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Sample records for retailers improve product

  1. Product mix retail strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sales of appropriate merchandise is essential for performance of every retail enterprise. The way that products are displayed within retail sales object will be in so much important as the merchandise is considered a pad of the perceived image of that outlet. Thus, assorted products speak to their consumers as far as to what they [the consumers] can expect, and they signal off a number of marketing messages as well. Merchandising is the key element in attracting the consumers and in encouraging of repeated purchases. The question then could be: products or services?, yet the retailer's future will depend on his ability to develop the best sale offers. The selection of appropriate merchandise, and that would be the one [merchandise] that is in accordance with outlet's image, requires careful planning which, again, needs to be related with the direction the seller is following. Managing of the product assortments' dimensions emerges from the retailer's strategic planning, therefore, the decisions made on the inclusion of novel products as well as about deleting of the old stock are deemed (to be strategic.

  2. Modelling Retail Floorspace Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Kooiman

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note presents a "switching regime" model to investigate the impact of environmental factors on floorspace productivity of individual retail stores. The model includes independent supply and demand functions, which are incorporated within a sales maximizing framework. Unlike

  3. Well-being, health, and productivity improvement after an employee well-being intervention in large retail distribution centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Augustine S; Sears, Lindsay E; Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate changes in well-being, biometric, and productivity indicators after a well-being intervention. Biometric and self-reported outcomes were assessed among 677 retail distribution center employees before and after a 6-month well-being intervention. Despite lower well-being at baseline compared to an independent random sample of workers, program participants' well-being, productivity, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol improved significantly after the intervention, whereas the decline in diastolic blood pressure was not significant. Moreover, participants' specific transition across well-being segments over the intervention period demonstrated more improvement than decline. There is evidence that programs designed to improve well-being within a workforce can be used to significantly and positively impact employee health and productivity, which should result in reduced health care costs, improved employee productivity, and increased overall profitability.

  4. Intelligent decision-making models for production and retail operations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of intelligent decision-making techniques and discusses their application in production and retail operations. Manufacturing and retail enterprises have stringent standards for using advanced and reliable techniques to improve decision-making processes, since these processes have significant effects on the performance of relevant operations and the entire supply chain. In recent years, researchers have been increasingly focusing attention on using intelligent techniques to solve various decision-making problems. The opening chapters provide an introduction to several commonly used intelligent techniques, such as genetic algorithm, harmony search, neural network and extreme learning machine. The book then explores the use of these techniques for handling various production and retail decision-making problems, such as production planning and scheduling, assembly line balancing, and sales forecasting.

  5. Periodic Pricing of Seasonal Products in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel R. Bitran; Susana V. Mondschein

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies intertemporal pricing policies when selling seasonal products in retail stores. We first present a continuous time model where a seller faces a stochastic arrival of customers with different valuations of the product. For this model, we characterize the optimal pricing policies as functions of time and inventory. We use this model as a benchmark against which we compare more realistic models that consider periodic pricing reviews. We show that the structure of the optimal p...

  6. Productivity in Swedish electricity retail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, L.; Veiderpass, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines productivity growth in electricity retail distribution in Sweden in a multiple output-multiple input framework. The approach used is nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Productivity is measured by means of the Malmquist index. Productivity comparisons are made between different types of ownership and between different service areas. The study indicates a high rate of productivity growth, due to economics of density, when measured over a period of 17 years. The results show no significant differences in productivity growth between different types of ownership or economic organization. (20 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  7. Retailing of Processed Dairy and Grain Products in Mali: Evidence from a City Retail Outlet Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Theriault

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As in many sub-Saharan African countries, Mali is experiencing an unprecedented rate of urbanization and, with it, changes to its agri-food system. As more people live in urban areas, the demand for processed foods has been increasing rapidly. These changes have important implications for food and nutrition security. Yet, little is known about the scale and scope of the retailing of processed foods. To better understand this segment, we conducted a city retail outlet inventory of processed dairy and cereal foods in 2016. The main findings are that: (1 food availability is greater in the capital, high-income neighborhoods, and supermarkets; (2 there is a high prevalence of imported foods; (3 added sugar and vegetable fats are listed as a top-three ingredient in a quarter of processed products, highlighting issues related to healthfulness; (4 price premiums are paid for products that are imported from Europe, use improved packaging, and are retailed in supermarkets. Taken together, our findings indicate that the transformation in the Malian agri-food system is still at an early stage. The growing demand for processed foods presents economic opportunities for Malian farmers and processors, especially if they can improve product quality, packaging, and distribution.

  8. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  9. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  10. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  11. Retailers' choice of suppliers and products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    when deciding whether or not to accept a new product. No definitive list has emerged, but of course price, quality, manufacturer image and reliability are frequently mentioned. 7. Other areas that have caught the interest of researcher are: the role of buying committees, the relationship...... developing their marketing strategies. 2. The purpose of this paper is to review previous research on retailer buying behaviour in order to establish a state-of-the-art knowledge before launching an Europe-wide empirical study. 3. We reviewed the volumes from 1975 to 1996 of the Journal of Marketing...

  12. Cooperation Between Suppliers and Retail Chains in Developing Systemic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bilińska-Reformat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeking a competitive advantage, retail chains develop systemic products. Introducing systemic products to retailers' offer requires establishment of close cooperation with their suppliers. In the paper the assumption has been made that offering systemic products makes the offer more attractive for customer. It is also reason for development of cooperation between retail chains and suppliers. Selected commercial enterprises were research objects in the study. Analyses included in the paper concern the years between 2009 and 2015. Research methods: critical analysis of the literature, results of own research method concerning cooperation between retail chains and suppliers, and the case research method.

  13. Analysis of a production/inventory system with multiple retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Noblesse, Ann; Boute, Robert; Lambrecht, Marc; Van Houdt, B.

    2014-01-01

    We study a production/inventory system with one manufacturing plant and multiple retailers. Production lead times at the plant are stochastic and endogenously determined by the orders placed by the different retailers. Assuming stochastic (phase-type distributed) production and setup times, we make use of matrix analytic techniques to develop a queuing model that is capable to compute the distribution of the time orders spend in the production facility, depending on the retailer’s lot s...

  14. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  15. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten

    Empirical studies of retailer buying behaviour show which attributes are important when retail buyers choose between new products and suppliers. Skytte & Blunch (1998) identified which attributes make a difference to retail buyers in Western Europe when buying fish products, and they identified...... the following five segments of retail buyer policy based on the results: 1) 'Relationship builders' are small chains that focus on long term relationships. 2) 'The traditional chains' are small or medium-sized and include many co-operative chains that demand high product quality. They also want suppliers...... that are able to deliver sufficient quantities. 3) Voluntary chains are dominating the 'large chains' segment. They have a high share of private label products and want long term relationships with suppliers and sufficient quantities. 4) 'Green shops' include many small wholesalers sponsored chains and co...

  16. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential...

  17. Small Business Apparel Retailing in Jamaica: An Exploratory Investigation into Product Development Processes and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Leslie, Natalie; Gaskill, LuAnn R.

    2006-01-01

    While the process and practices of retail product development in developed countries have been documented, a void exists in descriptive analysis regarding retail product development in an international setting. The primary purpose of this study was to explore small business apparel retailing, and specifically the retail product development process…

  18. ARCHITECTURE IMPACT IN IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SERVICES IN RETAIL PHARMACIES: CASE STUDY PRISHTINA, KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Jakupi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to analyse the performance of the pharmacist and the wellbeing of the patients on the actual pharmacy layout (in retail pharmacies in Pristina, Kosovo and recognize the modifications that need to be done in architectural design of pharmacies, in improving the quality of care, communication, decrease of the dispensing errors and providing more private spaces to patients. Retail pharmacies are more complex environment as in the same time besides being health care institution are also a retail business environment, therefore there is a need for a more comprehensive analysis regarding the workflow. The mixed methodology has been used, by employing questionaries’ as quantitative method and empirical study of direct observation and interviews as qualitative means. The layout proposals are not envisioned to be implemented as a retail models, but, as ideas to provoke and encourage discussion. Kosovo retail pharmacies are a fast growing market and as such functioning self-sufficiently, which means that they can easily adapt to the local marketplace circumstances and cultural context. It is important for the retail pharmacies to test out the recommendations and challenge its environment in aim of equally maximize productivity and workflow, by keeping incorrectness to a minimum.

  19. Battle of the Retail Channels: How Product Selection and Geography Drive Cross-Channel Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Brynjolfsson; Yu (Jeffrey) Hu; Mohammad S. Rahman

    2009-01-01

    A key question for Internet commerce is the nature of competition with traditional brick-and-mortar retailers. Although traditional retailers vastly outsell Internet retailers in most product categories, research on Internet retailing has largely neglected this fundamental dimension of competition. Is cross-channel competition significant, and if so, how and where can Internet retailers win this battle? This paper attempts to answer these questions using a unique combination of data sets. We ...

  20. COLLABORATION BETWEEN SMALL RETAIL STORES AND SUPPLIERS OF FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Branska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small grocery stores are forced to look for ways to retain customers. One possibility is through collaboration with suppliers. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the forms of collaboration between small Czech grocery stores and suppliers and to specify the differences in this collaboration depending on store location and the possible affiliation of the store with a retail chain. To achieve this goal, quantitative research was carried out among 65 Czech retail stores using face-to-face interviews with predetermined questions. Collaboration was assessed on the basis of four criteria defined by the authors. It was found that the most frequently occurring element of collaboration was the provision of trade credit to retailers – less often, long-term contracts and synchronization of replenishment. The least used was information sharing. The research results show that the form of collaboration is significantly affected by customer value. Therefore, the level of collaboration can be improved by building horizontally interconnected retail chains. The paper enriches theoretical knowledge by specifying possible elements of collaboration between small retail stores and suppliers and mapping the frequency of their implementation.

  1. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen...

  2. Product differentiation, competition and prices in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuszak, Mark David

    This thesis presents a series of studies of the retail gasoline industry using data from Hawaii. This first chapter examines a number of pricing patterns in the data and finds evidence that gasoline stations set prices which are consistent with a number of forms of price discrimination. The second chapter analyzes various patterns of cross-sectional, cross-market and intertemporal variation in the data to investigate their suitability for use in structural econometric estimation. The remainder of the dissertation consists of specification and estimation of a structural model of supply and demand for retail gasoline products sold at individual gasoline stations. This detailed micro-level analysis permits examination of a number of important issues in the industry, most notably the importance of spatial differentiation in the industry. The third chapter estimates the model and computes new equilibria under a number of asymmetric taxation regimes in order to examine the impact of such tax policies on producer and consumer welfare as well as tax revenue. The fourth chapter examines whether there is any evidence of tacitly collusive behavior in the Hawaiian retail gasoline industry and concludes that, in fact, conduct is fairly competitive in this industry and market.

  3. Innovative solutions in traceability to improve the competitiveness of a local fruit and vegetable retailing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Pakurár

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to investigate the network of local fruit and vegetable products from “farm to fork”, to uncover the hidden processes in traceability and to advise innovations in the retailing system to improve the competitiveness of the sector. Traceability is an ability to track any food that will be consumed throughout the processes of production, processing and distribution. The research investigates what the customer knows about the origin and treatments of purchased products and what further information would satisfy the consumer. The study explores the flow of information amongst the chain members: producers, wholesalers, small-scale retailers, and customers. Based on interviews and questionnaires, regression analysis and ordinal regression procedure were performed. Innovative solutions to make the retailing competitive should be aligned with the precise knowledge of the consumer. The results of the research show that deficiencies in data collection, data erosion, low level of cooperation of supply chain partners, not paying more attention for more detailed information, and inadequate control are the main problems of the traceability in fruit and vegetable chains.

  4. The buying motives related to important supplier and product attributes: An analysis of retail buying behaviour in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Kristensen, Gitte Hvoldal; Skytte, Hans

    1999-01-01

    The recent decade has seen a concentration in the food retail sector in Europe (Eurostat, 1997), and this has increased the importance of understanding value creation in the retail industry, as retailers are becoming the gatekeepers to the consumer mar-ket (Skytte & Blunch 1998; Sternquist 1994...... was to analyse whether there is a difference in consequences and values sought from the same set of attributes. The results showed that supplier attributes were more important than product attributes, but both categories interact in a complex web of attributes to create central con-se-quences and values...... really want to achieve by means of certain attri-butes, and what the difference in value means. These results offer possible improvements in the value chain of fish products from the sea to the customer, thereby improving market orientation and competitive advantage in the fish industry....

  5. Microbiological quality of five potato products obtained at retail markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, A P; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Schwab, A H; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of frozen hash brown potatoes, dried hash brown potatoes with onions, frozen french fried potatoes, dried instant mashed potatoes, and potato salad was determined by a national sampling at the retail level. A wide range of results was obtained, with most sampling units of each products having excellent microbiological quality. Geometric mean aerobic plate counts were as follows: dried hash brown potatoes, 270/g; frozen hash brown potatoes with onions, 580/g; frozen french fried potatoes 78/g; dried instant mashed potatoes, 1.1 x 10(3)/g; and potato salad, 3.6 x 10(3)/g. Mean values of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were less than 10/g. PMID:6758695

  6. Retail and wholesale buying behaviour for two different food products in six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    implications and areas for future research. We propose that in the long term, the best strategy for Danish food exporters is to approach a number of key retailers and establish close relationships with these retailers in order to fulfil their specific requirements. Theoretically, we conclude that retail...... in an attempt to take advantage of the opportunities created by the liberalisation. 2. The aim of this study is to increase our knowledge of retail and wholesale buying behaviour in Eastern Europe by examining the buying behaviour for fish and cheese products in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Estonia....... 5. The most important criteria used by retail buyers in Eastern Europe to evaluate products and suppliers of fish and cheese are price and financial conditions, the suppliers' range of products, the way the supplier does business as well as quality. 6. The differences in the organisation of buying...

  7. Improving the competitiveness of Alberta's retail electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Navigant Consulting Limited (Navigant) was commissioned by Alberta Energy to provide an independent review of the issues and recommendations contained in the Report of the Retail Issues Subcommittee, published in September 2001, on the Alberta Retail Electricity Markets. It was also asked to identify and other significant issues, and making recommendations pertaining to the issues. The principles of a well-functioning retail market followed an introduction to the document. A definition of a competitive market, according to that used by the Retail Issues Subcommittee (RIS) was provided, and a discussion of each of the elements of such a market was included. Highlights from the United Kingdom retail electricity market were provided. A detailed discussion of each of the major issues identified in the RIS report was presented, and recommendations on each topic areas from the RIS report included. The expected impact of the recommendations was explored. A summary of the recommendations and implementation considerations was provided in the last section of the document. tabs., figs

  8. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: All Stations (Retail and Non-Retail Combined), Data through Quarter 2 of 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This publication includes 95 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations with data through the second quarter of 2017. These CDPs include data for all stations in NREL's evaluation (retail and non-retail combined).

  9. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: All Stations (Retail and Non-Retail Combined), Data through Quarter 4 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-31

    This publication includes 90 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations with data through the fourth quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data for all stations in NREL's evaluation (retail and non-retail combined).

  10. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: All Stations (Retail and Non-Retail Combined), Data through Quarter 3 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-06

    This publication includes 87 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations with data through the third quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data for all stations in NREL's evaluation (retail and non-retail combined).

  11. Vape shop retailers' perceptions of their customers, products and services: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jennifer Y; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Garcia, Robert; Garcia, Jocelyn; Unger, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve Y

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has spurred the growth of vape shops, but little is known about the retailers who may play an important role in the introduction and dissemination of vape products. In this paper we examine how retailers profile their customers and their perceptions of vaping, and the services their shops provide. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of retailers (n=77) located across southern California. Open-ended questions were coded and analyzed using a content analysis approach. Three themes emerged from the content analysis: who vapes, why people vape, and the vape shop environment. Retailers profiled customers as friendly, health conscious, and interested in tobacco cessation or cessation maintenance. Retailers believed e-cigarettes were used recreationally or as products that help curb other addictive behaviors. While most retailers reported positive experiences with vaping, some reported potentially negative experiences including failed cessation attempts, dual use of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes, and increased nicotine dependence. Retailers reported that they regularly answer questions about vaping and believe their shops function as social lounges that are tied to other recreational activities. Retailers attach certain characteristics to their clientele, perceive certain health benefits associated with vaping, and seek to establish their shops as places that provide guidance on vape products as well as shops with a recreational aesthetic. As vape shops grow in popularity, additional research on, and regulation of, these retailers will be necessary. Education campaigns are needed to inform retailers of the benefits and consequences of vaping.

  12. Food producers' product development: With regard to the requirements of retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    of technology evolution'. This model has been extended by theories on organizational identity, organizational fields, plausibility, and construction of meaning. Founded on a grounded theory approach the model was subsequently used for analysing the cooperation between Danish food producers and retail chains......This study investigates how it is possible for food producers and retailers to strengthen their competitiveness by coordinating food producers' product development process and retailers' assortment building process. The theoretical outset is taken in Garud and Rappa's model 'Socio-cognitive model...... in four countries regarding trade in pork and pork-based products. The paper concludes with a number of recommendations directed at food producers....

  13. Impacts of Returning Unsold Products in Retail Outsourcing Fashion Supply Chain: A Sustainability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Bin; Li, Qingying

    2015-01-01

    l outsourcing with a return policy is quite commonly adopted in the fashion supply chain. Under the return policy, the supplier as a brand owner may focus on production, and then outsource retailing to the retailer. In the meanwhile, the retailer may receive some support money from the supplier for subsidizing the loss of unsold products at the end of the selling season and be asked for shipping back. Motivated by this real practice in the fashion industry, we examine a two-echelon supply cha...

  14. Productivity Dynamics and the Role of “Big-Box” Entrants in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, Matilda

    2012-01-01

    Entry of large (“big-box”) stores along with a drastic fall in the total number of stores is a striking trend in retail markets. We use a dynamic structural model to estimate retail productivity in a local market setting. In particular, we provide a general strategy of how to measure the causal effect of entry of large stores on productivity separate from demand. To control for endogeneity of large entrants, we use political preferences. Using detailed data on all retail food stores in Sweden...

  15. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 4 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-31

    This publication includes 86 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the fourth quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  16. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 2 of 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This publication includes 92 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the second quarter of 2017. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  17. THE AGGREGATE IMPACT OF ONLINE RETAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Tran

    2014-01-01

    To study the impact of online retail on aggregate welfare, I use a spatial model to calculate a new measure of store level retail productivity and each store's equilibrium response to increased competitive pressure from online retailers. The model is estimated on confidential store-level data spanning the universe of US retail stores, detailed local-level demographic data and shortest-route data between locations. From counterfactual exercises mimicking improvements in shipping and increased ...

  18. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  19. Product Market Deregulation and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from the German Retail Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Senftleben-König

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the short- and medium-term effects of the deregulation of shopopening hours legislation on retail employment in Germany. In 2006, the legislative competence was shifted from the federal to the state level, leading to a gradual deregulation of shop opening restrictions in most of Germany’s sixteen federal states. The paper exploits regional variation in the legislation in order to identify the effect product market deregulation has on retail employment. We find robust...

  20. Retail Productivity: Investigating the Influence of Market Size and Regional Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Özge

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the productivity of independent retail stores in Sweden by focusing on the impact of market size and regional hierarchy while controlling for several store and employee characteristics over time. The analysis utilizes Swedish store-level data for the years 2002–2008. To capture the urban-periphery interaction in retail markets, the analysis (i) uses an accessible market potential measure, which captures the impact of the potential demand both in clo...

  1. How German Online Retailers Price Foods: An Empirical Analysis for Chocolate Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Fedoseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of online grocery retailing, little is known about price dispersion across online providers, the relation between online and offline prices as well as the frequency of price adjustments. We employ means of descriptive and inductive statistics as well as panel econometrics to address these issues for German online food retailers. Daily online prices for twelve chocolate products charged by eight pure online and multichannel retailers and collected over three months are investigated. Information economics suggests that a maturing online market will call forth more price homogeneity online due to lower search costs by consumers as well as more flexible prices due to lower costs of price adjustments by retailers. Our results suggest, however, that neither homogenous prices nor frequent price adjustments do occur on the German online chocolate market.

  2. The Impact of Product Quality, Service Quality, and Customer Loyalty Program perception on Retail Customer Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricko Achmadi Putra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This journal examines the relationship between perception of product quality, perception of service quality, perception of Customer Loyalty Program on retail customer behavior, and sales volumes of cement products. This study examines three different cement brands, namely cement XYZ with the largest market share, cement PQR which is the main competitor, as well as cement ABC, a newcomer cement brand which is strong enough to enter the Indonesian cement market. The research is focused on the building material retailers with 100 respondents. The data collection will be done by survey through direct interview by using questionnaires. The analysis of this research uses descriptive analysis, analysis by ANOVA and also inferential analysis by using Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results of this study indicate that from the factors that influence the attitudes of retail customers of the three variables tested, only one dominant factor which influences the attitude of retail customers, which is the perception of the product quality. The results of this research also show that the perception of product quality also affects sale volume significantly, the greater the perception of the quality of cement products, the greater the volume of sales generated by the retail customer.

  3. Product availability from delivery aspect: Evidence from retailers in selected Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that it represents one of the main preconditions of sales, product availability is the key task of retail companies and their delivery systems. This paper analyses its levels from the aspect of centralized and DSD systems. The research is conducted in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, including 84 stores and more than 70 FMCG products per each store. Thereby, the comparisons in product availability levels between alternative delivery systems are carried out within different trading formats and within different product categories. Unlike the results of similar studies and ongoing changes on retail markets, this research shows that at retailers in these Western Balkan countries, availability levels are higher in the case of DSD system.

  4. Do retailers really profit from ambidextrous managers? : the impact of frontline mechanisms on new and existing product selling performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgh, van der W.; Schepers, J.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    When manufacturers introduce a new product to the market, downstream retail partners are faced with inherent trade-offs. Retail sales personnel have to support the new product's introduction with substantial sales efforts but also sell the existing products in stock, before storage and devaluation

  5. THE ROLE OF TIPPING IN REDUCING LABOUR COSTS: CASE OF SECTOR RETAIL PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Raspor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to determine whether tipping could reduce labour costs in the petroleum products retail sector. The research we present was designed on the basis of survey results gathered from Slovenian petrol stations in 2009 and 2010. We have identified the following factors in the tipping process: job satisfaction, flexibility, service quality, satisfaction, motivation and the factor of receiving tips. The analysis showed correlation between methods used to increase the value of tips and better service quality, increased financial and numerical flexibility, motivation, satisfaction upon receipt of tips and the method used to increase the value of tips. In order to decrease labour costs we propose that the management take control of tipping and integrates tips into the reward system. Also, the employees should be made aware about how tipping improves service and increases their income.

  6. Logistics collaboration to improve sustainability performance in the Dutch food retail sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, H.M.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Following recent developments, supply chain actors are rethinking their logistics structures and management practices to arrive at sustainable concepts able to deliver perishable food products to retail outlets responsive, at lower cost, with less food waste and with less environmental

  7. Prevalence, seasonal occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in poultry retail products in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdragas, A; Mazaraki, K; Vafeas, G; Giantzi, V; Papadopoulos, T; Ekateriniadou, L

    2012-10-01

    To detect the prevalence, the seasonal occurrence and distribution of Salmonella serotypes in poultry products and to determine the resistance profile of Salmonella isolates. A total of 96 skin-on chicken carcasses and 30 liver samples were analysed between May 2007 and May 2009 from twenty-two different commercial farm brands found in retail market countrywide. Salmonella was isolated from 38 (39·5%) of 96 chicken carcasses and from 10 (33·3%) of 30 liver samples. Higher isolation rate (60·4%) was observed in carcasses detected during summer (May to October), and lower isolation rate (18·7%) was observed in carcasses detected during winter (November to April); in liver samples, the positive rates were 53·4 and 13·2%, respectively. Twelve serotypes were detected with the serotypes Hadar, Enteritidis and Blockley being the most prevalent at 29·2, 22·9 and 12·5%, respectively. Nine of 11 Salm. Enteritidis isolates occurred during summer. Of 48 isolates, 38 (79%) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents used. The highest resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (64·5%), tetracycline (56·2%), nalidixic acid (39·5%), ampicillin and rifampicin (33·3%). The relatively high Salmonella spp. contamination rates of raw chicken meat and liver have been detected. Salm. Enteritidis isolates peaked in summer, increasing the risk to human health. Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella still remains a threat as resistance plasmids may be extensively shared between animal and humans. The study enabled us to improve the data on the seasonal occurrence of Salmonella and to determine the antimicrobial pattern profile and trends in Salmonella strains isolated from poultry retail products in Greece. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.; Kwaga, J.K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products....... This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef...... and related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, ‘suya’ (roasted meat), ‘balangu’ (barbequed meat), ‘Kilishi’ (spiced sun dried meat) and ‘dambu’ (shredded fried meat). Samples were...

  9. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  10. Behaviour of subjects of the independent retail market in distribution process of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deal with the actual situation on the Czech independent retail market. Multinational retail chains represent the thread to small and medium sized trade firms due to large range of products, stronger position in negotiations with suppliers and financial power. That is reason why others independent retailers have to co-operate together and obtain the same advantages. Nowadays the discuss among Czech wholesale stocks with their retail nets is in progress. This discussion is aimed to establishing the Czech trade strategic alliance (TSA CZ as an instrument for increasing of competitive ability. That is necessary also for connection with some other foreign or global trade alliance. Present situation offers to collaborate with two trade systems. The first is CBA operating in nine countries of the Central and Eastern Europe and the second is MARKANT working mainly in Germany and Austria. It seems TSA CZ has to decide between two business concepts – east or west. During the decision making is important to re-cognize what is more sufficient not only for the Czech trade firms on independent market but also for the Czech customer because satisfaction his needs and wants should be the mission of all retailers.

  11. Tools Related to the Federal Tobacco Products Regulations: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-16

    PSA to announce a new mobile text message program that will help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations.  Created: 9/16/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  12. The Europe-U.S. Retail Trade Productivity Gap in a Rear-view Mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harchaoui, Tarek M.

    2012-01-01

    Is the Europe-U.S. retail trade productivity gap a genuine phenomenon or the result of a variety of measurement issues? This research question, which raised concerns during most of the decade preceding the Great Recession, has two primary motivations. First, I hope to gain a better understanding of

  13. Using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS) to Assess Product Availability, Price Promotions, and Messaging in New Hampshire Vape Shop Retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Amanda Y; Eaddy, Jessica L; Morrison, Susan L; Asbury, Donna; Lindell, Kristine M; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-04-01

    This is the first statewide census of the product availability, price promotions, and product messaging of vape shops. A comprehensive list of New Hampshire vape shops was developed through a previously validated online search method. Store audits were conducted in 55 stores between January and February 2016 using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS). Modifiable devices and cig-alikes were sold in 92.6% and 14.6% of stores, respectively. Cross-product promotions with tobacco products were rare, and messaging promoting e-cigarettes as effective cessation devices was found in 27.3% of all stores. Candy/fruit and menthol e-liquids were most commonly found in stores, and sampling of products was available in 83.6% of stores. Ten (18.2%) stores did not have a minimum age sign posted, and self-service sampling displays were available in about one-fifth of stores. Using V-STARS to conduct retail assessments of vape shops is feasible and is important for assessing the changing retail environment of vape shops. Vape shops distinguish themselves from traditional tobacco product retailers and offer a variety of products to customize a consumer's experience. Regulations and effective enforcement ensuring accurate health messages is essential.

  14. Using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS) to Assess Product Availability, Price Promotions, and Messaging in New Hampshire Vape Shop Retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Amanda Y.; Eaddy, Jessica L.; Morrison, Susan L.; Asbury, Donna; Lindell, Kristine M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This is the first statewide census of the product availability, price promotions, and product messaging of vape shops. Methods A comprehensive list of New Hampshire vape shops was developed through a previously validated online search method. Store audits were conducted in 55 stores between January and February 2016 using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS). Results Modifiable devices and cig-alikes were sold in 92.6% and 14.6% of stores, respectively. Cross-product promotions with tobacco products were rare, and messaging promoting e-cigarettes as effective cessation devices was found in 27.3% of all stores. Candy/fruit and menthol e-liquids were most commonly found in stores, and sampling of products was available in 83.6% of stores. Ten (18.2%) stores did not have a minimum age sign posted, and self-service sampling displays were available in about one-fifth of stores. Conclusions Using V-STARS to conduct retail assessments of vape shops is feasible and is important for assessing the changing retail environment of vape shops. Vape shops distinguish themselves from traditional tobacco product retailers and offer a variety of products to customize a consumer’s experience. Regulations and effective enforcement ensuring accurate health messages is essential. PMID:29201950

  15. Utilizing artificial neural networks to predict demand for weather-sensitive products at retail stores

    OpenAIRE

    Taghizadeh, Elham

    2017-01-01

    One key requirement for effective supply chain management is the quality of its inventory management. Various inventory management methods are typically employed for different types of products based on their demand patterns, product attributes, and supply network. In this paper, our goal is to develop robust demand prediction methods for weather sensitive products at retail stores. We employ historical datasets from Walmart, whose customers and markets are often exposed to extreme weather ev...

  16. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - 'silent' reformulation of retailer-brand food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-08-23

    Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a 'silent' reformulation strategy, where a retail chain's private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks' sales data - enriched with data on products' energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases, the reformulation led to indirect substitution effects that were counterproductive with regard to reducing calorie turnover. However, except in two insignificant cases, these indirect substitution effects were dominated by the direct effect of the reformulation, leading to net reductions in calorie sales between -3.1 and 7.5%. For all considered product reformulations, the reformulation had either positive, zero or very moderate negative effects on the sales value of the product category to which the reformulated product belonged. Based on these findings, 'silent' reformulation of retailer's private brands towards lower energy density seems to contribute to lowering the calorie intake in the population (although to a moderate extent) with moderate losses in retailer's sales revenues.

  17. The Effects of Application of Lean Concept in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean principles and techniques can be successfully applied in the retail sector. In the retail sector, lean approach improves operational flows. Lean retail encourages manufacturers to produce standard products in accordance with the created (placed orders from retailers pursuant to the demand of their consumers. Characteristics of the retail market are: strong competition, shorter product life cycle, longer product development time and high sensitivity of demand. In order to be more competitive and profitable today's retailers operate strategically oriented to lower prices and gain exemption from holding unnecessary stocks. Lean retail is an example of best practices of successful operational strategies which management need to accept - to maximize the operating efficiency of the retail process.

  18. The effect of backroom size on retail product availability – operational and technological solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Milićević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amid the conditions of increasingly fierce competition, retailers are doing their best to meet the demands of their customers as efficiently as possible. Through the ever-growing level of product availability they raise the quality of service, which is positively reflected not only on the growth in sales, but also customer satisfaction. In the opposite case, the out-ofstock problem emerges, affecting not only customers, but also retailers and their suppliers. Bearing in mind, that the causes of the given problem occur most frequently in the last metres of the supply chain, in this paper we investigated the effect of backroom size on product availability, depending on the retail format. For this purpose, we used moderated regression analysis on the sample of 80 fast moving consumer goods in retail stores located on the territory of the Republic of Serbia. The obtained results pointed to opposite movements in the smallest and the largest format. Whereas in superettes the out-of-stock level lowers with the increase in the backroom size, it tends to drop in hypermarkets. Therefore, we pointed to some in-store problems that cause product stock-outs in different store formats. In addition to indicating the potential causes of analyzed relations, this paper also presents certain operational and technological solutions related to their mitigation.

  19. Comparison of public health impact of Listeria monocytogenes product-to-product and environment-to-product contamination of deli meats at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the relative public health impact in deli meats at retail contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes by either (i) other products or (ii) the retail environment. Modeling was performed using the risk of listeriosis-associated deaths as a public health outcome of interest and using two deli meat products (i.e., ham and turkey, both formulated without growth inhibitors) as model systems. Based on reported data, deli meats coming to retail were assumed to be contaminated at a frequency of 0.4%. Three contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) a baseline scenario, in which no additional cross-contamination occurred at retail, (ii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were cross-contaminated at retail due to transfer of L. monocytogenes cells from already contaminated ready-to-eat deli meats, and (iii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were contaminated as a result of cross-contamination from a contaminated retail environment. By using a previously reported L. monocytogenes risk assessment model that uses product-specific growth kinetic parameters, cross-contamination of deli ham and turkey was estimated to increase the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths by 5.9- and 6.1-fold, respectively, for contamination from other products and by 4.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, for contamination from the retail environment. Sensitivity and scenario analyses indicated that the frequency of cross-contamination at retail from any source (other food products or environment) was the most important factor affecting the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths. Overall, our data indicate that retail-level cross-contamination of ready-to-eat deli meats with L. monocytogenes has the potential to considerably increase the risk of human listeriosis cases and deaths, and thus precise estimates of cross-contamination frequency are critical for accurate risk assessments.

  20. Towards a Framework for Knowledge-based Pricing Services Improving Operational Agility in the Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kowatsch, Tobias; Maass, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Marketing research has identified several benefits of dynamic pricing models. For example, dynamic pricing in terms of inventory considerations and time horizons, bundling or personalized offerings has been found to increase sales volume, customer satisfaction and to skim reservation prices. However, today's retailers lack the capability to apply dynamic pricing models because of missing services that realize them and technologies such as smart product infrastructures that deliver the resu...

  1. Impacts of Returning Unsold Products in Retail Outsourcing Fashion Supply Chain: A Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available l outsourcing with a return policy is quite commonly adopted in the fashion supply chain. Under the return policy, the supplier as a brand owner may focus on production, and then outsource retailing to the retailer. In the meanwhile, the retailer may receive some support money from the supplier for subsidizing the loss of unsold products at the end of the selling season and be asked for shipping back. Motivated by this real practice in the fashion industry, we examine a two-echelon supply chain with one supplier and one retailer under the return policy. Several interesting findings are obtained from our analysis. First, we find that when the supply chain achieves channel coordination, the cost of physical return is at least partially borne by the supplier, no matter who is responsible for it in reality. Second, we find that the cost of physical return is significantly affecting the sustainability factors such as the expected amount leftover (which represents environmental friendliness, the expected sales to expected goods leftover ratio (which implies both environmental friendliness and economic sustainability, and the rate of return on investment (which indicates economic sustainability. Third, from a sustainability perspective, we find that the pure wholesale price contract is more sustainable than the coordinating return policy. A numerical study by the real company data is conducted and managerial insights from analysis are discussed.

  2. Attributes of Lifestyle Consumer Related to the Use of Organic Products Retail Specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva Braga Junior

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationship between attributes of lifestyle and consumption of organic products in specialty retail, this research sought to understand who the consumer of organic products in specialty retail. To serve this purpose, a field survey of qualitative and quantitative nature was conducted with a sample of 60 subjects covered at the time of purchase at a grocery store specializing in organic products in the city of São Paulo/SP. To justify the sample size G*Power 3.1.7 software with the specifications recommended in the literature. The collected sample was sufficient to detect the desired effects of Structural Equation Modeling with Partial Least Squares Method (Partial Least Square - PLS. As a result it was observed that consumers of organic produce state to adopt a healthy lifestyle and attributed the following determinants for buying organic produce factors: the quality and the benefits that accrue to the same health. 

  3. Note on ‘Combining an Improved Multi-delivery Policy into a Single-producer Multi-retailer Integrated Inventory System with Scrap in Production’

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-li Chou; Wen Kuei Wu; Singa W. Chiu

    2014-01-01

    In a recent study, Chiu et al. (2014) employed a mathematical modeling and conventional optimization technique to determine the optimal production-shipment policy for a single-producer multi-retailer integrated inventory system with scrap and an improved product distribution policy. This study replaces their optimization process of using differential calculus with an algebraic derivation. Such a simplified approach enables practitioners, who may have insufficient knowledge of calculus, to man...

  4. Energy-saving implications from supply chain improvement: An exploratory study on China's consumer goods retail system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xi; Cai, Hua; Florig, H. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant public attentions to green supply chain management, few studies have explicitly addressed the energy implications of consumer-goods supply surplus, especially in developing countries like China. This study explored the energy-saving potential from improving supply chain efficiencies and reducing excess inventory in China's retail system from a life-cycle perspective. Through embodied energy analysis, we found that energy invested pre-manufacture contributed 80–95% of the total energy embodied in consumer products. Although embodied energy intensities had declined by 60–90% since the mid-1990s, the lessened marginal improvements implied that 'low hanging fruits' have largely been captured, and the search for new opportunities for energy-saving is in demand. Positive correlations between total economic inputs and embodied energy in consumer goods indicated possible synergy effect between cost-reduction and energy-saving in supply system management. And structural path analysis identified sector-specific energy management priorities for each retail-related sector. This study suggested that improving supply chain efficiencies provides a promising supplement to China's current industrial energy-efficient projects which target reducing direct energy use per se as an intra-firm cost-saving measure. From the life-cycle perspective, the definition of 'green sector' might have to be reconsidered in China towards a more energy-efficient economy and society.

  5. Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeyoung Koh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT, back fat thickness (BFT, eye muscle area (EMA, marbling (MAR, and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP, trimmed fats (TFW and TFP and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95 and TFW (0.73, but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02. The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (−0.63, but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70. Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60 and RCP (0.72. The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (−0.64. The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, −0.90, and −0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxaran, Virginie; In Lee, Sarah Hwa; Chaul, Luiza Toubas

    2017-01-01

    the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly...... reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being...... a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L...

  7. Eco-friendly Retail Product Attributes, Customer Attributes and the Repurchase Intentions of South African Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Job Dubihlela; Tandiswa Ngxukumeshe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose –Consumers are becoming progressively aware of the significance of eco-friendly activities, and their environmental consciousness drives them to consume eco-friendly products and services more, and prefer to support organisations that favor conservational practices. Increased environmental impacts bring a rise in concerns locally and globally, on sustainability issues aimed at reducing non-conservative consumption patterns. Retail organisations are increasingly developing and marketin...

  8. Market Intelligence Precursors for the Entrepreneurial Resilience Approach: The Case of the Romanian Eco-Label Product Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Micu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurial resilience of eco-label product retailers emphasises their adaptive capability for renewal after the economic crisis. This paper explores the resilience of the market intelligence techniques adopted by the eco-label product retailers in order to contribute to sustainable development of this market in Romania. The research, conducted on a sample of Romanian retailers of eco-label products, analyses the main sources for gathering data about their competitors, the reasons for monitoring the strategic options of their competitors and the specific market intelligence techniques employed within the entrepreneurial resilience approach, aiming to overcome the negative crisis effects. The research outlines, from an entrepreneurial resilience perspective, several positioning opportunities of the eco-label product retailers after the crisis, which have affected the Romanian economy in the period 2008–2009 and have implicitly affected the eco-label market.

  9. 3D Product authenticity model for online retail: An invariance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algharabat, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of different levels of invariance analysis on three dimensional (3D product authenticity model (3DPAM constructs in the e- retailing context. A hypothetical retailer website presents a variety of laptops using 3D product visualisations. The proposed conceptual model achieves acceptable fit and the hypothesised paths are all valid. We empirically investigate the invariance across the subgroups to validate the results of our 3DPAM. We concluded that the 3D product authenticity model construct was invariant for our sample across different gender, level of education and study backgrounds. These findings suggested that all our subgroups conceptualised the 3DPAM similarly. Also the results show some non-invariance results for the structural and latent mean models. The gender group posits a non-invariance latent mean model. Study backgrounds group reveals a non-invariance result for the structural model. These findings allowed us to understand the 3DPAMs validity in the e-retail context. Managerial implications are explained.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes incidence changes and diversity in some Brazilian dairy industries and retail products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxaran, Virginie; Lee, Sarah Hwa In; Chaul, Luíza Toubas; Corassin, Carlos Humberto; Barancelli, Giovana Verginia; Alves, Virgínia Farias; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes; Gram, Lone; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a severe foodborne disease. In Brazil, despite very few reported cases of listeriosis, the pathogen has been repeatedly isolated from dairies. This has led the government to implement specific legislation to reduce the hazard. Here, we determined the incidence of L. monocytogenes in five dairies and retail products in the Southeast and Midwest regions of Brazil over eight months. Of 437 samples, three samples (0.7%) from retail and only one sample (0.2%) from the dairies were positive for L. monocytogenes. Thus, the contamination rate was significantly reduced as compared to previous studies. MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used to determine if contamination was caused by new or persistent clones leading to the first MLST profile of L. monocytogenes from the Brazilian dairy industry. The processing environment isolate is of concern being a sequence-type (ST) 2, belonging to the lineage I responsible for the majority of listeriosis outbreaks. Also, ST3 and ST8 found in commercialized cheese have previously been reported in outbreaks. Despite the lower incidence, dairy products still pose a potential health risk and the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in dairies and retail products emphasize the need for continuous surveillance of this pathogen in the Brazilian dairy industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dispensing of vitamin products by retail pharmacies in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse Truter

    Survey) years.7 About 39% of US residents have used at least one multivitamin and ... The ATC Classification system is recommended by the. World Health ... Females in the 30 to 39-year age group were dispensed 21.95% of products ...

  12. The Complexity Uncertain Analysis about Three Differences Old and New Product Pricing Oligarch Retailers Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied some realistic recycle fields at present in China, such as some daily machinery and equipment, electronic products, and plastic products. Under such circumstance, three oligarch retailers are a common situation. In this paper, we model and analyze the game of three oligarch retailers in a closed-loop supply chain. The stability of the Nash equilibrium, the bifurcation and chaos phenomenon of the recycling price and new product quantity when retailers change its adjustment speed, the profit trends of the three retailers, and the power spectrum are studied. At last, we used the parameter adjustment and the variable state feedback control strategy for chaos control, and the chaos of the system is delayed effectively. For closed-loop supply chain research, the conclusions of the numerical simulation in this paper not only have realistic guiding significance, but also have theoretical reference value.

  13. Multiperiod Production and Ordering Policies for a Retailer-Led Supply Chain through Option Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Wan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates two groups of multiperiod production and ordering models with call and bidirectional option contracts for a two-party supply chain consisting of one followed supplier and one dominant retailer, respectively. Based on dynamic programming theory, we characterize the optimal policy structures for two partners in each period. We also provide an approximation for the corresponding policy parameters evaluation in two cases. Then, we investigate the impacts of different option contracts and the demand risk on the decisions and performances of two members. Our results suggest that, whether concerning call or bidirectional option contracts, the optimal policies for two members always follow a base stock type. When the price parameters are the same for different option contracts, the service levels of both the system and the retailer are higher with call option contracts than with bidirectional ones, whereas the retailer’s inventory risk is lower with bidirectional option contracts than with call ones. Under the same conditions stated above, call option contracts can always benefit the supplier, but not the retailer. Owing to the retailer’s dominant position, call option contracts are better choice for the supply chain if the option (exercise price is low (high, while bidirectional option contracts are more suitable choice for the supply chain if the option (exercise price is high (low. In addition, an increase in the demand risk would prompt the supplier to increase his production quantity and the retailer to reduce the initial firm order quantity, either with call or bidirectional option contracts.

  14. [Manual material handling risk assessment and ergonomic improvement in foodstuff retailing company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maso, S; Maccà, I; Simonetti, A; Scopa, P; Paruzzolo, P; Bonacci, A; Murgolo, I; Bartolucci, G B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and reduce the risk due to manual material handling in a company involved in the foodstuff retailing. The risk assessment was performed by NIOSH Variable Lifing Index in 13 different occupational conditions. As result the risk was present in any case, with VLI values ranging from 2.12 to 2.81. A good risk reduction has been accomplished correcting properly the most important multiplier involved in the computation of the revised NIOSH Lifting equation (lifting frequency and weight of heavier products). Even if the performed risk reduction has been significant, the residual risk is still higher than the level of acceptability.

  15. The Fashion Retail and the value creation with sustainable products: a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Alves Baptista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand how the development of sustainable products in Brazilian fashion retail businesses creates value for the companies themselves, society and the environment. A qualitative approach to multiple case study method investigates practices and processes at four companies from Rio de Janeiro State. The study collected primary information from direct observation and interviews with the firms’ directors, and secondary data from industry reports and other documents. Three overall dimensions of the study - environmental management, value creation and product development in fast fashion companies - encoded into seven categories, when considered in data crosssynthesis, elucidate the following conclusions: (1 the firms do not have economic, ethical and legal fields integrated view; (2 the companies do not believe that the fashion consumer market values environmental practices and thus not motivated to invest in practices and products; (3 a fragmented supply chain makes it difficult to control activities and appears as a major constraint to the development of sustainable products; (4 access to information on best environmental practices and tax incentives are important inductors’ mechanisms to leverage the development of sustainable products in the Brazilian fashion retail; (5 the development of strategic capabilities in pollution prevention area, management products and clean technology create value for the production chain.

  16. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - "silent" reformulation of retailer-brand food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-01-01

    Background Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier......’ sales data – enriched with data on products’ energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes...... in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. Results For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases...

  17. Understanding the online channel extension of traditional retailers: Online-offline and online-prototypical congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Chinese traditional retailers have turned to the multichannel forms by establishing their own online stores. When doing so, retail managers face a difficult choice between two online marketing orientations: “pursuit of ideal” (i.e. online-prototypical congruence orientation and “retention of tradition” (i.e. online-offline congruence orientation. To help managers make this choice, this study proposes a conceptual framework to illustrate how these two orientations affect retail store attitude when retail brand familiarity differs. The results indicate that both orientations can improve consumers’ retail store attitudes. When retail brand familiarity is low, the online stores of traditional retailers should balance both orientations in product selections and adopt “pursuit of ideal” in prices. When retail brand familiarity is high, “retention of tradition” should be applied in product selections and both orientations should be integrated in prices for gaining more positive change in retail store attitude.

  18. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Consumers’ Generations Attitudes Towards Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Products in Apparel Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan-Cristian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims to highlight Romanian and Slovak consumers’ attitudes towards purchasing of goods from retailers that strive a clear focus on environmental responsibility and environmental friendly practices in apparel, footwear and sportswear retail. By means of a quantitative research based on a questionnaire administered to consumers of international retail chains with operations in both countries, the authors highlight differences in their perceptions and attitudes for buying green apparel, footwear and sportswear. Whereas Millennials and Gen Xers consumers in Romania and Slovakia believe that international apparel, footwear and sportswear retailers are less concerned about environmentally responsible behavior and the need of selling green products, Baby Boomers are more sensitive to such aspects and carefully select retailers according to their green strategy. This research provides specific findings about attitudes of different consumers’ generations within two emerging European countries (Romania, Slovakia.

  19. Restrictions on the reimbursement policy with regard to retail marketing of medicinal products in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, the law of 12 May 2011 on the reimbursement of medicines, food products of special nutritional purpose and medicinal products, intended to tighten up the reimbursement system, came into force in Poland. The new legislative act has significantly altered the previous principles of retail marketing of products subject to publicly financed reimbursement. First of all, the prices of reimbursed products have been unified through the introduction of fixed margins and prices and a ban--completely unknown until now--on using free market sales practices. These regulations are intended to lead to the abolition of price competition and its replacement with competition as to the quality of services provided by pharmacies. At the same time, entities engaged in retail marketing of medicinal products have been imposed a number of new obligations and highly repressive penalties for failure to fulfill them. The paper analyzes the legislative changes and points out the consequences, both those which can already be seen and the predictable ones. The assumed priority and criterion of evaluation of the reimbursement policy in question is its impact on the functioning of pharmacies which, according to the premises of Polish pharmaceutical law, should play the role of public health protection institutions.

  20. Dynamic Game Behavior of Retailers Considering the Quality of Substitute Products Based on Delay Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Binshuo; Ma, Junhai

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road project, i.e. the Belt and Road (B&R), more goods will flow around the world. With this trading platform, people can buy products at relatively cheap prices, and it is easier for people to buy various goods. The quality and quantity of products thus attract more and more attention in the supply chains. This paper discusses the quantity decision by considering the product quality in parallel supply chains where two manufacturers produce substitute products and then sell them to their downstream retailers separately. In terms of the changing quantity, as well as the different quality, this paper establishes a dynamic game model to explore the dynamic behavior when the optimal profits of two retailers have been calculated. The dynamic behaviors of the system, such as stable region, bifurcation and chaos, strange attractors and the largest Lyapunov exponents (LLE) are analyzed. The effect of the quantity adjustment parameter on the stability of the supply chain system is investigated through numerical simulations. Furthermore, a dynamic game model is established based on the quality delay decision, to investigate the influence of the quality delay parameter on the dynamic game model and the profits. Finally, the optimal decisions are obtained and analyzed.

  1. Assessment of the results of the strategic orientation on regional and local products in food retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Pícha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess if there is a difference in food choice behaviour between regular customers of stores of the retail chain Terno and other consumers. Consequently, the paper aims to discover, if the strategy formulated by the consumer co-operative Jednota České Budějovice was a good strategy. The core of this strategy is the orientation on the region, local and regional food and food products and the co-operation with local small and medium suppliers. Another part of this strategy is also the permanent control of quality of these products and creation of the special private label – Quality food from our region. The consumer co-operative co-operates also with the regional grouping under another label – Tastes great. Southbohemian. The assessment is done by means of the analysis of a questionnaire survey that was done among consumers in the South Bohemia in 2011. The strongest factor differentiating customers of the retail chain TERNO from other consumer is the orientation on regional or local products, which explains about 41% of variability. Other differentiating factors are environment-friendly production and selling and quality of food. All these three factors explain in total 66.5% of variability of the data set.

  2. Pattern of pharmaceutical retailing of anti-diabetic products in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famuyiwa, O O

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four pharmacists in the city of Ibadan were surveyed through a self-administered structured questionnaire as to the extent of their involvement in the pharmaceutical retailing of antidiabetic products and their cost. Oral hypoglycemic agents especially, chlorpropamide (Diabenese) and glibenclamide (Daonil) were the most readily available drugs being obtainable from 21 (87.5%) pharmacies. Insulin was stocked regularly by only 14 (58.3%) of the pharmacists and insulin syringes and needles could be obtained from only 10 (41.6%) of the pharmacies. Among materials for urine testing, clinistix strip was the most readily available and fully one-third of the pharmacies did not stock any such material. The prices of all the products were disturbingly high and between 1983 and 1986 when retail prices were re-assessed, the cost of some materials had escalated by as much as 400%. Scarcity of antidiabetic products and their high cost pose serious challenges for those involved in the care of diabetic patients in Nigeria. Some suggestions have been made as to what steps both the government and the pharmaceutical industry can take in ensuring the availability of these life sustaining products for the increasingly large Nigerian diabetic population.

  3. Detection of Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat Products in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether Clostridium difficile was present in uncooked retail ground beef and ground pork products sold in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Using an alcohol treatment protocol and inoculation of cultures on C difficile Moxalactam Norfloxacin (CDMN, toxigenic C difficile was found in 6.3% of 48 meat samples. The C difficile isolates belonged to different pulsotypes, all of which had been previously isolated from the stool of Manitoba patients with C difficile disease. Because cooking of meat will not eradicate C difficile spores, this raises a concern regarding potential foodborne transmissibility of this organism.

  4. Innovation in retail: impact on creating a positive experience when buying fashion products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Vasiliu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in fashion retail is critical in order to ensure competitive advantage in a constantly evolving market, in terms of consumer expectations. The modern customer is mobile, permanently connected to the Internet, well-informed about international trends, mindful of the quality of products, but more price sensitive and less loyal to a brand. The shopping experience provided by retailers is a crucial factor in purchase decision, encompassing all these variables in a complex concept of exogenous variable. As retailers’ efforts to provide excellence in shopping experience are focused on operating costs and thus on the profit margins, it is important to consider and identify which are the most relevant variables that form the perception of excellence for Romanian customers, so that retailers can innovate according to their expectations. The purpose of this article was to highlight the role of innovation in creating a positive experience for consumers buying clothes, shoes and accessories. The approach was based on the conduct of exploratory research. The research ? represented by five original objectives and as many different working scenarios ? resulted in the identification of thematic outlined exploratory opinions, exploiting a first investigation of its kind in Romania, less Pearson coefficients used in the analysis of ordinal variables or hierarchical, but quickly assessed using SPSS, version 21. As a pioneering research emphasis was on identifying potential associations and quantified correlations and less on rigorous delimitation of exogenous or endogenous quality in general, leaving room for future studies, sharper and with a higher degree of representation. Thus, we could highlight some useful aspects of the investigated retailers, by the dominant character of interested customers’ opinions according to their volunteer responses. Consumers are accustomed to using the Internet to obtain information; they rarely express opinions on

  5. DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR RETAIL SHELF SPACE OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    B. RAMASESHAN; N. R. ACHUTHAN; R. COLLINSON

    2008-01-01

    Efficient allocation of shelf space and product assortment can significantly improve a retailer's profitability. This paper addresses the problem from the perspective of an independent franchise retailer. A Category Management Decision Support Tool (CMDST) is proposed that efficiently generates optimal shelf space allocations and product assortments by using the existing scarce resources, resulting in increased profitability. CMDST utilizes two practical integrated category management models ...

  6. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rzewuska, Katarzyna; Stoś, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Korsak, Dorota

    2011-06-01

    In 2007 and 2008, a monitoring study was carried out in Poland to examine the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in raw and cooked chicken products available on the retail market. A total of 912 samples were tested: 443 samples of raw chicken meat, 146 samples of giblets, and 323 ready-to-eat poultry products (150 samples of spit-roasted chicken, 56 samples of smoked chicken, and 117 samples of pâté and cold meats). A high level of contamination of raw chicken meat (51.7% of samples) and chicken giblets (47.3% of samples) was detected. However, thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were found in only 1.2% of the ready-to-eat poultry products.

  7. The impact of retailers own brand Fair Trade products on developing countries producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, L. K.; Vieira, L. M.; Ferreira, G. C.

    Fair Trade certification allows small producers to access international markets and to add value to their products. The Fair-Trade Labelling Organisation certification body (FLOCERT) is responsible for organising and transferring technical information from the consumer market to producers...... in developing countries. Fair trade certification reduces the complexity of transactions and enables producers to adhere to the certification system. FLOCERT exercises governance power in production sites to meet demand by the enforcement of the standards not dissimilar to what happens in global value chains....... Large food retailers have changed practices in the agro-food sector and opened markets to small producers from developing countries. Nevertheless, results reveal that certification imparts in high entry barriers in the form of the need for formal producers' associations, minimum export capacity...

  8. Identified best environmental management practices to improve the energy performance of the retail trade sector in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez-Martos, Jose-Luis; Styles, David; Schoenberger, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The retail trade sector has been identified as a target sector for the development of sectoral reference documents on best environmental management practices under the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme. This paper focuses on the important energy-related needs in retailers' stores such as for food refrigeration and lighting, as well as heating, ventilation and air conditioning of the building. For the definition of best environmental management practices in the European framework, frontrunner retailers have been identified as those retailers integrating energy minimization and saving measures as standard practice systematically across stores. These best performers also integrate a comprehensive monitoring system in the energy management of every store or building belonging to the company, enabling the rapid identification of energy saving opportunities. An integrative approach is needed to define how best practices should be implemented in combination to optimize energy management within stores: building aspects such as insulation of the building envelope or the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system, should be optimized in combination with best options for refrigeration in food retailers. Refrigeration systems are responsible for half of the final energy use in stores and of their carbon footprint. Natural refrigerants, heat recovery from the condensation stage and covering of display cases are measures with high environmental benefits to reduce the impact of refrigeration. Finally, practices for lighting, as optimal lighting strategies, and the integration of renewable energy sources in overall zero energy building concepts can save considerable amounts of fossil energy, reduce the carbon footprint and produce significant cost-savings in the long term. - highlights: • There is a high energy performance improvement potential of the retail trade sector. • We propose techniques with a high performance level and applied by frontrunners. • We identified

  9. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as â100 percent organicâ or âorganic.â... Information § 205.308 Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are...

  11. Productivity Improvement for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    organization and the likely positions or types of work that will be required of the engineer in the future. There should therefore, be a balance of...Mall, P., Improving Total Productivity, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978. Miller, R.B., Participative Management-Quality of Worklife and Job Enrichment...Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1977. Hughes Aircraft Co., R & D Productivity-Study Report, Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City , California, 1974

  12. Design of Product Placement Layout In Retail Shop Using Market Basket Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Surjandari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Retailing is an industry with high level of competition.  It is a customer-based industry which depends on how it could be aware of what the customers' needs and requirements are. One technique most used in supermarkets is the mix merchandise. The purpose of this paper is to identify associated products, which then grouped in mix merchandise with the use of market basket analysis. This association between products then will be applied in the design layout of the product in the supermarket. The process of identifying the related products bought together in one transaction is done by using data mining  technique. Apriori algorithm is chosen as a method in the data mining process. Using WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis software, the association rule between products is calculated. The results found five category association rules and fourteen sub-category association rules. These associations then will be interpreted as confidence and support to become consideration for the product layout.

  13. Retail and wholesale buying behaviour for two different food products in six Eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    1999-01-01

    1. The structure of retailing and wholesaling in Eastern Europe has been significantly altered by privatisation and liberalisation in the transition from central planning to market economy. Furthermore, many western retailers faced with saturated domestic markets have expanded into Eastern Europe in an attempt to take advantage of the opportunities created by the liberalisation. 2. The aim of this study is to increase our knowledge of retail and wholesale buying behaviour in Eastern Europe by...

  14. ENERGY STAR® Retail Products Platform (RPP): Conditions and Considerations in Evaluating Market Transformation Programs and Evaluation Guidance for RPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [U.S. Department of Energy; Banwell, Peter [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2018-01-09

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a resource for state utility regulators, utilities, the evaluation community and regulatory stakeholders on methods to measure energy savings from the ENERGY STAR Retail Products Platform (link is external). The guidelines outlined in this document were developed by evaluation experts.

  15. The Influence of Muslim Consumers Perception Toward Halal Food Product on Attitude and Purchase Intention at Retail Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, Teguh

    2013-01-01

    The existence of halal food product which presented in the POP displays of halal product at retail stores become increasingly important for Muslim consumers, particularly Muslim consumers who living in a country where the majority of the population are not Muslim.Consequently, the purpose of this research is to study and try to investigate and also clarify how Muslim consumers perception toward the variables (safety, religious values, health and exclusivity) of halal food product which presen...

  16. A conjoint analysis of food retailers' buying behaviour of fish products in 14 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    This paper reports some initial findings from a large project on retail buying behaviour in 17 European countries. The study demonstrates that the traditional four P's as influencing factors are losing relative importance to some hitherto neglec factors, which retail suppliers have to take into a...

  17. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified..., Labeling, and Market Information § 205.309 Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as “made with organic (specified ingredients or...

  18. Developing global competitiveness by assessing organized retail productivity using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrotra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to find out (using Regression, Data Envelopment Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis how efficiently some of the top organized India retail companies have been performing relative to each other over the years and thereby to identify factors that help increase the efficiency of a retail company. The study was conducted based on the analysis of data downloaded from Prowess database for five Indian retail companies for the time period 2000-2007. The paper is deemed to be helpful to enable Indian retail companies gain a competitive advantage in the face of increased competition being faced in the emerging organized retail sector in India. The findings brought forth Advertising and Marketing expenses as the significant performance determining factors to be paid attention to.

  19. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Consumers’ Generations Attitudes Towards Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Products in Apparel Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Dabija Dan-Cristian; Chebeň Juraj; Lančarič Drahoslav

    2017-01-01

    Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims...

  20. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Cancian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  1. The State of Online Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Nabil; Rajan, Murli; Sebastianelli, Rose

    2003-01-01

    Benchmarks online retailing transactions against critical factors that impact online retailing. Findings suggest several areas that e-retailers should target for improvement, including the speed of home page loading, ability to translate into multiple languages, capabilities of search engines, security policies display, payment options, minimum…

  2. Soybean and lactose in meat products and preparations sampled at retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Piccolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies and intolerances have increased during the last decades and regulatory authorities have taken different measures to prevent and manage consumers’ adverse reactions, including correct labelling of foods. Aim of this work was to search for soybean and lactose in meat products and meat preparations taken from retail in some provinces of Campania Region (Southern Italy and to evaluate the food labels compliance with Regulation (EU n.1169/2011. Soybean and lactose were searched using commercial kits in n. 58 samples of meat products produced in or distributed by 19 establishments, and in n. 55 samples of meat products and n. 8 of meat preparations produced in 21 plants. All samples were selected on the basis of the absence of any information on the labels about the presence of the two searched allergens, with the exception of n. 5 samples tested for lactose. Traces of soybean were detected in 50 out of the 58 examined samples, at concentrations up to 0.93 mg kg–1. Only two samples contained levels above the detection limit of 0.31 mg kg–1. Lactose levels ranging from 0.11 to 2.95 g/100 g, i.e. above the detection limit, were found in all the tested samples (n. 63. The results of the present research underline the need for careful controls and planning by operators as part of the self-control plans, and deserve attention from the competent authorities considering not only the consumers’ health but also the great attention media pay to regulations providing consumers with information on food.

  3. Warehousing performance improvement using Frazelle Model and per group benchmarking: A case study in retail warehouse in Yogyakarta and Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusrini Elisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse performance management has an important role in improving logistic's business activities. Good warehouse management could increase profit, time delivery, quality and customer service. This study is conducted to assess performance of retail warehouses in some supermarket located in Central Java and Yogyakarta. Performance improvement is proposed base on the warehouse measurement using Frazelle model (2002, that measure on five indicators, namely Financial, Productivity, Utility, Quality and Cycle time along five business process in warehousing, i.e. Receiving, Put Away, Storage, Order picking and shipping. In order to obtain more precise performance, the indicators are weighted using Analytic Hierarchy Analysis (AHP method. Then, warehouse performance are measured and final score is determined using SNORM method. From this study, it is found the final score of each warehouse and opportunity to improve warehouse performance using peer group benchmarking

  4. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  5. STUDY ON RETAIL BRAND AWARENESS IN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, together with other behavioural indicators (sympathy, trust, image, satisfaction or loyalty, is one of the main vectors that has an essential contribution to the outline of brand equity in general and to that of retail brand, in particular. The perception upon these indicators must be taken into consideration by production, service or retail companies in order to be able to identify their position on target markets, and in order to be able to create an adequate strategy that would help them reach the desired positioning. The aim of this paper is, on one hand, to reveal both the dimensions of brand awareness, and the relationship between these and consumers brand perception and, on the other hand, to offer a suitable instrument to measure awareness level of various retail chains. Questioning of almost 4.000 consumers indicates a significant awareness of the retailers that have been on the selected market for a longer period of time.

  6. Salmonella in pork retail outlets and dissemination of its pulsotypes through pig production chain in Chiang Mai and surrounding areas, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tansiricharoenkul, Kankanok; Buawiratlert, Tunyamai; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Angchokchatchawal, Kittipat; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Yano, Terdsak; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Rojanasatien, Suvichai; Tadee, Pakpoom

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. is acknowledged as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Contaminated pork consumption is considered as a main cause of human salmonellosis. In the later stage of the pig production chain, poor hygiene and unsuitable storage conditions in retail outlets are considered to be key factors linked to the risk of Salmonella infection. The purpose of current study, which was conducted throughout April 2014 to September 2014, was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork sold at the retail stage in wet markets and supermarkets in the Chiang Mai urban area of Thailand. Additionally, clonal relations between Salmonella strains described in this study and those identified in earlier study from the same geographical area were considered. It is provided as a means of contributing to current knowledge regarding Salmonella epidemiology with an ultimate aim of improved food security and consumer protection in this region. From a total of 82 pork samples analyzed in this study, 41% were positive for Salmonella, with prevalence of 73.2% from wet markets (n=30/41) and 9.8% from supermarkets (n=4/41). Twelve Salmonella serovars were identified, S. Rissen being the most commonly encountered. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was highest for ampicillin and tetracycline (53%), followed by streptomycin (44%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subsequent geographical distribution analysis indicated that the clonal Salmonella strains originated from multiple sources had been spread over a wide area. The existence of a common pig supply chain "farm-slaughterhouse-retail" transmission route is inferred. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella along the entire production chain is needed to reduce contamination loads and to ensure the safety of pork products for end consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Supply chain coordination under retail competition and advertising dependent demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain coordination as an effective tool plays an important role in improving supply chain performance. In this article, a two-level supply chain with one manufacturer and two retailers is considered. The order quantity that retailers are faced with depends on the amount of advertisements and both retailers compete with each other on advertising. The Stackelberg game is established between manufacturer and retailers such that the manufacturer and the retailers play the leader and the follower roles, respectively. First, the manufacturer determines the wholesale prices for retailers and instead, the retailers determine the order quantity and advertising level, simultaneously. The manufacturer produces one kind of product and delivers it to retailers before the beginning of selling season. Retailers can affect the order quantity regarding the demand dependency on advertising level through the incurred costs from the advertising. In this paper, we show that we can achieve the desirable supply chain coordination through using combined quantity discount and advertising cost sharing contracts. We also consider the win-win situation for all the members of the supply chain.

  8. Can A Food Retailer-Based Healthier Foods Initiative Improve The Nutrient Profile Of US Packaged Food Purchases? A Case Study Of Walmart, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthier foods initiatives (HFIs) by national food retailers offer an opportunity to improve the nutritional profile of packaged food purchases (PFPS). Using a longitudinal dataset of US household PFPs, with methods to account for selectivity of shopping at a specific retailer, we modeled the effect of Walmart’s HFI using counterfactual simulations to examine observed vs. expected changes in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs. From 2000 to 2013, Walmart PFPs showed major declines in energy, sodium, and sugar density, as well as declines in sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy, beyond trends at similar retailers. However, post-HFI declines were similar to what we expected based on pre-HFI trends, suggesting that these changes were not attributable to Walmart’s HFI. These results suggest that food retailer-based HFIs may not be sufficient to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. PMID:26526244

  9. Comparative LCA of Alternative Scenarios for Waste Treatment: The Case of Food Waste Production by the Mass-Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mondello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is one of the most important issues taken into account by the European Union due to its negative environmental, economic and social impacts. The treatment of food waste through recycling processes represents a solution for food waste minimisation. Concerning, in particular, the retail sector, it is necessary to define strategies for retail-oriented sustainable food waste management. The aim of this study is to compare the potential environmental impacts related to five scenarios (landfill, incineration, composting, anaerobic digestion and bioconversion through insects for the disposal/treatment of food waste produced by a mass retail company operating in Messina (Italy through the application of the Life Cycle Assessment method, in order to find the best treatment solution. Results based on the treatment of a functional unit of 1 tonne of food waste show that the bioconversion scenario represents the most preferable solution considering all of the impact categories analysed through the CML 2 baseline 2000 method, except for Global Warming, for which higher environmental performances are connected to the anaerobic digestion scenario. The incineration and the bioconversion scenarios show the highest environmental benefits when the production of alternative energy sources and valuable materials is evaluated through the inclusion of the avoided productions in the analysis.

  10. A socio-technical approach to improving retail energy efficiency behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Sian; Waterson, Patrick; Dainty, Andrew; Daniels, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the UK retail sector has made a significant contribution to societal responses on carbon reduction. We provide a novel and timely examination of environmental sustainability from a systems perspective, exploring how energy-related technologies and strategies are incorporated into organisational life. We use a longitudinal case study approach, looking at behavioural energy efficiency from within one of the UK's leading retailers. Our data covers a two-year period, with qualitative data from a total of 131 participants gathered using phased interviews and focus groups. We introduce an adapted socio-technical framework approach in order to describe an existing organisational behavioural strategy to support retail energy efficiency. Our findings point to crucial socio-technical and goal-setting factors which both impede and/or enable energy efficient behaviours, these include: tensions linked to store level perception of energy management goals; an emphasis on the importance of technology for underpinning change processes; and, the need for feedback and incentives to support the completion of energy-related tasks. We also describe the evolution of a practical operational intervention designed to address issues raised in our findings. Our study provides fresh insights into how sustainable workplace behaviours can be achieved and sustained over time. Secondly, we discuss in detail a set of issues arising from goal conflict in the workplace; these include the development of a practical energy management strategy to facilitate secondary organisational goals through job redesign. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. How tobacco companies ensure prime placement of their advertising and products in stores: interviews with retailers about tobacco company incentive programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Clark, P I; Haladjian, H H

    2003-06-01

    About 81% of cigarette manufacturers' marketing expenditures in the USA is spent to promote cigarette sales in stores. Relatively little is known about how these expenditures help the manufacturers achieve their marketing goals in stores. A better understanding of how tobacco companies influence the retail environment would help researchers and tobacco control activists to monitor industry presence in stores. To describe the types of tobacco company incentive programmes offered to retailers, how these programmes impact the store environments, and possible visual indicators of retailer participation in incentive programmes. In-depth qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 29 tobacco retailers were conducted in 2001. USA. The types and requirements of retailer incentive programmes provided by tobacco companies, and how participation in a programme alters their stores. The retailers provided insights into how tobacco companies convey promotional allowances and special offers to them and how these incentives shape the retail environment. Retailers noted that tobacco companies exert substantial control over their stores by requiring placement of products in the most visible locations, and of specific amounts and types of advertising in prime locations in the store. Retailers also described how tobacco companies reduce prices by offering them volume based discounts, "buy two, get one free" specials, and "buying down" the price of existing product. Tobacco companies are concentrating their marketing dollars at the point-of-sale to the extent that the store is their primary communication channel with customers. As a result, all shoppers regardless of age or smoking status are exposed to pro-smoking messages. Given the financial resources spent by tobacco companies in stores, this venue warrants closer scrutiny by researchers and tobacco control advocates.

  12. Effect of oxygen level on the oxidative stability of two different retail pork products stored using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Ann Tørngren, Mari; Christensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and the oxidative stability of pork steaks and of pork mince were investigated during 2, 5 and 7 days of refrigerated storage using oxygen (O2) levels of 0%, 20%, 50% and 80% in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Steaks stored during 7 days were not affected by an increase i......%) O2 MAP. The results show that fresh pork products are affected differently by the MAP O2 concentration and strongly indicate that optimisation of MAP based on the retail product type would be of considerable benefit to their oxidative stability....

  13. Lighting up your product! : The influence of retail lighting on product perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, M.E.H.; Pont, S.C.; Schoormans, J.P.L.

    2017-01-01

    This research is one of the first attempts to shed light on the influence of different lighting characteristics on consumer product perception. Study 1 looked at the influence of light level (i.e., brightness) and color temperature on consumer perception of a sneaker and a toaster. Study 2 assessed

  14. Sustainability labelling as a challenge to legitimacy: spillover effects of organic Fairtrade coffee on consumer perceptions of mainstream products and retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anagnostou, A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to better understand the impact of norm-challenging products on consumers’ perceptions of mainstream products and retailers. By showing that sustainable market offerings are feasible, products with sustainability labels, such as Fairtrade and organic products, implicitly

  15. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF CATALOGUE RETAILING

    OpenAIRE

    Heri Bezic; Katija Vojvodic; Zrinka Gjanovic

    2012-01-01

    Today`s retail environment is characterised by new, store and non-store, retailing formats, a wide range of new products, the use of new information and communication technologies and, consequently, the changing customer behaviour. Catalogue retailing is a non-store retail format that has a long history in North America and Europe. Previous research revealed that the primary shopping motives related to catalogue retailing were convenience oriented. Other motives included recreational orientat...

  16. « Retail Brand Equity: A PLS Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Jara

    2009-01-01

    In large retail stores, France is characterized by market saturation and even a decline of several retail concepts such as variety stores, or even supermarkets and hypermarkets (Cliquet, 2000). This situation leads to a fierce competition and raises questions which affect marketing strategies of French retail companies. Given the legal context, the French retailers can increase sales through retail brands which appear to be henceforth among the most effective marketing tools. Indeed, product ...

  17. The Impact of Brand Personality on Product Sale through Brand Equity (Case Study: Cosmetic Products Retailers)

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi; Ali Kazemi; Nima Soltani Rad

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, understanding the reasons of brand personality attraction for consumers, the determination of its effect on consumer behavior and brand equity has been an area of interest to researchers of consumer behavior. Certainly, this concept can be important for sellers of product that are on the other side of the purchase & sale equation and the results can be effective in promoting their brands. In order to reach this purpose, this study has analyzed the influence of brand personali...

  18. Improved wound care product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care product comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care product,and a methodof treating an infected wound....

  19. Can a community of practice equip public health nutritionists to work with remote retail to improve the food supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Stacey; Ferguson, Megan; Brimblecombe, Julie; Palermo, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence on practice of a community of practice designed for public health nutritionists who work with retail stores in remote Indigenous communities in Australia. A descriptive evaluation of the community of practice participants' perspectives using the most significant change technique and individual in-depth interviews was conducted. Data were analysed using thematic and content analysis with a focus on answering the evaluation questions. Twelve public health nutritionists employed to work with remote Indigenous community stores were involved. The community of practice was reported to develop competence through problem solving, knowledge sharing and building confidence for innovative work. Building competence was achieved through accessible and timely professional support. Sharing stories and being encouraged to reflect on practice was valued and supported the participant's practice. Working to improve the food supply is challenging but there is value in being supported by like-minded colleagues to stay focused on this work. Most participants perceived the community of practice intervention to be an effective strategy to improve their work. These findings provide evidence of a promising intervention for building the public health nutrition workforce in remote Indigenous community store retail settings.

  20. Improving pension product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops a pension product that can be oered in a dened contribution pension scheme as a deferred or immediate life annuity. The product is characterized by linking an individual's savings directly to market returns and differs from the products available in the market by being adjusted...... to individual needs. We argue that the asset allocation, the payout prole and the insured sum should not only depend on the plan member's age (or time left to retirement), nor only on her risk preferences, but should capture personal and economical characteristics. Among other factors, we include current wealth...... are optimal under the expected utility function of retirement benets given the individual's characteristics. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization approaches: stochastic optimal control and multistage stochastic programming. The rst method is common in nancial and actuarial...

  1. Ethics in retail business

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRUŠKA, Leoš

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current state of ethics in retail establishments and to find suitable solutions to improve the situation. In literary part I described the important concepts of business ethics, moral, ethics, social responsibility. I also dealt with business ethics and implementation of codes of conduct, which I explained in more detail in the practical part. In the practical part, I examined the ethical codes of retail companies and for better illustrative there is a ...

  2. Nutritional quality of new food products released into the Australian retail food market in 2015 - is the food industry part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Sheree A; Olstad, Dana Lee; Woods, Julie L

    2018-02-07

    Food manufacturers have made public statements and voluntary commitments, such as the Healthier Australia Commitment (HAC), to improve the nutritional quality of foods. However, limited information about the nutritional quality or healthfulness of new products makes it difficult to determine if manufacturers are doing this. The purpose of this study was to assess the healthfulness of new food products released into the Australian retail market in 2015, and whether those companies who were HAC members released healthier food options compared to non-HAC members. This cross-sectional study assessed the healthfulness of all new retail food products launched in Australia in 2015 as indexed in Mintel's Global New Products Database. Healthfulness was assessed using three classification schemes: Healthy Choices Framework Victoria, Australian Dietary Guidelines and NOVA Food Classification System. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests described and compared the number and proportions of new foods falling within each of the food classification schemes' categories for companies that were and were not HAC members. In 2015, 4143 new food products were launched into the Australian market. The majority of new products were classified in each schemes' least healthy category (i.e. red, discretionary and ultra-processed). Fruits and vegetables represented just 3% of new products. HAC members launched a significantly greater proportion of foods classified as red (59% vs 51% for members and non-members, respectively) discretionary (79% vs 61%), and ultra-processed (94% vs 81%), and significantly fewer were classified as green (8% vs 15%), core foods (18% vs 36%) and minimally processed (0% vs 6%) (all p food market in 2015 were classified in each of three schemes' least healthy categories. A greater proportion of new products launched by companies that publicly committed to improve the nutritional quality of their products were unhealthy, and a lower proportion were healthy

  3. Alcohol tax pass-through across the product and price range: do retailers treat cheap alcohol differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Chakraborty, Ratula; Dobson, Paul W; Seaton, Jonathan S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Guo, Yelan; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    Effective use of alcohol duty to reduce consumption and harm depends partly on retailers passing duty increases on to consumers via price increases, also known as 'pass-through'. The aim of this analysis is to provide evidence of UK excise duty and sales tax (VAT) pass-through rates for alcohol products at different price points. March 2008 to August 2011, United Kingdom. Panel data quantile regression estimating the effects of three duty changes, two VAT changes and one combined duty and VAT change on UK alcohol prices, using product-level supermarket price data for 254 alcohol products available weekly. Products were analysed in four categories: beers, ciders/ready to drink (RTDs), spirits and wines. Within all four categories there exists considerable heterogeneity in the level of duty pass-through for cheaper versus expensive products. Price increases for the cheapest 15% of products fall below duty rises (undershifting), while products sold above the median price are overshifted (price increases are higher than duty increases). The level of undershifting is greatest for beer [0.85 (0.79, 0.92)] and spirits [0.86 (0.83, 0.89)]. Undershifting affects approximately 67% of total beer sales and 38% of total spirits sales. Alcohol retailers in the United Kingdom appear to respond to increases in alcohol tax by undershifting their cheaper products (raising prices below the level of the tax increase) and overshifting their more expensive products (raising prices beyond the level of the tax increase). This is likely to impact negatively on tax policy effectiveness, because high-risk groups favour cheaper alcohol and undershifting is likely to produce smaller consumption reductions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; Castro, R; Posada-Izquierdo, G D; Valero, A; Carrasco, E; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2010-10-01

    Cooked meat ready-to-eat products are recognized to be contaminated during slicing which, in the last years, has been associated with several outbreaks. This work aimed to find out possible relation between the hygiene practice taking place at retail point during slicing of cooked meat products in small and medium-sized establishments (SMEs) and large-sized establishments (LEs) and the microbiological quality of sliced cooked meat products. For that, a checklist was drawn up and filled in based on scoring handling practice during slicing in different establishments in Cordoba (Southern Spain). In addition, sliced cooked meats were analyzed for different microbiological indicators and investigated for the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results indicated that SMEs showed a more deficient handling practices compared to LEs. In spite of these differences, microbiological counts indicated similar microbiological quality in cooked meat samples for both types of establishments. On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Positive samples for Listeria spp. were found in establishments which showed acceptable hygiene levels, though contamination could be associated to the lack of exclusiveness of slicers at retail points. Moreover, Listeria spp presence could not be statistically linked to any microbiological parameters; however, it was observed that seasonality influenced significantly (Phygiene practices, focused specially on SMEs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The retailing of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T; Wong, J

    1984-01-01

    A number of striking parallels between recent developments in health care marketing and changes in the retailing industry exist. The authors have compared retailing paradigms to the area on health care marketing so strategists in hospitals and other health care institutions can gain insight from these parallels. Many of the same economic, demographic, technological and lifestyle forces may be at work in both the health care and retail markets. While the services or products offered in health care are radically different from those of conventional retail markets, the manner in which the products and services are positioned, priced or distributed is surprisingly similar.

  6. Improving employee productivity through improved health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Serxner, Seth

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate productivity-related savings associated with employee participation in health promotion programs. Propensity score weighting and multiple regression techniques were used to estimate savings. These techniques were adjusted for demographic and health status differences between participants who engaged in one or more telephonic health management programs and nonparticipants who were eligible for but did not engage in these programs. Employees who participated in a program and successfully improved their health care or lifestyle showed significant improvements in lost work time. These employees saved an average of $353 per person per year. This reflects about 10.3 hours in additional productive time annually, compared with similar, but nonparticipating employees. Participating in health promotion programs can help improve productivity levels among employees and save money for their employers.

  7. A review of the incidence and transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat products in retail and food service environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianou, Alexandra; Sofos, John N

    2007-09-01

    Contamination of ready-to-eat products with Listeria monocytogenes may occur at several stages before consumption. Accessibility to the public and relatively limited control interventions at retail and food service establishments (compared with the processing sector of the food industry) and the lack of a specific regulatory framework increase the likelihood of introduction of this pathogen into some foods in these establishments. This review is a compilation of available information on the incidence and transmission of L. monocytogenes through ready-to-eat products at the retail and food service level. The potential transmission of L. monocytogenes within retail and food service operations has been indicated in epidemiological investigations and by survey data. Potential sources of the organism in these operations include the environment, food handlers, and incoming raw ingredients or processed products that have become contaminated after the lethality treatment at the manufacturing facility. L. monocytogenes may be present at retail and food service establishments in various ready-to-eat products, both prepackaged and those packaged in the store, and occasionally at high concentrations. This issue dictates the need for development and application of effective control measures, and potential control approaches are discussed here. Good manufacturing practices, appropriate cleaning, sanitation and hygiene programs, and temperature control required for prevention or inhibition of growth of the pathogen to high levels are critical for control of L. monocytogenes in the retail and food service sector. A comprehensive food safety system designed to be functional in retail and food service operations and based on the philosophy of hazard analysis and critical control point systems and a series of sound prerequisite programs can provide effective control of L. monocytogenes in these environments. However, competent delivery of food safety education and training to retail

  8. Improved protocol for isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat and use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis for the typing of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Williams, Aretha; Zhou, Ping; Samadpour, Mansour

    2013-10-01

    To improve the detection of Campylobacter spp. in retail broiler meat, a reference method (R subsamples) based on the enrichment of 25 g of meat in Bolton broth at 42°C under microaerobiosis was compared with an alternative method (A subsamples) consisting in the rinsing of meat samples for 30s in buffered peptone water with antimicrobials with incubation at 42°C under aerobiosis. One piece of meat (breasts, tenderloins and thighs) was rinse in experiment 1 (A1) and two pieces in experiment 2 (A2). Campylobacter spp. were isolated on agar plates and identified by PCR. Retail samples in Alabama had less prevalence (P ≤ 0.05) than samples in the state of Washington. The percentage of positive was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in A than in R subsamples and rinsing two pieces of meat yielded the highest percentage of positive subsamples. R subsamples showed variations in the prevalence by product. However, A subsamples had similar prevalence of positives among products compare to the result from reference method. More Campylobacter coli isolates were collected in A2 subsamples. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used as subtyping method to study the genome similarity among the isolates from all methods. A larger diversity of isolates were detected by PFGE in A2 subsamples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggested that the initial bacterial populations of the meat samples impact the final bacterial profile after enrichment. Rinsing broiler meats was less time consuming, required less sample preparation and was more sensitive than the reference method for the isolation of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. This new method could help with epidemiological and intervention studies to control Campylobacter spp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  10. Improving Productivity via QWL Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Marion T.; Hansen, Gary B.

    1980-01-01

    Gives a brief history of productivity improvement legislation in the United States and of the development and demise of the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life (QWL). Describes existing productivity and QWL centers, including their locations, scope, services, and activities, and urges greater support at the federal level.…

  11. A step-by-step approach to improve data quality when using commercial business lists to characterize retail food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly K; Zenk, Shannon N; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Powell, Lisa M; Matthews, Stephen A; Horoi, Irina

    2017-01-07

    Food environment characterization in health studies often requires data on the location of food stores and restaurants. While commercial business lists are commonly used as data sources for such studies, current literature provides little guidance on how to use validation study results to make decisions on which commercial business list to use and how to maximize the accuracy of those lists. Using data from a retrospective cohort study [Weight And Veterans' Environments Study (WAVES)], we (a) explain how validity and bias information from existing validation studies (count accuracy, classification accuracy, locational accuracy, as well as potential bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, economic characteristics, and urbanicity) were used to determine which commercial business listing to purchase for retail food outlet data and (b) describe the methods used to maximize the quality of the data and results of this approach. We developed data improvement methods based on existing validation studies. These methods included purchasing records from commercial business lists (InfoUSA and Dun and Bradstreet) based on store/restaurant names as well as standard industrial classification (SIC) codes, reclassifying records by store type, improving geographic accuracy of records, and deduplicating records. We examined the impact of these procedures on food outlet counts in US census tracts. After cleaning and deduplicating, our strategy resulted in a 17.5% reduction in the count of food stores that were valid from those purchased from InfoUSA and 5.6% reduction in valid counts of restaurants purchased from Dun and Bradstreet. Locational accuracy was improved for 7.5% of records by applying street addresses of subsequent years to records with post-office (PO) box addresses. In total, up to 83% of US census tracts annually experienced a change (either positive or negative) in the count of retail food outlets between the initial purchase and the final dataset. Our study

  12. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyer...

  13. Improving Channel Coordination Through Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Lal

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role of franchising arrangements in improving coordination between channel members. In particular we focus on two elements of the franchising contract, namely, the royalty structure and the monitoring technology. We begin with a simple analysis where a manufacturer distributes its product through a retailer and the retail demand is affected by the retail price and the service provided by the retailer. In this context we show that neither royalty payments nor moni...

  14. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

    2010-01-01

    Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

  15. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-11-08

    In California, some 40,000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies) that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers) were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing this made them more likely to shop at the store. Most

  16. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In California, some 40, 000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. Methods We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies) that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. Results For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers) were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing this made them more likely to

  17. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In California, some 40, 000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. Methods We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. Results For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing

  18. Strategy of image management in retail shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soče Kraljević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A sound positioning in consumers’ mind, along with strong promotion support, brought many retail shops to the top. This is mostly thanks to the image created in the consumers’ mind. A retail shop’s image may but need not conform to reality. Image often looks like a cliché. It overstates certain elements of the shop while simply omitting others. That is exactly why image is of great importance and often crucial to consumer behavior. This paper aims at determining the impact of image on customer behavior in the course of decision making about shopping and choosing a particular retail shop. Image is a significant factor of success of every company, hence also of a retail shops. It is a relatively strong value and a component of creating competitive advantage. But if we do not pay sufficient attention to image, it can become counterproductive. Instead to, like an additional value helps creating and maintaining the advantage in competition and realization of business aims, transforms into a limiting factor. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the elements of image that are of greatest importance to customers. Research has shown that customers choose the retail shop first and after that products and brands within this shop. When it comes to the supermarket, as a kind of retail shop, research has shown that two out of three shopping decisions are made by the customer on the spot, that is, without previous planning. That practically means that we can influence customers with different sales techniques. The paper suggests different strategies of image management for supermarkets and conventional shops. For supermarkets it is the “widest assortment” strategy, while for conventional shops the strategy is that of a “selected group of products“. Improvements to research methods will enable getting more information about customer behavior, while pressures of increased competition in the business environment will force retailers to get

  19. Retail sales of scheduled listed chemical products; self-certification of regulated sellers of scheduled listed chemical products. Interim final rule with request for comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-26

    In March 2006, the President signed the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, which establishes new requirements for retail sales of over-the-counter (nonprescription) products containing the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine. The three chemicals can be used to manufacture methamphetamine illegally. DEA is promulgating this rule to incorporate the statutory provisions and make its regulations consistent with the new requirements. This action establishes daily and 30-day limits on the sales of scheduled listed chemical products to individuals and requires recordkeeping on most sales.

  20. Retailer Stackelberg game in a supply chain with pricing and service decisions and simple price discount contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Asadi, Hashem; Sadeghian, Ramin; Sahebi, Hadi

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the Retailer Stackelberg game in a supply chain consisting of two manufacturers and one retailer where they compete simultaneously under three factors including price, service and simple price discount contract. It is assumed that the second manufacturer provides service directly to his customers, and the retailer provides service for the first product's customers, while the retailer buys the first product under price discount from the first manufacturer. The analysis of the optimal equilibrium solutions and the results of the numerical examples show that if a manufacturer chooses the appropriate range of discount rate, he will gain more profit than when there is no discount given to the retailer. This situation can be considered as an effective tool for the coordination of the first manufacturer and the retailer to offer discount by manufacturer and to provide the service by the retailer. We obtain equilibrium solution of Retailer Stackelberg game and analyze the numerical examples under two cases: a) the manufacturers sell their products to the retailer without price discount contract. b) The first manufacturer sells his products to the retailer with the simple price discount contract. The preliminary results show that the service and the price discount contract can improve the performance of supply chain.

  1. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongjian

    1987-01-01

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  2. Leveraging management information in improving call centre productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manthisana Mosese

    2016-04-01

    Objectives: This research explored the use of management information and its impact on two fundamental functions namely, improving productivity without compromising the quality of service, in the call centre of a well-known South African fashion retailer, Edcon. Following the implementation of the call centre technology project the research set out to determine how Edcon can transform their call centre to improve productivity and customer service through effective utilisation of their management information. Method: Internal documents and reports were analysed to provide the basis of evaluation between the measures of productivity prior to and post the implementation of a technology project at Edcon’s call centre. Semi-structured in-depth and group interviews were conducted to establish the importance and use of management information in improving productivity and customer service. Results: The results indicated that the availability of management information has indeed contributed to improved efficiency at the Edcon call centre. Although literature claims that there is a correlation between a call centre technology upgrade and improvement in performance, evident in the return on investment being realised within a year or two of implementation, it fell beyond the scope of this study to investigate the return on investment for Edcon’s call centre. Conclusion: Although Edcon has begun realising benefits in improved productivity in their call centre from their available management information, information will continue to play a crucial role in supporting management with informed decisions that will improve the call centre operations. [pdf to follow

  3. Various Ready-to-Eat Products from Retail Stores Linked to Occurrence of Diverse Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Fuangpaiboon, Janejira; Turner, Matthew P; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2016-02-01

    Listeriosis outbreaks have been associated with a variety of foods. This study investigated the prevalence and diversity of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat (RTE) products and evaluated the performance of a rapid detection method, the 3M molecular detection assay for L. monocytogenes (MDA-LM), for detection of L. monocytogenes. Assay results were compared with those obtained using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard culture method described in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Products (n = 200) were purchased from retail stores: 122 aquatic products, 22 products of animal origin, 18 vegetarian products, 15 deli meat products, 13 salad and vegetable products, 4 desserts, 2 egg-based products, and 4 other products. L. monocytogenes prevalence was comparable with both methods. Overall, 15 (7.5%) of 200 samples were positive for L. monocytogenes: 3% of aquatic products, 1.5% of products of animal origin, 1% of vegetarian products, and 2% of deli meat products. Compared with the standard culture method, the sensitivity, specificity, and the accuracy of the MDA-LM were 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 58.4 to 97.7%), 98.4% (95% confidence interval, 95.0 to 99.6%), and 97.5%, respectively. Using the culture-based method, 18 (9%) of 200 samples were positive for Listeria species other than L. monocytogenes. Listeria isolates from these samples were classified into nine allelic types (ATs). The majority of isolates were classified as ATs 58 and 74, which were identified as L. monocytogenes lineages I and IV, respectively. Listeria innocua and Listeria welshimeri also were represented by isolates of multiple ATs. The MDA-LM is a rapid and reliable technique for detecting L. monocytogenes in various RTE foods. Further study is needed to develop effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination in RTE foods.

  4. [Survey of the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products sold in retail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langiano, E; Lanni, L; Atrei, P; De Vito, E

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the presence of Listeria spp and particularly of L. monocytogenes in bovine, pork and poultry meats sold by retail in supermarkets and butchers in the city of Cassino. The sensibility to the antibiotics mostly used in the veterinary practice has been tested on the isolated strains. The different species of Listeria have shown a considerable variation of isolation based on the meat's typology and on the different store's provenance. Moreover our results show greater degree of contamination than the data currently available the Italian literature. In our study poultry meat is the most contaminated one. We can assert that omissions and poor caring errors in the manipulation and conservation of meat expose the customer to an even higher risk of infection.

  5. Most Campylobacter subtypes from sporadic infections can be found in retail poultry products and food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Fussing, V.; Engberg, J.

    2006-01-01

    subtypes that were also found in food as opposed to 31% of travel-associated infections. The results showed differences in the various Campylobacter populations, e.g. the Danish population as reflected in the domestically acquired infections and the Danish-produced food was more uniform than the isolates......The subtypes of Campylobacter isolates from human infections in two Danish counties were compared to isolates from retail food samples and faecal samples from chickens, pigs and cattle. During a 1-year period, 1285 Campylobacter isolates from these sources were typed by two methods: 'Penner' heat......-stable serotyping and automated ribotyping (RiboPrinting). C. jejuni was the dominating species, but C. coli was more prevalent among food and chicken isolates (16%) compared to human isolates (4%). In total, 356 different combined sero-ribotypes (subtypes) were found. A large subtype overlap was seen between human...

  6. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley S; Kennedy, Ryan D; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-08-31

    Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to identify tobacco retailers to

  7. Retailer brand architecture and consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Which assortment of products and services should retailers offer consumers? Which foods can be deleted from the present assortment? Which brands do retailers have to have in their assortment to satisfy consumer demands? These are a few of the questions food retailers continuously strive to answer...

  8. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Beeson, Tracy A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  9. The concept of retailer value: A means-end chain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Bove, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    value'. Subsequently this concept has been used in an empirical study of retail chains in Denmark and Germany. The study was designed as a means-end chain project on the buying of pork and fish products by retail buyers. The results revealed that it is possible to analyse the hierarchy between...... attributes, consequences and values sought by retail buyers when buying for their companies, and to identify relevant differences across countries and products. These differences across the value maps are used to propose ideas for how manufacturers of pork and fish products can improve their marketing......It is a well-established fact that creating value for customers is a very important source of competitive advantage. However, no researchers have yet analysed or defined what is meant by retailer value. In this study, building on a solid theoretical back-ground, we propose a definition of 'retailer...

  10. Retail Services and Pricing Decisions in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zheng Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and social responsibilities have led many manufacturers to used products recovery. Meanwhile, many manufacturers nowadays sell products via indirect retailer channels and direct Internet channels. This paper models a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain to improve the sustainability of products. We apply the two-stage optimization technique and the Nash game to examine the impacts of the retail services and the degree of customer loyalty to the retail channel on the pricing of players in a centralized and a decentralized dual-channel supply chain. Our results show that the retail services have a great impact on the manufacturer and the retailer’s pricing strategies. We also compare the differences of pricing strategies between a centralized and a decentralized dual-channel supply chain and suggest the optimal retail services and pricing decisions for the players in the supply chain.

  11. Effect of production system, supermarket and purchase date on the vitamin D content of eggs at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Kliem, Kirsty E; Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D I

    2017-04-15

    The vitamin D content of eggs from three retail outlets was measured over five months to examine the effects of production system (organic vs. free range vs. indoor), supermarket and purchase date on the concentration of vitamin D 3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . Results demonstrated a higher vitamin D 3 concentration in free range (57.2±3.1μg/kg) and organic (57.2±3.2μg/kg) compared with indoor (40.2±3.1μg/kg) (Psupermarket for both forms of vitamin D may relate to some incorrect labelling. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 was higher (P<0.05) in July and September than in August . The results indicate variations in vitamin D concentrations in eggs from different sources, thus highlighting the importance of accurate labelling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  13. A conjoint analysis of food retailers' buying behaviour of fish and cheese products in 14 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports some initial findings from a large project on retail buying behaviour in 17 European countries. The study de-mon-strates that the traditional four P's as influencing factors are losing relative importance to some hitherto neglec factors, which retail suppliers have to take into...... into account, and which could give rise to special problems for small and medium-sized sup-pliers. A segmentation of retail chains based on these new factors is also made....

  14. Retailer Stackelberg game in a supply chain with pricing and service decisions and simple price discount contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Sadeghian, Ramin; Sahebi, Hadi

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the Retailer Stackelberg game in a supply chain consisting of two manufacturers and one retailer where they compete simultaneously under three factors including price, service and simple price discount contract. It is assumed that the second manufacturer provides service directly to his customers, and the retailer provides service for the first product’s customers, while the retailer buys the first product under price discount from the first manufacturer. The analysis of the optimal equilibrium solutions and the results of the numerical examples show that if a manufacturer chooses the appropriate range of discount rate, he will gain more profit than when there is no discount given to the retailer. This situation can be considered as an effective tool for the coordination of the first manufacturer and the retailer to offer discount by manufacturer and to provide the service by the retailer. We obtain equilibrium solution of Retailer Stackelberg game and analyze the numerical examples under two cases: a) the manufacturers sell their products to the retailer without price discount contract. b) The first manufacturer sells his products to the retailer with the simple price discount contract. The preliminary results show that the service and the price discount contract can improve the performance of supply chain. PMID:29649315

  15. Retailer licensing and tobacco display compliance: are some retailers more likely to flout regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Rae; Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Walsberger, Scott; Tang, Anita; Chapman, Kathy; Egger, Sam

    2017-03-01

    To assess retailer compliance with a licensing scheme requiring tobacco retailers to list their business details with the government, to examine whether listed retailers are more likely to comply with a point-of-sale (POS) display ban and other in-store retailing laws and to explore variations in compliance between different retailer types and locations. An audit of 1739 retailers in New South Wales, Australia, was used to assess compliance with tobacco retailing legislation. Auditors actively searched for and audited unlisted retailers and all listed retailers in 122 metropolitan and regional postcodes. Multivariate generalised linear regression models were used to examine associations between compliance and retailer type, remoteness and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic level, proportion of population under 18 years and proportion born in Australia). One unlisted tobacco retailer was identified for every 12.6 listed tobacco retailers. Unlisted retailers were significantly more likely than listed retailers to breach in-store retailing laws (plaws was only 73.4%. Retailers in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had lower compliance than those in high socioeconomic areas. Some tobacco retailers did not list their business details with the government as required, even though there was no financial cost to do so. Unlisted retailers were more likely to violate in-store regulations. The results suggest licensing schemes can be useful for providing a list of retailers, thus facilitating enforcement, but require a system to search for, and respond to, unlisted/unlicensed retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Increase of retail competition and its impact in the industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Motta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the industries were stronger than retailers,  due  to  its strong  brands  and  multinational  range, while  retailers  were small national companies. A research made with ten executives from the industries showed that in recent years this situation has changed. Pressured for the retailers, now stronger, the industries are having fall in its results.  In order to improve this situation, industries reviewed the marketing mix, customizing it to retailers needs. Products and prices were developed for each channel and trade marketing investments increased its values. Organizational structure was adapted to this approach, and industries implemented trade marketing.

  17. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  18. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  19. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  20. Retail innovation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commerce, as an important industry of any national economy, is a socially important complex of activities, which has to correspond to the general level of development and civilization of the community it serves. Considering this, the essential priorities commercial activity will turn to are represented by the increased power that consumers get through better informing, the assurance of a better connection between retail and innovation, more equitable and sustainable commercial relationships along the purchase chain, the improvement of retail services accessibility, the creation of a better work environment through the better correlation between employers’ needs and employers’ competences. Retail is permanently adapting to the changing market conditions, remaining a high competitive sector. Modern buyer is hurried, more mobile, better informed; more concerned about health, environment, comfort and aesthetics issues, more demanding in terms of quality and level of customization. Population migration, urbanization, and ageing, its absolute decrease, the average households size reduction, are all demographic trends to which retail must provide an appropriate answer. Retail businesses operating costs tend to increase, while buyers are warier under the impact of the global financial crisis, which will put additional pressure on profit margins.

  1. Global production chains in the fast fashion sector, transports and logistics: the case of the Spanish retailer Inditex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Escalona Orcao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent geographical analyses of global production networks in different economic sectors demonstrate that little attention has been paid to the logistical and transport systems through which networks are fully integrated. This paper on Inditex, a leading firm in the fast fashion sector, addresses this lack of attention and analyses how transport and logistics fit into the production network and provide the firm with one of its most notable competitive advantages. We describe the network of shops and manufacturing, present the principles of the logistical model, and provide details of the procedures applied for the functional and geographical integration of the chain of production of Zara, the best known of the company’s 11 brands. The analysis highlights the growing use of air transport in supplying chains of high-fashion-content products manufactured in distant countries and in the distribution of garments to distant markets. The conclusion of the paper is that logistics and transport strategies must be considered because the geographical configuration of global fashion networks increasingly depends on how rapidly the major fashion retailers are able to meet the needs of time-sensitive customers and the appropriate organisational and logistical strategies they adopt for that purpose.

  2. PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION OF INNOVATION IN RETAIL TRADE (CASE STUDY APPLIED TO BRICOLAGE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Al.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the specific features of bricolage retail trade (which is part of the ‘Do It Yourself’ – DYI commercial format, this study aims to clarify the concept and structure of innovation in this field, and to present how innovation is perceived and communicated by sellers to customers. The initial literature review is followed by the design of a three-stage research, which consists of a variety of methods, techniques and tools of selective market research. The objectives are to establish the main forms of innovation in DIY trade, the perception and communication of innovation to the customer, and the internal marketing techniques which could deliver higher marketing advantages to the seller. This paper covers only the results of a pilot research conducted via qualitative exploratory research among 13 managers of the bricolage stores in Bucharest. Five hypotheses were tested and confirmed through research. All premises are ready for the scientific construction of research tools for the second and third stages of the study.

  3. EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES OF COFFEE RETAILING IN ASPECT OF MARKET ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı ÖZTOPÇU

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coffee retailers are trying to improve both their products and services and to increase their market share. Companies are both competing and developing different strategies such as issues production, R&D, business model, customers, and innovations. The aim of this study is to determine the competitive strategies in the coffee retailing aspect of the market economy. For this purpose, firstly, in this sector, the major competitors, suppliers, and customers were researched and the general structure of the sector was determined. Secondly, size of the global market, industry, and demand growth rate and the future status of the coffee retail industry were determined. Finally, the bargaining power of customers and suppliers of the sector were evaluated. According to the evaluation obtained, it was understood that coffee retailing is an attractive, large and dynamic sector. In the analysis according to the study of Porter’s five force model, important information was obtained for coffee retailing.

  4. Effectiveness of sanitizing products on controlling selected pathogen surrogates on retail deli slicers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeater, Michael C; Kirsch, Katie R; Taylor, T Matthew; Mitchell, Jeff; Osburn, Wesley N

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the efficacy of quaternary ammonium chloride-based wet foam (WF) and dry foam (DF) sanitizer systems (600 ppm) for reducing Listeria innocua (a nonpathogenic surrogate of Listeria monocytogenes) or a 100.0 μg/ml rifampin-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (a nonpathogenic surrogate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) on niche and transfer point areas of an unwashed retail deli slicer as compared with traditional chlorine (Cl(-)) treatment (200 ppm) and (ii) to compare sanitizer surface contact times (10 and 15 min) for pathogen surrogate control. Turkey frankfurter slurries inoculated with L. innocua or Salmonella Typhimurium were used to inoculate seven high-risk sites on a commercial slicer. After 30 min of bacterial attachment, slicers were dry wiped to remove excess food matter, followed by a randomly assigned sanitizer treatment. Surviving pathogen surrogate cells were enumerated on modified Oxford's agar not containing antimicrobic supplement (L. innocua) or on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 100 μg/ml rifampin (Salmonella Typhimurium LT2). Replicate-specific L. innocua and Salmonella Typhimurium reductions were calculated as log CFU per square centimeter of control minus log CFU per square centimeter of enumerated survivors for each site. For both organisms, all sanitizer treatments differed from each other, with Cl(-) producing the least reduction and WF the greatest reduction. A significant (P < 0.05) site-by-treatment interaction was observed. The results of the study indicate that quaternary ammonium chloride sanitizers (600 ppm) applied by both WF and DF were more effective at reducing L. innocua and Salmonella Typhimurium than a traditional Cl sanitizer (200 ppm) on unwashed slicer surfaces.

  5. Analysis of Employee Engagement to Improve the Performance of Retail Risk Group PT Bank Mandiri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseto, Artody; Hubeis, Aida Vitayala; Sukandar, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, every company requires their employees have a bound sense to their company. It's called engagement. Also have that expectation, PT Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk, Bank with the largest assets in Indonesia. PT Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk expect which employee engagement can improve the performance such as financial, service, and production…

  6. Spatial competition for biogas production using insights from retail location models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Birkin, M.; Clarke, G.

    2014-01-01

    production sector. Through a two-step approach by combining a location-allocation model with a production constrained spatial interaction model, this paper addresses the dual problem of determining optimal location and production capacity. What-if scenarios, in combination with the strategic economic...

  7. Barriers to retail marketing of renewable energy products in an energy-rich province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haner, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Personal experiences in attempting to market photovoltaics and other renewable energy products in Alberta, a province rich in energy sources, are recounted as part of an exploration of ways to help industry to develop strategies that will advance the acceptance of renewable energy products, particularly in areas of the world that are not concerned about energy supply. Social acceptability, emphasis on a healthy and convenient lifestyle associated with renewable energy products, practical, user-friendly products, and competitive prices, are some of the key elements in successfully marketing renewable energy products

  8. Recent trends in the dispensing of 90-day-supply prescriptions at retail pharmacies: implications for improved convenience and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Joshua N; Girdish, Charmaine

    2011-03-01

    Mail-service pharmacies offer consumers the convenience of prescriptions filled with a 90-day supply of medication. Unlike mail-service pharmacies, retail pharmacies traditionally dispensed maintenance medication prescriptions with a 30-day supply. However, the retail landscape changed in May 2008 with Walmart's announcement of an extension of its $4 Prescription Program to include 90-day-supply prescriptions. To evaluate recent changes in access to and use of 90-day-supply maintenance medications dispensed via retail pharmacy. As of the first quarter of 2007, the proportion of retail-dispensed maintenance medications with a 90-day supply (compared with all maintenance prescriptions dispensed) among Medicare Part D plans, self-insured employers, and private health plans was 5.1%, 5.1%, and 5.0%, respectively. As of December 2009, this ratio had risen to 8.0% for Medicare plans and 8.1% for commercial health plans; the ratio among employers had risen more modestly to 6.1%. Of particular interest and importance, the proportion increased similarly for brand and for generic medications. There has been substantial growth in 90-day prescriptions dispensed via retail pharmacy, a trend that is likely to continue as more insurance providers adopt compatible benefit designs. It is important to continue monitoring these trends and to identify opportunities to rigorously evaluate their impact on medication adherence and healthcare costs.

  9. Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania following community, retail sector and health facility interventions -- a user perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrist Brigit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACCESS programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. Between 2004 and 2008 the programme implemented a social marketing campaign for improved treatment-seeking. To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO was created in Tanzania in 2006. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu in 2007 and subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on understanding and treatment of malaria was studied in rural Tanzania. The data also enabled an investigation of the determinants of access to treatment. Methods Three treatment-seeking surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006 and 2008 in the rural areas of the Ifakara demographic surveillance system (DSS and in Ifakara town. Each survey included approximately 150 people who had suffered a fever case in the previous 14 days. Results Treatment-seeking and awareness of malaria was already high at baseline, but various improvements were seen between 2004 and 2008, namely: better understanding causes of malaria (from 62% to 84%; an increase in health facility attendance as first treatment option for patients older than five years (27% to 52%; higher treatment coverage with anti-malarials (86% to 96% and more timely use of anti-malarials (80% to 93-97% treatments taken within 24 hrs. Unfortunately, the change of treatment policy led to a low availability of ALu in the private sector and, therefore, to a drop in the proportion of patients taking a recommended malaria treatment (85% to 53%. The availability of outlets (health facilities or drug shops is the most important determinant of whether patients receive prompt and effective treatment, whereas affordability and accessibility contribute to a lesser extent. Conclusions An

  10. Optimal Retail Price Model for Partial Consignment to Multiple Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the product pricing decision-making problem under a consignment stock policy in a two-level supply chain composed of one supplier and multiple retailers. The effects of the supplier’s wholesale prices and its partial inventory cost absorption of the retail prices of retailers with different market shares are investigated. In the partial product consignment model this paper proposes, the seller and the retailers each absorb part of the inventory costs. This model also provides general solutions for the complete product consignment and the traditional policy that adopts no product consignment. In other words, both the complete consignment and nonconsignment models are extensions of the proposed model (i.e., special cases. Research results indicated that the optimal retail price must be between 1/2 (50% and 2/3 (66.67% times the upper limit of the gross profit. This study also explored the results and influence of parameter variations on optimal retail price in the model.

  11. The Influence of Organic Product Classification On Charitable Contributions Embedded in Retail Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levens Michael

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on embedding direct charitable contributions into purchase transactions through increasing product price has revealed mutual benefits for charitable organisations and for-profit companies. This process is referred to as the embedded premium (EP. The potential for this type of mutually beneficial cause marketing has been shown to apply to a wide range of products. The fastest growing product classification in the United States, organic products generally cost more than their non-organic alternatives. The basis of this research is to examine if organic products enhance the utility of EP offerings. Eight different organic and non-organic food products are presented in a 64-block, single choice set design to a national sample of consumers with choice options between current market price and current market price plus 5% price premium with entire premium going directly to charity. The results of the research indicate that organic products with EP were, on an average, chosen almost five percentage points less frequently than similar EP choices involving non-organic products.

  12. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem chemistry

  13. TENDENCIES OF INTERNATIONALIZATION IN RETAILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies took advantage of internationalization as early as in the seventies and eighties of the last century, whereas retail companies have used these chances not before the last few years in order to improve access to resources, to increase sales and to extend activities to external markets. Once a retail company has decided to penetrate a foreign market they must be aware of the unfamiliar working of external environment that they cannot control. Even the world’s leading retailers make mistakes when approaching markets they do not understand properly.

  14. Leveraging Digital Asset Management (DAM) in a Finnish retail corporation : A case study on the current state and future vision of Kesko Corporations’ marketing and content production.

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    This case study analyses how rich media content (digital assets) is created, stored, shared and managed at a Finnish retail company – Kesko Corporation. The study aims to identify the benefits and possible disadvantages of centralizing management and production of these digital assets into a Digital Asset Management (DAM) system. My main research question is: Are there achievable content enhancements that the introduction of a centralized DAM system might bring to Kesko Corporation's marketin...

  15. Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

    2004-01-01

    As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce.

  16. E-commerce and retail in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project was to study the marketing and strategy of the China's largest electric commercial enterprises JD.com, and the small-to-medium-sized retail company, Wuhan Da Shi Trade Company Ltd. In order to find the weakness of e-commerce and make a plan for the chosen partner company to improve their strategy. The improvement tasks are moving their emphasis from low-end electronic products to high-end electronic products and focusing more on value-added services than pro...

  17. Manufacturer and retailer brands in food retail assortments: Notes from a shopping trip across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    and perform a variety of activities and services, which provide added value in the eyes of consumers (Burt 2000). In this connection, branding is becoming increasingly important, as food retailers develop their own brands within and across product categories. Many retailers are attempting to cultivate...... an overall brand identity in order to protect and identify their market offering (Burt & Sparks 2002). The assortment of products food retailers offer typically includes manufacturer brands, re-tailer brands and generic or unbranded products. In recent years, increasing competition in food retailing has made...... retailers is discussed. Then, the findings from a shopping trip across Europe are presented. Finally, a discussion of the findings is provided and it is briefly considered how the findings of this study were used as input for a study of consumer perceptions of the brand architectures of food retailers...

  18. Supply chain integration in the product return process: A study of consumer electronics retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynand Mostert

    2017-07-01

    Contribution: Academically, this study expands the literature on supply chain integration in an unexplored context. For managers, this study identifies various reverse logistics integration barriers and details what practices and strategies improve the probability of successful integration efforts.

  19. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  20. Frequency distributions of Escherichia coli in the confectionery products offered in retail market in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Rezaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raw ingredients used in confectionary carry high risk of infection with Escherichia coli. Since confectionaries are offered in the market in quite varied forms and types and there is a great difference in the sanitary status of the confectionaries, this study aimed at evaluation of E.coli   frequency distribution in different types of confectionery products in Isfahan market. In addition, the effect of moisture content, products category and the sanitary level of the confectionaries as well as product types (Industrially or traditionally produced on the contamination level were studied. Materials and methods: A total of 200 samples were randomly collected from confectioneries in Isfahan city through simple random sampling method. Preparation and dilution procedures were conducted under sterile conditions. Samples were cultured on EMB agar medium. Later, some of the positive isolates were randomly selected and confirmed by TSI and IMVIC test. Data analysis was performed using descriptive indices. Also, one way ANOVA and LSD test or independent t test were applied to determine the statistically significant difference between the mean E.coli cell numbers in the categorized groups of sweets. Results: It was found that 19% of the total tested samples were contaminated with E.coli strains. The mean, median and maximum of contamination were (35±.5, (0 and (3.4 CFU/gr, respectively. Moisture content, products category and being traditionally or industrially produced have significant effects on the level of contamination; while, the sanitary status of the traditional confectionaries as graded in this study has no impact on the average E.coli cell count. Discussion and conclusion: Regarding the microbial quality, at least about 25% of the sweets in the market do not meet the national standards of confectionary products. Implementation of strict hygiene regulation in the traditional confectionaries is in need to provide the public with

  1. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes...... of these pathogens on raw broiler meat products from different producers were examined. Results Out of 312 broiler meat product samples examined, 46.8% were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was identified in 51.4% and Campylobacter coli in 37.7% of positive samples. Campylobacter jejuni...

  2. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in butter from United Kingdom production, retail, and catering premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, H C; Little, C L; Elson, R; Greenwood, M; Grant, K A; McLauchlin, J

    2006-07-01

    Two recent listeriosis outbreaks involving butter prompted this first cross-sectional study on the prevalence, levels, and types of Listeria species in 3229 samples of butter from production, retail, and catering premises in the United Kingdom during May and June 2004. When the criteria of the Microbiological Guidelines were used, 99.4% of samples were found to be of satisfactory microbiological quality, 0.5% were of acceptable quality, and 0.1% were of unsatisfactory quality as a result of high levels (>100 CFU/g) of Listeria spp. The butter samples with Listeria spp. present at more than 100 CFU/g were negative for L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was detected in 0.4% (n=13) of samples, all at levels of less than 10 CFU/g, and were therefore of acceptable quality. Butter was contaminated more frequently with Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, when packed in plastic tubs, when in pack sizes of 500 g or less, when stored or displayed above 8 degrees C, when a hazard analysis system was not in place, and when the manager had received no food hygiene training. This study demonstrates that although butter is regarded as a low-risk product, it may provide an environment for the persistence and growth of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes. The control of L. monocytogenes in food processing and supply systems is critical in order to minimize the potential for this bacterium to be present in foods at the point of consumption at levels hazardous to health.

  3. Regulating Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotions in the Retail Environment: A Roadmap for States and Localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tamara; Hoefges, Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendments to federal law and a burgeoning body of research have intensified public health officials' interest in reducing youth initiation of tobacco use, including by regulating the time, place, or manner of tobacco product advertising at the point of sale. This article analyzes legal obstacles to various strategies for reducing youth initiation. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  4. Leader-follower Game in VMI System with Limited Production Capacity Considering Wholesale and Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Yu (Yugang); L. Liang (Liming); G.Q. Huang (George)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractVMI (Vendor Managed Inventory) is a widely used cooperative inventory policy in supply chains in which each enterprise has its autonomy in pricing. This paper discusses a leader-follower Stackelberg game in a VMI supply chain where the manufacturer, as a leader, produces a single product

  5. Evaluation of employee training in retail business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stehlíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological development and growing competition on the market asks for continuous improvement of knowledge and skills of employees, not only for securing their work places but also for increasing the companies’ competitiveness and economic development of the society. Company education is one of the main instruments, how the enterprises can improve their position in the market. The main criterion of success in business are in present especially employees’ skills. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the most important topics, which are used for improving skills and working outcomes of employees in retail and wholesale branch. Their possibility for getting feedback was also commented and controllability was further checked. When we summarize all findings, the most important competencies of workers in retail and warehouse business are qualification (shopping skills and knowledge of products, behaviour (obliging attitude to customers, ability to compliment the customer of his/her choice, working reaction (ability to do daily tasks quickly, safety, precisely and punctually, neatness (well and clean dressed employees, different groups of workers are distinguishable from each other. Next step after the list of main competences in retail and warehouse business was creating questionnaire, which should serve for researching quality of company education and its possibility to improvement. This questionnaire can serve for all companies in this field, which want or need to evaluate their company education.

  6. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were Prevalence of serotypes varied according to the type of meat product. These data are relevant for estimating the risks of listeriosis associated with consumption of meat products in Sao Paulo, and for establishing science-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing these risks, especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals.

  7. The buying behaviour of European retail buyers of pork products: The attributes, consequences and values sought by buyers of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Skytte, Hans

    2001-01-01

    It is a fact that creating value for customers - in the eyes of the customers - is a very important source of competitive advantage. So far no researchers have analysed or defined what retail chains mean by value. Therefore, we propose a definition of 'retailer value' built on a solid theoretical...

  8. Innovation in Downstream Fashion Retail Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    While product marketers and brand owners struggle to make new products, manufacturing processes and inbound logistics, innovation taking place in retail networks is often overlooked. Networks in retailing are comprised by varieties of single- and multi-brand stores, chains and departments stores...

  9. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    categories. An association between the frequency of a brand's appearance on lists and the amount of money spent on advertising the brand could not be found. A strong link between brands, prices and store names is revealed. Price in the majority of cases refers to brands rather than to product categories......The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product...

  10. Retail Tactical Planning: An Aligned Process?

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer , Heidi; Dukovska-Popovska , Iskra; Kiil , Kasper; Kaipia , Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Part 9: Quality in Production Management; International audience; This paper addresses tactical planning in retailing through a case study approach in one grocery retailing company. The issues are how tactical planning is conducted and how the different plans are connected. The study complements earlier retail planning studies by showing the sequence of planning phases and by studying the fragmented plans as a process. The master category planning is important and sets borders for the other p...

  11. Supply Chain Management in Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Plazibat; Sladana Brajevic

    2009-01-01

    Companies attempt to change their ways of doing business to find out new approaches to customers. Internationalization and consolidation of retailing turned traditional retail industry upside down. Fast and efficient operational models and new technologies constantly challenge retailers. The term supply chain management (SCM) is relatively new in the literature, appearing first in 1982. Supply chain is a set of institutions that moves goods from the point of production to the point of consump...

  12. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.

  13. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C., E-mail: siaq06@hotmail.com [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Corrêa, B. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  14. Gamma radiation treatment applied to microbial decontamination of products derived from eggs collected from the retail market in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, S.; Lui, C.C.; Corrêa, B.

    2017-01-01

    The quality of products derived from eggs depends on the quality of the raw material source and the industrial production. The contamination by fungi and bacteria can occur after exposure of the product in the retail market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of 60 samples of derived egg products and evaluate the effects of gamma radiation of cobalt-60, using the dose of 5 and 10 kGy, for decontamination of products collected in the retail market in the São Paulo city. The bacterial count was performed by the most probable number (MPN) and the fungal counts by serial dilution after plating surface. It was observed a decrease in the humidity and water activity (Aw) values of irradiated whole egg powder and white egg powder samples (p<0.05), but there was no significant change in the pH of the same samples irradiated with 5 and 10 kGy (p>0.05). In the powdered yolk the values of pH and Aw presented a significant difference (p<0.05), but no significant difference in the humidity values of 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples (p>0.05). Effective microbial sterilization of all products occurred at the dose of 10 kGy. (author)

  15. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  16. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley S; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. Objective The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Methods Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to

  17. The factors of retail brand positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the basic characteristics of a retail process as a function of the development of a successful brand. The retail network is continuously progressing, developing its abilities, successfully adjusting to its environment, and which is the most important it is persistently following wishes and needs of its consumers, and is satisfying them through high-quality offers. The retail network is relatively a new business structure, which has a great potential for competitive advantage. Once, prestigious partners to retailers, which have represented successful brands, they are often perceived to be stripped of rank and to come back at the level of common suppliers. Also, the suppliers' brands have no longer the position as they had, their status has decreased and their former power is gone, as a more superior, compared to the retailers. The inertia, enjoying 'the old glory', thinking in the manner of the same well-established formula as well as the inability to adjust themselves to the changes occurring among consumers have led the majority of the brands to be stuck in the past. The companies have to stop this increasing phenomenon, if they do not want to face in the near future, even more dramatic and more harmful consequences. Since the main aim of the research, performed in this work, was to determine the importance of retail brand positioning, the retail environment was analyzed, with special emphases on the consumer role in retail, and factors of successful retail activities. As a special aspect of successful retail, the environment of retail place was determined and within this, the effects of the retail places' atmosphere. For setting the retail strategy framework, the following basic entities are observed: product, price, exclusivity, quick response, information technology, price strategy, logistics and competitiveness. .

  18. Fashion retail innovation: about context, antecedents and outcome in technological change projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Fashion retail is recognised for its strong capabilities in product innovation, while also having the potential to improve the governance of technology-based process innovation. This chapter proposes a model perspective in management of technology and innovation, including special requirements...... of fashion retailing. In particular, this chapter discusses the context of fashion retailing understood as product and brand-based characteristics. A case study-based methodology is then used to guide an analysis of antecedents and (expected) outcome of fashion retail innovation. IT-based innovation...... dominates, but innovation is suggested to include a broader scope of technologies. Contrary to innovation maturity models, this chapter proposes to consider innovation as a continuous refinement between dynamic capabilities and absorptive capacity where technologies must be adapted to the special...

  19. Technological measures to improve automotive product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gladkov, V.; Kruglov, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the basic technological measures aimed at improving product quality in automotive industry. While paying due attention to solving organizational and technological problems, including the development of certification systems for production processes, it is also necessary to improve the technical standards of specific technologies, equipment and materials as they largely determine product quality. Special emphasis is given to the importance of improving the production of auto...

  20. Part-time labour in retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Thurik, Roy; Wijst, Nico

    1984-01-01

    textabstractRetailers have to deal with a fluctuating demand for labor. The use of part-time employees is one of their instruments to cope with these fluctuations. This article gives theoretical considerations regarding the use of part-time labor in the retail trade and empirical evidence regarding the influence of its use on labor productivity.

  1. Factory Gate Pricing: An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. le Blanc; F. Cruijssen (Frans); H.A. Fleuren; M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFactory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution. Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers. Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks

  2. Factory Gate Pricing : An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; de Koster, M.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Factory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution.Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers.Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks (the supplier

  3. The Effect of Private Brands on Business Performance in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the length of time many new retail features were developed, as a part of the total value chain (from manufacturer to customer. One such feature is: the development of private brands (private-label merchandise, private-label brands, store brands, house brands, own brands. Because of economic importance, both in theory and in practice, more complex stress was put on its research from various perspectives: the individual countries and regions - geographic, retail companies and formats (types of stores, product categories, as well as from the perspective of the perception of customers / consumers. In the context of it, special empirical emphasis was placed on the effects of private brands on business performance in retail, in particular, on cost, gross margin, profit, in other words, on profit indicators, such as: rate of profits from sales, profit rate of assets and the rate of profit of the share capital. Having such starting point, this paper attempts to, as thoroughly as it can, primarily empirically, investigate the impact of the development of private brands in the retail business performance. Using the latest available relevant data gathered from various scientific and professional sources, including well-known agencies that primarily conduct empirical analysis of private brands in some countries, companies and retail formats and product categories. The results should serve as a reliable basis for creating the most efficient strategy for managing the development of private brands in order to improve business performance in retail. This is especially true of the so-called "emerging market" private brands, as it is the case with Serbia.

  4. Research and Development Costs in Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and development expenses are crucial business performance factors for all enterprises, including trading companies. The size and structure of these expenses depend largely on the nature of a company’s activities. Due to such importance and specificity, the research focus of this article is on R&D expenses in trading companies with particular emphasis on retail companies. Their share in the sales revenue of trading companies is increasingly important and determined by many factors, such as innovation, size, location, product categories, and others. Due to varying intensity of influence of these and other factors, research and development expenses in commercial companies differ among countries, trade types (wholesale, retail, wholesale and retail, retail formats (store types and product categories. Understanding the factors of these differences is important for efficient management of research and development costs in trade, particularly retail companies. They are the focus of research in this work.

  5. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  6. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by adopting different strategies for meat production ... lates to some specific nutritional considerations. ... allowances were made for the correlated effects of any change. ... end of her reproductive life the sow is also usually sold for meat ... the experimental work. ... on pigs of up-to-date genotype fed on modern balanced diets.

  7. Proposals for enhancing tactical planning in grocery retailing with S&OP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Heidi Carin; Kiil, Kasper; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2018-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to explore tactical planning in grocery retailing and propose how process and integration mechanisms from sales and operations planning (S&OP) can enhance retail tactical planning.Design/methodology/approach-This work follows an explorative design with case...... studies from the grocery retailing industry in Finland, Norway, and the UK.Findings-The tactical planning process focuses on demand management and securing product availability from suppliers in order to reach sales targets. Less attention is directed toward balancing supply and demand or toward providing...... a single plan to guide company operations. Planning appeared to be functionally oriented with limited coordination between functional plans, but it did include external integration that improved forecast accuracy.Research limitations/implications-The study involves grocery retailer cases with variable...

  8. Improving productivity in the newsroom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Peter; Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    to both the news products, the news processes and the individual news producers. This article is based on newsroom observations, interviews with employees and content analyses, and it shows how the practice of journalism at DR News has been altered in several ways after the implementation of the news...... experience a deskilling and a decrease in autonomy, while others experience an increase in autonomy as part of a process of reskilling and multiskilling...

  9. Retail Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Price Model is a tool to estimate the average retail electricity prices - under both competitive and regulated market structures - using power sector projections and assumptions from the Energy Information Administration.

  10. Improving functional value of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  11. Developing a Retail Buying Model Based on the Use of Assortment Decision Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bahng, Youngjin

    2011-01-01

    As end-consumers are surrounded by a tremendous number of multi-channel retailers and their products, clothing retailers are exposed to numerous clothing samples with a variety of styles in various price ranges, offered by onshore and offshore manufacturers. Although manufacturers or vendors offer well-salable products, a retail business may not be successful in maximizing profits without a strategic retail buying planning process. The purpose of this study is to develop a retail buying mo...

  12. Interchange. Program Improvement Products Identified through Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This catalog lists exemplary field-based program improvement products identified by the Dissemination and Utilization Products and Services Program (D&U) at the National Center for Research in Vocational Education. It is designed to increase awareness of these products among vocational educators and to provide information about them that…

  13. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  14. Productivity quality improvement at UNC Geotech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The program to improve productivity is presented in a series of view graphs. Key elements of the program are: CEO leadership and commitment; measurable improvements; specific annual goals; system for sharing benefits of improvements; practical training for employees; and intent to institutionalize

  15. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze important aspects of buying behavior of food retailers, i.e., trade buyers' evaluation of product and vendor attributes, based on a number of background variables, when choosing a new supplier of an already well-known product category. The study encompassed...... the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...... attributes, and that it is possible to generalise retailers' buying behavior for different food products across countries, retail organizations, and buyers....

  16. Productivity improvement with green approach to palm oil factory productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matondang, N.

    2018-02-01

    The palm oil factory (POF) processes fresh fruit bunches into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) by products in the form of liquid and solid waste. One of the solid wastes produced in POF Tanjung Kasau is empty fruit bunches of palm oil (FBPO) which have been burned completely on incinerator tubes so that potentially produces pollutants that pollute the environment. If FBPO waste is managed properly, it will improve the productivity of the company. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to find out how far the increased productivity of the company can reduce their impact on the environment, if FBPO is used as raw material of liquid smoke. The productivity improvement approach is done by Green Productivity concept, by looking at three aspects: environmental, social and economical. Green Productivity aims to protect the environment simultaneously by increasing the productivity of the company. One way is to turn FBPO waste into liquid smoke product is by pyrolysis process. The results showed that turning FBPO solid waste into liquid smoke will increase productivity by 18.18%. Implementation of Green Productivity can improve productivity through the improvement of FBPO waste treatment process which has been done by perfect combustion by pyrolysis process so that waste can be minimized to create environment industry POF clean and friendly environment.

  17. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  18. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  19. Clustering and Joint Marketing in Retail Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlin, Nils

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the idea that retail trade stories might cluster with their competitors to pool marketing expenses and thereby increase their individual visibility among consumers. In a model which presumes such a marketing technology we derive some new comparative statics results. In a small/mega center we expect more competing stores in retail trade markets where products are heterogenous and consumers like to compare products before they buy, i.e. where people like to shop around. The ...

  20. Interaction among actors in retail market competition in malang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, B.; Ma'ruf, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    In several countries, traditional market lose in competition with supermarket. Supermarket has several advantages compared with traditional market. It can provides consumers with lower prices, offer more varieties of products and higher quality products than traditional retailers, has more comfortable place for shopping. In Malang City, the existence of traditional traders was threatened. In a competitive retail market, traditional traders get less protection from the Government of Malang Municipality. Massive demonstrations conducted by traditional traders along with other society elements unable to stem the rapid growth of modern retail. This paper focus on the interaction of Malang Municipality actors in the local retail market competition. How those interaction can make imbalance retail market competition. The author uses descriptive-analytic method with a qualitative approach in this work. As a result, the interaction tend to produce imbalance retail market competition. Interaction between legislative, executive, bureaucracy and mass media tend to support modern retail growth than traditional one.

  1. Improving animal productivity by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Perera, B.M.A.O.

    1995-01-01

    The IAEA and FAO have run a joint programme for 30 years to assist national agricultural research systems in member states to develop, test and apply nuclear and related techniques for improving the productivity of livestock. Applications of nuclear technologies for improving livestock productivity include: use of radioimmunoassay in animal nutrition researches, animal production, and evaluating feeding and management systems through reproductive performance in a field. Geographic coverage and the type of livestock studies are: grazing animals (cattle, goats and sheep) in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as buffalo production in Asia. 6 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  2. COMPLEX PROMOTIONSIN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yusupova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex promotions used by retailers introduce to the consumers several rules that must be satisfied in order to get some benefits and usually refer to multiple products (e.g. “buy two, get one free”. Rules of complex promotions can be quite sophisticated and complicated themselves. Since diversity of complex promotions limited only by marketers’ imagination we can observe broad variety of promotions’ rules and representa¬tions of those rules in retailers’ commercials. Such diversification makes no good for fellow scientist who’s trying to sort all type of promotions into the neatly organized classification. Although we can simple add every single set of rules offered by retailers as a separate form of sales promotion it seems not to be the best way of dealing with such a problem. The better way is to realize that mechanisms underlying that variety of promotions are basically the same, namely changes in demand or quantity demanded. Those two concepts alone provide powerful insight into classification of complex promotions and allow us to comprehend the variety of promotions offered by marketers nowadays.

  3. Sales Forecasting for Fashion Retailing Service Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting is crucial for many retail operations. It is especially critical for the fashion retailing service industry in which product demand is very volatile and product’s life cycle is short. This paper conducts a comprehensive literature review and selects a set of papers in the literature on fashion retail sales forecasting. The advantages and the drawbacks of different kinds of analytical methods for fashion retail sales forecasting are examined. The evolution of the respective forecasting methods over the past 15 years is revealed. Issues related to real-world applications of the fashion retail sales forecasting models and important future research directions are discussed.

  4. Improvement of Artistic Cast Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technology and organization of the artistic cast production. On the basis of the actual cast production system, the manufacturing process was shown, in particular sand–piece moulding, which is a very important process and a time-consuming part of the entire manufacture of the casts. The current state of the production process as well as the organization of the work and production technology were analysed with the use of methods and techniques of production improvement, the Lean Manufacturing concept and computer systems. The results of the analysis and studies were shown with use of schemes and graphs of the layout of the production resources, a flow chart of the production process, value stream mapping, and a costs table for the production and modernization of the moulding stage. The work has shown that there are possibilities to improve the artistic cast production system. This improvement leads to increased productivity, lower production costs of artistic casts and increased competitiveness of the foundry.

  5. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union

  6. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eva [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Rosenthal, Harald [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  7. Sears Home Improvement Products, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears Home Improvement Products, Inc. (the Company) is located in Longwood, Florida. The case involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in cities across Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, Georgia, Nevada.

  8. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries....... The study encompassed the retailers' buying behaviour for fish and cheese products. The results demonstrate that the traditional four P's are losing ground to some previously neglected attributes, which now demand consideration by retail suppliers of products and services and by researchers....

  9. Improving productivity in the gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, F F; Portsmouth, D J

    1982-05-01

    A study course designed to help BGC managers improve employee productivity reflected four main themes: evaluating quality and performance standards, examining new technologies, exploiting manpower resources, and improving usage of equipment and materials. Visiting speakers' contributions included 1) BGC's broad objectives and its methods of deploying financial resources effectively, 2) creativity as it relates to productivity and to the need for forecasts of risk and catastrophes, and 3) the paramount importance of management's commitment to formally stated objectives.

  10. Quality Improvement and Learning in Productive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Charles H. Fine

    1986-01-01

    Recent interest in product quality suggests that effort devoted to improving the quality of manufactured products may reduce unit costs. This conjecture---that improving quality can lower costs---challenges the traditional assumption that unit costs increase with increased quality assurance activities and has significant implications for quality management. By introducing the idea of a quality-based learning curve, this paper links the previously disjoint literatures of quality control and le...

  11. A Model to Improve the Quality Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan GOKKAYA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is to present a solution who can improve product qualityfollowing the idea: “Unlike people who have verbal skills, machines use "sign language"to communicate what hurts or what has invaded their system’. Recognizing the "signs"or symptoms that the machine conveys is a required skill for those who work withmachines and are responsible for their care and feeding. The acoustic behavior of technical products is predominantly defined in the design stage, although the acoustic characteristics of machine structures can be analyze and give a solution for the actual products and create a new generation of products. The paper describes the steps intechnological process for a product and the solution who will reduce the costs with the non-quality of product and improve the management quality.

  12. Measuring and improving productivity in general radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Michelle A; Miranda, Rafael; Johnson, C Daniel; Love, Peggy Sue

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a method of measuring productivity among general radiographers in a moderate-sized hospital and to improve and sustain productivity within that work area. The average times needed to perform the 13 most common examinations were measured. Performance of the various examinations was tracked and multiplied by the time allocated per procedure; this measure was divided by the length of the work shift to determine productivity. Productivity measures were shared among the work group, and decisions to improve productivity (eg, whether to fill open positions) were made by group members. Average time spent per examination type was calculated (range, 10 minutes to 1 hour 16 minutes). At baseline (February 2008), group productivity was 50%. Productivity increased during the first year of monitoring and was sustained through November 2009 (productivity range, 57%-63%). Yearly savings from not filling open positions were estimated to be $174,000. Productivity in a general radiology work area can be measured. Consensus among the work group helped increase productivity and assess progress. This methodology, if widely adopted, could be standardized and used to compare productivity across departments and institutions. Copyright © 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coordinating supplier-retailer using multiple common replenishment epochs with retailers’ choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwen Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Provide a coordination strategy using multiple common replenishment epochs (MCRE for a single-supplier multi-retailer supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The demand of a product occurs only with a group of heterogeneous and independent retailers with constant rates, whereas all their order requests are fulfilled by the supplier. The supplier decides a set of MCREs with general price and extra bonus to entice the retailers to join any one of the MCREs, or to let them remain with their original order time epochs. A retailer is willing to participate in a CRE as long as the retailer’s cost increase is within its tolerance. This paper provide a mixed integer programming to determine the MCRE strategies in order to minimize the total costs of the supplier. Findings: The results illustrate that MCRE model provided in the paper can generate a better replenishment coordination scheme than single CRE models. Practical implications: Replenishment coordination is one of the most important mechanisms to improve the efficiency in supply chains, e.g., chain convenience stores in the modern retail industry. Originality/value: This is a follow-up research on Joint Economic Lot Size (JELS models with a focus on multiple retailers with their replenishment coordination.

  14. Improvement of organic meat products nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Žilytė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research: to improve the food value indicators of cold-smoked organic meat and implement the quality requirements, which are raised for a national meat products of the company X. To answer the purpose it has been created a new recipe for cold-smoked sausage and cold-smoked minced sausage by using the produced meat in the farm X. It has been evaluated the compliance of the national products quality with the index of food value of improved cold-smoked meat products. It has bee...

  15. Managerial implications for improving continuous production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaci, Francesca; Vanhatalo, Erik; Bergquist, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    . In this article we highlight SPC and DoE implementation challenges described in the literature for managers, researchers and practitioners interested in continuous production process improvement. The results may help managers support the implementation of these methods and make researchers and practitioners aware......Data analytics remains essential for process improvement and optimization. Statistical process control and design of experiments are among the most powerful process and product improvement methods available. However, continuous process environments challenge the application of these methods...... of methodological challenges in continuous process environments...

  16. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  17. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  18. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leu, Yu-Rui; Aitken, Robert J; Riediker, Michael

    2015-07-24

    Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were "confirmed" and 293 were "likely" to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

  19. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were “confirmed” and 293 were “likely” to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

  20. The Determinants Of Islamic Retail Banking Adoption In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Seethaletchumy Thambiah; Shanti Ramanathan; Mohammad Nurul Huda Mazumder

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors affecting the adoption of Islamic retail banking (IRB) products and services among the banking customers of Malaysia. The market share of Islamic retail banking remains low despite being in operation for the past 28 years. Therefore, an empirical analysis was conducted to study the usage of Islamic retail banking products and services between the urban and rural banking customers of Malaysia. Comparisons were also made on the usage of Islamic deposits an...

  1. THE RETAIL CONCENTRATION AND CHANGES OF THE GROCERY RETAIL STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević, Blaženka; Knego, Nikola; Delić, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Concentration is one of several key processes that are taking place in retail markets of the European countries. Retail concentration process occurs in all EU countries and it’s manifested with the decreasing number of leading retailers with simultaneous increase in their market share. Undergoing process of retail market concentration is bringing new challenges to all market participants: suppliers, existing retailers and customers. In this paper we will discuss concentration in retail indust...

  2. Assessment of Consumer Exposure to Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat Products at Retail in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2017-08-01

    Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.

  3. Indian Organized Retail Sector: Impediments and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mehta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The winds of globalization have yielded rich dividends to the social and economic growth of India. The boom in Indian market has widened the horizons for the customers to be selective while purchasing any product. On the other hand, the sellers are more proactive in facilitating their customers’ quality services and cater to their growing demands. There is a paradigm shift in the customer’s perception and purchasing tendencies. The traditional shops and shopkeepers are now being slowly but gradually replaced by big/mini retail stores (shopping malls and retailers (top corporate houses. Indian consumers are evolving and accepting modern retail formats. In the context of Indian retail sectors, Big Bazaar, More, Pantaloon Retail India Ltd, ITC's e-choupal Reliance Retail Ltd, Vishal Mega Mart, Titan Industries, Archies, Bata India Ltd etc. are dominating the scene and have a wide spread network to execute their operation. The present paper is an attempt to study impediment and opportunities related to organized retailing in India.

  4. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  5. ASPECTS REGARDING THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT OF RETAILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Cristian Dabija

    2011-01-01

    The marketing environment in which producers or retailers act consists of the totality of factors and forces that come under the immediate control of a production or retail company and that influence the maintenance or development of profitable relationships with customers [Balaure, 2002, p.76]. It also represents the grouping of actors and of external forces of a company capable of influencing the way in which it develops and maintains satisfactory exchanges with the target market [Kotler, K...

  6. Control your inventory in a world of lean retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, F H; Dunlop, J T; Hammond, J H; Weil, D

    2000-01-01

    As retailers adopt lean retailing practices, manufacturers are feeling the pinch. Retailers no longer place large seasonal orders for goods in advance-instead, they require ongoing replenishment of stock, forcing manufacturers to predict demand and then hold substantial inventories indefinitely. Manufacturers now carry the cost of inventory risk--the possibility that demand will dry up and goods will have to be sold below cost. And as product proliferation increases, customer demand becomes harder to predict. Most manufacturers apply one inventory policy for all stock-keeping units in a product line. But the inventory demand for SKUs within the same product line can vary significantly. SKUs with high volume typically have little variation in weekly sales, while slow-selling SKUs can vary enormously in weekly sales. The greater the variation, the larger the inventory the manufacturer must hold relative to an SKU's expected weekly sales. By differentiating inventory policies at the SKU level, manufacturers can reduce inventories for the high-volume SKUs and increase them for the low-volume ones--and thereby improve the profit-ability of the entire line. SKU-level differentiation can also be applied to sourcing strategies. Instead of producing all the SKUs for a product line at a single location, either offshore at low cost or close to market at higher cost, manufacturers can typically do better by going for a mixed allocation. Low-variation goods should be produced mainly offshore, while high-variation goods are best made close to markets.

  7. Do ergonomics improvements increase computer workers' productivity?: an intervention study in a call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J; Bayehi, Antoinette Derjani

    2003-01-15

    This paper examines whether improving physical ergonomics working conditions affects worker productivity in a call centre with computer-intensive work. A field study was conducted at a catalogue retail service organization to explore the impact of ergonomics improvements on worker production. There were three levels of ergonomics interventions, each adding incrementally to the previous one. The first level was ergonomics training for all computer users accompanied by workstation ergonomics analysis leading to specific customized adjustments to better fit each worker (Group C). The second level added specific workstation accessories to improve the worker fit if the ergonomics analysis indicated a need for them (Group B). The third level met Group B requirements plus an improved chair (Group A). Productivity data was gathered from 72 volunteer participants who received ergonomics improvements to their workstations and 370 control subjects working in the same departments. Daily company records of production outputs for each worker were taken before ergonomics intervention (baseline) and 12 months after ergonomics intervention. Productivity improvement from baseline to 12 months post-intervention was examined across all ergonomics conditions combined, and also compared to the control group. The findings showed that worker performance increased for 50% of the ergonomics improvement participants and decreased for 50%. Overall, there was a 4.87% output increase for the ergonomics improvement group as compared to a 3.46% output decrease for the control group. The level of productivity increase varied by the type of the ergonomics improvements with Group C showing the best improvement (9.43%). Even though the average production improved, caution must be used in interpreting the findings since the ergonomics interventions were not successful for one-half of the participants.

  8. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  9. A Closed-Loop Supply Chain Problem with Retailing and Recycling Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchao Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a durable product retailing and recycling problem in a closed-loop supply chain consisting of a single manufacturer and two competitive retailers, in which the manufacturer collects used products via retailers from the consumers and has sufficient channel power over the retailers to act as a Stackelberg leader; the retailers compete in retail products and recycling used products. In order to analyze the impact of retailing and recycling competitions on the profits of the manufacturer and the competitive retailers, two collection models (coordinated collection (Model C and decentralized collection (Model D are established, respectively. Then, based on game theory, we derive the optimal retail price, the optimal repurchase price, and the optimal profits of the manufacturer and the retailers. The managerial insights demonstrate that more intense retailing competition induces the increase of the manufacturer's profits in both forward and reverse channels and retailers' profits in the forward channel and the decrease of retailers' profits in the reverse channel, while more intense recycling competition induces the decrease of the profits of the manufacturer and retailers in both forward and reverse channels. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed models.

  10. Production Practice During Language Learning Improves Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Elise W M; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2018-04-01

    Language learners often spend more time comprehending than producing a new language. However, memory research suggests reasons to suspect that production practice might provide a stronger learning experience than comprehension practice. We tested the benefits of production during language learning and the degree to which this learning transfers to comprehension skill. We taught participants an artificial language containing multiple linguistic dependencies. Participants were randomly assigned to either a production- or a comprehension-learning condition, with conditions designed to balance attention demands and other known production-comprehension differences. After training, production-learning participants outperformed comprehension-learning participants on vocabulary comprehension and on comprehension tests of grammatical dependencies, even when we controlled for individual differences in vocabulary learning. This result shows that producing a language during learning can improve subsequent comprehension, which has implications for theories of memory and learning, language representations, and educational practices.

  11. Canadian ethanol retailers' directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This listing is a directory of all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listing includes the name and address of the retailer. Bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels are also included, but in a separate listing

  12. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  13. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eva; Rosenthal, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Käferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  14. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline of the st......In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  15. Determinants Of Adoption Of Improved Cassava Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the field data The identified cassava production technologies at different stages of adoption by the respondents are use of improved cassava cuttings, use of herbicides/pesticides, Alternate row/crop geometry in a cassava /maize/yam intercrop, ...

  16. Improving bambara groundnut productivity using gamma irradiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times efforts are being made to improve the productivity of bambara groundnut. Studies were initiated (i) to characterise and evaluate landraces and to select superior ones for irradiation, (ii) to induce genetic variation through gamma irradiation and (iii) to use biotechnological approaches to shorten the generation ...

  17. Improved photon production data for MCNP trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.A.; Frankle, S.C.; Little, R.C.

    1998-04-01

    Computer simulations with MCNP are often used to obtain information from measurements of neutron induced gamma-ray spectra. For such simulations to be useful, the complicated spectra produced by a wide variety of nuclides must be reproduced, requiring high quality nuclear data. A previous assessment of the neutron induced photon production data in the MCNP data libraries indicated a need for improvement. The photon production data were often based on outdated experiments and binned in such wide energy groups as to be of limited value for some applications. This paper describes the work that is underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory to improve the photon production data for thermal neutron capture reactions. To date, high quality photon production data for each stable isotope of chlorine, chromium, iron, copper, and nickel have been obtained. The improved spectra have been incorporated into ENDF formatted evaluations and processed into corresponding MCNP data files. Similar improvements for aluminum, manganese, silicon, calcium, and vanadium are also planned. The methodology used to produce the spectra is discussed, and sample results for chlorine are presented

  18. Secondary Products (Markets, Competition, and Technological Improvements)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman

    1988-01-01

    Competitiveness, imports, exports, and technological improvements--these are issues facing secondary wood-product manufacturers. The major problems focus on increasing foreign imports and the inability of U.S. industries to repell the imports. How and where should we, as researchers, allocate our efforts to enhance the competitiveness of secondary forest industries in...

  19. The Importance of Store Image and Retail Service Quality in Private Brand Image-Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Alić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this research is to highlight the role which store image and retail service quality can play in private brand image-building in the context of an emerging market in South-Eastern Europe (i.e. Bosnia and Herzegovina. We propose to address this issue by seeking answers to the following questions: (1 Does a ‘halo effect’ take place between the store image and the private brand image? (2 How does consumer’s evaluation of the quality of the service delivered by a retailer affect the image of its private brand? Research Design & Methods: Data were collected through a field survey via the store-intercept method. The sample consisted of 699 customers of two large retail chains. The data were analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings: The findings of the present study suggest that store image and retail service quality are important factors in the formation of the image of product-branded products. Implications & Recommendations: This study offers some important insights for retailers who intend to develop their private brand. First, the image transfer from store brand to private brand suggests that retailers should consider the introduction of a private brand as a brand extension, with their stores as the parent brand. Second, we recommend that retailers put more emphasis on quality improvement initiatives related to the store environment attributes. Contribution & Value Added: This study enhances the discussion on the phenomenon of private branding by analysing the store-level factors which underpin the formation of private brand image in the context of less developed European markets.

  20. AN OVERVIEW ON RETAIL REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical approach on retail reverse logistics. Environmental concern and the current marketing strategy have spurred retailers to implement strategies to facilitate product returns from end customers. Reverse logistics, indicating the process of this return flow, encompasses such activities as the movement of returned products, facilities to accommodate returned items, and overall remedy process for returned items. The retail industry, under great competitive pressure, has used return policies as a competitive weapon. Grocery retailers were the first to begin to focus serious attention on the problem of returns and to develop reverse logistics innovations. Grocery retailers first developed innovations such as reclamation centers. Reclamation centers, in turn, led to the establishment of centralized return centers. Centralizing returns has led to significant benefits for most firms that have implemented them. Over the last several years, retailers have consolidated. Now, more than ever, reverse logistics is seen as being important. This reverse distribution activity can be crucial to the survival of companies, because the permanent goodwill of the company is at stake. Businesses succeed because they respond to both external and internal changes and adjust in an effective manner to remain competitive.

  1. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  2. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  3. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries...

  4. The Evolution and Future of Retailing and Retailing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Dhruv; Motyka, Scott; Levy, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The pace of retail evolution has increased dramatically, with the spread of the Internet and as consumers have become more empowered by mobile phones and smart devices. This article outlines significant retail innovations that reveal how retailers and retailing have evolved in the past several decades. In the same spirit, the authors discuss how…

  5. Simulation Study of a Vehicle Production Line for Productivity Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.F. Ab Rashid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of a motorcycle frame production line in a particular company in Malaysia. Due to the high demand, the company needs to increase its production by at least 12% compared with current output. In order to improve productivity, the production-floor data was collected and simulated using the discrete event simulation approach. Later, a number of suggestions for improvement were simulated to identify the effect of the suggestions on productivity. In addition, cost analysis was also undertaken to identify the profit margin for a particular period of time for each suggestion. Simulation results indicate that there are three suggestions that are able to fulfill the 12% volume increment. In the short term, the suggestion to hire an assistant line leader will give instant effect to the profit. Meanwhile, for the medium term, Poka-yoke will give higher profit compared with the others, while in the long term, SOP (standard operating procedure implementation will yield a better profit margin. In future, the simulation of a dynamic demand model for this product is suggested to cope with new trends in the market.

  6. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    , whereas hedonic value reflects the potential entertainment and emotional worth associated with the shopping trip. Recognising this duality, in addition to enabling customers to satisfy utilitarian needs related to product-acquisition, grocery retailers increasingly try to offer customers pleasurable...... shopping experiences, even to entertain them. Because there is evidence suggesting even satisfied customers sometimes switch brands and retailers due to boredom, it is important for retailers to continuously engage consumers and stir interest in a given store. Satisfying customers again and again...

  7. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail-tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change.

  8. "The Virtual Grocery Store: A Proposal to Improve the Quality of Life for Retail Customers through a Virtual Environment"

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Katrina Jones

    2004-01-01

    With the prevalence and integration of the Internet in our lives, online shopping has become a popular and convenient method of obtaining goods. However, there is an important experience that occurs between the customer and the product as well as the customer and the space in the actual, physical store which does not yet occur in the virtual store (Raijas, 2002). Customersâ increased use of new technology and the Internet illustrates that an incredible growth potential exists in the elect...

  9. Local Retailers Response to Retail Internationalisation:Malaysia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Poh Ling

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the entirety of grocery retail internationalisation, and the happening in the Malaysian Grocery Retail. The results of a field study suggest that local retailers were generally optimistic about the industry in the next ten years, and the examination on their strategic behaviour in the face of grocery retail internationalisation suggests that local retailers have learned and understood the need for modernised strategies in their strategic posture as well as their competitiv...

  10. Retail Price Levels and Concentrations of Wholesalers, Retailers and Hypermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Marcus; Friberg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines retail grocery price levels with a very large (unbalanced) panel of stores that operate in well-defined local markets. We explain price variation across grocery retailers by the concentration of wholesalers and retailers, and the market share of hypermarkets (and control for a number of store and region specific factors). Our most important result is that concentration at the wholesale level is an important determinant of retail prices. The price effect of retail concentra...

  11. The prospects for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.H.; Center, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is an outline of a presentation on retail wheeling of electric power. The topics discussed are development of increased wholesale transmission access, government regulatory policies on wholesale transmission, examples of past and present retail transmission access agreements, examples of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission jurisdiction over retail wheeling, and state policies on retail wheeling

  12. Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety.

  13. Comprehensive Evaluation for Operating Efficiency of Electricity Retail Companies Based on the Improved TOPSIS Method and LSSVM Optimized by Modified Ant Colony Algorithm from the View of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Niu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electricity market of China is currently in the process of a new institutional reform. Diversified electricity retail entities are gradually being established with the opening of the marketing electricity side. In the face of a complex market environment and fierce competition, the operating efficiency can directly reflect the current market position and development of electricity retail companies. TOPSIS method can make full use of the information of original data, calculate the distance between evaluated objects and the ideal solutions and get the relative proximity, which is generally used in the overall department and comprehensive evaluation of the benefits. Least squares support vector machine (LSSVM, with high convergence precision, helps save the training time of algorithm by solving linear equations and is used to predict the comprehensive evaluation value. Considering the ultimate goal of sustainable development, a comprehensive evaluation model on operating efficiency of electricity retail companies based on the improved TOPSIS method and LSSVM optimized by modified ant colony algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, from the view of sustainable development, an operating efficiency evaluation indicator system is constructed. Secondly, the entropy weight method is applied to empower the indicators objectively. After that, based on the improved TOPSIS method, the reverse problem in the evaluation process is eliminated. According to the relative proximity between the evaluated objects and the absolute ideal solutions, the scores of comprehensive evaluation for operating efficiency can then be ranked. Finally, the LSSVM optimized by modified ant colony algorithm is introduced to realize the simplified expert scoring process and fast calculation in the comprehensive evaluation process, and its improved learning and generalization ability can be used in the comprehensive evaluation of similar projects. The example analysis proves

  14. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  15. The Danish Retail Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...... in terms of consumption patterns and demographic changes as well as some specific consumer tendencies with a special emphasis on sustainability issues. E-commerce is taken up as a special theme, both profiling the consumer side and the retailer side. This part is exemplified with books and groceries...

  16. Applying Triz for Production Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Nikalus Shu Luing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a thorough analysis on the application of TRIZ in improving the quality of canned food production. TRIZ tools such as engineering systems analysis, function analysis, cause and effect chain analysis, By-separation model and 40 Inventive Principles are applied in order to discover some feasible and elegant solutions to alleviate the problem. Findings revealed that the rejected canned products on the conveyor belt will be isolated or picked up with other good condition canned products which are lined up very closely to the rejected cans; though the visioning system is able detect the fault printing on the canned product. The main root cause is that the rejected canned product is picked up with other canned products in good condition because all cans are lined up on the belt and are very close to each other or having no gaps between the cans. Conversely, all cans on the conveyor belts are required to be very close to each other to avoid collisions that may damage the cans. The root cause is solved by applying function analysis, By-separation tool and Inventive Principles. Therefore, it can be concluded that TRIZ is a powerful tool in inventive problem solving.

  17. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, N.E.; Garcia, M.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  18. Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odongo, N E; Garcia, M; Viljoen, G J [Animal Production and Health Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The world's poorest people, some one billion living mostly in Africa and Asia, depend on livestock for their day-to-day livelihood. To reduce poverty, fight hunger and ensure global food security, there is an urgent need to increase livestock production in sustainable ways. However, livestock production in developing countries is constrained by low genetic potential of the animals, poor nutrition and husbandry practices and infectious diseases. Nuclear techniques, when applied in conjunction with conventional methods, can identify constraints to livestock productivity as well as interventions that lead to their reduction or elimination in ways that are economically and socially acceptable. The challenge is how best to exploit these techniques for solving problems faced by livestock keepers within the many agricultural production systems that exist in developing countries and demonstrating their advantages to owners, local communities and government authorities. This publication is a compilation of the contributions emanating from an international Symposium on Sustainable Improvement of Animal Production and Health organised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO. It provides invaluable information not only on how nuclear and related techniques can be used to support sustainable livestock production systems, but also about the constraints and opportunities for using these techniques in developing countries; it also attempts to identify specific research needs and gaps and new options for using these techniques for solving established and emerging problems. As such, it is hoped that the information presented and suggestions made will provide valuable guidance to scientists in both the public and private sectors as well as to government and institutional policy and decision makers. The Symposium comprised a plenary session and four thematic sessions, covering (i

  19. Labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25% presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35% and open-air markets (25% compared with the big retailing chains (20%. The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  20. Labelling and Marketing of Bivalve and Gastropod Molluscs Retailed in Sardinia, Italy Between 2009 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-05-28

    The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35%) and open-air markets (25%) compared with the big retailing chains (20%). The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  1. Retail and Real Estate: The Changing Landscape of Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, retail medicine is founded in real estate. That retail medicine has expanded so dramatically in a relatively short period of time has taken people by surprise. This rapid growth of integrating healthcare services into retail real estate begs the question of whether real estate will eventually take on the importance in healthcare delivery that it has in retail. This article advances the view that it will. In the end, what retail and healthcare have in common is that they both reflect the attributes of demanding consumers as part of an experience-based economy, where products and services are sought based on how they fit with their lifestyles and how they make them feel (Pine and Gilmore 1998). Changing the selection process for healthcare services to be more like retail is already expanding how and where healthcare services are delivered.

  2. Legal improvements brighten North Africa production outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    North Africa's three main oil producing countries soon will reap benefits of past moves by their governments to encourage investment by international companies. Production of crude oil and natural gas in Algeria, Egypt, and Libya is ready to increase from suppressed levels of the recent past, says International Energy Agency, Paris. The gains are possible despite political risks, total reserves accounting for only 4% of the world's crude reserves, and oil prices well below levels of the 1980s, when the countries' flow rates peaked. The reason: producing oil in North Africa is profitable. In a recent study entitled North Africa Oil and Gas, IEA attributes the bright production outlook to improvements that the countries' governments have made in the past decade to hydrocarbon laws and the fiscal terms they offer international investors. According to announced plans, the three countries' combined capacity to produce crude oil will rise 18% by the year 2000 to 3.65 million b/d, and a further gain of 700,000 b/d is possible. IEA expects production capacity for natural gas to increase 50% from its 1995 level by 2000 to a combined 139.4 billion cu m/year. This paper discusses production capacities, Algeria's record, improvements in Egypt, and Libya's changes

  3. The time has come for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, D.O.; Achinger, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Retail wheeling, the transmission and distribution of electric power for end users, fosters competition and promotes the efficient use of resources. Access to electric-utility transmission and distribution systems would establish competitive electric markets by permitting retail customers to obtain the lowest cost for energy which would meet their specific needs. Among electric utilities and their customers, the idea of allowing market forces to attract supply and set prices is a current controversy. To counter the anticompetitive effects of recent mergers in the wholesale market, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has mandated open transmission access for wholesale customers. However, the FERC denied access to retail customers and qualifying facilities (QF) in both its Northeast Utilities (FERC case No. EC-90-1 90) and PacifiCorp (U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for D.C., 89-1333) decisions. Retail wheeling will benefit both consumers and producers. The ability of large customers to purchase power from the lowest cost sources and have it transmitted to their facilities, will save American industrial and commercial customers at least $15 billion annually. The Increased efficiency resulting from competition would also reduce residential electric bills. Through retail wheeling, independent power producers can market their capacity to a greater customer base, and traditional utilities will benefit from access to other utilities markets with the more efficient utilities prospering. Retail wheeling will, therefore, reward efficient utilities and encourage inefficient utilities to improve

  4. Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to increase H(2) yields from fermentative H(2) production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H(2) yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low pH, short solids retention time) can replace heat treatment. Gas sparging increases H(2) yields compared to un-sparged reactors, but no relationship exists between the sparging rate and H(2) yield. Lower sparging rates may improve the H(2) yield with less energy input and product dilution. The reasons why sparging improves H(2) yields are unknown, but recent measurements of dissolved H(2) concentrations during sparging suggest the assumption of decreased inhibition of the H(2)-producing enzymes is unlikely. Significant disagreement exists over the effect of organic loading rate (OLR); some studies show relatively higher OLRs improve H(2) yield while others show the opposite. Discovering the reasons for higher H(2) yields during dissolved gas removal and changes in OLR will help improve H(2) yields.

  5. Fashion Retail Master Data Model and Business Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmøller, Harald; Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Retailing, and particularly fashion retailing, is changing into a much more technology driven business model using omni-channel retailing approaches. Also analytical and data-driven marketing is on the rise. However, there has not been paid a lot of attention to the underlying and underpinning...... datastructures, the characteristics for fashion retailing, the relationship between static and dynamic data, and the governance of this. This paper is analysing and discussing the data dimension of fashion retailing with focus on data-model development, master data management and the impact of this on business...... development in the form of increased operational effectiveness, better adaptation the omni-channel environment and improved alignment between the business strategy and the supporting data. The paper presents a case study of a major European fashion retail and wholesale company that is in the process...

  6. Electronic Cigarette Retail Outlets and Proximity to Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Begley, Kathy; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Johnson, Andrew O; Mundy, Monica E; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    To compare the retail distribution and density per population of electronic and conventional cigarettes in smoke-free communities with and without e-cigarette restrictions. A cross-sectional study with field observations of retail tobacco stores. Two Central Kentucky counties with 100% smoke-free workplace regulations; counties selected on the basis of whether e-cigarette use was restricted. Fifty-seven tobacco retailers in two counties, including conventional retailers and stand-alone e-cigarette stores. Type and location of store and products sold; addresses of stores and schools geocoded with ArcGIS. Bivariate comparisons between counties, rates and confidence intervals for frequency of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette stores per population. Fifty-three percent of tobacco retailers sold e-cigarettes. E-cigarette availability did not differ by whether smoke-free regulation covered e-cigarettes. Rates of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette distributors per 10,000 were 8.29 and 4.40, respectively, in the two-county area. Of the 40 schools, 88% had a tobacco retailer and 68% had an e-cigarette distributor within 1 mile. In this exploratory study, e-cigarette use restriction was not related to store availability. For a relatively new product, e-cigarettes were readily available in retail outlets and close to schools.

  7. Retail Spending Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...

  8. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  9. Microbiological safety and quality control of poultry products sold in retail chains of Saint Petersburg and Leningrad region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Alieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food safety and food raw materials is an important task which needs to be under government’s and public associations’ control, under enterprises which produce and sale them, and other economy departments. Nutrition is one of the most important factors influencing human health. To 70% alien substances of chemical and microbiological origin get into the human body with food. The heavy metals, nitrates, nitrites, pesticides, nitrosescomounds, mycotoxins, antibiotics, radionuclides and others are xenobiotics of chemical origin. The poultry products represented in commercial networks by poultry plants located in Saint-Petersburg and Leningrad region: “Roskar”, “Sinyavinskaya”, “North”, “Lebyazhye” were picked up for analysis. We used the bacteriological, virological, immunological, mycological, and statistical methods of research. Sanitary -hygienic or microbiological safety of food products was evaluated for the contenting of disease-causing (pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria groups, coliforms, Staphylococcus, Salmonella and etc. in them. The poultry products sold in commercial networks of St. Petersburg were picked up for analysis. After processing the statistical were revealed 6 nosological forms where the leading position has finding colibacillosis – 27%. The number of positive samples for streptococcosis – 18%, staphylococcus – 8%, aspergillosis–2.6%, salmonellosis – 1.8%, pasteurellosis–1.6 %. The microbiological control of food products which can be the sources of infections should be regular for providing inhabitants with harmless poultry products. It is necessary to adopt and to use the modern microbiological criteria of food safety that will allow to realize the monitoring of their conformity with sanitary norms. The results of these analysis shows that the quality of poultry products sold in commercial networks of Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad region meet the standards.

  10. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  11. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  12. Open-refrigerated retail display case temperature profile and its impact on product quality and microbiota of stored baby spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open-refrigerated display cabinets are widely used in supermarkets and grocery chains around the globe. However, the temperature conditions in these display cases are variable which may impact product quality and safety. Therefore, we investigated the quality and microbiological populations of bagge...

  13. The Changing Structure of Retail Industry: Case Studies on Competitive Advantage of Small Companies in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Knežević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are two key trends in retail industry since 1990s till nowadays: rapid internationalization and intensive retail concentration. In such a dynamic environment, small companies are striving to preserve their markets and to maintain their business activity. The objectives of the paper are twofold: (1 to explain trends of retail internationalization and concentration and (2 to highlight the possibilities for improving the competitive ability of small retailers. Research Design & Methods: The paper is based on analysis of secondary data available in research papers, studies and official statistics. Firstly, the consequences of retail internationalization and concentration are described. Then, the literature on competitive advantage creation is systemized. In addition, the case study method is used to illustrate successful strategies of competitive advantage creation. Findings:  In a changed retail market, small retailers seek the way to improve their competitiveness. As suitable competitiveness strategies, authors describe: (1 retail alliances and (2 differentiation by assortment. Implications & Recommendations: The key trends and their impact on small companies in retail industry are scrutinized. Recommendations to small retailers how to adjust to new market conditions, together with some practical examples, are given. Contribution & Value Added: The paper gives an insight into dynamics of changes in retail structure. Retail alliances and differentiation by assortment are described as two key streams of competitiveness improvement suitable for small retailers.

  14. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any person...

  15. Optimal pricing in retail: a Cox regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Bhulai, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the optimal pricing problem that retailers are challenged with when dealing with seasonal products. The friction between expected demand and realized demand creates a risk that supply during the season is not cleared, thus forcing the retailer to

  16. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  17. An analysis of Western Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans

    A study concerning food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 West European countries. The study encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving towards pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the background for the study, the outline...

  18. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for... or the quantity in which to purchase them for sale to consumers. (b) The industry member obligates the retailer to participate in the promotion to obtain the industry member's product. (c) The retailer...

  19. 27 CFR 8.54 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.54 Criteria for... purchase or the quantity in which to purchase them for sale to consumers. (b) The industry member obligates the retailer to participate in the promotion to obtain the industry member's product. (c) The retailer...

  20. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member, of...

  1. 78 FR 23902 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ..., meat food, poultry, and poultry products do not apply to operations of types traditionally and usually conducted at retail stores and restaurants when those operations are conducted at any retail store or..., restaurants, and similar institutions without disqualifying itself for exemption from Federal inspection...

  2. 77 FR 24456 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without disqualifying itself for exemption from Federal... the preparation or processing produces products in normal retail quantities, and the operations are of the type that are traditionally and usually conducted at retail stores and restaurants (21 U.S.C. 661...

  3. Radiation technology of improved quality materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajkin, Yu.A.; Nadirov, N.K.; Zajkina, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    The technology of materials production from metals and alloys with high operational properties is developed. The technology is based on use of radiation methods in powder metallurgy. Use of radiation processing allows to improve technological conditions of sintering. It is established, that in certain regimes the sintering temperature is decreasing from 1200 deg C up to 950 deg C in the result of radiation processing of stainless steel powders . According to the processing regimes it is possible load reduction by powder pressing on 15-20 % and sintering time in to 1,5 - 2 times . The radiation methods give possibility to produce high qualitative goods from cheap powder materials without use energy-intensive processes and prolonged processing of finished products

  4. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  5. TPM- A KEY STRATEGY FOR PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. DUREJA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During high growth era companies are making technical progress in automation and centralization of the plants, which needs large amount of manual work to maintain the automation systems. The strategy of maintaining the equipment of a plant is crucial for the effectiveness of manufacturing. Total productive maintenance (TPM is a maintenance program, which involves concepts for maintaining plant and equipments effectively. In this paper detailed implementation of TPM in the cold rolling plant is discussed. Results achieved are quite encouraging in terms of motivated employees, improvement in overall equipment effectiveness (OEE and reduction in no. of accidents on shop floor.

  6. C-E productivity improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.; Ching, B.; Van Haltern, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the C-E Productivity Improvement Program (CEPIP), which is a computer algorithm for heat rate monitoring and diagnostics for a nuclear power plant. CEPIP uses the pattern recognition technique to identify cause(s) of heat rate degradation. The benefits of such an automated program to the plant performance engineer include early identification of the degrading component(s), provision of necessary economic information (cost of energy loss) to the performance engineer so that he can decide when to repair the degrading components, and identification of operator actions resulting in heat rate degradation (such as closing the valve on the live steam extraction line for the second stage of reheat). In summary, CEPIP improves the overall plant performance by increasing the capacity factor. CEPIP was developed to meet the growing needs of the utilities for an automated performance program. The diagnostic capability has been verified by plant data

  7. Small-scale power production for sustainable development. Households', Utilities' and Retailers' experiences from the market for small-scale solar panels and wind turbines; Smaaskalig elproduktion foer en haallbar utveckling. Hushaalls, energibolags och aaterfoersaeljares erfarenheter av marknaden foer smaaskaliga solpaneler och vindturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, Jenny; Tengvard, Maria

    2009-06-15

    In this report, a special form of small scale renewable solutions marketed towards Swedish households is targeted. During the autumn 2008 the Swedish companies 'Egen El i Stockholm AB' ('Egen El') and 'Home Energy' launched a concept with small scale wind turbines and solar cells that the households connect to the electricity socket so that the own produced electricity can be used directly. The purpose with this report is to analyze how users, retailers and grid companies look upon such small scale production of electricity and discuss what institutional effects own produced energy could have on the electricity market. The main research method used was in-depth interviews. We conducted interviews with representatives of eight retail companies, five grid companies, the industry organization Swedenergy, IKEA Greentech, and 20 households. A main conclusion is that the market concerning households small scale production of electricity is still immature. Though, the media attention that Egen El relieved during spring 2008 has made more households aware of the concept and householders increased interest in the concept is also recognized by other retailers and amongst the grid companies. According to the retailers, it is still hard to make a living from selling these kind of products to household. Nevertheless, they are optimistic and believe that the changes in regulations concerning small scale production of electricity and IKEA's investment in PVs will improve the situation. The grid companies, too, have a positive outlook. Though, they stress a number of problems that could occur with many households producing their own electricity. This is mainly related to security and whether the grid will be able to handle this produced electricity. As for the households, environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle

  8. RETAIL BANKING BUSINESS: CURRENT STATE ANDSPECIFIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гузель Рефкадовна Фаизова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the retail banking business in the banking sector continueto grow. The current state of the retail banking business is considered and specific features of this area in the face of growing demand for banking products and services by the public and interest from lending institutions are identified by the article.Purpose: Research of current state of retail banking business and detection specific features of this area.Methodology: In the process of analysis and researchof the question the methods of economical and statistical analysis, methods of comparison and generalizationwereused.Results: The conclusion is that interest in the retail banking business continues to grow.There were revealed the role and the importance of standardized service processes and standardized products and services delivering as one of the main line of development in the segment of retail business.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-2

  9. Analysis of the Sales Promotion in Choice Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    HUMPOLCOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is aimed at sales promotion in a retail outlet. The main aim of this thesis is evaluate the current state of sales promotion in a selected retail outlet and based on the analysis of the current state of sales promotion in the outlet to try to propose some measures of improve.

  10. The energy policy and sustainability of the subsidy mechanism for retail petroleum products consumed in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksh, Timmy

    2010-09-15

    In 1974 the Petroleum Production Levy and Subsidy Act gave effect to legislation which detailed a mechanism to implement a subsidy on all fuel consumed within, and in the territorial waters of, Trinidad and Tobago. This paper will analyse the underlying principles of this energy policy, follow how the mechanism has evolved over the years and propose new iterations to the existing model in order to reduce the Governments liability. The sustainability of the subsidy will be examined and as well as an in-depth analysis on the possible impact on inflation if this mechanism is removed.

  11. Increase in resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Tamie; Murakami, Koichi; Etoh, Yoshiki; Okamoto, Fuyuki; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Sera, Nobuyuki; Furuta, Munenori; Onozuka, Daisuke; Oda, Takahiro; Asai, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6%) chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2)), and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2) and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes)), bla(TEM) (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20) and three bla(TEM-52) genes), and bla(SHV) (n = 1, bla(SHV-12)). All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006). This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2) in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2) in

  12. Increase in resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Salmonella isolated from retail chicken products in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamie Noda

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC. However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6% chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY, bla(CTX-M, bla(TEM, and bla(SHV resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2, and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2 and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes, bla(TEM (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20 and three bla(TEM-52 genes, and bla(SHV (n = 1, bla(SHV-12. All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006. This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2 in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2 in chicken

  13. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in retail meat and dairy products in the area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derra, F. A.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, D. P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Listeriosis, a bacterial disease in humans and animals, is mostly caused by ingestion of Listeria monocytogenes via contaminated food and/or water, or by a zoonotic infection. Globally, listeriosis has in general a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Objective. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Methods. Two hundred forty food samples were purchased...

  14. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... retail food stores of products for sale at a stated price. You can file a comment online or on paper. For... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices..., and regulatory and economic impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing...

  15. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toyota production system quality improvement initiative improves perioperative antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Kelly H; Mor, Maria K; Jain, Rajiv; Kruszewski, Matthew S; McCray, Ellesha E; Moreland, Michael E; Muder, Robert R; Obrosky, David Scott; Sevick, Mary Ann; Wilson, Mark A; Fine, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    To assess the role of a Toyota production system (TPS) quality improvement (QI) intervention on appropriateness of perioperative antibiotic therapy and in length of hospital stay (LOS) among surgical patients. Pre-post quasi-experimental study using local and national retrospective cohorts. We used TPS methods to implement a multifaceted intervention to reduce nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections on a Veterans Affairs surgical unit, which led to a QI intervention targeting appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Appropriate perioperative antibiotic therapy was defined as selection of the recommended antibiotic agents for a duration not exceeding 24 hours from the time of the operation. The local computerized medical record system was used to identify patients undergoing the 25 most common surgical procedures and to examine changes in appropriate antibiotic therapy and LOS over time. Overall, 2550 surgical admissions were identified from the local computerized medical records. The proportion of surgical admissions receiving appropriate perioperative antibiotics was significantly higher (P <.01) in 2004 after initiation of the TPS intervention (44.0%) compared with the previous 4 years (range, 23.4%-29.8%) primarily because of improvements in compliance with antibiotic therapy duration rather than appropriate antibiotic selection. There was no statistically significant decrease in LOS over time. The use of TPS methods resulted in a QI intervention that was associated with an increase in appropriate perioperative antibiotic therapy among surgical patients, without affecting LOS.

  17. Improved processes of molybdenum-99 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadachova, K.; La Riviere, K.; Anderon, P.

    1997-01-01

    Two improved processes of Molybdenum-99 production have been developed at ANSTO on laboratory scale. The first one allows to purify Mo of natural isotopic composition from tungsten impurities by using preferential adsorption of tungsten on hydrated tin(IV) oxide SnO 2 x nH 2 O before irradiation in the nuclear reactor. Mo-99 obtained via this route can be used for production of i nstant Tc-99m. As the starting material MoO 3 contains considerable amounts of tungsten impurity (W > 60 ppm), 5-7 days irradiation results in generation of W-188 in amounts sufficient to contaminate the final Tc-99m product with rhenium-188 (Re-188, 16.8 h half-life) - radioactive daughter of W-188. To overcome this problem, a method of MoO 3 purification from W, based on preferential adsorption of W by hydrated tin (IV) oxide has been developed. The contents of W in MoO 3 purified by this technique became 3 and retaining of Mo-99 on a large alumina column. Mo-99 is stripped off the column with 200 mL 1M NH 4 OH followed by loading this solution onto the AG 1x8 column. The next steps are different for each version of separation process

  18. Incentive mechanism based on cooperative advertising for cost information sharing in a supply chain with competing retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setak, Mostafa; Kafshian Ahar, Hajar; Alaei, Saeed

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new motivation for information sharing in a decentralized channel consisting of a single manufacturer and two competing retailers. The manufacturer provides a common product to the retailers at the same wholesale price. Both retailers add their own values to the product and distribute it to consumers. Factors such as retail prices, values added to the product, and local advertising of the retailers simultaneously have effect on market demand. Each retailer has full information about the own added value which is unknown to the manufacturer and other retailer. The manufacturer uses a cooperative advertising program for motivating the retailers to disclose their private information. A numerical study is presented to compare different scenarios of information sharing. Computational results show that there is a condition in which full information sharing is beneficial for all members of the supply chain through cooperative advertising program and, therefore, retailers have enough incentive to disclose their cost information to the manufacturer.

  19. Strength improvement of fibre cement product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranya Sonphuak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to improve the strength or the Modulus of Rupture (MOR of fibre cement. The Six Sigma approach with the DMAIC steps was applied to a case study company. This research started from defining problem, setting the project objective and the project scope. Next, the measurement system was analyzed and the process map was set up. The potential factors of the problem was then determined. Due to there were many factors that affect the MOR, the Cause and Effect Matrix and the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis technique were then used to reduce the number of factors to be studied further. Next, three process factors, which were the pulp slurry freeness, the film-layer thickness, and the pressure step, were optimized using the results from the Box-Behnken experimental design. Other 13 remaining factors were improved by creating or revising the standard work instructions and training the operators. After that, the statistical process control and the control plan were set up to control the production processes. After improvement, the process capability index (Ppk significantly increased from 0.26 to 1.35.

  20. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in retail meat and dairy products in the area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derra, Firehiwot Abera; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, Dharam P; Mache, Abebe; Svendsen, Christina Aaby; Félix, Benjamin; Granier, Sophie A; Geyid, Abera; Taye, Girum; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-06-01

    Listeriosis, a bacterial disease in humans and animals, is mostly caused by ingestion of Listeria monocytogenes via contaminated food and/or water, or by a zoonotic infection. Globally, listeriosis has in general a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Two hundred forty food samples were purchased from July to December 2006 from food vendors, shops, and supermarkets, using a cross-sectional study design. L. monocytogenes were isolated and subjected to molecular serotyping. The genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and minimum inhibitory concentration determinations. Of 240 food samples tested, 66 (27.5%) were positive for Listeria species. Of 59 viable isolates, 10 (4.1%) were L. monocytogenes. Nine were serotype 4b and one was 2b. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination and PFGE of the 10 L. monocytogenes isolates showed low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among eight different PFGE types. The findings in this study correspond to similar research undertaken in Ethiopia by detecting L. monocytogenes with similar prevalence rates. Public education is crucial as regards the nature of this organism and relevant prevention measures. Moreover, further research in clinical samples should be carried out to estimate the prevalence and carrier rate in humans, and future investigations on foodborne outbreaks must include L. monocytogenes.

  1. Improving food and agricultural production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snitwongse, P.; Lamm, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the IAEA and FAO jointly initiated the first in a series of large-scale multi-faceted agricultural field projects using nuclear techniques in agricultural sciences. The first project, in Yugoslavia, served as a model for future ones in India, Brazil, Bangladesh, Republic of Korea, Venezuela, and Thailand. The Thailand project - for the time being the last one of this series - started in January 1986 for a 5-year period, the project carries major objectives centering on the use of isotopes, radiation, and related technologies in three particular areas: Mutation breeding. Scientists are aiming to generate new genetic sources of disease-resistant varieties of crops that are economically important; Soil Science. Aims are to help farmers make the best use of fertilizers, biofertilizers, and water, and to maximize biological nitrogen fixation and the use of local rock phosphates as sources of crop nutrients; Animal science. Project scientists are aiming to improve livestock productivity on small farms

  2. Innovations in retail business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorescu, A.; Frambach, R.T.; Singh, J.; Rangaswamy, A.; Bridges, C.

    2011-01-01

    A retail business model articulates how a retailer creates value for its customers and appropriates value from the markets. Innovations in business models are increasingly critical for building sustainable advantage in a marketplace defined by unrelenting change, escalating customer expectations,

  3. Multinational retailers and home country food exports

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela; Latouche, Karine; Emlinger, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This article questions whether food exports to a given national market are impacted by a domestic retailer opening in that market. To answer this question, we considered an empirical gravity-type trade model. We tested our model with data on bilateral exports of food products sold in supermarkets (groceries) on a large panel of countries, as well as the foreign grocery sales of the world’s 100 largest retail companies from 2001–2010. We found a strong positive effect of the overseas presence ...

  4. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  5. EVALUATION OF DYNAMICS OF FISH RETAIL TRADE IN ISKENDERUN

    OpenAIRE

    Gezmen, Suphi; Şimşek, Emrah; Demirci, Aydın

    2014-01-01

    In this study, fish marketing structure were investigated in Iskenderun.The information which is fishery products was obtained from businesses engagedin the retail sales which they supply and how they offer to customer. Duringstudy many factors have been examined in marketing. These fac­tors are listed;retail trade enterprises engaged themselves describe, how they provide theconsumer the products when and how they procure, product supply problems in theprod­uct, how long kept their hands rema...

  6. Innovations and czech retail business

    OpenAIRE

    Pecho, Maroš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe current trends in global retail, the current state of retail in Czech Republic and possible need of bringing innovation to the outburst of Millennials generation economic activity. Introduction is devoted to theoretical description of retail and its meaning. As part of the thesis, there is a significant part containing relations within the worldwide retail and also its current trends and development. Furthermore, part of the thesis is devoted to the devel...

  7. Organized Retailing of Horticultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Thomas, Sujo

    2012-01-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and changing consumption patterns, more and more retailers are trying to put their best efforts to discover new avenues of success when it comes to the sales of horticultural commodities. There are several Indian companies as well as foreign companies who have been focusing all their energies to succeed in the organized retail sector of Indian horticulture commodities. The Indian retail industry is worth $470 million and organized retail stands at $26 million which...

  8. WHOLESALER TO RETAILER GOODS FORWARDING CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg NIKIFOROV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern trends in the development of logistics controlling through the prism of collaboration between wholesale companies and retail chains have been considered. The nature and structure of cargo transportation by the wholesale company to the retail chain have been analysed. The key transportation processes have been identified and the reliance on transportation drivers-forwarders for their effectiveness has been determined. The study has resulted in the program-mathematical approach to the transportation controlling automation used by the wholesale company to deliver goods to the retail chain as well as the mathematical model of the system information flow. The practical recommendations for the mathematical software implementation using the AWS Forwarder software product as an example have been illustrated.

  9. Electricity production shows improvement across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the first half of 1991, electricity production from Canadian utilities improved substantially compared to the first half of 1990. Canada was a net importer of 5332 GWh in January-June 1990 while it was a net exporter of 5250 GWh in January-June 1991. The largest single factor in this reversal is the improved performance of Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Total acid gas emissions by Ontario Hydro for 1991 are expected to total 240,000 tonnes, about the same as 1990, but at much higher capacity factors. A combination of recession, private power generation, and the startup of the Seabrook nuclear station have put a brake on power exports to the USA. New Brunswick Power exports were not only affected by the new capacity at Seabrook but also because of low water conditions at its hydroelectric plants. Hydro-Quebec generated 300 GWh more hydraulic energy in June 1991 than in June 1990 and its Gentilly-2 nuclear station has been operating at 96.7% capacity. The Quebec utility exported 1215 GWh to the USA and 2121 GWh to other Canadian utilities in January-June 1991, compared to 1602 GWh and 2232 GWh resspectively in January-June 1990. 1 tab

  10. A retailer's perspective on generation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willerton, K.

    2003-01-01

    There are several reasons for a retailer to invest in power generation. This investment acts as a risk management hedge against fixed price retail load, while improving competitiveness in illiquid wholesale markets. Investing in power generation leverages the retailer's wholesale trading capabilities. It also provides appropriate returns. Some of the factors that ensure the success of a retailer investing in power generation are low cost structure, low risk, strong forward commodity market, owners with large healthy balance sheets, and willingness to finance projects entirely with equity. A cost comparison was presented for different generation technologies. ENMAX chose to invest in wind power since the costs were comparable to that of other technologies. In addition, green credits will lower the cost of wind power. With low environmental impacts and no fuel risk, wind energy fitted ENMAX's retail strategy. Green power at ENMAX (GREENMAX) was the first to implement a Green Power Residential program in 1998, followed by the Green Power Commercial program in 2000. The author discussed the McBride Lake Wind Farm located near Fort MacLeod, Alberta. figs

  11. Retail inventory management with lost sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu - Stefanut, A.

    2012-01-01

    The inventory control problem of traditional store-based grocery retailers has several challenging features. Demand for products is stochastic, and is typically lost when no inventory is available on the shelves. As the consumer behavior studies reveal, only a small percentage of customers are

  12. Nudging consumer behaviour in retail stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah

    2016-01-01

    -effectiveness of alternative interventions in retail store settings. In cooperation with a supermarket chain in Denmark, we manipulated food locations inside the store so that relatively low energy dense products were placed favorable shelf locations. The underlying theory for the experiment was the behavioral approach (so...

  13. Virtual Retail Simulations in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of simulations in virtual reality to teach students the fundamental processes behind retailing and product development. The project described involved one class of students who developed their own clothing lines of "virtual merchandise." A second class of students then "purchased" the wholesale…

  14. Retail design : A new discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design

  15. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  16. Retailer brand architectures: Consumer perceptions of five Danish food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    In this paper we adapt the concept of brand architecture to food retailing. We present initial findings of a study investigating how consumer perceive and evaluate the brand architectures of five different Danish food retailers. Our findings show that consumers perceive differences in the brand...... architecture of food retailers and that it is an important factor in relation to evaluations of food retailers. We also find that consumers have considerable difficulties distinguishing between retailer brands and manufacturer brands, which has potentially disconcerting implications for branded food...

  17. Isotopes for the improvement of industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze-Kraft, P.

    1978-01-01

    Full text: For many years the International Atomic Energy Agency has been giving technical assistance to developing countries on the application of radioisotopes in medicine, agriculture and hydrology. With increasing industrialization, these countries feel a growing need for the use of isotopic methods as a means of improving the control of production processes and the quality of industrial products. In response to the demand for training in this field, the IAEA recently held its first Regional Training Course in the Practical Use of Radioisotope Techniques in Industry for Process and Quality Control. The course was given from 27 March to 28 April 1978 at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) in Caracas, Venezuela, in co-operation with the Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear (CONAN) and the Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena. It was financed jointly by the IAEA and CONAN, and in addition received a special contribution by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Participants were 18 engineers and physicists from Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, and the lecturers came from Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland and the host country. Course directors were Dr. J.J. Henriquez (IVIC) and Dr. L. Wiesner (IAEA expert). The idea of the course was to demonstrate that radioisotope techniques can considerably reduce production costs by optimizing industrial processes and making more efficient use of raw materials. It is estimated that the paper industry in the USA, for example, is saving about 100 million dollars per year through the application of radioisotopes. During the training course, the participants gained practical experience in applying isotopic techniques in several fields: in a paper mill at Moron they measured the weight per surface area, and in the cement factory of Ocumare del Tuy the residence time of clinker, at the new international airport of Maiquetia they determined the

  18. Food retailer practices, attitudes and beliefs about the supply of healthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Middleton, Ann E; Long, Michael W; Luedicke, Joerg; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2011-06-01

    Non-supermarket food retailers can be a promising channel for increasing the availability of healthy foods in underserved communities. The present paper reports on retailer practices, attitudes and beliefs about the supply of healthy foods before and after the introduction of new subsidies for healthy foods by the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in October 2009. We designed and conducted in-person standardized interviews with store owners and managers to assess perceptions of demand and profits for different foods, supply networks, barriers to stocking healthy foods and their changes following implementation of the new WIC packages. Non-supermarket retailers in five towns of Connecticut, USA (n 68 in 2009 and n 58 in 2010). Owners and managers of WIC-authorized and non-WIC convenience stores and non-chain grocery stores. Retailers identified customer demand as the primary factor in stocking decisions. They reported observing a significantly weaker demand for healthy foods compared with unhealthy foods, although it improved for certain foods with the new WIC subsidies. Less healthy foods were also perceived as more profitable. Supplier networks varied by product from convenient manufacturer delivery for salty snacks to self-supply for produce. WIC retailers were able to quickly adapt and supply healthy foods required under the new WIC programme guidelines. Retailers other than supermarkets currently perceive little demand for healthy foods, but new WIC subsidies have the power to change these perceptions. Supply barriers seem secondary in the limited offerings of healthy foods by stores and could be overcome when policy changes generate new demand for healthy foods.

  19. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  20. Investment Strategy in a Closed Loop Supply Chain: The Case of a Market with Competition between Two Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Yoon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the ceaseless cycle of competition, businesses have developed strategies to become sustainable. These strategies include reusing products, which can lead not only to the creation of economic benefits but also to improvements in a corporation’s social and environmental responsibility. Product reuse can also increase the profit earned on new products by compensating customers who bring in old products to buy new ones, as the ensuing remanufacturing process allows for the reuse of materials and thus drives down costs. As businesses have come to recognize these values, the marketing competition to retrieve used products from customers has intensified. This research focuses on identifying effective compensation strategies to determine the appropriate advertising investment and trade-in value in a market where two homogeneous retailers compete. Retailers advertise to secure more customers to trade in their used products and to generate more trade-in sales than competitors do. A retailer’s results may vary according to its competitor’s investment strategy, which makes it useful to employ information on past competitor investment patterns to plan future investment strategies. However, as competitors using one another’s information may intensify the competition, better investment results could be obtained by ignoring competitor investment information. Therefore, this study suggests four competition strategies that determine the advertisement costs and trade-in allowance spent by retailers and discusses the difference in the profits obtained by the retailers under each of the four strategies.

  1. Effective Retail Sales Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canei, Robert A.

    The manual is a 12-hour program for adults who are working or preparing to work as retail salespeople. It can also be used as a summarization manual for high school students. The manual consists of five sessions which take the individual from the human aspect of sales to the related sales technique. The sessions are entitled: employee and customer…

  2. Optimizing retail assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Rooderkerk, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKU sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the

  3. Optimizing Retail Assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number. of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKIT sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the

  4. Management Training in Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veness, C. Rosina

    Intended for prospective members of the new Distributive Industrial Training Board in Great Britain, this training guide concentrates on managerial functions in retailing; the selection of trainees; the planning of in-company and external training programs; scheduling and continuity of training; roles of training personnel; and the use of various…

  5. Optimizing retail assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Rooderkerk (Robert); H.J. van Heerde (Harald); T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKU sales can be

  6. Productivity Sharing Programs: Can They Contribute to Productivity Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Productivity sharing plans were studied to determine how they operate, what benefits result, and whether long-term increases in productivity can be realized through the program. Thirty-six firms were interviewed that had productivity sharing plans. Nine firms that had either rejected adoption of a productivity sharing plan or were still…

  7. Analisis Model Struktural Faktor-Faktor Pembentuk Fashion-Oriented Impulse Buying Produk Ritel Fashion Berdasarkan Sudut Pandang Konsumen Usia Remaja [Structural Model Analysis of Fashion-Oriented Impulse Buying of Retail Products Based on the Teenage Customer's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berto Mulia Wibawa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of globalization encourages many retailers from abroad with great capital to perform business activities especially in Indonesia. This also supported by the fashion industry which is currently growing. Unplanned purchases (or impulse buying is an act of purchase made by consumers who previously had no plans to buy the product. This study examines how fashion involvement influences positive emotion, hedonic consumption tendency, and fashion-oriented impulse buying at the retail fashion at Galaxy Mall Surabaya. The method of this study is using conclusive descriptive design with a multiple cross-sectional and judgmental sampling type. The distribution of questionnaires was done by direct survey to 188 customers of Zara, Pull & Bear and Stradivarius aged 15-21 who made purchases in one of those three stores in the last 1 month. The results of this study showed that fashion involvement has a positive effect on positive emotion, hedonic consumption tendency, and fashion-oriented impulse buying. A hedonic consumption tendency has a positive effect on positive emotions and fashion-oriented impulse buying. Other findings show that positive emotions have no influence towards fashion-oriented impulse buying. The results also recommended that retail mix strategy can be applied by Zara, Pull & Bear and Stradivarius to maximize retail revenue from potential customers by using the advantage of impulse buying behavior. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Dampak globalisasi mendorong banyak pengusaha ritel dari luar negeri dengan kemampuan kapital yang besar melakukan aktivitas bisnis di Indonesia. Hal ini didukung oleh fenomena industri fashion yang saat ini semakin berkembang di Indonesia. Pembelian tak terencana (impulse buying merupakan tindakan pembelian yang dilakukan konsumen dimana sebelumnya belum ada rencana untuk membeli produk tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji hubungan fashion involvement, positive emotion, hedonic consumption

  8. Consumers' Reaction towards Involvement of Large Retailers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    markets, fair trade products need LRs distribution channels and not the old system of using speciality ... analysis employed to identify customers' reaction to large retailers' involvement in selling ...... The Journal of Socio-Economics. Vol. 37: pp.

  9. Microbiological quality and safety of Rastrineobola argentea retailed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-10

    Oct 10, 2008 ... consumption or directly through contact with the fish products. INTRODUCTION ... marketed at retail markets as whole sun dried fish. Although R. argentea plays ..... In: Knowledge and experiences gained from managing The ...

  10. On how German retail buyers perceive the identity, image and competitive context of the retailers they work for

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    findings of a study of how German food retailers decide what pork products to buy in which retailer buying behaviour was viewed as an ongoing organisational sensemaking process embedded in, at least, social, organisational, competitive and societal contexts. The aim of the study was to gain...... have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. This paper presents some preliminary...... an understanding of how and why retail buyers make certain decisions rather than simply focusing on what they decide. This paper focuses on the beliefs retail buyers have regarding organisational identities and competitive contexts and in particular discusses whether the beliefs regarding organisational identities...

  11. Retailers test Ontario market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-01-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete

  12. Retailers test Ontario market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-04-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete.

  13. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  14. Learning and improvement in product innovation processes: Enabling behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, J.F.B.; Langenberg, Ilse

    2001-01-01

    Product Innovation is described as a continuous and cross-functional process involving all stages in the product life cycle. This approach gives way to study product innovation processes from a continuous improvement and learning viewpoint. The Continuous Improvement in the global product MAnagement

  15. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  16. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  17. Using the whole-building design approach to incorporate daylighting into a retail space: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.; Eastment, M.; Judkoff, R.

    2000-06-21

    This paper focuses on implementation of daylighting into the Bighorn Center, a collection of home improvement retail spaces in Silverthorne, Colorado, which were constructed in three phases. Daylighting was an integral part of the design of the Phase 3 building. Energy consultants optimized the daylighting design through detailed modeling using an hourly building energy simulation tool. Energy consultants also used this tool to address the building owner's concerns related to customer comfort and increased product sales.

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF BRAND NAME AND QUALITY IN THE RETAIL FOOD INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Apelbaum, Eidan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of brand name recognition and product quality on the competition between national brands and private labels in the retail food industry. Theoretical and empirical evidence is provided to show that both marketing tools play a significant role, but in quite different ways. Quality improvements by one firm will intensify the competition; one firm will gain at the expense of its competitor. Whereas, increasing brand name recognition relaxes the competition, and both f...

  19. The mobility of food retailers: How proximity to SNAP authorized food retailers changed in Atlanta during the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jerry; Bagwell-Adams, Grace; Shannon, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun; Wei, Yangjiaxin

    2018-07-01

    Retailer mobility, defined as the shifting geographic patterns of retail locations over time, is a significant but understudied factor shaping neighborhood food environments. Our research addresses this gap by analyzing changes in proximity to SNAP authorized chain retailers in the Atlanta urban area using yearly data from 2008 to 2013. We identify six demographically similar geographic clusters of census tracts in our study area based on race and economic variables. We use these clusters in exploratory data analysis to identify how proximity to the twenty largest retail food chains changed during this period. We then use fixed effects models to assess how changing store proximity is associated with race, income, participation in SNAP, and population density. Our results show clear differences in geographic distribution between store categories, but also notable variation within each category. Increasing SNAP enrollment predicted decreased distances to almost all small retailers but increased distances to many large retailers. Our chain-focused analysis underscores the responsiveness of small retailers to changes in neighborhood SNAP participation and the value of tracking chain expansion and contraction in markets across time. Better understanding of retailer mobility and the forces that drive it can be a productive avenue for future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.  Created: 10/28/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 10/28/2010.

  1. Productivity improvement opportunities at Navy public works activities

    OpenAIRE

    Dieffenbach, Richard Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study identifies six principal opportunities for productivity improvement at Navy Public Works in-house maintenance activities: improving work assignment, increasing shop supervisor effectiveness, reducing long lunches and early quits (through understanding of work impediments as demotivational contributors), improving service order management, improving job quality and miscellaneous opportunities. Activity "productivity opportu...

  2. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the program period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance-of-plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  3. Improving the quotation process with product configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Christensen, Simon Pape

    2006-01-01

    How can product configuration support the process of engineering highly complex industrial products? This article describes how an IT-based product configuration system was developed to support the process of mak-ing budget quotations. The article is based on a research project carried out...

  4. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  5. The use of human resource information systems in two retail organisations in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Udekwe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The retail industry is the largest contributor to employment and the gross domestic product (GDP in the Western Cape, South Africa. The management of human resources in this very competitive industry is a high priority for all retailers. The successful implementation, maintenance and use of human resource information systems (HRISs are an integral part of many retailers. Research purpose: Human resource information systems are difficult to implement and maintain, and as a result, organisations cannot effectively utilise these systems to their benefit. The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors affecting the implementation, maintenance and use of HRISs in two retail organisations in the Western Cape. Motivation of study: Many retailers find it difficult to apply and utilise HRISs to their benefit and to the systems’ full potential. This study explores the challenges retailers are facing when implementing, maintaining and using HRISs. Research design, approach and method: Multiple case studies were used to conduct the research. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire using interviews. Twenty-one interviews were conducted in the two retail companies to gain an understanding of the use of HRISs within these organisations. The data were analysed using a thematic method of analysis. The units of analysis were the Human Resources and the Information Technology departments of both companies. The units of observation were (21 purposively selected employees in the two mentioned departments of both retail organisations. Main findings: This research shows an under-utilisation of the HRIS in both companies as a result of poor data quality, lack of adequate training and the high cost of implementing and maintaining the system. There is a gap in terms of data analytics and report generation. This gap leads to the under-utilisation of the HRISs preventing the retailers to optimise the benefits of the HRIS. Practical

  6. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON RETAILING IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mrvica MAĐARAC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade is one of the leading sectors of the Croatian economy, which has undergone significant changes under the influence of globalization over the last decade. According to Central Bureau of Statistics in Croatia about 16 % of all employees work in trade business, and more than a quarter of business entities are registered in this sector. Therefore the trade has a significant share in Croatian GDP creation. Globalization is considered an important factor of economic development around the world. Through development of communication technology the world has become integrated into the "global village" and a business contact itself can be accomplished in a matter of minutes. The effects of globalization on retailing in Croatia are mostly reflected in the introduction of new retailing forms, development of e-commerce, consumer protection, the introduction of space management, changes in consumer habits and the arrival of multinational trading companies on the market of Croatia. In this way, the Croatian market has become a part of a single system. Globalization has a negative effect on trade in the Republic of Croatia too, because the domestic production and retail sales of small neighborhood stores are threatened in this way. Retailing in Croatia should make an attempt to adapt to the global trends in the world and to new changes taking into account the domestic production by the principle of comparative advantage.

  7. Growth In SNAP Retailers Was Associated With Increased Client Enrollment In Georgia During The Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jerry; Shannon, Sarah; Adams, Grace Bagwell; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-11-01

    Policies to improve food accessibility in underserved areas often use direct financial incentives to attract new food retailers. Our analysis of data on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in Georgia before and after the Great Recession suggests that increased program enrollment improves access to food for SNAP beneficiaries by acting as an indirect subsidy to retailers. We divided food stores into four categories: large, midsize, small, and specialty retailers. Between 2008 and 2011 the number of SNAP enrollees increased by 87 percent, and between 2007 and 2014 the number of SNAP retailers in Georgia increased by 82 percent, primarily because of growth in the number of authorized small retailers. Inside metropolitan Atlanta, changes in the numbers of SNAP enrollees and authorized retailers were positively and significantly associated for small retailers. For the areas outside of metropolitan Atlanta, the association between changes in numbers of enrollees and authorized retailers was strongest for small retailers; more modest associations were also seen for large and specialty retailers. Policy makers should consider how retailers' sensitivity to and reliance on SNAP funding can be leveraged to improve not only food availability, but also access to healthy foods. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Rivalry of domestic and foreign retailers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Dunković

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign retailers are gaining progressively more of the Croatian retail market share. This paper is an analysis of the retail structure in the Republic of Croatia (sector G – 52, with respect to the origin of trading companies (domestic and foreign retailers, to their size (small, medium and large companies and to sub-sectors within a sector G – 52. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of causes underlying the foreign retailers’ expansion regarding their business success. The paper includes an analysis of the structure of household consumption in the Republic of Croatia as an important condition for the development of the retail structure. The analysis involves the indicators of domestic and foreign retailers’ business success: the turnover per one trading company and the turnover per one employee of the trading company. The comparison of these indicators for domestic and foreign retailers lead to certain differences (foreign retailers are slightly more productive than the domestic retailers and to the evaluation of the differences caused by the size of the company. Since a correlation of the size of the structure of domestic and foreign trading companies in certain sub-sectors within sector G –52 must not exist, the conclusion suggests itself in the form of a need to investigate other features of the retail structure. The research is related to the year 2001. Nevertheless, the research presented in the paper points at an inadequate adaptability of domestic retailers to the structure of demand in the Republic of Croatia as the cause of the insufficient trading success.

  9. Improving radiation use efficiency in greenhouse production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A large increase in agricultural production is needed to feed the increasing world population with their increasing demand per capita. However, growing competition for arable land, water, energy, and the degradation of the environment impose challenges to improve crop production. Hence agricultural production efficiency needs to increase. Greenhouses provide the possibility to create optimal growth conditions for crops, thereby improving production and product quality. Light is the dr...

  10. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation outlined the values of wholesale and retail marketing of natural gas to offer choice to all Canadians. The initial wholesale market dealt with physical bilaterals, financial bilaterals and transmission rights, while the mature wholesale market deals with futures contracts, reserve markets, dispatchable loads, swaps, trades and emissions trading. Wholesale prices include debt reduction charges, transmission charges transformation charges, ancillary charges, and independent market operator (IMO) fees. Retail rates offered by local distribution companies (LDC) include distribution charges, adjustments to SSS, and distribution losses. The role of marketers is to provide consumers with what they want, which is annual fixed rates with aggregation and load profiling as well as billing and procurement services

  11. A new active portfolio risk management for an electricity retailer based on a drawdown risk preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charwand, Mansour; Gitizadeh, Mohsen; Siano, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the deciding under uncertainty of an electricity retailer in order to maximise its total expected rate of return. The developed methodology is based on the modelling of the stochastic evolution of zonal prices that seeks to manage a portfolio of different contracts. Retailer's load and the price at each zone are forecasted using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and a clustering technique is used for scenario reduction. Supply sources include the pool, self-production facilities, forward and bilateral contracts. The risk of cost fluctuation due to uncertainties is explicitly modelled using the multi-scenario drawdown methodology. This risk function quantifies in aggregated format the frequency and magnitude of the portfolio drawdowns over planning horizon. In-sample and out-of-sample runs are performed for a portfolio allocation problem. Carried out experimental results on the basis of realistic data, show that imposing risk constraints improve the “real” performance of a portfolio management in out-of-sample runs. - Highlights: • A new drawdown-based method is introduced to retailer deciding under uncertainty. • This tool is used to assess the risk levels regarding retailer midterm strategies. • The methodology is based on the modeling of the stochastic evolution of zonal prices. • The risk function quantifies the frequency and magnitude of the portfolio drawdowns. • In-sample and out-of-sample runs are performed for a portfolio allocation problem.

  12. Impact of RFID Technology on Logistic Process Efficiency in Retail Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikoličić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that logistics faces in the retail industry must be investigated in the context of the specific retail sector as well as the degree of development of the retail market. The research focus in this paper is on logistic processes in supermarket supply. The aim is to deepen the understanding of logistic processes and then to investigate the possibilities of their enhancement by applying radio frequency identification (RFID as a higher level of information technology for product identification in retail supply chains. The research was conducted in one of the top ten trade companies in the emerging Serbian market. Simulation modelling was performed for one supply chain category, followed by quantification of time and cost performance of the current logistic processes (AS-IS model. Then, in accordance with the capabilities of RFID system, improvements are proposed and integrated into a new simulation model (TO-BE model. The obtained results can be utilised as part of a broader research when deciding on the implementation of modern information technologies in supply chains.

  13. Analytical Business Model for Sustainable Distributed Retail Enterprises in a Competitive Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courage Matobobo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Retail enterprises are organizations that sell goods in small quantities to consumers for personal consumption. In distributed retail enterprises, data is administered per branch. It is important for retail enterprises to make use of data generated within the organization to determine consumer patterns and behaviors. Large organizations find it difficult to ascertain customer preferences by merely observing transactions. This has led to quantifiable losses, such as loss of market share to competitors and targeting the wrong market. Although some enterprises have implemented classical business models to address these challenging issues, they still lack analytics-based marketing programs to gain a competitive advantage to deal with likely catastrophic events. This research develops an analytical business (ARANN model for distributed retail enterprises in a competitive market environment to address the current laxity through the best arrangement of shelf products per branch. The ARANN model is built on association rules, complemented by artificial neural networks to strengthen the results of both mutually. According to experimental analytics, the ARANN model outperforms the state of the art model, implying improved confidence in business information management within the dynamically changing world economy.

  14. Production of Genetically Improved Organic Nile Tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo, H.; Komen, J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Ponzoni, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Demand for organic products for human consumption has been on the increase due to the belief that organic products are safer and healthier to the consumer and the environment. In developing countries, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is usually grown in low-input organically fed ponds with

  15. Biomass productivity improvement for eastern cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Robison; Randy J. Rousseau; Jianwei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood ( Populus deltoides Marsh.) is grown in plantations by MeadWestvaco for use at its Wickliffe Kentucky Fine Papers Mill1. Genetic and productivity research over the past two decades have led to significant increases in biomass yield while reducing production costs.Initially, genetic research identified fast growing...

  16. Productivity improvement using discrete events simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Elbishari, E. M. Y.; Ismail, M. Y. Bin; Adesta, E. Y. T.; Rahman, Nur Salihah Binti Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The increasing in complexity of the manufacturing systems has increased the cost of investment in many industries. Furthermore, the theoretical feasibility studies are not enough to take the decision in investing for that particular area. Therefore, the development of the new advanced software is protecting the manufacturer from investing money in production lines that may not be sufficient and effective with their requirement in terms of machine utilization and productivity issue. By conducting a simulation, using accurate model will reduce and eliminate the risk associated with their new investment. The aim of this research is to prove and highlight the importance of simulation in decision-making process. Delmia quest software was used as a simulation program to run a simulation for the production line. A simulation was first done for the existing production line and show that the estimated production rate is 261 units/day. The results have been analysed based on utilization percentage and idle time. Two different scenarios have been proposed based on different objectives. The first scenario is by focusing on low utilization machines and their idle time, this was resulted in minimizing the number of machines used by three with the addition of the works who maintain them without having an effect on the production rate. The second scenario is to increase the production rate by upgrading the curing machine which lead to the increase in the daily productivity by 7% from 261 units to 281 units.

  17. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.

    2001-01-01

    ECNG Inc. is a full service provider of independent and objective energy advice and management services to industrial, commercial and institutional end-users of all forms of energy. ECNG manages 10 per cent of the Ontario gas market and expects a 10 per cent share of electricity (14 TWh). ECNG has a balanced portfolio with expertise in both petroleum and electricity sectors. The company has also dealt extensively with retailers, marketers, wholesalers and suppliers on issues regarding deregulation

  18. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  19. Vliv reklamy na retail

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the connection of two aspects: retail and advertising and to provide general overviews. To foreshadow expected changes in the consumer's behaviour and establish how important the role advertisement constitutes. Research is also focused on direct influence of advertisement on customers. This thesis is composed of both a theoretical and a practical part. The first two chapters of the theoretical part represent a description of basic information about advertising an...

  20. Improving productivity through more effective time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edwin; Pulich, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Effective time management has become increasingly important for managers as they seek to accomplish objectives in today's organizations, which have been restructured for efficiency while employing fewer people. Managers can improve their ability to manage time effectively by examining their attitudes toward time, analyzing time-wasting behaviors, and developing better time management skills. Managers can improve their performance and promotion potential with more effective time utilization. Strategies for improving time management skills are presented.

  1. The impact of innovation on the retail commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăşescu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper highlights the contribution of innovation process in retail development. Lately, in this area has appeared many innovations (related to products, processes or technology which have brought many benefits for the performance of trade activities. Many retailers have realized the benefits of innovation and have gradually adopted them, offering to their business the chance to grow. Romanian retail companies are trying to adjust to the changes in the field, being aware that long-term, innovation is the key to business success.

  2. Composition and methods for improved fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H.; Tanneru, Sathishkumar; Gajjela, Sanjeev K.

    2015-12-29

    Certain embodiments of the present invention are configured to produce boiler and transportation fuels. A first phase of the method may include oxidation and/or hyper-acidification of bio-oil to produce an intermediate product. A second phase of the method may include catalytic deoxygenation, esterification, or olefination/esterification of the intermediate product under pressurized syngas. The composition of the resulting product--e.g., a boiler fuel--produced by these methods may be used directly or further upgraded to a transportation fuel. Certain embodiments of the present invention also include catalytic compositions configured for use in the method embodiments.

  3. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence or? the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  4. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  5. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K. L.; Ács, N.; Kovács, E.; Wirth, R.; Rákhely, G.; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed. PMID:23484123

  6. Modeling Demand Response in Electricity Retail Markets as a Stackelberg Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price-sequence, w......We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price...... with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC) and cast as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be solved using off-the-shelf optimization software. In an illustrative example, we consider a retailer associated with both flexible demand and wind power production. Such an example shows the efficiency of dynamic...

  7. Improvements in the production of petrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinker, F

    1918-12-19

    The production of petrol from crude mineral oils by means including a still and a superheating or cracking chamber is described whereby a quantity of vapor is generated for subsequent mixture with the crude oil, mixing the superheated vapor and crude oil in a pipe or chamber so that the process of heat interchange is complete before the final product to be collected is delivered to a fractionating column and the residuum passed into the still.

  8. Consumer Preferences for Animal Source Foods in Uganda: Quality, Retail Forms and Retail Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Mtimet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a rapid consumer survey undertaken in Uganda. The survey aimed at identifying preferred quality and safety attributes, retail forms and retail outlets for major livestock products and by type of consumers. Results of the survey, combined with nationally representative household datasets, allows description of both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the developing market for animal-source foods, which is anticipated to provide major business opportunities for small-scale livestock producers in the short and medium terms.

  9. "People over profits": retailers who voluntarily ended tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer's decision. Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store's image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers' values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers to end tobacco sales.

  10. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  11. Canada's directory of ethanol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a directory listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer by province from west to east. Appendices providing a list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels was also included, as well as a list of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers

  12. Are retailers' preferences for seafood attributes predictive for consumers wants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Polancoa, José; Mueller Loose, Simone; Luna, Ladislao

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture production has grown considerably in the southern countries of Europe during the last two decades. This increase in supply has not been matched by an equivalent rise in consumer demand, resulting in price decay. For farmed seabream (Sparus aurata) this paper examines which attributes...... choice and to test for differences in attribute preferences between retailers and consumers. Results indicate that both consumers and retailers agree in their marginal willingness to pay for wild over farmed seabream. However, they differ in the extent to which the disutility from farmed production can...... be offset by the declaration of domestic origin, sustainability certifications, and presence of health benefits or safety claims. Results suggest an asymmetry between retailer and consumer preferences that might explain why seabream differentiated by claims still struggles to find the desired retail...

  13. Sustainable Consumption: Analysis of Consumers’ Perceptions about Using Private Brands in Food Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Boboc; Adrian Laurentiu Ariciu; Raluca Andreea Ion

    2015-01-01

    Private brands are representing an important vector for retailers, helping them to build sustainable relationships with their customers. Usually, private brands are perceived as products differentiated by lower prices. The purpose of this research is to identify consumers’ trust level in private brands used in food retail and their perceptions about the quality of retailers’ own products. The research question is: What are consumers’ perceptions about using private brands in food retail? Purs...

  14. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dalziel, C. J.; Kliem, Kirsty E.; Givens, D. Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (P < 0.01). Meat was rich in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; P < 0.001). Organic meat was also lower (P < ...

  15. Impact of state policy on forming the competitiveness of retail trade in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Rafailevna Salikhova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the efficiency of the state regulation of retail trade and its influence on the formation of competitive advantage in retailing. Method logicalmathematical. Results the article considers the methods of retail trade regulation. The factors constraining the business activity of retail chains are analyzed the factors constraining the business activity of retail networks are revealed. The activities are proposed that would contribute to improving the competitiveness of domestic trade of Russia. Scientific novelty econometric model has been built that includes 8 factors. Within the model the influence of the studied factors on retail chains turnover is defined. Practical value the possibility to apply the obtained results to increase the efficiency of retail trade enterprises and consequently their competitiveness. nbsp

  16. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  17. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  18. Percentage Retail Mark-Ups

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas von Ungern-Sternberg

    1999-01-01

    A common assumption in the literature on the double marginalization problem is that the retailer can set his mark-up only in the second stage of the game after the producer has moved. To the extent that the sequence of moves is designed to reflect the relative bargaining power of the two parties it is just as plausible to let the retailer move first. Furthermore, retailers frequently calculate their selling prices by adding a percentage mark-up to their wholesale prices. This allows a retaile...

  19. Improving Water Use in Fodder Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Mendoza-Grimón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit in semi-arid regions limits the future of the livestock sector. Also, its high price represents a percentage of the total cost of forage production. Non-conventional water resources applied by subsurface drip irrigation (SDI, in which the safe use lies in the management and not on the level of water treatment, would enhance the ruminant production sustainability. To obtain the optimal benefit, the transformation of water per kilogram of dry matter produced must have a high grade of effectiveness. Under this premise, a maralfalfa crop (Penissetum sp, hybridum has been established with an SDI system and reclaimed water. Forage yield is analyzed with respect to a 40% irrigation reduction. This study shows that, with the use of these good irrigation management practices, it is possible to harvest an annual production of 90 to 72 t·ha−1 in the warmer regions of the Canary Islands. This implies water consumption between 13,200 and 8100 m3·ha−1. A water consumption of 21,000 m3·ha−1 per year for the same production, at a ratio of 230 L·t−1, can be estimated for the rest of the Canary Islands coastal regions. The use of the water management described in this paper can be profitable in the Canary Islands for fodder production.

  20. Acquainting Future Office Employees with Productivity-Improvement Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quible, Zane K.

    1982-01-01

    Examines factors affecting productivity (government regulations, energy costs, decline in the work ethic, capital investment, number of service workers, work force characteristics, management practices, and unions), and techniques to improve productivity (employee involvement, job structure, communication, flexitime, employee upgrading, incentive…

  1. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed.

  2. Restructuring of LDCs and retail marketing by producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, D.

    1998-01-01

    The restructuring of local distribution companies (LDCs) and retail marketing producers and the challenges facing market participants were discussed. In Canada, LDC operations are regulated by provincial utilities commissions. This presentation focused on Ontario because it has the largest and most active retail gas market in Canada where some significant LDC restructuring initiatives are taking place. The current state of retail gas pricing in Ontario was also reviewed. Consumers Gas or Union Gas are the two utilities that serve most of the 2.2 million natural gas customers in Ontario. Both utilities have fully integrated supply and marketing businesses which include the sale and delivery of natural gas, related products and services. Suncor's recent entry into the retail natural gas market has been successful. Suncor currently has the third largest number of retail customers in Ontario and a significant share of that market. LDCs will become delivery companies who focus on providing reliable and safe distribution of natural gas to all customers and will provide open access to all gas marketers on a non-discriminatory basis. This will result in more sophisticated marketing to retail customers, retail customer contracts will change to fixed term, fixed price agreements, and there will be strong brand identification. Additional opportunities will be created as a result of deregulation of the electricity industry

  3. International Fashion Retailing from an Enterprise Architecture Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    International retailing of non-food fashion products, as chain stores impose a particular challenge within EA as the same general infrastructure networks, brands, data, business intelligence and applications should work in multiple, semi-compliant geographic regions. Generalised information syste...... international networks of chains encompassing marketing, supply chain, multi-channel concepts, payment systems and loyalty programs. Conclusively directions are set for a deepening of EA within retail....

  4. A Strategic Analysis of a North American Online Plumbing Retailer

    OpenAIRE

    Amlani, Jameel

    2011-01-01

    This project assesses the current business environment faced by OPR Inc., a leading internet retailer of decorative plumbing products, based in suburban Boston, Massachusetts. An internal analysis of the company is conducted followed by an external analysis of the online plumbing retail strategic group. It is determined that no industry participant holds a sustainable competitive advantage over its rivals and that entry into the industry is likely due to the presence of economic profits. It i...

  5. Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Benaissa Chidmi; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2007-01-01

    The Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes (1995) market equilibrium model is extended to the supermarket chain level to examine consumer choices and retail competition for thirty-seven brands of breakfast cereals in Boston. Estimated taste parameters for product characteristics vary significantly across consumers. Although consumers are price-sensitive with respect to their chosen cereals, they exhibit strong brand and supermarket loyalty. Retail markups increase and marginal costs decrease with grocer...

  6. Do multinational retailers affect the export competitiveness of host countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates how the overseas activity of multinational retailers (MRs) affects the global export patters of host country firms. Recent empirical work testifies that the entry of foreign retailers leads to a productivity upgrade in the domestic upstream sectors. Combined with the main result of the new new international trade theory on firm heterogeneity, an increase in the export capacity of local firms should also follow. The current paper establishes a connection between these em...

  7. Improvement of product design process by knowledge value analysis

    OpenAIRE

    XU, Yang; BERNARD, Alain; PERRY, Nicolas; LAROCHE, Florent

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, design activities remain the core issue for global product development. As knowledge is more and more integrated, effective analysis of knowledge value becomes very useful for the improvement of product design processes. This paper aims at proposing a framework of knowledge value analysis in the context of product design process. By theoretical analysis and case study, the paper illustrates how knowledge value can be calculated and how the results can help the improvement of product...

  8. Herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mozūraitienė, Vilija

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the study: To examine and systematize assortment of herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion and also to find out public opinion about herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion using questionnaire. Aim of the study: (1) To examine which digestive tract ailments are treated most frequently herbal products, food supplements and teas. (2) To examine which herbal products, food supplements and teas are used most frequent...

  9. Recent Improvements in IERS Rapid Service/Prediction Center Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stamatakos, N; Luzum, B; Wooden, W

    2007-01-01

    ...) at USNO has made several improvements to its combination and pre- diction products. These improvements are due to the inclusion of new input data sources as well as modifications to the combination and prediction algorithms...

  10. Improved riboflavin production by Eremothecium ashbyii using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detail research on the control strategies of carbon and nitrogen source was investigated for riboflavin production by Eremothecium ashbyii. The effects of various carbon and nitrogen sources on riboflavin biosynthesis were first employed respectively which revealed that glucose and yeast extract were the optimal medium ...

  11. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed.

  12. Improving Marketing's Contribution to New Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, Wenzel; Natter, Martin; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    In many firms, the marketing department plays a minor role in new product development (NPD). However, recent research demonstrates that marketing capabilities more strongly influence firm performance than other areas such as research and development. This finding underscores the importance of

  13. Improved space bandwidth product in image upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique increasing the space bandwidth product of a nonlinear image upconversion process used for spectral imaging. The technique exploits the strong dependency of the phase-matching condition in sum frequency generation (SFG) on the angle of propagation of the interacting fields...

  14. Space Shuttle main engine product improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, A. D.; Klatt, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The current design of the Space Shuttle Main Engine has passed 11 certification cycles, amassed approximately a quarter million seconds of engine test time in 1200 tests and successfully launched the Space Shuttle 17 times of 51 engine launches through May 1985. Building on this extensive background, two development programs are underway at Rocketdyne to improve the flow of hot gas through the powerhead and evaluate the changes to increase the performance margins in the engine. These two programs, called Phase II+ and Technology Test Bed Precursor program are described. Phase II+ develops a two-tube hot-gas manifold that improves the component environment. The Precursor program will evaluate a larger throat main combustion chamber, conduct combustion stability testing of a baffleless main injector, fabricate an experimental weld-free heat exchanger tube, fabricate and test a high pressure oxidizer turbopump with an improved inlet, and develop and test methods for reducing temperature transients at start and shutdown.

  15. WORK SIMPLIFICATION FOR PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanical Engineering Department. Addis Ababa University ... press concerning the work simplification techniques state ... encompassing as it does improved labor-management cooperation ... achievement of business aims or a contribution to attaining ..... recommended work methods is done after a 1hrough study and ...

  16. Annunciation - building product team capabilities to support utility operational improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, R.; Brown, R.; Trask, D.; Leger, R.; Mitchel, G.; Judd, R.; Davey, E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an AECL initiative to enhance the capabilities to assist utilities with undertaking annunciation improvement. This initiative was undertaken to complement a recent annunciation product upgrade, and in anticipation of developing commercial opportunities to assist Canadian and foreign utilities with control room annunciation improvement. Utilities are relying more and more on external engineering product and service providers to meet their plant support needs as they reduce in-house staffing to lower ongoing support costs. This evolving commercial environment places new demands on product and service providers, and provides new opportunities for increasing the proportion of product and service provider participation in plant improvement projects. This paper outlines recent AECL experience in the annunciation product area. The paper discusses the rationale for product support capability improvement, discusses the approaches undertaken, describes lessons learned, and outlines a proposed utility support model for assisting with future annunciation improvements. (author)

  17. The Impact of Frequent Shopper Programs in Grocery Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    David Bell; Rajiv Lal

    2002-01-01

    Frequent Shopper programs are becoming ubiquitous in retailing. Retailers seem unsure however about whether these programs are leading to higher loyalty, or to higher profits. In this paper we analyze data from a US supermarket chain that has used a number of frequent shopper rewards to improve sales and profitability. We find that while these programs are profitable, this is only because substantial incremental sales to casual shoppers (cherry pickers) oset subsidies to already loyal custome...

  18. Can purchasing information be used to predict adherence to cardiovascular medications? An analysis of linked retail pharmacy and insurance claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumme, Alexis A; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Franklin, Jessica M; Isaman, Danielle L; Mahesri, Mufaddal; Matlin, Olga S; Shrank, William H; Brennan, Troyen A; Brill, Gregory; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2016-11-09

    The use of retail purchasing data may improve adherence prediction over approaches using healthcare insurance claims alone. Retrospective. A cohort of patients who received prescription medication benefits through CVS Caremark, used a CVS Pharmacy ExtraCare Health Care (ECHC) loyalty card, and initiated a statin medication in 2011. We evaluated associations between retail purchasing patterns and optimal adherence to statins in the 12 subsequent months. Among 11 010 statin initiators, 43% were optimally adherent at 12 months of follow-up. Greater numbers of store visits per month and dollar amount per visit were positively associated with optimal adherence, as was making a purchase on the same day as filling a prescription (ppurchase variables had low discriminative ability (C-statistic: 0.563), while models with both clinical and retail purchase variables achieved a C-statistic of 0.617. While the use of retail purchases may improve the discriminative ability of claims-based approaches, these data alone appear inadequate for adherence prediction, even with the addition of more complex analytical approaches. Nevertheless, associations between retail purchasing behaviours and adherence could inform the development of quality improvement interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Retail service quality as a base in purchasing decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov-Mladenović Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retail is a service activity, and services are something that makes the retail companies differ from production companies. Retailers are trying to differentiate the 'package' offer, build customer loyalty and make their position through the provision of high service quality. In addition, the services provided can be varied, such as exterior and interior design of retail stores, preparation of goods for sale, appearance and behavior of sales personnel, culture of communication with customers, and services provided after the sales process. Consumers require the service quality when making purchasing decision. For retail companies and retail stores it is important to continuously monitor the level of service quality. In order to measure the service quality, the method that found its application in the theory and practice is SERVQUAL. This model was created as a combination of theoretical and practical research and it looks at the quality of service as the content of the following dimensions: tangibles, reliability, sensitivity, security and empathy. As such, it is a function of the difference between perceptions and expectations (Q = P-E and is widely accepted to measure the service quality in traditional retail stores, public sector, higher education, real estate, hospitals, courts and so on. In addition, this model is widely used to measure service quality in e-retailing, e-banking, e-selling of travel packages and other services provided by electronic means. The main assumption is that services are a key factor in making purchasing decision. The aim of this paper is to, through theoretical and practical research with special emphasis on SERVQUAL method, test the initial hypothesis and recognize the level of service quality in retail chains in Southeast Serbia.

  20. New Service Development in Flower Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Abdigali, Alikhan

    2010-01-01

    My research will focus on the practical dimension of new service development in flower retail in Kazakhstan. Our group project, the business plan, investigated the issue from an entrepreneur perspective without going into detail in theoretical part. I will try to come up with a set of recommendations to entrepreneurs who want to develop a customer oriented service, based on theories drawn from service development literature. The product and service mix development is a difficult task, and I h...

  1. Brand Relationships on Retailing: The Impact of Image on Behavioral Intentions of Consumers Brand Relationships on Retailing: The Impact of Image on Behavioral Intentions of Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Livramento

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The electronics retail market has been growing in a remarkable way. On the other hand, the strong competition in retail and the fact that the same retailers sell products of similar brands and models, poses asignificant challenge for its differentiation. That's the purpose of this work, which aims at proposing a scale that measures these retailers' image, identifying the factors that impacted this image the most, as well as verifying the possible impacts of the image in the consumers' behavioral intentions. Thus, 48 detailed interviews and 4 discussion groups were carried out plus 490 questionnaires. After the scales were validated, a structural model was tested. It was observed that that the Instrumental elements, followed by the factors Products and Appearance/ Assistance in the Store were the ones that caused the biggest impact in the retailer's Image. On the other hand, the Image presented a high impact in the purchase intention and word of mouth communication, which is determinant for these retailers' performance in the market. The article contributes with the development of Image scale for Electronics' Retailers as well as in the evidence of the significant impacts of this image in the behavioral intentions. The image scale can also be applied by retailers in a managerial way as an image diagnosis and comparative measurement with competitors.The electronics retail market has been growing in a remarkable way. On the other hand, the strong competition in retail and the fact that the same retailers sell products of similar brands and models, poses asignificant challenge for its differentiation. That's the purpose of this work, which aims at proposing a scale that measures these retailers' image, identifying the factors that impacted this image the most, as well as verifying the possible impacts of the image in the consumers' behavioral intentions. Thus, 48 detailed interviews and 4 discussion groups were carried out plus 490 questionnaires

  2. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilby, M.

    2001-01-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs

  3. Electricity marketing and retailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilby, M. [Canadian Meter Services, Toronto ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs.

  4. Profiling Customer Types in Luxury Retail Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tisovski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The type of customer who buys luxury is continuing to evolve. This research investigates the value and service-dominant theory effects on the value co-creation process between a service provider and service consumer within the luxury retail environment. The goal of the paper is two-fold: first, to offer a new view on value co-creation and second, to suggest potential in-store target segments based on experiential drivers in order to improve value sharing within luxury stores for diverse luxury shoppers. In other words, the author noticed a gap between the existing writing and practice – customer involvement has become interactive, and not neglected. The paper, thus, introduces four groups of customers: Experts, Popular, Exclusive and Aspirational. The methodology used combines analyses of four value creation denominators within the luxury setting: actor’s role, aesthetics, networks and luxury brand with findings from secondary research to integrate into the existing writing in this field. The managerial implications mainly target brand managers of luxury and premium brands with the objective to offer insights on how to address, with higher precision, the types of clients visiting and shopping for luxury products.

  5. The effects of information technology based retail channels integration on retail stores performance: mediating role of organizational Ambidexterity (case study: Rasht stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadrahim Ramazanian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technology is a critical tool for companies to achieve the competitive advantage and organizational innovation. IT capability provides an appropriate opportunity for retailers to improve their relationships with customers and progress firms’ performance. Comes with advances in technology, retail industry by using Information technology has changed its business process from traditional to online channels. This paper, investigates the effects of IT based retail channel integration on retail stores performance, furthermore the mediating role of organizational ambidexterity as organizational capability in exploitation and exploration of growth opportunities has been examined. Research data has been collected from the retailer sales chains in Rasht city. Data was collected through questionnaires and analyzed by structural equation modeling and partial least squares algorithm. Findings show that retail channel integration based on information technology by mediated organizational ambidexterity influence on performance.

  6. What is smart for retailing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, Eleonora; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    While the last decade has seen increasing interest in the smart city phenomenon from both scholars and practitioners, little attention has been paid to what extent retailing might be considered as part of smart cities, with benefits for all the actors involved in the process. In fact, retailing is

  7. Retailer adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E; D'Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-04-04

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act's provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers' adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, "light" cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions.

  8. Candidate genes for drought tolerance and improved productivity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    tropics. Improving drought tolerance and productivity is one of the most difficult tasks for cereal breeders. The diffi- culty arises from the diverse strategies adopted by plants themselves to combat drought stress depending on the timing,. Candidate genes for drought tolerance and improved productivity in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

  9. Status of Agricultural Production and Crop Variety Improvement in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Chun-hai; GUO Ying; YAO Ming-hua; WAN Zheng-huang

    2012-01-01

    We introduced basic conditions of agricultural production in Thailand, and variety improvement of major crops, including rice, cassava, rubber, and vegetable, in the hope of providing reference for agricultural production and crop variety improvement in Hubei Province and even in the whole country.

  10. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  11. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R. (LBL); Fang, J.; Porter, K.; Houston, A. (NREL)

    1999-02-26

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted.

  12. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Porter; Ryan Wiser

    1999-01-01

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted

  13. Improving production control within the automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R L

    1982-01-01

    The problems of controlling and minimising design and manufacturing information within the automotive industry are both costly and do not make maximum use of previous experience. With the advent of CAD/CAM, many new techniques have evolved for the speedy construction of design and manufacturing data bases. A means of binding together these data bases and controlling the design and process planning information is now presented in the form of Computervision's Migraphics and Miplan software. This gives a data retrieval capability from all area's of the production cycle including design and detail, numerical control and robotics, process planning, manufacture and procurement. Together with its numerous analytical capabilities this sorftware provides an excellent tool for the optimisation of manufacturing techniques, thus providing a complete CAD/CAM system from a single data base.

  14. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Courtney J; Kliem, Kirsty E; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-15

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (Porganic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; POrganic meat was also lower (Pvs. 180 mg/100 g) and, whilst it contained more (Pvs. 13.7 mg/100 g), this was due to the large effect of one supermarket. This system by supermarket interaction suggests that poultry meat labelled as organic is not a guarantee of higher long chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall there were few major differences in fatty acid contents/profiles between organic and conventional meat that were consistent across all supermarkets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or sampling...

  16. A comparison of three policy approaches for tobacco retailer reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E; Hall, Marissa G; Isgett, Lisa F; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-05-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that public health agencies restrict the number and regulate the location of tobacco retailers as a means of reducing tobacco use. However, the best policy strategy for tobacco retailer reduction is unknown. The purpose of this study is to test the percent reduction in the number and density of tobacco retailers in North Carolina resulting from three policies: (1) prohibiting sales of tobacco products in pharmacies or stores with a pharmacy counter, (2) restricting sales of tobacco products within 1000 ft of schools, and (3) regulating to 500 ft the minimum allowable distance between tobacco outlets. This study uses data from two lists of tobacco retailers gathered in 2012, one at the statewide level, and another "gold standard" three-county list. Retailers near schools were identified using point and parcel boundaries in ArcMap. Python programming language generated a random lottery system to remove retailers within 500 ft of each other. Analyses were conducted in 2014. A minimum allowable distance policy had the single greatest impact and would reduce density by 22.1% at the state level, or 20.8% at the county level (range 16.6% to 27.9%). Both a pharmacy and near-schools ban together would reduce density by 29.3% at the state level, or 29.7% at the county level (range 26.3 to 35.6%). The implementation of policies restricting tobacco sales in pharmacies, near schools, and/or in close proximity to another tobacco retailer would substantially reduce the number and density of tobacco retail outlets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analyzing the Efficient Execution of In-Store Logistics Processes in Grocery Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiner, Gerald; Teller, Christop; Kotzab, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we examine in-store logistics processes for handling dairy products, from the incoming dock to the shelves of supermarkets and hypermarkets. The efficient execution of the in-store logistics related to such fast-moving, sensitive, and essential items is challenging and crucial...... for grocery retailers' sales, profits, and image. In our empirical study, we survey in-store logistics processes in 202 grocery supermarkets and hypermarkets belonging to a major retail chain in central Europe. Using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and simulation, we facilitate process benchmarking....... In particular, we identify ways of improving in-store logistics processes by showing the performance impacts of different managerial strategies and tactics. The DEA results indicate different efficiency levels for different store formats; the hybrid store format of the small hypermarket exhibits a comparatively...

  18. Coastal Contacts’ Business Development in the North American Online Retail Eyeglass Market

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    The following paper is an analysis of Coastal Contacts Inc. and the North American retail eyeglass industry. Coastal Contacts is an online retailer of contact lenses and prescription eyeglasses. At the time of writing the company has recently entered the eyeglasses market. This industry has an underdeveloped online retail channel. The reason the channel has not developed as quickly as other products such as contact lenses is because eyeglasses are a more complicated purchase. As more purchase...

  19. Challenges and Opportunities in ‘Last Mile’ Logistics for On-Line Food Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Trienekens , Jacques; Hvolby , Hans-Henrik; Turner , Paul

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Production Management in Food Supply Chains; International audience; Conventional approaches to logistics for food retail continue to be challenged by the rapid growth of on-line food retail. At the same time, ‘last mile’ logistics optimization for on-line retail also face challenges as changing consumer expectations, habits and purchasing patterns intersect with the increasing density of urban environments. Numerous considerations are already in play around servicing of last mile log...

  20. Optimization and Improvement of Test Processes on a Production Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujová, Erika; Čierna, Helena

    2018-06-01

    The paper deals with increasing processes efficiency at a production line of cylinder heads of engines in a production company operating in the automotive industry. The goal is to achieve improvement and optimization of test processes on a production line. It analyzes options for improving capacity, availability and productivity of processes of an output test by using modern technology available on the market. We have focused on analysis of operation times before and after optimization of test processes at specific production sections. By analyzing measured results we have determined differences in time before and after improvement of the process. We have determined a coefficient of efficiency OEE and by comparing outputs we have confirmed real improvement of the process of the output test of cylinder heads.

  1. Onboard Plasmatron Hydrogen Production for Improved Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Cohn; Leslie Bromberg; Kamal Hadidi

    2005-12-31

    A plasmatron fuel reformer has been developed for onboard hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. These applications include hydrogen addition to spark-ignition internal combustion engines, NOx trap and diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, and emissions reduction from spark ignition internal combustion engines First, a thermal plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. This plasmatron used an electric arc with relatively high power to reform fuels such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels at an oxygen to carbon ratio close to 1. The draw back of this device was that it has a high electric consumption and limited electrode lifetime due to the high temperature electric arc. A second generation plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. It used a low-current high-voltage electric discharge with a completely new electrode continuation. This design uses two cylindrical electrodes with a rotating discharge that produced low temperature volumetric cold plasma., The lifetime of the electrodes was no longer an issue and the device was tested on several fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and biofuels at different flow rates and different oxygen to carbon ratios. Hydrogen concentration and yields were measured for both the thermal and non-thermal plasmatron reformers for homogeneous (non-catalytic) and catalytic reforming of several fuels. The technology was licensed to an industrial auto part supplier (ArvinMeritor) and is being implemented for some of the applications listed above. The Plasmatron reformer has been successfully tested on a bus for NOx trap regeneration. The successful development of the plasmatron reformer and its implementation in commercial applications including transportation will bring several benefits to the nation. These benefits include the reduction of NOx emissions, improving engine efficiency and reducing the nation's oil consumption. The objective of this program has been to develop attractive applications of plasmatron fuel reformer

  2. Tobacco Town: Computational Modeling of Policy Options to Reduce Tobacco Retailer Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Hammond, Ross A; Combs, Todd; Sorg, Amy; Kasman, Matt; Mack-Crane, Austen; Ribisl, Kurt M; Henriksen, Lisa

    2017-05-01

    To identify the behavioral mechanisms and effects of tobacco control policies designed to reduce tobacco retailer density. We developed the Tobacco Town agent-based simulation model to examine 4 types of retailer reduction policies: (1) random retailer reduction, (2) restriction by type of retailer, (3) limiting proximity of retailers to schools, and (4) limiting proximity of retailers to each other. The model examined the effects of these policies alone and in combination across 4 different types of towns, defined by 2 levels of population density (urban vs suburban) and 2 levels of income (higher vs lower). Model results indicated that reduction of retailer density has the potential to decrease accessibility of tobacco products by driving up search and purchase costs. Policy effects varied by town type: proximity policies worked better in dense, urban towns whereas retailer type and random retailer reduction worked better in less-dense, suburban settings. Comprehensive retailer density reduction policies have excellent potential to reduce the public health burden of tobacco use in communities.

  3. Generation Z consumers’ expectations of interactions in smart retailing:A future agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Stylos, Nikolaos; Fotiadis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Retailing is witnessing a transformation due to rapid technological developments. Retailers are using smart technologies to improve consumer shopping experiences and to stay competitive. The biggest future challenge for marketing and consequently for retailing seems to be generation Z, since members of this generation seem to behave differently as consumers and are more focused on innovation. The aim of this paper is to explore Generation Z consumers’ current perceptions, expectations and rec...

  4. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... currency with retail customers, subject to the requirements enumerated in the OCC's retail forex rule. The... shall prescribe \\5\\ (a retail forex rule). A transaction described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes... associations are depository institutions. See 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(1). \\3\\ For purposes of the retail forex rules...

  5. UK retail marketing survey 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  6. Retailer buying: A paradigmatic critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The paradigmatic anchoring of research determines for the researcher the nature of reality, what can be known about it and how it can be known. Previous research on retail buying has been anchored in post-positivism. A number of shortcomings resulting from this anchoring are identified which, taken...... together, are interpreted to have let to neglecting the notion of meaning in existing research. It is argued that taking a constructivist perspective can help overcome the limitations of previous research and contribute to the development of an understanding of retailer buying as meaningful action.retailer...

  7. Reconsidering Community-based Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Rebecca; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    One of the areas with great potential for economic, social and environmental benefit is community-based retailing. The concept of community based retailing can incorporate a number of different tenets. We suggest that it is retailing that is based close to the community it serves, usually within the town or village centre rather than out-of-town locations, and which is composed of a diverse range of small and medium sized business that are often independently or co-operatively owned. These co...

  8. Food waste reduction practices in German food retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorf, David; Rombach, Meike; Bitsch, Vera

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate food retailers food waste reduction practices in Germany. The focus is on selling and redistributing agricultural produce with visual impairments and other surplus food items. In addition, drivers and barriers regarding the implementation of both waste reduction practices are explored. In total, 12 in-depth interviews with managerial actors in the food retail sector and a food bank spokesperson were recorded, transcribed and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. In contrast to organic retailers, conventional retailers were reluctant to include agricultural produce with visual impairments in their product assortments, due to fears of negative consumer reactions. Another obstacle was EU marketing standards for specific produce. All retailers interviewed engaged in redistribution of surplus food. Logistics and the regulatory framework were the main barriers to food redistribution. The present study adds to the existing body of literature on food waste reduction practices as it explores selling produce with visual impairments and elaborates on the legal background of food redistribution in German retail. The results are the foundation for providing recommendations to policy makers and charitable food organizations.

  9. New resources for smart food retail mapping a GIS and the open source perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is demonstrated that open-source GIS software may contribute to allow nonprofit organizations and local food retailers to strategically locate food shops. This impacts realtors and other businesses as well. Areas are covered and clients served avoiding food deserts and increasing security in the health sector (Barnes et al., 2016. The methodology demonstrates how mapping may be processed, allowing people to get a good understanding of the food distribution. Also, decision making at corporate level improves due to better connecting to local production and organic retailers and to better reach out to local consumption. A major consequence of this exercise is likewise to educate users on the negative impacts of food deserts on health and improve awareness supporting the design and integration of sustainable and healthy lifestyles (Vaz and Zhao, 2016. This novel proposal that combines spatial and locational data visualization (McIver, 2003, as well as sharing of information of healthy food retailers within the urban nexus (Morgan and Sonnino, 2010 engage communities actively to participate in the integration of new consumer behaviours and make them clearly expressed.

  10. Improvement of xanthan gum production in batch culture using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... Fermentation was carried out in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask with 200 ml of a ... The effect of acetic acid on xanthan production was studied with ... improvement when compared with the control. No .... in a plunging jet reactor.

  11. Candidate genes for drought tolerance and improved productivity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    Improving drought tolerance and productivity is one of the most difficult tasks for ... Keywords. Candidate gene; mapping population; polymerase chain reaction; single marker analysis. .... ple and the mean value computed. 2.4 Isolation of DNA.

  12. Farmers' adoption of improved vegetable production practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... the annual income of the PFs and NPFs, respectively. ... Key words: Adoption, improved vegetable, production practices, farmers and national fadama ..... so, fixed cost components such as depreciation, insurance, repairs,.

  13. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    ... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.

  14. Productivity Improvement in Underground Coal Mines - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Prasad Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of productivity has become an important goal for today's coal industry in the race to increase price competitiveness. The challenge now lying ahead for the coal industry is to identify areas of waste, meet the market price and maintain a healthy profit. The only way to achieve this is to reduce production costs by improving productivity, efficiency and the effectiveness of the equipment. This paper aims to identify the various factors and problems affecting the productivity of underground coal mines adopting the bord and pillar method of mining and to propose suitable measures for improving them. The various key factors affecting productivity, namely the cycle of operations, manpower deployment, machine efficiency, material handling and management of manpower are discussed. In addition, the problem of side discharge loader (SDL cable handling resulting in the wastage of precious manpower resources and SDL breakdown have also been identified and resolved in this paper.

  15. Logistics Management Strategies to Improve Food Safety of Fresh Fruits at Retail Outlets: The Case of Year-Round Sourcing of Strawberries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.; Rossi, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of most fresh products deteriorates as a function of environmental conditions and time, resulting in reduced market value and ultimately in product waste. Although product spoilage significantly impacts the performance of perishable supply chains often supply chain design strategies do

  16. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained as to the......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived...

  17. Impact of improved wheat technology adoption on productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important cereal crops cultivated in wide range of agro-ecologies in Eastern Africa. However, wheat productivity has remained low. This study was carried out in Ethiopia Aris Zone to determine the level and impact of adoption of improved wheat varieties on wheat productivity ...

  18. Improving agricultural production under water scarcity in Fars province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, M.R.; Haile, A.M.; McClain, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water scarcity is one of the major limiting factor for improving agricultural production in the world, which significantly affects agricultural production and livelihood of millions of people who live in arid and semi-arid regions. This case study presents the analysis of the effectiveness

  19. Use of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi for improved crop production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF), endophytic fungi reputed for their ability to enhance P uptake can be used to alleviate P deficiencies and improve crop productivity. Although the technology has been used in developed countries, it has not been applied in crop production systems in Africa to any significant level. This is ...

  20. Business model for Indian retail sector: The Café Coffee Day case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Mishra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the distinctiveness of the Indian retail sector, and the lack of reliable data on the sector, developing an appropriate business model for the Indian retail sector is a challenge. In this exploratory study of the Café Coffee Day (CCD chain of cafes, we use corporate presentations of the organisation and interview its Chairman, Mr. V.G. Siddhartha, to develop a business model along the parameters of customer value proposition, profit formula, key processes, and key resources to develop a retail model for Coffee Day Company. We generalise the model to the Indian retail sector to improve its sustainability and scalability.

  1. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases

  2. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases. (author)

  3. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  4. Retail Visual Assistant Digital Artefact

    OpenAIRE

    Knott, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Window display, store layout and visual merchandising are defined as the ability to attract and sell to the consumer silently. One of the biggest challenges facing small retail businesses in towns and villages around the globe is how to compete against large multinationals in the visual layout and presentation of their merchandise and shops. One of the key advantages that large retail units have over small ones is professionally merchandised stock incorporated into a strategic spatial layout....

  5. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  6. A model of strategic product quality and process improvement incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, G.

    2013-01-01

    In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in

  7. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  8. Product focused process improvement in the embedded systems industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solingen, van D.M.; Derks, P.; Hirvensalo, J.; Kusters, R.J.; Cowderoy, A.; Heemstra, F.J.; Veenendaal, E.P.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Software specific problems have been handled in the software community through focusing on the software process, and continuous improvement of that software process. However, the contribution of software process improvement (SPI) to product quality has not been proven yet. The PROFES project

  9. Listeria monocytogenes and ready-to-eat seafood in Spain: study of prevalence and temperatures at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, David; Vitas, Ana Isabel; Díez-Leturia, María; García-Jalón, Isabel

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain data from refrigerated ready-to-eat seafood products at retail in Spain (young eels, crabstick and smoked salmon), regarding prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes, storage temperatures and the impact of transport conditions (type of bag) on the temperature of the product. The one-year surveillance period was carried out according to the EC Regulation No. 2073/2005, taking 5 units/batch and analyzing 250 samples following ISO 11290-1/A1 and ISO 11290-2/A methodologies. Low prevalence of L. monocytogenes was observed in surimi products, while 4.8% of smoked salmon samples were positive for Listeria with low levels (<10 cfu/g) and uneven pathogen distribution. A single company was responsible for 80% of the positive lots. All purchased products showed values higher than 4 °C at retail and an average increase of 2.5 °C or up to 6.2 °C was recorded when isothermal or plastic shopping bags were used for transport, respectively. To avoid noncompliance of the Food Safety Objective for L. monocytogenes in seafood RTE products more efforts from all stakeholders are needed, with special attention so as to improve control and maintenance of refrigerators at retail and to enhance consumer education regarding food safety practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on Pricing and Coordination Strategy of a Sustainable Green Supply Chain with a Capital-Constrained Retailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the gradual deepening of environmental problems and the increase in consumer awareness of environmental protection, many enterprises have already begun to pay attention to green supply chain management. However, the price of green products is higher than that of nongreen products, which is an enormous challenge for many small- or medium-sized enterprises. To study the pricing and coordination of green supply chains under capital constraints, a model consisting of a manufacturer and a capital-constrained retailer is established; the manufacturer invests in green products and provides a deferred payment contract. Setting the situation without capital constraints as a benchmark, this study explores the impact of the retailer’s capital constraints on the manufacturer’s product greenness design; an interesting result shows that deferred payment can help encourage the retailer to order more products and improve the profit of the manufacturer and the efficiency of the entire supply chain as well as the product’s greenness level simultaneously. However, the profit of the retailer will be hurt by the deferred payment contract. Therefore, to guarantee the profit of the entire channel and to make the two agents obtain a win-win outcome, a new two-way revenue-sharing contract is designed to coordinate the green supply chain.

  11. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2004-01-01

    Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design/methodology/approach – Improve......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...... is beneficial in retail. Findings – In the case company, shop inventory is necessary for high-volume and low-variety products. Postponing variety creation to shops has the potential to decrease inventories for these products by 40-80 per cent. The benefits of postponement depend on delivery speed requirement......, product value, product variety and shop size. Research limitations/implications – Many contributions on postponement have been conceptual. This study contains a quantitative test. The study considers both the spatial dimension (where) and the temporal dimension (when) of postponement. Practical...

  12. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design/methodology/approach – Improve......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...... is beneficial in retail. Findings – In the case company, shop inventory is necessary for high-volume and low-variety products. Postponing variety creation to shops has the potential to decrease inventories for these products by 40-80 per cent. The benefits of postponement depend on delivery speed requirement......, product value, product variety and shop size. Research limitations/implications – Many contributions on postponement have been conceptual. This study contains a quantitative test. The study considers both the spatial dimension (where) and the temporal dimension (when) of postponement. Practical...

  13. Selection of productivity improvement techniques via mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahassan M. Khater

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new mathematical model to select an optimal combination of productivity improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper considers four-stage cycle productivity and the productivity is assumed to be a linear function of fifty four improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study of manufacturing plant. The resulted problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming which can be solved for optimality using traditional methods. The preliminary results of the implementation of the proposed model of this paper indicate that the productivity can be improved through a change on equipments and it can be easily applied for both manufacturing and service industries.

  14. Don't Sell Tobacco to Minors: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-07-08

    This podcast helps raise retailers awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations. Under the new regulations, retailers can not sell cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to anyone younger 18.  Created: 7/8/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 7/8/2010.

  15. 29 CFR 779.110 - Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the Act. 779.110 Section 779.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.110 Employees in retailing whose activities may bring them under the...

  16. Face-to-face Tobacco Sales: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    PSA to help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations related to the sale of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to people under 18 and the requirement to sell products face-to-face.

  17. Improving the quality of pork and pork products (EU project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bonneau, M.

    2008-01-01

    demands. A large EU-project (Q-PorkChains) funded by EU 6th framework programme was initiated in January 2007. The aim of Q-PorkChains is to improve the quality of pork and its products for the consumer and to develop innovative, integrated and sustainable food production chains with low environmental....... The European Unions self-sufficiency and leading position in the global market for pork and pork products is challenged by a number of non-European countries. Therefore, there is a need for developing innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer...... impact. Q-PorkChains is composed of six research modules (consumer and citizen demands, pig production, product development, pork chain management, molecular quality control and knowledge synthesis) and two horizontal modules focusing on implementation of obtained knowledge in pilot and demonstration...

  18. Towards improving construction labor productivity and projects’ performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa E. Shehata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper management of resources in construction projects can yield substantial savings in time and cost. As construction is a labor-intensive industry, this paper focuses on labor productivity in the construction industry. This study considers the current state-of-the-art issues relevant to this subject. It covers the construction labor productivity definitions, aspects, measurements, factors affecting it, different techniques used for measuring it and modeling techniques. The main outcome from the literature is that there is no standard definition of productivity. This study provides a guide for necessary steps required to improve construction labor productivity and consequently, the project performance. It can help improve the overall performance of construction projects through the implementation of the concept of benchmarks. Also, it gives an up to date concept of loss of productivity measurement for construction productivity claims. Two major case studies, from the literature, are presented to show construction labor productivity rates, factors affecting construction labor productivity and how to improve it.

  19. Danish initiatives to improve the safety of meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2010-01-01

    and Campylobacter, and to a lesser extent Yersinia, Escherichia coli O157 and Listeria. Danish initiatives to improve the safety of meat products have focused on the entire production chain from the farm to the consumer, with a special emphasis on the pre-harvest stage of production. The control of bacterial......During the last two decades the major food safety problems in Denmark, as determined by the number of human patients, has been associated with bacterial infections stemming from meat products and eggs. The bacterial pathogens causing the majority of human infections has been Salmonella...

  20. TECHNICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS OF PACKAGING PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to customer driven economies, today’s world markets are characterized by high fluctuations in market demand and the frequent arrival of new technologies and new products. To stay competitive in such markets manufacturing companies require continuous improvements both in technical and organizational areas of their activity. The paper presents results of the diagnosis provided in the manufacturing area of the company producing cardboard packages and recommendations to make the production process more efficient. Especially, among the proposed technical and organizational recommendations the most important ones are: automation of certain elements of the production process and changes in production plant layout.

  1. Transmission access and retail wheeling. The key questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casazza, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The key questions involving transmission access and retail wheeling are discussed, distinguishing between opposing views regarding the effect on system costs and the environment, particularly on optimal planning involving matching capacity and demand, generation use, demand side management, and economic operations. Also discussed are contrasting views regarding the effect of cost control pressures, regulatory advantages and disadvantages, the impact on system reliability, and the stranding of investment. The author's key concern is the effect of retail wheeling upon optimal planning and operation i.e., will competitors be willing to provide one another with the cost and technical information required for coordination? In his worst scenario, retail wheeling may lead to substantial production cost increases, lessened reliability, and unfair cost-shifting between customer classes. More optimistically, production costs and reliability may be unaffected and the cost-shifting could be salubrious. 7 figs., 11 refs

  2. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  3. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  4. Improving Labor Productivity and Labor Elasticity at Multiproduct Japanese Cuisine Restaurant Introducing Cell-Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura , Takeshi; Takenaka , Takeshi; Ohura , Syuichi

    2013-01-01

    Part III: Sustainable Services; International audience; This study examined improvement of labor productivity and elasticity of labor hour on sales of a multiproduct Japanese cuisine restaurant. Conventionally, multiproduct restaurant operations include a line production system in the kitchen. Japanese chefs are assumed to be low-skilled workers with staff members supported by someone. A cell production system is introduced into a Japanese Cuisine restaurant to improve it. Results show that t...

  5. Who stops selling? A systematic analysis of ex-tobacco retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feletto, Eleonora; Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Fry, Rae; Sutton, Clare; Bagus, Lachlan; Egger, Sam

    2016-03-09

    There is evidence that wide distribution of cigarettes contributes to smoking, and multiple commentators have called for a review of tobacco retailing. This study analyses retailers who stop selling cigarettes, why they do so, and discusses the implications for tobacco control. An audit of tobacco retailers in the Australian state of NSW was used to identify retailers who had stopped selling tobacco, and they were then compared with current retailers to determine how many, and what types of outlets stop selling tobacco. Attempts were made to contact and interview all former tobacco retailers identified in three audited regions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 ex-tobacco retailers, or 31% of the subset of ex-tobacco retailers. Low-volume outlet types were over-represented as a proportion of retailers exiting the market, and some had resumed selling within 18 months of the audit. Low profits were often cited as a contributor to stopping; however, in all but one case, the decision to stop selling was also influenced by a significant change in business circumstances-either legislative or other business changes. Few retailers stop selling tobacco while continuing in the same business, and those who stop disproportionately represent retailer types with low sales volume. The results suggest that legislative changes provide a window where retailers could be prompted to exit the market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Influence of wholesale lamb marketing options and merchandising styles on retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Martin, A M; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1997-01-01

    Lamb carcasses (n = 94) from five packing plants, selected to vary in weight class and fat thickness, were used to determine retail yield and labor requirements of wholesale lamb fabrication. Carcasses were allotted randomly according to weight class to be fabricated as whole carcasses (n = 20), three-piece boxes (n = 22), or subprimals (n = 52). Processing times (seconds) were recorded and wholesale and retail weights (kilograms) were obtained to calculate retail yield. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in retail cuts or boneless or semi-boneless retail cuts. Retail yield for subprimal lamb legs decreased from 85.3 +/- .6% for bone-in to 68.0 +/- .7% for a completely boneless retail product. Correspondingly, processing times increased from 126.1 +/- 5.4 s to 542.0 +/- 19.2 s for bone-in and boneless legs, respectively. For all subprimals, retail yield percentage tended to decrease and total processing time increase as cuts were fabricated to boneless or semi-boneless end points compared with a bone-in end point. Percentage retail yield did not differ (P > .05) among whole carcass, three-piece box, and subprimal marketing methods. Total processing time was shorter for subprimals (P < .05) than for the other two marketing methods.

  7. Application of Modern Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Productivity Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A. Naser

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain current high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, new requirements and commitments, unnecessary workloads and stress levels, and human errors. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by the commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the desire by many plants to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New productivity improvement capabilities with measurable economic benefits are needed so that a successful business case can be made for their use. Improved and new instrumentation and control, human-system interface, information and communications technologies used properly can address concerns about cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and enable shifts to even higher performance levels. This can be accomplished through the use of new technology implementations to improve productivity, reduce costs of systemic inefficiencies and avoid unexpected costs. Many of the same type of productivity improvements for operating plants will be applicable for new plants. As new plants are being built, it is important to include these productivity improvements or at least provide the ability to implement them easily later

  8. ETHICAL EVALUATIONS OF RETAILERS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON FOOD AND CLOTHING RETAILERS IN KAYSERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurtoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in retailing sector bring about some ethical problems. Retailing is a faceto-face marketing activity by its nature. Thus, ethical problems in retailing directly affect consumers and consumer reactions turn directly to retailers. Therefore, defining and solving the ethical problems in retailing is an important issue for retailers. The main purpose of this study is to identify the food and clothing retailers’ perspective about ethical purchase decision making process and their evaluations on this subject. Beside this, identifying the differences of these evaluations in terms of the demographic characteristics of retailers is another objective of this study. Findings show that retailers generally approve ethical behaviors and disapprove unethical behaviors. In addition, evaluations of retailers differ in terms of some demographic characteristics. Results of the study also show that retailers are sensitive about unethical actions and behaviors and they believe that all the retailers must act according to ethical principles.

  9. Retail availability and marketing of electronic cigarettes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; White, Christine M; Czoli, Christine D; Martin, Christina L; Magennis, Paul; Shiplo, Samantha

    2015-10-09

    Canada is among an increasing number of countries with restrictions on the sale of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In Canada, e-cigarettes containing nicotine have not been approved for sale; however, e-cigarettes that do not contain nicotine and do not make health claims can be sold. To date, there is little empirical evidence assessing the retail availability and marketing of e-cigarettes in countries such as Canada. Audits were conducted at 59 brick-and-mortar retail outlets (grocery stores, convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops) in four cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal and Halifax) in August-October 2014. In addition, a total of 21 e-cigarette manufacturer/retailer websites were audited, and inquiries were made as to whether the companies sold nicotine-containing products. Overall, 76% of the retail outlets sold e-cigarette products. Of convenience stores, grocery stores and tobacconist shops with e-cigarettes for sale, the vast majority (94%) sold nicotine-free products only; in contrast, all the vape shops sold at least one nicotine-containing e-cigarette product. Front counter displays were the most common form of in-store promotions and were present in virtually all convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops. Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes were available for purchase at approximately half (52%) of the online e-cigarette retailers surveyed. E-cigarettes with and without nicotine are widely available and marketed at a variety of retail outlets in Canada. "Illegal" sales of nicotinecontaining e-cigarettes were predominantly found at vape shops and online outlets, suggesting limited compliance with existing regulations.

  10. The Fight Against Diabetes in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Rulfová, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis is focused on retail whose offer of merchandise could help reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2. This type of diabetes mellitus is becoming a severe health and social problem these days. Some sources speak about epidemic of the 21st century. The dissertation suggests marketing mix for a sale of 3 products of proper diet in the specifically selected shop COOP Dvůr Králové n. L., cooperative. As the basis for the marketing mix, a SWOT analysis and comparison of ...

  11. Price synchronization in retailing: some empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Resende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the synchronization of price changes in the context of retail tire dealers in São Paulo-Brazil and selected items in supermarkets for cleaning supplies and food in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. Results indicate similar and non-negligible synchronization for different brands, although magnitudes are distant from a perfect synchronization pattern. We find interesting patterns in inter-firm competition, with similar magnitudes across different tire types. Intra-chain synchronization is substantial, indicating that a common price adjustment policy tends to be sustained for each chain across different products.

  12. Process Improvement: An Application in Special Steel Production Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansu TÜRKAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Customer requests are increasingly varied with the changing of the living conditions and developing technology. In this point, customers want to be met the demands which are good quality and suitable price quickly. The trend in today’s global competitive environment is to provide high quality, reasonably priced products and respond in the required time to customer demands. In this point, organizations should review their processes continuously and improve them. In this study begin with the general information about concept of process, process management and process improvement techniques. This paper continuous with an application in a steel production company which supplies product to the customers in the automotive industry that working with just in time philosophy. In this study different techniques for process improvement (Kaizen, Cause and Effect Diagram, Poka-Yoke, 8D, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis were used in combination.

  13. Improving market oriented product development in Danish food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    1994-01-01

    One of the factors that has been strongly associated with successful new product development is a profound knwledge of customers' needs and wants as well as the ability to transform this knowledge into specific product characteristics and benefits there is a general agreement on the importance of......-processing companies. Preliminary results show that the companies have improved their market orientation, but also that the change pro has been difficult and time-consuming and improvements rather incremental.......One of the factors that has been strongly associated with successful new product development is a profound knwledge of customers' needs and wants as well as the ability to transform this knowledge into specific product characteristics and benefits there is a general agreement on the importance...

  14. Improving productivity and firm performance with enterprise resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Hooshang M.; Beheshti, Cyrus M.

    2010-11-01

    Productivity is generally considered to be the efficient utilisation of organisational resources and is measured in terms of the efficiency of a worker, company or nation. Focusing on efficiency alone, however, can be harmful to the organisation's long-term success and competitiveness. The full benefits of productivity improvement measures are realised when productivity is examined from two perspectives: operational efficiency (output/input) of an individual worker or a business unit as well as performance (effectiveness) with regard to end user or customer satisfaction. Over the years, corporations have adopted new technology to integrate business activities in order to achieve both effectiveness and efficiency in their operations. In recent years, many firms have invested in enterprise resource planning (ERP) in order to integrate all business activities into a uniform system. The implementation of ERP enables the firm to reduce the transaction costs of the business and improve its productivity, customer satisfaction and profitability.

  15. An Evaluation of Retail Outlets as Part of a Community Prevention Trial to Reduce Sales of Harmful Legal Products to Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Communities across the nation have become increasingly concerned about inhalant use and use of harmful legal products among youth because of increasing prevalence rates and deleterious health consequences from abusing these products. The increasing concern of communities about inhaling and ingesting legal products has been coupled with increasing…

  16. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  17. Improving Global Precipitation Product Access at the GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Vollmer, B.; Savtchenko, A.; Ostrenga, D.; DeShong, B.; Fang, F.; Albayrak, R,; Sherman, E.; Greene, M.; Li, A.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been actively and continually engaged in improving the access to and use of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), Tropical Precipitation Measuring Mission (TRMM), and other precipitation data, including the following new services and Ongoing development activities: Updates on GPM products and data services, New features in Giovanni, Ongoing development activities; and Precipitation product and service outreach activities.

  18. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Matos, Cláudia; Møller, Birger L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has...... recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results: Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis...

  19. Energy efficiency improvements in ammonia production--perspectives and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiqul, Islam; Weber, Christoph; Lehmann, Bianca; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the energy consumption and energy saving potential for a major energy-intensive product in the chemical industry-ammonia, based on technologies currently in use and possible process improvements. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part, mainly references to various ammonia production technologies are given. Energy consumption, emissions and saving potentials are discussed in the second part. Thereby, the situation in Europe, the US and India is highlighted and various data sources are compared. In the third part of the paper, a novel approach for modeling energy efficiency improvements is described that accounts for uncertainties and unobserved heterogeneity in the production processes. Besides new investments, revamping investments are also included in the modeling and the development of the production stock is accounted for. Finally, in the fourth part, this approach is applied to the modeling of energy efficiency improvements and CO 2 emission reductions in ammonia production. Thereby, considerable improvements in specific energy use and CO 2 emissions are found in the reference scenario, yet under the assumption of high oil and gas prices, a partial switch to coal based technologies is expected which lowers notably the CO 2 efficiency. Introduction of a CO 2 penalty under a certificate trading or other regime is on contrary found to foster energy efficiency and the use of low carbon technologies

  20. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTS QUALITY IN BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could create a base for designing of model of quality improvement the baking industry.