sixth interdisciplinary conference 'Progress in Non-equilibrium Green's Functions' (PNGF6) took place at Lund University, Sweden, on 17-21 August 2015. The conference was attended by 60 scientists, from Europe and overseas, sharing an interest in Green's function methods and/or non-equilibrium phenomena. At the conference, 34 invited and contributed talks were given, together with a poster session with 17 contributions. As its predecessors (Rostock 1999, Dresden 2002, Kiel 2005, Glasgow 2009, Jyväskylä 2012) did, the conference succeeded in gathering different communities for the exchange of recent developments and results. Among the topics of the conference, we mention approaches for strongly correlated systems, improvements of existing perturbative many-body schemes, electron-phonon/-photon interactions in time-dependent treatments, numerical scalability of NEGF approaches, connections with other non-equilibrium methods and concrete physical applications. For the latter, we mention quantum transport, semiconductor kinetics, multiply excited states in atoms and ions, nuclear reactions, high energy physics, quantum cascade lasers, strongly correlated model systems, graphene-nanostructures, optoelectronics, superconductors, spin-dynamics, photovoltaics, excitations in atoms and ions and time-resolved spectroscopy. The present volume contains 20 articles from participants of PNGF6, devoted to these topics. Compared to previous conferences, a completely novel and successful aspect of PNGF6 was the participation of experimentalists among the invited speakers, to establish a connection between emerging experimental techniques (for example, time-dependent spectroscopies) and the theoretical NEGF community. As at the previous PNGF conferences, the atmosphere was friendly and exciting at the same time, favoring vivid and stimulating discussions among experienced scientists, young researchers and students. The conference would not have been

  18. Modeling of thermalization phenomena in coaxial plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Panneerchelvam, Premkumar; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2018-05-01

    Coaxial plasma accelerators are electromagnetic acceleration devices that employ a self-induced Lorentz force to produce collimated plasma jets with velocities ~50 km s‑1. The accelerator operation is characterized by the formation of an ionization/thermalization zone near gas inlet of the device that continually processes the incoming neutral gas into a highly ionized thermal plasma. In this paper, we present a 1D non-equilibrium plasma model to resolve the plasma formation and the electron-heavy species thermalization phenomena that take place in the thermalization zone. The non-equilibrium model is based on a self-consistent multi-species continuum description of the plasma with finite-rate chemistry. The thermalization zone is modelled by tracking a 1D gas-bit as it convects down the device with an initial gas pressure of 1 atm. The thermalization process occurs in two stages. The first is a plasma production stage, associated with a rapid increase in the charged species number densities facilitated by cathode surface electron emission and volumetric production processes. The production stage results in the formation of a two-temperature plasma with electron energies of ~2.5 eV in a low temperature background gas of ~300 K. The second, a temperature equilibration stage, is characterized by the energy transfer between the electrons and heavy species. The characteristic length scale for thermalization is found to be comparable to axial length of the accelerator thus putting into question the equilibrium magnetohydrodynamics assumption used in modeling coaxial accelerators.

  19. Collective Phenomena In Volume And Surface Barrier Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-07-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective means to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without appreciable gas heating. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. In laboratory experiments also the use of resistive, ferroelectric and semiconducting materials has been investigated, also porous ceramic layers and dielectric barriers with controlled surface conductivity. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are also devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinu- soidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or laterally homogeneous discharges. Reviews of the subject and the older literature on barrier discharges were published by Kogelschatz (2002, 2003), by Wagner et al. (2003) and by Fridman et al. (2005). A detailed discussion of various properties of barrier discharges can also be found in the recent book "Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure" by Becker et al. (2005). The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges will be discussed in detail. Special attention will be given to self-organization of current filaments. Main similarities and differences of the two types of barrier discharges will be elaborated.

  20. [Clinical features of strabismus in psychomotor retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-11-05

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.

  2. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451

  3. Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-08-01

    Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.

  4. Transport phenomena in multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy.  It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...

  5. Flame-retardant carbon nanotube films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janas, Dawid; Rdest, Monika; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have demonstrated fire-retardancy properties of a polymer matrix-free CNT film for the first time. As compared with classical fire-retardant materials such as Kevlar, Twaron or Nomex, the CNT film showed a spectrum of advantages. The material is lightweight, flexible and well-adherent to even the most complicated shapes. The results have showed that by using CNTs for fire-retardancy we can extend the operational time almost two-fold, what makes CNTs a much better protection than the solutions employed nowadays. We believe that among other great properties of CNT, their macroscopic assemblies such as CNT films show significant potential for becoming a fire protective coating, which exhibits high performance in not sustaining fire.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  7. Multiparticle phenomena and Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey various methods of studying multiparticle phenomena in accelerators. Both experimental and theoretical methods are described. An effort has been made to emphasize the intuitive and qualitative aspects rather than the detailed mathematics. Some of the terms or concepts to be explained are coherent and incoherent tunes, normal modes, Landau damping, beam-transfer functions, and feedback. These are all of daily importance in the interpretation of colliding-beam observations and the control of performance

  8. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.

    2007-06-01

    This volume is a collection of papers associated with a series of invited lectures presented at the First Workshop on Nonequilibrium processes in Plasma Physics and studies of Environment that was held at Mt Kopaonik in August 2006. The workshop originated as a part of the FP6 COE 026328 which had the basic aim of promoting centers of excellence in Western Balkan countries, to facilitate dissemination of their results and to help them establish themselves in the broader arena of European and international science. So the best way to achieve all those goals was to prepare a workshop associated with the local conference SPIG (Symposium on Physics of Ionized Gases) where the participants could attend sessions in which the host Laboratory presented progress reports and papers and thereby gain a full perspective of our results. At the same time this allowed participants in the COE the opportunity to compare their results with the results of external speakers and to gain new perspectives and knowledge. The program of the workshop was augmented by inviting some of our colleagues who visited the COE in recent years or have an active collaboration with a participating member. In that respect this volume is not only a proceedings of the workshop but a collection of papers related to the topic of the workshop: Non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the science of our environment. The idea is to offer review articles either summarizing a broader area of published or about to be published work or to give overviews showing preliminary results of the works in progress. The refereeing of the papers consisted of two parts, first in selection of the invitees and second in checking the submitted manuscripts. The papers were refereed to the standard of the Journal. As the program of the COE covers a wide area of topics from application of plasmas in nano- electronics to monitoring and removal of pollutants in the atmosphere, so the program of the workshop covered an even broader

  9. Antagonistic Phenomena in Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Adilson E.; Timme, Marc

    2018-03-01

    Recent research on the network modeling of complex systems has led to a convenient representation of numerous natural, social, and engineered systems that are now recognized as networks of interacting parts. Such systems can exhibit a wealth of phenomena that not only cannot be anticipated from merely examining their parts, as per the textbook definition of complexity, but also challenge intuition even when considered in the context of what is now known in network science. Here, we review the recent literature on two major classes of such phenomena that have far-reaching implications: (a) antagonistic responses to changes of states or parameters and (b) coexistence of seemingly incongruous behaviors or properties - both deriving from the collective and inherently decentralized nature of the dynamics. They include effects as diverse as negative compressibility in engineered materials, rescue interactions in biological networks, negative resistance in fluid networks, and the Braess paradox occurring across transport and supply networks. They also include remote synchronization, chimera states, and the converse of symmetry breaking in brain, power-grid, and oscillator networks as well as remote control in biological and bioinspired systems. By offering a unified view of these various scenarios, we suggest that they are representative of a yet broader class of unprecedented network phenomena that ought to be revealed and explained by future research.

  10. Non-equilibrium transport in the quantum dot: quench dynamics and non-equilibrium steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Adrian; Andrei, Natan

    We present an exact method of calculating the non-equilibrium current driven by a voltage drop across a quantum dot. The system is described by the two lead Anderson model at zero temperature with on-site Coulomb repulsion and non-interacting, linearized leads. We prepare the system in an initial state consisting of a free Fermi sea in each lead with the voltage drop given as the difference between the two Fermi levels. We quench the system by coupling the dot to the leads at t = 0 and following the time evolution of the wavefunction. In the long time limit a new type of Bethe Ansatz wavefunction emerges, which satisfies the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with the two Fermi seas serving as the boundary conditions. This exact, non-perturbative solution describes the non-equilibrium steady state of the system. We describe how to use this solution to compute the infinite time limit of the expectation value of the current operator at a given voltage, which would yield the I-V characteristic of the dot. Research supported by NSF Grant DMR 1410583.

  11. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available this outstanding fire resistance. Thus flame-retardant (FR) and smoke-suppressant (SS) additives must be incorporated in order to meet product test specifications such as oxygen index, heat release rate, smoke evolution, or the extent of burning [1]. Levchik... plot for the composites fabricated in this work. For a material to be effectively flame retarded both the fire load and the fire growth index should assume low values. Figure 11 shows a dramatic decrease for all the EG composites relative to the neat...

  12. Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorani, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.

  13. Performance Limiting Effects in Power Generation from Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2011-12-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to utilize the free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for clean and renewable power generation. Here, we present a systematic investigation of the performance limiting phenomena in pressure retarded osmosis-external concentration polarization, internal concentration polarization, and reverse draw salt flux-and offer insights on the design criteria of a high performance pressure retarded osmosis power generation system. Thin-film composite polyamide membranes were chemically modified to produce a range of membrane transport properties, and the water and salt permeabilities were characterized to determine the underlying permeability-selectivity trade-off relationship. We show that power density is constrained by the trade-off between permeability and selectivity of the membrane active layer. This behavior is attributed to the opposing influence of the beneficial effect of membrane water permeability and the detrimental impact of reverse salt flux coupled with internal concentration polarization. Our analysis reveals the intricate influence of active and support layer properties on power density and demonstrates that membrane performance is maximized by tailoring the water and salt permeabilities to the structural parameters. An analytical parameter that quantifies the relative influence of each performance limiting phenomena is employed to identify the dominant effect restricting productivity. External concentration polarization is shown to be the main factor limiting performance at high power densities. Enhancement of the hydrodynamic flow conditions in the membrane feed channel reduces external concentration polarization and thus, yields improved power density. However, doing so will also incur additional operating costs due to the accompanying hydraulic pressure loss. This study demonstrates that by thoughtful selection of the membrane properties and hydrodynamic conditions, the detrimental

  14. The phenomenon of retarded potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskov, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    The logic simulation of process of time delay of potential on a moved body - recipient resulted in the deduction about cyclic irregularity of time delay, that means, that the moved body makes longitudinal vibrations. A conclusion is drawn that length of longitudinal vibrations depending from three variable: the law of interaction, spacing interval between bodies of interaction and phase velocity looks like: λ=Hv ph /R·F(R) (1), where λ- length of oscillations; H- factor of proportionality; v ph - phase velocity of a body; R - distance between test and central bodies R(t); F(R) - law of interaction. So far as λ=v ph /v, and R·F(R)=∫ ∞ R F(R)dR=E move , then formula (1) will be transformed into: E move =Hv pv /λ=Hv. Thus, the energy of radiating having the similar law is only reflex of motion of a matter. The energy of oscillating motion can be expressed through linear maximal velocity. It is established, that different expressions of the same energy, result in the law of a view of a proportion for lengths of de Broglie's waves: It shows that de Broglie's waves - the actual oscillating motions of bodies, as demonstrate interference and diffraction pictures at a dissipation of the accelerated particles on crystalline gratings. This deduction has far-reaching consequences for finding - out of the cause bases of the laws of a nature. So, the quantum mechanics becomes partition of mechanics of solids and is comprises all interactions. The nuclear energy is not 'defect of mass', but is 'defect' of energy of oscillating motion: ΔE=H v1 -H v2 . Definition of real cause of nuclear energy is very important for construction of model of nuclei and for development of physics as the whole. The interconnection of the phenomenon of longitudinal vibrations of moved bodies, as result of irregularity of time delay of potential, with many other natural phenomena is looked through. By such, as: motion of planets and electrons on elliptical orbits, oscillating of dipping drips

  15. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Becher, G.; Berg, van den M.; Boer, de J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume

  16. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joseph G.; Becher, Georg; Van Den Berg, Martin; Leonards, Pim E G

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organo-halogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production

  17. Retarded hippocampal development following prenatal exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Rats in Group A showed no implantation, rats in Group B had abortion on the 7th day after administration, and rats in Group C gave birth with their litters showing retarded hippocampus development and neural degeneration and rats in Group D (control) showed normal development. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of ...

  18. International Directory of Mental Retardation Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Rosemary F., Ed.

    The directory lists and describes governmental and voluntary agencies, research, and other resources in the field of mental retardation in foreign countries. The first section, on international organizations, gives names, addresses, names of directors, and one or more paragraphs of description for the United Nations and its specialized agencies,…

  19. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  20. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  1. Opitz C syndrome: Trigonocephaly, mental retardation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a 4-year-old female child with a dysmorphic and neurological syndrome of trigonocephaly, mental and psychomotor retardation and dysmorphic facial ... The patient had important cerebral anomalies with diffuse alterations in white matter that caused developmental delay with verbal and nonverbal disabilities ...

  2. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  3. Skin mastocytosis, hearing loss and mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Beemer, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    A girl with skin mastocytosis, hearing loss, microcephaly, mild dysmorphic features and severe mental retardation is described. The symptoms of the child resemble those reported in 1990 by Wolach et al. in another patient sufficiently to suspect the same entity in both. Inheritance may be autosomal

  4. Computer Needs of Severely Mentally Retarded Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Kelly

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews technology applicable for use by severely mentally retarded learners. Descriptions are given of assistive devices (including communication aids), controls and interfaces (such as single switch access to standard software), and software (including games to teach cause and effect and simple matching and counting). (CL)

  5. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  6. Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoloupis, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)

  7. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2001-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in

  8. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m

  9. Nonlinear phenomena in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari, Alireza; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza

    2018-04-01

    The perturbation theory plays an important role in studying structure formation in cosmology and post-Newtonian physics, but not all phenomena can be described by the linear perturbation theory. Thus, it is necessary to study exact solutions or higher-order perturbations. Specifically, we study black hole (apparent) horizons and the cosmological event horizon formation in the perturbation theory. We emphasize that in the perturbative regime of the gravitational potential these horizons cannot form in the lower order. Studying the infinite plane metric, we show that, to capture the cosmological constant effect, we need at least a second-order expansion.

  10. Nonlinear phenomena at cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, D.; Uma, R.

    1986-01-01

    Finite amplitude electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma which typically occur in situations as in present day wave heating, current drives and other schemes in magnetically confined fusion systems, can show qualitatively different absorption and emission characteristics around resonant frequencies of the plasma because of anharmonicity. Linear wave plasma coupling as well as weak nonlinear effects such as parametric instabilities generally overlook this important effect even though the thresholds for the two phenomena as shown here are comparable. Though the effects described here are relevant to a host of nonlinear resonance effects in fusion plasmas, the authors mainly limit themselves to ECRH

  11. Violent phenomena in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant V

    2007-01-01

    The serenity of a clear night sky belies the evidence-gathered by balloons, rockets, satellites, and telescopes-that the universe contains centers of furious activity that pour out vast amounts of energy, some in regular cycles and some in gigantic bursts. This reader-friendly book, acclaimed by Nature as ""excellent and uncompromising,"" traces the development of modern astrophysics and its explanations of these startling celestial fireworks.This lively narrative ranges from the gravitational theories of Newton and Einstein to recent exciting discoveries of such violent phenomena as supernova

  12. Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear

  13. Quantum theory of collective phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sewell, G L

    2014-01-01

    ""An excellent and competent introduction to the field … [and] … a source of information for the expert."" - Physics Today""This a book of major importance…. I trust that this book will be used as a basis for the teaching of a balanced, modern and rigorous course on statistical mechanics in all universities."" - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society""This is one of the best introductions to the subject, and it is strongly recommended to anyone interested in collective phenomena."" - Physics Bulletin ""The book may be recommended for students as a well-balanced introduction to this rich s

  14. Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-12-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  15. Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  16. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.

  17. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A.D.; Voronin, A.Y.; Voronin, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold anti-hydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of anti-hydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eoetvoes-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology. (authors)

  18. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  19. Nonretarded and Mentally Retarded Children's Control over Syntax Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Ten nonretarded preschoolers and 10 mildly mentally retarded children (mean age 8 years) were compared for control over various syntactic structures. The retarded children evidenced difficulties similar to those of younger nonretarded children. (Author/SB)

  20. Non-equilibrium responses of PFPE lubricants with various atomistic/molecular architecture at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pil Seung; Song, Wonyup; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2017-05-01

    During the operation of hard disk drive (HDD), the perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant experiences elastic or viscous shear/elongation deformations, which affect the performance and reliability of the HDD. Therefore, the viscoelastic responses of PFPE could provide a finger print analysis in designing optimal molecular architecture of lubricants to control the tribological phenomena. In this paper, we examine the rheological responses of PFPEs including storage (elastic) and loss (viscous) moduli (G' and G″) by monitoring the time-dependent-stress-strain relationship via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We analyzed the rheological responses by using Cox-Merz rule, and investigated the molecular structural and thermal effects on the solid-like and liquid-like behaviors of PFPEs. The temperature dependence of the endgroup agglomeration phenomena was examined, where the functional endgroups are decoupled as the temperature increases. By analyzing the relaxation processes, the molecular rheological studies will provide the optimal lubricant selection criteria to enhance the HDD performance and reliability for the heat-assisted magnetic recording applications.

  1. Non-equilibrium responses of PFPE lubricants with various atomistic/molecular architecture at elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Seung Chung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the operation of hard disk drive (HDD, the perfluoropolyether (PFPE lubricant experiences elastic or viscous shear/elongation deformations, which affect the performance and reliability of the HDD. Therefore, the viscoelastic responses of PFPE could provide a finger print analysis in designing optimal molecular architecture of lubricants to control the tribological phenomena. In this paper, we examine the rheological responses of PFPEs including storage (elastic and loss (viscous moduli (G′ and G″ by monitoring the time-dependent-stress-strain relationship via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We analyzed the rheological responses by using Cox-Merz rule, and investigated the molecular structural and thermal effects on the solid-like and liquid-like behaviors of PFPEs. The temperature dependence of the endgroup agglomeration phenomena was examined, where the functional endgroups are decoupled as the temperature increases. By analyzing the relaxation processes, the molecular rheological studies will provide the optimal lubricant selection criteria to enhance the HDD performance and reliability for the heat-assisted magnetic recording applications.

  2. Effectiveness of Flame Retardants in TufFoam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nissen, April [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Massey, Lee Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    An investigation of polyurethane foam filled with known flame retardant fillers including hydroxides, melamine, phosphate-containing compounds, and melamine phosphates was carried out to produce a low-cost material with high flame retardant efficiency. The impact of flame retardant fillers on the physical properties such a s composite foam density, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal expansion of composite foams was investigated with the goal of synthesizing a robust rigid foam with excellent flame retardant properties.

  3. Adiabatic Hamiltonian deformation, linear response theory, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Although Hamiltonians of various kinds have previously been used to derive Green-Kubo relations for the transport coefficients, the particular choice described is uniquely related to thermodynamics. This nonequilibrium Hamiltonian formulation of fluid flow provides pedagogically simple routes to nonequilibrium fluxes and distribution functions, to theoretical understanding of long-time effects, and to new numerical methods for simulating systems far from equilibrium. The same methods are now being applied to solid-phase problems. At the relatively high frequencies used in the viscous fluid calculations described, solids typically behave elastically. Lower frequencies lead to the formation of dislocations and other defects, making it possible to study plastic flow. A property of the nonequilibrium equations of motion which might be profitably explored is their effective irreversibility. Because only a few particles are necessary to generate irreversible behavior, simulations using adiabatic deformations of the kind described here could perhaps elucidate the instability in the equations of motion responsible for irreversibility

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and fluctuation relations for small systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Liang; Ke Pu; Qiao Li-Yan; Zheng Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we give a retrospect of the recent progress in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in small dynamical systems. For systems with only a few number of particles, fluctuations and nonlinearity become significant and contribute to the nonequilibrium behaviors of the systems, hence the statistical properties and thermodynamics should be carefully studied. We review recent developments of this topic by starting from the Gallavotti—Cohen fluctuation theorem, and then to the Evans—Searles transient fluctuation theorem, Jarzynski free-energy equality, and the Crooks fluctuation relation. We also investigate the nonequilibrium free energy theorem for trajectories involving changes of the heat bath temperature and propose a generalized free-energy relation. It should be noticed that the non-Markovian property of the heat bath may lead to the violation of the free-energy relation. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  5. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetterlin, K R; Raeth, C; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Khrapak, S; Zhdanov, S; Rubin-Zuzic, M; Morfill, G E; Wysocki, A; Loewen, H; Goedheer, W J; Fortov, V E; Lipaev, A M; Molotkov, V I; Petrov, O F

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separation. Using the permanent microgravity laboratory PK-3 Plus, operating onboard the International Space Station, we performed unique experiments with binary mixtures of complex plasmas that showed both lane formation and phase separation. These observations have been augmented by comprehensive numerical and theoretical studies. In this paper we present an overview of our most important results. In addition we put our results in context with research of complex plasmas, binary systems and non-equilibrium phase transitions. Necessary and promising future complex plasma experiments on phase separation and lane formation are briefly discussed.

  6. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of cotton textiles based on UV-curable flame retardant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Jie, Ganxin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaptability for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Song, Lei; Hu, Shuang; Lv, Xiaoqi; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-01-20

    The flame retardant coatings were prepared through UV-curable technique using tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA). Results from FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that flame retardant coatings were successfully coated onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The flame retardancy of the treated fabrics was studied by Micro-scale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) and limited oxygen index (LOI). The cottons coated flame retardant coatings had the lower peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC), total heat of combustion (THC) and higher LOI value compared with untreated cotton. The results from TGA test showed that the flame retardant coatings lowered the decomposition temperature of treated fabric. The thermal decomposition of cottons was monitored by real time FTIR analysis and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The enhanced flame retardant action might be caused by thermal decomposition of TAEP structure, producing acidic intermediates, which could react with fabrics to alter its thermal decomposition process.

  7. Caring for children with mental retardation: The experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caring for children with mental retardation at home requires great patience and understanding. Mothers often experience difficulties adjusting to the fact that their children are mentally retarded and that it cannot be cured. This study investigated the experiences of mothers caring for children with mental retardation.

  8. Anxious-retarded depression: relation to family history of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Remco F. P.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Goekoop, Jaap G.

    2004-01-01

    Anxious-retarded depression is a two-dimensionally defined subcategory of depression based on high scores for both anxiety and retardation. The anxious-retarded subcategory is related to melancholia as defined by DSM-IV. Patients with this diagnosis exhibit elevated plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP)

  9. Inviscid flux-splitting algorithms for real gases with non-equilibrium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuen, Jian-Shun; Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Formulations of inviscid flux splitting algorithms for chemical nonequilibrium gases are presented. A chemical system for air dissociation and recombination is described. Numerical results for one-dimensional shock tube and nozzle flows of air in chemical nonequilibrium are examined.

  10. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  11. Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufty, James W.

    2007-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award 'Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas'. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.

  12. Introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Takafumi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a concise and self-contained introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory by considering an ensemble of interacting identical bosons or fermions as an example. Readers are assumed to be familiar with the Matsubara formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics such as Feynman diagrams, the proper self-energy, and Dyson's equation. The aims are threefold: (1) to explain the fundamentals of nonequilibrium quantum field theory as simple as possible on the basis of the knowledge of the equilibrium counterpart; (2) to elucidate the hierarchy in describing nonequilibrium systems from Dyson's equation on the Keldysh contour to the Navier-Stokes equation in fluid mechanics via quantum transport equations and the Boltzmann equation; (3) to derive an expression of nonequilibrium entropy that evolves with time. In stage (1), we introduce nonequilibrium Green's function and the self-energy uniquely on the round-trip Keldysh contour, thereby avoiding possible confusions that may arise from defining multiple Green's functions at the very beginning. We try to present the Feynman rules for the perturbation expansion as simple as possible. In particular, we focus on the self-consistent perturbation expansion with the Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic functional, i.e., Baym's Φ-derivable approximation, which has a crucial property for nonequilibrium systems of obeying various conservation laws automatically. We also show how the two-particle correlations can be calculated within the Φ-derivable approximation, i.e., an issue of how to handle the 'Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvons (BBGKY) hierarchy'. Aim (2) is performed through successive reductions of relevant variables with the Wigner transformation, the gradient expansion based on the Groenewold-Moyal product, and Enskog's expansion from local equilibrium. This part may be helpful for convincing readers that nonequilibrium systems can be handled microscopically with

  13. Limiting processes in non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancel, R.

    1983-01-01

    After a recall of the basic principles of the statistical mechanics, the results of ergodic theory, the transient at the thermodynamic limit and his link with the transport theory near the equilibrium are analyzed. The fundamental problems put by the description of non-equilibrium macroscopic systems are investigated and the kinetic methods are stated. The problems of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are analyzed: irreversibility and coarse-graining, macroscopic variables and kinetic description, autonomous reduced descriptions, limit processes, BBGKY hierarchy, limit theorems [fr

  14. Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.

  15. Forces and energy dissipation in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluehktov, Yu.M.; Slezov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomenological theory of volume forces and dissipation processes in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors near temperature transition from the normal to superconducting state is constructed. The approach is based on application of dynamic equations of superconductivity formulated on the basis of the Lagrangian formalism. These equations are generalized the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the nonstationary non-equilibrium case for ''foul'' superconductors. The value estimations of volume forces arising in inhomogeneities during relaxation of an order parameter and when the electrical field is penetrated into the superconductor, are given

  16. Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashurin, A., E-mail: ashashur@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Keidar, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.

  17. Collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-11-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective configuration to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without significant heating of the background gas. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinusoidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or diffuse, laterally homogeneous discharges. The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to self-organization of current filaments and pattern formation. Major similarities of the two types of barrier discharges are elaborated.

  18. Chemical kinetics and relaxation of non-equilibrium air plasma generated by energetic photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulois, Melissa; Ribière, Maxime; Eichwald, Olivier; Yousfi, Mohammed; Azaïs, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of electromagnetic perturbations of electronic devices, due to air plasma-induced electromagnetic field, requires a thorough study on air plasma. In the aim to understand the phenomena at the origin of the formation of non-equilibrium air plasma, we simulate, using a volume average chemical kinetics model (0D model), the time evolution of a non-equilibrium air plasma generated by an energetic X-ray flash. The simulation is undertaken in synthetic air (80% N_2 and 20% O_2) at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. When the X-ray flash crosses the gas, non-relativistic Compton electrons (low energy) and a relativistic Compton electron beam (high energy) are simultaneously generated and interact with the gas. The considered chemical kinetics scheme involves 26 influent species (electrons, positive ions, negative ions, and neutral atoms and molecules in their ground or metastable excited states) reacting following 164 selected reactions. The kinetics model describing the plasma chemistry was coupled to the conservation equation of the electron mean energy, in order to calculate at each time step of the non-equilibrium plasma evolution, the coefficients of reactions involving electrons while the energy of the heavy species (positive and negative ions and neutral atoms and molecules) is assumed remaining close to ambient temperature. It has been shown that it is the relativistic Compton electron beam directly created by the X-ray flash which is mainly responsible for the non-equilibrium plasma formation. Indeed, the low energy electrons (i.e., the non-relativistic ones) directly ejected from molecules by Compton collisions contribute to less than 1% on the creation of electrons in the plasma. In our simulation conditions, a non-equilibrium plasma with a low electron mean energy close to 1 eV and a concentration of charged species close to 10"1"3" cm"−"3 is formed a few nanoseconds after the peak of X-ray flash intensity. 200 ns after the

  19. Evaluation of spectroscopic modeling for iron ions and study on non-equilibrium ionization phenomena for solar and LHD plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Murakami, Izumi

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of EUV emission lines in the transition region (TR) and the corona provide unique information on physical conditions in the outer atmosphere of the Sun. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode satellite is capable of observing, for the first time in EUV, spectra and monochromatic images of plasmas in the solar TR and corona; these plasmas could possibly be in non-ionization-equilibrium conditions. EIS observes over two-wavelength bands of 170 - 210 Å and 250 - 290 Å, with typical time-resolutions of 1 - 10 seconds. Iron line emissions emerging from these wavelengths reveal that dynamic plasma accelerations and heating take place in the solar atmosphere. On the other hand, the tracer-encapsulated-pellet (TESPEL) experiments provide spectral information of EUV emission lines from iron ions produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Relatively cool plasmas with electron temperatures similar to those of the solar corona can be generated by controlling the neutral beam injector (NBI) system. A time-dependent collisional radiative (CR) model for elemental iron is developed as a common tool to diagnose temperatures and densities of those plasmas in the Sun and in LHD; no systematic model yet exists for iron ions in the L- and M-shell ionization stages, which are very important for coronal plasma diagnostics. Adopting the best available theoretical calculations, as well as generating the experimental data, we improve the atomic parameters of highly charged iron ions, and these results are used to extract more accurate diagnostic information out of the EIS spectra. (author)

  20. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  1. Research in magnetospheric wave phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfield, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    During the last 4 years a number of developments have occurred which have led to an increased understanding of the role of wave phenomena in the physical processes of the magnetosphere. While the studies span the frequency regime from millihertz to the electron gyrofrequency, the developments to be discussed in this paper have in common that they have added substantially to the understanding of the controlling processes, regions, and boundaries in the magnetosphere. The topics discussed are the increased awareness and documentation of the role of the plasmapause in micropulsation generation and propagation; the establishment of the role of ion cyclotron waves in the wave-particle interactions at the plasmapause; the discovery of magnetospheric electrostatic waves with ω = (3/2)Ω/sub -/; the discovery and preliminary identification of the source of plasmaspheric hiss; and the analysis of storm time Pc 5 waves as observed on the satellites ATS 1 and Explorer 45. (auth)

  2. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r → -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t → -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function Ψ is given by the phase factor e -iEt/h b ar with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign

  3. Transport phenomena in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ingham, Derek B

    1998-01-01

    Research into thermal convection in porous media has substantially increased during recent years due to its numerous practical applications. These problems have attracted the attention of industrialists, engineers and scientists from many very diversified disciplines, such as applied mathematics, chemical, civil, environmental, mechanical and nuclear engineering, geothermal physics and food science. Thus, there is a wealth of information now available on convective processes in porous media and it is therefore appropriate and timely to undertake a new critical evaluation of this contemporary information. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media contains 17 chapters and represents the collective work of 27 of the world's leading experts, from 12 countries, in heat transfer in porous media. The recent intensive research in this area has substantially raised the expectations for numerous new practical applications and this makes the book a most timely addition to the existing literature. It includes recent major deve...

  4. Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-02-01

    The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.

  5. The quest for new phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1996-12-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics has been very successful in describing experimental data with great precision. With the exception of some neutrino anomalies, there is no data that is in disagreement with it. Nevertheless, the model is regarded as incomplete and unsatisfactory. There is no explanation of the pattern of quark and lepton masses and, possibly more important, no understanding of the scale of electroweak interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is implemented in the Standard Model from the presence of a scalar electroweak doublet, the Higgs field, that acquires a vacuum expectation value of order 250 GeV and leaves as a remnant one physical state, the electrically neutral Higgs boson whose mass is not predicted. In this talk, the author compares the techniques used at, and capabilities of, various facilities in searching for new phenomena. The author emphasizes the cases where information from more than one facility may be needed to fully explore the physics

  6. In-vessel phenomena -- CORA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.; Rij, W.I. van.

    1991-01-01

    Experiment-specific models have been employed since 1986 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) severe accident analysis programs for the purpose of boiling water reactor experimental planning and optimum interpretation of experimental results. The large integral tests performed to date, which start from an initial undamaged core state, have involved significantly different-from-prototypic boundary and experimental conditions because of either normal facility limitations or specific experimental constraints. These experiments (ACRR: DF-4, NRU: FLHT-6, and CORA) were designed to obtain specific phenomenological information such as the degradation and interaction of prototypic components and the effects on melt progression of control-blade materials and channel boxes. Applications of ORNL models specific to the KfK CORA-16 and CORA-17 experiments are discussed and significant findings from the experimental analyses such as the following are presented: applicability of available Zircaloy oxidation kinetics correlations; influence of cladding strain on Zircaloy oxidation; influence of spacer grids on the structural heatup; and the impact of treating the gaseous coolant as a gray interacting medium. The experiment-specific models supplement and support the systems-level accident analysis codes. They allow the analyst to accurately quantify the observed experimental phenomena and to compensate for the effect of known uncertainties. They provide a basis for the efficient development of new models for phenomena that are currently not modeled (such as material interactions). They can provide validated phenomenological models (from the results of the experiments) as candidates for incorporation in the systems-level ''whole-core'' codes

  7. Microscopic Simulation and Macroscopic Modeling for Thermal and Chemical Non-Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Vinokur, Marcel; Clarke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the accurate microscopic simulation and macroscopic modeling of extreme non-equilibrium phenomena, such as encountered during hypersonic entry into a planetary atmosphere. The state-to-state microscopic equations involving internal excitation, de-excitation, dissociation, and recombination of nitrogen molecules due to collisions with nitrogen atoms are solved time-accurately. Strategies to increase the numerical efficiency are discussed. The problem is then modeled using a few macroscopic variables. The model is based on reconstructions of the state distribution function using the maximum entropy principle. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe the non-equilibrium gases. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients. The modeling is completely physics-based, and its accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used. The model makes no assumption at the microscopic level, and all possible collisional and radiative processes are allowed. The model is applicable to both atoms and molecules and their ions. Several limiting cases are presented to show that the model recovers the classical twotemperature models if all states are in one group and the model reduces to the microscopic equations if each group contains only one state. Numerical examples and model validations are carried out for both the uniform and linear distributions. Results show that the original over nine thousand microscopic equations can be reduced to 2 macroscopic equations using 1 to 5 groups with excellent agreement. The computer time is decreased from 18 hours to less than 1 second.

  8. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in

  9. Interpersonal Communication of Children with Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyah Nur'aini Hanun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tunagrahita were a terminology to called the children with mentally retarded conditions. This conditions caused these children having difficulties at least on four areas, related with attention, memory, language, and academics. The research problem is how interpersonal communication tunagrahita in Dormitory Extraordinary Education Foundation (YPLB Cipaganti Bandung. This research’s aim is to seek the interpersonal communication phenomenon of children with mentally retarded in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. The research method which were used is the qualitative method with communication Ethnography approach and Symbolic Interactionism theory to have comprehensive descriptions about life reality of mentally retarded’s children in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The result showed that interpersonal interactions are done with each child boarding and with the management of the hostel, is a series of unique events and interpersonal communication with a distinctive circular process that takes place continuously.

  10. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  11. Oral Rehabilitation and Management of Mentally Retarded

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physic...

  12. Inherited retarded eruption in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P; Kotsaki, A

    1997-01-01

    The term retarded eruption, may be used in cases where eruption is inhibited, causing an interruption in the coordination of tooth formation and tooth eruption. The phenomenon may be local or general, and several etiological factors for retarded eruption have been listed, comprising a lack of space, ankylosis, cysts, supernumerary teeth, hormone and vitamin deficiencies and several developmental disturbances and syndromes. The present paper describes several cases of retarded eruption where no factors other than inheritance have been evident. So far 14 cases have been evaluated, 9 boys and 5 girls. In addition several cases have been registered among parents and grandparents of the probands. Typical features are: retarded eruption, defined as more than 3 SD beyond mean eruption figures, comprises all teeth in the permanent dentition, and in 5 cases also second primary molars. The chronology of tooth formation are within normal limits. Consequently the teeth finish development still laying deeply buried in the jaws, often in aberrant positions and with curves or hooks on the roots. When the teeth finally get the "signal" for eruption, 5-15 years beyond normal eruption time, they move rather quickly into right positions, despite the long eruption paths and the hooked roots. Permanent teeth without, as well as with predecessors, are affected. Extraction of predecessors does not seem to provoke eruption. The main features in management are to take care of the primary teeth, to improve-esthetics, and offer surgery and orthodontics when needed. Analyses of pedigrees indicates that the genetic transmittance may be autosomal dominant as both sexes are affected, about half of the siblings show the trait, and the trait shows continuity through generations.

  13. Fears of institutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlicht, M

    1979-01-01

    The patterns of fears of institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied in a sample of i2 moderately retarded men and women between the ages of 21-49. The direct questioning method was employed. Two interviews were held, two weeks apart; the first interview elicited the Ss' fears, while the second concerned the fears of their friends. A total of 146 responses were obtained, and these were categorized according to the types of fears: supernatural-natural events, animals, physical injury, psychological stress, egocentric responses, and no fears. The Ss displayed a higher percentage of fears in the preoperational stage than in the concrete operational stage. In a comparison of male to female fears, only one category, that of fears of animals, reached significance. The study suggested that the same developmental trend of fears that appears in normal children appears in the retarded as well, and these fears follow Piaget's level of cognitive development, proceeding from egocentric perceptions of causality to realistic cause and effect thinking.

  14. Nonequilibrium thermodynamic fluctuations and phase transition in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, R.; Cai, R.; Yu, P.K.N.

    1994-01-01

    Landau nonequilibrium fluctuation and phase transition theory is applied to the discussion of the phase transition of black holes. Some second moments of relevant thermodynamical quantities for Kerr-Newman black holes are estimated. A theorem governing the divergence of some second moments and the occurrence of the phase transition in black holes is given

  15. D.C.-arc plasma generator for nonequilibrium plasmachemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaltin, J.

    1990-06-01

    The analysis is made of the conditions for generation of nonequilibrium plasma in a plasmachemical reactor, and the design is described of a d.c. arc plasma generator based on the integral criterion. Results of measuring potentials on the plasma column of this generator are presented. (author)

  16. SRB states and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Gallavotti, Giovannni; Ruelle, David

    1996-01-01

    Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium is studied using SRB states and a formula for their derivatives with respect to parameters. We write general expressions for the thermodynamic fluxes (or currents) and the transport coefficients, generalizing previous results. In this framework we give a general proof of the Onsager reciprocity relations.

  17. Non-equilibrium microwave plasma for efficient high temperature chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, D.C.M.; den Harder, N.; Minea, T.; Palomares Linares, J.M.; Bongers, W.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; van Rooij, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a flowing microwave reactor that is used to drive efficient non-equilibrium chemistry for the application of conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. The goal of the procedure described here is to measure the in situ gas temperature and gas

  18. Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinney, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    We have used dynamical systems methods to study and characterize bifurcations and pattern formation in a variety of nonequilibrium systems. In this paper we describe our work on dynamical systems, chemical oscillations and chaos, chemical spatial patterns, instabilities in fluid dynamics, electrodeposition clusters, the ballast resistor, and crack propagation

  19. Nonlinear and Nonequilibrium Spin Injection in Magnetic Tunneling Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of charge and spin quantum transport in spintronic devices requires an atomistic first principles approach that can handle nonlinear and nonequilibrium transport conditions. We have developed an approach for this purpose based on real space density functional theory (DFT) carried out within the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF). We report theoretical analysis of nonlinear and nonequilibrium spin injection and quantum transport in Fe/MgO/Fe trilayer structures as a function of external bias voltage. Devices with well relaxed atomic structures and with FeO oxidization layers are investigated as a function of external bias voltage. We also report calculations of nonequilibrium spin injection into molecular layers and graphene. Comparisons to experimental data will be presented. Work in collaborations with: Derek Waldron, Vladimir Timochevski (McGill University); Ke Xia (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China); Eric Zhu, Jian Wang (University of Hong Kong); Paul Haney, and Allan MacDonald (University of Texas at Austin).

  20. Effects of vacancies on overshooting in nonequilibrium ordering processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of annealed site dilution on the nonequilibrium ordering process in the two-dimensional Ising model with a nonconserved order parameter have been studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the transient development of a local order that is larger than the equilibrium order...

  1. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  2. Supersymmetric Field Theory of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic System

    OpenAIRE

    Olemskoi, Alexander I.; Brazhnyi, Valerii A.

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of Langevin equation the optimal SUSY field scheme is formulated to discribe a non-equilibrium thermodynamic system with quenched disorder and non-ergodicity effects. Thermodynamic and isothermal susceptibilities, memory parameter and irreversible response are determined at different temperatures and quenched disorder intensities.

  3. Fluctuation and dissipation in nonequilibrium quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1994-01-01

    The nonequilibrium dynamics of a scalar field is studied using perturbation theory and a real time finite temperature formulation. The evolution equation for the scalar field is explicitly obtained, and terms responsible for noise (fluctuations) and dissipation are identified and studied in the high temperature limit. (author)

  4. Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper.

  5. Applications of non-equilibrium plasma in chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, P.; Castro, A.

    2003-01-01

    By means of optical emission spectroscopy the population of O( 3 P) in a non-equilibrium, high voltage, oxygen plasma, and O( 3 P), H and OH in another of steam in radio frequency, have been followed. Reactions of both plasmas with liquid hydrocarbons have produced oxidation and/or hydrogenation, depending on the conditions of each one. (Author)

  6. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Non-equilibrium ... Introduction. Study of organic conductors and semiconductors continues to generate interest with the ... Band tailing reduces band gap or the acti- ..... (9), we can identify Eg(0) with the focal point and is proportional to P2. 1 .

  7. Measures of trajectory ensemble disparity in nonequilibrium statistical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E; Sivak, David A

    2011-01-01

    Many interesting divergence measures between conjugate ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories can be experimentally determined from the work distribution of the process. Herein, we review the statistical and physical significance of several of these measures, in particular the relative entropy (dissipation), Jeffreys divergence (hysteresis), Jensen–Shannon divergence (time-asymmetry), Chernoff divergence (work cumulant generating function), and Rényi divergence

  8. Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin

    2018-03-01

    We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.

  9. Nonequilibrium two-dimensional Ising model with stationary uphill diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, Matteo; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Vernia, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    Usually, in a nonequilibrium setting, a current brings mass from the highest density regions to the lowest density ones. Although rare, the opposite phenomenon (known as "uphill diffusion") has also been observed in multicomponent systems, where it appears as an artificial effect of the interaction among components. We show here that uphill diffusion can be a substantial effect, i.e., it may occur even in single component systems as a consequence of some external work. To this aim we consider the two-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model in contact with two reservoirs that fix, at the left and the right boundaries, magnetizations of the same magnitude but of opposite signs.We provide numerical evidence that a class of nonequilibrium steady states exists in which, by tuning the reservoir magnetizations, the current in the system changes from "downhill" to "uphill". Moreover, we also show that, in such nonequilibrium setup, the current vanishes when the reservoir magnetization attains a value approaching, in the large volume limit, the magnetization of the equilibrium dynamics, thus establishing a relation between equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties.

  10. Electron systems out of equilibrium: nonequilibrium Green's function approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Velický, Bedřich; Kalvová, Anděla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 23 (2014), "1430013-1"-"1430013-103" ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium statistical physics * transients * quantum transport the ory Subject RIV: BE - The oretical Physics Impact factor: 0.937, year: 2014

  11. Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study Langevin dynamics of a driven charged particle in the presence as well as in the absence of magnetic field. We discuss the validity of various work fluctuation theorems using different model potentials and external drives. We also show that one can generate an orbital magnetic moment in a nonequilibrium state ...

  12. On the forces and fluxes in non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    A formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of continuum systems based on local equilibrium assumption is reported. Thermodynamic forces are defined from a generalized local entropy and irreversible fluxes are defined as non-advective parts of fluxes of conservative quantities. The validity of the general evolution criterion and its generalization is discussed. (author)

  13. Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horrocks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6, fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt % of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii ammonium sulphamate (AS/dipentaerythritol (DP system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

  14. On microscopic stress nonequilibrium: Application to the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.J.

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to propose the concept of microscopic stress nonequilibrium (or simply micro-nonequilibrium) in plasma physics. This concept arises as a consequence of the insolubility of the steady-state Vlasov-Maxwell equations (or the kinetic-field equations in general) under certain conditions. In what follows: (1) A general stress equilibrium condition for tangential plasma discontinuities is derived from the Maxwell tensor and the plasma stress tensor. (2) An equivalent equilibrium condition, which takes the form of equations of motion of a ''fictitious particle'', is also derived from the above condition. (3) A general solution of the distribution functions is derived according to Jeans's theorem or Liouville's theorem for the solar wind particles in a tangential magnetopause. (4) This solution is applied to the equilibrium condition to investigate the equilibrium state of the tangential magnetopause. Both Parker's tail-region and Wu's dawn-side ''nonequilibria''are confirmed to be micro-nonequilibria because of the violation of the above equilibrium condition. (5) The effects of various factors in micro-nonequilibria are discussed. It is found that randomly trapped particles and inwards electric field in the magnetopause layer generally cannot relieve the dawn-side or tail-region micro-nonequilibria; and that a northward magnetic field in the solar wind generally can suppress the dawn-side nonequilibrium, while a southward field can jeopardize a dusk-side Vlasov equilibrium. (6) Discussion: The concept of ''micro-nonequilibrium'' may become of importance in basic plasma dynamics. It is also possible that the micro-nonequilibrium may play a fundamental role in solar wind particles entering the magnetopause and in magnetospheric substorms

  15. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  16. Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Могилатов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, modern geoelectric technologies emerge in the result of the development of traditional approaches and techniques. However of more interest is the appearance of completely new technologies based on new effects and new models of interaction of geological medium and electromagnetic field. The author does not commit to indicate principally new directions, but only wants to discuss some poorly known facts from the theory and practice of geoelectrics. The outcome of this study could be considered attracting the attention of experts to non-traditional signals in geoelectrics. The reviewed phenomena of interest, not fully implemented in practice in the author’s opinion, are field split into two polarizations: transverse electric (the ТЕ-field and transverse magnetic (the ТМ-field, then some poorly known properties of ТМ-field, the role of bias currents, the anisotropy of horizontal resistances, the role of geomagnetic field in geoelectric sounding, the unique resolution of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic techniques at sea.

  17. Transient phenomena in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    This book is devoted to formulation of the two-phase system. Emphasis is given to classical instantaneous equations of mass momentum and energy for local conditions and respective averaging procedures and their relevance to the structure of transfer laws. In formulating an equation for a two-velocity continuum, two-phase dispersed flow, two-velocity and local inertial effects associated with contraction and expansion of the mixture have been considered. Particular attention is paid to the effects of interface topology and area concentration as well as the latter's dependence on interfacial transfer laws. Also covered are low bubble concentrations in basic nonuniform unsteady flow where interactions between bubbles are negligible but where the effects of bubbles must still be considered. Special emphasis has been given to the pairwise interaction of the bubble and respective hydrodynamic equations describing the motion of a pair of spherical bubbles through a liquid This book introduces turbulence phenomena in two-phase flow and related problems of phase distribution in two-phase flow. This includes an extensive survey of turbulence and phase distribution models in transient two-phase flow. It is shown that if the turbulent structure of the continuous phase of bubbly two-phase is either measured or can be predicted, then the observed lateral phase distribution can be determined by using an multidimensional two-fluid model in which all lateral forces are properly modeled

  18. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  19. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  20. Design and Synthesis of Nonequilibrium Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R; Stoddart, J Fraser; Astumian, R Dean

    2015-09-22

    The active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes is essential to creating the concentration gradients that sustain life in all living organisms, be they bacteria, fungi, plants, animals or Homo sapiens. Nature uses active transport everywhere for everything. Molecular biologists have long been attracted to the study of active transport and continue to this day to investigate and elucidate the tertiary structures of the complex motor proteins that sustain it, while physicists, interested in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, have developed theoretical models to describe the driven ratcheting motions that are crucial to its function. The increasingly detailed understanding that contemporary science has acquired relating to active transport, however, has yet to lead to the design and construction of artificial molecular motors capable of employing ratchet-driven motions that can also perform work against concentration gradients. Mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) in the form of pseudo- and semirotaxanes are showing some encouraging signs in meeting these goals. This review summarizes recent progress in making artificial molecular motors that can perform work by "pumping" tetracationic rings into high-energy states. The launching pad is a bistable [2]rotaxane whose dumbbell component contains two electron-donating recognition sites, one, a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit, which interacts more strongly with the ring component, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), containing two electron-accepting bipyridinium units, than does the other 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) unit. Switching can be induced electrochemically by oxidizing the TTF unit to a TTF(•+) radical cation, whereupon Coulombic repulsion takes care of moving the ring to the DNP unit. Reduction of the radical cation resets the switch. Molecular switches operate at, or close to, equilibrium. Any work done during one switching event is undone during the reset. Molecular motors, on the

  1. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  2. Retardo del crecimiento intrauterino Intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cuartas Calle

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El crecimiento fetal anormal es un aspecto de gran interés en la obstetricia actual y un dilema clínico relativamente frecuente. La falla del crecimiento sigue siendo un enigma a pesar de los adelantos que ha habido en su conocimiento: el diagnóstico temprano y preciso del retardo del crecimiento puede aminorar la incidencia de complicaciones y muerte en fetos con este problema. Por ello es necesario mejorar las técnicas para identificar esta entidad y asegurar una atención apropiada durante el embarazo y el parto. En este artículo se resumen datos acerca de la definición del retardo del crecimiento fetal, su fisiopatología, clasificación, etiología, diagnóstico y manejo.

    Abnormal fetal growth is a very important aspect In present-day obstetrics and a frequent clinical dilemma. Fetal failure to grow continues to be puzzling, despite advances in its knowledge; early and precise diagnosis of growth retardation can diminish the incidence of complications and death of fetuses with this problem. It becomes therefore necessary, in the presence of growth retardation, to improve diagnostic techniques and assure proper attention during pregnancy and delivery. Information is summarized in this review on the definition, pathophysiology, classification, etiology, diagnosis and handling of fetal growth retardation.

  3. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  4. Investigation of pressure retarded osmosis power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taousanidis Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major source of energy exists where there is mixing between aqueous solutions of different salinities. This energy source is particularly concentrated where fresh water rivers flow on to the ocean. The power, represented by the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water and salt water, may be called salinity gradient power. In this study the pressure retarded osmosis method for the extraction of salinity gradients’ energy is investigated, main problems and difficulties are pointed out and finally the whole subject is justified with experimental results.

  5. Monte-Carlo simulation of the evolution of point defects in solids under non-equilibrium conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Francoise; Doan, N.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report was written in order to serve as a guide for courageous users who want to tackle the problem of the evolution of point defect populations in a solid under non-equilibrium conditions by the Monte-Carlo technique. The original program, developed by Lanore in her swelling investigations on solids under irradiation by different particles, was generalized in order to take into account the effects and the phenomena related to the presence of solute atoms. Detailed descriptions of the simulation model, computational procedures and formulae used in the calculations are given. Two examples are shown to illustrate the applications to the swelling phenomenon: first, the effect to temperature or dose rate changes on void-swelling in electron-irradiated copper; second, the influence of solute atoms on the void nucleation in electron-irradiated nickel [fr

  6. Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in Spin Chains with Long-Range Interactions: Merging Different Concepts of Nonequilibrium Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žunkovič, Bojan; Heyl, Markus; Knap, Michael; Silva, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the dynamics of a transverse-field Ising chain with power-law decaying interactions characterized by an exponent α , which can be experimentally realized in ion traps. We focus on two classes of emergent dynamical critical phenomena following a quantum quench from a ferromagnetic initial state: The first one manifests in the time-averaged order parameter, which vanishes at a critical transverse field. We argue that such a transition occurs only for long-range interactions α ≤2 . The second class corresponds to the emergence of time-periodic singularities in the return probability to the ground-state manifold which is obtained for all values of α and agrees with the order parameter transition for α ≤2 . We characterize how the two classes of nonequilibrium criticality correspond to each other and give a physical interpretation based on the symmetry of the time-evolved quantum states.

  7. Kinetic and spectral descriptions of autoionization phenomena associated with atomic processes in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Verne L.

    2017-06-01

    This investigation has been devoted to the theoretical description and computer modeling of atomic processes giving rise to radiative emission in energetic electron and ion beam interactions and in laboratory plasmas. We are also interested in the effects of directed electron and ion collisions and of anisotropic electric and magnetic fields. In the kinetic-theory description, we treat excitation, de-excitation, ionization, and recombination in electron and ion encounters with partially ionized atomic systems, including the indirect contributions from processes involving autoionizing resonances. These fundamental collisional and electromagnetic interactions also provide particle and photon transport mechanisms. From the spectral perspective, the analysis of atomic radiative emission can reveal detailed information on the physical properties in the plasma environment, such as non-equilibrium electron and charge-state distributions as well as electric and magnetic field distributions. In this investigation, a reduced-density-matrix formulation is developed for the microscopic description of atomic electromagnetic interactions in the presence of environmental (collisional and radiative) relaxation and decoherence processes. Our central objective is a fundamental microscopic description of atomic electromagnetic processes, in which both bound-state and autoionization-resonance phenomena can be treated in a unified and self-consistent manner. The time-domain (equation-of-motion) and frequency-domain (resolvent-operator) formulations of the reduced-density-matrix approach are developed in a unified and self-consistent manner. This is necessary for our ultimate goal of a systematic and self-consistent treatment of non-equilibrium (possibly coherent) atomic-state kinetics and high-resolution (possibly overlapping) spectral-line shapes. We thereby propose the introduction of a generalized collisional-radiative atomic-state kinetics model based on a reduced

  8. Characteristics of Those Persons with Mental Retardation Registered with the Mental Retardation Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Errol; Ng, Pin Chee

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses an analysis of a computerized data bank on the mentally retarded population in Victoria, Australia. Prevalence rates, severity of handicap, age, sex, and residence type are reviewed and implications for community vocational and residential services for adults are noted. (CL)

  9. Distal joint contractures, mental retardation, characteristic face and growth retardation: Chitayat syndrome revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, S.B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schwahn, B.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Morava, E.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a patient with congenital distal limb contractures, characteristic face, prominent metopic sutures, narrow forehead, severe psychomotor and growth retardation, white matter lesions and failure to thrive. The child has many overlapping features with those reported previously by Chitayat.

  10. Dysmorphology and mental retardation: molecular cytogenetic studies in dysmorphic mentally retarded patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Mieloo, H.; Syrrou, M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 18 patients (16 males and 2 females) with dysmorphic features were selected to perform FISH studies by using subtelomeric probes to discover cryptic terminal deletions or duplications,

  11. Force-dominated non-equilibrium oxidation kinetics of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Prasenjit; Wang, Ke; Liang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Using a combined electrochemical and mechanical manipulation technique, we compared the equilibrium and non-equilibrium oxidation processes and states of tantalum. Experimentally, a setup was developed with an electrochemical system attached to a sliding mechanical configuration capable of friction force measurement. The surface chemistry of a sliding surface, i.e., tantalum, was modified through the electrolyte. The mechanically applied force was fixed and the dynamics of the surface was monitored in situ through a force sensor. The formation of non-equilibrium oxidation states of tantalum was found in oxidation limiting environment of acetic acid. An oxidative environment of deionized water saturated with KCl was used as comparison. We proposed a modified Arrhenius-Eyring equation in which the mechanical factor was considered. We found that the mechanical energy induced the non-stable-state reactions leading to metastable oxidation states of tantalum. This equation can be used to predict mechanochemical reactions that are important in many industrial applications

  12. On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam D. Gujrati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.

  13. Phase transition universality classes of classical, nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ódor, G

    2004-01-01

    In the first chapter I summarize the most important critical exponents and relations used in this work. In the second chapter I briefly address the question of scaling behavior at first order phase transitions.In chapter three I review dynamical extensions of basic static classes, show the effect of mixing dynamics and percolation behavior. The main body of this work is given in chapter four where genuine, dynamical universality classes specific to nonequilibrium systems are introduced. In chapter five I continue overviewing such nonequilibrium classes but in coupled, multi-component systems. Most of known transitions in low dimensional systems are between active and absorbing states of reaction-diffusion type systems, but I briefly introduce related classes that appear in interface growth models in chapter six. Some of them are related to critical behavior of coupled, multi-component systems. Finally in chapter seven I summarize families of absorbing state system classes, mean-field classes and the most freq...

  14. Analysis of Atomic Electronic Excitation in Nonequilibrium Air Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xin; Jia Hong-Hui; Yin Hong-Wei; Zhang Hai-Liang; Chang Sheng-Li; Yang Jun-Cai; Dang Wei-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Electronic excitation of atoms is studied in nonequilibrium air plasmas with the electronic temperature between 8000 K and 20000 K. By using the modified Saha—Boltzmann equation, our simplified method takes into account significant radiative processes and strong self-absorption of the vacuum ultraviolet lines. Calculations are carried out at three trajectory points of the Fire II flight experiment. Good agreement with the detailed collisional-radiative model is obtained, and the performance of this method in applications to highly nonequilibrium conditions is better than Park's quasi-steady-state model and Spradian-9.0. A short discussion on the influence of optical thickness of the vacuum ultraviolet radiation is also given. It costs about 2.9 ms on the average to solve one cell of the shock layer on a low cost computer, which shows that the present method is fast and efficient. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  15. Non-equilibrium Dynamics, Thermalization and Entropy Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichsen, Haye; Janotta, Peter; Gogolin, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics such as the motivation of a classical state space with spontaneous transitions, the meaning of non-equilibrium in the context of thermalization, and the justification of these concepts from the quantum-mechanical point of view. After an introductory part we focus on the problem of entropy production in non-equilibrium systems. In particular, the generally accepted formula for entropy production in the environment is analyzed from a critical perspective. It is shown that this formula is only valid in the limit of separated time scales of the system's and the environmental degrees of freedom. Finally, we present an alternative simple proof of the fluctuation theorem.

  16. Crossover from equilibration to aging: Nonequilibrium theory versus simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Méndez, P; Lázaro-Lázaro, E; Sánchez-Díaz, L E; Ramírez-González, P E; Pérez-Ángel, G; Medina-Noyola, M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding glasses and the glass transition requires comprehending the nature of the crossover from the ergodic (or equilibrium) regime, in which the stationary properties of the system have no history dependence, to the mysterious glass transition region, where the measured properties are nonstationary and depend on the protocol of preparation. In this work we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to test the main features of the crossover predicted by the molecular version of the recently developed multicomponent nonequilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory. According to this theory, the glass transition involves the abrupt passage from the ordinary pattern of full equilibration to the aging scenario characteristic of glass-forming liquids. The same theory explains that this abrupt transition will always be observed as a blurred crossover due to the unavoidable finiteness of the time window of any experimental observation. We find that within their finite waiting-time window, the simulations confirm the general trends predicted by the theory.

  17. Nonequilibrium Green function techniques applied to hot electron quantum transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauho, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    During the last few years considerable effort has been devoted to deriving quantum transport equations for semiconductors under extreme conditions (high electric fields, spatial quantization in one or two directions). Here we review the results obtained with nonequilibrium Green function techniques as formulated by Baym and Kadanoff, or by Keldysh. In particular, the following topics will be discussed: (i) Systematic approaches to reduce the transport equation governing the correlation function to a transport equation for the Wigner function; (ii) Approximations reducing the nonmarkovian quantum transport equation to a numerically tractable form, and results for model semiconductors; (iii) Recent progress in extending the formalism to inhomogeneous systems; and (iv) Nonequilibrium screening. In all sections we try to direct the reader's attention to points where the present understanding is (at best) incomplete, and indicate possible lines for future work. (orig.)

  18. Non-equilibrium statistical physics with application to disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cáceres, Manuel Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is the result of the enhancement of several courses on non-equilibrium statistics, stochastic processes, stochastic differential equations, anomalous diffusion and disorder. The target audience includes students of physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and engineering at undergraduate and graduate level with a grasp of the basic elements of mathematics and physics of the fourth year of a typical undergraduate course. The little-known physical and mathematical concepts are described in sections and specific exercises throughout the text, as well as in appendices. Physical-mathematical motivation is the main driving force for the development of this text. It presents the academic topics of probability theory and stochastic processes as well as new educational aspects in the presentation of non-equilibrium statistical theory and stochastic differential equations.. In particular it discusses the problem of irreversibility in that context and the dynamics of Fokker-Planck. An introduction on fluc...

  19. Investigation of Non-Equilibrium Radiation for Earth Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, A. M.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    For Earth re-entry at velocities between 8 and 11.5 km/s, the accuracy of NASA's computational uid dynamic and radiative simulations of non-equilibrium shock layer radiation is assessed through comparisons with measurements. These measurements were obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center's Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility. The experiments were aimed at measuring the spatially and spectrally resolved radiance at relevant entry conditions for both an approximate Earth atmosphere (79% N2 : 21% O2 by mole) as well as a more accurate composition featuring the trace species Ar and CO2 (78.08% N2 : 20.95% O2 : 0.04% CO2 : 0.93% Ar by mole). The experiments were configured to target a wide range of conditions, of which shots from 8 to 11.5 km/s at 0.2 Torr (26.7 Pa) are examined in this paper. The non-equilibrium component was chosen to be the focus of this study as it can account for a significant percentage of the emitted radiation for Earth re-entry, and more importantly, non-equilibrium has traditionally been assigned a large uncertainty for vehicle design. The main goals of this study are to present the shock tube data in the form of a non-equilibrium metric, evaluate the level of agreement between the experiment and simulations, identify key discrepancies and to examine critical aspects of modeling non-equilibrium radiating flows. Radiance pro les integrated over discreet wavelength regions, ranging from the Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) through to the Near Infra-Red (NIR), were compared in order to maximize both the spectral coverage and the number of experiments that could be used in the analysis. A previously defined non-equilibrium metric has been used to allow comparisons with several shots and reveal trends in the data. Overall, LAURA/HARA is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 40% and over-predict by as much as 12% depending on the shock speed. DPLR/NEQAIR is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 50% and over-predict by as much as 20% depending

  20. Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Zulkowski

    Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.

  1. Linear response in the nonequilibrium zero range process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Christian; Salazar, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We explore a number of explicit response formulæ around the boundary driven zero range process to changes in the exit and entrance rates. In such a nonequilibrium regime kinetic (and not only thermodynamic) aspects make a difference in the response. Apart from a number of formal approaches, we illustrate a general decomposition of the linear response into entropic and frenetic contributions, the latter being realized from changes in the dynamical activity at the boundaries. In particular in this way one obtains nonlinear modifications to the Green–Kubo relation. We end by bringing some general remarks about the situation where that nonequilibrium response remains given by the (equilibrium) Kubo formula such as for the density profile in the boundary driven Lorentz gas

  2. The entropy concept for non-equilibrium states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Elliott H; Yngvason, Jakob

    2013-10-08

    In earlier work, we presented a foundation for the second law of classical thermodynamics in terms of the entropy principle. More precisely, we provided an empirically accessible axiomatic derivation of an entropy function defined on all equilibrium states of all systems that has the appropriate additivity and scaling properties, and whose increase is a necessary and sufficient condition for an adiabatic process between two states to be possible. Here, after a brief review of this approach, we address the question of defining entropy for non-equilibrium states. Our conclusion is that it is generally not possible to find a unique entropy that has all relevant physical properties. We do show, however, that one can define two entropy functions, called S - and S + , which, taken together, delimit the range of adiabatic processes that can occur between non-equilibrium states. The concept of comparability of states with respect to adiabatic changes plays an important role in our reasoning.

  3. Non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natrual gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shair, F.H.; Ravimohan, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    A non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natural gas processing into ethane and ethylene comprising means of producing a non-equilibrium chemical plasma wherein selective conversion of the methane in natural gas to desired products of ethane and ethylene at a pre-determined ethane/ethylene ratio in the chemical process may be intimately controlled and optimized at a high electrical power efficiency rate by mixing with a recycling gas inert to the chemical process such as argon, helium, or hydrogen, reducing the residence time of the methane in the chemical plasma, selecting the gas pressure in the chemical plasma from a wide range of pressures, and utilizing pulsed electrical discharge producing the chemical plasma. (author)

  4. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  5. Ordered phase and non-equilibrium fluctuation in stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskawa, Jun-ichi

    2002-08-01

    We analyze the statistics of daily price change of stock market in the framework of a statistical physics model for the collective fluctuation of stock portfolio. In this model the time series of price changes are coded into the sequences of up and down spins, and the Hamiltonian of the system is expressed by spin-spin interactions as in spin glass models of disordered magnetic systems. Through the analysis of Dow-Jones industrial portfolio consisting of 30 stock issues by this model, we find a non-equilibrium fluctuation mode on the point slightly below the boundary between ordered and disordered phases. The remaining 29 modes are still in disordered phase and well described by Gibbs distribution. The variance of the fluctuation is outlined by the theoretical curve and peculiarly large in the non-equilibrium mode compared with those in the other modes remaining in ordinary phase.

  6. On the fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics—Nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation and the formula for entropy production rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author presents an overview on his own research works. More than ten years ago, we proposed a new fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics in place of the present Liouville equation. That is the stochastic velocity type’s Langevin equation in 6N dimensional phase space or its equivalent Liouville diffusion equation. This equation is time-reversed asymmetrical. It shows that the form of motion of particles in statistical thermodynamic systems has the drift-diffusion duality, and the law of motion of statistical thermodynamics is expressed by a superposition of both the law of dynamics and the stochastic velocity and possesses both determinism and probability. Hence it is different from the law of motion of particles in dynamical systems. The stochastic diffusion motion of the particles is the microscopic origin of macroscopic irreversibility. Starting from this fundamental equation the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy, the Boltzmann collision diffusion equation, the hydrodynamic equations such as the mass drift-diffusion equation, the Navier-Stokes equation and the thermal conductivity equation have been derived and presented here. What is more important, we first constructed a nonlinear evolution equation of nonequilibrium entropy density in 6N, 6 and 3 dimensional phase space, predicted the existence of entropy diffusion. This entropy evolution equation plays a leading role in nonequilibrium entropy theory, it reveals that the time rate of change of nonequilibrium entropy density originates together from its drift, diffusion and production in space. From this evolution equation, we presented a formula for entropy production rate (i.e. the law of entropy increase) in 6N and 6 dimensional phase space, proved that internal attractive force in nonequilibrium system can result in entropy decrease while internal repulsive force leads to another entropy increase, and derived a common expression for this entropy decrease rate or

  7. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  8. Crack retardation by load reduction during fatigue crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Nam, Ki Woo; Ahn, Seok Hwan; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture life and crack retardation behavior were examined experimentally using CT specimens of aluminum alloy 5083. Crack retardation life and fracture life were a wide difference between 0.8 and 0.6 in proportion to ratio of load reduction. The wheeler model retardation parameter was used successfully to predict crack growth behavior. By using a crack propagation rule, prediction of fracture life can be evaluated quantitatively. A statistical approach based on Weibull distribution was applied to the test data to evaluate the dispersion in the retardation life and fracture life by the change of load reduction

  9. Nonlinear dynamical phenomena in liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.Y.; Sun, Z.M.

    1988-09-01

    Because of the existence of the orientational order and anisotropy in liquid crystals, strong nonlinear phenomena and singular behaviors, such as solitary wave, transient periodic structure, chaos, fractal and viscous fingering, can be excited by a very small disturbance. These phenomena and behaviors are in connection with physics, biology and mathematics. 12 refs, 6 figs

  10. Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined

  11. A Connection between Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, Ross; Bird, R. Byron

    2017-01-01

    Although students take courses in transport phenomena and thermodynamics, they probably do not ask whether these two subjects are related. Here we give an answer to that question. Specifically we give relationships between the equations of change for total energy, internal energy, and entropy of transport phenomena and key equations of equilibrium…

  12. Nonequilibrium formulation of abelian gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    each perturbative order, are not gauge invariant in general. A closely related phenomenon is the fact that the Ward identities, which are relations between correlation functions of different order, are not in general applicable to correlation functions which are calculated from the 2PI effective action. As an example the photon self-energy is presented, which is transverse in the exact theory as well as perturbatively at each order, but not if it is calculated starting from the 2PI effective action. It is shown that both these phenomena are caused by the complex resummation implemented by the 2PI effective action. Finally, a concrete approximation of the 2PI effective action is presented, and the self-energies are derived from it in a form which is suitable for the practical implementation on a computer. Some results are shown which have been obtained by the numerical solution of the 2PI EOMs.

  13. POLYAMIDE 6 WITH A FLAME RETARDANT ENCAPSULATED BY POLYAMIDE 66: FLAME RETARDATION, THERMO-DECOMPOSITION AND THE POTENTIAL MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cheng Xiong; Li Chen; Bin Zhao; De-yi Wang; Yu-zhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    A novel encapsulated flame retardant containing phosphorus-nitrogen (MSMM-Al-P) was prepared by encapsulating with polyamide 66 (PA66-MSMM-Al-P) for the flame retardation of polyamide 6 (PA6).The structure and thermal properties of PA66-MSMM-Al-P were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.The flammability of PA6 containing' flame retardants (MSMMAl-P and PA66-MSMM-Al-P) was investigated by the limiting oxygen index test,vertical burning test and cone calorimeter.The flame retardancy and cone calorimetric analyses suggested a synergistic effect between PA66 and MSMM-Al-P in the flame-retardant PA6.Thermal stability of the flame-retardant PA6 was also investigated.

  14. Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.

  15. Non-equilibrium quasiparticle processes in superconductor tunneling structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perold, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    A broad overview is presented of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The tunneling of quasiparticles in superconducter-insulator structures is described. Related non-equilibrium processes, such as superconductor bandgap suppresion, quasiparticle diffusion and recombination, and excess quasiparticle collection are discussed. The processes are illustrated with numerical computer simulation data. The importance of the inter-relationship between these processes in practical multiple tunneling junction superconducting device structures is also emphasized. 14 refs., 8 figs

  16. Ward identity for non-equilibrium Fermi systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 041201/1-041201/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * Ward identity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  17. Crossover from Nonequilibrium Fractal Growth to Equilibrium Compact Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1988-01-01

    Solidification controlled by vacancy diffusion is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model defined by a Hamiltonian which models a thermally driven fluid-solid phase transition. The nonequilibrium morphology of the growing solid is studied as a function of time as the s...... as the system relaxes into equilibrium described by a temperature. At low temperatures the model exhibits fractal growth at early times and crossover to compact solidification as equilibrium is approached....

  18. Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...

  19. Non-Equilibrium Modeling of Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    wall can be approximated with the expression for an infinite solenoid , B(r = R) = µ0NIc, where quan- tities N and Ic are the number of turns per unit...Modeling of non-equilibrium plasmas in an induc- tively coupled plasma facility. AIAA Paper 2014– 2235, 2014. 45th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers ...1993. 24th Plas- madynamics and Laser Conference, Orlando, FL. [22] M. Capitelli, I. Armenise, D. Bruno, M. Caccia- tore, R. Celiberto, G. Colonna, O

  20. On nonequilibrium many-body systems III: nonlinear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Algarte, A.C.S.

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear transport theory for many-body systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium, based on the nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method, is presented. Nonlinear transport equations for a basis set of dynamical quantities are derived using two equivalent treatments that may be considered far reaching generalizations of the Hilbert-Chapman-Enskog method and Mori's generalized Langevin equations method. The first case is considered in some detail and the general characteristics of the theory are discussed. (Author) [pt

  1. Social support of mentally retarded persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to assess the relationship between the environment and mentally retarded persons. Material and methods: Information referring to social support of mentally retarded persons is a source material collected on the base of the data included in the Polish and foreign literature. The issues under discussion related to the following problems: social integration of persons with intellectual disabilities in a family and local environment, social functioning of people with mild intellectual disability, social rehabilitation of people with moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability and specific contact with people with disabilities. Results: For a person with an intellectual disability, the family is the source of acquisition of basic social skills that give him the opportunity for further development and performing certain social roles in a sense of safety. Full acceptance of the intellectually disabled, may dismiss their sense of shame and fear, and instill the satisfaction of belonging to a social community. Conclusions: Full social acceptance of people with intellectual disabilities is the basis for their assimilation and social functioning.

  2. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of dilute polymer solutions in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinwo, Folarin; Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Schroeder, Charles M

    2014-11-07

    Modern materials processing applications and technologies often occur far from equilibrium. To this end, the processing of complex materials such as polymer melts and nanocomposites generally occurs under strong deformations and flows, conditions under which equilibrium thermodynamics does not apply. As a result, the ability to determine the nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of polymeric materials from measurable quantities such as heat and work is a major challenge in the field. Here, we use work relations to show that nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities such as free energy and entropy can be determined for dilute polymer solutions in flow. In this way, we determine the thermodynamic properties of DNA molecules in strong flows using a combination of simulations, kinetic theory, and single molecule experiments. We show that it is possible to calculate polymer relaxation timescales purely from polymer stretching dynamics in flow. We further observe a thermodynamic equivalence between nonequilibrium and equilibrium steady-states for polymeric systems. In this way, our results provide an improved understanding of the energetics of flowing polymer solutions.

  3. Choking flow modeling with mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, H.J.; Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    The mechanistic model, which considers the mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium, is described for two-phase choking flow. The choking mass flux is obtained from the momentum equation with the definition of choking. The key parameter for the mechanical non-equilibrium is a slip ratio. The dependent parameters for the slip ratio are identified. In this research, the slip ratio which is defined in the drift flux model is used to identify the impact parameters on the slip ratio. Because the slip ratio in the drift flux model is related to the distribution parameter and drift velocity, the adequate correlations depending on the flow regime are introduced in this study. For the thermal non-equilibrium, the model is developed with bubble conduction time and Bernoulli choking model. In case of highly subcooled water compared to the inlet pressure, the Bernoulli choking model using the pressure undershoot is used because there is no bubble generation in the test section. When the phase change happens inside the test section, two-phase choking model with relaxation time calculates the choking mass flux. According to the comparison of model prediction with experimental data shows good agreement. The developed model shows good prediction in both low and high pressure ranges. (author)

  4. Non-equilibrium Quasi-Chemical Nucleation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, Yuriy E.

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-chemical model, which is widely used for nucleation description, is revised on the basis of recent results in studying of non-equilibrium effects in reacting gas mixtures (Kolesnichenko and Gorbachev in Appl Math Model 34:3778-3790, 2010; Shock Waves 23:635-648, 2013; Shock Waves 27:333-374, 2017). Non-equilibrium effects in chemical reactions are caused by the chemical reactions themselves and therefore these contributions should be taken into account in the corresponding expressions for reaction rates. Corrections to quasi-equilibrium reaction rates are of two types: (a) spatially homogeneous (caused by physical-chemical processes) and (b) spatially inhomogeneous (caused by gas expansion/compression processes and proportional to the velocity divergency). Both of these processes play an important role during the nucleation and are included into the proposed model. The method developed for solving the generalized Boltzmann equation for chemically reactive gases is applied for solving the set of equations of the revised quasi-chemical model. It is shown that non-equilibrium processes lead to essential deviation of the quasi-stationary distribution and therefore the nucleation rate from its traditional form.

  5. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  6. Lattice ellipsoidal statistical BGK model for thermal non-equilibrium flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianping; Zhang, Yonghao; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Radtke, Gregg A.; Shan, Xiaowen

    2013-03-01

    A thermal lattice Boltzmann model is constructed on the basis of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ES-BGK) collision operator via the Hermite moment representation. The resulting lattice ES-BGK model uses a single distribution function and features an adjustable Prandtl number. Numerical simulations show that using a moderate discrete velocity set, this model can accurately recover steady and transient solutions of the ES-BGK equation in the slip-flow and early transition regimes in the small Mach number limit that is typical of microscale problems of practical interest. In the transition regime in particular, comparisons with numerical solutions of the ES-BGK model, direct Monte Carlo and low-variance deviational Monte Carlo simulations show good accuracy for values of the Knudsen number up to approximately 0.5. On the other hand, highly non-equilibrium phenomena characterized by high Mach numbers, such as viscous heating and force-driven Poiseuille flow for large values of the driving force, are more difficult to capture quantitatively in the transition regime using discretizations chosen with computational efficiency in mind such as the one used here, although improved accuracy is observed as the number of discrete velocities is increased.

  7. Non-equilibrium coherence dynamics in one-dimensional Bose gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferberth, S; Lesanovsky, I; Fischer, B; Schumm, T; Schmiedmayer, J

    2007-09-20

    Low-dimensional systems provide beautiful examples of many-body quantum physics. For one-dimensional (1D) systems, the Luttinger liquid approach provides insight into universal properties. Much is known of the equilibrium state, both in the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. However, it remains a challenge to probe the dynamics by which this equilibrium state is reached. Here we present a direct experimental study of the coherence dynamics in both isolated and coupled degenerate 1D Bose gases. Dynamic splitting is used to create two 1D systems in a phase coherent state. The time evolution of the coherence is revealed through local phase shifts of the subsequently observed interference patterns. Completely isolated 1D Bose gases are observed to exhibit universal sub-exponential coherence decay, in excellent agreement with recent predictions. For two coupled 1D Bose gases, the coherence factor is observed to approach a non-zero equilibrium value, as predicted by a Bogoliubov approach. This coupled-system decay to finite coherence is the matter wave equivalent of phase-locking two lasers by injection. The non-equilibrium dynamics of superfluids has an important role in a wide range of physical systems, such as superconductors, quantum Hall systems, superfluid helium and spin systems. Our experiments studying coherence dynamics show that 1D Bose gases are ideally suited for investigating this class of phenomena.

  8. Application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to two-phase flows with a change of phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaye, J.M.

    1969-01-01

    In this report we use the methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in two-phase flows. This paper follows a prior one in which we have studied the conservation laws and derived the general equations of two-phase flow. In the first part the basic ideas of thermodynamics of irreversible systems are given. We follow the classical point of view. The second part is concerned with the derivation of a closed set of equations for the two phase elementary volume model. In this model we assume that the elementary volume contains two phases and that it is possible to define a volumetric local concentration. To obtain the entropy balance we can choose either the reversibility of the barycentric motion or the reversibility of each phase. We adopt the last assumption and our derivation is the same as this of I.Prigogine and P. Mazur about the hydrodynamics of liquid helium. The scope of this work is not to find a general solution to the problems of two phase flows but to obtain a new set of equations which may be used to explain some characteristic phenomena of two-phase flow such as wave propagation or critical states. (author) [fr

  9. Nonequilibrium shock-heated nitrogen flows using a rovibrational state-to-state method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesi, M.; Munafò, A.; Magin, T. E.; Jaffe, R. L.

    2014-07-01

    A rovibrational collisional model is developed to study the internal energy excitation and dissociation processes behind a strong shock wave in a nitrogen flow. The reaction rate coefficients are obtained from the ab initio database of the NASA Ames Research Center. The master equation is coupled with a one-dimensional flow solver to study the nonequilibrium phenomena encountered in the gas during a hyperbolic reentry into Earth's atmosphere. The analysis of the populations of the rovibrational levels demonstrates how rotational and vibrational relaxation proceed at the same rate. This contrasts with the common misconception that translational and rotational relaxation occur concurrently. A significant part of the relaxation process occurs in non-quasi-steady-state conditions. Exchange processes are found to have a significant impact on the relaxation of the gas, while predissociation has a negligible effect. The results obtained by means of the full rovibrational collisional model are used to assess the validity of reduced order models (vibrational collisional and multitemperature) which are based on the same kinetic database. It is found that thermalization and dissociation are drastically overestimated by the reduced order models. The reasons of the failure differ in the two cases. In the vibrational collisional model the overestimation of the dissociation is a consequence of the assumption of equilibrium between the rotational energy and the translational energy. The multitemperature model fails to predict the correct thermochemical relaxation due to the failure of the quasi-steady-state assumption, used to derive the phenomenological rate coefficient for dissociation.

  10. Characteristics of micro transfer paths and diffusion phenomena in the matrix of deep crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Masayuki; Sasao, Eiji; Hama, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Matrix diffusion is one of the important phenomena for evaluating the safety of the geological disposal of high level waste because it has an effect of retarding mass transport in crystalline rocks. Previous studies indicated that the altered granitic rocks have high retardation functions due to the micropore formation associated with hydrothermal alteration; however, there has not been enough knowledge on the matrix diffusion in weakly unaltered rocks (macroscopically unaltered rocks). Since the macroscopically altered granitic rocks in Japan are likely to be affected by deuteric alteration due to hydrothermal flu resulting from crystallization of granitic magma, it is important to understand the effect of deuteric alteration on the matrix diffusion. Therefore, detailed observations were carried out to clarify the effects of deuteric alteration focused on the macroscopically unaltered granite sampled from 300 m and 500 m below ground levels at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, central Japan. The results provide that the micropores are selectively formed in plagioclases due to deuteric alteration and they have the potential of acting as matrix diffusion paths. This is indicating the possibility that deuteric alteration can retard the mass transport in crystalline rocks in Japan. That plays a significant role in enforcing the barrier function of crystalline rocks. (author)

  11. Effect of water content on strontium retardation factor and distribution coefficient in Chinese loess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lijuan; Qian, Tianwei; Hao, Junting; Liu, Hongfang; Zhao, Dongye

    2013-12-01

    Geological burial and landfill are often employed for disposal of nuclear wastes. Typically, radionuclides from nuclear facilities transport through the unsaturated zone before reaching the groundwater aquifer. However, transport studies are often conducted under saturated and steady-state flow conditions. This research aimed to examine the effects of unsaturated flow conditions and soil water content (θ) on Sr sorption and retardation in Chinese loess through 1D column transport experiments. Reagent SrCl2 was used as a surrogate for the radioactive isotope ((90)Sr) in the experiment because of their analogous adsorption and transportation characteristics. The spatial distribution of Sr along the column length was determined by segmenting the soil bed and analysing the Sr content in each soil segment following each column breakthrough test. The single-region (SR) and two-region (TR) models were employed to interpret the transport data of Sr as well as a tracer (Br(-)), which resulted in the dispersion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (Rd) under a given set of unsaturated flow conditions. For the tracer, the SR and TR models offered nearly the same goodness of fitting to the breakthrough curves (R(2) ≈ 0.97 for both models). For the highly sorptive Sr, however, the TR model provided better fitting (R(2), 0.80-0.96) to the Sr retention profiles than the SR model (R(2), 0.20-0.89). The Sr retention curves exhibited physical non-equilibrium characteristics, particularly at lower water content of the soil. For the unsaturated soil, D and the pore water velocity (v) displayed a weak linear correlation, which is attributed to the altering dispersivity as the water content varies. A much improved linear correlation was observed between D and v/θ. The retardation factor of Sr increased from 69.1 to 174.2 as θ decreased from 0.46 to 0.26 (cm(3) cm(-3)), while the distribution coefficient (Kd) based on Rd remained nearly unchanged at various θ levels. These

  12. Interfacial polarization phenomena in organic molecular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic phenomena occurring at the interface between metal/organic and organic/organic materials are discussed from the viewpoint of dielectrics physics. Focusing on two important origins of surface polarization phenomena, orientational ordering of polar molecules and displacement of excess charges at the interface, surface polarization phenomena of organic thin films are discussed. To define the orientational order of polar molecules, orientational order parameters are introduced, and surface polarization due to the alignment of dipoles is expressed. The generation of Maxwell displacement current (MDC) and optical second harmonic generation (SHG) that are specific for surface organic monomolecular films are discussed, and some experimental evidence are shown. As an extension of the concept of surface Fermi level introduced to discuss the electrostatic phenomena due to electron transfer at the interface between metal-organic insulators, the surface Fermi level is extended to the discussion on the electrostatic phenomena of organic semiconductor materials on metals. In this paper, some experimental evidence of surface polarization originating from polar molecules and displacement of excess charges are shown. After that, with consideration of these surface phenomena, single electron tunneling of organic films are briefly discussed in association with surface polarization phenomena

  13. A statistical approach to strange diffusion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligen, B.Ph. van; Carreras, B.A.; Sanchez, R.

    2005-01-01

    The study of particle (and heat) transport in fusion plasmas has revealed the existence of what might be called 'unusual' transport phenomena. Such phenomena are: unexpected scaling of the confinement time with system size, power degradation (i.e. sub-linear scaling of energy content with power input), profile stiffness (also known as profile consistency), rapid transient transport phenomena such as cold and heat pulses (travelling much faster than the diffusive timescale would allow), non-local behaviour and central profile peaking during off-axis heating, associated with unexplained inward pinches. The standard modelling framework, essentially equal to Fick's Law plus extensions, has great difficulty in providing an all-encompassing and satisfactory explanation of all these phenomena. This difficulty has motivated us to reconsider the basics of the modelling of diffusive phenomena. Diffusion is based on the well-known random walk. The random walk is captured in all its generality in the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) formalism. The CTRW formalism is directly related to the well-known Generalized Master Equation, which describes the behaviour of tracer particle diffusion on a very fundamental level, and from which the phenomenological Fick's Law can be derived under some specific assumptions. We show that these assumptions are not necessarily satisfied under fusion plasma conditions, in which case other equations (such as the Fokker-Planck diffusion law or the Master Equation itself) provide a better description of the phenomena. This fact may explain part of the observed 'strange' phenomena (namely, the inward pinch). To show how the remaining phenomena mentioned above may perhaps find an explanation in the proposed alternative modelling framework, we have designed a toy model that incorporates a critical gradient mechanism, switching between rapid (super-diffusive) and normal diffusive transport as a function of the local gradient. It is then demonstrated

  14. Nonlinear convective analysis of a rotating Oldroyd-B nanofluid layer under thermal non-equilibrium utilizing Al2O3-EG colloidal suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shilpi; Rana, Puneet

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we examine a layer of Oldroyd-B nanofluid for linear and nonlinear regimes under local thermal non-equilibrium conditions for the classical Rayleigh-Bénard problem. The free-free boundary condition has been implemented with the flux for nanoparticle concentration being zero at edges. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation holds good and for the rotational effect Coriolis term is included in the momentum equation. A two-temperature model explains the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium among the particle and fluid phases. The criteria for onset of stationary convection has been derived as a function of the non-dimensionalized parameters involved including the Taylor number. The assumed boundary conditions negate the possibility of overstability due to the absence of opposing forces responsible for it. The thermal Nusselt number has been obtained utilizing a weak nonlinear theory in terms of various pertinent parameters in the steady and transient mode, and has been depicted graphically. The main findings signify that the rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. The stress relaxation parameter λ_1 inhibits whereas the strain retardation parameter λ_2 exhibits heat transfer utilizing Al2O3 nanofluids.

  15. Fourteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A; Silvestri, Sandro; Ultrafast Phenomena XIV

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafast Phenomena XIV presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including ultrafast laser and measurement technology as well as studies of ultrafast phenomena. Pico-, femto-, and atosecond processes relevant in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering are presented. Ultrafast technology is now having a profound impact within a wide range of applications, among them imaging, material diagnostics, and transformation and high-speed optoelectronics. This book summarizes results presented at the 14th Ultrafast Phenomena Conference and reviews the state of the art in this important and rapidly advancing field.

  16. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  17. Computational transport phenomena for engineering analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Richard C; Cheng, Gary C; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2009-01-01

    Computational Transport PhenomenaOverviewTransport PhenomenaAnalyzing Transport PhenomenaA Computational Tool: The CTP CodeVerification, Validation, and GeneralizationSummaryNomenclatureReferencesThe Equations of ChangeIntroductionDerivation of The Continuity EquationDerivation of The Species Continuity EquationDerivation of The Equation Of MotionDerivation of The General Energy EquationNon-Newtonian FluidsGeneral Property BalanceAnalytical and Approximate Solutions for the Equations of ChangeSummaryNomenclatureReferencesPhysical PropertiesOverviewReal-Fluid ThermodynamicsChemical Equilibrium

  18. Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morandotti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.

  19. Sixteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Corkum, Paul; Nelson, Keith A; Riedle, Eberhard; Schoenlein, Robert W; Ultrafast Phenomena XVI

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast Phenomena XVI presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including both ultrafast optical technology and the study of ultrafast phenomena. It covers picosecond, femtosecond and attosecond processes relevant to applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Ultrafast technology has a profound impact in a wide range of applications, amongst them biomedical imaging, chemical dynamics, frequency standards, material processing, and ultrahigh speed communications. This book summarizes the results presented at the 16th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena and provides an up-to-date view of this important and rapidly advancing field.

  20. Heat transfer phenomena revelant to severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression

  1. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  2. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  3. Heat transfer phenomena relevant to severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression. 26 refs

  4. Nonequilibrium states of high tc YBCO superconductors under tunnel injection of quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, I.; Wang, Q.; Lee, K.; Yoshida, K.

    1995-01-01

    The nonequilibrium states of high Tc superconductors are investigated by means of tunnel injection of quasiparticles using Pb(or Au)/MgO/YBCO tunnel junctions. The effective critical-current reduction due to tunnel injection is observed, whose behaviour is different from simple heating. The observed results suggest that the resultant nonequilibrium states may also differ from those described by conventional nonequilibrium models

  5. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... from them may not be service-connected. However, disability resulting from a mental disorder that is...

  6. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  7. Piagetian Object Permanence in Severely Mentally Retarded Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Beverly; And Others

    The measurability of sensorimotor development in 60 severely retarded, institutionalized adults was studied, using the Piagetian concept of object permanence in a delayed recall paradigm that involved special apparatus. Results suggested, among other things, that severely retarded, institutionalized adults learn most efficiently when trained with…

  8. Sex between persons with 'mental retardation': an ethical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiecker, B.; Steutel, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Is sex between people with "mental retardation" morally permissible and, if at all, under what conditions? This paper tries to answer this question, but only with regard to sex between biologically mature individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. First, the concepts of "sexual activity"

  9. Growth retardation in children injected with 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiess, H.; Mays, C.W.; Spiess-Paulus, E.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained the adult heights of 133 patients formerly injected with 224 Ra as juveniles. 224 Ra induced growth retardation was greatest in children injected at young ages and increased with dose. The growth retardation was well represented as a 2% decrease in potential growth post irradiation per 100 rads of calculated average skeletal dose. (orig.)

  10. Decision Making in Leisure. Empowerment for People with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Charles C.; Mahon, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    People with mental retardation have been overlooked in recreation/leisure and decision making, which are integral to full community participation. They must be provided with leisure education and decision-making skills. The article describes the Decision Making in Leisure model, explaining its use with individuals with mental retardation. (SM)

  11. Brominated flame retardants: occurrence, dietary intake and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-Sorkina R de; Bakker MI; Wolterink G; Zeijlmaker MJ; SIR

    2006-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants have entered the human food chain. For the time being the occurrence of these chemicals in Dutch food does not pose a human health risk. However, this might easily change at increasing contents of flame retardants in Dutch food. The monitoring of brominated flame

  12. Psychiatric Illness in Mentally Retarded Adolescents: Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    Describes the clinical features of the most important psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded adolescents: mood disorders, psychotic disorders, severe behavioral disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit The impact of mental retardation on personality development is confirmed by the high psychopathological…

  13. Flame retardants: Dust - and not food - might be the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Ballesteros-Gomez, A.M.; Leslie, H.A.; Brandsma, S.H.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are used to delay ignition of materials such as furniture and electric and electronic instruments. Many FRs are persistent and end up in the environment. Environmental studies on flame retardants (FRs) took off in the late 1990s. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) appeared

  14. Fire-retardant-treated strandboard : properties and fire performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold Winandy; Qingwen Wang; Robert H. White

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a series of single-layer, randomly oriented strandboard panels made with one resin type, a single resin loading level, and four fire-retardant-treatment levels. The fire retardant (FR) evaluated was a pH-buffered combination of boric acid and organic phosphate. Siberian larch strands were separated into five batches. One batch of strands served as...

  15. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  16. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  17. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  18. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  19. Life cycle assessment of flame retardants in an electronics application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Niels; Krop, Hildo; van Ewijk, Harry; Leonards, Pim E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Flame retardants are added to plastics and textiles to save lives. However, certain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) form an environmental hazard and should be replaced by less harmful alternatives. In the recently completed European research project ENFIRO, we examined which alternatives

  20. Trace element analysis of hair of mentally retarded children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, H.P.S.; Lal, G.; Sidhu, N.P.S.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Unlike previously reported, Zn and Se levels were found to be the same in the hair of mentally retarded children and controls. Non-essential toxic Ag concentration was low whereas that of Hg, Au and Sc rather high in mentally retarded children. (author) 4 refs

  1. Iconic Memory Deficit of Mildly Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Henry A.; Mosley, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Ten mildly retarded young adult males and nonretarded subjects matched for chronological age or mental age were required to recognize both verbal and nonverbal stimuli presented tachistoscopically. Results of a backward visual masking paradigm varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) indicated the retarded subjects performed poorer at the longest…

  2. Cognitive Representation of Motion in Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Frances A.; Wyatt, Beverly S.; Dulaney, Cynthia L.

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen adolescents with and 15 without mental retardation were compared on their tendency to show the representational momentum effect when viewing a stimulus array that implied motion. Participants with mental retardation showed the representational momentum effects as did the others, although the magnitude of the memory shift was smaller.…

  3. Adoptive and Birth Family Adjustment to Rearing Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Bush, Beverly A.

    The study identified 81 families who adopted children with mental retardation or at risk for mental retardation, and compared them with 61 matched families with similar birth children. For birth families, the initial diagnosis was a time of crisis, with high depression scores, while scores at follow-up (an average of 5.3 years later) indicated no…

  4. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  5. A MENTALLY RETARDED PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHOO EM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient’s family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  6. Relativistic quarkonium model with retardation effect, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1990-01-01

    A new relativistic two-body equation is proposed which has the charge-conjugation symmetry. The renormalization of the wave function at the origin (WFO) is done by incorporating the corresponding vertex equation. By using this model, the heavy-quarkonium phenomenology is developed putting emphasis on the short-distance interaction. The typical scale of the distance restricting the applicability of the ladder model for the mass spectra is found to be 0.13 fm: By assuming the equivalent high-momentum cutoff for the gluonic correction, good results are obtained for the charmonium masses. The improved fine-splittings of the bb-bar states are obtained by inclusion of the retardation. Leptonic decay rates are predicted by assuming the renormalized WFO reduced by another high-momentum cutoff. (author)

  7. Adsorption and Retardation of PFASs in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yan, N.; Fu, X.; Carroll, K. C.; Holguin, F. O. O.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Per- and poly-fluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants of concern that are present in the subsurface at numerous military and industrial facilities. Knowledge of the retention behavior of these compounds in the subsurface environment is critical for effective risk characterization and remediation. The objective of this research is to investigate the role of adsorption at the air-water interface on PFAS retention in vadose-zone systems. Surface tensions were measured for select PFAS to determine interfacial adsorption coefficients. Column experiments were conducted to characterize retardation and transport under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. The impact of soil properties and groundwater constituents on surface tension, solid-phase adsorption, and interfacial adsorption was investigated.

  8. Referential first mention in narratives by mildly mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, K T; Sabsay, S

    1987-01-01

    Referential first mentions in narrative reports of a short film by 40 mildly mentally retarded adults and 20 nonretarded adults were compared. The mentally retarded sample included equal numbers of male and female, and black and white speakers. The mentally retarded speakers made significantly fewer first mentions and significantly more errors in the form of the first mentions than did nonretarded speakers. A pattern of better performance by black males than by other mentally retarded speakers was found. It is suggested that task difficulty and incomplete mastery of the use of definite and indefinite forms for encoding old and new information, rather than some global type of egocentrism, accounted for the poorer performance by mentally retarded speakers.

  9. Nonequilibrium statistical Zubarev's operator and Green's functions for an inhomogeneous electron gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Kostrobii

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonequilibrium properties of an inhomogeneous electron gas are studied using the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. Generalized transport equations for the mean values of inhomogeneous operators of the electron number density, momentum density, and total energy density for weakly and strongly nonequilibrium states are obtained. We derive a chain of equations for the Green's functions, which connects commutative time-dependent Green's functions "density-density", "momentum-momentum", "enthalpy-enthalpy" with reduced Green's functions of the generalized transport coefficients and with Green's functions for higher order memory kernels in the case of a weakly nonequilibrium spatially inhomogeneous electron gas.

  10. Fluoride retardation from quartz sand-packed column tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Usunoff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Inasmuch as both low and high concentrations of F- in groundwater have different detrimental effects on human health (increased dental caries, and mottled enamel or even severe structural bone deformations, respectively, many efforts have focused on the movement of such anion in aqueous systems. It is so because water drinking is the main intake of F- by humans. This paper presents the results of seven dynamic experiments in which solutions of varying [F-], pH, and flow velocities circulated through columns packed with clean quartz sand. The breakthrough data were analyzed by means of a computer code adapted to the estimation of equilibrium and non-equilibrium solute transport parameters from miscible displacement experiments in a steady-state, uniform flow field using a pulse-type or continuous source. It was found that larger retardation factors (R are associated with low pH, low [F-] in the feed solutions, and larger flow velocities. Such results appear to be related to the form of the F species, the rather weak bond between the adsorbate and the quartz sand, and stronger anion repulsion at low pore velocities. The estimated values for R vary between 1,22 and 1,50, whereas the distribution coefficients were in the range of 0,1 to 0,05 L kg-1. It should be said that the breakthrough curves display hysteresis, leading to a desorption behavior that proceeds faster than the adsorption process.Puesto que tanto valores bajos como altos de F- en las aguas subterráneas tienen efectos adversos en la salud de los humanos (mayor cantidad de caries, y manchas del esmalte dental e incluso deformaciones óseas, respectivamente, han sido muchos los esfuerzos destinados a dilucidar el movimiento de especies fluoradas en ambientes acuosos. Ello es así porque el consumo de agua por parte de seres humanos representa la mayor fuente de ingreso de F-. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de siete experimentos dinámicos en los que soluciones de diferentes [F

  11. Classifying prion and prion-like phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbi, Djamel; Harrison, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. We suggest that although prion/prion-like phenomena can largely be apportioned into a small number of broad groups dependent on the type of transmissibility evidence for them, as new phenomena are discovered in the coming years, a detailed ontological approach might be necessary that allows for subtle definition of different "flavors" of prion / prion-like phenomena.

  12. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorka, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  13. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

  14. Didactic demonstrations of superfluidity and superconductivity phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniola-Jedrzejak, L.; Lewicki, A.; Pilipowicz, A.; Tarnawski, Z.; Bialek, H.

    1980-01-01

    In order to demonstrate to students phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity a special helium cryostat has been constructed. The demonstrated effects, construction of the cryostat and the method of demonstration are described. (author)

  15. Transport phenomena an introduction to advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Glasgow, Larry A

    2010-01-01

    Enables readers to apply transport phenomena principles to solve advanced problems in all areas of engineering and science This book helps readers elevate their understanding of, and their ability to apply, transport phenomena by introducing a broad range of advanced topics as well as analytical and numerical solution techniques. Readers gain the ability to solve complex problems generally not addressed in undergraduate-level courses, including nonlinear, multidimensional transport, and transient molecular and convective transport scenarios. Avoiding rote memorization, the author em

  16. Evidence on Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Sommersel, Hanna Bjørnøy; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    This publication is an excerpt from the full technical report ‘Dropout Phenomena at Universities: What is Dropout? Why does Dropout Occur? What Can be Done by the Universities to Prevent or Reduce it? A systematic review’, which was completed in April 2013. The purpose of this excerpt is to present...... the knowledge we have on dropout phenomena at European universities in a short, precise and comprehensible form to allow readers to orient themselves on the subject in a more readable manner....

  17. Polarization phenomena in two body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of strong interactions at very low, low, intermediate, and high energies over the range 6.14 MeV to 150 GeV/c with regard to polarization phenomena in two-body systems. From the one-pion-exchange model to the theory that can possibly relate to all the phenomena, namely, quantum electrodynamics the review pointed to a unified explanation for the interactions under study. 46 references

  18. Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks

  19. Collective phenomena in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan

    1998-12-01

    Collective motion in the final state of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, produced by the release of compressional energy built-up during the stage of maximum density, is widely accepted as a good observable to test models and a useful tool to probe the nuclear equation of state. This dissertation presents an experimental study of nuclear collisions at the Bevalac accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with special emphasis on collective phenomena. The main detector used is a time projection chamber with more than two million pixels. Using high statistics measurements of all charged final- state fragments in Au + Au reactions at 0.25, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.15A GeV, we present a new method to unify the description of light fragment spectra and the three main categories of collective motion: sideward flow, squeeze-out, and transverse expansion. In this alternative representation, the speed of collective expansion is shown to be slowest in the plane of the reaction, and is modulated sinusoidally according to fragment azimuth relative to this plane. This simple yet complete characterization of squeeze-out leads to its interpretation as an in-plane retardation of collective expansion. We test momentum space power law behavior by studying the momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4He. We conclude that the simple momentum-space power law consistently describes light participant fragment production at p⊥/A/ge0.2 GeV/c over a remarkably wide range of transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity and beam energy in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions and in particular, the increase in sideward flow with fragment mass is well described by a momentum- space power law under these conditions. This behavior is consistent with composite fragment formation through a statistical coalescence mechanism in momentum space. Our conclusion supports the use of models without composite formation to interpret flow

  20. Towards a nonequilibrium quantum field theory approach to electroweak baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotto, A.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a general method to compute CP violating observables from extensions of the standard model in the context of electroweak baryogenesis. It is an alternative to the one recently developed by Huet and Nelson and relies on a nonequilibrium quantum field theory approach. The method is valid for all shapes and sizes of the bubble wall expanding in the thermal bath during a first-order electroweak phase transition. The quantum physics of CP violation and its suppression coming from the incoherent nature of thermal processes are also made explicit. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society